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Sample records for non-aboriginal australian-born children

  1. Non-Standard Assessment Practices in the Evaluation of Communication in Australian Aboriginal Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children typically receive communication assessment services from Standard Australian English (SAE) speaking non-Aboriginal speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Educational assessments, including intelligence testing, are also primarily conducted by non-Aboriginal educational professionals. While the current paper will show…

  2. Inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Australia: a population data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Kathleen; Banks, Emily; Lujic, Sanja; Falster, Michael; Lynch, John; Zwi, Karen; Eades, Sandra; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa

    2016-10-21

    Australian Aboriginal children experience a disproportionate burden of social and health disadvantage. Avoidable hospitalizations present a potentially modifiable health gap that can be targeted and monitored using population data. This study quantifies inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. This statewide population-based cohort study included 1 121 440 children born in New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012, including 35 609 Aboriginal children. Using linked hospital data from 1 July 2000 to 31 December 2013, we identified pediatric avoidable, ambulatory care sensitive and non-avoidable hospitalization rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Absolute and relative inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children were measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively. Individual-level covariates included age, sex, low birth weight and/or prematurity, and private health insurance/patient status. Area-level covariates included remoteness of residence and area socioeconomic disadvantage. There were 365 386 potentially avoidable hospitalizations observed over the study period, most commonly for respiratory and infectious conditions; Aboriginal children were admitted more frequently for all conditions. Avoidable hospitalization rates were 90.1/1000 person-years (95 % CI, 88.9-91.4) in Aboriginal children and 44.9/1000 person-years (44.8-45.1) in non-Aboriginal children (age and sex adjusted rate ratio = 1.7 (1.7-1.7)). Rate differences and rate ratios declined with age from 94/1000 person-years and 1.9, respectively, for children aged primary care, have potential to narrow this gap.

  3. Longitudinal vocabulary development in Australian urban Aboriginal children: Protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, K; Eadie, P; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Kemp, L

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development. One hundred thirteen Aboriginal children in South Western Sydney from the longitudinal birth cohort Gudaga study were assessed on The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test multiple times: 3 years, just prior to school entry, at the end of the first and second years of formal schooling. Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of 13 fixed and manipulable maternal, child, and family variables drawn from previous research. Higher maternal education was found to be protective at 3 years and over time. The number of children in urban Australian Aboriginal households made an impact on vocabulary development and this varied over time. From 3 to 6 years, those with early poor non-verbal cognitive skills had vocabulary skills that remained below those with stronger non-verbal skills at 3 years. Girls exhibit an earlier advantage in vocabulary acquisition, but this difference is not sustained after 4 years of age. The risk and protective factors for vocabulary development in Australian Aboriginal children are similar to those identified in other studies with some variation related to the number of children in the home. In this limited set of predictors, maternal education, gender, non-verbal cognitive skills, and the number of children in households were all shown to impact on the acquisition of vocabulary to 3

  4. Gender variations in waist circumference levels between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian populations: a systematic review.

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    Adegbija, Odewumi Oluwarotimi; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To compare gender-specific waist circumference (WC) levels of Aboriginal Australians with non-Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search on Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify papers that reported gender-specific waist circumference (WC) estimates of participants from the age of 15 years and above among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Means and their 95% confidence intervals of gender differences in WC, height and weight were recorded or calculated where they were not provided. Gender-specific WC, height and weight mean estimates were pooled and the I(2) statistic was used to test heterogeneity among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Of 17 selected cross-sectional studies, 9 focused on Aboriginal and 8 on non-Aboriginal Australians. Seven studies reported significantly higher WC estimates among indigenous females than males. On the other hand, non-indigenous males had significantly higher WC levels than females. Males had greater height and weight estimates than females in both groups. Although indigenous women were shorter and had lower weight estimates, they had greater WC levels than indigenous men. This is the first systematic review to assess the gender-specific differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The findings of this review warrant more efforts to understand and reduce the high prevalence of central obesity and related chronic diseases among Aboriginal women. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma - characteristics and survival in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Western australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, A M; Slack-Smith, L M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC.

  6. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

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    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  7. Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Characteristics and Survival in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Western Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Frydrych, A.M; Slack-Smith, L.M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Methods: All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (...

  8. No evidence for impaired humoral immunity to pneumococcal proteins in Australian Aboriginal children with otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Coates, Harvey L; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Hillwood, Jessica; Toster, Sophie; Edminston, Phillipa; Zhang, Guicheng; Keil, Anthony; Richmond, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Aboriginal population experiences disproportionately high rates of otitis media (OM). Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the main pathogens responsible for OM and currently no vaccine offering cross strain protection exists. Vaccines consisting of conserved antigens to S. pneumoniae may reduce the burden of OM in high-risk populations; however no data exists examining naturally acquired antibody in Aboriginal children with OM. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG were measured against the S. pneumoniae antigens PspA1 and 2, CbpA and Ply in a cross sectional study of 183 children, including 36 non-Aboriginal healthy control children and 70 Aboriginal children and 77 non-Aboriginal children undergoing surgery for OM using a multiplex bead assay. Significant differences were observed between the 3 groups for serum anti-PspA1 IgA, anti-CbpA and anti-Ply IgG and for all salivary antibodies assessed. Aboriginal children with a history of OM had significantly higher antibody titres than non-Aboriginal healthy children with no history of OM and non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM for several proteins in serum and saliva. Non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM had significantly higher salivary anti-PspA1 IgG than healthy children, while all other titres were comparable between the groups. Conserved vaccine candidate proteins from S. pneumoniae induce serum and salivary antibody responses in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children with a history of OM. Aboriginal children do not have an impaired antibody response to the antigens measured from S. pneumoniae and they may represent vaccine candidates in Indigenous populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in aboriginal and non-aboriginal western Australians from 1997 through 2007 and emergence of nonvaccine serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Deborah; Willis, Judith; Moore, Hannah C; Giele, Carolien; Murphy, Denise; Keil, Anthony D; Harrison, Catherine; Bayley, Kathy; Watson, Michael; Richmond, Peter

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND. In 2001, Australia introduced a unique 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster for Aboriginal children, and in 2005, 7vPCV alone in a 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule for non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal adults are offered 23vPPV but coverage is poor. We investigated trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australia (WA). METHODS. Enhanced IPD surveillance has been ongoing since 1996. We calculated IPD incidence rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians before and after introduction of 7vPCV. RESULTS. A total of 1792 cases occurred during the period 1997-2007; the IPD incidence rate was 47 cases per 100,000 population per year among Aboriginal people and 7 cases per 100,000 population per year in non-Aboriginal people. After introduction of 7vPCV, IPD rates among Aboriginal children decreased by 46% for those Aboriginal children. IPD rates decreased by >30% in non-Aboriginal people 50 years of age but increased among Aboriginal adults (eg, from 59.1 to 109.6 cases per 100,000 population per year among those 30-49 years of age). Although IPD due to 7vPCV serotypes decreased in all age groups, IPD incidence due to non-7vPCV serotypes increased, and it almost doubled among Aboriginal adults 30-49 years of age (from 48.3 to 97.0 cases per 100,000 population per year). Among non-Aboriginal children, 37% of IPD is now due to serotype 19A. CONCLUSIONS. IPD incidence rates have decreased markedly among children and non-Aboriginal adults with a 3-dose infant 7vPCV schedule. However, IPD due to non-7vPCV serotypes has increased and is of particular concern among young Aboriginal adults, for whom an intensive 23vPPV campaign is needed. An immunization register covering all age groups should be established.

  10. Identifying High Academic Potential in Australian Aboriginal Children Using Dynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffey, Graham W.; Bailey, Stan B.; Vine, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dynamic testing as a method for identifying high academic potential in Australian Aboriginal children. The 79 participating Aboriginal children were drawn from Years 3-5 in rural schools in northern New South Wales. The dynamic testing method used in this study involved a…

  11. Disparities in acute in-hospital cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, Rosanna; McBride, Katharine; Keech, Wendy; Kelly, Janet; Rischbieth, Amanda; Zeitz, Christopher; Beltrame, John F; Tideman, Philip A; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-05

    To assess differences in the rates of angiography and subsequent revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS); to explore the reasons for any observed differences. Analysis of administrative data with logistic regression modelling to assess the relationship between Aboriginal status and the decision to undertake diagnostic angiography. A detailed medical record review of Aboriginal admissions was subsequently undertaken. Emergency ACS admissions to SA cardiac catheterisation hospitals, 2007-2012. 13 701 admissions of patients with an ACS, including 274 Aboriginal patients (2.1%). Rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation; documentation of justification for non-invasive management. After adjustment for age, comorbidities and remoteness, Aboriginal patients presenting with an ACS were significantly less likely than non-Aboriginal patients to undergo angiography (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5; P Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients who had undergone angiography. Reasons for Aboriginal patients not undergoing angiography included symptoms being deemed non-cardiac (16%), non-invasive test performed (8%), and discharge against medical advice (11%); the reasons were unclear for 36% of Aboriginal patients. After controlling for age and other factors, the rate of coronary angiography was lower among Aboriginal patients with an ACS in SA. The reasons for this disparity are complex, including patient-related factors and their preferences, as well as the appropriateness of the intervention. Improved consideration of the hospital experience of Aboriginal patients must be a priority for reducing health care disparities.

  12. Disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Keefe, Dorothy; Farshid, Gelareh; Eckert, Marion; Cargo, Margaret; Brown, Alex

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the utility of retrospectively staging cancer registry data for comparing stage and stage-specific survivals of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Differences by area level factors were also explored. This test dataset comprised 950 Aboriginal cases and all other cases recorded on the South Australian cancer registry with a 1977-2010 diagnosis. A sub-set of 777 Aboriginal cases diagnosed in 1990-2010 were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by year of birth, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site of cancer. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, and geographic attributes with risk of cancer death. Aboriginal cases were 10 years younger at diagnosis, more likely to present in recent diagnostic years, to be resident of remote areas, and have primary cancer sites of head & neck, lung, liver and cervix. Risk of cancer death was associated in the matched analysis with more advanced stage at diagnosis. More Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal cases had distant metastases at diagnosis (31.3% vs 22.0, pAboriginal residents had higher risks of cancer death than Aboriginal residents of metropolitan areas. Non-Aboriginal cases had the lowest risk of cancer death. Retrospective staging proved to be feasible using registry data. Results indicated more advanced stages for Aboriginal than matched non-Aboriginal cases. Aboriginal people had higher risks of cancer death, which persisted after adjusting for stage, and applied irrespective of remoteness of residence, with highest risk of death occurring among Aboriginal people from remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Baseline investigations of folate status in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal West Australians prior to the introduction of mandatory fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah J; Brameld, Kate J; Bower, Caroline; D'Antoine, Heather; Hickling, Siobhan; Marley, Julia; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In September 2009, Australia implemented mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for bread-making to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Our study aimed to establish baseline folate status data in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. Patients who presented at a health service or collection centre for blood tests were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-one Aboriginals and 159 non-Aboriginals were recruited between April 2008 and September 2009. Participants completed a five-minute questionnaire and had blood taken for red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Data were analysed using SPSS (version 17.0.2, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Ten per cent (95% confidence intervals (CI): 5, 19) of the Aboriginal women participants and 26% (95% CI: 16, 40) of men had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL, the cut-off associated with folate deficiency. None of the non-Aboriginal women (95% CI: 0, 4) and 4% of the non-Aboriginal men (95% CI: 2, 12) had RBC folate concentrations below 250 ng/mL. All participants were vitamin B12 replete. None of the 96 Aboriginal and 8% of non-Aboriginal women aged 16-44 reported consumption of supplements with a daily intake of >400 μg folic acid during the previous week. This study established a baseline of RBC folate, folate consumption and supplement use in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups. We identified 10% of Aboriginal women and none of non-Aboriginal women participants with low folate concentrations. The higher prevalence of folate deficiency in Aboriginal participants suggests they are more likely to benefit from a universal program of folate fortification. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Identification of Aboriginal children using linked administrative data: Consequences for measuring inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Pilkington, Rhiannon; Berry, Jesia; Scalzi, Daniel; Gibson, Odette; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the identification of Aboriginal children in multiple administrative datasets and how this may affect estimates of health and development. Data collections containing a question about Aboriginal ethnicity: birth registrations, perinatal statistics, Australian Early Development Census and school enrolments were linked to datasets recording developmental outcomes: national literacy and numeracy tests (National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy), Australian Early Development Census and perinatal statistics (birthweight) for South Australian children born 1999-2005 (n = 13 414-44 989). Six algorithms to derive Aboriginal ethnicity were specified. The proportions of children thus quantified were compared for developmental outcomes, including those scoring above the national minimum standard in year 3 National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy reading. The proportion of Aboriginal children identified varied from 1.9% to 4.7% when the algorithm incremented from once to ever identified as Aboriginal, the latter using linked datasets. The estimates of developmental outcomes were altered: for example, the proportion of Aboriginal children who performed above the national minimum standard in year 3 reading increased by 12 percentage points when the algorithm incremented from once to ever identified as Aboriginal. Similar differences by identification algorithm were seen for all outcomes. The proportion of South Australian children identified as Aboriginal in administrative datasets, and hence inequalities in developmental outcomes, varied depending on which and how many data sources were used. Linking multiple administrative datasets to determine the Aboriginal ethnicity of the child may be useful to inform policy, interventions, service delivery and how well we are closing developmental gaps. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Incidence of and case fatality following acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians (2000-2004): a linked data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2010-12-01

    Despite Coronary Heart Disease exacting a heavy toll among Aboriginal Australians, accurate estimates of its epidemiology are limited. This study compared the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 28-day case fatality (CF) among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years from 2000-2004. Incident (AMI hospital admission-free for 15 years) AMI events and 28-day CF were estimated using person-based linked hospital and mortality data. Age-standardised incidence rates and case fatality percentages were calculated by Aboriginality and sex. Of 740 Aboriginal and 6933 non-Aboriginal incident events, 208 and 2352 died within 28 days, respectively. The Aboriginal age-specific incidence rates were 27 (males) and 35 (females) times higher than non-Aboriginal rates in the 25-29 year age group, decreasing to 2-3 at 70-74 years. The male:female age-standardised incidence rate ratio was 2.2 in Aboriginal people 25-54 years compared with 4.5 in non-Aboriginal people. Aboriginal age-standardised CF percentages were 1.4 (males) and 1.1 (females) times higher at age 25-54 years and 1.5 times higher at age 55-74 years. These data suggest higher CF and, more importantly, AMI incidence contribute to the excess ischaemic heart disease mortality in Aboriginal Western Australians. The poorer cardiovascular health in Aboriginal women, particularly in younger age groups, should be investigated. Copyright © 2010 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  17. Factors Affecting Language and Literacy Development in Australian Aboriginal Children: Considering Dialect, Culture and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gwendalyn L.; Williams, Cori J.

    2018-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal children, in general, lag behind their mainstream peers in measures of literacy. This article discusses some of the complex and interconnected factors that impact Aboriginal children's early language and literacy development. Poor health and historically negative socio-political factors are known influences on Aboriginal…

  18. Comorbidities contribute to the risk of cancer death among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians: Analysis of a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Brown, Alex

    2018-02-01

    Aboriginal Australians have poorer cancer survival than other Australians. Diagnoses at later stages and correlates of remote area living influence, but do not fully explain, these disparities. Little is known of the prevalence and influence of comorbid conditions experienced by Aboriginal people, including their effect on cancer survival. This study quantifies hospital recorded comorbidities using the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI), examines their influence on risk of cancer death, then considers effect variation by Aboriginality. Cancers diagnosed among Aboriginal South Australians in 1990-2010 (N = 777) were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by birth year, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site, then linked to administrative hospital records to the time of diagnosis. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, geographic attributes and comorbidities with risk of cancer death. A threshold of four or more ECI conditions was associated with increased risk of cancer death (sub-hazard ratio SHR 1.66, 95%CI 1.11-2.46). Alternatively, the presence of any one of a subset of ECI conditions was associated with similarly increased risk (SHR = 1.62, 95%CI 1.23-2.14). The observed effects did not differ between Aboriginal and matched non-Aboriginal cases. However, Aboriginal cases experienced three times higher exposure than non-Aboriginal to four or more ECI conditions (14.2% versus 4.5%) and greater exposure to the subset of ECI conditions (20.7% versus 8.0%). Comorbidities at diagnosis increased the risk of cancer death in addition to risks associated with Aboriginality, remoteness of residence and disease stage at diagnosis. The Aboriginal cohort experienced comparatively greater exposure to comorbidities which adds to disparities in cancer outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A cohort study: temporal trends in prevalence of antecedents, comorbidities and mortality in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians with first heart failure hospitalization, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Hung, Joseph; Knuiman, Matthew; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Bessarab, Dawn; Hobbs, Michael; Thompson, Sandra C

    2015-08-12

    Little is known about trends in risk factors and mortality for Aboriginal Australians with heart failure (HF). This population-based study evaluated trends in prevalence of risk factors, 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality following first HF hospitalization among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians in the decade 2000-2009. Linked-health data were used to identify patients (20-84 years), with a first-ever HF hospitalization. Trends in demographics, comorbidities, interventions and risk factors were evaluated. Logistic and Cox regression models were fitted to test and compare trends over time in 30-day and 1-year mortality. Of 17,379 HF patients, 1,013 (5.8%) were Aboriginal. Compared with 2000-2002, the prevalence (as history) of myocardial infarction and hypertension increased more markedly in 2006-2009 in Aboriginal (versus non-Aboriginal) patients, while diabetes and chronic kidney disease remained disproportionately higher in Aboriginal patients. Risk factor trends, including the Charlson comorbidity index, increased over time in younger Aboriginal patients. Risk-adjusted 30-day mortality did not change over the decade in either group. Risk-adjusted 1-year mortality (in 30-day survivors) was non-significantly higher in Aboriginal patients in 2006-2008 compared with 2000-2002 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44; 95% CI 0.85-2.41; p-trend = 0.47) whereas it decreased in non-Aboriginal patients (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.97; p-trend = 0.01). Between 2000 and 2009, the prevalence of HF antecedents increased and remained disproportionately higher in Aboriginal (versus non-Aboriginal) HF patients. Risk-adjusted 1-year mortality did not improve in Aboriginal patients over the period in contrast with non-Aboriginal patients. These findings highlight the need for better prevention and post-HF care in Aboriginal Australians.

  20. Closing the Aboriginal child injury gap: targets for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Australian Aboriginal Children with Otitis Media Have Reduced Antibody Titers to Specific Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Vaccine Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.; Corscadden, Karli J.; Wiertsema, Selma P.; Fuery, Angela; Jones, B. Jan; Coates, Harvey L.; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Zhang, Guicheng; Keil, Anthony; Richmond, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Indigenous populations experience high rates of otitis media (OM), with increased chronicity and severity, compared to those experienced by their nonindigenous counterparts. Data on immune responses to otopathogenic bacteria in these high-risk populations are lacking. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the predominant otopathogen in Australia. No vaccines are currently licensed to target NTHi; however, protein D (PD) from NTHi is included as a carrier protein in the 10-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (PHiD10-CV), and other promising protein vaccine candidates exist, including outer membrane protein 4 (P4) and protein 6 (P6). We measured the levels of serum and salivary IgA and IgG against PD, P4, and P6 in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children with chronic OM who were undergoing surgery and compared the levels with those in healthy non-Aboriginal children (controls). We found that Aboriginal cases had lower serum IgG titers to all NTHi proteins assessed, particularly PD. In contrast, serum IgA and salivary IgA and IgG titers to each of these 3 proteins were equivalent to or higher than those in both non-Aboriginal cases and healthy controls. While serum antibody levels increased with age in healthy controls, no changes in titers were observed with age in non-Aboriginal cases, and a trend toward decreasing titers with age was observed in Aboriginal cases. This suggests that decreased serum IgG responses to NTHi outer membrane proteins may contribute to the development of chronic and severe OM in Australian Aboriginal children and other indigenous populations. These data are important for understanding the potential benefits of PHiD10-CV implementation and the development of NTHi protein-based vaccines for indigenous populations. PMID:28151410

  2. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Matthew; Chuter, Vivienne; Munteanu, Shannon; Hawke, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91%) while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a 3-6 fold increased likelihood of experiencing a

  3. A comparison of the effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S

    2015-11-01

    Adult nutrition education is an important component of broader societal efforts to address the high prevalence of nutrition-related diseases. In Australia, Aboriginal people are a critical target group for such programs because of their substantially higher rates of these diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relative effectiveness of an adult nutrition education program for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Pre-and post-course evaluation data were used to assess changes in confidence in ability to buy healthy foods on a budget, nutrition knowledge, and dietary behaviours among individuals attending FOODcents nutrition education courses. The total sample of 875 Western Australians included 169 who self-identified as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. Perceptions of course usefulness were very high and comparable between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants. Significantly larger improvements in confidence, nutrition knowledge, and reported consumption behaviours were evident among Aboriginal participants. The findings suggest that adult nutrition education programs that address specific knowledge and skill deficits that are common among disadvantaged groups can be effective for multiple target groups, and may also assist in reducing nutrition-related inequalities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving forensic mental health care for Aboriginal Australians: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-06-01

    Mental illnesses constitute a major burden of disease in Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders (hereafter Aboriginal Australians), who are also overrepresented in the prison system. A legacy of colonization compounds such prevalence, and is further exacerbated by the persistence of racial discrimination and insensitivity across many sectors, including health. This research completed in a Western Australian forensic mental health setting identifies non-Aboriginal health professionals' support needs to deliver high-quality, culturally-safe care to Aboriginal patients. Data were collected from health professionals using an online survey and 10 semistructured interviews. Survey and interview results found that ongoing education was needed for staff to provide culturally-safe care, where Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values were respected. The findings also support previous research linking Aboriginal health providers to improved health outcomes for Aboriginal patients. In a colonized country, such as Australia, education programmes that critically reflect on power relations privileging white Anglo-Australian cultural dominance and subjugating Aboriginal knowledge, beliefs, and values are important to identify factors promoting or compromising the care of Aboriginal patients and developing a deeper understanding of 'cultural safety' and its clinical application. Organizational commitment is needed to translate the findings to support non-Aboriginal health professionals deliver high-quality care to Aboriginal patients that is respectful of cultural differences. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Improving the efficacy of healthcare services for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Kylie; Jeffries, Thomas; Lincoln, Michelle

    2018-01-16

    Objective The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the enablers for effective health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. Methods This systematic review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Papers were included if they had data related to health services for Australian Aboriginal people and were published between 2000 and 2015. The 21 papers that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Seven papers were subsequently excluded due to weak methodological approaches. Results There were two findings in the present study: (1) that Aboriginal people fare worse than non-Aboriginal people when accessing usual healthcare services; and (2) there are five enablers for effective health care services for Australian Aboriginal people: cultural competence, participation rates, organisational, clinical governance and compliance, and availability of services. Conclusions Health services for Australian Aboriginal people must be tailored and implementation of the five enablers is likely to affect the effectiveness of health services for Aboriginal people. The findings of the present study have significant implications in directing the future design, funding, delivery and evaluation of health care services for Aboriginal Australians. What is known about the topic? There is significant evidence about poor health outcomes and the 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and limited evidence about improving health service efficacy. What does this paper add? This systematic review found that with usual health care delivery, Aboriginal people experience worse health outcomes. This paper identifies five strategies in the literature that improve the effectiveness of health care services intended for Aboriginal people. What are the implications for

  6. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Results Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91% while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

  7. Disparities experienced by Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal metropolitan Western Australians in receiving coronary angiography following acute ischaemic heart disease: the impact of age and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-10-21

    Aboriginal Australians have a substantially higher frequency of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) events than their non-Aboriginal counterparts, together with a higher prevalence of comorbidities. The pattern of health service provision for IHD suggests inequitable delivery of important diagnostic procedures. Published data on disparities in IHD management among Aboriginal Australians are conflicting, and the role of comorbidities has not been adequately delineated. We compared the profiles of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in the metropolitan area undergoing emergency IHD admissions at Western Australian metropolitan hospitals, and investigated the determinants of receiving coronary angiography. Person-linked administrative hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD emergency admission events (n =20,816) commencing at metropolitan hospitals in 2005-09. The outcome measure was receipt of angiography. The Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal risk ratio (RR) was estimated from a multivariable Poisson log-linear regression model with allowance for multiple IHD events in individuals. The subgroup of myocardial infarction (MI) events was modelled separately. Compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts, Aboriginal IHD patients were younger and more likely to have comorbidities. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, Aboriginal patients were less likely than others to receive angiography (RRIHD 0.77, 95% CI 0.72-0.83; RRMI 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.87) but in the full multivariable model this disparity was accounted for by comorbidities as well as IHD category and MI subtype, and private health insurance (RRIHD 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.01; RRMI 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.01). When stratified by age groups, this disparity was not significant in the 25-54 year age group (RRMI 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02) but was significant in the 55-84 year age group (RRMI 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-0.99). The disproportionate under-management of older Aboriginal IHD patients is of

  8. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected pheno...

  9. Gendering Aboriginalism : a performative gaze on indigenous Australian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  10. Gendering Aboriginalism: A Performative Gaze on Indigenous Australian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Barney

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common Aboriginalist representations of Indigenous Australian people is, as Indigenous female performer Lou Bennett points out, ‘basically a man, out in the desert, black skin, flat nose with a lap-lap on, standing on one leg, resting against a spear’. Her comment raises many issues. In what ways are discourses of Aboriginalism gendered? How does Aboriginalism affect performance and specifically Aboriginal women performers? In exploring these questions, I examine Aboriginalist representations of Aboriginal women performers by white male scholars and the role of women anthropologists in the production of Aboriginalist discourse about Aboriginal women. Drawing on interviews with Indigenous women performers and musical examples of their songs, I explore the impact of Aboriginalism on non-Indigenous expectations of Indigenous Australian women performing in contemporary music contexts, the strategies performers use to work within and against these constructions and my own relationship to Aboriginalism.

  11. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  12. Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (Pchildren, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians.

  13. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service

  14. Didgeridoo Playing and Singing to Support Asthma Management in Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don

    2010-01-01

    Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…

  15. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

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    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  16. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1- children and 14%, 5% and 18% in 146 non-Aboriginal children. OM was diagnosed at least once in 71% of Aboriginal children and 43% of non-Aboriginal children. After controlling for age, sex, presence of other bacteria and environmental factors, early nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi increased the risk of subsequent OM (odds ratio = 3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.23) in Aboriginal children, while Mcat increased the risk of OM in non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% CI 1.32-5.23). Early carriage of Pnc was not associated with increased risk of OM. Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia. PMID:23256870

  17. Development and validation of the Australian Aboriginal racial identity and self-esteem survey for 8-12 year old children (IRISE_C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickett-Tucker, C S; Christensen, D; Lawrence, D; Zubrick, S R; Johnson, D J; Stanley, F

    2015-10-24

    In Australia, there is little empirical research of the racial identity of Indigenous children and youth as the majority of the current literature focuses on adults. Furthermore, there are no instruments developed with cultural appropriateness when exploring the identity and self-esteem of the Australian Aboriginal population, especially children. The IRISE_C (Racial Identity and Self-Esteem of children) inventory was developed to explore the elements of racial identity and self-esteem of urban, rural and regional Aboriginal children. This paper describes the development and validation of the IRISE_C instrument with over 250 Aboriginal children aged 8 to 12 years. A pilot of the IRISE C instrument was combined with individual interviews and was undertaken with 35 urban Aboriginal children aged 8-12 years. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to refine the survey and reduce redundant items in readiness for the main study. In the main study, the IRISE C was employed to 229 Aboriginal children aged 6-13 years across three sites (rural, regional and urban) in Western Australia. An exploratory factor analysis using Principal axis factoring was used to assess the fit of items and survey structure. A confirmatory factor analysis was then employed using LISREL (diagonally weighted least squares) to assess factor structures across domains. Internal consistency and reliability of subscales were assessed using Cronbach's co-efficient alpha. The pilot testing identified two key concepts - children's knowledge of issues related to their racial identity, and the importance, or salience, that they attach to these issues. In the main study, factor analyses showed two clear factors relating to: Aboriginal culture and traditions; and a sense of belonging to an Aboriginal community. Principal Axis Factoring of the Knowledge items supported a 2-factor solution, which explained 38.7% of variance. Factor One (Aboriginal culture) had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.835; Factor 2 (racial

  18. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    1993–95. The IMR gap between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population, while still unacceptable, has declined considerably, from over 8 before 2000 to around 4 per 1,000 live births by 2008. Conclusions Regardless of estimation method used, mortality and LE gaps between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people are substantial, but remain difficult to estimate accurately. PMID:24383435

  19. “No More Boomerang”: Environment and Technology in Contemporary Aboriginal Australian Poetry

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    John Charles Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based in oral traditions and song cycles, contemporary Aboriginal Australian poetry is full of allusions to the environment. Not merely a physical backdrop for human activities, the ancient Aboriginal landscape is a nexus of ecological, spiritual, material, and more-than-human overlays—and one which is increasingly compromised by modern technological impositions. In literary studies, while Aboriginal poetry has become the subject of critical interest, few studies have foregrounded the interconnections between environment and technology. Instead, scholarship tends to focus on the socio-political and cultural dimensions of the writing. How have contemporary Australian Aboriginal poets responded to the impacts of environmental change and degradation? How have poets addressed the effects of modern technology in ancestral environments, or country? This article will develop an ecocritical and technology-focused perspective on contemporary Aboriginal poetry through an analysis of the writings of three significant literary-activists: Jack Davis (1917–2000, Oodgeroo Noonuccal (1920–1993, and Lionel Fogarty (born 1958. Davis, Noonuccal, and Fogarty strive poetically to draw critical attention to the particular impacts of late modernist technologies on Aboriginal people and country. In developing a critique of invasive technologies that adversely affect the environment and culture, their poetry also invokes the Aboriginal technologies that sustained (and, in places, still sustain people in reciprocal relation to country.

  20. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  1. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  2. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-05-18

    Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service providers) through a reference group, and writing of summary

  3. Fall-related hospitalisations of older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszyk, Caroline; Harvey, Lara A; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline Ct; Coombes, Julieann; Mitchell, Rebecca J; Moore, Robyn; Ivers, Rebecca

    2017-07-03

    To compare the socio-demographic characteristics and type of injury sustained, the use of hospital resources and rates of hospitalisation by injury type, and survival following fall injuries to older Aboriginal people and non-Indigenous Australian people hospitalised for fall-related injuries. Population-based retrospective cohort data linkage study. Setting, participants: New South Wales residents aged 50 years or more admitted to a public or private NSW hospital for a fall-related injury during 1 January 2003 - 31 December 2012. Proportions of patients with defined injury types, mean hospital length of stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, age-standardised hospitalisation rates and age-adjusted rate ratios, 28-day re-admission rates. There were 312 758 fall-related injury hospitalisations for 234 979 individuals; 2660 admissions (0.85%) were of Aboriginal people. The proportion of hospitalisations for fall-related fracture injuries was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous Australians (49% v 60% of fall-related hospitalisations; P Aboriginal patients was non-fracture injury to head or neck (19% of hospitalisations); for non-Indigenous patients it was hip fractures (18%). Age-adjusted LOS was lower for Aboriginal than for non-Indigenous patients (9.1 v 14.0 days; P Aboriginal people, fall injury hospitalisations increased at an annual rate of 5.8% (95% CI, 4.0-7.7%; P Aboriginal people and other older Australians, suggesting that different approaches are required to prevent and treat fall injuries.

  4. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  5. Does the EDI Equivalently Measure Facets of School Readiness for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Puchala, Chassidy; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to examine the equivalence of the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher rating measure of school readiness, for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The current study used an approach, which analyzes the structure and properties of the EDI at the subdomain level. Similar subdomain score distributions…

  6. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  7. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  8. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  9. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  10. Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2017-10-15

    To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants included all SA residents in 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. Analysis focused on those individuals experiencing chronic PPH as defined by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Number and rates (unadjusted, then adjusted for sex and age) of chronic PPH, total LOS and direct hospital costs by Aboriginality. Aboriginal SAs experienced higher risk of index chronic PPH compared with non-Aboriginals (11.5 and 6.2 per 1000 persons per year, respectively) and at younger ages (median age 48 vs 70 years). Once hospitalised, Aboriginal people experienced more chronic PPH events, longer total LOS with higher costs than non-Aboriginal people (2.6 vs 1.9 PPH per person; 11.7 vs 9.0 days LOS; at $A17 928 vs $A11 515, respectively). Compared with population average LOS, the standardised rate ratio of LOS among Aboriginal people increased by 0.03 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.07) as disadvantage rank increased and 1.04 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.44) as remoteness increased. Non-Aboriginal LOS also increased as disadvantage increased but at a lower rate (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Costs of Aboriginal chronic PPH increased by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.06) for each increase in disadvantage and 1.18 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.55) for increased remoteness. Non-Aboriginal costs also increased as disadvantage increased but at lower rates (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Aboriginal people's heightened risk of chronic PPH resulted in more time in hospital and greater cost. Systematic disparities in chronic PPH by Aboriginality, area disadvantage and remoteness highlight the need for improved uptake of effective primary care. Routine

  11. Variable effects of prevalence correction of population denominators on differentials in myocardial infarction incidence: a record linkage study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the impact of prevalence correction of population denominators on myocardial infarction (MI) incidence rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years during the study period 2000-2004. Person-based linked hospital and mortality data sets were used to estimate the number of prevalent and first-ever MI cases each year from 2000 to 2004 using a 15-year look-back period. Age-specific and -standardized MI incidence rates were calculated using both prevalence-corrected and -uncorrected population denominators, by sex and Aboriginality. The impact of prevalence correction on rates increased with age, was higher for men than women, and substantially greater for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Despite the systematic underestimation of incidence, prevalence correction had little impact on the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal age-standardized rate ratios (6% and 4% underestimate in men and women, respectively), although the impact on rate differences was more marked (12% and 6%, respectively). The percentage underestimate of differentials was greater at older ages. Prevalence correction of denominators, while more accurate, is difficult to apply and may add modestly to the quantification of relative disparities in MI incidence between populations. Absolute incidence disparities using uncorrected denominators may have an error >10%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  13. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  14. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  15. Inequality in provider continuity for children by Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Graham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little published on provider continuity in Australian general practice and none on its effect on inequality of care for children. Method Questionnaire administered to parents of the ACT Kindergarten Health Screen asking the name of their child's usual GP and practice address between 2001 and 2008. Results Parents of 30,789 children named 433 GPs and 141 practices. In each year, an average of 77% of parents could name both the GP and the practice, an average of 11% of parents could name only the practice, and an average of 12% of parents could name neither. In each year, 25% of parents could not name a usual GP for children of Aboriginal or Torres Straight Islander descent, or children born outside of Australia, compared to 10% of all other children (p = Conclusions Many GPs (39% were reported to provide continuity of care for in the ACT region and some GPs (20% displayed transient care. Indigenous children or children born outside of Australia had less equity of access to a nominated GP than all other children. Such inequity might disappear if voluntary registration of children was adopted in Australian general practice.

  16. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  17. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  18. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Abori......We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show...... that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves...... prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa....

  19. The unmet needs of Aboriginal Australians with musculoskeletal pain: A mixed method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ivan B; Bunzli, Samantha; Mak, Donna B; Green, Charmaine; Goucke, Roger; Coffin, Juli; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-12-15

    Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) conditions are the biggest cause of disability and internationally, Indigenous peoples experience a higher burden. There are conflicting reports about Aboriginal Australians and MSP. We conducted a systematic review to describe the prevalence, associated factors, impacts, care access, health care experiences, and factors associated with MSP among Aboriginal Australians. A systematic search of quantitative and qualitative scientific and grey literature (PROSPERO number: CRD42016038342). Articles were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Due to study heterogeneity a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 536 articles identified, 18 were included (14 quantitative, 4 qualitative), of high (n=11), medium (n=2) and low (n=5) quality. Prevalences of MSP in Aboriginal populations were similar to or slightly higher than the non-Aboriginal population (prevalence rate ratio 1.1 for back pain, 1.2-1.5 for osteoarthritis (OA), 1.0-2.0 for rheumatoid arthritis). Aboriginal people accessed primary care for knee or hip OA at around half the rate of non-Aboriginal people, and were less than half as likely to have knee or hip replacement surgery. Communication difficulties with health practitioners were the main reason why Aboriginal people with MSP choose not to access care. No articles reported interventions. Findings provide preliminary evidence of an increased MSP burden amongst Aboriginal Australians and, particularly for OA, a mismatch between the disease burden and access to health care. To increase accessibility, health services should initially focus on improving Aboriginal patients' experiences of care, in particular by improving patient-practitioner communication. Implications for care and research are outlined. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Setting Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants Participants included all SA residents in 2005–2006 to 2010–2011. Analysis focused on...

  1. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  2. Enhancing Opportunities for Australian Aboriginal Literacy Learners in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lee; Clancy, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In the context of contemporary Australian society, the education system is still failing to increase educational outcomes among the majority of Australian Aboriginal (1) learners. This educational dilemma has persisted despite the regular introduction of systemic initiatives and funding aimed at addressing Australian Aboriginal learners' low…

  3. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf…

  4. Smoking and Other Drug Characteristics of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Prisoners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn L. Richmond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Although tobacco and alcohol use have declined substantially in the Australian community, substance use among prisoners remains high. The aim was to compare the smoking, drug, and alcohol characteristics, sociodemographic profile, and general health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male prisoners in a smoking cessation intervention. Design and Methods. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of data from 425 male prisoners who joined a quit smoking trial conducted at 18 correctional centres in NSW and Queensland using data collected by standardised self-report instruments. Results. Average age was 33 years with 15% from Aboriginal descent. Compared to non-Aboriginal prisoners, Aboriginal prisoners were significantly more likely to have left school with no qualifications, to have been institutionalised as a child, to be previously incarcerated, and commenced smoking at a younger age. The tobacco use profile of both groups was similar; most of them had a medium to high level of nicotine dependence, smoked roll your own tobacco, and were “serious” about quitting. Discussion and Conclusion. Despite differences in terms of sociodemographic characteristics and offending history, the smoking characteristics of Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal prisoners were similar. Incarceration offers an opportunity to encourage smoking cessation and reduction of drug use.

  5. A concise culture review of Aboriginal and Australian fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the Australian fiction, we have suggested that some blossoming of this Australian genre happened during the nineteenth century, so in this review we have to start with some earlier works to express the cultural and poetical picture just unpretentious but completely. Firstly, it ought to be the Aboriginal literature which is of great importance to many both within Australia and internationally. This culture review will relate to the Aboriginal writing in English. The transformative survey of Aboriginal writing presents the stories and patterns of Australian culture and society in new ways, foregrounding and celebrating Indigenous experience and expression. It introduces powerful and creative individual voices as it also reveals a larger history of struggle, suffering and strength.

  6. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-07-07

    Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Health Action Groups (DAHAGs) to collaborate with health providers in designing culturally-responsive healthcare. The purpose of the strategy was to improve local health service delivery for Aboriginal Australians. The evaluation aimed to identify whether the Aboriginal community considered the community engagement strategy effective in identifying their health service needs, translating them to action by local health services and increasing their trust in these health services. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Qualitative data was collected from Aboriginal participants and health service providers using semi-structured interviews or yarning circles that were recorded, transcribed and independently analysed by two senior non-Aboriginal researchers. Responses were coded for key themes, further analysed for similarities and differences between districts and cross-checked by the senior lead Aboriginal researcher to avoid bias and establish reliability in interpreting the data. Three ethics committees approved conducting the evaluation. Findings from 60 participants suggested the engagement process was effective: it was driven and owned by the Aboriginal community, captured a broad range of views and increased Aboriginal community participation in decisions about their healthcare. It built community capacity through regular community forums and established DAHAGs comprising local Aboriginal community members and health service representatives who met quarterly and were

  7. Dawes Review 5: Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical knowledge includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, which was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars and for navigation. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, recorded unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees. Putative explanations of celestial phenomena appear throughout the oral record, suggesting traditional Aboriginal Australians sought to understand the natural world around them, in the same way as modern scientists, but within their own cultural context. There is also a growing body of evidence for sophisticated navigational skills, including the use of astronomically based songlines. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, and are an efficient way of transmitting oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. The study of Aboriginal astronomy has had an impact extending beyond mere academic curiosity, facilitating cross-cultural understanding, demonstrating the intimate links between science and culture, and helping students to engage with science.

  8. Communication disorders after stroke in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists on acquired communication disorders (ACD) in Aboriginal Australians despite their high rates of stroke. Their uptake of rehabilitation services is low, and little information is available on functional consequences for this population. This pilot study explored consequences of ACD for Aboriginal Australians after stroke, including their experiences of services received. Semi-structured interviews were collected with 13 Aboriginal people with ACD, and family members, in Perth. Ages ranged from 30 to 78 years and time post stroke from 0.5 to 29 years. A qualitative, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. The key themes which emerged were "getting on with life", coping with change, independence/interdependence, the importance of communication for maintaining family and community connection, role and identity issues and viewing the stroke consequences within the broader context of co-morbidities. While similar life disruptions were found to those previously reported in the general stroke population, this study highlighted differences, which reflect the particular context of ACD for Aboriginal people and which need to be considered when planning future services. While implications are limited due to small numbers, the findings emphasise the importance of a holistic approach, and integration of communication treatments into community-led social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation Aboriginal Australians frequently experience a range of concurrent and complex co-morbidities and demanding social or family circumstances at the same time as coping with communication disorders post-stroke. A holistic approach to post stroke rehabilitation may be appropriate with services that accommodate communication disorders, delivered in collaboration with Aboriginal organisations, emphasising positive attitudes and reintegration into community as fully as possible. Communication and yarning are important for maintaining family and

  9. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  10. An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic; De La Vega, Francisco M; Tridico, Silvana; Metspalu, Ene; Nielsen, Kasper; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Muller, Craig; Dortch, Joe; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lund, Ole; Wesolowska, Agata; Karmin, Monika; Weinert, Lucy A; Wang, Bo; Li, Jun; Tai, Shuaishuai; Xiao, Fei; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; van Driem, George; Jha, Aashish R; Ricaut, François-Xavier; de Knijff, Peter; Migliano, Andrea B; Gallego Romero, Irene; Kristiansen, Karsten; Lambert, David M; Brunak, Søren; Forster, Peter; Brinkmann, Bernd; Nehlich, Olaf; Bunce, Michael; Richards, Michael; Gupta, Ramneek; Bustamante, Carlos D; Krogh, Anders; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta M; Balloux, Francois; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

    2011-10-07

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

  11. Variable phenotype of Marfan syndrome in two large Australian pedigrees, one of Australian aboriginal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.K.; Summers, K.M.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome may affect the cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems. The gene for this autosomal dominant disease maps to chromosome 15 and codes for the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin. Phenotypic expression is very variable both within and between families, possibly due to the influence of other, unlinked, genetic factors interacting with the fibrillin gene. We report two Australian families which demonstrate the extent of inter- and intra-family phenotypic variability. Eye, cardiac and skeletal assessments were made independently. In the first family, 8 of 12 siblings and 11 of 19 of their children had ectopia lentis with or without other ocular findings. There were few cardiac signs. One child had mitral valve prolapse. He and three other children had mild dilatation of the aorta. Skeletal abnormalities were also found (3 adults and 7 children). Chest wall asymmetry was the most common skeletal finding. This family has less cardiac and skeletal involvement than is usual in Marfan syndrome, although the disease maps to chromosome 15 in the region of the fibrillin gene (LOD=4.8 at {theta}=0 with respect to CYP19). The second family is partly of Australian aboriginal origin. The disease has been traced through 5 generations. To date we have examined 37 of 84 living members. Twenty-three in 3 generations are affected. Five adults and 4 children have moderate to severe aortic dilatation and there has been at least one death due to aortic dissection. However, two adolescents with subluxed lenses and marked skeletal abnormalities have normal aortic diameters, two children have aortic dilatation without other signs and two children have only subluxed lenses. This family shows the range of phenotypic variation which can arise from mutation in the fibrillin gene, which may be influenced by the admixture of Australian aboriginal genes. These two families provide an invaluable resource for studying genetic interactions in this disease.

  12. Australian Aboriginal Geomythology: Eyewitness Accounts of Cosmic Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2009-12-01

    Descriptions of cosmic impacts and meteorite falls are found throughout Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. In some cases, these texts describe the impact event in detail, sometimes citing the location, suggesting that the events were witnessed. We explore whether cosmic impacts and meteorite falls may have been witnessed by Aboriginal Australians and incorporated into their oral traditions. We discuss the complications and bias in recording and analysing oral texts but suggest that these texts may be used both to locate new impact structures or meteorites and model observed impact events. We find that, while detailed Aboriginal descriptions of cosmic impacts are abundant in the literature, there is currently no physical evidence connecting these accounts to impact events currently known to Western science.

  13. An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Morten; Guo, Xiaosen; Wang, Yong; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Rasmussen, Simon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Skotte, Line; Lindgreen, Stinus; Metspalu, Mait; Jombart, Thibaut; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhai, Weiwei; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Orlando, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to ...

  14. Using/designing Digital Technologies Of Representation In Aboriginal Australian Knowledge Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Verran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians are often keen to use digital technologies in their struggle to develop sustainable livelihoods on their own lands. This paper tells of gradually coming to recognize how an Aboriginal Australian elder struggled against the grain of digital technologies designed to represent, in using them in Aboriginal Australian knowledge practices where knowledge is always actively performative rather than representional. The performance of Aboriginal knowledge must express the remaking of an ancestral reality. At the same time, this man exploited possibilities the technologies offered for representation in achieving political ends in dealing with representatives of mainstream Australia.

  15. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.M. Schreiner (Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people,

  16. Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Dwyer, Anna; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2010-10-01

    Although the prevalence of dementia in remote living Aboriginal Australians is one of the highest in the world, the factors associated with dementia in this population are yet to be examined. This study was designed to determine the demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians living in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. A total of 363 Aboriginal Australians aged over 45 years from the Kimberley region were selected by semi-purposeful sampling. The factors analysed for association with dementia were age, sex, education, smoking, chewing tobacco, alcohol, head injury, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke, epilepsy, falls, mobility, incontinence, urinary problems, vision and hearing. This exposure data was collected from participants' and informants' reports using the Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment and specialist review, and medical records. Factors associated with dementia included older age, male gender (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.4, 6.8) and no formal education (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1, 6.7) and after adjusting for age, sex and education, dementia was associated with current smoking (OR 4.5, 95%CI 1.1, 18.6), previous stroke (OR 17.9, 95%CI 5.9, 49.7), epilepsy (OR 33.5, 95%CI 4.8, 232.3), head injury (OR 4.0, 95%CI 1.7, 9.4), and poor mobility, incontinence and falls. Interventions aimed at better management or prevention of the modifiable factors identified could reduce dementia risk in Aboriginal populations.

  17. Owning solutions: a collaborative model to improve quality in hospital care for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Wynaden, Dianne; Thompson, Sandra C; Davidson, Patricia M; Bessarab, Dawn; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2012-06-01

    Well-documented health disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) and non-Aboriginal Australians are underpinned by complex historical and social factors. The effects of colonisation including racism continue to impact negatively on Aboriginal health outcomes, despite being under-recognised and under-reported. Many Aboriginal people find hospitals unwelcoming and are reluctant to attend for diagnosis and treatment, particularly with few Aboriginal health professionals employed on these facilities. In this paper, scientific literature and reports on Aboriginal health-care, methodology and cross-cultural education are reviewed to inform a collaborative model of hospital-based organisational change. The paper proposes a collaborative model of care to improve health service delivery by building capacity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal personnel by recruiting more Aboriginal health professionals, increasing knowledge and skills to establish good relationships between non-Aboriginal care providers and Aboriginal patients and their families, delivering quality care that is respectful of culture and improving Aboriginal health outcomes. A key element of model design, implementation and evaluation is critical reflection on barriers and facilitators to providing respectful and culturally safe quality care at systemic, interpersonal and patient/family-centred levels. Nurses are central to addressing the current state of inequity and are pivotal change agents within the proposed model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  19. Barriers to a healthy lifestyle for three- to four-year-old children of Australian-born and overseas-born mothers with post-gestational diabetes: An Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Tehzeeb; Nolan, Christopher J; Banwell, Cathy; Young, Rosemary; Boisseau, Lynelle; Ingle, Martha; Lithander, Fiona E

    2018-01-01

    Children of mothers affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at higher risk of long-term cardio-metabolic diseases. We explore the diet and physical activity knowledge and practices of Australian-born and overseas-born mothers with GDM history, for their three- to four-year-old children following antenatal health promotion education at a tertiary hospital. We conducted face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with 8 Australian-born and 15 overseas-born mothers with a history of GDM. Findings indicated that mothers of both groups were unaware of the increased health risks of their GDM for their children and could not recall receiving specific dietary or physical activity advice aimed at future child health. Their understanding of the diet and physical activity recommendations was inconsistent. Mothers of both groups expressed concern about the lack of reiteration of child health promotion messages following childbirth, particularly at postnatal follow-up visits. Diet and physical activity of the children of overseas-born mothers were adversely affected by inadequate maternal understanding of the recommendations due to language barriers, and child weight, healthy eating, and physical activity patterns derived from their home countries. We recommend enhanced health education for women with GDM on the future child health risks and their reduction by healthy lifestyle choices. This needs to be culturally relevant and reiterated after pregnancy.

  20. Australian Engineering Educators' Attitudes towards Aboriginal Cultures and Perspectives

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    Goldfinch, Thomas; Prpic, Juliana Kaya; Jolly, Lesley; Leigh, Elyssebeth; Kennedy, Jade

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, representation of Aboriginal populations within the engineering profession is very low despite participation targets set by Government departments, professional bodies and Universities. Progressing the Aboriginal inclusion agenda within Australian Engineering Education requires a clearer understanding of engineering educators'…

  1. Enhancing Educational Performance for Remote Aboriginal Australians: What Is the Impact of Attendance on Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The educational performance of Aboriginal Australians lags behind non-Indigenous Australians with the gap increasing the longer students remain at school. The Australian government has released its Closing the Gap policy with the specific intent to redress gaps in health, education and housing, as these are seen as key indicators to life success.…

  2. How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiner, A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The article How Law Manifests Itself in Australian Aboriginal Art will discuss two events at the Aboriginal Art Museum Utrecht from the perspective of a meeting between two artistic and legal cultures. The first event, on the art and law of the Spinifex people, will prove to be of a private law

  3. Evolutionists and Australian Aboriginal art: 1885-1915

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    Susan Lowish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines key examples of writing about Australian Aboriginal art in the decades around 1900 specifically in relation to the way in which it is used to provide evidence for theories concerning the evolution of art. Analysis of published works by late nineteenth-century men of science reveals the main influences shaping their perceptions of Aboriginal art during this time and provides an early working definition of this emerging category. This paper confirms that turn-of-the-century European understandings of Aboriginal art were based on limited evidence mediated through a specifically ethnographic notion of ‘decorative art’.

  4. Quantifying maternal incarceration: a whole-population linked data study of Western Australian children born 1985-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Caitlin M; Preen, David B; Segal, Leonie

    2016-11-20

    To measure the prevalence of children affected by maternal incarceration in Western Australia (WA). Using linked administrative data we identified all children born in WA between 1985 and 2011, whose biological mother was imprisoned during their childhood. Data was obtained through the WA Data Linkage Branch from the Department of Corrective Services, Midwives Notifications System and Birth Registrations data collections. Descriptive characteristics of the children (n=9,352) and their mothers (n=3,827) are reported. Prevalence was measured in two-ways, the proportion of children ever affected in childhood and affected annually. Childhood prevalence of maternal incarceration was 26-times higher (95%CI 23.9-28.2) for Indigenous children born 1992-1996 with 18.8% Indigenous children and 0.7% non-Indigenous children affected while aged 0-17 years. On average 1,544 children were affected each year across 2003-2011, at rates of 2,929 per 100,000 Indigenous children and 108 per 100,000 non-Indigenous children. The findings present the first census of children affected by maternal incarceration within an Australian State and identify a large disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Implications for Public Health: This study highlights the importance of formal consideration of children of women prisoners in the development of criminal justice policies and practices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Dental caries risk indicators among Australian Aboriginal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Sayers, S M

    2010-06-01

    To determine dental caries risk indicators among a birth cohort of Australian Aboriginal young adults (n=442). Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Models representing demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural, dental service utilization and clinical oral health variables were tested using multivariate regression. The percent DT>0 was 72.9 (95% CI 68.7-77.1), mean DT was 4.19 (95% CI 3.8-4.6), percent DMFT>0 was 77.4 (95% CI 73.5-81.3) and mean DMFT was 4.84 (95% CI 4.4-5.3). After controlling for other covariates, risk indicators for percent DT>0 included soft drink consumption every day or a few times a week (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.45), not consuming milk every day or a few times a week (PR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.30) and sweet consumption every day or a few times a week (PR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Risk indicators for mean DT included sweet consumption every day or a few times a week (B=1.14, 95% CI 0.27-2.02), nonownership of a toothbrush (B=0.91, 95% CI 0.10-1.87) and presence of plaque (B=2.46, 95% CI 0.96-3.96). Those with 4 +  occupants in their house the previous night had 1.2 times the prevalence of having DMFT>0 than their counterparts with less household occupants (95% CI 1.01-1.49). Percent DMFT>0 was also associated with consumption of soft drink every day or a few times a week (PR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34) and consumption of sweets every day or a few times a week (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37). Mean DMFT was higher among those who consumed sweets every day or a few times a week (B = 0.13, 95% CI 0.05-0.22) and who had dental anxiety (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.19). In an Australian Aboriginal young adult cohort, risk indicators for dental caries included social determinants such as household size, dietary behaviours such as regular consumption of soft drink and sweets, dental behaviour such as nonownership of a toothbrush and

  6. The Representation of Aboriginality in the Novels of Peter Temple

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    Bill Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identity politics is fraught with difficulties. Of few places is this truer than in Australia when it comes to the representation of Aboriginality. On the one hand the absence or invisibility of Aboriginality in Australian life and culture maybe interpreted as a deliberate exclusion of a people whose presence is uncomfortable or inconvenient for many Australians of immigrant origin. Equally, the representation of Aboriginality by non-Aboriginals may be seen as an appropriation of identity, an inexcusable commercial exploitation or an act of neocolonialism. Best-selling and prize-winning South African-born author Peter Temple appears to be very much aware of these pitfalls. In his crime novels, written between 1996 and 2009, he has obviously made the decision to grasp the nettle and attempt to represent Aboriginality in a way that would be as acceptable as possible. This paper traces the evolution of Temple's representation of Aboriginality through the three major Aboriginal characters present in his novels: Cameron Delray (Bad Debts, 1996; Black Tide, 1999; Dead Point, 2000; and White Dog, 2003, Ned Lowey (An Iron Rose, 1998 and Detective Sergeant Paul Dove (The Broken Shore, 2005 and Truth, 2009.

  7. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide "culturally appropriate" clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people.

  8. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation - an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; van Oven, Mannis; Wilcox, Stephen; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Ballantyne, Kaye N.; Wilcox, Leah; Papac, Luka; Cooke, Karen; van Oorschot, Roland A. H.; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R. John; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Comas, David; Cooper, Alan; der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Ganeshprasad, Arunkumar; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Hobbs, Angela; Javed, Asif; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Melé, Marta; Merchant, Nirav C.; Owings, Amanda C.; Parida, Laxmi; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Santos, Fabrício R.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Soodyall, Himla; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Vilar, Miguel G.; Wells, R. Spencer; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers.

  9. The mouth as a site of structural inequalities; the experience of Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, A; Bessarab, D; Slack-Smith, L

    2016-06-01

    To address the mouth as a site of structural inequalities looking through the lens of Aboriginal Australian experience. This is a critical review of published literature relevant to our objective. Criteria for selection included articles on: the social context of oral and general health inequalities for Aboriginal Australians; Aboriginal perceptions and meanings of the mouth and experiences of oral health care and the role of the current political-economic climate in promoting or compromising oral health for Aboriginal Australians. Evidence suggests oral health is important for Aboriginal Australians yet constrained by challenges beyond their control as individuals, including accessing dental services. Competing demands on limited budgets often led to oral health dropping off the radar unless there was an emergency. Structural (social, political and economic) factors often inhibited Aboriginal people making optimum health choices to prevent oral disease and access services for treatment. Factors included cost of services, limited education about oral health, intense advertising of sugary drinks and discrimination from service providers. Yet the literature indicates individuals, rather than structural factors, are held responsible and blamed for the poor state of their oral health. The current neoliberal climate focuses on individual responsibility for health and wellbeing often ignoring the social context. To avoid the mouth becoming an ongoing site for structural inequality, critically reviewing oral health policies and practices for whether they promote or compromise Aboriginal Australians' oral health is a step towards accountability-related oral health outcomes.

  10. Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

  11. Associations with dental caries experience among a convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M R; Maple-Brown, L J; Brown, A; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D S; Jamieson, L M

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined dental caries experience in Aboriginal adults. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental caries experience of some Aboriginal Australian adults residing in the Northern Territory, and to determine associations with dental caries experience. A convenience sample of Aboriginal adults from Australia's Northern Territory was dentally examined. Self-reported oral health information was collected through a questionnaire. Data were available for 312 participants. The per cent of untreated decayed teeth (per cent DT >0) was 77.9 (95% CI 73.0 to 82.1), the mean DT was 3.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.4), the prevalence of any caries experience (the per cent DMFT >0) was 95.5 (95% CI 92.6 to 97.3) and the mean DMFT was 9.7 (95% CI 8.9 to 10.5). In multivariable analyses, unemployment and not brushing teeth the previous day were associated with the per cent DT >0. Problem-based dental attendance was associated with both the mean DT and the per cent DMFT >0. Older age, residing in the capital city, being non-incarcerated, last visiting a dentist caries experience among this convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults was very high. Most factors associated with dental caries were social determinants or dental service access-related. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  12. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2011-12-09

    Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge

  13. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation

  14. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

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    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  15. Paperbark and pinard: A historical account of maternity care in one remote Australian Aboriginal town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Sarah; Belton, Suzanne; McGrath, Ann; Saggers, Sherry; Narjic, Concepta Wulili

    2015-12-01

    Maternity care in remote areas of the Australian Northern Territory is restricted to antenatal and postnatal care only, with women routinely evacuated to give birth in hospital. Using one remote Aboriginal community as a case study, our aim with this research was to document and explore the major changes to the provision of remote maternity care over the period spanning pre-European colonisation to 1996. Our research methods included historical ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2013); interviews with Aboriginal women, Aboriginal health workers, religious and non-religious non-Aboriginal health workers and past residents; and archival review of historical documents. We identified four distinct eras of maternity care. Maternity care staffed by nuns who were trained in nursing and midwifery serviced childbirth in the local community. Support for community childbirth was incrementally withdrawn over a period, until the government eventually assumed responsibility for all health care. The introduction of Western maternity care colonised Aboriginal birth practices and midwifery practice. Historical population statistics suggest that access to local Western maternity care may have contributed to a significant population increase. Despite population growth and higher demand for maternity services, local maternity services declined significantly. The rationale for removing childbirth services from the community was never explicitly addressed in any known written policy directive. Declining maternity services led to the de-skilling of many Aboriginal health workers and the significant community loss of future career pathways for Aboriginal midwives. This has contributed to the current status quo, with very few female Aboriginal health workers actively providing remote maternity care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Observations of red-giant variable stars by Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2018-04-01

    Aboriginal Australians carefully observe the properties and positions of stars, including both overt and subtle changes in their brightness, for subsistence and social application. These observations are encoded in oral tradition. I examine two Aboriginal oral traditions from South Australia that describe the periodic changing brightness in three pulsating, red-giant variable stars: Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis), Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri), and Antares (Alpha Scorpii). The Australian Aboriginal accounts stand as the only known descriptions of pulsating variable stars in any Indigenous oral tradition in the world. Researchers examining these oral traditions over the last century, including anthropologists and astronomers, missed the description of these stars as being variable in nature as the ethnographic record contained several misidentifications of stars and celestial objects. Arguably, ethnographers working on Indigenous Knowledge Systems should have academic training in both the natural and social sciences.

  17. Early Life Predictors of Increased Body Mass Index among Indigenous Australian Children.

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    Katherine A Thurber

    Full Text Available Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to be obese and experience chronic disease in adulthood--conditions linked to being overweight in childhood. Birthweight and prenatal exposures are associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI in other populations, but the relationship is unclear for Indigenous children. The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children is an ongoing cohort study of up to 1,759 children across Australia. We used a multilevel model to examine the association between children's birthweight and BMI z-score in 2011, at age 3-9 years, adjusted for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Complete data were available for 682 of the 1,264 children participating in the 2011 survey; we repeated the analyses in the full sample with BMI recorded (n=1,152 after multilevel multiple imputation. One in ten children were born large for gestational age, and 17% were born small for gestational age. Increasing birthweight predicted increasing BMI; a 1-unit increase in birthweight z-score was associated with a 0.22-unit (95% CI:0.13, 0.31 increase in childhood BMI z-score. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant increase (0.25; 95% CI:0.05, 0.45 in BMI z-score. The multiple imputation analysis indicated that our findings were not distorted by biases in the missing data. High birthweight may be a risk indicator for overweight and obesity among Indigenous children. National targets to reduce the incidence of low birthweight which measure progress by an increase in the population's average birthweight may be ignoring a significant health risk; both ends of the spectrum must be considered. Interventions to improve maternal health during pregnancy are the first step to decreasing the prevalence of high BMI among the next generation of Indigenous children.

  18. Childhood Stress and Adversity is Associated with Late-Life Dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Delbaere, Kim; Draper, Brian; Mack, Holly A; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Chalkley, Simon; Minogue, Cecilia; Broe, Gerald A

    2017-10-01

    High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses. Participants completed a life course survey of health, well-being, cognition, and social history including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with consensus diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer disease. CTQ scores ranged from 25-117 (median: 29) and were associated with several adverse childhood indicators including separation from family, poor childhood health, frequent relocation, and growing up in a major city. Controlling for age, higher CTQ scores were associated with depression, anxiety, suicide attempt, dementia diagnosis, and, specifically, Alzheimer disease. The association between CTQ scores and dementia remained significant after controlling for depression and anxiety variables (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45). In contrast, there were no significant associations between CTQ scores and smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or cardiovascular risk factors. Childhood stress appears to have a significant impact on emotional health and dementia for older Aboriginal Australians. The ongoing effects of childhood stress need to be recognized as people grow older, particularly in terms of dementia prevention and care, as well as in populations with greater exposure to childhood adversity, such as Aboriginal Australians. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The clinical course of acute otitis media in high-risk Australian Aboriginal children: a longitudinal study

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    Skull Susan A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear why some children with acute otitis media (AOM have poor outcomes. Our aim was to describe the clinical course of AOM and the associated bacterial nasopharyngeal colonisation in a high-risk population of Australian Aboriginal children. Methods We examined Aboriginal children younger than eight years who had a clinical diagnosis of AOM. Pneumatic otoscopy and video-otoscopy of the tympanic membrane (TM and tympanometry was done every weekday if possible. We followed children for either two weeks (AOM without perforation, or three weeks (AOM with perforation, or for longer periods if the infection persisted. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken at study entry and then weekly. Results We enrolled 31 children and conducted a total of 219 assessments. Most children had bulging of the TM or recent middle ear discharge at diagnosis. Persistent signs of suppurative OM (without ear pain were present in most children 7 days (23/30, 77%, and 14 days (20/26, 77% later. Episodes of AOM did not usually have a sudden onset or short duration. Six of the 14 children with fresh discharge in their ear canal had an intact or functionally intact TM. Perforation size generally remained very small (Streptococcus pneumoniae (82%, Haemophilus influenzae (71%, and Moraxella catarrhalis (95%; 63% of swabs cultured all three pathogens. Conclusion In this high-risk population, AOM was generally painless and persistent. These infections were associated with persistent bacterial colonisation of the nasopharynx and any benefits of antibiotics were modest at best. Systematic follow up with careful examination and review of treatment are required and clinical resolution cannot be assumed.

  20. Culturally appropriate methodology in obtaining a representative sample of South Australian Aboriginal adults for a cross-sectional population health study: challenges and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Tania; Taylor, Anne Winifred; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Avery, Jodie; Tucker, Graeme; Morey, Kim

    2015-05-19

    The considerably lower average life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, compared with non-Aboriginal and non-Torres Strait Islander Australians, has been widely reported. Prevalence data for chronic disease and health risk factors are needed to provide evidence based estimates for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population health planning. Representative surveys for these populations are difficult due to complex methodology. The focus of this paper is to describe in detail the methodological challenges and resolutions of a representative South Australian Aboriginal population-based health survey. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling methodology based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Census with culturally appropriate and epidemiological rigorous methods, 11,428 randomly selected dwellings were approached from a total of 209 census collection districts. All persons eligible for the survey identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander and were selected from dwellings identified as having one or more Aboriginal person(s) living there at the time of the survey. Overall, the 399 interviews from an eligible sample of 691 SA Aboriginal adults yielded a response rate of 57.7%. These face-to-face interviews were conducted by ten interviewers retained from a total of 27 trained Aboriginal interviewers. Challenges were found in three main areas: identification and recruitment of participants; interviewer recruitment and retainment; and using appropriate engagement with communities. These challenges were resolved, or at least mainly overcome, by following local protocols with communities and their representatives, and reaching agreement on the process of research for Aboriginal people. Obtaining a representative sample of Aboriginal participants in a culturally appropriate way was methodologically challenging and required high levels of commitment and resources. Adhering to these principles has resulted in a

  1. The economic feasibility of price discounts to improve diet in Australian Aboriginal remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Anne; Moodie, Marj L; Ferguson, Megan; Cobiac, Linda J; Liberato, Selma C; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of fiscal measures applied in remote community food stores for Aboriginal Australians. Six price discount strategies on fruit, vegetables, diet drinks and water were modelled. Baseline diet was measured as 12 months' actual food sales data in three remote Aboriginal communities. Discount-induced changes in food purchases were based on published price elasticity data while the weight of the daily diet was assumed constant. Dietary change was converted to change in sodium and energy intake, and body mass index (BMI) over a 12-month period. Improved lifetime health outcomes, modelled for the remote population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, were converted to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) saved using a proportional multistate lifetable model populated with diet-related disease risks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates of disease. While dietary change was small, five of the six price discount strategies were estimated as cost-effective, below a $50,000/DALY threshold. Stakeholders are committed to finding ways to reduce important inequalities in health status between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and non-Indigenous Australians. Price discounts offer potential to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health. Verification of these results by trial-based research coupled with consideration of factors important to all stakeholders is needed. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Exploring disparities in acute myocardial infarction events between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: roles of age, gender, geography and area-level disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D A; Jorm, L R; Lujic, S; Eades, S J; Churches, T R; O'Loughlin, A J; Leyland, A H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated disparities in rates of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in the 199 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in New South Wales, Australia. Using routinely collected and linked hospital and mortality data from 2002 to 2007, we developed multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the relative rates of first AMI events in the study period accounting for area of residence. Rates of AMI in Aboriginal people were more than two times that in non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greatest in more disadvantaged and remote areas. AMI rates in Aboriginal people varied significantly by SLA, as did the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal rate ratio. We identified almost 30 priority areas for universal and targeted preventive interventions that had both high rates of AMI for Aboriginal people and large disparities in rates. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  4. Yes, Aboriginal Australians can and did discover the variability of Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, a widely publicized claim has been made that the Aboriginal Australians discovered the variability of the red star Betelgeuse in the modern Orion, plus the variability of two other prominent red stars: Aldebaran and Antares. This result has excited the usual healthy skepticism, with questions about whether any untrained peoples can discover the variability and whether such a discovery is likely to be placed into lore and transmitted for long periods of time. Here, I am offering an independent evaluation, based on broad experience with naked-eye sky viewing and astro-history. I find that it is easy for inexperienced observers to detect the variability of Betelgeuse over its range in brightness from V = 0.0 to V = 1.3, for example in noticing from season-to-season that the star varies from significantly brighter than Procyon to being greatly fainter than Procyon. Further, indigenous peoples in the Southern Hemisphere inevitably kept watch on the prominent red star, so it is inevitable that the variability of Betelgeuse was discovered many times over during the last 65 millennia. The processes of placing this discovery into a cultural context (in this case, put into morality stories) and the faithful transmission for many millennia is confidently known for the Aboriginal Australians in particular. So this shows that the whole claim for a changing Betelgeuse in the Aboriginal Australian lore is both plausible and likely. Given that the discovery and transmission is easily possible, the real proof is that the Aboriginal lore gives an unambiguous statement that these stars do indeed vary in brightness, as collected by many ethnographers over a century ago from many Aboriginal groups. So I strongly conclude that the Aboriginal Australians could and did discover the variability of Betelgeuse, Aldebaran, and Antares.

  5. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  6. Comparative validation of self-report measures of negative attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Timothy C; Blick, Julie; Coffin, Juli; Dudgeon, Pat; Forrest, Simon; Morrison, David

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude. Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized order. The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head-and-shoulder images of Aboriginal Australians and White Australians as the stimuli. Both explicit measures and implicit measure varied in the extent to which negative prejudicial attitudes were held by participants, and the corresponding construct validities were unimpressive. The MRS was significantly correlated with the IAT, (r =.314;pAboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure.

  7. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Tang; Radford, Kylie; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Broe, Tony G A; Draper, Brian

    2018-03-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%), current late-life depression (18.1%), and suicidal ideation (11.1%). Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  8. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%, current late-life depression (18.1%, and suicidal ideation (11.1%. Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  9. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

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    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  10. The Koori Growing Old Well Study: investigating aging and dementia in urban Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Robertson, Hamish; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Broe, Gerald A

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance.

  11. The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians have a life expectancy more than ten years less than that of non-Aboriginal Australians, reflecting their disproportionate burden of both communicable and non-communicable disease throughout the lifespan. Little is known about the health and health trajectories of Aboriginal children and, although the majority of Aboriginal people live in urban areas, data are particularly sparse in relation to children living in urban areas. Methods/Design The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH is a cohort study of Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years, from urban and large regional centers in New South Wales, Australia. SEARCH focuses on Aboriginal community identified health priorities of: injury; otitis media; vaccine-preventable conditions; mental health problems; developmental delay; obesity; and risk factors for chronic disease. Parents/caregivers and their children are invited to participate in SEARCH at the time of presentation to one of the four participating Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations at Mount Druitt, Campbelltown, Wagga Wagga and Newcastle. Questionnaire data are obtained from parents/caregivers and children, along with signed permission for follow-up through repeat data collection and data linkage. All children have their height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and complete audiometry, otoscopy/pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry. Children aged 1-7 years have speech and language assessed and their parents/caregivers complete the Parental Evaluation of Developmental Status. The Study aims to recruit 1700 children by the end of 2010 and to secure resources for long term follow up. From November 2008 to March 2010, 1010 children had joined the study. From those 446 children with complete data entry, participating children ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years old, with 144 aged 0-3, 147 aged 4-7, 75 aged 8-10 and 79 aged 11

  12. Use of family relationships improved consistency of identification of Aboriginal people in linked administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Alison J; Simpson, Judy M; Eades, Sandra J

    2017-10-01

    Algorithms are often used to improve identification of Aboriginal Australians in linked data sets with inconsistent and incomplete recording of Aboriginal status. We compared how consistently some common algorithms identified family members, developed a new algorithm incorporating relatives' information, and assessed the effects of these algorithms on health estimates. The sample was people born 1980-2011 recorded as Aboriginal at least once (or a relative) in four Western Australian data sets and their relatives (N = 156,407). A very inclusive approach, ever-Aboriginal (EA/EA+, where + denotes children's records incorporated), and two more specific approaches, multistage median (MSM/MSM+) and last record (LR/LR+), were chosen, along with the new algorithm (MSM+Family). Ever-Aboriginal (EA) categorized relatives the least consistently; 25% of parent-child triads had incongruent Aboriginal statuses with EA+, compared with only 9% with MSM+. With EA+, 14% of full siblings had different statuses compared with 8% for MSM+. EA produced the lowest estimates of the proportion of Aboriginal people with poor health outcomes. Using relatives' records reduced the number of uncategorized people and categorized as Aboriginal more people who had few records (e.g., no hospital admissions). When many data sets are linked, more specific algorithms select more representative Aboriginal samples and identify Aboriginality of relatives more consistently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E; Si, Damin

    2010-08-17

    Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty four (124) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3), adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5) for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4) for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  14. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiqiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Methods Six hundred and eighty six (686 Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI. Results One hundred and twenty four (124 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3, adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5 for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4 for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Conclusions Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  15. ‘Doing the hard yards’: carer and provider focus group perspectives of accessing Aboriginal childhood disability services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of

  16. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Bessarab, Dawn; van Schaik, Katherine D; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-07-23

    Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers' experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the 'cultural security' framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to impinge on Aboriginal people's willingness and

  17. Improving palliative care outcomes for Aboriginal Australians: service providers’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians have a lower rate of utilisation of palliative care services than the general population. This study aimed to explore care providers’ experiences and concerns in providing palliative care for Aboriginal people, and to identify opportunities for overcoming gaps in understanding between them and their Aboriginal patients and families. Methods In-depth, qualitative interviews with urban, rural and remote palliative care providers were undertaken in inpatient and community settings in Western Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers with QSR NVivo 10 software used to help manage data. Data analysis was informed by multiple theoretical standpoints, including the social ecological model, critical cultural theories and the ‘cultural security’ framework. Thematic analysis was carried out that identified patterns within data. Results Fifteen palliative care providers were interviewed. Overall they reported lack of understanding of Aboriginal culture and being uncertain of the needs and priorities of Aboriginal people during end-of-life care. According to several participants, very few Aboriginal people had an understanding of palliative care. Managing issues such as anger, denial, the need for non-medical support due to socioeconomic disadvantage, and dealing with crises and conflicts over funeral arrangements were reported as some of the tensions between Aboriginal patients and families and the service providers. Conclusion Early referral to palliative care is important in demonstrating and maintaining a caring therapeutic relationship. Paramount to meeting the needs for Aboriginal patients was access to appropriate information and logistical, psychological and emotional support. These were often seen as essential but additional to standard palliative care services. The broader context of Aboriginal history and historical distrust of mainstream services was seen to

  18. Comparative validation of self-report measures of negative attitudes towards aboriginal australians and torres strait islanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Blick, J.; Dudgeon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude.Method:Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized...... order.The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head...... correlated with the IAT,(r=.314;pattitudes towards Aboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure....

  19. Effective Nutrition Education for Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from a Diabetes Cooking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope A.; Davison, Joyce E.; Moore, Louise F.; Rubinstein, Raechelle

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the experiences of Aboriginal Australians with or at risk of diabetes who attended urban community cooking courses in 2002-2007; and to develop recommendations for increasing the uptake and effectiveness of nutrition education in Aboriginal communities. Methods: Descriptive qualitative approach using semistructured…

  20. The Relationship of Intelligence, Self-Concept and Locus of Control to School Achievement for Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marilyn M.; Parker, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    To examine variables related to the school achievement of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, 35 indigenous students and 58 non-Aboriginals in grade 8 completed a Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Intellectual Responsibility Questionnaire. (Author/SBH)

  1. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Raising Awareness of Australian Aboriginal Peoples Reality: Embedding Aboriginal Knowledge in Social Work Education through the Use of Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Deb; King, Julie; Mays, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    Effective social work practice with Aboriginal peoples and communities requires knowledge of operational communication skills and practice methods. In addition, there is also a need for practitioners to be aware of the history surrounding white engagement with Aboriginal communities and their cultures. Indeed, the Australian Association of Social…

  3. Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders have an atherogenic lipid profile that is characterised by low HDL-cholesterol level and small LDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, D N; Piers, L S; Iser, D M; Rowley, K G; Jenkins, A J; Best, J D; O'Dea, K

    2008-12-01

    To characterise lipid profiles for Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. Community-based, cross-sectional surveys in 1995-1997 including: 407 female and 322 male Australian Aboriginal people and 207 female and 186 male Torres Strait Islanders over 15 years old. A comparator of 78 female (44 with diabetes) and 148 male (73 with diabetes) non-indigenous participants recruited to clinical epidemiological studies was used. Lipids were determined by standard assays and LDL diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis. Diabetes prevalence was 14.8% and 22.6% among Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, respectively. LDL size (mean [95% CI (confidence interval)]) was smaller (P<0.05) in non-diabetic Aboriginal (26.02 [25.96-26.07] nm) and Torres Strait Islander women (26.01 [25.92-26.09] nm) than in non-diabetic non-indigenous women (26.29 [26.13-26.44] nm). LDL size correlated (P<0.0005) inversely with triglyceride, WHR, and fasting insulin and positively with HDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol (mean [95% CI] mmol/L) was lower (P<0.0005) in indigenous Australians than in non-indigenous subjects, independent of age, sex, diabetes, WHR, insulin, triglyceride, and LDL size: Aboriginal (non-diabetic women, 0.86 [0.84-0.88]; diabetic women, 0.76 [0.72-0.80]; non-diabetic men, 0.79 [0.76-0.81]; diabetic men, 0.76 [0.71-0.82]); Torres Strait Islander (non-diabetic women, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic women, 0.89 [0.83-0.96]; non-diabetic men, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic men, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]); non-indigenous (non-diabetic women, 1.49 [1.33-1.67]; diabetic women, 1.12 [1.03-1.21]; non-diabetic men, 1.18 [1.11-1.25]; diabetic men, 1.05 [0.98-1.12]). Indigenous Australians have a dyslipidaemia which includes small LDL and very low HDL-cholesterol levels. The dyslipidaemia was equally severe in both genders. Strategies aimed at increasing HDL-cholesterol and LDL size may reduce high CVD risk for indigenous populations.

  4. Psychological Sense of Community: An Australian Aboriginal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian; Colquhoun, Simon; Johnson, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is central to an individual's psychological wellbeing (Sarason, 1974). Eleven participants, mainly from the North West of Western Australia, took part in semistructured interviews investigating Australian Aboriginal notions of community and SOC. Five key themes emerged from the data. These included: kinship structure,…

  5. Mortality in a cohort of remote-living Aboriginal Australians and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Zoë; Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Atkinson, David; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Dwyer, Anna; LoGiudice, Dina

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to describe mortality in a cohort of remote-living Aboriginal Australians using electronic record linkage. Between 2004 and 2006, 363 Aboriginal people living in remote Western Australia (WA) completed a questionnaire assessing medical history and behavioural risk factors. We obtained mortality records for the cohort from the WA Data Linkage System and compared them to data for the general population. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to identify predictors of mortality over a 9-year follow-up period. The leading causes of mortality were diabetes, renal failure, and ischaemic heart disease. Diabetes and renal failure accounted for 28% of all deaths. This differed from both the Australian population as a whole, and the general Indigenous Australian population. The presence of chronic disease did not predict mortality, nor did behaviours such as smoking. Only age, male sex, poor mobility, and cognitive impairment were risk factors. To reduce premature mortality, public health practitioners should prioritise the prevention and treatment of diabetes and renal disease in Aboriginal people in remote WA. This will require a sustained and holistic approach.

  6. Factors relating to high psychological distress in Indigenous Australians and their contribution to Indigenous-non-Indigenous disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Williamson, Anna; Raphael, Beverley; Eades, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    To explore factors associated with high psychological distress among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians and their contribution to the elevated distress prevalence among Aboriginal people. Questionnaire data from 1,631 Aboriginal and 233,405 non-Aboriginal 45 and Up Study (NSW, Australia) participants aged ≥45 years were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for high psychological distress (Kessler-10 score ≥22) for socio-demographic, health and disability-related factors, and to quantify contributions to differences in distress prevalence. While high-distress prevalence was increased around three-fold in Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants, distress-related risk factors were similar. Morbidity and physical disability had the strongest associations; high distress affected 43.8% of Aboriginal and 20.9% of non-Aboriginal participants with severe physical limitations and 9.5% and 3.9% of those without limitations, respectively. Differences in distress prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants were essentially attributable to differences in SES, morbidity, disability/functional limitations and social support (fully-adjusted PR 1.19 [95% 1.08, 1.30]); physical morbidity and disability explained the bulk. The markedly elevated prevalence of high distress among older Aboriginal Australians appears largely attributable to greater physical morbidity and disability. Implications for public health: Addressing upstream determinants of physical morbidity and improved integration of social and emotional wellbeing care into primary care and chronic disease management are essential. © 2018 The Authors.

  7. Role of art centres for Aboriginal Australians living with dementia in remote communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Melissa; Mackell, Paulene; Lin, Xiaoping; Farthing, Annie; Jensen, Heather; Meredith, Maree; Haralambous, Betty

    2017-06-01

    To explore the role art centres in remote communities play for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians living with dementia. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken, with no restrictions on articles regarding year of publication. Art programmes have been found to be of benefit to both people living with dementia and their carers, particularly when programmes are administered in environments that are culturally revered. Findings indicate remote art centres play a key role in maintaining traditions, culture and practices unique to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding how they cater for the needs of people with dementia. Addressing this gap will be helpful in remote areas where prevalence of dementia is up to five times that of non-Aboriginal people, and there are limited health and support services. Further research is required to explore strengths and gaps of current practices. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  8. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  9. Mortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia: a multilevel data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Deborah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart disease is a leading cause of the gap in burden of disease between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Our study investigated short- and long-term mortality after admission for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI to public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, and examined the impact of the hospital of admission on outcomes. Methods Admission records were linked to mortality records for 60047 patients aged 25–84 years admitted with a diagnosis of AMI between July 2001 and December 2008. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR for 30- and 365-day all-cause mortality. Results Aboriginal patients admitted with an AMI were younger than non-Aboriginal patients, and more likely to be admitted to lower volume, remote hospitals without on-site angiography. Adjusting for age, sex, year and hospital, Aboriginal patients had a similar 30-day mortality risk to non-Aboriginal patients (AOR: 1.07; 95% CI 0.83-1.37 but a higher risk of dying within 365 days (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.10-1.63. The latter difference did not persist after adjustment for comorbid conditions (AOR: 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.38. Patients admitted to more remote hospitals, those with lower patient volume and those without on-site angiography had increased risk of short and long-term mortality regardless of Aboriginal status. Conclusions Improving access to larger hospitals and those with specialist cardiac facilities could improve outcomes following AMI for all patients. However, major efforts to boost primary and secondary prevention of AMI are required to reduce the mortality gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people.

  10. The role of primary health care services to better meet the needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Jane E.; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences?a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the communit...

  11. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and

  12. The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy Three Years On: What Is the Evidence? What Does It Indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA), which began operation as part of the government schooling system in 2010, incorporates activities across three overlapping "domains": Class--the formal schooling component; Culture--Indigenous and non-Indigenous cultural knowledge; and Club--sporting, cultural, music and physical…

  13. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 1: the ethnobotany of the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2014-11-01

    In Aboriginal Australia, the corpus of cosmological beliefs was united by the centrality of the Skyworld, which was considered to be the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. Early historical accounts of classical Australian hunter-gatherer beliefs described the heavens as inhabited by human and spiritual ancestors who interacted with the same species of plants and animals as they had below. This paper is the first of two that describes Indigenous perceptions of the Skyworld flora and draws out major ethnobotanical themes from the corpus of ethnoastronomical records garnered from a diverse range of Australian Aboriginal cultures. It investigates how Indigenous perceptions of the flora are interwoven with Aboriginal traditions concerning the heavens, and provides examples of how the study of ethnoastronomy can provide insights into the Indigenous use and perception of plants.

  14. Did Aboriginal vegetation burning affect the Australian summer monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    For thousands of years, Aboriginal Australians burned forests, creating grasslands. Some studies have suggested that in addition to changing the landscape, these burning practices also affected the timing and intensity of the Australian summer monsoon. Different vegetation types can alter evaporation, roughness, and surface reflectivity, leading to changes in the weather and climate. On the basis of an ensemble of experiments with a global climate model, Notaro et al. conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of decreased vegetation cover on the summer monsoon in northern Australia. They found that although decreased vegetation cover would have had only minor effects during the height of the monsoon season, during the premonsoon season, burning-induced vegetation loss would have caused significant decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature. Thus, by burning forests, Aboriginals altered the local climate, effectively extending the dry season and delaying the start of the monsoon season. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047774, 2011)

  15. The contribution of socio-economic position to the excesses of violence and intimate partner violence among aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Smylie, Janet; Urquia, Marcelo; Allan, Billie; O'Campo, Patricia

    2013-07-25

    To examine the contribution of socio-economic position (SEP) in explaining the excess of any abuse and intimate partner violence (IPV) among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal women in Canada. This comparison has not been studied before. We conducted logistic regression analysis, using nationwide data from a weighted sample of 57,318 Canadian-born mothers of singletons who participated in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey 2006-7. The unadjusted odds of any abuse and IPV were almost four times higher among Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 3.91 (95% CI 3.12-4.89) and OR 3.78 (2.87-4.97), respectively. Adjustment for SEP reduced the unadjusted OR of any abuse and IPV by almost 40%. However, even with this adjustment, the odds of any abuse and IPV for Aboriginal mothers remained twice that of non-Aboriginal mothers; OR 2.34 (1.82-2.99) and OR 2.19 (1.60-3.00), respectively. SEP is a predominant contributor to the excess of abuse against Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal women in Canada. Reducing violence against Aboriginal women can be achieved mostly by improving their SEP, and simultaneously be informed by social processes and services that can mitigate abuse. The fact that SEP did not fully explain the excess of abuse among the Aboriginal women might lend support to "colonization or postcolonial theories," and related contextual factors such as differences in community social resources (e.g., social capital) and services. The effect of these factors on the excess of abuse warrants future research.

  16. A 150-year conundrum: cranial robusticity and its bearing on the origin of aboriginal australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren

    2011-01-20

    The origin of Aboriginal Australians has been a central question of palaeoanthropology since its inception during the 19th Century. Moreover, the idea that Australians could trace their ancestry to a non-modern Pleistocene population such as Homo erectus in Southeast Asia have existed for more than 100 years, being explicitly linked to cranial robusticity. It is argued here that in order to resolve this issue a new program of research should be embraced, one aiming to test the full range of alternative explanations for robust morphology. Recent developments in the morphological sciences, especially relating to the ontogeny of the cranium indicate that character atomisation, an approach underpinning phylogenetic reconstruction, is fraught with difficulties. This leads to the conclusion that phylogenetic-based explanations for robusticity should be reconsidered and a more parsimonious approach to explaining Aboriginal Australian origins taken. One that takes proper account of the complex processes involved in the growth of the human cranium rather than just assuming natural selection to explain every subtle variation seen in past populations. In doing so, the null hypothesis that robusticity might result from phenotypic plasticity alone cannot be rejected, a position at odds with both reticulate and deep-time continuity models of Australian origins.

  17. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  18. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  19. Coronary heart disease events in Aboriginal Australians: incidence in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Pamela J; Alfonso, Helman S; Finn, Judith C; Owen, Julie; Thompson, Peter L

    2009-05-18

    To determine the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) events in an urban Aboriginal population. Cohort study of 906 Aboriginal people without CHD from 998 who had undergone risk-factor assessment in the Perth Aboriginal Atherosclerosis Risk Study (PAARS) in 1998-1999. PAARS cohort data were electronically linked to a range of databases that included Western Australian hospital morbidity data and death registry data. We analysed data from January 1980 to December 2006 to identify previous admissions for CHD from 1980 to baseline (1998-1999) and new events from baseline to 2006. First CHD event (hospital admission or death). There were 891 linked records for the 906 participants without previous CHD. The event rate was 12.6/1000 person-years (95% CI, 10.2-15.6/1000 person-years). Annual CHD event rates ranged from 8 to 18/1000 person-years. After adjustment for age (sex was not associated with the risk factors assessed), factors associated with risk of a CHD event in the PAARS cohort were a history of diabetes, overweight or obesity (indicated by body mass index), smoking, and hypertension, but not waist circumference. People with these risk factors were 1.9-2.7 times more likely to experience a CHD event. Compared with previously published information from a remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory, the incidence of CHD events among urban-dwelling Aboriginal people was not significantly different (P > 0.05 overall and for subgroups defined by age and sex). City-dwelling Aboriginal Australians have an incidence of CHD events comparable to that of Aboriginal people living in remote northern Australia.

  20. Politics, pain and pleasure: the art of art-making for ‘settled’ Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Gibson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the ‘acrylic art movement’ which came out of Papunya in the Western Desert of Australia in the 1970s, Aboriginal art and cultures have become intertwined in public discourse, through government policy, and in visual art worlds. It is arguably through their artworks that Australian Aboriginal people have become increasingly known both within Australia and overseas (Merlan 2001; cf. Fourmille 1994.i Indeed, in many ways, Aboriginal art has come to represent Aboriginal people and their culture (Myers 2002. But what kind of art is acceptably deemed Aboriginal in mainstream art worlds, by Australian Aboriginal people, and why? What does this mean personally, socially and economically for those Aboriginal artists who are located in the south-eastern parts of Australia which were first colonised? For the most part these people are deemed by the mainstream population to have ‘lost their culture’. More than this, they are spoken of by some other Aboriginal people from the more remote and later colonised parts of the continent in similar terms. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork with the Barkindji people of Wilcannia, a small country town in the south-east of Australia, this paper explores the role of art making and art talk and the ways in which these are implicated in the politics of culture, in cultural subjectivity, and in the consolidation and (recreation of cultural identity.

  1. Setting the scene: early writing on Australian Aboriginal art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together some of the earliest writings on Australian Aboriginal art. It examines references to specific examples of this unique art in a range of sources including journals of early British and French explorers, the field reports of naturalists and ethnologists, early Royal Society papers and newspaper articles of the day. By tracing the impact of important texts and images, certain connections, collaborations and disagreements over the meaning, worth and ability of Australias first art and artists are revealed. An analysis of these previously unrelated accounts contributes to an understanding of early European perceptions and attitudes towards Aboriginal art.

  2. The casemix system of hospital funding can further disadvantage Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, A R; Fisher, D A

    1998-10-19

    The Northern Territory Health Service implemented a casemix system of hospital funding in 1996 using national averages and national cost weights as benchmarks for length of stay and funding. Clinicians and health administrators were concerned about the potential of this model to impair health service delivery, especially to children of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) descent, whose current poor health has been well described. Data were collected on children aged under 10 years who were discharged from the Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1996 and assigned one of four DRGs (simple pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma, gastroenteritis, nutritional and metabolic disorders). Data collected included age, sex, ethnicity, duration of hospital stay, location of residence and presence of comorbidities. There were significant differences in the proportion of children with multiple comorbidities between ATSI and non-ATSI children, as well as between rural- and urban-dwelling ATSI children. A higher proportion of ATSI compared with non-ATSI children had prolonged hospital stays (22.6% v. 1.5%), with the variables influencing length of stay in ATSI children including "age casemix classification system for a "typical" Australian population on a region with a high proportion of people of ATSI descent.

  3. On the Astronomical Knowledge and Traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-12-01

    Historian of science David Pingree defines science in a broad context as the process of systematically explaining perceived or imaginary phenomena. Although Westerners tend to think of science being restricted to Western culture, I argue in this thesis that astronomical scientific knowledge is found in Aboriginal traditions. Although research into the astronomical traditions of Aboriginal Australians stretches back for more than 150 years, it is relatively scant in the literature. We do know that the sun, moon, and night sky have been an important and inseparable component of the landscape to hundreds of Australian Aboriginal groups for thousands (perhaps tens-of-thousands) of years. The literature reveals that astronomical knowledge was used for time keeping, denoting seasonal change and the availability of food sources, navigation, and tidal prediction. It was also important for rituals and ceremonies, birth totems, marriage systems, cultural mnemonics, and folklore. Despite this, the field remains relatively unresearched considering the diversity of Aboriginal cultures and the length of time people have inhabited Australia (well over 40,000 years). Additionally, very little research investigating the nature and role of transient celestial phenomena has been conducted, leaving our understanding of Indigenous astronomical knowledge grossly incomplete. This thesis is an attempt to overcome this deficiency, with a specific focus on transient celestial phenomena. My research, situated in the field of cultural astronomy, draws from the sub-disciplines of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. This approach incorporates the methodologies and theories of disciplines in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. This thesis, by publication, makes use of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical records, astronomical software packages, and geographic programs to better understand the ages of astronomical traditions and the

  4. Factors Associated with Routine Dental Attendance among Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, Najith; Kapellas, Kostas; Skilton, Michael R; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Brown, Alex; Bartold, Mark; O'Dea, Kerin; Celermajer, David; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    To determine factors associated with routine dental attendance in Aboriginal Australians. Data of 271 Aboriginal adults residing in Australia's Northern Territory were used. Routine dental attendance was defined as last visiting a dentist less than one year ago or visiting a dentist for a check-up. Both bivariate and multivariable analytical techniques were used. While 27% visited a dentist in the past year, 29% of these visited for a check-up. In bivariate analysis, being female, low psychological distress, and low clinical attachment loss (CAL) were associated with visiting a dentist within last year. Being aged younger than 39 years, male, no oral health impairment, being caries-free, low CAL, and low apolipoprotein B were associated with visiting for a check-up. Clinical attachment loss remained associated with visiting a dentist less than one year ago while being younger than 39 years and having no oral health impairment remained associated with usually visiting for a check-up in multivariable analysis. Younger age, no oral health impairment, and low CAL were associated with routine dental attendance among Indigenous Australians.

  5. Years of life lost to incarceration: inequities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi; Kanters, Steve; Druyts, Eric; Toor, Kabirraaj; Muldoon, Katherine A; Farquhar, John W; Mills, Edward J

    2014-06-11

    Aboriginal representation in Canadian correctional institutions has increased rapidly over the past decade. We calculated "years of life lost to incarceration" for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians. Incarceration data from provincial databases were used conjointly with demographic data to estimate rates of incarceration and years of life lost to provincial incarceration in (BC) and federal incarceration, by Aboriginal status. We used the Sullivan method to estimate the years of life lost to incarceration. Aboriginal males can expect to spend approximately 3.6 months in federal prison and within BC spend an average of 3.2 months in custody in the provincial penal system. Aboriginal Canadians on average spend more time in custody than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The ratio of the Aboriginal incarceration rate to the non-Aboriginal incarceration rate ranged from a low of 4.28 in Newfoundland and Labrador to a high of 25.93 in Saskatchewan. Rates of incarceration at the provincial level were highest among Aboriginals in Manitoba with an estimated rate of 1377.6 individuals in prison per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1311.8-1443.4). The results indicate substantial differences in life years lost to incarceration for Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal Canadians. In light of on-going prison expansion in Canada, future research and policy attention should be paid to the public health consequences of incarceration, particularly among Aboriginal Canadians.

  6. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors...

  7. Reference genotype and exome data from an Australian Aboriginal population for health-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dave; Anderson, Denise; Francis, Richard W; Syn, Genevieve; Jamieson, Sarra E; Lassmann, Timo; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2016-04-12

    Genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing (WES), provide powerful tools for the analysis of complex and rare genetic diseases. To date there are no reference data for Aboriginal Australians to underpin the translation of health-based genomic research. Here we provide a catalogue of variants called after sequencing the exomes of 72 Aboriginal individuals to a depth of 20X coverage in ∼80% of the sequenced nucleotides. We determined 320,976 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 47,313 insertions/deletions using the Genome Analysis Toolkit. We had previously genotyped a subset of the Aboriginal individuals (70/72) using the Illumina Omni2.5 BeadChip platform and found ~99% concordance at overlapping sites, which suggests high quality genotyping. Finally, we compared our SNVs to six publicly available variant databases, such as dbSNP and the Exome Sequencing Project, and 70,115 of our SNVs did not overlap any of the single nucleotide polymorphic sites in all the databases. Our data set provides a useful reference point for genomic studies on Aboriginal Australians.

  8. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-10-13

    Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ

  9. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of present-day Aboriginal Australians and implications for human evolution in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Nano; Ballantyne, Kaye N; van Oven, Mannis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Wilcox, Stephen; Wilcox, Leah; Turkalov, Rust; van Oorschot, Roland A H; van Holst Pellekaan, Sheila; Schurr, Theodore G; McAllister, Peter; Williams, Lesley; Kayser, Manfred; Mitchell, R John

    2017-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians are one of the more poorly studied populations from the standpoint of human evolution and genetic diversity. Thus, to investigate their genetic diversity, the possible date of their ancestors' arrival and their relationships with neighboring populations, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in a large sample of Aboriginal Australians. Selected mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the hypervariable segment haplotypes were analyzed in 594 Aboriginal Australians drawn from locations across the continent, chiefly from regions not previously sampled. Most (~78%) samples could be assigned to mtDNA haplogroups indigenous to Australia. The indigenous haplogroups were all ancient (with estimated ages >40 000 years) and geographically widespread across the continent. The most common haplogroup was P (44%) followed by S (23%) and M42a (9%). There was some geographic structure at the haplotype level. The estimated ages of the indigenous haplogroups range from 39 000 to 55 000 years, dates that fit well with the estimated date of colonization of Australia based on archeological evidence (~47 000 years ago). The distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in Australia and New Guinea supports the hypothesis that the ancestors of Aboriginal Australians entered Sahul through at least two entry points. The mtDNA data give no support to the hypothesis of secondary gene flow into Australia during the Holocene, but instead suggest long-term isolation of the continent.

  10. Implementing a working together model for Aboriginal patients with acute coronary syndrome: an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working together to improve hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daws, Karen; Punch, Amanda; Winters, Michelle; Posenelli, Sonia; Willis, John; MacIsaac, Andrew; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) contributes to the disparity in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Improving hospital care for Aboriginal patients has been identified as a means of addressing this disparity. This project developed and implemented a working together model of care, comprising an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse, providing care coordination specifically directed at improving attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services for Aboriginal Australians in a large metropolitan hospital in Melbourne. A quality improvement framework using a retrospective case notes audit evaluated Aboriginal patients' admissions to hospital and identified low attendance rates at cardiac rehabilitation services. A working together model of care coordination by an Aboriginal Hospital Liaison Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse was implemented to improve cardiac rehabilitation attendance in Aboriginal patients admitted with ACS to the cardiac wards of the hospital. A retrospective medical records audit showed that there were 68 Aboriginal patients admitted to the cardiac wards with ACS from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2011. A referral to cardiac rehabilitation was recorded for 42% of these. During the implementation of the model of care, 13 of 15 patients (86%) received a referral to cardiac rehabilitation and eight of the 13 (62%) attended. Implementation of the working together model demonstrated improved referral to and attendance at cardiac rehabilitation services, thereby, has potential to prevent complications and mortality. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: Aboriginal Australians experience disparities in access to recommended care for acute coronary syndrome. This may contribute to the life expectancy gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This paper describes a model of care involving an Aboriginal Hospital Liaisons Officer and a specialist cardiac nurse working

  11. Prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon; O'Connor, Catherine C; Morgan, Stephen; Chamberlain, Catherine; Hocking, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) are Australia's first peoples. Between 2006 and 2015, HIV notifications increased among Aboriginal people; however, among non-Aboriginal people, notifications remained relatively stable. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people overall and by subgroups. In November 2015, a search of PubMed and Web of Science, grey literature and abstracts from conferences was conducted. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people tested and those who tested positive for HIV. The following variables were extracted: gender; Aboriginal status; population group (men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, adults, youth in detention and pregnant females) and geographical location. An assessment of between study heterogeneity (I 2 test) and within study bias (selection, measurement and sample size) was also conducted. Seven studies were included; all were cross-sectional study designs. The overall sample size was 3772 and the prevalence of HIV was 0.1% (I 2 =38.3%, P=0.136). Five studies included convenient samples of people attending Australian Needle and Syringe Program Centres, clinics, hospitals and a youth detention centre, increasing the potential of selection bias. Four studies had a sample size, thus decreasing the ability to report pooled estimates. The prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people in Australia is low. Community-based programs that include both prevention messages for those at risk of infection and culturally appropriate clinical management and support for Aboriginal people living with HIV are needed to prevent HIV increasing among Aboriginal people.

  12. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Katrina D.; Shepherd, Carrington C. J.; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths’ psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status. Method and Results We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12–17 years, n = 677) drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, padaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies. PMID:26716829

  13. Teaching Australian Aboriginal Higher Education Students: What Should Universities Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a recent study of Australian Aboriginal higher education student experience. Reported here are extracts from a set of case studies of staff, specifically those working in Indigenous Centres, involved with these students in both teaching and support capacities. These participants provided a rich set of qualitative…

  14. Assisting an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2017-08-02

    Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.

  15. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  16. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors that drive the gap in diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Rebecca; Church, Jody; Haas, Marion; Bradford, Wylie; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-10-01

    To identify factors underpinning the gap in diabetes rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. This will indicate appropriate target areas for policy and for monitoring progress towards reducing the gap. Data from the 2004-05 National Health Survey and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey were used to estimate differences in self-reported diabetes rates and risk/prevention factors between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in non-remote NSW. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the contribution of each factor to predicting the probability of diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes are more prevalent and diabetes rates 2.5 to 4 times higher in Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal adults in non-remote NSW. The odds of (known) diabetes for both groups are significantly higher for older people, those with low levels of education and those who are overweight or obese. In the Aboriginal sample, the odds of diabetes are significantly higher for people reporting forced removal of their relatives. Differences in BMI and education appear to be driving the diabetes gap, together with onset at younger ages in the Aboriginal population. Psychological distress, indicated by removal of relatives, may contribute to increased risk of diabetes in the Aboriginal population. The results imply that improved nutrition and exercise, capacity to access and act upon health care information and early intervention are required to reduce the diabetes gap. Current strategies appear to be appropriately aligned with the evidence; however, further research is required to determine whether implementation methods are effective. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  19. The role of Aboriginal family workers in delivering a child safety focused home visiting program for Aboriginal families in an urban region of NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Kathleen; Bennett-Brook, Keziah; Hunter, Kate

    2018-05-09

    Aboriginal Australian children experience higher rates of injury than other Australian children. However few culturally acceptable programs have been developed or evaluated. The Illawarra Aboriginal Medical Service (IAMS) developed the Safe Homes Safe Kids program as an injury prevention program targeting disadvantaged Aboriginal families with children aged 0-5 in an urban region of NSW. Delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers the program aims to reduce childhood injury by raising awareness of safety in the home. A program evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the home visiting model as an injury prevention program. This paper reports on the qualitative interviews which explored the ways in which clients, IAMS staff, and external service providers experienced the program and assessed its delivery by the Aboriginal Family Workers. A qualitative program evaluation was conducted between January 2014 and June 2015. We report here on the semi-structured interviews undertaken with 34 individuals. The results show increased client engagement in the program; improved child safety knowledge and skills; increased access to services; improved attitudes to home and community safety; and changes in the home safety environment. Safe Homes Safe Kids provides a culturally appropriate child safety program delivered by Aboriginal Family Workers to vulnerable families. Clients, IAMS staff, and external service were satisfied with the family workers' delivery of the program and the holistic model of service provision. SO WHAT?: This promising program could be replicated in other Aboriginal health services to address unintentional injury to vulnerable Aboriginal children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Levels of glutathione and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in the red blood cells of Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, N S

    1980-01-01

    There were no significant differences in packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in Australian Aborigines and Caucasians. A highly significant negative correlation was found between PCV and 2,3-DPG in both Aborigines (r = 0.251; n = 231) and Caucasians (r = 0.435; n = 227). Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the red blood cells of Aborigines were significantly lower (P < 0.001) compared to those of Caucasians. There was a significant negative correlation between PCV and GSH in both the groups; (Aborigines r = -0.637, n = 115; Caucasians r = 0.388, n = 111).

  1. Tailoring a family-based alcohol intervention for Aboriginal Australians, and the experiences and perceptions of health care providers trained in its delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Bianca; Clifford, Anton; Rose, Miranda; Shakeshaft, Anthony P

    2014-04-07

    Aboriginal Australians experience a disproportionately high burden of alcohol-related harm compared to the general Australian population. Alcohol treatment approaches that simultaneously target individuals and families offer considerable potential to reduce these harms if they can be successfully tailored for routine delivery to Aboriginal Australians. The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) are two related interventions that are consistent with Aboriginal Australians' notions of health and wellbeing. This paper aims to describe the process of tailoring CRA and CRAFT for delivery to Aboriginal Australians, explore the perceptions of health care providers participating in the tailoring process, and their experiences of participating in CRA and CRAFT counsellor certification. Data sources included notes recorded from eight working group meetings with 22 health care providers of a drug and alcohol treatment agency and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (November 2009-February 2013), and transcripts of semi-structured interviews with seven health care providers participating in CRA and CRAFT counsellor certification (May 2012). Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise working group meeting notes and interview transcripts were into key themes. Modifying technical language, reducing the number of treatment sessions, and including an option for treatment of clients in groups, were key recommendations by health care providers for improving the feasibility and applicability of delivering CRA and CRAFT to Aboriginal Australians. Health care providers perceived counsellor certification to be beneficial for developing their skills and confidence in delivering CRA and CRAFT, but identified time constraints and competing tasks as key challenges. The tailoring process resulted in Aboriginal Australian-specific CRA and CRAFT resources. The process also resulted in the training and certification of

  2. Does one workshop on respecting cultural differences increase health professionals' confidence to improve the care of Australian Aboriginal patients with cancer? An evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durey, Angela; Halkett, Georgia; Berg, Melissa; Lester, Leanne; Kickett, Marion

    2017-09-15

    Aboriginal Australians have worse cancer survival rates than other Australians. Reasons include fear of a cancer diagnosis, reluctance to attend mainstream health services and discrimination from health professionals. Offering health professionals education in care focusing on Aboriginal patients' needs is important. The aim of this paper was to evaluate whether participating in a workshop improved the confidence of radiation oncology health professionals in their knowledge, communication and ability to offer culturally safe healthcare to Aboriginal Australians with cancer. Mixed methods using pre and post workshop online surveys, and one delivered 2 months later, were evaluated. Statistical analysis determined the relative proportion of participants who changed from not at all/a little confident at baseline to fairly/extremely confident immediately and 2 months after the workshop. Factor analysis identified underlying dimensions in the items and nonparametric tests recorded changes in mean dimension scores over and between times. Qualitative data was analysed for emerging themes. Fifty-nine participants attended the workshops, 39 (66% response rate) completed pre-workshop surveys, 32 (82% of study participants) completed post-workshop surveys and 25 (64% of study participants) completed surveys 2 months later. A significant increase in the proportion of attendees who reported fair/extreme confidence within 2 days of the workshop was found in nine of 14 items, which was sustained for all but one item 2 months later. Two additional items had a significant increase in the proportion of fair/extremely confident attendees 2 months post workshop compared to baseline. An exploratory factor analysis identified three dimensions: communication; relationships; and awareness. All dimensions' mean scores significantly improved within 2 days (p Aboriginal Australians that in some cases resulted in improved care. Single workshops co-delivered by an Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal

  3. A 'cold-case' review of historic aboriginal and European-Australian encounters with toxic blooms of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John

    2012-09-01

    Interest in preserving the cultural knowledge of Aboriginal Australians continues to rise. Various studies have erupted which aim to redefine knowledge that was once lost or obscured in writing and hitherto ignored. Recognising and acknowledging the traditional Aboriginal knowledge of the Australian environment helps to strengthen Aboriginal identity and gives credibility to the rising paradigm of ecotechnology in historic pre-European Australia. This review aims to establish knowledge of a traditional awareness of factors leading towards eutrophication in water resource management. Journals from pioneering explorers were examined for evidence of cyanobacterial blooms and examples of Aboriginal water resource management practices that aimed at avoiding health threats from poor water quality. Some cultural practices, focused on water resource management, are discussed with brief mentioned of the Waugal. It is concluded that in some cases the incorporation of scientific laws into mythology is a form of conceptual modelling compatible with science if examined carefully.

  4. Teaching Astronomy Through Art: Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S. R.; Boles, M. S.; Patterson, R. J.

    1999-12-01

    We have created an exhibit, Under Southern Skies -- Aboriginal and Western Scientific Perspectives of the Australian Night Sky, which has shown since June, 1999 in newly refurbished exhibit space at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The University of Virginia has a long and continuing tradition of astrometry starting with early parallax work at the McCormick Observatory, extending to our own NSF CAREER Award-funded projects, and including a long-term, ongoing southern parallax program at Mt. Stromlo and Siding Springs Observatories in Australia. Recently, through a gift of Mr. John Kluge, the University of Virginia has obtained one of the most extensive collections of Australian Aboriginal art outside of Australia. The goal of our exhibit is to unite the University's scientific, artistic and cultural connections to Australia through an exhibit focusing on different perspectives of the Australian night sky. We have brought together Australian Aboriginal bark and canvas paintings that feature astronomical themes, e.g., Milky Way, Moon, Magellanic Cloud and Seven Sisters Dreamings, from the Kluge-Ruhe and private collections. These paintings, from the Central Desert and Arnhem Land regions of Australia, are intermingled with modern, large format, color astronomical images of the same scenes. Descriptive panels and a small gallery guide explain the cultural, artistic and scientific aspects of the various thematic groupings based on particular southern hemisphere night sky objects and associated Aboriginal traditions and stories. This unusual combination of art and science not only provides a unique avenue for educating the public about both astronomy and Australian Aboriginal culture, but highlights mankind's ancient and continuing connection to the night sky. We appreciate funding from NSF CAREER Award #AST-9702521, a Cottrell Scholar Award from The Research Corporation, and the Dept. of Astronomy and Ruhe-Kluge Collection at the University of Virginia.

  5. Prevalence of dementia in urban and regional Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Delbaere, Kim; Broe, Gerald A

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dementia in collaboration with urban/regional Aboriginal communities. A census of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women aged 60 years and above in the target communities identified 546 potential participants, with 336 (61.5%) participating in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed a structured interview and cognitive screening tests. One hundred fifty-three participants also completed a detailed medical assessment. Assessment data were reviewed by a panel of clinicians who determined a diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) according to standard criteria. Crude prevalence of dementia was 13.4%, and age-standardized prevalence was 21.0%. The most common types of dementia were Alzheimer's dementia (44%) and mixed dementia diagnoses (29%). Estimated prevalence of MCI was 17.7%. Consistent with previous findings in a remote population, urban and regional Aboriginal Australians face high rates of dementia at younger ages, most commonly Alzheimer's dementia. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Housing conditions of urban households with Aboriginal children in NSW Australia: tenure type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melanie J; Williamson, Anna B; Fernando, Peter; Wright, Darryl; Redman, Sally

    2017-08-01

    Housing is a key determinant of the poor health of Aboriginal Australians. Most Aboriginal people live in cities and large towns, yet research into housing conditions has largely focused on those living in remote areas. This paper measures the prevalence of housing problems amongst participants in a study of urban Aboriginal families in New South Wales, Australia, and examines the relationship between tenure type and exposure to housing problems. Cross-sectional survey data was provided by 600 caregivers of 1406 Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years participating in Phase One of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Regression modelling of the associations between tenure type (own/mortgage, private rental or social housing) and housing problems was conducted, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. The majority (60%) of SEARCH households lived in social housing, 21% rented privately and 19% either owned their home outright or were paying a mortgage ("owned"). Housing problems were common, particularly structural problems, damp and mildew, vermin, crowding and unaffordability. Physical dwelling problems were most prevalent for those living in social housing, who were more likely to report three or more physical dwelling problems than those in owned (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73) or privately rented homes (PR 1.49, 1.11, 2.08). However, those in social housing were the least likely to report affordability problems. Those in private rental moved home most frequently; children in private rental were more than three times as likely to have lived in four or more homes since birth than those in owned homes (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73). Those in social housing were almost half as likely as those in private rental to have lived in four or more homes since birth (PR 0.56, 95%CI 0.14, 0.77). Crowding did not vary significantly by tenure type. The high prevalence of housing problems amongst study participants suggests that urban Aboriginal

  7. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C.; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergströ m, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y.; Crawford, Jacob E.; Heupink, Tim H.; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Ví ctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A.; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Sø ren; Campos, Paula F.; Clark, Warren; Ellingvå g, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; McAllister, Peter J.; Mentzer, Alexander J.; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B.; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E.; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G.; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma’ run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazó n; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  8. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  9. Measuring psychological distress in older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Australians: a comparison of the K-10 and K-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Gubhaju, Lina; Williamson, Anna; Joshy, Grace; Raphael, Beverley; Eades, Sandra J

    2014-12-01

    To assess the cross-cultural validity of two Kessler psychological distress scales (K-10 and K-5) by examining their measurement properties among older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and comparing them to those in non-Aboriginal individuals from NSW Australia. Self-reported questionnaire data from the 45 and Up Study for 1,631 Aboriginal and 231,774 non-Aboriginal people were used to examine the factor structure, convergent validity, internal consistency and levels of missing data of K-10 and K-5. We found excellent agreement in classification of distress of Aboriginal participants by K-10 and K-5 (weighted kappa=0.87), high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha K-10: 0.93, K-5: 0.88), and factor structures consistent with those for the total Australian population. Convergent validity was evidenced by a strong graded relationship between the level of distress and the odds of: problems with daily activities due to emotional problems; current treatment for depression or anxiety; and poor quality of life. K-10 and K-5 scales are promising tools for measuring psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 45 and over in research and clinical settings. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Increased bone mineral density in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: impact of body composition differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K

    2012-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, pAboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations of television viewing, physical activity and dietary behaviours with obesity in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carmina; Young, T Kue; Corey, Paul N

    2010-09-01

    To determine associations of diet, physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with obesity among aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth in conjunction with socio-economic variables. Cross-sectional study of differences between aboriginal and non-aboriginal groups and associations between lifestyle and socio-economic factors with obesity were examined. Population data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 conducted in 2004 in the ten provinces of Canada. A total of 198 aboriginal and 4448 non-aboriginal Canadian youth aged 12-17 years. Compared to non-aboriginal youth, physical activity participation among aboriginal youth was higher, but consumption of vegetables and dairy products was lower, and more aboriginal youth were 'high' TV watchers. Low income adequacy was associated with decreased odds for obesity among aboriginal youth in contrast to higher odds among non-aboriginal youth. Non-aboriginal 'high' TV watchers consumed more soft drinks and non-whole-grain products than did 'low' TV watchers. Physical activity participation did not differ between 'high' and 'low' TV watchers for both groups, and was associated with lowered odds for obesity only among aboriginal youth. Sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with obesity differ between aboriginal and non-aboriginal youth. These findings may be useful for guiding intervention efforts.

  12. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Shaun; Hollinsworth,David

    2016-01-01

    Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in bot...

  13. Opportunistic screening to detect atrial fibrillation in Aboriginal adults in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaskas, Yvonne; O'Brien, Ciaran; Jeffries, Thomas Lee; McCowen, Debbie; Finlayson, Heather; Martin, Tanya; Neubeck, Lis; Freedman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a 10-year gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for Aboriginal Australians is cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known precursor to stroke there are no published studies about the prevalence of AF for Aboriginal people and limited evidence about AF in indigenous populations globally. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will recruit and train Aboriginal health workers to use an iECG device attached to a smartphone to consecutively screen 1500 Aboriginal people aged 45 years and older. The study will quantify the proportion of people who presented for follow-up assessment and/or treatment following a non-normal screening and then estimate the prevalence and age distribution of AF of the Australian Aboriginal population. The study includes semistructured interviews with the Aboriginal health workers about the effectiveness of the iECG device in their practice as well as their perceptions of the acceptability of the device for their patients. Thematic analysis will be undertaken on the qualitative data collected in the study. If the device and approach are acceptable to the Aboriginal people and widely adopted, it may help prevent the effects of untreated AF including ischaemic stroke and early deaths or impairment in Aboriginal people. Ethics and dissemination This mixed methods study received ethics approval from the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council (1135/15) and the Australian Health Council of Western Australia (HREC706). Ethics approval is being sought in the Northern Territory. The findings of this study will be shared with Aboriginal communities, in peer reviewed publications and at conferences. There are Aboriginal investigators in each state/territory where the study is being conducted who have been actively involved in the study. They will also be involved in data analysis

  14. The acceptability to Aboriginal Australians of a family-based intervention to reduce alcohol-related harms.

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    Calabria, Bianca; Clifford, Anton; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Allan, Julaine; Bliss, Donna; Doran, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive-behavioural interventions that use familial and community reinforcers in an individual's environment are effective for reducing alcohol-related harms. Such interventions have considerable potential to reduce the disproportionately high burden of alcohol-related harm among Aboriginal Australians if they can be successfully tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. The overall aim of this paper is to describe the perceived acceptability of two cognitive-behavioural interventions, the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), to a sample of Aboriginal people. Descriptive survey was administered to 116 Aboriginal people recruited through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service and a community-based drug and alcohol treatment agency in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants perceived CRA and CRAFT to be highly acceptable for delivery in their local Aboriginal community. Women were more likely than men to perceive CRAFT as highly acceptable. Participants expressed a preference for counsellors to be someone they knew and trusted, and who has experience working in their local community. CRA was deemed most acceptable for delivery to individuals after alcohol withdrawal and CRAFT for people who want to help a relative/friend start alcohol treatment. There was a preference for five or more detailed sessions. Findings of this study suggest that CRA and CRAFT are likely to be acceptable for delivery to some rural Aboriginal Australians, and that there is potential to tailor these interventions to specific communities. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients residing in Australian residential aged-care facilities.

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    Brooke, Nicole J

    2011-08-01

    This review was undertaken to identify evidence-based practice guidelines to support the care needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients residing in residential aged-care facilities. A systematic literature review was undertaken. An electronic search of online databases and subsequent manual retrieval process was undertaken to identify relevant reports and studies that explored interventions for care of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person. Very limited published material identified strategies necessary within residential aged care. Sixty-seven articles were considered for inclusion, and a subsequent review resulted in 34 being included due to direct alignment with the study aim. Strategies recommended within the review cover areas such as care, communication, palliative care, activities and the environment. Care for an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person in an Australian residential aged-care facility requires a collaborative and individual approach. Cultural safety principles should be maintained across a culturally competent workforce. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in care is a significant experience that should not be considered 'routine' as there is much to consider in the care of this person and their community. © 2011 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. An expanded nationwide view of chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Mott, Susan A; Mc Donald, Stephen P

    2016-11-01

    We summarize new knowledge that has accrued in recent years on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Indigenous Australians. CKD refers to all stages of preterminal kidney disease, including end-stage kidney failure (ESKF), whether or not a person receives renal replacement therapy (RRT). Recently recorded rates of ESKF, RRT, non-dialysis CKD hospitalizations and CKD attributed deaths were, respectively, more than sixfold, eightfold, eightfold and threefold those of non-Indigenous Australians, with age adjustment, although all except the RRT rates are still under-enumerated. However, the nationwide average Indigenous incidence rate of RRT appears to have stabilized. The median age of Indigenous people with ESKF was about 30 years less than for non-Indigenous people, and 84% of them received RTT, while only half of non-Indigenous people with ESKF did so. The first-ever (2012) nationwide health survey data showed elevated levels of CKD markers in Indigenous people at the community level. For all CKD parameters, rates among Indigenous people themselves were strikingly correlated with increasing remoteness of residence and socio-economic disadvantage, and there was a female predominance in remote areas. The burden of renal disease in Australian Indigenous people is seriously understated by Global Burden of Disease Mortality methodology, because it employs underlying cause of death only, and because deaths of people on RRT are frequently attributed to non-renal causes. These data give a much expanded view of CKD in Aboriginal people. Methodologic approaches must be remedied for a full appreciation of the burden, costs and outcomes of the disease, to direct appropriate policy development. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  17. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emma; Hohnen, Harry; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Scalley, Benjamin D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011-2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell's cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including individual attributes, experiences and relationships and systemic factors

  18. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including

  19. 'Gotta be sit down and worked out together': views of Aboriginal caregivers and service providers on ways to improve dementia care for Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate; Flicker, Leon; Shadforth, Geraldine; Carroll, Emily; Ralph, Naomi; Atkinson, David; Lindeman, Melissa; Schaper, Frank; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; LoGiudice, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Dementia is five-fold more prevalent among Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal Australians. Despite this, the quality of care available to people living with dementia in remote Aboriginal communities is poor. The objective of this study was to determine ways to overcome factors affecting the successful delivery of services to Aboriginal people with dementia living in remote communities, and to their families and communities. This qualitative research took place in the Kimberley Region of Western Australia. Data collection occurred in three stages: (1) interviews with service providers to identify the services available; (2) interviews with the caregivers of Aboriginal people living with dementia and community-based care workers; and (3) focus groups with community representatives and community care staff. Each stage was concluded when no new themes emerged. At each stage the transcribed information was analysed and joint interpretation identified common themes. In total, 42 service providers, 31 caregivers and community-based care workers were interviewed and 3 focus groups were conducted. Obstacles to accessing quality care were mentioned and recommendations on ways to improve care were made. The key themes that emerged were caregiver role, perspectives of dementia, community and culturally-appropriate care, workforce, education and training, issues affecting remote communities and service issues. Detailed information on how each theme affects the successful delivery of dementia care is provided. These research findings indicate that people living with dementia and their caregivers in remote Aboriginal communities are struggling to cope. They are requesting and require better community care. Implementing a culturally safe model of dementia care for remote Aboriginal communities that encompasses the recommendations made and builds on the strengths of the communities could potentially deliver the required improvements to dementia care for this population.

  20. All in the Blood: A Review of Aboriginal Australians' Cultural Beliefs About Blood and Implications for Biospecimen Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Emma; Greenwood, Ashley; McWhirter, Rebekah E

    2015-10-01

    Public participation in medical research and biobanking is considered key to advances in scientific discovery and translation to improved health care. Cultural concerns relating to blood have been found to affect the participation of indigenous peoples and minorities in research, but such concerns are rarely specified in the literature. This article presents a review of the role of blood in Australian Aboriginal cultures. We discuss the range of meanings and uses of blood in traditional culture, including their use in ceremonies, healing, and sorcery. We draw on more recent literature on Aboriginal Australians and biomedicine to consider how traditional beliefs may be changing over time. These findings provide an empirical basis for researchers and bioethicists to develop culturally grounded strategies to boost the participation of Aboriginal Australians in biomedical research. They also serve as a model for integrating anthropological literature with bioethical concerns that could be applied to other indigenous and minority groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A comparison of socioeconomic status and mental health among inner-city Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdullahpur, Kevin; Jacobs, Kahá Wi J; Gill, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal women in urban areas have been reported to experience high rates of poverty, homelessness, interpersonal violence, and health problems. However, there are few prior ethnocultural comparisons of urban women from similar socioeconomic backgrounds. The current study explored the mental and physical health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women accessing social services agencies and shelters. Half of the sample (n=172) was Aboriginal (48.3%). The lifetime rate of physical abuse was significantly higher in Aboriginal women, and they were more likely to have been victims of violence or crime in the past year (A=50.6%, NA=35.6%, pwomen were also more likely to have previously received treatment for a drug or alcohol problem. There were no differences in self-reported physical health, medication use, hospitalisations, and current substance misuse. Irrespective of ethnicity, lifetime rates of anxiety, depression and suicide attempts were extremely high. Future research should explore the effects of individual resources (e.g. social support, family relations) and cultural beliefs on women's ability to cope with the stress of living with adverse events, particularly among low SES women with children.

  2. Relationships between Psychosocial Resilience and Physical Health Status of Western Australian Urban Aboriginal Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available Psychosocial processes are implicated as mediators of racial/ethnic health disparities via dysregulation of physiological responses to stress. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which factors previously documented as buffering the impact of high-risk family environments on Aboriginal youths' psychosocial functioning were similarly beneficial for their physical health status.We examined the relationship between psychosocial resilience and physical health of urban Aboriginal youth (12-17 years, n = 677 drawn from a representative survey of Western Australian Aboriginal children and their families. A composite variable of psychosocial resilient status, derived by cross-classifying youth by high/low family risk exposure and normal/abnormal psychosocial functioning, resulted in four groups- Resilient, Less Resilient, Expected Good and Vulnerable. Separate logistic regression modeling for high and low risk exposed youth revealed that Resilient youth were significantly more likely to have lower self-reported asthma symptoms (OR 3.48, p<.001 and carer reported lifetime health problems (OR 1.76, p<.04 than Less Resilient youth.The findings are consistent with biopsychosocial models and provide a more nuanced understanding of the patterns of risks, resources and adaptation that impact on the physical health of Aboriginal youth. The results support the posited biological pathways between chronic stress and physical health, and identify the protective role of social connections impacting not only psychosocial function but also physical health. Using a resilience framework may identify potent protective factors otherwise undetected in aggregated analyses, offering important insights to augment general public health prevention strategies.

  3. Housing conditions of urban households with Aboriginal children in NSW Australia: tenure type matters

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    Melanie J Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Housing is a key determinant of the poor health of Aboriginal Australians. Most Aboriginal people live in cities and large towns, yet research into housing conditions has largely focused on those living in remote areas. This paper measures the prevalence of housing problems amongst participants in a study of urban Aboriginal families in New South Wales, Australia, and examines the relationship between tenure type and exposure to housing problems. Methods Cross-sectional survey data was provided by 600 caregivers of 1406 Aboriginal children aged 0–17 years participating in Phase One of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH. Regression modelling of the associations between tenure type (own/mortgage, private rental or social housing and housing problems was conducted, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results The majority (60% of SEARCH households lived in social housing, 21% rented privately and 19% either owned their home outright or were paying a mortgage (“owned”. Housing problems were common, particularly structural problems, damp and mildew, vermin, crowding and unaffordability. Physical dwelling problems were most prevalent for those living in social housing, who were more likely to report three or more physical dwelling problems than those in owned (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73 or privately rented homes (PR 1.49, 1.11, 2.08. However, those in social housing were the least likely to report affordability problems. Those in private rental moved home most frequently; children in private rental were more than three times as likely to have lived in four or more homes since birth than those in owned homes (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73. Those in social housing were almost half as likely as those in private rental to have lived in four or more homes since birth (PR 0.56, 95%CI 0.14, 0.77. Crowding did not vary significantly by tenure type. Conclusions The high prevalence of housing

  4. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  5. A Controversial Reform in Indigenous Education: The Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollow, John

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a controversial initiative in Indigenous education: the establishment of the Cape York Aboriginal Australian Academy (CYAAA). The article provides a brief description of the Academy's three campuses and their communities and considers: the circumstances of its creation, including the role of Noel Pearson and Cape York…

  6. Aboriginal parent support: A partnership approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2018-02-01

    This study was positioned within a larger action research study relating to a peer-led Aboriginal home visiting parent support program in an urban Western Australian setting. The aims for this study component were to identify program elements, exploring participants' perceptions of the program's suitability, feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness to inform program model recommendations and add to the body of knowledge on effective Aboriginal peer-led program models. The ability of Aboriginal parents to develop positive family environments is crucial, with parent support needing to be reflexive to local needs and sociocultural influences. Culturally appropriate service provision needs meaningful and acceptable strategies. This study was situated within a critical paradigm supporting Participatory Action Research methodology, using Action Learning Sets as the participant engagement and data collection setting. Within ten Action Learning Sets, focus group interviews were carried out with Aboriginal peer support workers, a non-Aboriginal parent support worker, an Aboriginal program coordinator, an Aboriginal education support officer and non-Aboriginal program managers (n = 8), and individual interviews with parents (n = 2) and community agencies (n = 4). Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes were derived from peer support worker and community agency cohorts: peer support worker home visiting skills; responding to impacts of social determinants of health; client support and engagement; interagency collaboration; and issues addressing program sustainability. Parent responses augmented these themes. Participants identified five key elements relating to peer-led home visiting support for Aboriginal parents. These are uniquely placed to inform ongoing program development as there is little additional evidence in wider national and international contexts. Engagement with communities and peer support workers to develop culturally relevant

  7. Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation - An increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Nagle (Nano); M. van Oven (Mannis); S. Wilcox (Stephen); S. Van Holst Pellekaan (Sheila); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); Y. Xue (Yali); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); L. Wilcox (Leah); L. Papac (Luka); K. Cooke (Karen); R.A.H. van Oorschot (Roland ); P. McAllister (Peter); L. Williams (Lesley); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); R.J. Mitchell (R. John)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ∼55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated

  8. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

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    Norbert Robitaille

    2010-12-01

    Aboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevails over the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive” identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations of exogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada would be significantly smaller.

  9. A Place to Learn: Cultivating Engaging Learning Environments for Young Rural Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Danielle; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Tregeagle, Susan; Burnstein, Jodi; Stanley, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Rural Aboriginal Australians experience disadvantage across a number of significant social and economic outcomes, including educational engagement and achievement. Current debate postulates that educational environments and systems perpetuate this disadvantage. This qualitative study aimed to contribute to the debate by taking a broader ecological…

  10. Deadly progress: changes in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult daily smoking, 2004–2015

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    Raymond Lovett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading contributor to the burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Reducing tobacco use in this population is a public health priority. Precise monitoring of smoking prevalence trends is central to implementation and evaluation of effective tobacco control. The way in which trends are reported influences understanding of the extent of progress, with potential implications for policy. Our objective was to quantify absolute changes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult (≥18 years old daily tobacco smoking prevalence from 2004 to 2015, including comparisons with the total Australian population, and by age, sex and remoteness. Methods: We analysed multiple nationally representative surveys of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, and total Australian, population conducted from 2004 to 2015. Aligned with strength-based approaches, we applied a progress frame, focusing on absolute differences in smoking prevalence within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Results: The prevalence of current daily smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults nationally was 50.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47.9, 52.2 in 2004–05 and 41.4% (95% CI 39.1, 43.6 in 2014–15, representing an absolute prevalence decrease of 8.6 percentage points (95% CI 5.5, 11.8 over the past decade. This is comparable with the 6.8 percentage point (95% CI 5.6, 7.9 decrease in smoking prevalence in the total Australian population over the same period, from 21.3% in 2004–05 (95% CI 20.5, 22.0 to 14.5% in 2014–15 (95% CI 13.6, 15.4. Particular success in reducing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smoking was observed among younger age groups, with a decrease of 13.2 percentage points for 18–24-year-olds (95% CI 5.9, 20.4, 9.0 percentage points for 25–34-year-olds (95% CI 2.7, 15.3 and 8.7 percentage points for 35–44-year-olds (95% CI 2.6, 14.8. Smoking

  11. The protocol for the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote Aboriginal Australian health care setting

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    Marley Julia V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders (Indigenous Australians smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the protocol for a study that aims to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. Methods/Design This study is a parallel, randomised, controlled trial. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers aged 16 years and over, who are randomly allocated to a 'control' or 'intervention' group in a 2:1 ratio. Those assigned to the 'intervention' group receive smoking cessation counselling at face-to-face visits, weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. They are also encouraged to attend a monthly smoking cessation support group. The 'control' group receive 'usual care' (i.e. they do not receive the smoking cessation program. Aboriginal researchers deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to help Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders quit smoking. Data collection occurs at baseline (when they enrol and at six and 12 months after enrolling. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at 12 months. Discussion Stopping smoking has been described as the single most important individual change Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers could make to improve their health. Smoking cessation programs are a major priority in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and evidence for effective approaches is essential for policy development and resourcing. A range of strategies have been used to encourage Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders to quit

  12. Creating walking tracks to success: A narrative analysis of AustralianAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ stories ofsuccess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Foster, Kim; Usher, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of morbidity and mortality thanother Australians. One proposed strategy to improve this situation is to increase the participation ofAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nurses, inthe health workforce. Although the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students under-taking tertiary nursing courses have increased, completion rates have not kept pace. The study aimedto describe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ experiences of enablers for successfulcourse completion and to develop a narrative of student experience. A qualitative study using a strengths-based approach with a narrative analysis of semi-structured interview data was conducted across fourschools of Nursing in Queensland, Australia. Eight final-year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursingstudents volunteered to participate in the study. A collective story with the overarching plotline Creatingwalking tracks to success was developed. Six threads of experience emerged: Making a difference, Valu-ing Indigeneity, Healing strength of connections, Resisting racism, Embracing support, and perseveringtowards completion. Key success factors included resilient attributes, building supportive connectionsand having positive expectations of the future, along with sustained institutional support from Aboriginaland Torres Strait Islander nurse academics and clinicians. Development of tailored resilience-buildingtraining for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students and appointment of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander academics in Schools of Nursing that include such students may facilitate futuresuccessful completions in other programs.

  13. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care

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    Sandra C Thompson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. Methods: The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Results: Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Conclusion: Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their

  14. Improving cardiovascular outcomes among Aboriginal Australians: Lessons from research for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sandra C; Haynes, Emma; Woods, John A; Bessarab, Dawn C; Dimer, Lynette A; Wood, Marianne M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hamilton, Sandra J; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M

    2016-01-01

    The Aboriginal people of Australia have much poorer health and social indicators and a substantial life expectancy gap compared to other Australians, with premature cardiovascular disease a major contributor to poorer health. This article draws on research undertaken to examine cardiovascular disparities and focuses on ways in which primary care practitioners can contribute to reducing cardiovascular disparities and improving Aboriginal health. The overall research utilised mixed methods and included data analysis, interviews and group processes which included Aboriginal people, service providers and policymakers. Workshop discussions to identify barriers and what works were recorded by notes and on whiteboards, then distilled and circulated to participants and other stakeholders to refine and validate information. Additional engagement occurred through circulation of draft material and further discussions. This report distils the lessons for primary care practitioners to improve outcomes through management that is attentive to the needs of Aboriginal people. Aspects of primordial, primary and secondary prevention are identified, with practical strategies for intervention summarised. The premature onset and high incidence of Aboriginal cardiovascular disease make prevention imperative and require that primary care practitioners understand and work to address the social underpinnings of poor health. Doctors are well placed to reinforce the importance of healthy lifestyle at all visits to involve the family and to reduce barriers which impede early care seeking. Ensuring better information for Aboriginal patients and better integrated care for patients who frequently have complex needs and multi-morbidities will also improve care outcomes. Primary care practitioners have an important role in improving Aboriginal cardiovascular care outcomes. It is essential that they recognise the special needs of their Aboriginal patients and work at multiple levels both outside and

  15. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

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    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  16. Factors relating to participation in follow-up to the 45 and up study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gubhaju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to characterise the factors relating to participation in a postal follow-up study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals, given the need to quantify potential biases from loss to follow-up and the lack of evidence regarding postal surveys among Aboriginal people. Methods The first 100,000 participants from the Sax Institute’s 45 and Up Study, a large scale cohort study, were posted a follow-up questionnaire gathering general demographic, health and risk factor data, emphasising Social, Economic and Environmental Factors (“The SEEF Study”. For each variable of interest, percentages of those invited who went on to participate in follow-up were tabulated separately for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants and age- and sex-adjusted participation rate ratios (aPRR were calculated. Results Of the 692 Aboriginal and 97,178 non-Aboriginal invitees to the study, 314 Aboriginal (45 % and 59,175 non-Aboriginal (61 % individuals responded. While Aboriginal people were less likely to respond than non-Aboriginal people (aPRR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.66–0.78, factors related to response were similar. Follow-up study participants were more likely than non-participants to have university versus no educational qualifications (1.6, 1.3–2.0 [Aboriginal]; 1.5, 1.5–1.5 [non-Aboriginal] and an annual income of ≥70,000 versus < $20,000 (1.6, 1.3–2.0; 1.2, 1.2–1.3 [χ 2 = 7.7; p = 0.001]. Current smokers (0.55, 0.42–0.72; 0.76, 0.74–0.77 [χ 2 = 7.14; p = 0.03], those reporting poor self-rated health (0.68, 0.47–0.99; 0.65, 0.61–0.69, poor quality of life (0.63, 0.41–0.97; 0.61, 0.57–0.66 and very high psychological distress (0.71, 0.68–0.75 [non-Aboriginal] were less likely than other cohort members to respond. Conclusions Relatively large numbers of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals participated in the first 45 and Up Study follow-up suggesting that postal surveys

  17. Food and nutrition programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jennifer; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Gleeson, Deborah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-09-19

    Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why. Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool. Results Twelve papers reporting 11 reviews were identified. Two reviews were rated high quality, three were rated medium and six were rated low quality. The reviews demonstrated that a positive effect on nutrition and chronic disease indicators can be a result of: 1) incorporating nutrition and breastfeeding advice into maternal and child health care services; and 2) multifaceted community nutrition programs. The evidence suggests that the most important factor determining the success of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander food and nutrition programs is community involvement in (and, ideally, control of) program development and implementation. Conclusions Community-directed food and nutrition programs, especially those with multiple components that address the underlying causes of nutrition issues, can be effective in improving nutrition-related outcomes. What is known about the topic? More effective action is urgently required in order to reduce the unacceptable health inequalities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Food insecurity and nutrition-related chronic conditions are responsible for a large proportion of the ill health experienced by Australia's First Peoples. What does this paper add? This narrative overview of 11 reviews published between 2005 and 2015 provides a synthesis of the current evidence for improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nutrition

  18. The role of primary health care services to better meet the needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jane E; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F

    2015-07-22

    Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences-a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community. Purposive sampling was used to identify 30 interviewees. Twelve interviews were with Aboriginal people who had been in prison; ten were with family members and eight with community service providers who worked with former inmates. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interviewees' description of their experience of services provided to prisoners both during incarceration and on transition to the community. Interviewees believed that effective access to primary health care on release and during transition was positively influenced by providing appropriate healthcare to inmates in custody and by properly planning for their release. Further, interviewees felt that poor communication between health care providers in custody and in the community prior to an inmate's release, contributed to a lack of comprehensive management of chronic conditions. System level barriers to timely communication between in-custody and community providers included inmates being placed on remand which contributed to uncertainty regarding release dates and therefore difficulties planning for release, cycling in and out of prison on short sentences and being released to freedom without access to support services. For Aboriginal former inmates and family members, release from prison was a period of significant emotional stress and commonly involved managing complex needs. To support their transition into the community, Aboriginal former inmates would benefit from immediate access to culturally- responsive

  19. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Wirting in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  20. "Fringe Finds Centre: Developments in Aboriginal Writing in English", pp. 32-44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eva Rask

    1991-01-01

    Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity......Australian aboriginal literature, indigenous writing, Australian culture, post-colonial, identity...

  1. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  2. Physical activity among indigenous Australian children and youth in remote and non-remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John Robert; Wilson, Rachel; Coleman, Clare; Man, Wing Young Nicola; Olds, Tim

    2018-04-17

    Sport and physical activity (PA) hold particular significance in Australian Indigenous communities, and have the potential to address many of the health and education challenges faced by Indigenous communities. Optimal levels of PA are an important foundation in efforts to build healthy communities and reduce social disadvantage experienced to date. Yet little evidence relating to the current levels of PA within these communities, or the relationship between PA and outcomes, has been available. Drawing on national survey data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, we examine levels of PA in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13. These data describe PA levels among Indigenous Australians, aged 5-17 years, in remote and non-remote communities. We also examine the relationship between PA and participation in education and self-reported health among 15-17 year olds. Overall, participation rates appear to be high, with 64-84% of youth reporting at least 60 min of PA on the previous day. A gender gap was also evident, with lower levels of activity among girls. PA decreased with age, particularly at or around the age of puberty. There were no significant associations between PA and either self-reported health or engagement in study. There was a relationship between high PA and low area-level socio-economic status in remote areas, but no association in non-remote areas. The differences between remote and non-remote areas highlight the importance of disaggregated analysis of Indigenous populations and are consistent with qualitative studies identifying locally contextualised factors influential in promoting PA. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  4. Development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI): A screening tool for identifying acquired communication disorders in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth M; Ciccone, Natalie; Hersh, Deborah; Katzenellebogen, Judith; Coffin, Juli; Thompson, Sandra; Flicker, Leon; Hayward, Colleen; Woods, Deborah; McAllister, Meaghan

    2017-06-01

    Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments. The literature searches revealed no existing screening tool for ACD in these populations, but identified tools in the areas of cognition and social-emotional wellbeing. Articles retrieved described details of the content and style of these tools, with recommendations for the development and administration of a new tool. The findings from the interview and focus group views were consistent with the approach recommended in the literature. There is a need for a screening tool for ACD to be developed but any tool must be informed by knowledge of Aboriginal language, culture and community input in order to be acceptable and valid.

  5. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N.; Meltzer, Lisa J.; Tapia, Ignacio E.; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Doyle, Lex W.; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Methods: Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5–12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Results: Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. Conclusions: This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. Citation: Biggs SN, Meltzer LJ, Tapia IE, Traylor J, Nixon GM, Horne RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Mindell JA, Marcus CL. Sleep/wake patterns and parental perceptions of sleep in children born preterm. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):711–717

  6. Is increased energy utilization linked to greater cultural complexity? Energy utilization by Australian Aboriginals and traditional swidden agriculturalists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, L. [Expertisecentrum Duurzame Ontwikkeling en Instituut voor Biodiversiteit en Ecosysteem Dynamica ECDO/IBED, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    Theories have been proposed that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity. Indeed, available estimates of per capita non-food energy utilization by hunter - gatherers and by people practising swidden agriculture in wooded areas, focusing on fuel wood use, are roughly 1 - 2 orders of magnitude lower than for industrial societies. The latter are in the range of 0.8 - 3.4 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. However, apart from the use of fuel wood, the former estimates have not included work performed by burning vegetation. Here quantitative estimates are given of recent energy utilization linked to burning biomass by Australian Aboriginals and people practising traditional swidden agriculture. Per capita energy utilization linked to biomass burning by Australian Aboriginals is estimated at 1.6 x 10{sup 6} to 4.0 x 10{sup 7} MJ year{sup -1}. Estimated per capita energy utilization associated with burning biomass in traditional swidden agriculture in the tropical rainforests of Kalimantan and Venezuela, the dry forest of north-eastern Brazil and the miombo woodland of Zambia is in the range of 1.0 x 10{sup 5} to 6.3 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. The values for non-food energy utilization reported here are at variance with theories that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity.

  7. Transformation of mortality in a remote Australian Aboriginal community: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Mott, Susan Anne; McLeod, Beverly June

    2017-08-11

    To describe trends in ages and causes of death in a remote-living Australian Aboriginal group over a recent 50-year period. A retrospective observational study, from 1960 to 2010, of deaths and people starting dialysis, using data from local clinic, parish, dialysis and birthweight registers. A remote island community in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory, where a Catholic mission was established in 1911. The estimated Aboriginal population was about 800 in 1960 and 2260 in 2011. All Aboriginal residents of this community whose deaths had been recorded. Annual frequencies and rates of terminal events (deaths and dialysis starts) by age group and cause of death. Against a background of high rates of low birth weight, 223 deaths in infants and children and 934 deaths in adults (age > 15 years) were recorded; 88% were of natural causes. Most deaths in the 1960s were in infants and children. However, over time these fell dramatically, across the birthweight spectrum, while adult deaths progressively increased. The leading causes of adult natural deaths were chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease and, more recently, renal failure, and rates were increased twofold in those of low birth weight. However, rates of natural adult deaths have been falling briskly since 1986, most markedly among people of age ≥45 years. The population is increasing and its age structure is maturing. The changes in death profiles, the expression of the Barker hypothesis and the ongoing increases in adult life expectancy reflect epidemiological and health transitions of astonishing rapidity. These probably flow from advances in public health policy and healthcare delivery, as well as improved inter-sectoral services, which are all to be celebrated. Other remote communities in Australia are experiencing the same phenomena, and similar events are well advanced in many developing countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  8. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  9. Evaluating the Aboriginal child's mind: assimilation and cross-cultural psychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David

    2018-06-01

    This article examines two psychological interventions with Australian Aboriginal children in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first involved evaluating the cognitive maturation of Aboriginal adolescents using a series of Piagetian interviews. The second, a more extensive educational intervention, used a variety of quantitative tests to measure and intervene in the intellectual performance of Aboriginal preschoolers. In both of these interventions the viability of the psychological instruments in the cross-cultural encounter created ongoing ambiguity as to the value of the research outcomes. Ultimately, the resolution of this ambiguity in favour of notions of Aboriginal 'cultural deprivation' reflected the broader political context of debates over Aboriginal self-governance during this period.

  10. Swallowed Words: bringing up an Aboriginal past in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L. Everett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many Aboriginal stories have not been allowed to be told historically due to the over-whelming dominance of non-Aboriginal stories. Many Aboriginal stories were once outlawed and so were forgotten, some only partially remembered, many now only told in the language of the invaders. There are other Aboriginal stories, however, especially those of particular urban Aboriginal peoples, which have lain ‘dormant’, protected by subversive family histories and embedded in objects claimed as the possessions of the Aboriginal people concerned. Some of these once ‘swallowed’ stories are now being regurgitated, re-emerging into a world that does not always recognise them as true. I am a non-Indigenous woman anthropologist and in this paper I recount some different versions of a story ‘told’ in different ways; through the signs and symbols of the Australian nation state, the movements of my Aboriginal research collaborators through what is

  11. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Lu, Zhong X; Jeyaraman, Kanakamani; Lawton, Paul; Jones, Graham Rd; Ellis, Andrew; Sinha, Ashim; Cass, Alan; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007-2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45-77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D 72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. The percentage of 25(OH)D levels Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and was independently associated with diabetes. These findings require exploration in longitudinal studies.

  12. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Meltzer, Lisa J; Tapia, Ignacio E; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C; Doyle, Lex W; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A; Marcus, Carole L

    2016-05-15

    To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5-12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Systems, Self, and Sovereignty: Non-Indigenous Practitioners Negotiate Whiteness in Aboriginal Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania L. Searle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is built upon a foundation of colonial conquest, and it continues to implement government policies and systems of management based on a colonising logic and the denial of Indigenous sovereignty. This study employed qualitative methods and discourse analysis to draw on the experiences of six non-Indigenous Australians employed by the South Australian Government in Aboriginal partnerships and natural resource management. Drawing on critical Whiteness studies, the article reveals that participants in this cohort are largely critical of colonial structures of government and the inequalities that arise. Despite this critical awareness, there was often a difficulty in finding a language to describe the fog of Whiteness, along with the tendency to describe ecological knowledge at the expense of more complex issues of First Nations sovereignty.

  14. Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ≤20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR = 5.98, p<0.0001. MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9% among southern people, and Beijing (62.5% and Haarlem (52.9% among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (≥15% than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05; MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ≤20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p = 0.01 and aboriginal ethnicity (p = 0.04 were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.

  15. Barriers and enablers to the provision of alcohol treatment among Aboriginal Australians: a thematic review of five research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis; Wilson, Mandy; Allsop, Steve; Saggers, Sherry; Wilkes, Edward; Ober, Coralie

    2014-09-01

    To review the results of five research projects commissioned to enhance alcohol treatment among Aboriginal Australians, and to highlight arising from them. Drafts of the papers were workshopped by project representatives, final papers reviewed and results summarised. Lessons arising were identified and described. While the impact of the projects varied, they highlight the feasibility of adapting mainstream interventions in Aboriginal Australian contexts. Outcomes include greater potential to: screen for those at risk; increase community awareness; build capacity and partnerships between organisations; and co-ordinate comprehensive referral networks and service provision. Results show a small investment can produce sustainable change and positive outcomes. However, to optimise and maintain investment, cultural difference needs to be recognised in both planning and delivery of alcohol interventions; resources and funding must be responsive to and realistic about the capacities of organisations; partnerships need to be formed voluntarily based on respect, equality and trust; and practices and procedures within organisations need to be formalised. There is no simple way to reduce alcohol-related harm in Aboriginal communities. However, the papers reviewed show that with Aboriginal control, modest investment and respectful collaboration, service enhancements and improved outcomes can be achieved. Mainstream interventions need to be adapted to Aboriginal settings, not simply transferred. The lessons outlined provide important reflections for future research. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Factors associated with pretreatment and treatment dropouts: comparisons between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients admitted to medical withdrawal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment faces high pretreatment and treatment dropout rates, especially among Aboriginals. In this study we examined characteristic differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients accessing an inpatient medical withdrawal management program, and identified risk factors associated with the probabilities of pretreatment and treatment dropouts, respectively. Methods 2231 unique clients (Aboriginal = 451; 20%) referred to Vancouver Detox over a two-year period were assessed. For both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with pretreatment dropout and treatment dropout as dependent variables, respectively. Results Aboriginal clients had higher pretreatment and treatment dropout rates compared to non-Aboriginal clients (41.0% vs. 32.7% and 25.9% vs. 20.0%, respectively). For Aboriginal people, no fixed address (NFA) was the only predictor of pretreatment dropout. For treatment dropout, significant predictors were: being female, having HCV infection, and being discharged on welfare check issue days or weekends. For non-Aboriginal clients, being male, NFA, alcohol as a preferred substance, and being on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) at referral were associated with pretreatment dropout. Significant risk factors for treatment dropout were: being younger, having a preferred substance other than alcohol, having opiates as a preferred substance, and being discharged on weekends. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of social factors for the Aboriginal population compared to substance-specific factors for the non-Aboriginal population. These findings should help clinicians and decision-makers to recognize the importance of social supports especially housing and initiate appropriate services to improve treatment intake and subsequent retention, physical and mental health outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of treatment. PMID:24325629

  17. The national incidence and clinical picture of SLE in children in Australia - a report from the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, F E; Kainer, G; Adib, N; Boros, C; Elliott, E J; Fahy, R; Munro, J; Murray, K; Rosenberg, A; Wainstein, B; Ziegler, J B; Singh-Grewal, D

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to prospectively determine the incidence of paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) in Australia as well as describe the demographics, clinical presentation and one-year outcome. Newly diagnosed cases of pSLE were ascertained prospectively from October 2009 to October 2011 through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (a national monthly surveillance scheme for notification of childhood rare diseases) as well as national subspecialty groups. Questionnaires were sent to notifying physicians at presentation and at one year. The annual incidence rate was 0.32 per 10(5) children aged less than 16 years. The incidence was significantly higher in children of Asian or Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parents. Approximately one-third of children underwent a renal biopsy at presentation and 7% required dialysis initially although only one child had end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at one-year follow-up. The incidence of pSLE in Australia is comparable to that worldwide with a significantly higher incidence seen in children of Asian and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds. Renal involvement is common but progression to ESKD, at least in the short term, is rare. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Prevalence and incidence of frailty in Aboriginal Australians, and associations with mortality and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Zoë; Flicker, Leon; Smith, Kate; Atkinson, David; Fenner, Stephen; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; Lo Giudice, Dina

    2016-05-01

    Frailty represents a loss of homeostasis, markedly increasing the risk of death and disability. Frailty has been measured in several ethnic groups, but not, to our knowledge, in Aboriginal Australians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of frailty, and associations with mortality and disability, in remote-living Aboriginal people. Between 2004 and 2006, we recruited 363 Aboriginal people aged ≥ 45 years from 6 remote communities and one town in the Kimberley region of Western Australia (wave 1). Between 2011 and 2013, 182 surviving participants were followed-up (wave 2). We assessed frailty with an index, comprising 20 health-related items. Participants with ≥ 4 deficits (frailty index ≥ 0.2) were considered frail. Disability was assessed by family/carer report. Those unable to do ≥ 2 of 6 key or instrumental activities of daily living were considered disabled. We investigated associations between frailty, and disability and mortality, with logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. At wave 1 (W1), 188 participants (65.3%) were frail, and of robust people at W1 who participated in wave 2, 38 (51.4%) had become frail. Frailty emerged at a younger age than expected. A total of 109 people died (30.0%), of whom 80 (73.4%) were frail at W1. Frailty at W1 was not associated with becoming disabled, but was associated with mortality (HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Frailty in remote-living Aboriginal Australians is highly prevalent; substantially higher than in other populations. Research to understand the underlying causes of frailty in this population, and if possible, reverse frailty, is urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Repositioning the Racial Gaze: Aboriginal Perspectives on Race, Race Relations and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Habibis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.

  20. Obesity and its association with sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine Ann; Joshy, Grace; Korda, Rosemary; Eades, Sandra J; Wade, Vicki; Bambrick, Hilary; Liu, Bette; Banks, Emily

    2018-06-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is the second leading contributor to Australia's burden of disease and is particularly prevalent among Aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to provide insight into factors relating to obesity among Aboriginal adults and Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal differences. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 45 and Up Study, comparing obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) prevalence and risk factors among 1515 Aboriginal and 213 301 non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales. Age-sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity by sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status were estimated (multivariable log-binomial regression) for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants separately. We quantified the extent to which key factors (physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness, area-level disadvantage) accounted for any excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. Obesity prevalence was 39% among Aboriginal and 22% among non-Aboriginal participants (PR=1.65, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.76). Risk factors for obesity were generally similar for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants and included individual-level and area-level disadvantage, physical inactivity, and poor physical and mental health, with steeper gradients observed among non-Aboriginal participants for some factors (P interaction 40% of the excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. A substantial proportion of the excess obesity prevalence among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants was explained by physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness and area-level disadvantage. Socioeconomic and health behaviour factors are potential targets for promoting healthy BMI, but these must be considered within the context of upstream social and cultural factors. Adults with health needs and disability require particular attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  1. Addressing Disparities in Low Back Pain Care by Developing Culturally Appropriate Information for Aboriginal Australians: "My Back on Track, My Future".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ivan B; Ryder, Kim; Coffin, Juli; Green, Charmaine; Dalgety, Eric; Scott, Brian; Straker, Leon M; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2017-11-01

    Addressing disparities in low back pain care (LBP) is an important yet largely unaddressed issue. One avenue to addressing disparities, recommended by clinical guidelines, is to ensure that LBP information is culturally appropriate. Our objectives were, first, to develop LBP information that was culturally appropriate for Aboriginal Australians living in a rural area and, second, to compare this to traditional information. The overall information development process was guided by a "cultural security" framework and included partnerships between Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal investigators, a synthesis of research evidence, and participation of a project steering group consisting of local Aboriginal people. LBP information (entitled My Back on Track, My Future [MBOT]) was developed as five short audio-visual scenarios, filmed using Aboriginal community actors. A qualitative randomized crossover design compared MBOT with an evidence-based standard (the Back Book [BB]). Twenty Aboriginal adults participated. Qualitatively we ascertained which information participants' preferred and why, perceptions about each resource, and LBP management. Thirteen participants preferred MBOT, four the BB, two both, and one neither. Participants valued seeing "Aboriginal faces," language that was understandable, the visual format, and seeing Aboriginal people undertaking positive changes in MBOT. In contrast, many participants found the language and format of the BB a barrier. Participants who preferred the BB were more comfortable with written information and appreciated the detailed content. The MBOT information was more preferred and addressed important barriers to care, providing support for use in practice. Similar processes are needed to develop pain information for other cultural groups, particularly those underserved by existing approaches to care. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Songlines and navigation in Wardaman and other Australian Aboriginal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Harney, Bill Yidumdum

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the songlines and navigation of the Wardaman people, and place them in context by comparing them with corresponding practices in other Aboriginal Australian language groups, using previously-unpublished information and also information drawn from the literature. Songlines are effectively oral maps of the landscape, enabling the transmission of oral navigational skills in cultures that do not have a written language. In many cases, songlines on the Earth are mirrored by songlines in the sky, enabling the sky to be used as a navigational tool, both by using it as a compass and by using it as a mnemonic.

  3. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander casemix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D A; Murray, J M; Cleary, M I; Brewerton, R E

    1998-10-19

    With increasing implementation of casemix-based funding for hospitals, quantitative data were needed to confirm the clinical impression that treating Aboriginal (compared with non-Aboriginal) inpatients consumes significantly more resources. Utilisation data, collected over a three-month period in 10 hospitals, were used to determine a cost per inpatient episode, which was grouped according to AN-DRG-3 to give a cost per AN-DRG for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) patients and non-ATSI patients. ATSI patients had consistently longer average length of stay and significant variation in relative frequency of admissions, compared with non-ATSI patients, with higher prevalences of infectious diseases. Degenerative and neoplastic conditions were more common in non-ATSI patients. There were significant differences in casemix-adjusted costs per patient episode (ATSI, $1856; non-ATSI, $1558; P < 0.001). Our study has quantified differential resource consumption between two Australian populations, and highlights the need for recognition of some hospitals' atypical populations and special funding requirements.

  4. Early Childhood Development over Time for a Cohort of Australian Aboriginal Children Living in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Rebekah; Elcombe, Emma; Knight, Jennifer; McMahon, Catherine; McDonald, Jenny; Comino, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Child development for a cohort of urban Aboriginal children was assessed at three time points: 12 months, 3 years and 4.5 years. This paper reports developmental findings and explores the impact of child, family, home and community variables over time. Overall, child development at 4.5 years was significantly below the standardised mean. Female…

  5. Variations in mesothelioma mortality rates among migrants to Australia and Australian-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Si; Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison

    2018-07-01

    Australia's use and consumption of asbestos occurred at the same time as its immigration boom. Our objective was to investigate mesothelioma death rates among migrants and Australian-born between 1981 and 2012. Australian national mesothelioma deaths from 1981 to 2002 and 2006 to 2012 together with national censuses from 1981 to 2011 were extracted and combined. Directly standardised rates and negative binomial regression were applied examining differences in mesothelioma death rates with regard to country of birth. Migrants from the UK and Ireland, Italy and Germany had significantly higher mesothelioma death rates than Australian-born; lower rates were observed among migrants from other countries. Our findings suggest there may have been differences in occupational health and safety between foreign and Australian-born. Because of changes in the demographics of migrants to Australia since the 1970s and changes in occupational circumstances over time, further comparisons of occupational-related health outcomes between foreign and Australian-born could identify potential occupational inequalities that may still exist today.

  6. Issues with prescribed medications in Aboriginal communities: Aboriginal health workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrosi, Kim; Taylor, Susan J; Aslani, Parisa

    2006-01-01

    The health of Indigenous Australians remains appalling. The causes of this situation are multi-factorial, however one contributing factor is poor medication compliance within Aboriginal populations. Anecdotal evidence provided by Aboriginal health workers in western New South Wales (NSW), Australia, has suggested that there are problems associated with the use of prescribed medications within the Aboriginal community. Aboriginal health workers form a core component of the Aboriginal health service sector and they have an in-depth knowledge of the community and its healthcare provision, as well as a familiarity with clinic patients and families. As such they are an important group whose opinions and beliefs about medication use in the Aboriginal population should be investigated. While there have been studies on the issues of prescribing in Aboriginal communities and access to medications, limited investigation into the use of prescribed medicines in Aboriginal communities and the role of the pharmacist in that process, has taken place. Therefore, this research aimed to identify the type of and reasons for inappropriate use of prescribed medications within Aboriginal communities serviced by the Mid Western Area Health Service (since incorporated into the Greater West Area Health Service) as perceived by the Aboriginal health workers in the area, and to explore strategies in conjunction with those Aboriginal health workers to address identified issues. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were held with 11 Aboriginal health workers employed in Community Health Centres and hospitals in the Mid Western Area Health service of NSW. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were content analysed for emerging themes. The interviews explored the beliefs, perceptions and experiences of the Aboriginal health workers regarding prescribed medication use, the role of the pharmacist, and identification of future strategies to improve medication use in

  7. Chronic condition self-management support for Aboriginal people: Adapting tools and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Malcolm; Lawn, Sharon; Kowanko, Inge; Bertossa, Sue; Trowbridge, Coral; Liddicoat, Raylene

    2018-04-22

    Chronic conditions are major health problems for Australian Aboriginal people. Self-management programs can improve health outcomes. However, few health workers are skilled in self-management support and existing programs are not always appropriate in Australian Aboriginal contexts. The goal was to increase the capacity of the Australian health workforce to support Australian Aboriginal people to self-manage their chronic conditions by adapting the Flinders Program of chronic condition self-management support for Australian Aboriginal clients and develop and deliver training for health professionals to implement the program. Feedback from health professionals highlighted that the Flinders Program assessment and care planning tools needed to be adapted to suit Australian Aboriginal contexts. Through consultation with Australian Aboriginal Elders and other experts, the tools were condensed into an illustrated booklet called 'My Health Story'. Associated training courses and resources focusing on cultural safety and effective engagement were developed. A total of 825 health professionals  across Australia was trained and 61 people qualified as accredited trainers in the program, ensuring sustainability. The capacity and skills of the Australian health workforce to engage with and support Australian Aboriginal people to self-manage their chronic health problems significantly increased as a result of this project. The adapted tools and training were popular and appreciated by the health care organisations, health professionals and clients involved. The adapted tools have widespread appeal for cultures that do not have Western models of health care and where there are health literacy challenges. My Health Story has already been used internationally. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  8. Continuing Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications Between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A.P.; Sillars, Brett A.; Bruce, David G.; Davis, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. RESULTS The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA1c decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8–10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6–10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2–8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2–7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8–29.7 vs. 30.7–21.5%; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist. PMID:22815295

  9. Indicators for continuous quality improvement for otitis media in primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Agostino, Jason; Coates, Harvey; Weeks, Sharon; Lehmann, Deborah; Wood, Marianne; Lannigan, Francis; McAullay, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Otitis media is a common, generally self-limiting childhood illness that can progress to severe disease and have lifelong sequelae, including hearing loss and developmental delays. Severe disease is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Primary health care is at the frontline of appropriate prevention and treatment. Continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of important causes of morbidity in client populations is accepted best practice in primary health care and now a requirement of Australian Government funding to services providing care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. To date, there have been no indicators for continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of otitis media and its sequelae in primary health care. Through an expert group consensus process, seven evidence-based indicators, potentially extractable from electronic health records, have been developed. The development process and indicators are described.

  10. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context.

  11. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  12. Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease in Aboriginal Australians: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E

    2013-01-30

    Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important yardstick by which policy makers, clinicians and the general public can assess and promote the awareness and prevention of CHD. The lifetime risk in Aboriginal people is not known. Using a cohort with up to 20 years of follow-up, we estimated the lifetime risk of CHD in Aboriginal people. A cohort study. A remote Aboriginal region. 1115 Aboriginal people from one remote tribal group who were free from CHD at baseline were followed for up to 20 years. During the follow-up period, new CHD incident cases were identified through hospital and death records. We estimated the lifetime risks of CHD with and without adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes. Participants were followed up for 17 126 person-years, during which 185 developed CHD and 144 died from non-CHD causes. The average age at which the first CHD event occurred was 48 years for men and 49 years for women. The risk of developing CHD increased with age until 60 years and then decreased with age. Lifetime cumulative risk without adjusting for competing risk was 70.7% for men and 63.8% for women. Adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes, the lifetime risk of CHD was 52.6% for men and 49.2% for women. Lifetime risk of CHD is as high as one in two in both Aboriginal men and women. The average age of having first CHD events was under 50 years, much younger than that reported in non-Aboriginal populations. Our data provide useful knowledge for health education, screening and prevention of CHD in Aboriginal people.

  13. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, which is usually reported in terms of songs or stories associated with stars and constellations. Here we argue that the astronomical components extend further, and include a search for meaning in the sky, beyond simply mirroring the earth-bound understanding. In particular, we have found that traditional Aboriginal cultures include a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. We also present evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, and paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts.

  14. HCV knowledge among a sample of HCV positive Aboriginal Australians residing in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah; Brener, Loren; Jackson, L Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Treloar, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are overrepresented in both the prevalence and incidence of the hepatitis C (HCV). HCV knowledge has been associated with a range of positive health behaviours. HCV knowledge has previously been investigated as a single construct; however examining different knowledge domains (i.e. transmission, risk of complications, testing and treatment) separately may be beneficial. This study investigated whether having greater HCV knowledge in different domains is associated with self-reported positive health behaviours. 203 Aboriginal people living with HCV completed a survey assessing HCV knowledge, testing and care, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and treatment intent. Respondents' knowledge was relatively high. Greater knowledge of risk of health complications was associated with undertaking more positive lifestyle changes since diagnosis. Respondents testing and treatment knowledge was significantly associated with incarceration, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and future treatment intentions. This study illustrates the importance of ensuring that knowledge is high across different HCV domains to optimise a range of positive health behaviours of Aboriginal people living with HCV. Future health promotion campaigns targeted at Aboriginal people living with HCV could benefit from broadening their focus from prevention to other domains such as testing and treatment.

  15. The world's longest surviving paediatric practices: some themes of Aboriginal medical ethnobotany in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary paediatric practices of Australian Aboriginal men and women, in more than 100 Aboriginal Language Groups, comprise a living discipline whose origins predate Western medicine by tens of millennia. The history of paediatrics acknowledges this surviving continuum of the world's oldest child-care practices. Because of the inextricable nexus between Aboriginal men and women and the land in which they live, medical ethnobotany forms a major part of the medical aspects of Aboriginal child care. Traditional tribal healers, called 'Nungungi' in some language groups of Central Australia, are identified as such whilst still young children and are given special education in the healing arts, especially that of medical ethnobotany, by older healers. Distinct from this specialized role, all Aboriginal men and women (and in particular grandmothers) in traditional communities use a sophisticated botanical materia medica in the treatment of sick and injured children. In cultures in transition, medical ethnobotanical practices may persist long after the local use of flora as sources of traditional food, weaponry, totemic identity and religious rites have disappeared. Some selected botanical 'cures' were adopted by early European settlers and a number of such relict uses have become part of mainstream Western life today, particularly as this applies to self-medication. Drugs and medicaments used in the treatment of children are obtained from leaves, bark, roots and flowers, usually as fresh preparations. They are prepared as infusions, decoctions and macerations and may be enjoined with emollients such as emu or kangaroo fat for topical application. Botanical drugs and medicaments are usually prepared fresh for each administration and are rarely stored. Contemporary Australian ethnobotany exploits the medicinal properties of more than 100 genera - using such extracts as antiseptics, analgesics, astringents, antipyretics, sedatives, hypnotics, expectorants and

  16. Risk of Childhood Rheumatic and Non-Rheumatic Autoimmune Diseases in Children Born to Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Julie; Bernatsky, Sasha; Scott, Susan; Pineau, Christian A; Vinet, Evelyne

    2018-05-23

    Several autoimmune diseases have familial aggregation and possibly, common genetic predispositions. In a large population-based study, we evaluated if children born to mothers with SLE have an increased risk of rheumatic and non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases, versus children born to mothers without SLE. Using the "Offspring of SLE mothers Registry (OSLER)", we identified children born live to SLE mothers and their matched controls, and ascertained autoimmune diseases based on ≥1 hospitalization or ≥2 physician visits with a relevant diagnostic code. We adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, obstetrical complications, calendar birth year, and sex of child. 509 women with SLE had 719 children, while 5824 matched controls had 8493 children. Mean follow-up was 9.1 (SD 5.8) years. Children born to mothers with SLE had similar frequency of rheumatic autoimmune diagnoses (0.14%, 95% CI 0.01, 0.90) versus controls (0.19%, 95% CI 0.11, 0.32). There was a trend towards more non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases in SLE offspring (1.11%, 95% CI 0.52, 2.27) versus controls (0.48%, 95% CI 0.35, 0.66). In multivariate analyses, we did not see a clear increase in rheumatic autoimmune disease (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.11-4.82) but children born to mothers with SLE had a substantially increased risk of non-rheumatic autoimmune disease versus controls (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.06-5.03). Although the vast majority of offspring have no autoimmune disease, children born to women with SLE may have an increased risk of non-rheumatic autoimmune diseases, versus controls. Additional studies assessing offspring through to adulthood would be additionally enlightening. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive Accuracy of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender Version Risk and Change Scores in Treated Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.

  18. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Singleton, Michele; Doran, Christopher

    2013-08-07

    While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and

  19. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asthma in Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children and Adults in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation.

  20. Evaluation of lipid and glucose metabolism and cortisol and thyroid hormone levels in obese appropriate for gestational age (AGA) born and non-obese small for gestational age (SGA) born prepubertal Slovak children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusková, Zuzana; Koštálová, Ludmila; Celec, Peter; Vitáriušová, Eva; Pribilincová, Zuzana; Maršálková, Marianna; Šemberová, Jana; Kyselová, Tatiana; Hlavatá, Anna; Kovács, László

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) may be co-responsible. We aimed at evaluating the association between 1. obesity and 2. being born SGA and the presence of endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in prepubertal Slovak children. The study included 98 children, aged 3-10.9 years: 36 AGA-born obese children (OB), 31 SGA-born children (SGA) and 31 appropriate for gestational age born non-obese children (AGA). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fT4, TSH, cortisol and insulin were determined. HOMA-IR was calculated. Personal data about birth weight and length and family history were collected. Actual anthropometric measurement was done. In every group, high prevalence of positive family history of metabolic disorder was found. In comparison with AGA children, OB children were taller (plevels and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (pcortisol levels (p=0.069) was noted. SGA-born children were shorter (plevels (plevels (p=0.085) and increased fT4 levels (pobese children and twice more metabolic abnormalities were present in SGA-born children in comparison with AGA-born children. SGA-born children are more prone to developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities than non-obese children born AGA, but they are at less risk than obese AGA-born children. We should provide specialized care for obese children already in prepubertal age and pay attention to SGA-born children.

  1. On the significance of saying “sorry” – politics of memory and Aboriginal Reconciliation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Auguste

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 2007 marked the 40th anniversary of the 1967 Referendum. Back on May 27th 1967, more than 90% of Australian eligible voters said “yes’ to two changes of the Australian Constitution considered discriminatory to Aboriginal people. This event is often considered as the first stage of Reconciliation in Australia. 2007 also marked the 10th Anniversary of the release of the Bringing Them Home Report that highlighted the forced removal of Aboriginal children from their family as part of an assimilation policy. From 1997, the issue of an apology became a sine qua non condition to Reconciliation. It was an important element of the recommendations the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation submitted to Parliament in 2000. But, Liberal Prime Minister John Howard, in office for more than ten years, refused to say the word “sorry” on the basis that Australians of today are not responsible for the actions of the past and that guilt is not hereditary. His focus was on what is called “practical reconciliation”. Some changes are now on the way as Labor leader, Kevin Rudd, who defeated him at the last federal election in November 24th 2007, has promised to make a formal apology to the stolen generation. Why is it important to say “sorry”? At a time of dramatic developments in Indigenous Affairs, this paper deals with the significance of an apology for Reconciliation in Australia.

  2. Effect of periodontal therapy on arterial structure and function among aboriginal australians: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellas, Kostas; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Jamieson, Lisa M; Do, Loc G; O'Dea, Kerin; Brown, Alex; Cai, Tommy Y; Anstey, Nicholas M; Sullivan, David R; Wang, Hao; Celermajer, David S; Slade, Gary D; Skilton, Michael R

    2014-10-01

    Observational studies and nonrandomized trials support an association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Both diseases occur frequently in Aboriginal Australians. We hypothesized that nonsurgical periodontal therapy would improve measures of arterial function and structure that are subclinical indicators of atherosclerotic vascular disease. This parallel-group, randomized, open label clinical trial enrolled 273 Aboriginal Australians aged ≥18 years with periodontitis. Intervention participants received full-mouth periodontal scaling during a single visit, whereas controls received no treatment. Prespecified primary end points measured 12-month change in carotid intima-media thickness, an indicator of arterial structure, and 3- and 12-month change in pulse wave velocity, an indicator of arterial function. ANCOVA used complete case data to evaluate treatment group differences. End points could be calculated for 169 participants with follow-up data at 3 months and 168 participants at 12 months. Intima-media thickness decreased significantly after 12 months in the intervention group (mean reduction=-0.023 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.038 to -0.008] mm) but not in the control group (mean increase=0.002 [95% CI, -0.017 to 0.022] mm). The difference in intima-media thickness change between treatment groups was statistically significant (-0.026 [95% CI, -0.048 to -0.003] mm; P=0.03). In contrast, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in pulse wave velocity at 3 months (mean difference, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.17 to 0.29] m/s; P=0.594) or 12 months (mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.43] m/s; P=0.062). Periodontal therapy reduced subclinical arterial thickness but not function in Aboriginal Australians with periodontal disease, suggesting periodontal disease and atherosclerosis are significantly associated. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  4. Resting heart rate, physiological stress and disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: analysis from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alice; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Brown, Alex; Lawton, Paul D; Cass, Alan; Hoy, Wendy; O'Dea, Kerin; Maple-Brown, Louise J

    2016-02-11

    Lower socioeconomic status has been linked to long-term stress, which can manifest in individuals as physiological stress. The aim was to explore the relationship between low socioeconomic status and physiological stress in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Using data from the eGFR Study (a cross-sectional study of 634 Indigenous Australians in urban and remote areas of northern and central Australia), we examined associations between resting heart rate and demographic, socioeconomic, and biomedical factors. An elevated resting heart rate has been proposed as a measure of sustained stress activation and was used as a marker of physiological stress. Relationships were assessed between heart rate and the above variables using univariate and multiple regression analyses. We reported a mean resting heart rate of 74 beats/min in the cohort (mean age 45 years). On multiple regression analysis, higher heart rate was found to be independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity, being a current smoker, having only primary level schooling, higher HbA1c and higher diastolic blood pressure (model R(2) 0.25). Elevated resting heart rate was associated with lower socioeconomic status and poorer health profile in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Higher resting heart rate may be an indicator of stress and disadvantage in this population at high risk of chronic diseases.

  5. Context, Diversity and Engagement: Early Intervention with Australian Aboriginal Families in Urban and Remote Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gary; Tyler, William; Jones, Yomei; Silburn, Sven; Zubrick, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes challenges met implementing an early intervention programme for Aboriginal parents and their children in the NT (Northern Territory) of Australia in the context of efforts to remediate Aboriginal disadvantage. The intervention is an adaptation of an 8- to 10-week, manualised parenting programme designed for four- to…

  6. Aboriginal Art: Who was interested?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the common assumption that Aboriginal art has been absent from Australian art histories and demonstrates how this is not so. It criticises the notion that art history should be represented by specialised art-history books and argues for the important of art museum displays as texts. It also examines the ways in which Aboriginal art has been examined in literature devoted to Australian history and anthropology. It foregrounds the idea that arts history is not necessarily best represented by official art historical texts.

  7. An exploration of inter-organisational partnership assessment tools in the context of Australian Aboriginal-mainstream partnerships: a scoping review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tsou, Christina; Haynes, Emma; Warner, Wayne D; Gray, Gordon; Thompson, Sandra C

    2015-01-01

    Background The need for better partnerships between Aboriginal organisations and mainstream agencies demands attention on process and relational elements of these partnerships, and improving partnership functioning through transformative or iterative evaluation procedures. This paper presents the findings of a literature review which examines the usefulness of existing partnership tools to the Australian Aboriginal-mainstream partnership (AMP) context. Methods Three sets of best practice prin...

  8. A comparison of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students on the inter-related dimensions of self-concept, strengths and achievement

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    Jessica Whitley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. The current study explored the relationships between multidimensional self-concept, perceived strengths and academic achievement among a sample Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students. Results indicated that perceived self-concept and strengths were largely similar across groups. However, students in the two groups drew on different strengths to comprise their general self-concept. Findings are explored within the context of existing research and theory.

  9. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-11-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians' perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers' (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs' views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006-September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. CSPs' lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients' limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient-provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people's distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs

  10. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  11. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

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    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  12. Exploring factors impacting early childhood health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and communities: protocol for a population-based cohort study using data linkage (the ‘Defying the Odds’ study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Lina; Jorm, Louisa; Preen, David; Jones, Jocelyn; Joshy, Grace; Shepherd, Carrington; McAullay, Daniel; Eades, Sandra; Ball, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The ‘Defying the Odds’ study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0–5 years. Methods and analysis The study combines a retrospective cohort study that uses state-wide linked health and administrative data from 12 data sources for multiple generations within Aboriginal families in WA, with specifically collected survey data from health and social services supporting Aboriginal families in regions of WA. Data sources include perinatal/birth registration, hospital, emergency department, mental health services, drug and alcohol service use, mortality, infectious disease notifications, and child protection and family services. Multilevel regression models will be used to examine the intensity of admissions and presentations, mortality, intensity of long stays and morbidity-free survival (no admissions) for Aboriginal children born in WA in 2000–2013. Relationships between maternal (and grand-maternal) health and social factors and child health outcomes will be quantified. Community-level variation in outcomes for Aboriginal children and factors contributing to this variation will be examined, including the availability of culturally secure services. Online surveys were sent to staff members at relevant services to explore the scope, reach and cultural security of services available to support Aboriginal families across selected regions of WA. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for the study. Interpretation and dissemination are guided by the

  13. Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Ironfield, Natalie; Kelly, Claire M; Dart, Katrina; Arabena, Kerry; Bond, Kathy; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-08-22

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions. The Delphi consensus method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to be included in the guidelines. These statements describe helping actions that Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous frontline workers can take, and information they should have, to help someone who is engaging in NSSI. The statements were sourced from systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, books, websites and online materials, and existing NSSI courses. A panel was formed, comprising 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with expertise in NSSI. The panellists were presented with the helping statements via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest re-wording of statements and any additional helping statements that were not included in the original questionnaire. Statements were only accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥90% of panellists as essential or important. From a total of 185 statements shown to the expert panel, 115 were endorsed as helping statements to be included in the re-developed guidelines. A panel of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with expertise in NSSI were able to reach consensus on appropriate strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engaging in NSSI. The re-development of the guidelines has resulted in more comprehensive guidance than the earlier

  14. "Having to Say Everyday … I'm Not Black Enough … I'm Not White Enough." Discourses of Aboriginality in the Australian Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Cathie

    2017-01-01

    This paper interrogates discourses of Aboriginality about, and by, early career Aboriginal teachers as they negotiate their emergent professional identity in specific Australian school contexts. These discourses position the respondents via their ethnic and cultural background and intersect with self-positioning. This relates to the desire to be…

  15. Similar profile of cognitive impairment and recovery for Aboriginal Australians in treatment for episodic or chronic alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Maruff, Paul; Cairney, Sheree

    2011-08-01

    The cognitive impairment and recovery associated with chronic alcohol abuse and subsequent abstinence is well understood. However, the recovery profile following heavy episodic or 'binge' use, which is common among some Australian Aboriginal users, has not been investigated thoroughly and no empirical studies have examined chronic use in this population. The aim of this study was to identify and compare cognitive impairment and recovery associated with chronic and episodic alcohol use among Aboriginal Australians. Longitudinal case-control design. Residential alcohol treatment programmes in northern Australia. Forty chronic alcohol users, 24 episodic users and 41 healthy controls [mean age = 34.24; standard deviation (SD) = 9.73]. Cognitive assessments of visual motor, attention, memory, learning and executive functions at baseline (start of treatment), then 4 weeks and 8 weeks later. Reassessment of 31% of participants an average of 11 months later (SD = 4.4) comparing those who remained abstinent (n = 5), those who relapsed (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 19). At baseline, chronic and episodic alcohol users showed impaired visual motor, learning, memory and executive functions. With the exception of visual motor impairment, all deficits had improved to normal levels within 4 weeks. Visual motor deficits had normalized within 11 months. Performances did not differ at any time between chronic and episodic alcohol groups. In Aboriginal Australians, episodic drinking is associated with similar patterns of impairment and recovery as chronic alcohol use. Most cognitive deficits appear to recover within the first month of abstinence, while persisting visual motor problems recover within 1 year. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Australian Curriculum Implementation in a Remote Aboriginal School: A Curriculum Leader's Search for a Transformational Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the trial implementation of the Australian Curriculum in a remote Aboriginal school. It was a school that at the time was beginning to achieve successes with the development of dual-knowledge, transformational outcomes based curriculum that had its justification in the Northern Territory Curriculum Framework. Drawing on the…

  17. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)-developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-23

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the

  18. PCR Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Faecal Samples from Australian and Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensdale, Joshua T; Xian, Darren Ten Wei; Wei, Chooi Ming; Lv, Quanjun; Wen, Xiajian; Guo, Jing; Coorey, Ranil; LeSouëf, Peter; Lu, Fengmin; Zhang, Brad; Dykes, Gary A

    2018-03-31

    Recent public awareness campaigns on the risk of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes has placed pressure on governments to enforce stricter antimicrobial stewardship policies on the hospital and agricultural industry. This study aimed to screen faecal samples from Australian and Chinese children for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes to identify demographics at risk of carriage of these genes and examine antimicrobial stewardship policies from the two countries which may influence carriage. Faecal samples from 46 Australian and 53 Chinese children were screened for the presence of six clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes using PCR. Clinical and demographic data was also collected from each patient. Over 90% of faecal samples from Chinese children tested positive for β-lactam, macrolide, tetracycline, and aminoglycoside resistance genes, which was substantially higher than Australian samples. Besides country of origin, no clear trend could be seen to predict carriage of resistance genes. The exception to this was Chinese born children who immigrated to Australia having higher rates of carriage for bla TEM and tetM genes than children born and still living in Australia. These data indicated that Chinese children were more likely to carry certain antibiotic resistance genes than Australian children. The Chinese government has recently implemented strict policies to control the overuse of antibiotics in hospitals. However, many of these policies do not extend to the agricultural industry which could explain the differences seen in this study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Continuing disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications between aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M E; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A P; Sillars, Brett A; Bruce, David G; Davis, Wendy A

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA(1c) decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8-10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6-10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2-8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2-7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8-29.7 vs. 30.7-21.5%; P = 0.055). Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist.

  20. Intergenerational Ethnic Mobility among Canadian Aboriginal Populations in 2001

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    Boucher, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article deals with the contribution of intergenerational ethnic mobility tothe demographic reproduction of the Aboriginal groups in Canada: the NorthAmerican Indians, the Métis and the Inuit. To this effect, it attempts to see ifchildren in husband/wife census families keep the identity of their parents. Asexpected, children from endogamous couples generally keep their parents’identity. However, for most children from exogamous couples formed by anAboriginal person and a non-Aboriginal person, the Aboriginal identity prevailsover the non-Aboriginal identity. If Aboriginal identities were “not attractive”identities when declaring the ethnic affiliation of children in situations ofexogamous unions, then the size of the Aboriginal population in Canada wouldbe significantly smaller.RésuméCet article examine en quoi la mobilité ethnique intergénérationnelle contribueà la reproduction démographique des groupes autochtones du Canada; c'est-àdire: Les Amérindiens, les Métis et les Inuits. Pour ce faire, l’article tented’examiner si les enfants de familles de recensement époux et épouse gardentl'identité de leurs parents. Tel que prévu, les enfants issus de couples endogènesont tendance à garder l'identité de leurs parents. Cependant, pour la plupart desenfants issus de couples exogènes se composant d’une personne autochtone etd’une personne non-autochtone, l’identité autochtone l’emporte sur l’identiténon-autochtone. Si l'identité autochtone n'était pas une identité qui semble"attrayante" au moment de la déclaration de l’affiliation ethnique des enfantsdans le cas d’unions exogènes, la population autochtones du Canada serait bienmoindre.

  1. Yarning/Aboriginal storytelling: towards an understanding of an Indigenous perspective and its implications for research practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geia, Lynore K; Hayes, Barbara; Usher, Kim

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition of Indigenous perspectives from various parts of the world in relation to storytelling, research and its effects on practice. The recent emergence of storytelling or yarning as a research method in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island studies and other Indigenous peoples of the world is gaining momentum. Narratives, stories, storytelling and yarning are emerging methods in research and has wide ranging potential to shape conventional research discourse making research more meaningful and accessible for researchers. In this paper we argue for the importance of Indigenous research methods and Indigenous method(ology), within collaborative respectful partnerships with non-Indigenous researchers. It is imperative to take these challenging steps together towards better outcomes for Indigenous people and their communities. In the Australian context we as researchers cannot afford to allow the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and mainstream Australia health outcomes to grow even wider. One such pathway is the inclusion of Aboriginal storytelling or yarning from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait perspective within Indigenous and non-Indigenous research paradigms. Utilising Aboriginal storytelling or yarning will provide deeper understanding; complementing a two-way research paradigm for collaborative research. Furthermore, it has significant social implications for research and clinical practice amongst Indigenous populations; thus complementing the biomedical medical paradigm.

  2. Identification of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Patients in the Primary Health Care Setting

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    Audra de Witt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes and experience 30% higher mortality rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Primary health care (PHC services are increasingly being recognized as pivotal in improving Indigenous cancer patient outcomes. It is currently unknown whether patient information systems and practices in PHC settings accurately record Indigenous and cancer status. Being able to identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing services in PHC settings is the first step in improving outcomes.MethodsAboriginal Medical Centres, mainstream (non-Indigenous specific, and government-operated centers in Queensland were contacted and data were collected by telephone during the period from 2014 to 2016. Participants were asked to (i identify the number of patients diagnosed with cancer attending the service in the previous year; (ii identify the Indigenous status of these patients and if this information was available; and (iii advise how this information was obtained.ResultsTen primary health care centers (PHCCs across Queensland participated in this study. Four centers were located in regional areas, three in remote areas and three in major cities. All participating centers reported ability to identify Indigenous cancer patients attending their service and utilizing electronic Patient Care Information Systems (PCIS to manage their records; however, not all centers were able to identify Indigenous cancer patients in this way. Indigenous cancer patients were identified by PHCCs using PCIS (n = 8, searching paper records (n = 1, and combination of PCIS and staff recall (n = 1. Six different types of PCIS were being utilized by participating centers. There was no standardized way to identify Indigenous cancer patients across centers. Health service information systems, search functions and capacities of systems, and staff skill in extracting data using PCIS varied between centers

  3. The Aboriginal Australian Family Wellbeing Program: A Historical Analysis of the Conditions That Enabled Its Spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program—the Family Wellbeing (FWB program—to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years.Materials and methodsA historical account of the spread of the FWB Program was constructed using situational analysis, a theory-methods package derived from a poststructural interpretation of grounded theory methods. Data were collected from published empirical articles, evaluation reports and project articles, and interviews with 18 key actors in the spread of FWB. Social worlds and arenas maps were used to determine the organizations and their representative agents who were involved in FWB spread and to analyze the enabling and constraining conditions.ResultsThe program was transferred through three interwoven social arenas: employment and community development; training and capacity development; and social and emotional wellbeing promotion and empowerment research. Program spread was fostered by three primary conditions: government policies and the availability and Aboriginal control of funding and support; Aboriginal leadership, associated informal networks and capability; and research evidence that built credibility for the program.Discussion and conclusionThe continued demand-driven transfer of empowerment programs requires policies that enable Aboriginal control of funding and Aboriginal leadership and networks. Flexible and sustained coordination of

  4. Lifelong Learning Theory and Pre-Service Teachers' Development of Knowledge and Dispositions to Work with Australian Aboriginal Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Maria; Moriarty, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on previous research by the authors and others as well as lifelong learning theory to argue the case for providing pre-service teachers with deep and meaningful experiences over time that help them to build their personal capacity for developing knowledge and dispositions to work with Australian Aboriginal students, their…

  5. "People like numbers": a descriptive study of cognitive assessment methods in clinical practice for Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Kylie M; Pinkerton, Jennifer; Lindeman, Melissa A

    2013-01-31

    Achieving culturally fair assessments of cognitive functioning for Aboriginal people is difficult due to a scarcity of appropriately validated tools for use with this group. As a result, some Aboriginal people with cognitive impairments may lack fair and equitable access to services. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical practice in the Northern Territory regarding cognitive assessment for Aboriginal people thereby providing some guidance for clinicians new to this practice setting. Qualitative enquiry was used to describe practice context, reasons for assessment, and current practices in assessing cognition for Aboriginal Australians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians working with Aboriginal clients in central and northern Australia. Results pertaining to assessment methods are reported. A range of standardised tests were utilised with little consistency across clinical practice. Nevertheless, it was recognised that such tests bear severe limitations, requiring some modification and significant caution in their interpretation. Clinicians relied heavily on informal assessment or observations, contextual information and clinical judgement. Cognitive tests developed specifically for Aboriginal people are urgently needed. In the absence of appropriate, validated tests, clinicians have relied on and modified a range of standardised and informal assessments, whilst recognising the severe limitations of these. Past clinical training has not prepared clinicians adequately for assessing Aboriginal clients, and experience and clinical judgment were considered crucial for fair interpretation of test scores. Interpretation guidelines may assist inexperienced clinicians to consider whether they are achieving fair assessments of cognition for Aboriginal clients.

  6. Experience of racism and tooth brushing among pregnant Aboriginal Australians: exploring psychosocial mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, J; Jamieson, L M; Priest, N; Parker, E J; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Lawrence, H P; Broughton, J; Paradies, Y

    2014-09-01

    Despite burgeoning evidence regarding the pathways by which experiences of racism influence health outcomes, little attention has been paid to the relationship between racism and oral health-related behaviours in particular. We hypothesised that self-reported racism was associated with tooth brushing, and that this association was mediated by perceived stress and sense of control and moderated by social support. Data from 365 pregnant Aboriginal Australian women were used to evaluate tooth brushing behaviour, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, general health, risk behaviours and racism exposure. Bivariate associations were explored and hierarchical logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tooth brushing. Perceived stress and sense of control were examined as mediators of the association between self-reported racism and tooth brushing using binary mediation with bootstrapping. High levels of self-reported racism persisted as a risk indicator for tooth brushing (OR 0.51, 95%CI 0.27,0.98) after controlling for significant covariates. Perceived stress mediated the relationship between self-reported racism and tooth brushing: the direct effect of racism on tooth brushing was attenuated, and the indirect effect on tooth brushing was significant (beta coefficient -0.09; bias-corrected 95%CI -0.166,-0.028; 48.1% of effect mediated). Sense of control was insignificant as a mediator of the relationship between racism and tooth brushing. High levels of self-reported racism were associated with non-optimal tooth brushing behaviours, and perceived stress mediated this association among this sample of pregnant Aboriginal women.. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  7. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Strategy 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Council, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Despite determined effort much more needs to be done to close the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are the first Australians with the oldest continuing cultures in human history. Governments across Australia affirm the right of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people to…

  8. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  9. Aboriginal experiences of cancer and care coordination: Lessons from the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rachel; Micklem, Jasmine; Yerrell, Paul; Banham, David; Morey, Kim; Stajic, Janet; Eckert, Marion; Lawrence, Monica; Stewart, Harold B; Brown, Alex

    2018-04-24

    Aboriginal people with cancer experience worse outcomes than other Australians for a range of complex and interrelated reasons. A younger age at diagnosis, higher likelihood of more advanced cancer or cancer type with poorer prognosis, geographic isolation and cultural and language diversity mean that patient pathways are potentially more complex for Aboriginal people with cancer. In addition, variation in the quality and acceptability of care may influence cancer outcomes. This study sought to understand how care coordination influences Aboriginal people's experiences of cancer treatment. Interviews with 29 Aboriginal patients or cancer survivors, 11 carers and 22 service providers were carried out. Interviews were semi-structured and sought to elicit experiences of cancer and the health-care system. The manifest content of the cancer narratives was entered onto a cancer pathway mapping tool and underlying themes were identified inductively. The practice of cancer care coordination was found to address the needs of Aboriginal patients and their families/carers in 4 main areas: "navigating the health system"; "information and communication"; "things to manage at home"; and "cultural safety". The CanDAD findings indicate that, when the need for cancer care coordination is met, it facilitated continuity of care in a range of ways that may potentially improve cancer outcomes. However, the need remains unmet for many. Findings support the importance of dedicated care coordination to enable Aboriginal people to receive adequate and appropriate patient-centred care, so that the unacceptable disparity in cancer outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people can be addressed. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  11. Transfers to metropolitan hospitals and coronary angiography for rural Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients with acute ischaemic heart disease in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-05-01

    Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as a filter to reduce rural residents

  12. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities......, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...

  13. The Importance of Insects in Australian Aboriginal Society: A Dictionary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Si

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects and their products have long been used in Indigenous Australian societies as food, medicine and construction material, and given prominent roles in myths, traditional songs and ceremonies. However, much of the available information on the uses of insects in Australia remains anecdotal. In this essay, we review published dictionaries of Aboriginal languages spoken in many parts of Australia, to provide an overview of the Indigenous names and knowledge of insects and their products. We find that that native honeybees and insect larvae (particularly of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera are the most highly prized insects, and should be recognized as cultural keystone species. Many insects mentioned in dictionaries lack scientific identifications, however, and we urge documentary linguists to address this important issue.

  14. Men, hearts and minds: developing and piloting culturally specific psychometric tools assessing psychosocial stress and depression in central Australian Aboriginal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alex; Mentha, Ricky; Howard, Michael; Rowley, Kevin; Reilly, Rachel; Paquet, Catherine; O'Dea, Kerin

    2016-02-01

    The health inequalities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are well documented but there are few empirical data outlining the burden, consequences, experience and expression of depressive illness. This paper seeks to address the lack of accessible, culturally specific measures of psychosocial stress, depression or quality of life developed for, and validated within, this population. Building on an extensive qualitative phase of research, a psychosocial questionnaire comprising novel and adapted scales was developed and piloted with 189 Aboriginal men across urban and remote settings in central Australia. With a view to refining this tool for future use, its underlying structure was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, and the predictive ability of the emergent psychosocial constructs assessed with respect to depressive symptomatology. The latent structure of the psychosocial questionnaire was conceptually aligned with the components of the a priori model on which the questionnaire was based. Regression modelling indicated that depressive symptoms were driven by a sense of injury and chronic stress and had a non-linear association with socioeconomic position. This represents the first community-based survey of psychosocial stress and depression in Aboriginal men. It provides both knowledge of, and an appropriate process for, the further development of psychometric tools, including quality of life, in this population. Further research with larger and more diverse samples of Aboriginal people is required to refine the measurement of key constructs such as chronic stress, socioeconomic position, social support and connectedness. The further refinement, validation against criterion-based methods and incorporation within primary care services is essential.

  15. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Aboriginal children attending hospital emergency departments in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia: a seven-year descriptive study

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    Susan Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA can cause bacterial skin infections that are common problems for Aboriginal children in New South Wales (NSW. MRSA is not notifiable in NSW and surveillance data describing incidence and prevalence are not routinely collected. The study aims to describe the epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Aboriginal children in the Hunter New England Local Health District (HNELHD. Methods: We linked data from Pathology North Laboratory Management System (AUSLAB and the HNELHD patient administration system from 33 hospital emergency departments. Data from 2008–2014 for CA-MRSA isolates were extracted. Demographic characteristics included age, gender, Aboriginality, rurality and seasonality. Results: Of the 1222 individuals in this study, 408 (33.4% were Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people were younger with 45.8% aged less than 10 years compared to 25.9% of non-Aboriginal people. Most isolates came from Aboriginal people who attended the regional Tamworth Hospital (193/511 isolates from 149 people. A larger proportion of Aboriginal people, compared to non-Aboriginal people, resided in outer regional (64.9% vs 37.2% or remote/very remote areas (2.5% vs 0.5%. Most infections occurred in summer and early autumn. For Aboriginal patients, there was a downward trend through autumn, continuing through winter and spring. Discussion: Aboriginal people at HNELHD emergency departments appear to represent a greater proportion of people with skin infections with CA-MRSA than non-Aboriginal people. CA-MRSA is not notifiable in NSW; however, pathology and hospital data are available and can provide valuable indicative data to health districts for planning and policy development.

  16. Historical Factors, Discrimination and Oral Health among Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Margie; Jamieson, Lisa; Kapellas, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations. This relationship, however, is far from causal in any straight-forward way. In support of the work by Paradies, research from the U.S. also shows that racism, both explicit and subtle, contributes to chronic disease and suffering among ethnic minorities. While the exploration of the perceived or self-reported racial discrimination is recent, this concept has increasing evidence to support its relationship to poor health outcomes.

  17. Barriers to effective perioperative communication in indigenous Australians: an audit of progress since 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W Y C; Blum, P; Spain, B

    2004-08-01

    This prospective study was designed to elucidate barriers limiting effective perioperative communication between indigenous Australians and anaesthetists, and to identify strategies for improving communication. A questionnaire was used to collect data on 1040 consecutive patients undergoing anaesthesia at Royal Darwin Hospital between February and March 2003. 27.1% of these patients described themselves as Aboriginal. Aboriginal patients were more likely to undergo emergency surgery and were more likely to be classified as ASA 3, 4 or 5 than non-indigenous patients. Communication difficulties were identified in 28.7% of all Aboriginal patients, which was 31 times higher than those in non-Aboriginal patients. The most common reason identified for this was difficulty in speaking English. Only 17.7% of Aboriginal patients presenting to the operating theatre spoke English as their first language. Unfortunately, the anaesthetic team utilized the Aboriginal interpreter service in only a minority of cases. Communication difficulty in indigenous Australians is pervasive and often goes unrecognized. The results suggest that heath care providers may need staff training in cross-cultural communication and that protocols need to be developed within the health care system so that interpreters are called upon automatically early in the admission process.

  18. Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Ray; Rohrlach, Adam; Soubrier, Julien; Bover, Pere; Llamas, Bastien; Tuke, Jonathan; Bean, Nigel; Abdullah-Highfold, Ali; Agius, Shane; O'Donoghue, Amy; O'Loughlin, Isabel; Sutton, Peter; Zilio, Fran; Walshe, Keryn; Williams, Alan N; Turney, Chris S M; Williams, Matthew; Richards, Stephen M; Mitchell, Robert J; Kowal, Emma; Stephen, John R; Williams, Lesley; Haak, Wolfgang; Cooper, Alan

    2017-04-13

    Aboriginal Australians represent one of the longest continuous cultural complexes known. Archaeological evidence indicates that Australia and New Guinea were initially settled approximately 50 thousand years ago (ka); however, little is known about the processes underlying the enormous linguistic and phenotypic diversity within Australia. Here we report 111 mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from historical Aboriginal Australian hair samples, whose origins enable us to reconstruct Australian phylogeographic history before European settlement. Marked geographic patterns and deep splits across the major mitochondrial haplogroups imply that the settlement of Australia comprised a single, rapid migration along the east and west coasts that reached southern Australia by 49-45 ka. After continent-wide colonization, strong regional patterns developed and these have survived despite substantial climatic and cultural change during the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Remarkably, we find evidence for the continuous presence of populations in discrete geographic areas dating back to around 50 ka, in agreement with the notable Aboriginal Australian cultural attachment to their country.

  19. Increased risk of asthma in overweight children born large for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L A; Guerra, S; Anto, J M; Postma, D; Koppelman, G H; de Jongste, J C; Gehring, U; Smit, H A; Wijga, A H

    2017-08-01

    Being born large for gestational age (LGA) is a marker of increased growth velocity in fetal life and a risk factor for childhood overweight. Both being born LGA and childhood overweight may influence the development of asthma, although the role of overweight in the association between LGA and childhood asthma is unclear. Importantly, recent studies have suggested that the association between overweight and asthma may be related to non-allergic pathways. If this also applies to the association between LGA and asthma, the association between being born LGA and asthma may be different for atopic and non-atopic children. We investigated the association of being LGA with the prevalence of asthma at age 8 in atopic and non-atopic children and the role of overweight in this association. Complete data on asthma, anthropometry and atopy at age of 8 years, and potential confounders were available for 1608 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort. Odds ratios for the association between LGA and asthma in atopic and non-atopic children were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Overweight was assessed as a potential modifier of the association between LGA and asthma. Being born LGA was not significantly associated with asthma at age of 8 in atopic and non-atopic children. However, overweight at age of 8 years modified the association between asthma at age of 8 and LGA. In non-atopic children, children who were born LGA and were overweight at age of 8 years had a significantly increased odds of asthma compared to non-LGA, non-overweight children (adj OR 7.04; 95% CI 2.2-24). We observed that non-atopic children born LGA, who were overweight by 8 years have an increased risk of asthma. If confirmed, these findings suggest that non-atopic children born LGA may be identified early in life as a high-risk group for asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Potential Effectiveness of Specific Anti-Smoking Mass Media Advertisements among Australian Indigenous Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Bayly, Megan C.; Sharplin, Greg R.; Durkin, Sarah J.; Miller, Caroline L.; Givans, Sharon E.; Warne, Charles D.; Wakefield, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156…

  1. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets among Australian children: an Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F; Simm, Peter J; Rodda, Christine P; Garnett, Sarah P; Zacharin, Margaret R; Ward, Leanne M; Geddes, Janet; Cherian, Sarah; Zurynski, Yvonne; Cowell, Christopher T

    2012-04-16

    To determine the incidence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency rickets in Australian children. 18-month questionnaire-based prospective observational study, using Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) data. Australian paediatricians and child health workers, January 2006 - July 2007. Children aged ≤ 15 years with vitamin D deficiency rickets (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] ≤ 50 nmol/L, and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels [> 229 IU/L] and/or radiological rickets). Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Description of demographics, clinical presentation, identification and further analysis of overrepresented groups, and treatment regimens compared with best-practice guidelines. We identified 398 children with vitamin D deficiency (55% male; median age, 6.3 years [range, 0.2-15 years]). The overall incidence in children ≤ 15 years of age in Australia was 4.9/100 000/year. All had a low 25OHD level (median, 28 nmol/L [range, 5-50 nmol]) and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level (median, 407 IU/L [range, 229-5443 IU/L]), and 48 (12%) were hypocalcaemic. Ninety-five children had wrist x-rays, of whom 67 (71%) had rachitic changes. Most (98%) had dark or intermediate skin colour and 18% of girls were partially or completely veiled. Most children were born in Africa (252; 63%) and 75% of children were refugees. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely related to serum vitamin D levels in children rickets is a significant problem in Australia among known high-risk groups. Public health campaigns to prevent, identify and tre@vitamin D deficiency, especially in high-risk groups, are essential.

  2. Predicting absolute risk of type 2 diabetes using age and waist circumference values in an aboriginal Australian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odewumi Adegbija

    Full Text Available To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination.A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors.Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2 for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6 for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease.The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians.

  3. "There's a housing crisis going on in Sydney for Aboriginal people": focus group accounts of housing and perceived associations with health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melanie J; Williamson, Anna B; Fernando, Peter; Redman, Sally; Vincent, Frank

    2016-05-24

    Poor housing is widely cited as an important determinant of the poor health status of Aboriginal Australians, as for indigenous peoples in other wealthy nations with histories of colonisation such as Canada, the United States of America and New Zealand. While the majority of Aboriginal Australians live in urban areas, most research into housing and its relationship with health has been conducted with those living in remote communities. This study explores the views of Aboriginal people living in Western Sydney about their housing circumstances and what relationships, if any, they perceive between housing and health. Four focus groups were conducted with clients and staff of an Aboriginal community-controlled health service in Western Sydney (n = 38). Inductive, thematic analysis was conducted using framework data management methods in NVivo10. Five high-level themes were derived: the battle to access housing; secondary homelessness; overcrowding; poor dwelling conditions; and housing as a key determinant of health. Participants associated their challenging housing experiences with poor physical health and poor social and emotional wellbeing. Housing issues were said to affect people differently across the life course; participants expressed particular concern that poor housing was harming the health and developmental trajectories of many urban Aboriginal children. Housing was perceived as a pivotal determinant of health and wellbeing that either facilitates or hinders prospects for full and healthy lives. Many of the specific health concerns participants attributed to poor housing echo existing epidemiological research findings. These findings suggest that housing may be a key intervention point for improving the health of urban Aboriginal Australians.

  4. Engaging Australian Aboriginal narratives to challenge attitudes and create empathy in health care: a methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Toni; Sim, Moira; Bessarab, Dawn; Mak, Donna; Hayward, Colleen; Rudd, Cobie

    2016-06-02

    Unconscious bias and negative attitudes towards minority groups have detrimental effects on the way health care is, or is not, provided to these groups. Recognition of racist attitudes and behaviours as well as understanding clients' experiences of health and health care are pivotal to developing better health care strategies to positively impact on the quality and safety of care provided to Indigenous people. Indigenous research demands inclusive research processes and the use of culturally appropriate methodologies. This paper presents a methodological account of collecting narratives which accurately and respectfully reflect Aboriginal Australians' experiences with health care in Western Australia. The purpose of these narratives is to provide health students and professionals with an opportunity to 'walk-in the shoes' of Aboriginal people where face-to-face interaction is not feasible. With the incorporation of Indigenous peoples' voices being an important link in cultural safety, the project was led by an Indigenous Reference group, who encouraged active participation of Aboriginal people in all areas of the project. Using a phenomenological approach and guided by the Indigenous Reference group, yarning data collection was implemented to collect stories focusing on Aboriginal people's experiences with health care services. An open-access, on-line website was established to host education resources developed from these "yarns". Yarning provided a rich source of information on personal experiences and encouraged the story provider to recognise their facilitative role in the research process. While the methodology used in this project was lengthy and labour-intensive it afforded a respectful manner for story collection and highlighted several innate flaws when Western methods are applied to an Indigenous context. Engagement of an Indigenous Reference Group was pivotal to designing an appropriate methodology that incorporated the voices of Aboriginal people in a

  5. A Comparison of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Students on the Inter-Related Dimensions of Self-Concept, Strengths and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Jessica; Rawana, Edward; Brownlee, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Self-concept has been found to play a key role in academic and psychosocial outcomes for students. Appreciating the factors that have a bearing upon self-concept may be of particular importance for Aboriginal students, many of whom experience poorer outcomes than non-Aboriginal Canadians. In this study, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the…

  6. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  7. Incidence and predictors of cognitive impairment and dementia in Aboriginal Australians: A follow-up study of 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Dina; Smith, Kate; Fenner, Stephen; Hyde, Zoë; Atkinson, David; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; Flicker, Leon

    2016-03-01

    Aboriginal Australians are reported to develop dementia earlier than the general population. The causes remain unknown. This was a longitudinal study of 363 participants aged ≥45 years. Consensus diagnoses were established for cognitive impairment or dementia. At follow-up, 189 people (mean ± standard deviation age, 65.4 ± 10.3 years) participated, as 109 (30%) had died and 65 (18%) were unavailable. The incidence of cognitive impairment or dementia was 52.6 (95% confidence interval 33.9, 81.5) per 1000 person-years (380.3 total person-years) and for dementia was 21.0 (10.5, 42.1) per 1000 person-years (380.3 person-years total) over the age 60 years. Longitudinal risk factors associated with a decline from normal cognition to impairment were age and head injury. Other associations with cognitive decline were stroke, head injury, nonaspirin analgesics, lower BMI, and higher systolic BP. Dementia incidence in Aboriginal Australians is among the highest in the world, and is associated with age and head injury. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Fabienne; Wilkins, Russell; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193), we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal) and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal). From 1991-1995 to 1996-2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05-2.01)]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64-4.83)]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66-0.92)], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71-6.62)]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99-4.85)]. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  9. Temporal trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in rural and northern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Simonet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective was to assess trends in Inuit, First Nations and non-Aboriginal birth outcomes in the rural and northern regions of Quebec. Study design and methods. In a birth cohort-based study of all births to residents of rural and northern Quebec from 1991 through 2000 (n = 177,193, we analyzed birth outcomes and infant mortality for births classified by maternal mother tongue (Inuit, First Nations or non-Aboriginal and by community type (predominantly First Nations, Inuit or non-Aboriginal. Results. From 1991–1995 to 1996–2000, there was a trend of increasing rates of preterm birth for all 6 study groups. In all rural and northern areas, low birth weight rates increased significantly only for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.45 (95% CI 1.05–2.01]. Stillbirth rates showed a non-significant increase for the Inuit mother tongue group [RR1.76 (0.64–4.83]. Neonatal mortality rates decreased significantly in the predominantly non-Aboriginal communities and in the non-Aboriginal mother tongue group [RR0.78 (0.66–0.92], and increased non-significantly for the First Nations mother tongue group [RR2.17 (0.71–6.62]. Perinatal death rates increased for the First Nations mother tongue grouping in northern areas [RR2.19 (0.99–4.85]. Conclusion. There was a disconcerting rise of some mortality outcomes for births to First Nations and Inuit mother tongue women and to women in predominantly First Nations and Inuit communities, in contrast to some improvements for births to non-Aboriginal mother tongue women and to women in predominantly non-Aboriginal communities in rural or northern Quebec, indicating a need for improving perinatal and neonatal health for Aboriginal populations in rural and northern regions.

  10. The Structure of Aboriginal Child Welfare in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Sinha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal children are currently overrepresented in out-of-home care in Canada; this extends a historical pattern of child removal that began with the residential school system. The overrepresentation of Aboriginal children persists despite legislative and structural changes intended to reduce the number of Aboriginal children in care. Several recent developments suggest potential for improvement in services for Aboriginal children and families in the near future. However, greater information about the structure of Aboriginal child welfare in Canada is needed to support program and policy development. We present a broad overview of the variation in Aboriginal child welfare legislation and standards, service delivery models, and funding formulas across Canadian provinces and territories. We draw on this review to suggest specific priorities for future research.

  11. Injury risk in British Columbia, Canada, 1986 to 2009: are Aboriginal children and youth over-represented?

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    George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod

    2015-12-01

    Children and youth worldwide are at high risk of injury resulting in morbidity, disability or mortality. Disparities in risk exist between and within countries, and by sex and ethnicity. Our aim is to contribute data on disparities of injury rates for Aboriginal children and youth compared with those of the general population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, by examining risks for the two populations, utilizing provincial administrative data over a 24-year period. Hospital discharge records from the provincial health care database for children and youth were used to identify injury for the years 1986 to 2009. Within the total BC population, the Aboriginal population was identified. Crude rates and standardized relative risks (SRR) of hospitalization were calculated, by year and category of injury type and external cause, and compared to the total BC population for males and females under age 25 years. Over the 24-year period, substantive decreases were found in hospitalization injury risks for children and youth in both Aboriginal and total populations, for both sexes, and for most categories and types of injuries. Risk in overall injury dropped by 69% for the Aboriginal population and by 66% for the total BC population, yet in every year, the Aboriginal population had a higher risk than the total BC population. There were over 70% declines in risks among females of intentionally inflicted injury by another, among both the Aboriginal and total BC populations. Risk of injury caused by transport vehicles has decreased by an overwhelming 83% and 72% for the Aboriginal male population and for the total BC male population, respectively. The over 70% declines in risks for females of intentionally inflicted injury by another, among both the Aboriginal and total BC populations is excellent news. Risk of injury caused by transport vehicles for males decreased overwhelmingly for both populations. Disparities in rates between the Aboriginal population and total BC

  12. Experiencing racism in health care: the mental health impacts for Victorian Aboriginal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin

    2014-07-07

    To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism.

  13. Early identification and preventive care for elevated cardiovascular disease risk within a remote Australian Aboriginal primary health care service

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    O'Dea Kerin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the single greatest contributor to the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Our objective is to determine if holistic CVD risk assessment, introduced as part of the new Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Adult Health Check (AHC, results in better identification of elevated CVD risk, improved delivery of preventive care for CVD and improvements in the CVD risk profile for Aboriginal adults in a remote community. Methods Interrupted time series study over six years in a remote primary health care (PHC service involving Aboriginal adults identified with elevated CVD risk (N = 64. Several process and outcome measures were audited at 6 monthly intervals for three years prior to the AHC (the intervention and three years following: (i the proportion of guideline scheduled CVD preventive care services delivered, (ii mean CVD medications prescribed and dispensed, (iii mean PHC consultations, (iv changes in participants' CVD risk factors and estimated absolute CVD risk and (v mean number of CVD events and iatrogenic events. Results Twenty-five percent of AHC participants were identified as having elevated CVD risk. Of these, 84% had not been previously identified during routine care. Following the intervention, there were significant improvements in the recorded delivery of preventive care services for CVD (30% to 53%, and prescription of CVD related medications (28% to 89% (P P = 0.004 following the intervention. However, there were no significant changes in the mean number of PHC consultations or mean number of CVD events or iatrogenic events. Conclusions Holistic CVD risk assessment during an AHC can lead to better and earlier identification of elevated CVD risk, improvement in the recorded delivery of preventive care services for CVD, intensification of treatment for CVD, and improvements in participants' CVD risk profile. Further research is required on

  14. A retrospective population-based cohort study identifying target areas for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

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    Richmond Peter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a major cause of hospitalisation in young children. Many factors can lead to increased risk of ALRI in children and predispose a child to hospitalisation, but population attributable fractions for different risk factors and how these fractions differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children is unknown. This study investigates population attributable fractions of known infant and maternal risk factors for ALRI to inform prevention strategies that target high-risk groups or particular risk factors. Methods A retrospective population-based data linkage study of 245,249 singleton births in Western Australia. Population attributable fractions of known maternal and infant risk factors for hospitalisation with ALRI between 1996 and 2005 were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Results The overall ALRI hospitalisation rate was 16.1/1,000 person-years for non-Aboriginal children and 93.0/1,000 for Aboriginal children. Male gender, being born in autumn, gestational age Conclusions The population attributable fractions estimated in this study should help in guiding public health interventions to prevent ALRI. A key risk factor for all children is maternal smoking during pregnancy, and multiple previous pregnancies and autumnal births are important high-risk groups. Specific key target areas are reducing elective caesareans in non-Aboriginal women and reducing teenage pregnancies and improving access to services and living conditions for the Aboriginal population.

  15. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    OpenAIRE

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2010-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children...

  16. Antenatal services for Aboriginal women: the relevance of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Tracy; Walker, Roz

    2010-01-01

    Due to persistent significantly poorer Aboriginal perinatal outcomes, the Women's and Newborns' Health Network, Western Australian Department of Health, required a comprehensive appraisal of antenatal services available to Aboriginal women as a starting point for future service delivery modelling. A services audit was conducted to ascertain the usage frequency and characteristics of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women in Western Australia (WA). Telephone interviews were undertaken with eligible antenatal services utilising a purpose specific service audit tool comprising questions in five categories: 1) general characteristics; 2) risk assessment; 3) treatment, risk reduction and education; 4) access; and 5) quality of care. Data were analysed according to routine antenatal care (e.g. risk assessment, treatment and risk reduction), service status (Aboriginal specific or non-specific) and application of cultural responsiveness. Significant gaps in appropriate antenatal services for Aboriginal women in metropolitan, rural and remote regions in WA were evident. Approximately 75% of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women have not achieved a model of service delivery consistent with the principles of culturally responsive care, with few services incorporating Aboriginal specific antenatal protocols/programme, maintaining access or employing Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). Of 42 audited services, 18 Aboriginal specific and 24 general antenatal services reported utilisation by Aboriginal women. Of these, nine were identified as providing culturally responsive service delivery, incorporating key indicators of cultural security combined with highly consistent delivery of routine antenatal care. One service was located in the metropolitan area and eight in rural or remote locations. The audit of antenatal services in WA represents a significant step towards a detailed understanding of which services are most highly utilised and their defining characteristics

  17. Developing an Exploratory Framework Linking Australian Aboriginal Peoples’ Connection to Country and Concepts of Wellbeing

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    Bruce Bolam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people across Australia suffer significant health inequalities compared with the non-Indigenous population. Evidence indicates that inroads can be made to reduce these inequalities by better understanding social and cultural determinants of health, applying holistic notions of health and developing less rigid definitions of wellbeing. The following article draws on qualitative research on Victorian Aboriginal peoples’ relationship to their traditional land (known as Country and its link to wellbeing, in an attempt to tackle this. Concepts of wellbeing, Country and nature have also been reviewed to gain an understanding of this relationship. An exploratory framework has been developed to understand this phenomenon focusing on positive (e.g., ancestry and partnerships and negative (e.g., destruction of Country and racism factors contributing to Aboriginal peoples’ health. The outcome is an explanation of how Country is a fundamental component of Aboriginal Victorian peoples’ wellbeing and the framework articulates the forces that impact positively and negatively on this duality. This review is critical to improving not only Aboriginal peoples’ health but also the capacity of all humanity to deal with environmental issues like disconnection from nature and urbanisation.

  18. Measuring organisational-level Aboriginal cultural climate to tailor cultural safety strategies.

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    Gladman, Justin; Ryder, Courtney; Walters, Lucie K

    2015-01-01

    Australian medical schools have taken on a social accountability mandate to provide culturally safe contexts in order to encourage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to engage in medical education and to ensure that present and future clinicians provide health services that contribute to improving the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Many programs have sought to improve cultural safety through training at an individual level; however, it is well recognised that learners tend to internalise the patterns of behaviour to which they are commonly exposed. This project aimed to measure and reflect on the cultural climate of an Australian rural clinical school (RCS) as a whole and the collective attitudes of three different professional groups: clinicians, clinical academics and professional staff. The project then drew on Mezirow's Transformative Learning theory to design strategies to build on the cultural safety of the organisation. Clinicians, academic and professional staff at an Australian RCS were invited to participate in an online survey expressing their views on Aboriginal health using part of a previously validated tool. Survey response rate was 63%. All three groups saw Aboriginal health as a social priority. All groups recognised the fundamental role of community control in Aboriginal health; however, clinical academics were considerably more likely to disagree that the Western medical model suited the health needs of Aboriginal people. Clinicians were more likely to perceive that they treated Aboriginal patients the same as other patients. There was only weak evidence of future commitments to Aboriginal health. Importantly, clinicians, academics and professional staff demonstrated differences in their cultural safety profile which indicated the need for a tailored approach to cultural safety learning in the future. Through tailored approaches to cross-cultural training opportunities we are likely to ensure

  19. An exploration of inter-organisational partnership assessment tools in the context of Australian Aboriginal-mainstream partnerships: a scoping review of the literature.

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    Tsou, Christina; Haynes, Emma; Warner, Wayne D; Gray, Gordon; Thompson, Sandra C

    2015-04-23

    The need for better partnerships between Aboriginal organisations and mainstream agencies demands attention on process and relational elements of these partnerships, and improving partnership functioning through transformative or iterative evaluation procedures. This paper presents the findings of a literature review which examines the usefulness of existing partnership tools to the Australian Aboriginal-mainstream partnership (AMP) context. Three sets of best practice principles for successful AMP were selected based on authors' knowledge and experience. Items in each set of principles were separated into process and relational elements and used to guide the analysis of partnership assessment tools. The review and analysis of partnership assessment tools were conducted in three distinct but related parts. Part 1- identify and select reviews of partnership tools; part 2 - identify and select partnership self-assessment tool; part 3 - analysis of selected tools using AMP principles. The focus on relational and process elements in the partnership tools reviewed is consistent with the focus of Australian AMP principles by reconciliation advocates; however, historical context, lived experience, cultural context and approaches of Australian Aboriginal people represent key deficiencies in the tools reviewed. The overall assessment indicated that the New York Partnership Self-Assessment Tool and the VicHealth Partnership Analysis Tools reflect the greatest number of AMP principles followed by the Nuffield Partnership Assessment Tool. The New York PSAT has the strongest alignment with the relational elements while VicHealth and Nuffield tools showed greatest alignment with the process elements in the chosen AMP principles. Partnership tools offer opportunities for providing evidence based support to partnership development. The multiplicity of tools in existence and the reported uniqueness of each partnership, mean the development of a generic partnership analysis for AMP

  20. Black on White: or varying shades of grey? Indigenous Australian photomedia artists and the ‘making of’ Aboriginality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 the Centre for Contemporary Photography in Melbourne presented the Indigenous photo-media exhibition Black on White. Promising to explore Indigenous perspectives on non-Aboriginality, its catalogue set forth two questions: how do Aboriginal artists see the people and culture that surrounds

  1. Albuminuria in Australian Aboriginal people: prevalence and associations with components of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, K G; Iser, D M; Best, J D; O'Dea, K; Leonard, D; McDermott, R

    2000-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and associations with the metabolic syndrome of albuminuria among Australian Aboriginal people. Early-morning urine specimens were collected as part of community-based risk factor surveys assessing the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in eight remote communities, with a sample size of 1,075 people. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin : creatinine ratio 3.4-33.9 mg/mmol, macroalbuminuria as albumin: creatinine ratio equal to or greater than 34 mg/mmol. There were high prevalences of microalbuminuria (men 22.2 %, women 26.9 %) and of macroalbuminuria (men 10.4%, women 13.5%). There were highly statistically significant linear associations of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria with increasing number of coexisting components of the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity): among people with zero, one, two and three to five of these conditions, respectively, prevalence of microalbuminuria was 16%, 20%, 36% and 32% (p < 0.001); prevalence of macroalbuminuria was 2%, 6%, 12% and 32% (p < 0.001). There were independent associations of microalbuminuria with hypertension (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval = 2.36, 1.63-3.42) and diabetes (2.10, 1.28-3.45): macroalbuminuria was independently associated with hypertension (6.39, 3.93-10.4), diabetes (3.49, 1.93-6.28) and abdominal obesity (4.56, 2.40-8.64) and had a weaker association with insulin resistance (1.99, 1.12-3.54). Dyslipidaemia and impaired glucose tolerance were neither independently associated with microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria, nor was insulin resistance or abdominal obesity independently associated with microalbuminuria. There was a strong clustering of albuminuria with components of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity are major contributors to high rates of albuminuria among Australian Aboriginal people.

  2. Research protocol for the Picture Talk Project: a qualitative study on research and consent with remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

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    Fitzpatrick, Emily F M; Carter, Maureen; Oscar, June; Lawford, Tom; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; D'Antoine, Heather A; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-12-28

    Research with Indigenous populations is not always designed with cultural sensitivity. Few publications evaluate or describe in detail seeking consent for research with Indigenous participants. When potential participants are not engaged in a culturally respectful manner, participation rates and research quality can be adversely affected. It is unethical to proceed with research without truly informed consent. We describe a culturally appropriate research protocol that is invited by Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley in Western Australia. The Picture Talk Project is a research partnership with local Aboriginal leaders who are also chief investigators. We will interview Aboriginal leaders about research, community engagement and the consent process and hold focus groups with Aboriginal community members about individual consent. Cultural protocols will be applied to recruit and conduct research with participants. Transcripts will be analysed using NVivo10 qualitative software and themes synthesised to highlight the key issues raised by the community about the research process. This protocol will guide future research with the Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley and may inform the approach to research with other Indigenous communities of Australia or the world. It must be noted that no community is the same and all research requires local consultation and input. To conduct culturally sensitive research, respected local people from the community who have knowledge of cultural protocol and language are engaged to guide each step of the research process from the project design to the delivery of results. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (No. 2012/348, reference:14760), the Western Australia Country Health Service Ethics Committee (No. 2012:15), the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and reviewed by the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum Research Sub-Committee (No. 2012

  3. “There’s a housing crisis going on in Sydney for Aboriginal people”: focus group accounts of housing and perceived associations with health

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    Melanie J. Andersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor housing is widely cited as an important determinant of the poor health status of Aboriginal Australians, as for indigenous peoples in other wealthy nations with histories of colonisation such as Canada, the United States of America and New Zealand. While the majority of Aboriginal Australians live in urban areas, most research into housing and its relationship with health has been conducted with those living in remote communities. This study explores the views of Aboriginal people living in Western Sydney about their housing circumstances and what relationships, if any, they perceive between housing and health. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with clients and staff of an Aboriginal community-controlled health service in Western Sydney (n = 38. Inductive, thematic analysis was conducted using framework data management methods in NVivo10. Results Five high-level themes were derived: the battle to access housing; secondary homelessness; overcrowding; poor dwelling conditions; and housing as a key determinant of health. Participants associated their challenging housing experiences with poor physical health and poor social and emotional wellbeing. Housing issues were said to affect people differently across the life course; participants expressed particular concern that poor housing was harming the health and developmental trajectories of many urban Aboriginal children. Conclusions Housing was perceived as a pivotal determinant of health and wellbeing that either facilitates or hinders prospects for full and healthy lives. Many of the specific health concerns participants attributed to poor housing echo existing epidemiological research findings. These findings suggest that housing may be a key intervention point for improving the health of urban Aboriginal Australians.

  4. HIV and sexual health knowledge and sexual experience among Australian-born and overseas-born students in Sydney.

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    Song, Angela; Richters, Juliet; Crawford, June; Kippax, Sue

    2005-09-01

    To examine differences between Australian-born and Asian-born first-year university students in Sydney in their sexual behavior and knowledge about the prevention and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Students were recruited from a stall during the student Orientation Week in both 2002 and 2003 at the University of New South Wales. A short questionnaire was completed and returned anonymously. Data on age, gender, country of birth, sexual behavior, and sexual health knowledge were collected. A score was calculated based on the sum of the correct answers given to 12 HIV/STI transmission and prevention questions. The students were then divided into three groups according to their country of birth (Australia, Asia, and elsewhere) and their knowledge scores were compared. Students born in certain Asian countries were also asked their perception of the HIV epidemic in their home country compared with Australia. A total of 1185 first-year students completed the questionnaire. Although older on average, Asian-born students were less likely to have had sexual intercourse and had had fewer sexual partners. They also had consistently poorer HIV/STI knowledge scores than Australian-born students. Students born in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore but not Thailand underestimated the prevalence of HIV in their country of birth in comparison with Australia. The combination of poorer knowledge, apparent misconception of the extent of HIV epidemic in their home country (or Australia), and potential later frequent travel indicates a potential risk for later transmission of HIV/STIs. The university is an underused setting for prevention health education.

  5. Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results

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    McDermott Robyn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL. Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness.

  6. Supporting youth wellbeing with a focus on eating well and being active: views from an Aboriginal community deliberative forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie; Cox, Heather; Lopes, Edilene; Motlik, Jessie; Hanson, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    Including and prioritising community voice in policy development means policy is more likely to reflect community values and priorities. This project trialled and evaluated a storyboard approach in a deliberative community forum to engage Australian Aboriginal people in health policy priority setting. The forum was co-constructed with two Aboriginal community-controlled organisations. A circle storyboard was used to centre Aboriginal community knowledge and values and encourage the group to engage with broader perspectives and evidence. The forum asked a diverse (descriptively representative) group of Aboriginal people in a rural town what governments should do to support the wellbeing of children and youth, particularly to encourage them to eat well and be active. The storyboard provided a tactile device to allow shared stories and identification of community issues. The group identified policies they believed governments should prioritise, including strategies to combat racism and provide local supports and outlets for young people. An informed deliberative storyboard approach offers a novel way of engaging with Aboriginal communities in a culturally appropriate and inclusive manner. Implications for public health: The identification of racism as a major issue of concern in preventing children from living healthy lifestyles highlights the need for policy responses in this area. © 2018 The Authors.

  7. Principles for the development of Aboriginal health interventions: culturally appropriate methods through systemic empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Barnett, Leda

    2015-01-01

    To increase Aboriginal participation in mainstream health services, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence health service usage. This knowledge can contribute to the development of culturally appropriate health services that respect Aboriginal ways of being. We used a community-based participatory approach to examine the reasons for underutilization of health services by Aboriginal Australians. Based on three focus groups and 18 interviews with Aboriginal health professionals, leaders, and community members in rural, regional, and urban settings, we identified five factors that influenced usage, including (1) negative historical experiences, (2) cultural incompetence, (3) inappropriate communication, (4) a collective approach to health, and (5) a more holistic approach to health. Given that these factors have shaped negative Aboriginal responses to health interventions, they are likely to be principles by which more appropriate solutions are generated. Although intuitively sensible and well known, these principles remain poorly understood by non-Aboriginal health systems and even less well implemented. We have conceptualized these principles as the foundation of an empathic health system. Without empathy, health systems in Australia, and internationally, will continue to face the challenge of building effective services to improve the state of health for all minority populations.

  8. Perinatal depression and screening among Aboriginal Australians in the Kimberley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Jayne; Munns, Ailsa; Marriott, Rhonda; Marley, Julia V

    2016-02-01

    Adhoc culturally questionable perinatal mental-health screening among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley. Mental-health issues, substance abuse and suicide attempts are high among young Aboriginal women in Australia. There is no evidence that the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is effective or culturally safe. Screening practices are complicated by limited understanding of the complex cultural interface between Western and Aboriginal beliefs and notions about health and mental-health. What is the current context of perinatal mental-health screening practices among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley and what might be considered a culturally safe approach? A review of the literature and exploration of current screening practices preceded community participatory action research (CPAR) of perinatal mental-health screening. More than 100 Kimberley women and 72 health practitioners contributed to this joint strategic body of work. Recommendations for practice include one single culturally appropriate Kimberley version of the EPDS.

  9. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

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    Blinkhorn Fiona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808

  10. Troubled traces: painting and displaying intercultural traumas of Aboriginality

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    Heather Kamarra Shearer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behind the pointillism of dot paintings or ‘naïve’ techniques, Aboriginal artists stridently critique histories of injustice, incarceration, racism, colonialism and dispossession. This personal testimony from Heather Kamarra Shearer, one of the ‘stolen generation’ of Aboriginal Australians, reflects on her life story and her present vocation in the field of legal rights and as an artist.

  11. RENAL GLOMERULAR NUMBER AND SIZE IN AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES, AFRICAN AMERICANS AND WHITE POPULATIONS FROM THE SAME LOCATIONS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

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    John F Bertram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available End stage renal disease is a major health problem for Australian Aborigines and African Americans. Abnormally enlarged glomeruli are commonly observed in biopsies from Aborigines and African Americans and may represent a compensatory hypertrophic response to reduced nephron endowment. We have commenced a study examining glomerular number and size, and their associations in Australian Aborigines and whites, and US African Americans and whites. Kidneys at autopsy are perfusion-fixed and subsampled for stereological estimation of total glomerular number (Nglom; using the physical disector/fractionator combination, and mean renal corpuscle (Vcorp and glomerular volume (Vglom. Kidneys from 58 people have been studied to date with ages ranging from newborn to 84 years. Preliminary findings are: (1 an almost 9-fold range in Nglom (from 210,332 to 1,825,380 with a mean of 762,302; (2 Nglom decreased with age in adult life (p = 0.014; (3 Vcorp varied 19-fold in the series and 5.5-fold in adults; (4 Vglom was inversely correlated with Nglom (p = 0.004; (5 total renal corpuscle volume (Nglom × Vcorp ranged by a factor of 13.2; (6 kidney weight was correlated with body surface area (BSA at all ages (p < 0.001; (7 BSA-corrected kidney weight did not vary with age, it ranged from 47 g/m2 to 175 g/m2, a 3.7 fold difference, with an average of 92 ± 25 g/m2. These preliminary results have revealed several new and important correlations. No racial differences in glomerular number or size have yet been identified, but with greater sample sizes such differences may be revealed.

  12. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Did Aboriginal Australians record a simultaneous eclipse and aurora in their oral traditions?

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    Fuller, Robert S.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate an Australian Aboriginal cultural story that seems to describe an extraordinary series of astronomical events occurring at the same time. We hypothesise that this was a witnessed natural event and explore natural phenomena that could account for the description. We select a thunderstorm, total solar eclipse, and strong Aurora Australis as the most likely candidates, then conclude a plausible date of 764 CE. We evaluate the different factors that would determine whether all these events could have been visible, include meteorological data, alternative total solar eclipse dates, solar activity cycles, aurorae appearances, and sky brightness during total solar eclipses. We conduct this study as a test-case for rigorously and systematically examining descriptions of rare natural phenomena in oral traditions, highlighting the difficulties and challenges with interpreting this type of hypothesis.

  14. Mind the gap: What is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lee, K S Kylie; Gray, Dennis; Wilson, Scott; Freeburn, Bradley; Harrison, Kristie; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harms cause great concern to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Australia as well as challenges to policy makers. Treatment of alcohol use disorders forms one component of an effective public health response. While alcohol dependence typically behaves as a chronic relapsing condition, treatment has been shown to be both effective and cost-effective in improving outcomes. Provision of alcohol treatment services should be based on accurate assessment of treatment need. In this paper, we examine the likely extent of the gap between voluntary alcohol treatment need and accessibility. We also suggest potential approaches to improve the ability to assess unmet need. Existing methods of assessing the treatment needs of Indigenous Australians are limited by incomplete and inaccurate survey data and an over-reliance on existing service use data. In addition to a shortage of services, cultural and logistical barriers may hamper access to alcohol treatment for Indigenous Australians. There is also a lack of services funded to a level that allows them to cope with clients with complex medical and physical comorbidity, and a lack of services for women, families and young people. A lack of voluntary treatment services also raises serious ethical concerns, given the expansion of mandatory treatment programmes and incarceration of Indigenous Australians for continued drinking. The use of modelling approaches, linkage of administrative data sets and strategies to improve data collection are discussed as possible methods to better assess treatment need. [Brett J, Lee K, Gray D, Wilson S, Freeburn B, Harrison K, Conigrave K. Mind the gap: what is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:456-460]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

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    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  16. A multi-centre open-label randomised non-inferiority trial comparing watchful waiting to antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media without perforation in low-risk urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (the WATCH trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Penelope; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Leach, Amanda Jane; Askew, Deborah; Walsh, Robyn; Kong, Kelvin; Girosi, Federico; Bond, Chelsea; Morris, Peter; Lujic, Sanja; Hu, Wendy; Usherwood, Tim; Tyson, Sissy; Spurling, Geoffrey; Douglas, Markeeta; Schubert, Kira; Chapman, Shavaun; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Murray, Reeion; Rabbitt, Keitha; Porykali, Bobby; Woodall, Cheryl; Newman, Tina; Reath, Jennifer

    2016-03-03

    Treatment guidelines recommend watchful waiting for children older than 2 years with acute otitis media (AOM) without perforation, unless they are at high risk of complications. The high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities leads these children to be classified as high risk. Urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are at lower risk of complications, but evidence to support the subsequent recommendation for watchful waiting in this population is lacking. This non-inferiority multi-centre randomised controlled trial will determine whether watchful waiting is non-inferior to immediate antibiotics for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children with AOM without perforation. Children aged 2 - 16 years with AOM who are considered at low risk for complications will be recruited from six participating urban primary health care services across Australia. We will obtain informed consent from each participant or their guardian. The primary outcome is clinical resolution on day 7 (no pain, no fever of at least 38 °C, no bulging eardrum and no complications of AOM such as perforation or mastoiditis) as assessed by general practitioners or nurse practitioners. Participants and outcome assessors will not be blinded to treatment. With a sample size of 198 children in each arm, we have 80 % power to detect a non-inferiority margin of up to 10 % at a significance level of 5 %, assuming clinical improvement of at least 80 % in both groups. Allowing for a 20 % dropout rate, we aim to recruit 495 children. We will analyse both by intention-to-treat and per protocol. We will assess the cost- effectiveness of watchful waiting compared to immediate antibiotic prescription. We will also report on the implementation of the trial from the perspectives of parents/carers, health professionals and researchers. The trial will provide evidence for the safety and effectiveness of watchful waiting

  17. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design.

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    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-11-27

    The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A survey questionnaire taking an ecological approach and based on the principals and constructs of the TPB was developed. Surveys were completed in six discrete Aboriginal communities immediately before and on completion of four weeks intensive televising of the three new commercials. Across the six communities access in the home to a television that worked ranged from 49 to 83 % (n = 415). Seventy-seven per cent (n = 319) of participants reported having seen one or more of the new commercials. Levels of acceptability and comprehension of the content of the commercials was high (97 % n = 308). Seventy-five per cent (n = 651) of participants reported they would buy more soap, toilet paper and facial tissues if these were not so expensive in their communities. For TPB constructs demonstrated to have good internal reliability the findings were mixed and these need to be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the study design. Cultural, social-economic and physical barriers in remote communities make it challenging to promote adults and children wash their hands with soap and maintain clean faces such that these behaviours become habit. Low levels of access to a television in the home illustrate the extreme level of disadvantage experienced in these communities. Highlighting that social marketing programs have the potential to increase disadvantage if expensive items such as television sets are needed to gain access to information. This trial of a theory informed evaluation design allowed for new and rich

  18. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  19. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  20. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene. © 2012 APJPH.

  1. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

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    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  2. The determinants of chronic bronchitis in Aboriginal children and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Alomgir; Konrad, Stephanie; Dosman, James A; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McCrosky, Jesse; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge concerning chronic bronchitis (CB) in Canadian Aboriginal peoples. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted) of CB and its associated risk factors in Canadian Aboriginal children and youth six to 14 years of age. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey were analyzed in the present study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of CB among Aboriginal children and youth. The balanced repeated replication method was used to compute standard errors of regression coefficients to account for clustering inherent in the study design. The outcome of interest was based on the question: “Have you been told by a doctor, nurse or other health professional that you have chronic bronchitis?” Demographics, environment and population characteristics (predisposing and enabling resources) were tested for an association with CB. RESULTS: The prevalence of CB was 3.1% for boys and 2.8% for girls. Other significant risk factors of CB were age (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.52] for 12 to 14 year olds versus six to eight year olds), income (OR 2.28 [95% CI 2.02 to 2.59] for income category <$25,000/year versus ≥$85,000/year), allergies (OR 1.96 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.16] for having allergies versus no allergies), asthma (OR 7.61 [ 95% CI 6.91 to 8.37] for having asthma versus no asthma) and location of residence (rural/urban and geographical location). A significant two-way interaction between sex and body mass index indicated that the relationship between the prevalence of CB and body mass index was modified by sex. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of CB was related to well-known risk factors among adults, including older age and lower annual income. PMID:23248806

  3. Australian aboriginal tooth succession, interproximal attrition, and Begg's theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruccini, R S

    1990-04-01

    In 1954, P.R. Begg analyzed interproximal attrition as a prehistorically universal mechanism to reduce tooth size. With modern processed diets and the virtual disappearance of constant interproximal attrition, Begg asserted, teeth remain too large for the arches and become crowded. Later investigators have questioned Begg's estimate of attritional tooth-size reduction, as well as aspects of his theory relating the succession sequence of permanent teeth to different malocclusions. The present paper examines the theory using longitudinal casts and records of modern Australian aborigines who are among the first generation lacking notable interproximal attrition thanks to a "modernized" diet. Deciduous and permanent tooth size, arch size, and occlusal relational variables were analyzed with respect to the expected occlusal outcomes in the absence of attritional tooth reduction. Permanent incisor overjet correlated with crowding status, as predicted by Begg. On the other hand, longer teeth did not relate to crowding in general nor to crowding in relevant local areas or during developmental stages. Unfavorable leeway space did not relate clearly to crowding or other malocclusions. Lowered correlations among structures and narrowness of the maxilla related more significantly to malocclusion. These results are in keeping with recent thinking that small jaws rather than large teeth underlie tooth/arch discrepancy.

  4. Decolonising Australian Psychology: Discourses, Strategies, and Practice

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    Pat Dudgeon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation in Australia has had a devastating and lasting impact on the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia (herein referred to as Indigenous Australians. This paper discusses the role of psychology in Australia and the negative impact that certain disciplinary theories and practices have had on Indigenous Australians. The impact has been further exacerbated by the failure of mainstream policy makers and mental health practitioners to recognise the key, distinctive cultural and social determinants that contribute to Aboriginal health and wellbeing. There is a growing response by Aboriginal psychologists, critical social theorists, and their allies to decolonise psychological theory and practice to redress this situation. This paper outlines key decolonising strategies that have been effective in interrupting those aspects of psychology that are inimical to Aboriginal wellbeing.

  5. Specialist clinics in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: where rock art meets rocket science.

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    Gruen, Russell; Bailie, Ross

    2004-10-01

    People in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory have greater morbidity and mortality than other Australians, but face considerable barriers when accessing hospital-based specialist services. The Specialist Outreach Service, which began in 1997, was a novel policy initiative to improve access by providing a regular multidisciplinary visiting specialist services to remote communities. It led to two interesting juxtapositions: that of 'state of the art' specialist services alongside under-resourced primary care in remote and relatively traditional Aboriginal communities; and that of attempts to develop an evidence base for the effectiveness of outreach, while meeting the short-term evaluative requirements of policy-makers. In this essay, first we describe the development of the service in the Northern Territory and its initial process evaluation. Through a Cochrane systematic review we then summarise the published research on the effectiveness of specialist outreach in improving access to tertiary and hospital-based care. Finally we describe the findings of an observational population-based study of the use of specialist services and the impact of outreach to three remote communities over 11 years. Specialist outreach improves access to specialist care and may lessen the demand for both outpatient and inpatient hospital care. Specialist outreach is, however, dependent on well-functioning primary care. According to the way in which outreach is conducted and the service is organised, it can either support primary care or it can hinder primary care and, as a result, reduce its own effectiveness.

  6. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i) being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii) failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii) practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv) the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v) connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes. PMID:21401923

  7. Not just bricks and mortar: planning hospital cancer services for Aboriginal people

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    Durey Angela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal people in Australia experience higher mortality from cancer compared with non-Aboriginal Australians, despite an overall lower incidence. A notable contributor to this disparity is that many Aboriginal people do not take up or continue with cancer treatment which almost always occurs within major hospitals. Thirty in-depth interviews with urban, rural and remote Aboriginal people affected by cancer were conducted between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews explored participants' beliefs about cancer and experiences of cancer care and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Information from interviews relevant to hospital services including and building design was extracted. Findings Relationships and respect emerged as crucial considerations of participants although many aspects of the hospital environment were seen as influencing the delivery of care. Five themes describing concerns about the hospital environment emerged: (i being alone and lost in a big, alien and inflexible system; (ii failure of open communication, delays and inefficiency in the system; (iii practicalities: costs, transportation, community and family responsibilities; (iv the need for Aboriginal support persons; and (v connection to the community. Conclusions Design considerations and were identified but more important than the building itself was the critical need to build trust in health services. Promotion of cultural safety, support for Aboriginal family structures and respecting the importance of place and community to Aboriginal patients are crucial in improving cancer outcomes.

  8. Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explain the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional study

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    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity is substantially higher among Australians of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent. The purpose of this study is to explain the relationship between food insecurity and Aboriginal and Torres Islander status in the state of Victoria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 34,168 randomly selected Victorians aged 18 years and older; including 339 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We categorised a respondent as food insecure, if in the previous 12 months, they reported having run out of food and not being able to afford to buy more. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, socioeconomic status (household income), lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity), social support (ability to get help from family, friends or neighbours), household composition (lone parent status, household with a child, and household size), and geographic location (rurality). Results Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (20.3%) were more likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (5.4%) to have experienced food insecurity; odds ratio (OR) = 4.5 (95% CI; 2.7-7.4). Controlling for age, SES, smoking, obesity and inability to get help from family or friends reduced the odds ratio by 38%; ORadjusted = 2.8 (1.6-5.0). Conclusions Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explained the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Victoria. Further research is needed to explain the disparity in food insecurity between the two populations in order to inform and guide corrective action. PMID:24924598

  9. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

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    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  10. Successful chronic disease care for Aboriginal Australians requires cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw Teng; Lau, Phyllis; Pyett, Priscilla; Furler, John; Burchill, Marlene; Rowley, Kevin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    To review the literature to determine the attributes of culturally appropriate healthcare to inform the design of chronic disease management (CDM) models for Aboriginal patients in urban general practice. A comprehensive conceptual framework, drawing on the Access to Care, Pathway to Care, Chronic Care, Level of Connectedness, and Cultural Security, Cultural Competency and Cultural Respect models, was developed to define the search strategy, inclusion criteria and appraisal methods for the literature review. Selected papers were reviewed in detail if they examined a chronic disease intervention for an Aboriginal population and reported on its evaluation, impacts or outcomes. In the 173 papers examined, only 11 programs met the inclusion criteria. All were programs conducted in rural and remote Aboriginal community-controlled health services. Successful chronic disease care and interventions require adequate Aboriginal community engagement, utilising local knowledge, strong leadership, shared responsibilities, sustainable resources and integrated data and systems. These success factors fitted within the conceptual framework developed. Research and development of culturally appropriate CDM models concurrently in both urban and rural settings will enable more rigorous evaluation, leading to stronger evidence for best practice. A partnership of mainstream and Aboriginal-controlled health services is essential to successfully 'close the gap'. Findings will inform and guide the development, implementation and evaluation of culturally appropriate CDM in mainstream general practice and primary care. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Realist Review of Programs, Policies, and Interventions to Enhance the Social, Emotional, and Spiritual Well-Being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People Living in Out-of-Home Care

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    Sophie Lindstedt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The child protection system in Australia includes out-of-home care (OoHC for children and young people at risk of harm and neglect. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people are 9 times more likely to be placed in care than non-Aboriginal young people (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015. Australia’s history of colonization and subsequent policies have caused trauma to individuals, families, and communities and resulted in poor physical and mental health and mistrust of services. This review was undertaken to identify programs and policies currently in place that aim to improve the mental health and well-being of this vulnerable population. It provides an analysis of both the strengths of the current system as well as what has been inadequately addressed based on literature in the area.By incorporating an Aboriginal perspective, this review focuses on social, emotional, and spiritual well-being (SESWB and the aspects of a child’s life and community that promote this. A realist review of the academic and grey literature was conducted in 2014. It included an extensive search of government and non-government (NGO publications. The review identified nine programs or policies that are designed to improve the SESWB of Aboriginal young people in OoHC in local and international settings. These are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child Placement Principle, cultural support plans, Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs, family group decision-making, therapeutic care, and Panyappi Mentoring Program. Given that culturally competent service provision is important to SESWB, the review concludes that an increase in monitoring and evaluation is necessary to determine the effectiveness of programs and ensure their implementation and sustainability when warranted. Policy and research work is needed to adapt and devise programs promoting the SESWB of Aboriginal young people (at both the

  12. Possible Association of High Urinary Magnesium and Taurine to Creatinine Ratios with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Reduction in Australian Aboriginals

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    Atsumi Hamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because of the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MS in Australian Aboriginals known for their higher cardiovascular mortality and shorter life expectancy, we analyzed the possible relationship of their MS risks with the current dietary custom. Methods. The subjects were 84 people aged 16–79 years. The health examination was conducted according to the basic protocol of WHO-CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study. Results. The highest prevalence among MS risks was abdominal obesity (over 60%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity decreased significantly with high level of urinary magnesium/creatinine ratio (Mg/cre (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.57; P<.05. The significant inverse associations of fat intake with Mg/cre and of fast food intake with urinary taurine/creatinine ratio were revealed. Conclusions. The high prevalence of obesity in the Aboriginal people of this area may partly be due to the reduction of beneficial nutrients intake including Mg and taurine.

  13. Becoming empowered: a grounded theory study of Aboriginal women's agency.

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    Bainbridge, Roxanne

    2011-07-01

    The study aim was to identify the process underlying the performance of agency for urban-dwelling Aboriginal women in contemporary Australian society with a view to promoting social change for Aboriginal people. Grounded theory methods were used in the conduct of 20 life history narrative interviews with Aboriginal women from across fourteen different language groups. Analysis identified a specific ecological model of Aboriginal women's empowerment, defined as "becoming empowered". "Performing Aboriginality" was identified as the core category and encompassed the women's concern for carving out a fulfilling life and carrying out their perceived responsibilities as Aboriginal women. While confirming much of the extant literature on empowerment, the analysis also offered unique contributions--a spiritual sensibility, cultural competence and an ethics of care and morality. This sheds new light on the creative ways in which Aboriginal women "disrupt" discourses and create alternate modes of existence. The findings have implications for improving quality of life for Aboriginal people by informing the practical development and delivery of social and health policies and programs.

  14. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  15. Exploring undergraduate midwifery students' readiness to deliver culturally secure care for pregnant and birthing Aboriginal women.

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    Thackrah, Rosalie D; Thompson, Sandra C; Durey, Angela

    2015-04-16

    Culturally secure health care settings enhance accessibility by Aboriginal Australians and improve their satisfaction with service delivery. A culturally secure health service recognises and responds to the legitimate cultural rights of the recipients of care. Focus is upon the health care system as well as the practice and behaviours of the individuals within it. In an attempt to produce culturally secure practitioners, the inclusion of Aboriginal content in health professional programs at Australian universities is now widespread. Studies of medical students have identified the positive impact of this content on knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people but relatively little is known about the responses of students in other health professional education programs. This study explored undergraduate midwifery students' knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people, and the impact of Aboriginal content in their program. The study surveyed 44 students who were in their first, second and third years of a direct entry, undergraduate midwifery program at a Western Australian (WA) university. The first year students were surveyed before and after completion of a compulsory Aboriginal health unit. Second and third year students who had already completed the unit were surveyed at the end of their academic year. Pre- and post-unit responses revealed a positive shift in first year students' knowledge and attitudes towards Aboriginal people and evidence that teaching in the unit was largely responsible for this shift. A comparison of post-unit responses with those from students in subsequent years of their program revealed a significant decline in knowledge about Aboriginal issues, attitudes towards Aboriginal people and the influence of the unit on their views. Despite this, all students indicated a strong interest in more clinical exposure to Aboriginal settings. The inclusion of a unit on Aboriginal health in an undergraduate midwifery program has been shown to

  16. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

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    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  17. A Comparison between Australian Football League (AFL Injuries in Australian Indigenous versus Non-indigenous Players

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    Jessica Orchard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that being of aboriginal descent is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in Australian football. The aim of this study was to review the Australian Football League (AFL injury database to determine whether there were any injuries where indigenous players had different relative risks to non-indigenous players. Analysis was conducted using data from the AFL injury database, which included data from 4,492 players over 21 years (1992–2012, covering 162,683 player-matches at AFL level, 91,098 matches at lower levels and 328,181 weeks (possible matches of exposure. Compared to non-indigenous players, indigenous players had a significantly higher risk of hamstring injuries (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.32–1.73 and calf strains (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00–1.69. Conversely, indigenous players had a significantly lower risk of lumbar/thoracic spine injuries (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41–0.91, groin strains/osteitis pubis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.96 and Achilles tendon injuries (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12–0.86. The results for the above injuries were also significant in terms of games missed. There was no difference between overall risk of injury (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96–1.10 or missed games (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.04. This suggests that indigenous AFL players have the same overall number of injuries and missed games, but a slightly different injury profile.

  18. Aboriginal Representation: Conflict or Dialogue in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leane, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    This research begins with the premise that non-Aboriginal students are challenged by much Aboriginal writing and also challenge its representations as they struggle to re-position themselves in relation to possible meanings within Aboriginal writing. Many non-Aboriginal students come to read an Aboriginal narrative against their understanding of…

  19. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2011-06-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children of Aboriginal heritage and their caregivers. We used a single-group, pretest (program intake)/posttest (program exit) design with follow-up when the children were 7 years old. We used an observational measure of child receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) and caregiver-reported measures of child development (Nipissing District Developmental Screen), risk for child maltreatment (Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory; AAPI), parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; RSE), and life skills (Community Life Skills scale; CLS). Using paired t-tests we found statistically significant increases in child receptive language scores between intake and exit, and repeated-measures ANOVA showed that these improvements were maintained up to age 7 years. For caregivers, Pearson's correlations demonstrated that risk for child maltreatment, parenting stress, self-esteem, and life skills were stable over time. Results of this study suggest that children of Aboriginal heritage can benefit from participation in a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program. Their caregivers may have received greater benefit if issues of intergenerational transmission of the negative influences of residential schools were addressed as part of programming.

  20. A postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of urban Aboriginal women's description of pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity.

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    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-02-01

    Excessive weight gain and physical inactivity in pregnancy have been identified as risk factors for negative health outcomes for mothers and fetuses, particularly among Aboriginal women. In this paper we engage with postcolonial feminist theory and critical discourse analysis to examine the question, "how do urban Aboriginal women understand pregnancy-related weight gain and physical activity." We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 25 urban Aboriginal pregnant or postpartum women between the ages of 16 and 39 in Ottawa, Canada. Three prominent discourses emerged: Aboriginal women have different pregnancies than non-Aboriginal women because Aboriginal women gain more weight and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes; Aboriginal women feel personally responsible for and shameful about excessive weight gain; finally, Aboriginal women need culturally safe pregnancy resources. Our results illuminate the complex and often paradoxical ways in which discourses around weight gain and physical activity are produced and taken-up by Aboriginal women and their healthcare providers. Based on these findings, we argue there is a lack of accessible and culturally safe resources for urban Aboriginal women, specifically concerning weight gain and physical activity in pregnancy. We recommend the development of resources that are created for/by/with Aboriginal women to better address that issues that urban Aboriginal women themselves identify as being of key importance. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Personal attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Bennet, Pele T; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters and assess how they are associated with quitting, and to compare these attitudes with those of smokers in the general Australian population. The Talking About The Smokes project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1392 daily smokers, 251 non-daily smokers and 78 recent quitters from April 2012 to October 2013. Personal attitudes towards smoking and quitting, wanting to quit, and attempting to quit in the past year. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers were less likely than daily smokers in the general Australian population to report enjoying smoking (65% v 81%) and more likely to disagree that smoking is an important part of their life (49% v 38%); other attitudes were similar between the two groups. In the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sample, non-daily smokers generally held less positive attitudes towards smoking compared with daily smokers, and ex-smokers who had quit within the past year reported positive views about quitting. Among the daily smokers, 78% reported regretting starting to smoke and 81% reported spending too much money on cigarettes, both of which were positively associated with wanting and attempting to quit; 32% perceived smoking to be an important part of their life, which was negatively associated with both quit outcomes; and 83% agreed that smoking calms them down when stressed, which was not associated with the quitting outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers were less likely than those in the general population to report positive reasons to smoke and held similar views about the negative aspects, suggesting that factors other than personal attitudes may be responsible for the high continuing smoking rate in this population.

  2. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  3. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

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    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  4. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  5. Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study

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    Brown Alex

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression, experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia. Methods Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods. Results Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation. Conclusions Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa, which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.

  6. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

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    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  8. [Behavioral characteristics of the only child vs first-born and children with siblings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Marcelo B; Fuchs, Felipe Costa; Diligenti, Felipe; de Abreu, José Ricardo Pinto; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Fuchs, Sandra Costa

    2004-03-01

    To assess the impact of being an only child on characteristics of parental and peer relationships, school achievement, social and sexual behavior. In the total, 360 adolescents identified at third year of high school were sampled from a private school from Porto Alegre in 2000 and 2001. Fifteen to nineteen years old male and female were selected in a cross-sectional study. Assessment of demographic data, education of the parents, birth order (only child, first born and non-first born children), cigarette smoking, alcoholic beverages consumption, illicit drug use, school achievement, social and sexual behavior were gathered with a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire, anonymously fulfilled at the classroom. This study encompassed 8% of only children, 35% first-born, and 57% non-first born adolescents of a socioeconomic homogeneous sample. Social behavior, parents and peer relationships, sports participation, smoking and illicit drug were not associated with birth order. Only children were less likely to report an episode of alcohol intoxication (39%) than first-born (68.9%; p=0.03) and adolescents with siblings (72.3%; psiblings (p=0.03). Sexual behavior distinguished only children due to younger age at first sexual intercourse and lower rate of heterosexual self-identification, which persisted even after adjustment for confounding variables in comparison with non first-born adolescents (p=0.038). Our findings suggest that the status of being only child is not associated with a poor outcome in several areas of the development. The impact of the presence of siblings in the development of sexual identification should be further explored.

  9. A multicentre, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial, comparing nasal high flow with nasal continuous positive airway pressure as primary support for newborn infants with early respiratory distress born in Australian non-tertiary special care nurseries (the HUNTER trial): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Brett J; Roberts, Calum T; Arnolda, Gaston R B; Wright, Ian M R; Owen, Louise S; Dalziel, Kim M; Foster, Jann P; Davis, Peter G; Buckmaster, Adam G

    2017-06-23

    Nasal high-flow (nHF) therapy is a popular mode of respiratory support for newborn infants. Evidence for nHF use is predominantly from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). There are no randomised trials of nHF use in non-tertiary special care nurseries (SCNs). We hypothesise that nHF is non-inferior to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as primary support for newborn infants with respiratory distress, in the population cared for in non-tertiary SCNs. The HUNTER trial is an unblinded Australian multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Infants are eligible if born at a gestational age ≥31 weeks with birth weight ≥1200 g and admitted to a participating non-tertiary SCN, are 1 hour. Infants are randomised to treatment with either nHF or CPAP. The primary outcome is treatment failure within 72 hours of randomisation, as determined by objective oxygenation, apnoea or blood gas criteria or by a clinical decision that urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation, or transfer to a tertiary NICU, is required. Secondary outcomes include incidence of pneumothorax requiring drainage, duration of respiratory support, supplemental oxygen and hospitalisation, costs associated with hospital care, cost-effectiveness, parental stress and satisfaction and nursing workload. Multisite ethical approval for the study has been granted by The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia (Trial Reference No. 34222), and by each participating site. The trial is currently recruiting in eight centres in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia, with one previous site no longer recruiting. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented at national and international conferences. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12614001203640; pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  10. Impact of family-friendly prison policies on health, justice and child protection outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children: a cohort study protocol.

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    Myers, Helen; Segal, Leonie; Lopez, Derrick; Li, Ian W; Preen, David B

    2017-08-23

    Female imprisonment has numerous health and social sequelae for both women prisoners and their children. Examples of comprehensive family-friendly prison policies that seek to improve the health and social functioning of women prisoners and their children exist but have not been evaluated. This study will determine the impact of exposure to a family-friendly prison environment on health, child protection and justice outcomes for incarcerated mothers and their dependent children. A longitudinal retrospective cohort design will be used to compare outcomes for mothers incarcerated at Boronia Pre-release Centre, a women's prison with a dedicated family-friendly environment, and their dependent children, with outcomes for mothers incarcerated at other prisons in Western Australia (that do not offer this environment) and their dependent children. Routinely collected administrative data from 1985 to 2013 will be used to determine child and mother outcomes such as hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, custodial sentences, community service orders and placement in out-of home care. The sample consists of all children born in Western Australia between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2011 who had a mother in a West Australian prison between 1990 and 2012 and their mothers. Children are included if they were alive and aged less than 18 years at the time of their mother's incarceration. The sample comprises an exposed group of 665 women incarcerated at Boronia and their 1714 dependent children and a non-exposed comparison sample of 2976 women incarcerated at other West Australian prisons and their 7186 dependent children, creating a total study sample of 3641 women and 8900 children. This project received ethics approval from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee, the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee and the University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee. © Article author(s) (or their

  11. What is the impact of diabetes for Australian Aboriginal women when pregnant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cynthia, Porter; Timothy, Skinner; Isabelle, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    The impact differential of diabetes for Aboriginal maternal and infant health outcomes is different to Caucasian outcomes. With maternal diabetes, Aboriginal infant's birth weight increases and stillbirth rate is 22/1000 for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 53/1000 for pre-existing diabete...

  12. Antibacterial constituents of Eremophila alternifolia: An Australian aboriginal traditional medicinal plant.

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    Biva, Israt J; Ndi, Chi P; Griesser, Hans J; Semple, Susan J

    2016-04-22

    For traditional medicinal purposes Aboriginal Australians have utilised numerous plant species, Eremophila alternifolia is among the most prominent. Traditionally, fresh leaves, leaf-infusions and handmade leaf-pastes have been used as both external and internal preparations to provide relief from a variety of conditions. Preparations of the species have been used to treat various infections of skin, eyes and throat including the treatment of septic wounds. These usages suggest that the plant contains antibacterial compounds; however, to date they have not been isolated and identified. The present study aimed to identify antibacterial compounds from this important traditionally recorded medicinal species. Bioassay-guided fractionation was used to isolate compounds from the crude leaf-extract. Antibacterial activity of pure compounds was assessed through broth microdilution method by determining both minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). Structure elucidation was performed using spectroscopic techniques such as 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Four compounds have been isolated from the leaf-extract; they include previously known flavanones [pinobanksin (1), pinobanksin-3-acetate (2) and pinobanksin-3-cinnamate (3)] and a serrulatane diterpene, 8-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (4). While compound 4 had been found in other Eremophilas, flavanones 2 and 3 are identified for the first time from the genus Eremophila. The flavanone 3 is the most promising antibacterial compound with significant activity (10-20µM) against strains of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant and biofilm forming strains. No activity was observed for any isolated compounds against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract of E. alternifolia and of the isolated compounds against Gram

  13. Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon; Smith, Lucy Watchirs; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Higher notification rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) are reported among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) compared with non-Aboriginal people in Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the pooled prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas among Aboriginal people in Australia by sex, age-group, setting (clinic vs population/community-based) and population group [adults, pregnant females, young people (12-29 years) and prisoners]. The databases Medline, PubMed and Web of Science were searched in May 2015. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of the four STIs in Aboriginal people and if possible, by gender, age-group, setting and population group. A total of 46 studies were included. The pooled prevalence was 11.2% (95%CI: 9.4-13.0%) for chlamydia (36 studies), 12.5% (95%CI: 10.5-14.6%) for gonorrhoea (28 studies), 16.8% (95%CI: 11.0-22.6%) for syphilis (13 studies) and 22.6% (95%CI: 18.5-26.7%) for trichomonas (11 studies); however, there was significant heterogeneity between studies (I(2) Aboriginal people through community-based programs that target asymptomatic young people.

  14. Spirometry reference values in Indigenous Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tamara L; Chang, Anne B; Petsky, Helen L; Rodwell, Leanne T; Brown, Michael G; Hill, Debra C; Thompson, Bruce; McElrea, Margaret S

    2016-07-04

    To evaluate published spirometry data for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples to determine (i) whether their ethnicity influenced spirometry results; and (ii) if any reliable spirometry reference values exist for Indigenous Australians. Systematic review of published and grey literature. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, references of included articles and appropriate grey literature. Last searches were conducted in April 2016. We included any study that performed spirometry on healthy Indigenous Australians and compared their results with those from people of European ancestry. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed potentially relevant full-text articles for possible inclusion. We used PRISMA systematic review reporting methods to collate data. Of a possible 125 studies, 18 full-text articles were reviewed, but only nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None specified Torres Strait Islander inclusion. All studies reported lower spirometry values (as much as 30% lower) for Aboriginal people compared with non-Indigenous people. Five studies developed spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians; however, none adhered to all participant inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Hence, reported results and subsequent reference values may not be a true representation of spirometry values in healthy Indigenous people. The lower spirometry values reported for Indigenous Australians may be due to study limitations. Furthermore, there are currently no reliable spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians that adhere to current guidelines. Developing a set of Indigenous Australian reference values will improve the accuracy of test interpretation and aid in the diagnosis of respiratory disease in this population.

  15. Validity of the Aboriginal children's health and well-being measure: Aaniish Naa Gegii?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nancy L; Wabano, Mary Jo; Usuba, Koyo; Pangowish, Brenda; Trottier, Mélanie; Jacko, Diane; Burke, Tricia A; Corbiere, Rita G

    2015-09-17

    Aboriginal children experience challenges to their health and well-being, yet also have unique strengths. It has been difficult to accurately assess their health outcomes due to the lack of culturally relevant measures. The Aboriginal Children's Health and Well-Being Measure (ACHWM) was developed to address this gap. This paper describes the validity of the new measure. We recruited First Nations children from one First Nation reserve in Canada. Participants were asked to complete the ACHWM independently using a computer tablet. Participants also completed the PedsQL. The ACHWM total score and 4 Quadrant scores were expected to have a moderate correlation of between 0.4 and 0.6 with the parallel PedsQL total score, domains (scale scores), and summary scores. Paired ACHWM and PedsQL scores were available for 48 participants. They had a mean age of 14.6 (range of 7 to 19) years and 60.4 % were girls. The Pearson's correlation between the total ACHWM score and a total PedsQL aggregate score was 0.52 (p = 0.0001). The correlations with the Physical Health Summary Scores and the Psychosocial Health Summary Scores were slightly lower range (r = 0.35 p = 0.016; and r = 0.51 p = 0.0002 respectively) and approached the expected range. The ACHWM Quadrant scores were moderately correlated with the parallel PedsQL domains ranging from r = 0.45 to r = 0.64 (p ≤ 0.001). The Spiritual Quadrant of the ACHWM did not have a parallel domain in the PedsQL. These results establish the validity of the ACHWM. The children gave this measure an Ojibway name, Aaniish Naa Gegii, meaning "how are you?". This measure is now ready for implementation, and will contribute to a better understanding of the health of Aboriginal children.

  16. Early mortality from external causes in Aboriginal mothers: a retrospective cohort study

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    Jenny Fairthorne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal loss can have a deep-rooted impact on families. Whilst a disproportionate number of Aboriginal women die from potentially preventable causes, no research has investigated mortality in Aboriginal mothers. We aimed to examine the elevated mortality risk in Aboriginal mothers with a focus on external causes. Methods We linked data from four state administrative datasets to identify all women who had a child from 1983 to 2010 in Western Australia and ascertained their Aboriginality, socio-demographic details, and their dates and causes of death prior to 2011. Comparing Aboriginal mothers with other mothers, we estimated the hazard ratios (HRs for death by any external cause and each of the sub-categories of accident, suicide, and homicide, and the corresponding age of their youngest child. Results Compared to non-Aboriginal mothers and after adjustment for parity, socio-economic status and remoteness, Aboriginal mothers were more likely to die from accidents [HR = 6.43 (95 % CI: 4.9, 8.4], suicide [HR = 3.46 (95 % CI: 2.2, 5.4], homicide [HR = 17.46 (95 % CI: 10.4, 29.2] or any external cause [HR = 6.61 (95 % CI: 5.4, 8.1]. For mothers experiencing death, the median age of their youngest child was 4.8 years. Conclusion During the study period, Aboriginal mothers were much more likely to die than other mothers and they usually left more and younger children. These increased rates were only partly explained by socio-demographic circumstances. Further research is required to examine the risk factors associated with these potentially preventable deaths and to enable the development of informed health promotion to increase the life chances of Aboriginal mothers and their children.

  17. Promoting the health of Aboriginal Australians through empowerment: eliciting the components of the family well-being empowerment and leadership programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Arlene; Haswell, Melissa; Tsey, Komla

    2012-12-01

    Most policies addressing Aboriginal health in Australia promote initiatives that are based on empowerment principles. Articulated programme components are necessary to support personal and group empowerment and to assist individuals in gaining the sense of control and purposefulness needed to exert their political and personal power in the face of the severe stress and powerlessness faced by the Australian Aboriginal people. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of the mechanisms underpinning a 'bottom-up' empowerment initiative, the Family well-being empowerment and leadership programme (FWB), and to analyze how the programme supports empowerment. The five stages of FWB were described and the validity of this model was assessed through the combination of participatory observation, documentation analysis, literature review, semi-structured interviews and iterative feedback with different analytical perspectives. Our study results articulated four distinct programme components: the setting plus inter-relational, educational and experiential actions. FWB is an example of the promotion of both outcome and process pathways towards empowerment. Potential applications of the programme are discussed.

  18. Aboriginal Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tremblay

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaining an understanding of how best to support the development of Aboriginal children is important in promoting positive social, emotional, educational, and health outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to identify the most important elements of healthy development for Aboriginal children, with a particular focus on social-emotional development. Focus groups were conducted with 37 Aboriginal Canadians, including parents, service providers, adolescents, and young adults. Five inter-connected themes emerged: cultural wellness, emotional wellness, mental wellness, social wellness, and strong identity, with strong identity described as central and foundational to the other themes. This study strengthens the assertion that Aboriginal children require an additional set of social-emotional skills to successfully navigate different cultural contexts during development. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Is Aboriginal nutrition a priority for local government? A policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helson, Catherine; Walker, Ruth; Palermo, Claire; Rounsefell, Kim; Aron, Yudit; MacDonald, Catherine; Atkinson, Petah; Browne, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore how Australian local governments prioritise the health and well-being of Aboriginal populations and the extent to which nutrition is addressed by local government health policy. In the state of Victoria, Australia, all seventy-nine local governments' public health policy documents were retrieved. Inclusion of Aboriginal health and nutrition in policy documents was analysed using quantitative content analysis. Representation of Aboriginal nutrition 'problems' and 'solutions' was examined using qualitative framing analysis. The socio-ecological framework was used to classify the types of Aboriginal nutrition issues and strategies within policy documents. Victoria, Australia. Local governments' public health policy documents (n 79). A small proportion (14 %, n 11) of local governments addressed Aboriginal health and well-being in terms of nutrition. Where strategies aimed at nutrition existed, they mostly focused on individual factors rather than the broader macroenvironment. A limited number of Victorian local governments address nutrition as a health issue for their Aboriginal populations in policy documents. Nutrition needs to be addressed as a community and social responsibility rather than merely an individual 'behaviour'. Partnerships are required to ensure Aboriginal people lead government policy development.

  20. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  1. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafekost Katherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  2. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: implications for public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Katherine; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2011-12-22

    High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  3. First genome-wide association study in an Australian aboriginal population provides insights into genetic risk factors for body mass index and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Anderson

    Full Text Available A body mass index (BMI >22kg/m2 is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in Aboriginal Australians. To identify loci associated with BMI and T2D we undertook a genome-wide association study using 1,075,436 quality-controlled single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped (Illumina 2.5M Duo Beadchip in 402 individuals in extended pedigrees from a Western Australian Aboriginal community. Imputation using the thousand genomes (1000G reference panel extended the analysis to 6,724,284 post quality-control autosomal SNPs. No associations achieved genome-wide significance, commonly accepted as P45,000 years ago. The top hit (rs10868204 Pgenotyped = 1.50x10-6; rs11140653 Pimputed_1000G = 2.90x10-7 for BMI lies 5' of NTRK2, the type 2 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF that regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R. PIK3C2G (rs12816270 Pgenotyped = 8.06x10-6; rs10841048 Pimputed_1000G = 6.28x10-7 was associated with BMI, but not with T2D as reported elsewhere. BMI also associated with CNTNAP2 (rs6960319 Pgenotyped = 4.65x10-5; rs13225016 Pimputed_1000G = 6.57x10-5, previously identified as the strongest gene-by-environment interaction for BMI in African-Americans. The top hit (rs11240074 Pgenotyped = 5.59x10-6, Pimputed_1000G = 5.73x10-6 for T2D lies 5' of BCL9 that, along with TCF7L2, promotes beta-catenin's transcriptional activity in the WNT signaling pathway. Additional hits occurred in genes affecting pancreatic (KCNJ6, KCNA1 and/or GABA (GABRR1, KCNA1 functions. Notable associations observed for genes previously identified at genome-wide significance in other populations included MC4R (Pgenotyped = 4.49x10-4 for BMI and IGF2BP2 Pimputed_1000G = 2.55x10-6 for T2D. Our results may provide novel functional leads in understanding disease pathogenesis in this Australian Aboriginal population.

  4. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Joint Laxity in Preschool Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Velli, Chiara; Lucibello, Simona; Ferrantini, Gloria; Leo, Giuseppina; Brogna, Claudia; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela; Gallini, Francesca; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of joint laxity in children born preterm assessed in the first 2 years, the relationship between joint laxity and motor performance at preschool age, and possible changes over time in a subgroup of children followed longitudinally. The revised scale of Beighton Score was used to evaluate joint laxity in a population of 132 preschool children born preterm between 24 and 32 weeks of gestational age. All were assessed for joint laxity between 12 and 24 months of age. Children also performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition between the age of 3 years and 6 months and 4 years; the age at onset of independent walking also was recorded. The total Beighton Score ranged between 0 and 8. Twenty percent of the cohort showed joint laxity. No differences related to sex or gestational age were observed. Children born preterm with joint laxity achieved later independent walking and achieved lower scores on Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition than those without joint laxity. In 76 children born preterm, an assessment for joint laxity was repeated once between 25 and 36 months and again after >36 months. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 3 assessments. The Beighton Score can be used to assess generalized joint laxity in children born preterm. As the presence of joint laxity influenced motor competences, the possibility to early identify these infants in the first 2 years is of interest to benefit from early intervention and potentially improve gross motor skills and coordination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of health promotion training for the Western Australian Aboriginal maternal and child health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Alexa; Lobo, Roanna C; Griffin, Denese M; Woods, Heather A

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of health promotion training for the Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal maternal and child health (MCH) sector. Fifty-one MCH professionals from five regions in WA who attended one of three health promotion short courses in 2012-2013 were invited to complete an online survey or a telephone interview, between 4 to 17 months post-course. Respondents were asked how they had utilised the information and resources from the training and to identify the enabling factors or barriers to integrating health promotion into their work practices subsequently. Overall response rate was 33% (n=17); 94% of respondents reported they had utilised the information and resources from the course and 76% had undertaken health promotion activities since attending the course. Building contacts with other MCH providers and access to planning tools were identified as valuable components of the course. Barriers to translating knowledge into practice included financial constraints and lack of organisational support for health promotion activity. Health promotion training provides participants with the skills and confidence to deliver health promotion strategies in their communities. The training presents an opportunity to build health professionals' capacity to address some determinants of poor health outcomes among pregnant Aboriginal women and their babies. SO WHAT?: Training would be enhanced if accompanied by ongoing support for participants to integrate health promotion into their work practice, organisational development including health promotion training for senior management, establishing stronger referral pathways among partner organisations to support continuity of care and embedding training into MCH workforce curricula.

  7. Serum sample levels of bromine, iron, scandium and zinc in preschool children of Atayal and Bunun aborigines living in central Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien-Yi Chen; Ding-Bang Lin; Yuan-Yaw Wei

    2006-01-01

    This study determined bromine, iron, scandium and zinc serum levels in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children living in remote mountainous areas to increase the understanding of the social, cultural, nutrient and ethnic background of the Taiwanese children. Seventy-three serum samples were taken from two ethnic groups of preschool children, Atayal aborigines (AAPC) and Bunun aborigines (BAPC). Sera of these children were freeze dried. Trace elements in sera were identified by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The accuracy and precision of INAA was evaluated using certified reference materials: Tomato Leaves (NIST-SRM 1570a) and Lichen (IAEA-336). Statistical analysis identified several different patterns for ethnic groups, gender and age via the two-tailed Student's t-test. Analytical results showed that the ranges of Br, Fe, Sc and Zn in sera were somewhat wide. The Zn serum levels (p < 0.05) and Br serum levels (p < 0.01) in the AAPC were significantly lower than those in the BAPC. However, there were no significant differences in Fe or Sc serum levels between the two groups. Analytical results were compared to published data for different counties. This study is the first investigating trace elements in Taiwanese aborigines and can be used to establish a much-needed serum element database. (author)

  8. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  9. Preventing Obesity in Canada’s Aboriginal Children: Not Just a Matter of Eating Right and Getting Active

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. Ferris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing issue for all children. Many experts say that preventing obesity is largely a matter of eating the right foods and getting enough physical activity. This advice doesn’t recognize the fact that First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children face unique barriers to growing up healthy and strong simply because of theiridentity. This paper discusses how the social determinants of health impact the ability of Aboriginal children to grow up free of obesity. The paper highlights results from a community-based research project conducted amongst Aboriginal parents and service providers in Ontario who wish to prevent obesity amongst their ownyoung children and clients. Research was carried out over two years to help develop a “toolkit” and training program to help service provides increase efforts to prevent obesity amongst First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children from the ages of 2 to 6 in Ontario.

  10. Industry self-regulation and TV advertising of foods to Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Lynch, John W; Merlin, Tracy

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amount of non-core (unhealthy) food advertising currently on Australian television (i) during children's programmes and viewing times; (ii) since the introduction of food industry self-regulatory initiatives in 2009; and (iii) whether advertising differs according to signatory status to industry initiatives. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase.com and JSTOR (media/marketing) databases; grey literature; and reference lists of relevant articles for studies published since 2009 that reported on food advertising on Australian television. The title and abstract of 316 articles were screened, yielding 25 articles considered potentially eligible, of which eight met the pre-defined selection criteria. Meta-analysis was not possible because of temporal and methodological differences across studies. The advertising of non-core foods was found to be negligible during programmes with a C-(children's) classification but ranged from 1.5 to 6.5/h during children's peak viewing times. From 2006 to 2011, non-core food advertising decreased by 0.18 advertisements per hour every year, whereas fast food advertising increased by 0.09/h; however, these analyses are based on one study with only five time points. During children's viewing times, signatories to industry initiatives advertise non-core foods at higher rates than non-signatories. Although it is not possible to determine whether advertising has changed since the industry initiatives were introduced, signatories to the initiatives continue to advertise non-core foods at times when many children watch television. Future efforts to reduce children's exposure to food advertising should be focused on advertising during children's peak viewing times rather than by programme classifications. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2011-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of…

  12. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  13. Responding to the Diversity of Chinese Language Learners in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Until recently Chinese language learning in Australian primary and junior secondary schools has been characterised by programs primarily designed for second language learners who have had no prior knowledge of or exposure to Chinese language. Participation in such programs by Australian-born children who speak Putonghua (Mandarin) or another…

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles of 263,356 older Australians according to region of birth and acculturation, with a focus on migrants born in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Guo

    Full Text Available Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and physical inactivity, are common in Australia, but the prevalence varies according to cultural background. We examined the relationship between region of birth, measures of acculturation, and CVD risk profiles in immigrant, compared to Australian-born, older Australians. Cross-sectional data from 263,356 participants aged 45 and over joining the population-based 45 and Up Study cohort from 2006-2008 were used. Prevalence ratios for CVD risk factors in Australian- versus overseas-born participants were calculated using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic factors and focusing on Asian migrants. The association between time resident in Australia and age at migration and CVD risk factors in Asian migrants was also examined. Migrants from Northeast (n = 3,213 and Southeast Asia (n = 3,942 had lower levels of overweight/obesity, physical activity and female smoking than Australian-born participants (n = 199,356, although differences in prevalence of overweight/obesity were sensitive to body-mass-index cut-offs used. Compared to Australian-born participants, migrants from Northeast Asia were 20-30% less likely, and from Southeast Asia 10-20% more likely, to report being treated for hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia; Southeast Asian migrants were 40-60% more likely to report diabetes. Northeast Asian-born individuals were less likely than Australian-born to have 3 or more CVD risk factors. Diabetes, treated hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia occurred at relatively low average body-mass-index in Southeast Asian migrants. The CVD risk factor profiles of migrants tended to approximate those of Australian-born with increasing acculturation, in both favourable (e.g., increased physical activity and unfavourable directions (e.g., increased female smoking. Minimizing CVD risk in migrant populations may be achieved through

  15. An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Frew, David J.

    2010-11-01

    We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated this event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of Eta Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.

  16. Chronological narratives from smoking initiation through to pregnancy of Indigenous Australian women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-01

    One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Role of Aboriginal Literacy in Improving English Literacy in Remote Aboriginal Communities: An Empirical Systems Analysis with the Interplay Wellbeing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Byron; Quinn, Stephen J.; Abbott, Tammy; Cairney, Sheree

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous language endangerment is critical in Australia, with only 120 of 250 known languages remaining, and only 13 considered strong. A related issue is the gap in formal education outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people compared with other Australians, with the gap wider in remote regions. Little empirical research exists in…

  18. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a critical but neglected factor influencing school participation of Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Azam, Mohammad Nurul; Ithoi, Init; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Surin, Johari

    2012-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), among the most common neglected tropical diseases, is a major public health problem in Malaysia with a possible impact on the nutritional status and school participation of rural children. This study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren, living in an endemic area for STH in Malaysia, to determine the possible relationship between intestinal helminthiasis and school absenteeism. We also evaluated whether successful treatment of the infection will affect school attendance among the subjects. Stool analysis revealed that more than 90% of the subjects were infected with at least 1 helminth species, with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections being most prevalent. Infection of moderate-to-heavy worm burdens, low level of fathers' education and anaemia were identified as the significant predictors of high absenteeism among the subjects (P<0·05). Following treatment of the infected children, it was found that school absenteeism was reduced significantly (P<0·01). In conclusion, STH continues to have significant impacts on public health, particularly in rural communities with a negatively significant effect on the school participation of Aboriginal children. A school-based de-worming programme should be introduced and incorporated in the current educational assistance targeted towards the Aboriginal communities, under the auspices of the government.

  19. Flourishing on the Margins: A Study of Babies and Belonging in an Australian Aboriginal Community Childcare Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Linda J.; Sumsion, Jennifer; Bradley, Ben; Letsch, Karen; Salamon, Andi

    2017-01-01

    The colonisation of Australia brought significant change and interruption on the life-ways of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, including forced removals onto missions and reserves. The legacy of their dispossession is ongoing socio-economic disadvantage and racial discrimination within the dominant non-Indigenous culture. Indigenous…

  20. Evaluation of relative comparator and k0-NAA for characterization of Aboriginal Australian ochre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popelka-Filcoff, R.S.; Lenehan, C.E.; Quinton, J.S.; Bennett, J.W.; Stopic, A.; Allan Pring; Keryn Walshe

    2012-01-01

    Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical 'fingerprint'. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity (sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k 0 -NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in 'fingerprinting' the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed. (author)

  1. Making Sense of "Their" Sense of Place: Australian Children's Literature Landscape on Indigenous Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Gearing, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Australian children's literature has traditionally provided a space for colonial Australia to perpetuate ideas about segregation, assimilation, and reconciliation. Children's literature offers a complex medium for readers, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to question and challenge prevalent attitudes, in particular, the notion of…

  2. Missed opportunities in educating Aboriginal Australians about bowel cancer screening: whose job is it anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Aliki; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-12-01

    A culturally relevant educational flipchart targeting Aboriginal people was distributed across Western Australia to support education on bowel cancer screening and encourage participation in the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. Respondents sampled from the flipchart distribution list were surveyed on the appropriateness, usefulness, and the extent to and manner in which they used the flipchart for educating Aboriginal clients. Despite praising the resource, few respondents used the flipchart as intended for various reasons, including the view that Aboriginal health education was the responsibility of Aboriginal health workers. Greater recognition by all health service providers is needed of their potential role in Aboriginal health education. Promoting a national health program of under-appreciated importance for a marginalised population is challenging. Effective utilisation of an educational tool is predicated on factors beyond its production quality and wide dissemination. Intended users require awareness of the underlying problem, and adequate time for and specific training in implementation of the tool.

  3. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Translanguaging on Facebook: Exploring Australian Aboriginal Multilingual Competence in Technology-Enhanced Environments and Its Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Nguyen, Bich

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explore how Aboriginal multilingual speakers use technology-enhanced environments, specifically Facebook, for their translanguaging practices. Using data collected from Facebook posts written by seven Aboriginal youth over a period of 18 months, we investigate how the participants move between Aboriginal English (AE) and Standard…

  5. Behavioural skills in 7 year old children born post-term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Olsen, Jørn; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study behavioural skills at the age of seven in a Danish population of children born post-term. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort; children born from 1997 to 2003. Population: Data was obtained from a cohort of about 100,000 women...... and their children. All singletons born in gestational week 39-45 were identified, and then restricted to children whose mothers filled out a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (STQ) when they were seven years of age. The study population constituted 33842 singletons (21249 born at term and 12593 born post...

  6. Preschool abilities of children born preterm and low weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A. Martínez-Espiet

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development among a group of pre-school children born premature and with low weight. We evaluated a group of four years old children; 20 children born prematurely and 20 children born after a full gestation and desired weight, using the Beery-Buktenica visual-motor integration test. We also administered the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3 development test to all 40 mothers. Statistical analysis was performed using student t test for independent groups. The group of children born prematurely scored significantly lower on tests measuring visual perception skills (µ1 83.65 ; µ2 93.7 (p = 0.0001, visual-motor integration (µ1 93.6 ; µ2 104.8 (p = 0.001 and fine motor (µ1 36.00 ; µ2 44.25 (p=0.033 (p = 0.033, when compared to the group of children born after a full term. This study suggests that premature low weight born children have lower performance in the sensory-motor development during the preschool years. These disadvantages go unnoticed and may represent future delays on school tasks that require these skills. It is important to promote an early assessment and environmental stimulation among this population even in the absence of risk indicators.

  7. The correlates of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a high risk Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaimin; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2013-08-16

    Albuminuria marks renal disease and cardiovascular risk. It was estimated to contribute 75% of the risk of all-cause natural death in one Aboriginal group. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is commonly used as an index of albuminuria. This study aims to examine the associations between demographic factors, anthropometric index, blood pressure, lipid-protein measurements and other biomarkers and albuminuria in a cross-sectional study in a high-risk Australian Aboriginal population. The models will be evaluated for albuminuria at or above the microalbuminuria threshold, and at or above the "overt albuminuria" threshold with the potential to distinguish associations they have in common and those that differ. This was a cross-sectional study of 598 adults aged 18-76 years. All participants were grouped into quartiles by age. Logistic regression models were used to explore the correlates of ACR categories. The significant correlates were systolic blood pressure (SBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid, diabetes, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (marginally significant, p=0.054) and serum albumin (negative association) for ACR 17+ (mg/g) for men and 25+ for women. Independent correlates were SBP, uric acid, diabetes, total cholesterol, alanine amino transferase (ALT), Cystatin C and serum albumin (negative association) for overt albuminuria; and SBP, CRP and serum albumin only for microalbuminuria. This is the most detailed modelling of pathologic albuminuria in this setting to date. The somewhat variable association with risk factors suggests that microalbuminuria and overt albuminuria might reflect different as well as shared phenomena.

  8. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  9. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

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    Bessarab Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Genetic Risk Factors for Rheumatic Heart Disease in Aboriginal Australians Provides Support for Pathogenic Molecular Mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lesley-Ann; D'Antoine, Heather A; Tong, Steven Y C; McKinnon, Melita; Bessarab, Dawn; Brown, Ngiare; Reményi, Bo; Steer, Andrew; Syn, Genevieve; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Inouye, Michael; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2017-12-12

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) after group A streptococcus (GAS) infections is heritable and prevalent in Indigenous populations. Molecular mimicry between human and GAS proteins triggers proinflammatory cardiac valve-reactive T cells. Genome-wide genetic analysis was undertaken in 1263 Aboriginal Australians (398 RHD cases; 865 controls). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped using Illumina HumanCoreExome BeadChips. Direct typing and imputation was used to fine-map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Epitope binding affinities were mapped for human cross-reactive GAS proteins, including M5 and M6. The strongest genetic association was intronic to HLA-DQA1 (rs9272622; P = 1.86 × 10-7). Conditional analyses showed rs9272622 and/or DQA1*AA16 account for the HLA signal. HLA-DQA1*0101_DQB1*0503 (odds ratio [OR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.90; P = 9.56 × 10-3) and HLA-DQA1*0103_DQB1*0601 (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P = 7.15 × 10-3) were risk haplotypes; HLA_DQA1*0301-DQB1*0402 (OR 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.65, P = 2.36 × 10-3) was protective. Human myosin cross-reactive N-terminal and B repeat epitopes of GAS M5/M6 bind with higher affinity to DQA1/DQB1 alpha/beta dimers for the 2-risk haplotypes than the protective haplotype. Variation at HLA_DQA1-DQB1 is the major genetic risk factor for RHD in Aboriginal Australians studied here. Cross-reactive epitopes bind with higher affinity to alpha/beta dimers formed by risk haplotypes, supporting molecular mimicry as the key mechanism of RHD pathogenesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cancer risk in children born after donor ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Bunch, K J; Murphy, M F G; Stiller, C A; Botting, B J; Wallace, W H; Davies, M C; Sutcliffe, A G

    2018-01-01

    Do children born after donor ART have an increased risk of developing childhood cancer in comparison to the general population? This study showed no overall increased risk of childhood cancer in individuals born after donor ART. Most large population-based studies have shown no increase in overall childhood cancer incidence after non-donor ART; however, other studies have suggested small increased risks in specific cancer types, including haematological cancers. Cancer risk specifically in children born after donor ART has not been investigated to date. This retrospective cohort study utilized record linkage to determine the outcome status of all children born in Great Britain (1992-2008) after donor ART. The cohort included 12 137 members who contributed 95 389 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up 7.86 years). Records of all children born in Great Britain (England, Wales, Scotland) after all forms of donor ART (1992-2008) were linked to the UK National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) to determine the number who subsequently developed cancer by 15 years of age, by the end of 2008. Rates of overall and type specific cancer (selected a priori) were compared with age, sex and calendar year standardized population-based rates, stratifying for potential mediating/moderating factors including sex, age at diagnosis, birth weight, multiple births, maternal previous live births, assisted conception type and fresh/ cryopreserved cycles. In our cohort of 12 137 children born after donor ART (52% male, 55% singleton births), no overall increased risk of cancer was identified. There were 12 cancers detected compared to 14.4 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 0.83; 95% CI 0.43-1.45; P = 0.50). A small, significant increased risk of hepatoblastoma was found, but the numbers and absolute risks were small (ART, the rarity of specific diagnostic subgroups of childhood cancer results in few cases and therefore wide CIs for such outcomes. As this is an

  12. Growth and development in children born very low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Stroustrup, Annemarie; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationships between growth (birth to age 2 years) and developmental outcomes in children born with very low birthweight (VLBW). Motor and mental development in children born with VLBW were regressed on anthropometric measurements at birth, 9 months and 2 years using multivariable regression. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal cohort, community sample, designed to be representative of children born across the USA. 950 children born with VLBW (children exhibited poor growth, with length-for-age z-scores children at 9 months (adjusted for prematurity) and 34.2% of children at 2 years. Compared with children having z-scores >-2, children with growth shortfalls in head circumference, length and weight had a higher adjusted OR (aOR) of low Bayley motor scores at 9 months and 2 years (aOR ranging from 1.8 to 3.3, all pchildren born with VLBW. While careful length measures may be a particularly useful marker, deficits in all anthropometric measures were risk factors for developmental delays. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Peer-led Aboriginal parent support: Program development for vulnerable populations with participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Toye, Christine; Hegney, Desley; Kickett, Marion; Marriott, Rhonda; Walker, Roz

    2017-10-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a credible, culturally appropriate methodology that can be used to effect collaborative change within vulnerable populations. This PAR study was undertaken in a Western Australian metropolitan setting to develop and evaluate the suitability, feasibility and effectiveness of an Aboriginal peer-led home visiting programme. A secondary aim, addressed in this paper, was to explore and describe research methodology used for the study and provide recommendations for its implementation in other similar situations. PAR using action learning sets was employed to develop the parent support programme and data addressing the secondary, methodological aim were collected through focus groups using semi-structured and unstructured interview schedules. Findings were addressed throughout the action research process to enhance the research process. The themes that emerged from the data and addressed the methodological aim were the need for safe communication processes; supportive engagement processes and supportive organisational processes. Aboriginal peer support workers (PSWs) and community support agencies identified three important elements central to their capacity to engage and work within the PAR methodology. This research has provided innovative data, highlighting processes and recommendations for child health nurses to engage with the PSWs, parents and community agencies to explore culturally acceptable elements for an empowering methodology for peer-led home visiting support. There is potential for this nursing research to credibly inform policy development for Aboriginal child and family health service delivery, in addition to other vulnerable population groups. Child health nurses/researchers can use these new understandings to work in partnership with Aboriginal communities and families to develop empowering and culturally acceptable strategies for developing Aboriginal parent support for the early years. Impact Statement Child

  14. Yaitya tirka madlanna warratinna: exploring what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to meet the sexual health needs of young Aboriginal women in Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet; Luxford, Yoni

    2007-07-01

    Young Aboriginal women are consistently identified as having poorer health outcomes and access to sexual health services than non-Indigenous Australians. Yet the literature is particularly silent on what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to work well with young urban Aboriginal women. This paper reports on a qualitative pilot study undertaken by a non-Indigenous nurse in Adelaide. The participatory action research methods used in this study were sensitive to the history of problems associated with research in Aboriginal communities. A reference group of Elder Aboriginal women and Aboriginal health workers guided all aspects of the study. A partnership approach between the researcher and the Reference Group ensured that the methods, analysis, and final report were culturally safe. Three groups participated in this study: Elders and Aboriginal health workers; young Aboriginal women, and sexual health nurses. All participants acknowledged the importance of nurses being clinically competent. However, the overarching finding was a lack of a clear model of cultural care to guide health service delivery. Three interrelated themes emerged from the data to support this contention. These were: the structural and personal importance of establishing and maintaining trustworthy relationships between nurses, Aboriginal health workers and Elders; the recognition that Aboriginal culture does exist, and is important in urban areas; and the importance of gender considerations to understanding urban women's health business. A partnership approach was recommended as a way to use these findings to develop a transparent cultural model of care. Further research is currently being undertaken to progress this agenda.

  15. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  16. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo-Australian and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent females in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2009-01-01

    Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background.

  17. Australian uranium exports: nuclear issues and the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trood, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction; formulation of uranium policy (the public debate; the Ranger Enquiry into all environmental aspects of a proposal by the AAEC and Ranger Uranium Mines to develop certain uranium deposits in the Northern Territory of Australia; the Government's decision); issues (non-proliferation and uranium safeguards policy; uranium enrichment in Australia; government involvement in uranium development; U development and environmental protection; U development and the Australian aborigines); conclusions. (U.K.)

  18. Mandibular function, temporomandibular disorders, and headache in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Liselotte; Ekberg, Ewacarin; Nilner, Maria; Bondemark, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and headache in prematurely born 8- to 10-year-old children, and to compare the findings with matched full-term born controls. Seventy-three preterm children were selected from the Medical Birth Register--one group comprising 36 extremely preterm children born before the 29th gestational week, the other group 37 very preterm children born during gestational weeks 29 to 32. The preterm children were compared with a control group of 41 full-term children matched for gender, age, nationality, and living area. The subjective symptoms of TMD and headache were registered using a questionnaire. Mandibular function, signs, and symptoms of TMD and headache were registered. TMD diagnoses were set per Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD). No significant differences between groups or gender were found for TMD diagnoses according to RDC/TMD or for headache. The preterm children had smaller mandibular movement capacity than the full-term control group, but when adjusting for weight, height, and head circumference mostly all group differences disappeared. Prematurely born children of 8 to 10 years of age did not differ from full-term born children when considering diagnoses according to RDC/TMD, signs, and symptoms of TMD or headache.

  19. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  20. Aboriginal Determination: Native Title Claims and Barriers to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Akhtar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government has proposed a referendum in 2012 to decide the constitutional status of its indigenous people. There is at present no mechanism to define the indigenous people as a domestic or foreign entity of the Commonwealth. This is an important issue because other settler governments have developed a framework to implement their relationship with the native people. As a result, it is difficult prove title to land that has been abrogated by the deeds of the settlers. In Mabo v Queensland (2,the Commonwealth government was found to have breached its fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment led to the Native Title Act 1993 that established the process of asserting native rights that were held to coexist with pastoral ownership. The promulgation of the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 reversed this process and augmented the powers of non-native landlords by providing the device to extinguish native rights. In Western Australia v Ward, a mining lease was held to have precedence over native title that was adjudged to be part of a bundle of rights. In implementing the Native Title Act the issue turns on the determination of the ties to land/ sea that the government allows to the Aboriginal peoples. The judgment in Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia indicates that title can be excluded on procedural grounds and that there was an incompatibility between the claims of the Aboriginal peoples and the settlers’ claims. The road map towards a more effective regime of proving title can be achieved if the Aboriginal peoples are granted recognition as a nation in the Constitution and a treaty is signed with them.

  1. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  2. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population...... group of children born after spontaneous conception. This control group was almost 4-fold the size of the ART group (n = 358 419) and matched for parity, year of birth and country. Data on perinatal outcomes and cancer were obtained from the National Medical Birth Registries, the Cancer Registries...

  3. Self-reported racism and experience of toothache among pregnant Aboriginal Australians: the role of perceived stress, sense of control, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Jehonathan; Paradies, Yin; Priest, Naomi; Parker, Eleanor Jane; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Lawrence, Herenia P; Broughton, John; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the psychosocial factors perceived stress and sense of personal control mediated the relationship between self-reported racism and experience of toothache. We hypothesized that social support moderated this relationship. Data from 365 pregnant Aboriginal Australian women were used to evaluate experience of toothache, socio-demographic factors, psychosocial factors, general health, risk behaviors, and self-reported racism exposure. Hierarchical logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) for experience of toothache. Perceived stress and sense of personal control were examined as mediators of the association between self-reported racism and experience of toothache. Social support was examined as a moderator. Self-reported racism persisted as a risk indicator for experience of toothache (OR 1.99, 95 percent CI 1.07-3.72) after controlling for age, level of education, and difficulty paying a $100 dental bill. The relationship between self-reported racism and experience of toothache was mediated by sense of control. The direct effect of self-reported racism on experience of toothache became only marginally significant, and the indirect effect was significant (β coefficient=0.04, bias-corrected 95 percent CI 0.004-0.105, 21.2 percent of effect mediated). Stress was insignificant as a mediator. Social support was insignificant as a moderator. The findings indicate that high levels of self-reported racism were associated with experience of toothache and that sense of control, but not perceived stress, mediated the association between self-reported racism and experience of toothache among this sample of pregnant Aboriginal Australian women. Social support did not moderate the association between self-reported racism and experience of toothache. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

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    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  5. Non-abelian Born-Infeld revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the non-abelian Born-Infeld action, including fermions, as a series in α'. We review recent work establishing the complete result to α'2, and its impact on our earlier attempts to derive the Born-Infeld action using κ-symmetry.

  6. Understanding, beliefs and perspectives of Aboriginal people in Western Australia about cancer and its impact on access to cancer services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower overall incidence, Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared with the non-Aboriginal population as manifested by higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rates. Lower participation in screening, later diagnosis of cancer, poor continuity of care, and poorer compliance with treatment are known factors contributing to this poor outcome. Nevertheless, many deficits remain in understanding the underlying reasons, with the recommendation of further exploration of Aboriginal beliefs and perceptions of cancer to help understand their care-seeking behavior. This could assist with planning and delivery of more effective interventions and better services for the Aboriginal population. This research explored Western Australian (WA Aboriginal peoples' perceptions, beliefs and understanding of cancer. Methods A total of 37 Aboriginal people from various geographical areas within WA with a direct or indirect experience of cancer were interviewed between March 2006 and September 2007. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. A social constructionist framework provided a theoretical basis for analysis. Interpretation occurred within the research team with member checking and the involvement of an Aboriginal Reference Group assisting with ensuring validity and reliability. Results Outcomes indicated that misunderstanding, fear of death, fatalism, shame, preference for traditional healing, beliefs such as cancer is contagious and other spiritual issues affected their decisions around accessing services. These findings provide important information for health providers who are involved in cancer-related service delivery. Conclusion These underlying beliefs must be specifically addressed to develop appropriate educational, screening and treatment approaches including models of

  7. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Tiffany K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI. Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls. In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR for obesity comparing sleeping Conclusion Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  8. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  9. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  10. An Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Pilot Study in Australia using Yes I Can

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the remote Aboriginal community of Wilcannia in western NSW hosted the first Australian pilot of a Cuban mass adult literacy campaign model known as Yes I Can. The aim was to investigate the appropriateness of this model in Aboriginal Australia. Building on an intensive community development process of ‘socialisation and mobilisation’, sixteen community members with very low literacy graduated from the basic literacy course, with the majority continuing on into post-literacy activities, further training and/or employment. The pilot was initiated by the National Aboriginal Adult Literacy Campaign Steering Committee (NAALCSC consisting of Aboriginal leaders from the education and health sectors, and managed by the University of New England (UNE, working in partnership with the Wilcannia Local Aboriginal Land Council as the local lead agency. The pilot was supported by a Cuban academic who came to Australia for this purpose, and included a Participatory Action Research (PAR evaluation led by the UNE Project Manager. In this paper, members of the project team and the NAALCSC describe the pilot and reflect on its outcomes.

  11. The Re-Creation and Resolution of the 'Problem' of Indigenous Education in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cross-Curriculum Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jacinta; Lowe, Kevin; Salter, Peta

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the 'problem' of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education represented in the Australian Curriculum's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures cross-curriculum priority. Looking beyond particular curriculum content, we uncover the policy discourses that construct (and reconstruct) the…

  12. KINSHIP, MARRIAGE AND AGE IN ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Denham, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    McConnell (1930) first described and attempted to explain an “age spiral” in Australian Aboriginal systems of descent, marriage and kinship over eighty years ago. Since then, ethnographic and theoretical research concerning this matter has been sporadic and inconclusive, with societies that display this feature most often being treated as anomalous, transitional, hybrid or aberrant. Atkins (1981) attributed the failure to understand these societies to a lack of realism in the models; specific...

  13. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  14. Aboriginal women in rural Australia; a small study of infant feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Catherine; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Aboriginal women in rural areas have lower rates of breastfeeding than Australian averages. The reasons for this are poorly understood. Aboriginal people experience higher morbidity and increased rates of chronic disease throughout the life cycle. The protective effects of sustained breastfeeding could benefit rural Aboriginal communities. To explore the factors impacting upon infant feeding choices in a rural Aboriginal Community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Aboriginal rural dwelling first time mothers. These women received a continuity of midwife and Aboriginal Health Worker model of care. Interviews were also undertaken with five Aboriginal Health Workers and two Aboriginal community breastfeeding champions. The analysis was integrated with a conventional literature review and was further developed and illustrated with historical literature. Indigenist methodology guided the study design, analysis and the dissemination of results. Three key themes were identified. These were "I'm doing the best thing for..." which encompasses the motivations underpinning infant feeding decisions; "this is what I know..." which explores individual and community knowledge regarding infant feeding; and "a safe place to feed" identifying the barriers that negative societal messages pose for women as they make infant feeding decisions. It appears loss of family and community breastfeeding knowledge resulting from colonisation still influences the Aboriginal women of today. Aboriginal women value and trust knowledge which is passed to them from extended family members and women within their Community. Cultural, historical and socioeconomic factors all strongly influence the infant feeding decisions of individuals in this study. Efforts to normalise breastfeeding in the culture of rural dwelling Aboriginal women and their supporting community appear to be necessary and may promote breastfeeding more effectively than optimal professional care of individuals can

  15. Neurological development of children born to mothers after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Zamora, Joanna; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Drozdowska-Szymczak, Agnieszka; Czaplinska, Natalia; Pietrzak, Bronisława; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena

    2017-12-03

    Pregnancies after kidney transplantation are at high risk of complications such as preterm birth and foetal growth restriction. Until now, the impact of these factors on neurological development of children born to transplant mothers has not been established. A comparison of neurological examinations performed in 36 children of kidney transplant women (study group) and 36 children born to healthy mothers (control group). The children from both groups were born at a similar gestational age and in the similar time period from 12/1996 to 09/2012. Neurological examinations were performed from 07/2010 to 11/2013. Each examination was adjusted to the patient's age and performed after the neonatal period. Three years later children were re-consulted, if they presented neurological deviations or were less than 12 months old at the time of the first examination. Normal neurological development was found in 86% of children in both groups (p = .999). Mild neurological deviations were observed in four (11%) children born to kidney transplant mothers and in five (14%) children born to healthy mothers (p = .999). Moderate deviations were diagnosed in one premature child born to transplant mother, whose pregnancy was complicated with a severe preeclampsia and foetal growth restriction. In the study population, no severe neurological disorders were found. Almost all (8/10) children with neurological deviations were born prematurely in good general conditions. The neurological deviations observed in the first year of life were mild and transient. In children over 1 year of age, deviations were more pronounced and continued to maintain. The neurological development of children of kidney transplant women is similar to that of the general population and possible deviations seem to be the result of intrauterine hypotrophy and prematurity. Therefore, in clinical practice, it is necessary to plan post-transplant pregnancies especially in women at high risk of these complications.

  16. U.S.-born compared to non-U.S.-born abused women: analysis of baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Koci, Anne; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    It is evident from recent studies that a woman's citizenship status does not exempt her from exposure to partner violence. The purpose of this article was to examine if social support, self-efficacy, and marginalization of abused women differ based on U.S. born compared to non-U.S. born with and without documentation. The findings suggest that women who were born in the United States had significantly higher self-efficacy scores compared to non-U.S.-born women without documents. There were no significant differences in social support among abused women who are U.S. born compared to non-U.S. born with and without documentation. In addition, women who were not born in the United States and did not have documents had higher marginalization.

  17. When We Become People with a History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Dale Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal children learn a two-way pedagogy and most Aboriginal learners have to engage in bicultural and bilingual education to succeed in the dominant educational setting. Aboriginal Australians pride themselves on being Aboriginal, however Aboriginal epistemology and ontology are never considered as true methodologies within a dominant…

  18. Social development of children born very preterm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Kirsten; Bora, Samudragupta; Woodward, Lianne J

    2015-10-01

    To review systematically studies examining the development of social competence in children born very preterm (VPT) (gestation skills. Twenty-three studies were included. Seven focused on social competence and another 16 examined social competence within a range of outcomes. Study quality was low. Limitations included reliance on single informant data, cross-sectional measurement, use of brief screening tools, absence of child or peer report, and no conceptual model. In terms of social adjustment, 16 out of 21 studies found children born VPT had more peer problems and social withdrawal. Findings of social performance were mixed, with some studies suggesting differences in prosocial behavior (4/14) and others not. Social skills were assessed in four studies and showed children born VPT had poorer skills than children born at term. Predictors of social competence included gestational age, neonatal brain abnormalities, and family socio-economic status. Children born VPT have poorer social competence. These difficulties emerge early and persist throughout childhood. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  20. Factors associated with non-attendance in a general practice super clinic population in regional Australia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan; Bradbury, Joanne; Avila, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Non-attendance at medical appointments is associated with increased patient morbidity and is a significant drain on health service resources. Australian studies have focused on secondary healthcare settings, screening, and interventions to reduce non-attendance. To explore factors associated with non-attendance in a regional primary care setting. A retrospective cohort of all patients with a scheduled appointment between October 2011 and October 2013 at a regional, primary care clinic providing medical and allied health services in a region of New South Wales (NSW) serving a large Aboriginal population (10.7 per cent). Using multivariate logistic regression, non-attendance was regressed on a range of covariates, including number of appointments per person, gender and ethnicity, and day of the week. The overall proportion of missed appointments was 7.6 per cent. Risk factors for non-attendance were day of the week [Mondays (8.1 per cent), Fridays (8.0 per cent), and Thursdays (7.9 per cent), (χ2(4)= 20.208, pattend (FTA) (95% CI: 11-28%)]; Aboriginality (OR=4.022, 95% CI: 3.263, 4.956), and female gender (OR=1.077; 95% CI 1.024, 1.132). There was a trend toward an interaction between gender and Aboriginality, with Aboriginal females being the group most likely to miss appointments (OR=1.272, 95% CI: 0.949, 1.705). This is the largest study of non-attendance in an Australian primary healthcare setting. While not a typical setting, the study had the advantage of a large, mixed population. The suggested high rates of non-attendance by Aboriginal females have potentially important policy implications.

  1. Philip McLaren and the Indigenous-Australian Crime Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Martin Renes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper locates the postcolonial crime novel as a space for disenfranchised groups to write back to the marginalisation inherent in the process of colonisation, and explores the example of Australia. From its inception in the mid-19th century, Australian crime fiction reflected upon the challenging harshness and otherness of the Australian experience for the free and convict settler, expelled from the metropole. It created a series of popular subgenres derived from the convict narrative proper, while more ‘standard’ modes of crime fiction, popularised in and through British and American crime fiction, were late to develop. Whereas Australian crime fiction has given expression to the white experience of the continent in manifold ways, up until recently it made no room for Indigenous voices – with the exception of the classic Inspector Napoleon Bonaparte series written by the prolific Arthur Upfield in the first half of the 20th century. For the longest time, this absence reflected the dispossession, dispersal and disenfranchisement of the colonised Indigenous peoples at large; there were neither Aboriginal voices nor Aboriginal authors, which made the textual space of the Australian crime novel a discursive terra nullius. This paper will look at the only Indigenous-Australian author to date with a substantial body of work in crime fiction, Philip McLaren, and elucidate how his four crime novels break new ground in Australian crime fiction by embedding themselves within a political framework of Aboriginal resilience and resistance to neo/colonialism. Written as of the 1990s, McLaren’s oeuvre is eclectic in that it does not respond to traditional formats of Australian crime fiction, shifts between generic subtypes and makes incursions into other genres. The paper concludes that McLaren’s oeuvre has not been conceived of as the work of a crime writer per se, but rather that its form and content are deeply informed by the racist violence

  2. Neurological development of children born to liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Zamora, J; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Borek-Dzięcioł, B; Drozdowska-Szymczak, A; Czaplińska, N; Pawlik, O; Cyganek, A; Pietrzak, B; Wielgoś, M

    2014-10-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment used in pregnant liver recipients may have a negative impact on fetal development and successively a child. The aim of the study was to make a neurological assessment of infants and children born to liver transplant recipients (LTRs) born between December 4, 2001, and February 11, 2013, in the 1(st) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw. The study involved 88 children, of whom 44 children were born to LTR mothers, and 44 children born to women who were not organ recipients and delivered at a similar gestational age. The gestational age of neonates ranged from 33 to 41 weeks, and the birth weight ranged from 1420 g to 4100 g. The neurological examination was performed in children from 7 weeks to 10 years of age. The neurological development was assessed by a specialist in pediatric neurology. The results of the examination were divided according to the following criteria: 1) normal development, 2) slight disorders, 3) moderate disorders, and 4) severe disorders. The Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Normal development was found in 35 of 44 (79.54%) children in the LTR group and 39 of 44 (88.63%) children in the control group (P = .3827). Slight disorders were observed in 6 of 44 (13.63%) children in LTR group and 5 of 44 (11.36%) children in the control group. Moderate disorders were found only in 3 of 44 (6.81%) children in the LTR group. No severe disorders were observed in both groups. Neurological development of children born to the liver recipients who were exposed to chronic immunosuppressive treatment in their fetal lives is the same as that of children whose mothers have not undergone organ transplantation.

  3. Theoretical and practical issues in the definition of health: insights from Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddington, Paula; Räisänen, Ulla

    2009-02-01

    This paper discusses attempts to define health within a public policy arena and practical and conceptual difficulties that arise. An Australian Aboriginal definition of health is examined. Although there are certain difficulties of translation, this definition is prominent in current Australian health policy and discourse about health. The definition can be seen as broadly holistic in comparison to other holistic definitions such as that of the World Health Organization. The nature of this holism and its grounding within the context of Aboriginal Australia is discussed. In particular, its implications for the phenomenon of medicalization, which may be associated with a holistic notion of health, is critically explored, as is the link of notions of health to culture and the question of the possibility of a universal definition of health. The question of to what extent a definition of health is inspirational or operational is also raised.

  4. Developmental outcomes of Japanese children born through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) in toddlerhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ogawa, Kohei; Horikawa, Reiko; Sago, Haruhiko

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate developmental outcomes of Japanese babies born through Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) at ages 2 and 3. The data were gathered from 1085 children in a hospital-based cohort study conducted in Japan. The children's level of development was assessed through a parent-rated questionnaire, the Kinder Infant Development Scale, which consists of nine developmental domains. We compared the development of children born through ART and those born naturally by conducting analyses of covariance. For the analyses, the effect of maternal age, family income, parental education and multiple birth were controlled for. At 24 months, no significant difference was found between children born through ART and those born naturally in development in any domain. At 36 months, a significant difference was found in development of Receptive language (F (1, 845) = 6.148, P = 0.013), Expressive language (F (1, 845) = 4.060, P = 0.044) and Language concept (F (1, 845) = 6.968, P = 0.008). For these domains, children born through ART had a significantly higher developmental age compared to children born naturally. At age 2, no significant difference was found between the children born through ART and those born naturally in nine developmental domains, although at age 3, the children born through ART showed significantly better language development than the children born naturally. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Risk of Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, and Eczema in Children Born to Mothers with Gum Inflammation during Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh

    Full Text Available Despite links between maternal and child health status, evidence on the association between gum infection in pregnant mothers and childhood allergies is scarce. We aim to evaluate the risk of developing allergy in children born to periodontal mothers in a nationwide study.We conducted a 9-year population-based, retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. A study cohort of 42,217 newborns born to mothers with periodontal disease during pregnancy was identified in 2001 and matched with 42,334 babies born to mothers without any infection (control by mother's age at delivery and baby sex. With a follow-up period from 2001 to 2010, we observed the incidence of allergic rhinitis (AR, allergic conjunctivitis (AC, and eczema in these children. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed with premature deaths as competing risk for the estimation of allergic disease risks.Nine-year cumulative incidences were the highest among children born to periodontal mothers; they reached 46.8%, 24.2%, and 40.4% (vs. 39.5%, 18.3% and 34.8% in control for AR, AC, and eczema, respectively. Our results showed moderately increased risks for the allergies in children born to periodontal mothers relative to their matched non-inflammatory control (adjusted HRs: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.15-1.20; 1.27, 1.24-1.31; 1.14, 1.12-1.17, respectively. Because the impact of food consumption and living environment cannot be considered using insurance data, we attempted to control it by adjusting for parental income and mother's residential area.Overall cumulative incidence and risks of children born to periodontal mothers for AR, AC, and eczema are significantly higher than those born to non-inflammatory mothers. Gum infection in women during pregnancy is an independent risk factor for allergic diseases in children, thus its intergenerational consequences should be considered in gestational care.

  6. Increased risk of peanut allergy in infants of Asian-born parents compared to those of Australian-born parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, J J; Peters, R L; Ponsonby, A-L; Gurrin, L C; Hill, D; Tang, M L K; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2014-12-01

    Asian infants appear to be over-represented among patients with clinical food allergy in Australia, but this has not been formally examined at the population level. Any difference in prevalence according to parental country of birth may be secondary to modifiable lifestyle factors. We aimed to quantify (i) differences in the prevalence of peanut allergy by parental country of birth and (ii) contribution of measured environmental exposures to these differences. The population-based HealthNuts study in Melbourne, Australia, screened 5276 infants (74% participation) with skin prick tests and sensitized infants underwent food challenge. Of these, 535 had a parent born in East Asia and 574 in UK/Europe. Associations between parents' country of birth and offspring peanut allergy were examined using multiple logistic regression. Compared to infants with two Australian-born parents, peanut allergy was more common among infants with parent/s born in East Asia (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.2-5.1) but not those with parent/s born in the UK/Europe (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.5). Paradoxically rates of allergic disease were lower among Asian parents. A higher prevalence of eczema among infants of Asian parents explained around 30% of the increase in peanut allergy, while differences in dog ownership explained around 18%. The high peanut allergy prevalence among infants of Asian-born parents appears to have occurred in a single generation and was not present among infants with parents migrating from other countries, suggesting gene-environment interactions are important. The role of eczema and microbial exposure in food allergy prevention warrants exploration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A program to respond to otitis media in remote Australian Aboriginal communities: a qualitative investigation of parent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline; Sharma, Mridula; Harkus, Samantha; McMahon, Catherine; Taumoepeau, Mele; Demuth, Katherine; Mattock, Karen; Rosas, Lee; Wing, Raelene; Pawar, Sulabha; Hampshire, Anne

    2018-03-06

    Indigenous infants and children in Australia, especially in remote communities, experience early and chronic otitis media (OM) which is difficult to treat and has lifelong impacts in health and education. The LiTTLe Program (Learning to Talk, Talking to Learn) aimed to increase infants' access to spoken language input, teach parents to manage health and hearing problems, and support children's school readiness. This paper aimed to explore caregivers' views about this inclusive, parent-implemented early childhood program for 0-3 years in an Aboriginal community health context. Data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 9 caregivers of 12 children who had participated in the program from one remote Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory are presented. Data were analysed thematically. Caregivers provided overall views on the program. In addition, three key areas of focus in the program are also presented here: speech and language, hearing health, and school readiness. Caregivers were positive about the interactive speech and language strategies in the program, except for some strategies which some parents found alien or difficult: such as talking slowly, following along with the child's topic, using parallel talk, or baby talk. Children's hearing was considered by caregivers to be important for understanding people, enjoying music, and detecting environmental sounds including signs of danger. Caregivers provided perspectives on the utility of sign language and its benefits for communicating with infants and young children with hearing loss, and the difficulty of getting young community children to wear a conventional hearing aid. Caregivers were strongly of the opinion that the program had helped prepare children for school through familiarising their child with early literacy activities and resources, as well as school routines. But caregivers differed as to whether they thought the program should have been located at the school itself. The

  8. Balance in children born prematurely currently aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziuba Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children