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Sample records for noise-induced temporary threshold

  1. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, A. N.; van Dijk, P.

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration,

  2. Predicting hearing thresholds in occupational noise-induced hearing loss by auditory steady state responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Joseph; Karawani, Hanin; Shemesh, Rafi; Nageris, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Currently available behavioral tools for the assessment of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) depend on the reliable cooperation of the subject. Furthermore, in workers' compensation cases, there is considerable financial gain to be had from exaggerating symptoms, such that accurate assessment of true hearing threshold levels is essential. An alternative objective physiologic tool for assessing NIHL is the auditory steady state response (ASSR) test, which combines frequency specificity with a high level of auditory stimulation, making it applicable for the evaluation of subjects with a moderate to severe deficit. The primary aim of the study was to assess the value of the multifrequency ASSR test in predicting the behavioral warble-tone audiogram in a large sample of young subjects with NIHL of varying severity or with normal hearing. The secondary goal was to assess suprathreshold ASSR growth functions in these two groups. The study group included 157 subjects regularly exposed to high levels of occupational noise, who attended a university-associated audiological clinic for evaluation of NIHL from 2009 through 2011. All underwent a behavioral audiogram, and on the basis of the findings, were divided into those with NIHL (108 subjects, 216 ears) or normal hearing (49 subjects, 98 ears). The accuracy of the ASSR threshold estimations for frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz was compared between groups, and the specificity and sensitivity of the ASSR test in differentiating ears with or without NIHL was calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to formulate an equation to predict the behavioral warble-tone audiogram at each test frequency using ASSR thresholds. Multifrequency ASSR amplitude growth as a function of stimulus intensity was compared between the NIHL and normal-hearing groups for 1000 Hz and 4000 Hz carrier frequencies. In the subjects with NIHL, ASSR thresholds to various frequencies were

  3. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeringa, A N; van Dijk, P

    2014-06-01

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration, which is reflected in a decreased amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This suggests that, despite normal auditory thresholds, central auditory processing may be abnormal. We recorded changes in central auditory processing following a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed for 1 h to a pure tone of 11 kHz (124 dB sound pressure level). Hearing thresholds, amplitudes of ABR waves I and IV, and spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates in the inferior colliculus (IC) were assessed immediately, one week, two weeks, and four weeks post exposure. Hearing thresholds were elevated immediately following overexposure, but recovered within one week. The amplitude of the ABR wave I was decreased in all sound-exposed animals for all test periods. In contrast, the ABR wave IV amplitude was only decreased immediately after overexposure and recovered within a week. The proportion of IC units that show inhibitory responses to pure tones decreased substantially up to two weeks after overexposure, especially when stimulated with high frequencies. The proportion of excitatory responses to low frequencies was increased. Spontaneous activity was unaffected by the overexposure. Despite rapid normalization of auditory thresholds, our results suggest an increased central gain following sound exposure and an abnormal balance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the midbrain up to two weeks after overexposure. These findings may be associated with hyperacusis after a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of supra-threshold hearing following an event of recreational acoustic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Bertrand; Holtegaard, Pernille; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Studies with small rodents have exhibited physiological evidence of noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy prior to outer-hair-cell loss following noise-induced large temporary threshold shifts (TTS). The auditory system may thus not fully recover after a TTS. If this noise-induced damage also occurs...

  5. Temporary threshold shift after exposure to pop music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, A; Lindgren, F

    1978-01-01

    Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was studied in pop musicians as well as in listeners. It appears that TTS is less pronounced in pop musicians than in listeners. This can only in part be explained by slightly inferior hearing threshold levels than in the audience before exposure. Further, male listeners showed more TTS than female listeners. After 2 hours of exposure to live pop music a TTS2 appears in pop musicians after an exposure to 98 dB(A) as opposed to listeners where TTS2 appears at 92 dB(A). When the present results are related to the CHABA risk criteria it seems that exposure to live pop music at 100 dB(A) for 2 hours is a limit which should not be exceeded if the risk of permanent hearing loss is to be avoided.

  6. [Study the impacts of diagnosis on occupational noise-induced deafness after bring into the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L J; Yang, A C; Chen, H; Huang, W X; Guo, J J; Liang, X Y; Chen, Z Q; Zheng, Q L

    2017-11-20

    Objective: Study of the results and the degree on occupational noise-induced deafness in-to the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value, in order to provide theoretical basis for the re-vision of diagnostic criteria on occupational noise-induced deafness. Methods: A retrospective study was con-ducted to investigate the cases on the diagnosis of occupational noise-induced deafness in Guangdong province hospital for occupational disease prevention and treatment from January 2016 to January 2017. Based on the re-sults of the 3 hearing test for each test interval greater than 3 days in the hospital, the best threshold of each frequency was obtained, and based on the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise deafness in 2007 edition, Chi square test, t test and variance analysis were used to measure SPSS21.0 data, their differences are tested among the means of speech frequency and the high frequency weighted value into different age group, noise ex-posure group, and diagnostic classification between different dimensions. Results: 1. There were totally 168 cases in accordance with the study plan, male 154 cases, female 14 cases, the average age was 41.18 ±6.07 years old. 2. The diagnosis rate was increased into the weighted value of different high frequency than the mean value of pure speech frequency, the weighted 4 kHz frequency increased by 13.69% (χ(2)=9.880, P =0.002) , 6 kHz increased by 15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) and 4 kHz+6 kHz increased by15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) , the difference was statistically significant. The diagnostic rate of different high threshold had no obvious differ-ence between the genders. 3. The age groups were divided into less than or equal to 40years old group (A group) and 40-50 years old group (group B) , there were higher the diagnostic rate between high frequency weighted 4 kHz (A group χ(2)=3.380, P =0.050; B group χ(2)=4.054, P =0.032) , weighted 6 kHz (A group χ(2)=6.362, P =0.012; B group χ(2

  7. Influence of risky and protective behaviors connected with listening to music on hearing loss and the noise induced threshold shift among students of the Medical University of Bialystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Modzelewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . Currently, significant changes have occurred in the character of sound exposure, along with the properties of the group affected by it. Thus, primary care physicians have to keep in mind that a sizable group of young adults comprises groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing. Objectives . The goal of the following study was to determine the auditory ability of the students attending the Medical University in Bialystok and to analyze their risky and protective behaviors relating to music consumption. Material and methods . In total, 230 students (age: 18–26 years completed a questionnaire about general personal information and their music-listening habits. Thereafter, pure tone audiometry at standard frequencies (0.25 kHz–8 kHz was performed. Results . Hearing loss was more frequent in subjects who listened to music at higher volumes (‘very loud’ – 22.2%, ‘loud’ – 3.9%, ‘not very loud’ – 2.1%, ‘quiet’ – 9.1%, p = 0.046. Hearing loss was more prevalent among those students who were living in a city with more than 50,000 inhabitants before starting higher education compared to the remaining subjects (7.95% vs. 0.97%, p = 0.025. Conclusions . The study demonstrated that surprisingly few medical students suffer from hearing loss or a noise induced threshold shift. There is no correlation between risky behavior such as a lengthy daily duration of listening to music or the type of headphone used and hearing loss. Hearing screening tests connected with education are indicated in the group of young adults due to the accumulative character of hearing damage.

  8. The threshold of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity

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    Liu, Qun; Chen, Qingmei; Jiang, Daqing

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the asymptotic properties of a stochastic delayed SIR epidemic model with temporary immunity. Sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence in the mean of the epidemic are established. The threshold between persistence in the mean and extinction of the epidemic is obtained. Compared with the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold affected by the white noise is smaller than the basic reproduction number R0 of the deterministic system.

  9. The Protective Effect of Conditioning on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Is Frequency-Dependent

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    Akram Pourbakht

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the extent of temporary threshold shift (TTS and hair cell loss following high level 4 kHz noise exposure with those preconditioned with moderate level 1 and 4 kHz octave band noise. Fifteen Male albino guinea pigs (300- 350 g in weight were randomly allocated into three groups: those exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 102 dB SPL (group 1, n=5; those conditioned with 1 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, 6 hours per day for 5 days, then exposed to noise (group 2, n=5; those conditioned with 4 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, then exposed to noise (group 3, n=5. An hour and one week after noise exposure, threshold shifts were evaluated by auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR and then animals were euthanized for histological evaluation. We found that TTS and cochlear damage caused by noise exposure were significantly reduced by 1 kHz and 4 kHz conditioning (P<0.001. We also showed that 4 kHz protocol attenuates noise- induced TTS but no significant TTS reduction occurred by 1 kHz conditioning. Both protocol protected noise-induced cochlear damage. We concluded that lower tone conditioning could not protect against higher tone temporary noise-induced hearing loss, thus conditioning is a local acting and frequency-dependent phenomenon.

  10. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is ... I find additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound ...

  11. Temporary threshold shifts from exposures to equal equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    the assumptions made using the A-weighting curve for the assessment of hearing damage. By modifying exposure ratings to compensate for the build-up of energy at mid and high-frequencies (above 1 kHz) due to the presence of the listener in the sound field and for the levels below an effect threshold that does...... not induce changes in hearing (equivalent quiet levels), ratings of the sound exposure that reflect the observed temporary changes in auditory function can be obtained.......According to existing methods for the assessment of hearing damage, signals with the same A-weighted equivalent level should pose the same hazard to the auditory system. As a measure of hazard, it is assumed that Temporary Thresholds Shifts (TTS) reflect the onset of alterations to the hearing...

  12. Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M D; Burton, J A; Hauser, S N; Hackett, T A; Ramachandran, R; Liberman, M C

    2017-09-01

    Cochlear synaptopathy can result from various insults, including acoustic trauma, aging, ototoxicity, or chronic conductive hearing loss. For example, moderate noise exposure in mice can destroy up to ∼50% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and inner hair cells (IHCs) without affecting outer hair cells (OHCs) or thresholds, because the synaptopathy occurs first in high-threshold ANFs. However, the fiber loss likely impairs temporal processing and hearing-in-noise, a classic complaint of those with sensorineural hearing loss. Non-human primates appear to be less vulnerable to noise-induced hair-cell loss than rodents, but their susceptibility to synaptopathy has not been studied. Because establishing a non-human primate model may be important in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics, we examined cochlear innervation and the damaging effects of acoustic overexposure in young adult rhesus macaques. Anesthetized animals were exposed bilaterally to narrow-band noise centered at 2 kHz at various sound-pressure levels for 4 h. Cochlear function was assayed for up to 8 weeks following exposure via auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). A moderate loss of synaptic connections (mean of 12-27% in the basal half of the cochlea) followed temporary threshold shifts (TTS), despite minimal hair-cell loss. A dramatic loss of synapses (mean of 50-75% in the basal half of the cochlea) was seen on IHCs surviving noise exposures that produced permanent threshold shifts (PTS) and widespread hair-cell loss. Higher noise levels were required to produce PTS in macaques compared to rodents, suggesting that primates are less vulnerable to hair-cell loss. However, the phenomenon of noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy in primates is similar to that seen in rodents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Noise-induced hearing loss: an occupational medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucken, Emily Z; Hong, Robert S

    2014-10-01

    Up to 30 million workers in the United States are exposed to potentially detrimental levels of noise. Although reliable medications for minimizing or reversing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are not currently available, NIHL is entirely preventable. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of occupational NIHL. We will focus on at-risk populations and discuss prevention programs. Current prevention programs focus on reducing inner ear damage by minimizing environmental noise production and through the use of personal hearing protective devices. NIHL is the result of a complex interaction between environmental factors and patient factors, both genetic and acquired. The effects of noise exposure are specific to an individual. Trials are currently underway evaluating the role of antioxidants in protection from, and even reversal of, NIHL. Occupational NIHL is the most prevalent occupational disease in the United States. Occupational noise exposures may contribute to temporary or permanent threshold shifts, although even temporary threshold shifts may predispose an individual to eventual permanent hearing loss. Noise prevention programs are paramount in reducing hearing loss as a result of occupational exposures.

  14. Effects of alcohol and noise on temporary threshold shift in Guinea pigs.

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    Liu, Tien-Chen; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Hwang, Juen-Haur; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Shyang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of concomitant exposure to noise and alcohol on the auditory thresholds. Twenty-four guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: the acute intoxication group, the chronic intoxication group and the control group. Animals in the acute group received single intraperitoneal injections of ethanol (2 g/kg). In the chronic group, alcohol was administered via drinking water (10%, v/v) over a 60-day period. All animals were exposed to a white noise at the intensity of 105 dB A for 30 min. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels were measured before, immediately after noise exposure and also 1, 2, and 7 days following exposure. The results showed: first, acute alcohol injection caused a significant, temporary elevation of ABR threshold (4.8 dB in average), while chronic alcohol treatment did not change auditory threshold significantly. Second, noise exposure induced a mean threshold shift of 15.4- 19.7 dB. ABR threshold returned to normal 2 days after exposure. Both acute and chronic alcohol treatment did not alter the magnitude and time course of recovery of the temporary threshold shift (TTS). Third, the mean DPOAE amplitudes decreased at most frequencies following acute injection of alcohol. However, the differences did not reach statistical significance. Fourth, the mean DPOAE levels dropped 3.4-9.6 dB in all groups after noise exposure and returned to normal 1 day to 2 days after noise. There were no significant differences in the amount of DPOAE suppression after noise between the three groups. In summary, we have found that acute and chronic treatment of alcohol in combination with noise did not significantly exacerbate TTS or decrease DPOAE amplitudes relative to noise exposure alone. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Time and frequency characteristics of temporary threshold shifts caused by pure tone exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The time-frequency characteristics of Temporary Threshold Shifts (TTS) caused by pure tones were determined using the Békésy audiometric method with narrow-band noise of short duration as the probe stimuli. Two experiments were done using exposures of 3 min at 100 dB above threshold. In the first....... In the second experiment, the TTS recovery curve produced by a 1 kHz pure tone exposure was assessed at 1.5 kHz, at approximately 15 s intervals for the first 5 min and at regularly increasing intervals up to 45 min after the exposure. The results showed a maximum in the recovery around 2 min after the exposure....... The data gathered in these experiments were used to construct a mathematical model of TTS recovery. The model describes both the 1/2-octave shift and the 2 min bounce and it can be used in the comparison of temporary changes in auditory function, assessed at different times and frequencies....

  16. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Iran: (1997–2012): Systematic Review Article

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    SOLTANZADEH, Ahmad; EBRAHIMI, Hossein; FALLAHI, Majid; KAMALINIA, Mojtaba; GHASSEMI, Shadi; GOLMOHAMMADI, Rostam

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss, which is one of the 10 leading occupational diseases, is a debilitating and irreversible disease. During the recent 15-years period (1997–2012), several studies have investigated the association between noise, hearing damage and other side effects of noise in Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the relevant literature related to noise-induced hearing loss, lead to developing noise exposure limits. In this systematic review, two researchers independently extracted the data from 31 past studies that had considered noise-induced hearing loss (including hearing loss, temporary and permanent hearing threshold shift and auditory trauma). The data were then recorded in a modified form and Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. In analyzed studies the weighted average equivalent sound pressure level [L Aeq ] was 90.29 dB(A) and average hearing loss was 26.44 dB(A). The Highest degree of hearing loss in the right ear was associated at 4000 Hz, and the highest degree of hearing loss in the left ear was associated to 1000 and 4000 Hz. The majority of the reviewed studies have confirmed that exposure to a noise level above 85 dB (A) can lead to an increased chance of hearing loss. Furthermore, the results of the present review indicated that as L Aeq increased up to 85 dB(A), so did the severity of the hearing loss. PMID:26171352

  17. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift in normal-hearing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Dell, Shawna; Hensley, Brittany; Hall, James W; Campbell, Kathleen C M; Antonelli, Patrick J; Green, Glenn E; Miller, James M; Guire, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is the availability of an established clinical paradigm with real-world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal-hearing human subjects. Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93 to 95 (n = 10), 98 to 100 (n = 11), or 100 to 102 (n = 12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of 4 hr. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured before and after music exposure. Postmusic tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and 1 week later. Changes in thresholds after the lowest-level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a "notch" configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean = 6.3 ± 3.9 dB; range = 0-14 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hr postexposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1 week postexposure. These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music-player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function after digital music-player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be taken to fully inform potential subjects in

  18. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  19. Temporary threshold shift after impulse-noise during video game play: laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spankovich, C; Griffiths, S K; Lobariñas, E; Morgenstein, K E; de la Calle, S; Ledon, V; Guercio, D; Le Prell, C G

    2014-03-01

    Prevention of temporary threshold shift (TTS) after laboratory-based exposure to pure-tones, broadband noise, and narrowband noise signals has been achieved, but prevention of TTS under these experimental conditions may not accurately reflect protection against hearing loss following impulse noise. This study used a controlled laboratory-based TTS paradigm that incorporated impulsive stimuli into the exposure protocol; development of this model could provide a novel platform for assessing proposed therapeutics. Participants played a video game that delivered gunfire-like sound through headphones as part of a target practice game. Effects were measured using audiometric threshold evaluations and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The sound level and number of impulses presented were sequentially increased throughout the study. Participants were normal-hearing students at the University of Florida who provided written informed consent prior to participation. TTS was not reliably induced by any of the exposure conditions assessed here. However, there was significant individual variability, and a subset of subjects showed TTS under some exposure conditions. A subset of participants demonstrated reliable threshold shifts under some conditions. Additional experiments are needed to better understand and optimize stimulus parameters that influence TTS after simulated impulse noise.

  20. Cellular mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss.

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    Kurabi, Arwa; Keithley, Elizabeth M; Housley, Gary D; Ryan, Allen F; Wong, Ann C-Y

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to intense sound or noise can result in purely temporary threshold shift (TTS), or leave a residual permanent threshold shift (PTS) along with alterations in growth functions of auditory nerve output. Recent research has revealed a number of mechanisms that contribute to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The principle cause of NIHL is damage to cochlear hair cells and associated synaptopathy. Contributions to TTS include reversible damage to hair cell (HC) stereocilia or synapses, while moderate TTS reflects protective purinergic hearing adaptation. PTS represents permanent damage to or loss of HCs and synapses. While the substrates of HC damage are complex, they include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and the active stimulation of intracellular stress pathways, leading to programmed and/or necrotic cell death. Permanent damage to cochlear neurons can also contribute to the effects of NIHL, in addition to HC damage. These mechanisms have translational potential for pharmacological intervention and provide multiple opportunities to prevent HC damage or to rescue HCs and spiral ganglion neurons that have suffered injury. This paper reviews advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms that contribute to NIHL and their potential for therapeutic manipulation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Personal cassette players ('Walkman'). Do they cause noise-induced hearing loss?

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    Turunen-Rise, I; Flottorp, G; Tvete, O

    1991-01-01

    Playing selected types of music on five different personal cassette players (PCPs) and using different gain (volume) settings, A-weighted maximum and equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were measured on KEMAR (Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research). The octave band SPLs were measured on KEMAR ear and transformed to field values in order to compare measured values with the Norwegian noise risk criteria. Temporary threshold shifts (TTS) measured in 6 subjects after listening to two different pop music cassettes on one PCP in two separate sessions, are presented. Based upon these studies we conclude that the risk of acquiring permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) from use of PCP is very small for what we found to be normal listening conditions.

  2. A study of the possibility of acquiring noise-induced hearing loss by the use of personal cassette players (walkman).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen-Rise, I; Flottorp, G; Tvete, O

    1991-01-01

    Playing various types of music on five selected personal cassette players (PCPs), A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs), together with octave band spectrum, were measured on KEMAR (Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research). Maximum and equivalent SPLs were measured for various types of music, PCPs and for different gain (volume) settings. The measured SPL-values on KEMAR ear were transformed to field values outside the ear canal by means of corrections based on KEMAR's ear canal resonance curve--in order to compare measured values with the Norwegian national noise risk criteria. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was measured after listening to PCP music for one hour in order to obtain additional information about possible risk of hearing damage. TTS values are presented for six subjects when playing two different pop music cassettes on one type PCP. Our analysis indicates that the risk for permanent noise-induced hearing loss from listening to PCP is very small for normal listening conditions.

  3. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  4. Treatment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    d'Aldin, Gervais

    1999-01-01

    .... Guinea pigs are subjected to an acoustic trauma. The recovery of the noise-induced hearing loss is followed up to 14 days post exposure by electrocochleography and morphologic examination of the cochlea is performed...

  5. Macrophage recruitment, but not interleukin 1 beta activation, enhances noise-induced hearing damage.

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    Mizushima, Yu; Fujimoto, Chisato; Kashio, Akinori; Kondo, Kenji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-11-18

    It has been suggested that macrophages or inflammatory monocytes participate in the pathology of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), but it is unclear how extensively these cells contribute to the development of temporary and/or permanent NIHL. To address this question, we used clodronate liposomes to deplete macrophages and monocytes. After clodronate liposome injection, mice were exposed to 4-kHz octave band noise at 121 dB for 4 h. Compared to vehicle-injected controls, clodronate-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced permanent threshold shifts at 4 and 8 kHz and significantly smaller outer hair cell losses in the lower-apical cochlear turn. Following noise exposure, the stria vascularis had significantly more cells expressing the macrophage-specific protein F4/80, and this effect was significantly suppressed by clodronate treatment. These F4/80-positive cells expressed interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), which noise exposure activated. However, IL-1β deficient mice did not exhibit significant resistance to intense noise when compared to wild-type mice. These findings suggest that macrophages that enter the cochlea after noise exposure are involved in NIHL, whereas IL-1β inhibition does not reverse this cochlear damage. Therefore, macrophages may be a promising therapeutic target in human sensorineural hearing losses such as NIHL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of noise-induced tinnitus and the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Gilles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise exposure in a young population. In addition the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection were evaluated in order to explain the use/non-use of hearing protection in a young population. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 3892 high school students (mean age: 16.64 years old, SD: 1.29 years. The prevalence of temporary and permanent tinnitus was assessed. In addition the 'Youth Attitudes to Noise Scale' and the 'Beliefs About Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss' were used in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporary noise-induced tinnitus and permanent tinnitus in high school students was respectively 74.9% and 18.3%. An increasing prevalence of temporary tinnitus with age was present. Most students had a 'neutral attitude' towards loud music and the use of hearing protection was minimal (4.7%. The limited use of hearing protection is explained by a logistic regression analysis showing the relations between certain parameters and the use of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very high prevalence of tinnitus in such a young population, the rate of hearing protection use and the knowledge about the risks of loud music is extremely low. Future preventive campaigns should focus more on tinnitus as a warning signal for noise-induced damage and emphasize that also temporary symptoms can result in permanent noise-induced damage.

  7. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing threshold, measured in 1-dB steps at different time points after ending the music. Eighteen normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. Changes in pure-tone threshold were observed in both conditions and were similar, regardless of the break. Threshold shifts could be averaged for 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The shift immediately after the ending of the music was 1.7 dB for right ears, and 3.4 dB for left ears. The difference between left and right ears was significant. One hour after the exposure, right ears were recovered to baseline conditions whereas left ears showed a small but clinically irrelevant remaining shift of approximately 1 dB. The advice to use chill-out zones is still valid, because this helps to reduce the duration to the exposure. This study does not provide evidence that a rest period gives an additional reduction of temporary threshold shifts.

  8. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects of...

  9. Clustering of noise-induced oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Fomin, A I; Postnov, D E

    2001-01-01

    The subject of our study is clustering in a population of excitable systems driven by Gaussian white noise and with randomly distributed coupling strength. The cluster state is frequency-locked state in which all functional units run at the same noise-induced frequency. Cooperative dynamics...

  10. Cochlear Synaptopathy and Noise-Induced Hidden Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on animal models have shown that noise exposure that does not lead to permanent threshold shift (PTS can cause considerable damage around the synapses between inner hair cells (IHCs and type-I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs. Disruption of these synapses not only disables the innervated ANFs but also results in the slow degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons if the synapses are not reestablished. Such a loss of ANFs should result in signal coding deficits, which are exacerbated by the bias of the damage toward synapses connecting low-spontaneous-rate (SR ANFs, which are known to be vital for signal coding in noisy background. As there is no PTS, these functional deficits cannot be detected using routine audiological evaluations and may be unknown to subjects who have them. Such functional deficits in hearing without changes in sensitivity are generally called “noise-induced hidden hearing loss (NIHHL.” Here, we provide a brief review to address several critical issues related to NIHHL: (1 the mechanism of noise induced synaptic damage, (2 reversibility of the synaptic damage, (3 the functional deficits as the nature of NIHHL in animal studies, (4 evidence of NIHHL in human subjects, and (5 peripheral and central contribution of NIHHL.

  11. Pitch and Loudness from Tinnitus in Individuals with Noise-induced Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, Leticia Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tinnitus is one of the symptoms that affects individuals suffering from noise induced hearing loss. This condition can be disabling, leading the affected individual to turn away from work. Objective This literature review aims to analyze the possible association between gender and tinnitus pitch and loudness, the degree of hearing loss and the frequencies affected in subjects with noise-induced hearing loss. Methods This contemporary cohort study was conducted through a cross-sectional analysis. The study sample consisted of adults with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus, who had been diagnosed with noise-induced hearing loss. The patients under analysis underwent an otorhinolaryngological evaluation, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry. Results The study included 33 subjects with noise-induced hearing loss diagnoses, of which 22 (66.7% were men. Authors observed no statistical difference between gender and loudness/pitch tinnitus and loudness/pitch in subjects with bilateral tinnitus. Authors found an inverse relation between tinnitus loudness with intensity greater hearing threshold and the average of the thresholds and the grade of hearing loss. The tinnitus pitch showed no association with higher frequency of hearing threshold. Conclusion Data analysis shows that, among the individuals evaluated, the greater the hearing loss, the lower the loudness of tinnitus. We did not observe an association between hearing loss and tinnitus pitch.

  12. Minocycline attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yong-Li; Tian, Ke-Yong; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2017-02-03

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious health concern and prevention of hair cell death or therapeutic intervention at the early stage of NIHL is critical to preserve hearing. Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline and has been shown to have otoprotective effects in ototoxic drug-induced hearing impairment, however, whether minocycline can protect against NIHL has not been investigated. The present study demonstrated elevated ABR (auditory brainstem response) thresholds and outer hair cell loss following traumatic noise exposure, which was mitigated by intraperitoneal administration of minocycline (45mg/kg/d) for 5 consecutive days. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that minocycline, a clinically approved drug with a good safety profile, can attenuate NIHL in rats and may potentially be used for treatment of hearing loss in clinic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Noise-Induced Riddling in Chaotic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.; Grebogi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Recent works have considered the situation of riddling where, when a chaotic attractor lying in an invariant subspace is transversely stable, the basin of the attractor can be riddled with holes that belong to the basin of another attractor. We show that riddling can be induced by arbitrarily small random noise even if the attractor is transversely unstable, and we obtain universal scaling laws for noise-induced riddling. Our results imply that the phenomenon of riddling can be more prevalent than expected before, as noise is practically inevitable in dynamical systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Temporary Hearing Threshold Shift in Healthy Volunteers with Hearing Protection Caused by Acoustic Noise Exposure during 3-T Multisequence MR Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Li, Huan; Li, Xianjun; Wang, Miaomiao; Liu, Congcong; Guo, Jianxin; Yang, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To determine whether a single 51-minute exposure to acoustic noise during 3-T multisequence magnetic resonance (MR) neuroimaging could affect the hearing threshold of healthy adults with earplugs and sponge mats as hearing protection. Materials and Methods With earplugs and motion-refraining sponge mats as hearing protection, 26 healthy young adults underwent 3-T MR neuroimaging imaging that included T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence, T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence, diffusion-tensor imaging, diffusion-kurtosis imaging, T2*-weighted three-dimensional multiecho gradient-echo sequence, and blood oxygen level-dependent imaging. Automated auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to measure the hearing thresholds within 24 hours before, within 20 minutes after, and 25 days after the MR examination. One-way repeated-measure analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustment was used to compare automated ABR results among the three tests and partial η 2 (η p 2 ) was reported as a measure of effect size. Results Automated ABR results showed significantly increased mean threshold shift of 5.0 dB ± 8.1 (standard deviation) (left ear: 4.8 dB ± 9.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.09, 8.53], η p 2 = 0.221, P = .013; right ear: 5.2 dB ± 6.9 [95% confidence interval: 2.36, 8.02], η p 2 = 0.364, P = .001) immediately after the MR examination compared with the baseline study. This shift is below the temporary threshold shift of 40-50 dB that is associated with cochlea nerve changes. Automated ABR obtained at day 25 after MR imaging showed no significant differences from baseline (left ear: -2.3 dB ± 8.6 [95% confidence interval: -5.79, 1.78], η p 2 = 0.069, P = .185; right ear: 0.4 dB ± 7.3 [95% confidence interval: -3.35, 2.58], η p 2 = 0.003, P = .791). Conclusion A 3-T MR neuroimaging examination with the acoustic noise at equivalent sound pressure level of 103.5-111.3 dBA lasting 51 minutes can cause temporary hearing threshold shift in

  15. Activity of coenzyme Q 10 (Q-Ter multicomposite) on recovery time in noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffa, Paola; Cambi, Jacopo; Mezzedimi, Chiara; Passali, Desiderio; Bellussi, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    A potential consequence of exposure to noise is a temporary reduction in auditory sensitivity known as temporary threshold shift (TTS), which mainly depends on the intensity and duration of exposure to the noise. Recovery time is related to the amount of initial hearing loss, and the most recovery takes place during the first 15 min following exposure. This study evaluated the efficacy in otoprotection against noise-induced hearing loss of an orally administrated food supplement containing coenzyme Q 10 -Ter. This water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q 10 shows better bioavailability than the native form and has been found to have a protective effect on outer hair cells after exposure to noise in animal models. Thirty volunteers were enrolled, and the right ear of each subject was exposed to a narrow-band noise centered at 3 kHz for 10 min at the intensity of 90 dB HL. In the 30 subjects enrolled, TTS was evaluated after 2, 15, and 30 min and the recovery time was recorded in each subject. The longest recovery time was 45 min. Among the 18 subjects who underwent a second test after treatment with Q-Ter, the mean recovery time was 31.43 min. The results of the present study show that 30 days' treatment with Q-Ter can aid faster recovery after exposure to noise (P < 0.0001). The reduction in the recovery time following treatment can be explained by Q-Ter-mediated improvement of the outer hair cells' response to oxidative stress.

  16. Safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Jonathan; Lobarinas, Edward; Spankovich, Christopher; Griffiths, Scott K; Antonelli, Patrick J; Lynch, Eric D; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-09-02

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a leading cause of occupational and recreational injury and disease, and a major determinant of age-related hearing loss. No therapeutic agent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of this disorder. In animal models, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) activity is reduced after acute noise exposure. Ebselen, a novel GPx1 mimic, has been shown to reduce both temporary and permanent noise-induced hearing loss in preclinical studies. We assessed the safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in young adults in a phase 2 clinical trial. In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, healthy adults aged 18-31 years were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) at the University of Florida (Gainsville, FL, USA) to receive ebselen 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg, or placebo orally twice daily for 4 days, beginning 2 days before a calibrated sound challenge (4 h of pre-recorded music delivered by insert earphones). Randomisation was done with an allocation sequence generated by an independent third party. The primary outcome was mean temporary threshold shift (TTS) at 4 kHz measured 15 min after the calibrated sound challenge by pure tone audiometry; a reduction of 50% in an ebselen dose group compared with the placebo group was judged to be clinically relevant. All participants who received the calibrated sound challenge and at least one dose of study drug were included in the efficacy analysis. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01444846. Between Jan 11, 2013, and March 24, 2014, 83 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ebselen 200 mg (n=22), 400 mg (n=20), or 600 mg (n=21), or placebo (n=20). Two participants in the 200 mg ebselen group were discontinued from the study before the calibrated sound challenge because they no longer met the inclusion criteria; these

  17. Use of Otoacoustic emissions in noise induced hearing loss prevention

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in laboratory- main clinical use on identification of hearing loss in newborn babies • Clinically sensitive tool for assessing NIHL and the outer hair cells (OHC) • repeatable results • identify cochlear damage before evidenced on an audiogram – normal... audiogram but evidence of OHC loss • Feasible method of evaluating HPD effectiveness using temporary emission shift (TES) • CSIR research developed a prediction model for Hearing Threshold Levels Copy of dancing hair cell.wm © CSIR 2010 Slide 6...

  18. Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Richard A. Altschuler CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Michigan REPORT DATE: 2014...3 Ju 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...prevent or treat noise induced tinnitus . Our studies showed a military relevant small arms fire-like noise will induce tinnitus in approximately 33

  19. [Hearing loss and idoneity--the segnalation of noise-induced hearing loss hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albera, Roberto; Dagna, Federico; Cassandro, Claudia; Canale, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Work idoneity in hearing loss must be related to working ability and evolution risks. Working ability is referred to the difficulties found in speech comprehension and in signals perception. As regards hearing loss evolution it is necessary to define if the subject is affected by conductive or neurosensorial hearing loss. In conductive hearing loss it is necessary to evaluate entity and frequential distribution of the deficit. In neurosensorial hearing loss it is necessary to distinguish between noise-induced hearing loss and extraprofessional hearing loss. In noise-induced hearing loss the evolution risk is high if the noise exposure is less than 10-15 years or the actual noise exposure is louder than the former. In case of extraprofessional hearing loss the evolution risk is higher in presbycusis, endolymphatic hydrops and toxic hearing loss. The necessity to report the presence on professionale noise-induced hearing loss arises if audiometric threshold is more than 25 dB at 0.5-1-2-3-4 kHz and if it is verified the professional origine of hearing loss.

  20. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    occurrence of rapid eye movements, sleep spindles, and slow wave sleep. Using these features an approach for classifying sleep stages every one second during the night was developed. From observation of the results of the sleep stage classification, it was determined how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic model. Slow and fast REM activity are modeled separately and the activity in the gamma frequency band of the EEG signal is used to model both spontaneous and noise-induced awakenings. The nonlinear model predicts changes in sleep structure similar to those found by other researchers and reported in the sleep literature and similar to those found in obtained survey data. To compare sleep disturbance model predictions, flight operations data from US airports were obtained and sleep disturbance in communities was predicted for different operations scenarios using the modified Markov model, the nonlinear dynamic model, and other aircraft noise awakening models. Similarities and differences in model predictions were evaluated in order to determine if the use of the developed sleep structure model leads to improved predictions of the impact of nighttime noise on communities.

  1. Mapping sound intensities by seating position in a university concert band: A risk of hearing loss, temporary threshold shifts, and comparisons with standards of OSHA and NIOSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas Vedder, III

    Exposure to loud sounds is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in the United States. The purpose of the current research was to measure the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and determine if those levels exceeded permissible sound limits for exposure according to criteria set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Time-weighted averages (TWA) were obtained via a dosimeter during six rehearsals for nine members of the ensemble (plus the conductor), who were seated in frontal proximity to "instruments of power" (trumpets, trombones, and percussion; (Backus, 1977). Subjects received audiometer tests prior to and after each rehearsal to determine any temporary threshold shifts (TTS). Single sample t tests were calculated to compare TWA means and the maximum sound intensity exposures set by OSHA and NIOSH. Correlations were calculated between TWAs and TTSs, as well as TTSs and the number of semesters subjects reported being seated in proximity to instruments of power. The TWA-OSHA mean of 90.2 dBA was not significantly greater than the specified OSHA maximum standard of 90.0 dBA (p > .05). The TWA-NIOSH mean of 93.1 dBA was, however, significantly greater than the NIOSH specified maximum standard of 85.0 dBA (p OSHA, r = .20 for NIOSH); the correlation between TTSs and semesters of proximity to instruments of power was also considered weak (r = .13). TWAs cumulatively exceeded both association's sound exposure limits at 11 specified locations (nine subjects and both ears of the conductor) throughout the concert band's rehearsals. In addition, hearing acuity, as determined by TTSs, was substantially affected negatively by the intensities produced in the concert band. The researcher concluded that conductors, as well as their performers, must be aware of possible damaging sound intensities in rehearsals or performances.

  2. Swept-sine noise-induced damage as a hearing loss model for preclinical assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eSanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz (violet noises to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 inhibitors P17 and P144 on noise-induced hearing loss. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL for 30 minutes. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by violet swept-sine noise depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of noise-induced hearing loss, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.

  3. Renexin as a rescue regimen for noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renexin, a compound of cilostazol and ginkgo biloba extract, has been reported to produce neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of renexin on hearing, the organ of Corti (OC, and medial olivocochlear efferents against noise-induced damage. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 110 dB SPL white noise for 60 min and then randomly divided into three groups: high- and low-dose renexin-treated groups and noise only group. Renexin were administered for 7 days: 90 mg/kg to the low-dose, and 180 mg/kg to the high-dose groups. All mice, including the controls underwent hearing tests on postnoise day 8 and were killed for cochlear harvest. We compared the hearing thresholds and morphology of the OC and cochlear efferents across the groups. The renexin-treated groups recovered from the immediate threshold shifts in a dose-dependent manner, while the noise group showed a permanent hearing loss. The renexin-treated ears demonstrated less degeneration of the OC. The diameters of the efferent terminals labeled with α-synuclein were preserved in the high-dose renexin-treated group. In the western blot assay of the cochlear homogenates, the treated groups displayed stronger expressions of α-synuclein than the noise and control groups, which may indicate that noise-induced enhanced activity of the cochlear efferent system was protected by renexin. Our results suggest that pharmacologic treatment with renexin is hopeful to reduce or prevent noise-induced hearing loss as a rescue regimen after noise exposure.

  4. Can intrinsic noise induce various resonant peaks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J J; Marro, J; Mejias, J F, E-mail: jtorres@ugr.es [Institute Carlos I for Theoretical and Computational Physics and Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    We theoretically describe how weak signals may be efficiently transmitted throughout more than one frequency range in noisy excitable media by a sort of stochastic multiresonance. This helps us to reinterpret recent experiments in neuroscience and to suggest that many other systems in nature might be able to exhibit several resonances. In fact, the observed behavior happens in our model as a result of competition between (i) changes in the transmitted signals as if the units were varying their activation threshold, and (ii) adaptive noise realized in the model as rapid activity-dependent fluctuations of the connection intensities. These two conditions are indeed known to characterize heterogeneously networked systems of excitable units, e.g. sets of neurons and synapses in the brain. Our results may find application also in the design of detector devices.

  5. Can intrinsic noise induce various resonant peaks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J J; Marro, J; Mejias, J F

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically describe how weak signals may be efficiently transmitted throughout more than one frequency range in noisy excitable media by a sort of stochastic multiresonance. This helps us to reinterpret recent experiments in neuroscience and to suggest that many other systems in nature might be able to exhibit several resonances. In fact, the observed behavior happens in our model as a result of competition between (i) changes in the transmitted signals as if the units were varying their activation threshold, and (ii) adaptive noise realized in the model as rapid activity-dependent fluctuations of the connection intensities. These two conditions are indeed known to characterize heterogeneously networked systems of excitable units, e.g. sets of neurons and synapses in the brain. Our results may find application also in the design of detector devices.

  6. Preventing Noise-Induced Extinction in Discrete Population Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bashkirtseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of the analysis and prevention of noise-induced extinction in nonlinear population models is considered. For the solution of this problem, we suggest a general approach based on the stochastic sensitivity analysis. To prevent the noise-induced extinction, we construct feedback regulators which provide a low stochastic sensitivity and keep the system close to the safe equilibrium regime. For the demonstration of this approach, we apply our mathematical technique to the conceptual but quite representative Ricker-type models. A variant of the Ricker model with delay is studied along with the classic widely used one-dimensional system.

  7. Noise-induced hearing loss milestones: Past and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the 2003 Mine Health and Safety Summit, the milestones for elimination of Noise-induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) in the mining industry were agreed on. The first milestone, December 2008, has passed and the next one in 2013 is looming. The study...

  8. Signatures of nonlinearity in single cell noise-induced oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P.; Straube, A.V.; Timmer, J.; Fleck, C.; Grima, R.

    2013-01-01

    A class of theoretical models seeks to explain rhythmic single cell data by postulating that they are generated by intrinsic noise in biochemical systems whose deterministic models exhibit only damped oscillations. The main features of such noise-induced oscillations are quantified by the power

  9. Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss in textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross sectional study measured the prevalence of Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) in textile industries in Dar Es Salaam city and Morogoro municipality. Data were collected from 125 employees randomly selected from each of the textile factory mill in each region through structured questionnaires and audiogram ...

  10. Prevalence and awareness of noise induced hearing loss in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noise above a certain acceptable level or sustained noise may cause damage to the ears. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and level of awareness of noise induced hearing loss in Calabar. Seventy-five workers from two noise producing companies, in Calabar- Flour mill and Wartsilla were chosen for this ...

  11. Noise-induced chaos in a quadratically nonlinear oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Chunbiao

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the noise-induced chaos in a quadratically nonlinear oscillator. Simple zero points of the stochastic Melnikov integral theoretically mean the necessary rising of noise-induced chaotic response in the system based on the stochastic Melnikov method. To quantify the noise-induced chaos, the boundary of the system's safe basin is firstly studied and it is shown to be incursively fractal when chaos arises. Three cases are considered in simulating the safe basin of the system, i.e., the system is excited only by the harmonic excitation, by both the harmonic and the Gaussian white noise excitations, and only by the Gaussian white noise excitation. Secondly, the leading Lyapunov exponent by Rosenstein's algorithm is shown to quantify the chaotic nature of the sample time series of the system. The results show that the boundary of the safe basin can also be fractal even if the system is excited only by the external Gaussian white noise. Most importantly, the almost-harmonic, the noise-induced chaotic and the thoroughly random responses can be found in the system

  12. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich

  13. Prevalence of occupational noise induced hearing loss amongst traffic police personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, V K; Mehta, A K

    1999-01-01

    Traffic branch personnel of Pune traffic police were screened for presence of noise induced hearing loss. A very significant number (81.2%) showed sensorineural hearing loss. The various factors responsible for noise induced hearing loss are discussed.

  14. Transforming growth factor β1 inhibition protects from noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eMurillo-Cuesta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to noise damages the principal cochlear structures leading to hearing impairment. Inflammatory and immune responses are central mechanisms in cochlear defensive response to noise but, if unregulated, they contribute to inner ear damage and hearing loss. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß is a key regulator of both responses and high levels of this factor have been associated with cochlear injury in hearing loss animal models. To evaluate the potential of targeting TGF-ß as a therapeutic strategy for preventing or ameliorating noise-induced hearing loss, we studied the auditory function, cochlear morphology, gene expression and oxidative stress markers in mice exposed to noise and treated with TGF-ß1 peptidic inhibitors P17 and P144, just before or immediately after noise insult. Our results indicate that systemic administration of both peptides significantly improved both the evolution of hearing thresholds and the degenerative changes induced by noise-exposure in lateral wall structures. Moreover, treatments ameliorated the inflammatory state and redox balance. These therapeutic effects were dose-dependent and more effective if the TGF-ß1 inhibitors were administered prior to inducing the injury. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-ß1 actions with antagonistic peptides represents a new, promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and repair of noise-induced cochlear damage.

  15. Prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in the Canadian military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelausa, E O; Abel, S M; Simard, J; Dempsey, I

    1995-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to investigate the development of noise-induced hearing loss in Canadian military recruits, and to assess the effectiveness of the hearing conservation program currently in place. The participants were 134 men and women, 20 to 30 years of age, employed in four trades, three of these (infantry, artillery, and armour) associated with high noise levels. The data comprised audiometric measurements made at the time of entry and after 3 years of employment, and responses to a questionnaire mainly relating to noise exposure in the workplace and during leisure activities, and the utilization of personal hearing protective devices. The findings showed that group audiograms at entry and at the 3-year recall were characterized by a 6-kHz notch that was indicative of noise-induced hearing loss, although mean threshold values were within normal limits. By the 3-year recall, 11% of the infantry had sustained a mild-to-moderate hearing loss in the left ear, greater than 25-dB HL, that was consistent with the use of small-calibre weapons. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that, while subjects appreciated the potential benefit of wearing hearing protectors, instructions in their proper use and education on the hazards of noise exposure were poor. The results suggested methods to strengthen the existing scheme for hearing conservation to further minimize risk.

  16. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Indian steel industry workers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The present study focused on exploring the current level of hearing protection and subsequently determined the prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss among casting and forging industry workers. The casting and forging industry provides employment to a significant portion of the population. The level of hearing protection was assessed through questionnaire survey of 572 workers. Out of these workers, 165 and another control group of 57 participants were assessed by formal audiometry. Audiometric tests were conducted at frequencies of 1.0 KHz to 8.0 KHz.The occurrence of hearing loss was determined on the basis of a hearing threshold level with a low fence of 25 dB. Student's test and ANOVA were used to compare the various groups; a p value steel industry are highly exposed to occupational noise. The majority of workers are not protected from noise-induced hearing loss. There is a need to provide special ear protectors for workers engaged in forging. A complete hearing protection program, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection devices, needs to be introduced.

  17. Evaluation of the risk of noise-induced hearing loss among unscreened male industrial workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Mary M.; Gilbert, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall J.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2003-02-01

    Variability in background risk and distribution of various risk factors for hearing loss may explain some of the diversity in excess risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This paper examines the impact of various risk factors on excess risk estimates of NIHL using data from the 1968-1972 NIOSH Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). Previous analyses of a subset of these data focused on 1172 highly ``screened'' workers. In the current analysis, an additional 894 white males (609 noise-exposed and 285 controls), who were excluded for various reasons (i.e., nonoccupational noise exposure, otologic or medical conditions affecting hearing, prior occupational noise exposure) have been added (n=2066) to assess excess risk of noise-induced material impairment in an unscreened population. Data are analyzed by age, duration of exposure, and sound level (8-h TWA) for four different definitions of noise-induced hearing impairment, defined as the binaural pure-tone average (PTA) hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB for the following frequencies: (a) 1-4 kHz (PTA1234), (b) 1-3 kHz (PTA123), (c) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA512), and (d) 3, 4, and 6 kHz (PTA346). Results indicate that populations with higher background risks of hearing loss may show lower excess risks attributable to noise relative to highly screened populations. Estimates of lifetime excess risk of hearing impairment were found to be significantly different between screened and unscreened population for noise levels greater than 90 dBA. Predicted age-related risk of material hearing impairment in the ONHS unscreened population was similar to that predicted from Annex B and C of ANSI S3.44 for ages less than 60 years. Results underscore the importance of understanding differential risk patterns for hearing loss and the use of appropriate reference (control) populations when evaluating risk of noise-induced hearing impairment among contemporary industrial populations.

  18. An assessment of threshold shifts in nonprofessional pop/rock musicians using conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Patscheke, Jochen; Probst, Rudolf

    2007-09-01

    The clinical value of extended high-frequency audiometry for the detection of noise-induced hearing loss has not been established conclusively. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative temporary threshold shift (TTS) in two frequency regions (conventional versus extended high frequency). In this exploratory study, pure-tone thresholds from 0.5 to 14 kHz were measured in both ears of 16 nonprofessional pop/rock musicians (mean age, 35 yr; range, 27 to 49 yr), before and after a 90-minute rehearsal session. All had experienced repeated exposures to intense sound levels during at least 5 yr of their musical careers. After the rehearsal, median threshold levels were found to be significantly poorer for frequencies from 0.5 to 8 kHz (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p threshold values measured before the rehearsal were present across the conventional frequency range, most notably at 6 kHz, but were not observed in the extended high-frequency range. On the basis of these results, extended high-frequency audiometry does not seem advantageous as a means of the early detection of noise-induced hearing loss.

  19. Coloured-noise-induced transitions in nonlinear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, R.; Laas, T.; Soika, E.; Sauga, A.; Rekker, A.; Ainsaar, A.; Ugaste, Ue.

    2008-01-01

    In a stochastic framework, macroscopic approaches are sought to describe microscopic interaction between different species. Coloured-noise-induced transitions in stochastic N-species Lotka-Volterra systems are considered analytically as an appropriate model expendable to many natural and nano-technological processes. All the results discussed are computed by means of a dynamical mean-field approximation. It is demonstrated that interplay of coloured noise and interaction intensities of species can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as discontinuous transitions of the mean population density, noise-induced Hopf bifurcations and relaxation oscillation. The necessary conditions for the cooperation effects are also discussed. Particularly, it is established that, in the case of the Beddington functional response, in certain parameter regions of the model an increase in noise correlation time can cause multiple transitions (more than two) between relaxation oscillatory regimes and equilibrium states. (authors)

  20. Macroscopic tunneling, decoherence and noise-induced activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Fernando C; Monteoliva, Diana; Villar, Paula I [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    We study the effects of the environment at zero temperature on tunneling in an open system described by a static double-well potential. We show that the evolution of the system in an initial Schroedinger cat state, can be summarized in terms of three main physical phenomena, namely decoherence, quantum tunneling and noise-induced activation. Using large-scale numerical simulations, we obtain a detailed picture of the main stages of the evolution and of the relevant dynamical processes.

  1. Noise-induced hearing loss: a recreational noise perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Robert; Kane, Rebecca; Diaz, Rodney C

    2014-10-01

    This review will discuss the real-world risk factors involved in noise-induced hearing loss as a result of common and popular recreational activities prone to mid and high levels of noise exposure. Although there are currently no interventional measures available to reverse or mitigate preexisting hearing loss from noise, we discuss the vital importance of hearing loss prevention from noise exposure avoidance and reduction. Despite a seeming understanding of the effects of noise exposure from various recreational activities and devices, a large percentage of the general public who is at risk of such noise-induced hearing loss still chooses to refrain from using hearing protection instruments. While occupational exposures pose the greatest traditional risk to hearing conservation in selected workers, recreational risk factors for noise-induced hearing loss may be more insidious in overall effect given the indifferent attitude of much of the general public and particularly our youths toward hearing protection during recreational activities. Active counseling regarding the consequences of excessive noise exposure and the potential benefits to hearing from usage of hearing protection instruments is critical to providing best possible care in the hearing health professions.

  2. Noise-induced drift in two-dimensional anisotropic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farago, Oded

    2017-10-01

    We study the isothermal Brownian dynamics of a particle in a system with spatially varying diffusivity. Due to the heterogeneity of the system, the particle's mean displacement does not vanish even if it does not experience any physical force. This phenomenon has been termed "noise-induced drift," and has been extensively studied for one-dimensional systems. Here, we examine the noise-induced drift in a two-dimensional anisotropic system, characterized by a symmetric diffusion tensor with unequal diagonal elements. A general expression for the mean displacement vector is derived and presented as a sum of two vectors, depicting two distinct drifting effects. The first vector describes the tendency of the particle to drift toward the high diffusivity side in each orthogonal principal diffusion direction. This is a generalization of the well-known expression for the noise-induced drift in one-dimensional systems. The second vector represents a novel drifting effect, not found in one-dimensional systems, originating from the spatial rotation in the directions of the principal axes. The validity of the derived expressions is verified by using Langevin dynamics simulations. As a specific example, we consider the relative diffusion of two transmembrane proteins, and demonstrate that the average distance between them increases at a surprisingly fast rate of several tens of micrometers per second.

  3. [Protective effect of indirect activator of calcium pump on noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yu, Ning; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Weiyan; Li, Xingqi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the possible protective effect of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and indirect activator of Ca2+ pump, on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Twenty guinea pigs were divided randomly into two groups, and then perfused with artificial perilymph solutions in one group and with artificial perilymph solutions containing 3 mumol/L PMA in the other one, respectively. All animals were exposed with 100 dB SPL white noise for 2 hours. Cochlear microphonics (CM) and compound action potential (CAP) were recorded from the round window (RW) before noise exposure and 2 hours after noise exposure. There was no significant difference in CAP threshold and CM amplitude between two groups before noise exposure. A significant difference was observed in CAP threshold and CM amplitude between two groups after noise exposure. The amplitude of CM decreased and the threshold of CAP increased in both group after noise exposure, but in the PMA group the decrease of the amplitude of CM was higher while the increase of threshold of CAP lower than that in control (P < 0.05). PMA might have partly protective effect on NIHL. These findings indirectly proved that intracellular Ca2+ overload might involve in the mechanism of NIHL.

  4. Chronic lead exposure induces cochlear oxidative stress and potentiates noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamesdaniel, Samson; Rosati, Rita; Westrick, Judy; Ruden, Douglas M

    2018-08-01

    Acquired hearing loss is caused by complex interactions of multiple environmental risk factors, such as elevated levels of lead and noise, which are prevalent in urban communities. This study delineates the mechanism underlying lead-induced auditory dysfunction and its potential interaction with noise exposure. Young-adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to: 1) control conditions; 2) 2 mM lead acetate in drinking water for 28 days; 3) 90 dB broadband noise 2 h/day for two weeks; and 4) both lead and noise. Blood lead levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis (ICP-MS) lead-induced cochlear oxidative stress signaling was assessed using targeted gene arrays, and the hearing thresholds were assessed by recording auditory brainstem responses. Chronic lead exposure downregulated cochlear Sod1, Gpx1, and Gstk1, which encode critical antioxidant enzymes, and upregulated ApoE, Hspa1a, Ercc2, Prnp, Ccl5, and Sqstm1, which are indicative of cellular apoptosis. Isolated exposure to lead or noise induced 8-12 dB and 11-25 dB shifts in hearing thresholds, respectively. Combined exposure induced 18-30 dB shifts, which was significantly higher than that observed with isolated exposures. This study suggests that chronic exposure to lead induces cochlear oxidative stress and potentiates noise-induced hearing impairment, possibly through parallel pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss among workers at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anino, J O; Afullo, A; Otieno, F

    2010-02-01

    Occupational noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) occurs among workers exposed to excessive amounts of noise for long durations. The average level of noise in some locations at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) was above the safe limit of 85dB hence workers were thought to be at risk. To determine the occurrence and socio demographic attributes for NIHL at JKIA. Cross sectional descriptive study. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya. Mean age of respondents was 37 years with range 22 to 62, SD 8.98. Mean duration of exposure to noise was 10.7 years with range 1 to 40, SD 8.15. Prevalence of NIHL was 15.3%, with ground crew at 14.8% and air crew 16.1%. Ground crew had significantly poorer mean hearing threshold level at 3, 4 and 6 kHz than air crew (p = 0.015). Male workers were affected more than female counterparts with a male to female ratio of 4:3. 97% of those affected were non-managers, 3% managers while 68% of those affected resided in Embakasi Division close to the airport. Hearing threshold level at 4 kHz deteriorated with increasing age whereby those aged 50 years and above had a 13.7 times higher relative risk than those aged 20 to 29 years. Duration of exposure more than 10 years also had significantly higher risk (p hearing loss at 4 kHz. Occupational noise induced hearing loss occurs atJKIA and that ground crew and older workers are more vulnerable. We recommend that prevention programmes be put in place.

  6. Coding deficits in noise-induced hidden hearing loss may stem from incomplete repair of ribbon synapses in the cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan eShi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has shown that noise-induced damage to the synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs and type I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs may occur in the absence of permanent threshold shift (PTS, and that synapses connecting IHCs with low spontaneous rate (SR ANFs are disproportionately affected. Due to the functional importance of low-SR ANF units for temporal processing and signal coding in noisy backgrounds, deficits in cochlear coding associated with noise-induced damage may result in significant difficulties with temporal processing and hearing in noise (i.e., hidden hearing loss. However, significant noise-induced coding deficits have not been reported at the single unit level following the loss of low-SR units. We have found evidence to suggest that some aspects of neural coding are not significantly changed with the initial loss of low-SR ANFs, and that further coding deficits arise in association with the subsequent reestablishment of the synapses. This suggests that synaptopathy in hidden hearing loss may be the result of insufficient repair of disrupted synapses, and not simply due to the loss of low-SR units. These coding deficits include decreases in driven spike rate for intensity coding as well as several aspects of temporal coding: spike latency, peak-to-sustained spike ratio and the recovery of spike rate as a function of click-interval.

  7. Signatures of nonlinearity in single cell noise-induced oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philipp; Straube, Arthur V; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian; Grima, Ramon

    2013-10-21

    A class of theoretical models seeks to explain rhythmic single cell data by postulating that they are generated by intrinsic noise in biochemical systems whose deterministic models exhibit only damped oscillations. The main features of such noise-induced oscillations are quantified by the power spectrum which measures the dependence of the oscillatory signal's power with frequency. In this paper we derive an approximate closed-form expression for the power spectrum of any monostable biochemical system close to a Hopf bifurcation, where noise-induced oscillations are most pronounced. Unlike the commonly used linear noise approximation which is valid in the macroscopic limit of large volumes, our theory is valid over a wide range of volumes and hence affords a more suitable description of single cell noise-induced oscillations. Our theory predicts that the spectra have three universal features: (i) a dominant peak at some frequency, (ii) a smaller peak at twice the frequency of the dominant peak and (iii) a peak at zero frequency. Of these, the linear noise approximation predicts only the first feature while the remaining two stem from the combination of intrinsic noise and nonlinearity in the law of mass action. The theoretical expressions are shown to accurately match the power spectra determined from stochastic simulations of mitotic and circadian oscillators. Furthermore it is shown how recently acquired single cell rhythmic fibroblast data displays all the features predicted by our theory and that the experimental spectrum is well described by our theory but not by the conventional linear noise approximation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Noise-induced transition in a quantum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Barik, Debashis [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray, Deb Shankar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2005-07-04

    We examine the noise-induced transition in a fluctuating bistable potential of a driven quantum system in thermal equilibrium. Making use of a Wigner canonical thermal distribution for description of the statistical properties of the thermal bath, we explore the generic effects of quantization like vacuum field fluctuation and tunneling in the characteristic stationary probability distribution functions undergoing transition from unimodal to bimodal nature and in signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the cooperative effect among the noise processes and the weak periodic signal.

  9. Noise-induced transition in a quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2005-01-01

    We examine the noise-induced transition in a fluctuating bistable potential of a driven quantum system in thermal equilibrium. Making use of a Wigner canonical thermal distribution for description of the statistical properties of the thermal bath, we explore the generic effects of quantization like vacuum field fluctuation and tunneling in the characteristic stationary probability distribution functions undergoing transition from unimodal to bimodal nature and in signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the cooperative effect among the noise processes and the weak periodic signal

  10. High-frequency audiometry: A means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Mehrparvar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence of hearing loss in conventional and high frequencies of audiometry among textile workers divided into two groups: With and without exposure to noise more than 85 dB. The highest hearing threshold was observed at 4000 Hz, 6000 Hz and 16000 Hz in conventional right ear audiometry, conventional left ear audiometry and HFA in each ear, respectively. The hearing threshold was significantly higher at 16000 Hz compared to 4000. Hearing loss was more common in HFA than conventional audiometry. HFA is more sensitive to detect NIHL than conventional audiometry. It can be useful for early diagnosis of hearing sensitivity to noise, and thus preventing hearing loss in lower frequencies especially speech frequencies.

  11. Noise-induced enhancement of network reciprocity in social dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Gui-Qing; Sun, Qi-Bo; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We introduce the noise-induced mechanism into the prisoner’s dilemma game. • Cooperation will be largely enhanced by introducing the noise into the calculation of fitness. • Despite the defectors prevail initially, the stressed factor still promotes the cooperation. • The mechanism studied here is helpful on different kinds of interaction networks. -- Abstract: The network reciprocity is an important dynamic rule fostering the emergence of cooperation among selfish individuals. This was reported firstly in the seminal work of Nowak and May, where individuals were arranged on the regular lattice network, and played the prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG). In the standard PDG, one often assumes that the players have perfect rationality. However, in reality, we human are far from rational agents, as we often make mistakes, and behave irrationally. Accordingly, in this work, we introduce the element of noise into the measurement of fitness, which is determined by the parameter α controlling the degree of noise. The considered noise-induced mechanism remarkably promotes the behavior of cooperation, which may be conducive to interpret the emergence of cooperation within the population

  12. The Physiological Bases of Hidden Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Protocol for a Functional Neuroimaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Rebecca Susan; Hall, Deborah A; Guest, Hannah; Prendergast, Garreth; Plack, Christopher J; Francis, Susan T

    2018-03-09

    procedures for hidden hearing loss, enabling early identification of noise-induced auditory damage via the detection of changes in central auditory processing. Consequently, this will generate the opportunity to give personalized advice regarding provision of ear defense and monitoring of further damage, thus reducing the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss. ©Rebecca Susan Dewey, Deborah A Hall, Hannah Guest, Garreth Prendergast, Christopher J Plack, Susan T Francis. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 09.03.2018.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in Higgins model of glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashko, Lev

    2018-03-01

    A phenomenon of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in glycolysis is studied. As a basic deterministic skeleton, we consider the two-dimensional Higgins model. The noise-induced generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is studied in various parametric zones. Probabilistic mechanisms of the stochastic excitability of equilibria and noise-induced splitting of randomly forced cycles are analysed by the stochastic sensitivity function technique. A parametric zone of supersensitive Canard-type cycles is localized and studied in detail. It is shown that the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is accompanied by the noise-induced transitions from order to chaos.

  14. Noise-induced perturbations of dispersion-managed solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinglai; Spiller, Elaine; Biondini, Gino

    2007-01-01

    We study noise-induced perturbations of dispersion-managed solitons. We do so by first developing soliton perturbation theory for the dispersion-managed nonlinear Schroedinger (DMNLS) equation, which governs the long-term behavior of optical fiber transmission systems and certain kinds of femtosecond lasers. We show that the eigenmodes and generalized eigenmodes of the linearized DMNLS equation around traveling-wave solutions can be generated from the invariances of the DMNLS equations, we quantify the perturbation-induced parameter changes of the solution in terms of the eigenmodes and the adjoint eigenmodes, and we obtain evolution equations for the solution parameters. We then apply these results to guide importance-sampled Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and reconstruct the probability density functions of the solution parameters under the effect of noise, and we compare with standard MC simulations of the unaveraged system. The comparison further validates the use of the DMNLS equation as a model for dispersion-managed systems

  15. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice AL Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory under three (quiet, urban, and social noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban, reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social, and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function, and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive

  16. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bernice Al; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban), reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social), and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban) under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function), and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function) and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ) predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive disorganization.

  17. Could driving safety be compromised by noise exposure at work and noise-induced hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Girard, Serge André; Courteau, Marilène; Leroux, Tony; Larocque, Richard; Turcotte, Fernand; Lavoie, Michel; Simard, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A study was conducted to verify if there is an association between occupational noise exposure, noise-induced hearing loss and driving safety expanding on previous findings by Picard, et al. (2008) that the two factors did increase accident risk in the workplace. This study was made possible when driving records of all Quebec drivers were made available by the Societe de l'assurance automobile du Quebec (SAAQ is the state monopoly responsible for the provision of motor vehicle insurance and the compensation of victims of traffic accidents). These records were linked with personal records maintained by the Quebec National Institute of Public Health as part of its mission to prevent noise induced hearing loss in the workplace. Individualized information on occupational noise exposure and hearing sensitivity was available for 46,030 male workers employed in noisy industries who also held a valid driver's permit. The observation period is of five years duration, starting with the most recent audiometric examination. The associations between occupational noise exposure levels, hearing status, and personal driving record were examined by log-binomial regression on data adjusted for age and duration of exposure. Daily noise exposures and bilateral average hearing threshold levels at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used as independent variables while the dependent variables were 1) the number of motor vehicle accidents experienced by participants during the study period and 2) participants' records of registered traffic violations of the highway safety code. The findings are reported as prevalence ratios (PRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Attributable numbers of events were computed with the relevant PRs, lesser-noise, exposed workers and those with normal hearing levels making the group of reference. Adjusting for age confirmed that experienced workers had fewer traffic accidents. The data show that occupational noise exposure and hearing loss have the same effect on

  18. Temporary Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1984-01-01

    Presents a method for helping clients deal productively with temporary intervals in counseling relationships that may be caused by either counselor or client vacations or trips. Advocates developing goals, providing an opportunity for continued communication, referrals, processing of accomplishments, and scheduling the next session. (LLL)

  19. Temporary workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Verbiest, S.; Goudswaard, A.

    2014-01-01

    Temporary employment contracts are often used by employers to manage fluctuations in personnel needs. Many sectors of industry experience these fluctuations, which are often seasonal. This creates uncertainty about the continuousness of demand for work, which is transferred from employers to

  20. Noise-induced polarization switching in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerter, Jan O.; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2017-04-01

    The combination of bistability and noise is ubiquitous in complex systems, from biology to social interactions, and has important implications for their functioning and resilience. Here we use a simple three-state dynamical process, in which nodes go from one pole to another through an intermediate state, to show that noise can induce polarization switching in bistable systems if dynamical correlations are significant. In large, fully connected networks, where dynamical correlations can be neglected, increasing noise yields a collapse of bistability to an unpolarized configuration where the three possible states of the nodes are equally likely. In contrast, increased noise induces abrupt and irreversible polarization switching in sparsely connected networks. In multiplexes, where each layer can have a different polarization tendency, one layer is dominant and progressively imposes its polarization state on the other, offsetting or promoting the ability of noise to switch its polarization. Overall, we show that the interplay of noise and dynamical correlations can yield discontinuous transitions between extremes, which cannot be explained by a simple mean-field description.

  1. Evidence of noise-induced hearing loss in young people studying popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    The number of students studying popular music, music technology, and sound engineering courses at both school and university to has increased rapidly in the last few years. These students are generally involved in music-making/recording and listening to a high level, usually in environments with amplified music. Recent studies have shown that these students are potentially exposed to a high risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL( and are not covered by the same regulatory framework as employees. This study examined the pure tone air conduction hearing thresholds of 50 undergraduate students, including recent school leavers, on a range of popular music courses, to assess if there was evidence of hearing loss. Forty-four percent of students showed evidence of audiometric notch at 4-6 kHz, and 16% were classified under the UK Occupational Health and Safety guidelines as exhibiting mild hearing loss. Instance of audiometric notch was considerably higher than reported from studies of the general population but was around the same level or lower than that reported from studies of "traditional" music courses and conservatoires, suggesting no higher risk for popular music students than for "classical" music students. No relationship with age was present, suggesting that younger students were as likely to exhibit audiometric notch as mature students. This indicates that these students may be damaging their hearing through leisure activities while still at school, suggesting a need for robust education measures to focus on noise exposure of young people.

  2. Simultaneous bilateral laser therapy accelerates recovery after noise-induced hearing loss in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss is a common type of hearing loss. The effects of laser therapy have been investigated from various perspectives, including in wound healing, inflammation reduction, and nerve regeneration, as well as in hearing research. A promising feature of the laser is its capability to penetrate soft tissue; depending on the wavelength, laser energy can penetrate into the deepest part of the body without damaging non-target soft tissues. Based on this idea, we developed bilateral transtympanic laser therapy, which uses simultaneous laser irradiation in both ears, and evaluated the effects of bilateral laser therapy on cochlear damage caused by noise overexposure. Thus, the purpose of this research was to assess the benefits of simultaneous bilateral laser therapy compared with unilateral laser therapy and a control. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to narrow-band noise at 115 dB SPL for 6 h. Multiple auditory brainstem responses were measured after each laser irradiation, and cochlear hair cells were counted after the 15th such irradiation. The penetration depth of the 808 nm laser was also measured after sacrifice. Approximately 5% of the laser energy reached the contralateral cochlea. Both bilateral and unilateral laser therapy decreased the hearing threshold after noise overstimulation in the rat model. The bilateral laser therapy group showed faster functional recovery at all tested frequencies compared with the unilateral laser therapy group. However, there was no difference in the endpoint ABR results or final hair cell survival, which was analyzed histologically.

  3. Noise-induced hearing loss in a longitudinal study of Norwegian railway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johnsen, Torstein Seip; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to analyse longitudinal data to assess the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in Norwegian railway workers. Longitudinal. A major Norwegian railway company. We examined data from the first and last audiograms for the period 1991-2014, from 9640 railway workers with varying occupational noise exposure and with an average observation period of 10 years. The course of hearing acuity in seven groups of railway workers (train drivers, conductors, bus drivers, traffic controllers, train maintenance workers, track maintenance workers and others) were compared with each other and with ISO standards (ISO 1999). The change in hearing threshold during the observation period was 2-3 dB in the 0.5-4 kHz range and 6-7 dB in the 3-6 kHz range adjusted for age and sex, for all occupational groups, which is slightly less than expected (8 dB) according to ISO 1999. The risk of NIHL in Norwegian railway workers during the period 1991-2014 has been negligible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Cochlear NMDA Receptors as a Therapeutic Target of Noise-Induced Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Bing

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus may occur despite normal auditory sensitivity, probably linked to partial degeneration of the cochlear nerve and damage of the inner hair cell (IHC synapse. Damage to the IHC synapses and deafferentation may occur even after moderate noise exposure. For both salicylate- and noise-induced tinnitus, aberrant N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor activation and related auditory nerve excitation have been suggested as origin of cochlear tinnitus. Accordingly, NMDA receptor inhibition has been proposed as a pharmacologic approach for treatment of synaptopathic tinnitus. Methods: Round-window application of the NMDA receptor antagonist AM-101 (Esketamine hydrochloride gel; Auris Medical AG, Basel, Switzerland was tested in an animal model of tinnitus induced by acute traumatic noise. The study included the quantification of IHC ribbon synapses as a correlate for deafferentation as well as the measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR to close-threshold sensation level stimuli as an indication of sound-induced auditory nerve activity. Results: We have shown that AM-101 reduced the trauma-induced loss of IHC ribbons and counteracted the decline of ABR wave I amplitude generated in the cochlea/auditory nerve. Conclusion: Local round-window application of AM-101 may be a promising therapeutic intervention for the treatment of synaptopathic tinnitus.

  5. Noise-induced extinction for a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastically forced ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey population. In the deterministic case, we show that the model exhibits the stable interior equilibrium point or limit cycle corresponding to the co-existence of both species. We investigate a probabilistic mechanism of the noise-induced extinction in a zone of stable interior equilibrium point. Computational methods based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique are applied for the analysis of the dispersion of random states near stable interior equilibrium point. This method allows to construct a confidence domain and estimate the threshold value of the noise intensity for a transition from the coexistence to the extinction.

  6. Novel method of evaluating miners at risk for noise-induced hearing loss

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) negatively affects the quality of life of mine employees and costs mining companies large amounts in compensation claims. The prevention of NIHL requires early identification and recent evidence about the ability...

  7. Sex Differences in Susceptibility and Resistance to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Chinchillas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFadden, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    .... The reasons for individual differences in susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are largely unknown, but may include factors such as levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes or steroid hormones...

  8. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia

    2017-07-07

    noise level. The intervention was associated with a favourable but statistically non-significant downward trend in time of the noise dose of -2.1 percentage points per year (95% CI -4.9 to 0.7, 4 year follow-up, very low-quality evidence). Engineering intervention case studiesWe found 12 studies that described 107 uncontrolled case studies of immediate reductions in noise levels of machinery ranging from 11.1 to 19.7 dB(A) as a result of purchasing new equipment, segregating noise sources or installing panels or curtains around sources. However, the studies lacked long-term follow-up and dose measurements of workers, and we did not use these studies for our conclusions. Hearing protection devicesIn general hearing protection devices reduced noise exposure on average by about 20 dB(A) in one RCT and three CBAs (57 participants, low-quality evidence). Two RCTs showed that, with instructions for insertion, the attenuation of noise by earplugs was 8.59 dB better (95% CI 6.92 dB to 10.25 dB) compared to no instruction (2 RCTs, 140 participants, moderate-quality evidence). Administrative controls: information and noise exposure feedbackOn-site training sessions did not have an effect on personal noise-exposure levels compared to information only in one cluster-RCT after four months' follow-up (mean difference (MD) 0.14 dB; 95% CI -2.66 to 2.38). Another arm of the same study found that personal noise exposure information had no effect on noise levels (MD 0.30 dB(A), 95% CI -2.31 to 2.91) compared to no such information (176 participants, low-quality evidence). Effects on hearing loss Hearing protection devicesIn two studies the authors compared the effect of different devices on temporary threshold shifts at short-term follow-up but reported insufficient data for analysis. In two CBA studies the authors found no difference in hearing loss from noise exposure above 89 dB(A) between muffs and earplugs at long-term follow-up (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.03 ), very low

  9. Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...

  10. In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of JP-8 and a Fischer- Tropsch synthetic jet fuel following subacute inhalation exposure in rats. Toxicol Sci 116(1): 239-248. Gallinat, J...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0084 IN VITRO STUDIES AND PRELIMINARY MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR JET FUEL AND NOISE INDUCED AUDITORY IMPAIRMENT...April 2014 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In Vitro Studies and Preliminary Mathematical Model for Jet Fuel and Noise Induced Auditory

  11. Signs of noise-induced neural degeneration in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtegaard, Pernille; Olsen, Steen Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    of background noise, while leaving the processing of low-level stimuli unaffected. The purpose of this study was to investigate if signs of such primary neural damage from noise-exposure could also be found in noiseexposed human individuals. It was investigated: (1) if noise-exposed listeners with hearing......Animal studies demonstrated that noise exposure causes a primary and selective loss of auditory-nerve fibres with low spontaneous firing rate. This neuronal impairment, if also present in humans, can be assumed to affect the processing of supra-threshold stimuli, especially in the presence...... thresholds within the “normal” range perform poorer, in terms of their speech recognition threshold in noise (SRTN), and (2) if auditory brainstem responses (ABR) reveal lower amplitude of wave I in the noise-exposed listeners. A test group of noise/music-exposed individuals and a control group were...

  12. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and...

  13. Subchronic JP-8 jet fuel exposure enhances vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, L D; Fisher, J W; Chapman, G D; Mokashi, V P; Ortiz, P A; Reboulet, J E; Stubbs, J E; Lear, A M; McInturf, S M; Prues, S L; Gearhart, C A; Fulton, S; Mattie, D R

    2012-01-01

    Both laboratory and epidemiological studies published over the past two decades have identified the risk of excess hearing loss when specific chemical contaminants are present along with noise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of JP-8 jet fuel to enhance noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) using inhalation exposure to fuel and simultaneous exposure to either continuous or intermittent noise exposure over a 4-wk exposure period using both male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the initial study, male (n = 5) and female (n = 5) rats received inhalation exposure to JP-8 fuel for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 wk at concentrations of 200, 750, or 1500 mg/m³. Parallel groups of rats also received nondamaging noise (constant octave band noise at 85 dB(lin)) in combination with the fuel, noise alone (75, 85, or 95 dB), or no exposure to fuel or noise. Significant concentration-related impairment of auditory function measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and compound action potential (CAP) threshold was seen in rats exposed to combined JP-8 plus noise exposure when JP-8 levels of 1500 mg/m³ were presented with trends toward impairment seen with 750 mg/m³ JP-8 + noise. JP-8 alone exerted no significant effect on auditory function. In addition, noise was able to disrupt the DPOAE and increase auditory thresholds only when noise exposure was at 95 dB. In a subsequent study, male (n = 5 per group) and female (n = 5 per group) rats received 1000 mg/m³ JP-8 for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk for 4 wk with and without exposure to 102 dB octave band noise that was present for 15 min out of each hour (total noise duration 90 min). Comparisons were made to rats receiving only noise, and thosereceiving no experimental treatment. Significant impairment of auditory thresholds especially for high-frequency tones was identified in the male rats receiving combined treatment. This study provides a basis for estimating excessive hearing loss under

  14. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After presbycusis, noise-induced hearing loss is the second most common cause of acquired hearing loss. Numerous studies have shown that high-intensity noise exposure increases free radical species; therefore, use of antioxidants to detoxify the free radicals can prevent cellular damage in the cochlea. We studied the potential hearing protective effect of different doses of ascorbic acid administered prior to noise exposure in rats.   Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male albino Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups: groups A, B, and C received 1250, 250, and 50 mg/kg/day of ascorbic acid, respectively, and group D acted as the control group. After 14 days of ascorbic acid administration, the rats were exposed to noise (105 dB sound pressure level for 2 h. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE were recorded prior to starting the ascorbic acid as baseline and 1 h after the noise exposure.   Results: The amplitude decrease was 14.99 dB for group A, 16.11 dB for group B, 28.82 dB for group C, and 29.91 dB for the control group. Moderate and high doses of ascorbic acid significantly reduced the transient threshold shift in the rats.   Conclusion:  The results of present study support the concept of cochlea protection by antioxidant agents. This dose-dependent protective effect was shown through the use of ascorbic acid treatment prior to noise exposure.

  15. Ascorbic acid reduces noise-induced nitric oxide production in the guinea pig ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Fischer, Ilka; Brieger, Jürgen; Rümelin, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Helling, Kai

    2008-05-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused, among other causes, by increased nitric oxide (NO) production in the inner ear leading to nitroactive stress and cell destruction. Some studies in the literature suggest that the degree of hearing loss (HL) could be reduced in an animal model through ascorbic acid supplementation. To identify the effect of ascorbic acid on tissue-dependent NO content in the inner ear of the guinea pig, we determined the local NO production in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall separately 6 hours after noise exposure. Prospective animal study in guinea pigs. Over a period of 7 days, male guinea pigs were supplied with minimum (25 mg/kg body weight/day) and maximum (525 mg/kg body weight/day) ascorbic acid doses, and afterwards exposed to noise (90 dB sound pressure level for 1 hour). The acoustic-evoked potentials were recorded before and after noise exposure. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall were incubated differently for 6 hours in culture medium, and the degree of NO production was determined by chemiluminescence. Ascorbic acid treatment reduced the hearing threshold shift after noise exposure depending on concentration. When the maximum ascorbic acid dose was substituted, NO production was significantly reduced in the lateral wall after noise exposure and slightly reduced in the organ of Corti. Oral supplementation of the natural radical scavenger ascorbic acid reduces the NO-production rate in the inner ear in noisy conditions. This finding supports the concept of inner ear protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

  16. Noise-induced hearing loss in small-scale metal industry in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, J D; Robinson, T; Acharya, A; Singh, D; Smith, M

    2014-10-01

    There has been no previous research to demonstrate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in industry in Nepal. Limited research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss has been conducted within small-scale industry worldwide, despite it being a substantial and growing cause of deafness in the developing world. The study involved a cross-sectional audiometric assessment, with questionnaire-based examinations of noise and occupational history, and workplace noise level assessment. A total of 115 metal workers and 123 hotel workers (control subjects) were recruited. Noise-induced hearing loss prevalence was 30.4 per cent in metal workers and 4.1 per cent in hotel workers, with a significant odds ratio of 10.3. Except for age and time in occupation, none of the demographic factors were significant in predicting outcomes in regression analyses. When adjusted for this finding, and previous noise-exposed occupations, the odds ratio was 13.8. Workplace noise was significantly different between the groups, ranging from 65.3 to 84.7 dBA in metal worker sites, and from 51.4 to 68.6 dBA in the control sites. Metal workers appear to have a greater risk of noise-induced hearing loss than controls. Additional research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Nepal and small-scale industry globally is needed.

  17. [Association between eye absent homolog 4 gene polymorphisms and occupational noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q Y; Xu, X R; Jiao, J; Zheng, Y X; He, L H; Yu, S F; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Li, Y H; Zhang, H L; Zhang, Z R

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To identify the association between genetic polymorphisms in the eye absent homolog 4 (EYA4) gene and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Method: A nested case control study was conducted based on a cohort of noise-exposed subjects. In total, 292 cases were selected from a steel factory from 6 297 subjects during Jan 1, 2006 to Dec 12, 2015,who had an average hearing threshold of more than 40 dB(A); 584 matched control subjects for each case were designated on the basis of matched criteria including same gender, age (±5 years) and duration of exposure to noise (±2 years). What's more, the control group had an average hearing threshold of less than 35 dB(A) in high frequency and less than 25 dB(A) in speech frequency. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the EYA4 gene were genotyped using a SNPscan TM multiplex SNP genotyping kit. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests were performed using a χ 2 test for goodness-of-fit for each SNP among the control group, and the effects of genotypes of the EYA4 gene on NIHL were analyzed by logistic regression. The haplotypes were established and their frequencies in the two groups were assessed using Haploview 4.2 and Phase 2.1 software, and interactive effects between haplotypes and cumulative noise exposure were analyzed. Results: The average age of the subjects was (40.1±8.4) years and the average number of noise-exposed working years was 20.3 (8.4, 27.3) years. The range of noise exposure levels and the cumulative noise exposure were 80.2- 98.8 dB (A) and 86.6- 111.2 dB(A) · year, respectively. After adjustment for covariates including height, blood pressure, drinking status and smoking status, in the noise intensity>85 dB (A) group, subjects carrying the rs3813346 TT genotype had a higher NIHL risk than those carrying the GG genotype, and the adjusted OR (95% CI ) value was 2.12 (1.21- 3.69). In the cumulative noise exposure>98 dB (A) · year group, compared with haplotype TGC, haplotype CGT showed a

  18. [Progressive noise induced hearing loss caused by hearing AIDS, a dilemma for the worker and the expert alike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    2001-12-01

    Investigating cases of noise induced hearing loss the expert is often confronted with the situation that the hearing loss is progressive although the noise exposure has been reduced to almost non-damaging levels. Other causes such as age, hereditary deafness, head injuries, blasts, internal diseases can be excluded. Hearing aids as sources of damaging noise? By consulting the protocol of the hearing-aid acoustician and by own examinations the expert should obtain the following data: loudness level that yields best discrimination score of speech; level of discomfort for tones and speech, discrimination score that is achieved under free field condition with a speech level of 65 dB, using the hearing aids. Furthermore he should explore the circumstances under which the hearing aids are used: how many hours per day, at what occasions etc.? It is likely that in using the hearing aids they are adjusted to emit an intensity level identical to the one yielding the optimal discrimination score. If this e. g. is 100 dB and the hearing aids are used for 2 hours per day this would be equivalent to an exposure to industrial noise of 94 dB (A) for 8 hours daily without ear protection. Among all individuals working under industrial noise exposure today only about 1 - 2 % having unusually vulnerable inner ears will suffer a noise induced hearing loss. On the other hand workers in industrial noise are accustomed to loud noise levels, usually have a raised threshold of discomfort and therefore are likely to adjust their hearing aids to such high intensities. The expert will have to decide whether in an individual case the industrial noise exposure or the use of the hearing aids is the dominant risk for further damage. The consequences in respect to the regulations of the workers' health insurance are discussed.

  19. Effects of noise-induced hearing loss on parvalbumin and perineuronal net expression in the mouse primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anna; Khaleel, Haroun M; Razak, Khaleel A

    2017-07-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is associated with increased excitability in the central auditory system but the cellular correlates of such changes remain to be characterized. Here we tested the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss causes deterioration of perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the auditory cortex of mice. PNNs are specialized extracellular matrix components that commonly enwrap cortical parvalbumin (PV) containing GABAergic interneurons. Compared to somatosensory and visual cortex, relatively less is known about PV/PNN expression patterns in the primary auditory cortex (A1). Whether changes to cortical PNNs follow acoustic trauma remains unclear. The first aim of this study was to characterize PV/PNN expression in A1 of adult mice. PNNs increase excitability of PV+ inhibitory neurons and confer protection to these neurons against oxidative stress. Decreased PV/PNN expression may therefore lead to a reduction in cortical inhibition. The second aim of this study was to examine PV/PNN expression in superficial (I-IV) and deep cortical layers (V-VI) following noise trauma. Exposing mice to loud noise caused an increase in hearing threshold that lasted at least 30 days. PV and PNN expression in A1 was analyzed at 1, 10 and 30 days following the exposure. No significant changes were observed in the density of PV+, PNN+, or PV/PNN co-localized cells following hearing loss. However, a significant layer- and cell type-specific decrease in PNN intensity was seen following hearing loss. Some changes were present even at 1 day following noise exposure. Attenuation of PNN may contribute to changes in excitability in cortex following noise trauma. The regulation of PNN may open up a temporal window for altered excitability in the adult brain that is then stabilized at a new and potentially pathological level such as in tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cintra Lopes1, , , ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related hearing loss is one of the most common occupational illness progresses over the years of noise exposure associated with the work environment, may cause damage to undertake physical activity, the individual's physiological and mental besides causing hearing damage irreversible interfering with communication and quality of life. With high prevalence of male evaluates which is the second leading cause of hearing loss. Since there is no medical treatment for this type of hearing loss, it is evident the importance of preventive and conferences aimed at preserving hearing and health as a whole. Objective: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in audiometry admission of drivers. Methods: Retrospective study. By 76 charts of professional drivers in leased transport companies. We analyzed data from specific interview and pure tone audiometry. Results: The prevalence of abnormal tests was 22.36% with the lowest thresholds for tritonal average of 3,000, 4,000 and 6,000 Hz. The higher the age, the higher thresholds. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the occurrence of hearing in the absence of complaints. Considering that PAIR is preventable, justifies the importance of coordinated and multidisciplinary involving not only health teams and safety, but also the institutions involved in preserving the health of workers, as the team SESMET, unions or prosecutors.

  1. Historical review of efforts to reduce noise-induced hearing loss in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Madeleine J; Neitzel, Richard L; Hong, OiSaeng; Sataloff, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a centuries-old problem that is still prevalent in the United States and worldwide. To describe highlights in the development of hearing loss prevention in the U.S. from World War II to the present. Literature review. Approaches to occupational noise-induced hearing loss prevention in the United States over the past seven decades are described using a hierarchy of controls framework and an interdisciplinary perspective. Historical timelines and developmental milestones related to occupational noise-induced hearing loss prevention are summarized as a life course. Lessons are drawn for other countries in their hearing conservation efforts. Future developments building on the hearing loss prevention work of the past 70 years can prevent the problem of occupational NIHL in the 21st century. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:569-577, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Coherence Resonance and Noise-Induced Synchronization in Hindmarsh-Rose Neural Network with Different Topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Duqu; Luo Xiaoshu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate coherence resonance (CR) and noise-induced synchronization in Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neural network with three different types of topologies: regular, random, and small-world. It is found that the additive noise can induce CR in HR neural network with different topologies and its coherence is optimized by a proper noise level. It is also found that as coupling strength increases the plateau in the measure of coherence curve becomes broadened and the effects of network topology is more pronounced simultaneously. Moreover, we find that increasing the probability p of the network topology leads to an enhancement of noise-induced synchronization in HR neurons network.

  3. Physical model study of neutron noise induced by vibration of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; Gu Fangyu

    1999-01-01

    The author presents a physical model of neutron noise induced by reactor internals vibration in frequency domain. Based on system control theory, the reactor dynamic equations are coupled with random vibration equation, and non-linear terms are also taken into accounted while treating the random vibration. Experiments carried out on a zero-power reactor show that the model can be used to describe dynamic character of neutron noise induced by internals' vibration. The model establishes a method to help to determine internals'vibration features, and to diagnosis anomalies through neutron noise

  4. Cochlea hair cell rescue after a noise-induced hearing loss using a low level laser therapy (LLLT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Bahk, Chan Woong; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2011-03-01

    Aim: To see the effect of LLLT on noise-induced hearing loss. Methods: Eleven rats were exposed to noise (120 dB, 16 kHz, 6 h) and left ears were irradiated at 60J/cm2, 830 nm laser for 12 days. Right ears were control. Hearing levels were measured at frequencies of 4, 8, 12, 16, 32 kHz before noise exposure and after 12th irradiations. Results: The initial hearing levels were 26.5+/-4.7, 24.5+/-5.0, 24.0+/-5.2, 24.0+/-3.2, 24.5+/-5.5 dB SPL. After noise exposure, thresholds were 63.5+/-15.1, 64+/-16.8, 71.5+/-11.3, 73.5+/-15.6, 67.5+/-14.4 dB SPL in 4, 8, 12, 16, 32 kHz. After 12th irradiation, thresholds of treated ears recovered significantly 21+/-4.2, 20+/-3.5, 24+/-11.9, 24+/-12.9, 21+/-2.2 dB SPL and that of the untreated right ears measured 36.3+/-22.9, 45+/-15.8, 66.3+/-22.9, 50+/-16.8, 43.8+/-21.4 dB SPL. Conclusion: LLLT may promote recovery of hearing after noiseinduced hearing loss.

  5. Association of Behavior With Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Attendees of an Outdoor Music Festival: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; van Munster, J J C M; van Zanten, G A

    2018-06-01

    To date, factors associated with noise-induced hearing loss at music festivals have not yet been analyzed in a single comprehensive data set. In addition, little is known about the hearing loss-associated behavior of music festival attendees. To assess which factors are associated with the occurrence of a temporary threshold shift (TTS) after music exposure and to investigate the behavior of music festival attendees. This prospective post hoc analysis gathered data from a randomized, single-blind clinical trial conducted on September 5, 2015, at an outdoor music festival in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Adult volunteers with normal hearing were recruited via social media from August 26 through September 3, 2015. Intention to use earplugs was an exclusion criterion. Of 86 volunteers assessed, 51 were included. This post hoc analysis was performed from October 3, 2016, through February 27, 2017. Music festival visit for 4.5 hours. The primary outcome was a TTS on a standard audiogram for the frequencies 3.0- and 4.0-kHz. Multivariable linear regression was performed to determine which factors are associated with a TTS. A questionnaire on behavior, hearing, and tinnitus was distributed to the participants before and after the festival visit. A total of 51 participants were included (18 men [35%] and 33 women [65%]) with a mean (SD) age of 27 (6) years. Mean (SD) threshold change across 3.0 and 4.0 kHz was 5.4 (5.7) dB for the right ear and 4.0 (6.1) dB for the left ear. Earplug use (absolute difference in the left ear, -6.0 dB [95% CI, -8.7 to -3.2 dB]; in the right ear, -6.4 dB [95% CI, -8.8 to -4.1 dB]), quantity of alcohol use (absolute difference per unit in the left ear, 1.1 dB [95% CI, 0.5 to 1.7 dB]; in the right ear, 0.7 dB [95% CI, 0.1 to 1.4 dB]), drug use (absolute difference in the right ear, 6.0 dB [95% CI, 0.9 to 11.1 dB]), and male sex (absolute difference in the right ear, 4.1 dB [95% CI, 0.3 to 5.9 dB]) were independently associated with hearing loss

  6. Contemporary noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułkowski, Wiesław; Owczarek, Kalina; Olszewski, Jurek

    2017-08-31

    Hearing impairment caused by noise, traditionally called - depending on the duration of exposure - acute or chronic acoustic trauma, includes, in addition to presbyacusis, the most common adult population of hearing impaired. In Poland - according to the report of the Central Statistical Office (GUS, 2011), the number of workers employed in NDN exceeded the noise level (85 dB) is about 200 thousand, the highest in the mining, metal and metal products production, textiles and wood production. According to the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of on June 30, 2009, on the list of occupational diseases (Journal of Laws No. 132, item 1115), it is defined as "bilateral permanent hearing loss of the cochlear or sensory-nerve type, expressed as an increase in hearing threshold of at least 45 dB in the ear better heard, calculated as an arithmetic mean for frequencies 1,2 and 3 kHz. Hearing impairments also occur in the military and police during field training and in combat where the source of acoustic injuries are firearms and pulse-inducing explosions (as in some industries) with high C peak levels (Lc peak) Time to rise to a maximum of <1 ms. The prevalence of loud music listening, particularly by personal stereo players, is also affecting children and adolescents with audiometric hearing loss, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of around 15-20%. The preventive action strategy is defined by the European Union legislation and the national implementing legislation that reduces or eliminates the risk and reduces (if not eliminated), taking into account available technical and organizational solutions to minimize the risk of hearing damage. If you can not reduce the noise levels with technical and organizational methods, you need individual hearing protectors. Ear protectors may be equipped with electronic systems with active noise reduction (which can improve low and medium frequency performance), adjustable attenuation (improves speech

  7. Deterioration of noise-induced hearing loss among bottling factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ologe, F E; Olajide, T G; Nwawolo, C C; Oyejola, B A

    2008-08-01

    monitoring hearing deterioration. It is necessary to enforce existing occupational health laws in our industries in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss, since it is eminently preventable.

  8. Noise.Induced Hearing Loss Still a Problem in Shipbuilders: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Workplace safety regulations seek to mitigate noise.induced hearing loss (NIHL), conventionally associated with the shipbuilding industry. Despite this, are workers still predisposed to NIHL? Aims: To study the prevalence of NIHL among noise.exposed subjects in the shipbuilding industry in Goa and to ...

  9. Effects of noise-induced hearing loss within Port Harcourt metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the effects of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss within Port Harcourt Metropolis using a micro-controlled diagnostic audiometer (Kamplex KLD21).The data was obtained at two specific locations namely: Rivers State University of Science and Technology and Port Harcourt International Airport.

  10. Noise induced hearing loss: Screening with pure-tone audiometry and speech-in-noise testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a highly prevalent public health problem, caused by exposure to loud noises both during leisure time, e.g. by listening to loud music, and during work. In the past years NIHL was the most commonly reported occupational disease in the Netherlands. Hearing damage

  11. [Association between variations in protocadherin 15 gene and occupational noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X R; Yang, Q Y; Jiao, J; Zheng, Y X; He, L H; Yu, S F; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Li, Y H; Zhang, H L; Zhang, Z R

    2017-01-06

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variability in the protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) gene may correspond with increased susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a Chinese population. Methods: A nested case-control study was performed that followed a cohort of 7 445 noise-exposed workers in a steel factory of Henan province in China from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. In this study, 394 cases who had an average hearing threshold of more than 40 dB (A) in high frequency were defined as the case group, and 721 controls who had an average hearing threshold of less than 35 dB (A) in high frequency and less than 25 dB (A) in speech frequency were defined as the control group. A questionnaire was completed by participants and a physical test was also conducted. SNP genotyping was performed using the SNPscan TM Kit. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression additive models were used to analyze the genotypes in different groups, and the association with NIHL. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between the genotypes and NIHL. Results: The average age of study participants was (40.5±8.3) years and the median number of noise-exposed working years M ( P 25 , P 75 ) was 21.1 (9.1, 27.3). The range of noise exposed levels and the levels of cumulative noise exposure (CNE) were 80.1- 98.8 dB(A) and 86.6- 111.2 dB(A), respectively. Only the distribution of the genotypes (TT/CC/CT) of rs11004085 in the PCDH15 gene showed a significant difference between the case and control groups ( P= 0.049). In the case group, the distribution was 370 (93.9%), 24 (6.1%) and 0; in the control group, the distribution was 694 (96.3%), 23 (3.2%) and 1 (0.1% ). After smoking, drinking, hypertension, height and CNE adjustment, compared with the TT genotype individuals with the CC/CT genotype had a 1.90-fold increased risk of NIHL (95% CI: 1.06- 3.40). After stratified these data by the noise exposure level

  12. Effects of the network structure and coupling strength on the noise-induced response delay of a neuronal network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Mahmut; Uzuntarla, Muhammet

    2008-01-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) neuron model driven by stimuli just above threshold shows a noise-induced response delay with respect to time to the first spike for a certain range of noise strengths, an effect called 'noise delayed decay' (NDD). We study the response time of a network of coupled H-H neurons, and investigate how the NDD can be affected by the connection topology of the network and the coupling strength. We show that the NDD effect exists for weak and intermediate coupling strengths, whereas it disappears for strong coupling strength regardless of the connection topology. We also show that although the network structure has very little effect on the NDD for a weak coupling strength, the network structure plays a key role for an intermediate coupling strength by decreasing the NDD effect with the increasing number of random shortcuts, and thus provides an additional operating regime, that is absent in the regular network, in which the neurons may also exploit a spike time code

  13. Noise-induced and age-related hearing loss:  new perspectives and potential therapies [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Charles Liberman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classic view of sensorineural hearing loss has been that the primary damage targets are hair cells and that auditory nerve loss is typically secondary to hair cell degeneration. Recent work has challenged that view. In noise-induced hearing loss, exposures causing only reversible threshold shifts (and no hair cell loss nevertheless cause permanent loss of >50% of the synaptic connections between hair cells and the auditory nerve. Similarly, in age-related hearing loss, degeneration of cochlear synapses precedes both hair cell loss and threshold elevation. This primary neural degeneration has remained a “hidden hearing loss” for two reasons: 1 the neuronal cell bodies survive for years despite loss of synaptic connection with hair cells, and 2 the degeneration is selective for auditory nerve fibers with high thresholds. Although not required for threshold detection when quiet, these high-threshold fibers are critical for hearing in noisy environments. Research suggests that primary neural degeneration is an important contributor to the perceptual handicap in sensorineural hearing loss, and it may be key to the generation of tinnitus and other associated perceptual anomalies. In cases where the hair cells survive, neurotrophin therapies can elicit neurite outgrowth from surviving auditory neurons and re-establishment of their peripheral synapses; thus, treatments may be on the horizon.

  14. Validation of Noise Induced Hearing Loss Questionnaire Among Malay Sawmill Workers in Kelantan Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Razman, MR; Naing, L; Aziah, D; Kamarul, IM

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to excessive noise is the major avoidable cause of permanent hearing impairment. Sawmill is one of the workplaces where workers are exposed to hazardous noise level. This study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of noise-induced hearing loss questionnaire among sawmill workers. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in March 2007 among 35 consented sawmill workers. A total of 40 items; 10 items for knowledge (8 areas), 20 items for attitu...

  15. Numerical results on noise-induced dynamics in the subthreshold regime for thermoacoustic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikrant; Saurabh, Aditya; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Kabiraj, Lipika

    2017-03-01

    Thermoacoustic instability is a serious issue in practical combustion systems. Such systems are inherently noisy, and hence the influence of noise on the dynamics of thermoacoustic instability is an aspect of practical importance. The present work is motivated by a recent report on the experimental observation of coherence resonance, or noise-induced coherence with a resonance-like dependence on the noise intensity as the system approaches the stability margin, for a prototypical premixed laminar flame combustor (Kabiraj et al., Phys. Rev. E, 4 (2015)). We numerically investigate representative thermoacoustic models for such noise-induced dynamics. Similar to the experiments, we study variation in system dynamics in response to variations in the noise intensity and in a critical control parameter as the systems approach their stability margins. The qualitative match identified between experimental results and observations in the representative models investigated here confirms that coherence resonance is a feature of thermoacoustic systems. We also extend the experimental results, which were limited to the case of subcritical Hopf bifurcation, to the case of supercritical Hopf bifurcation. We identify that the phenomenon has qualitative differences for the systems undergoing transition via subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcations. Two important practical implications are associated with the findings. Firstly, the increase in noise-induced coherence as the system approaches the onset of thermoacoustic instability can be considered as a precursor to the instability. Secondly, the dependence of noise-induced dynamics on the bifurcation type can be utilised to distinguish between subcritical and supercritical bifurcation prior to the onset of the instability.

  16. Noise Induced Hearing Loss Among Cotton Textile and Carpet Mill Workers

    OpenAIRE

    ERTEM, Melikşah

    1998-01-01

    In industry increased mechanisation results in increased noise levels. Operation of textile machines carries a high risk of hearing loss. In this study the evaluation of textile worker's noise induced hearing loss was reviewed cross sectionally. The hearing of 260 textile workers exposed to noise levels between 85-95 dB(A) in carpet and cotton textile factories was assessed by means of air and bone conductance audiograms obtained. The subjects were grouped into five hearin...

  17. Activation barrier scaling and crossover for noise-induced switching in micromechanical parametric oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H B; Stambaugh, C

    2007-08-10

    We explore fluctuation-induced switching in parametrically driven micromechanical torsional oscillators. The oscillators possess one, two, or three stable attractors depending on the modulation frequency. Noise induces transitions between the coexisting attractors. Near the bifurcation points, the activation barriers are found to have a power law dependence on frequency detuning with critical exponents that are in agreement with predicted universal scaling relationships. At large detuning, we observe a crossover to a different power law dependence with an exponent that is device specific.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss among liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinder infusion workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ju; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2009-12-01

    We assessed the exposure levels of noise, estimated prevalence, and identify risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among male workers with a cross-sectional study in a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder infusion factory in Taipei City. Male in-field workers exposed to noise and administrative controls were enrolled in 2006 and 2007. Face-to-face interviews were applied for demographics, employment history, and drinking/smoking habit. We then performed the measurements on noise levels in field and administration area, and hearing thresholds on study subjects with standard apparatus and protocols. Existence of hearing loss > 25 dBHL for the average of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz was accordingly determined for NIHL. The effects from noise exposure, predisposing characteristics, employment-related factors, and personal habits to NIHL were estimated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. A total of 75 subjects were involved in research and 56.8% of in-field workers had NIHL. Between the in-field and administration groups, hearing thresholds on the worse ear showed significant differences at frequencies of 4 k, 6 k, and 8 kHz with aging considered. Adjusted odds ratio for field noise exposure (OR=99.57, 95% CI: 3.53, 2,808.74) and frequent tea or coffee consumption (OR=0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.51) were found significant. Current study addressed NIHL in a specific industry in Taiwan. Further efforts in minimizing its impact are still in need.

  19. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N Halevi-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician′s hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician′s Questionnaire (PRJMQ in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  20. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi-Katz, Dana N; Yaakobi, Erez; Putter-Katz, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician's hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician's Questionnaire (PRJMQ) in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  1. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  2. Model for Estimating Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Associated With Occupational Noise Exposure in a Specified US Navy Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tufts, Jennifer; Weathersby, Paul K; Marshall, Lynne; Sachs, Felix

    2007-01-01

    This report details the initial steps in the development of a method for modeling the noise-induced hearing loss accrued by a population of Sailors exposed to high-level steady-state occupational noise...

  3. Effect of cigarette smoking on noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liyuan; Davis, Robert; Heyer, Nicholas; Yang, Qiuling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Li, Nan; Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Lin; Zhao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Excessive exposure to high noise level environments has the potential to cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and cigarette smoking has also been shown to have a potential adverse effect on hearing. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking interacts with noise in the development of hearing loss, and if so, the extent of the contribution from smoking on NIHL. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the effect of smoking on NIHL in 517 male workers (non-smokers: N = 199; smokers: N = 318) exposed to a high-level industrial noise environment in China. Shift-long temporal waveforms of the noise that workers were exposed to for evaluation of noise exposures, and audiometric threshold measures were obtained on all selected subjects. The subjects used hearing protection devices only within the last 1-2 years. The results suggest that smoking has an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to high level industrial noise, i.e., the median high frequency hearing thresholds were significantly greater in smokers than non-smokers exposed to noise for more than 10 years. This effect was observed at 4.0 and 6.0 kHz. Smoking did not have an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to noise less than 10 years. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for high frequency hearing loss (i.e., hearing threshold greater than 40 dB at 4.0 kHz) were 1.94 for smokers in comparison to non-smokers. The results suggest that: (1) smokers have a higher risk of developing high frequency hearing loss than non-smokers with a similar occupational noise exposure, and (2) the interaction between cigarette smoking and high-level noise exposure may be additive. There is a need to develop and analyze a larger database of workers with well-documented exposures and smoking histories for better understanding of the effect of smoking on NIHL incurred from high-level industrial noise exposures. A better understanding of the role of smoking may lead to its

  4. The Effect of the Cholesterol Levels on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mehmet Gokhan; Aydin, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), which is one of the most common occupational diseases among industrialized populations, is associated with longstanding exposure to high levels of noise. The pathogenesis of NIHL is not clear, but some genes and their activity at the tissue level have been investigated. Hypercholesterolemia, which can disturb the microcirculation, can be one of the underlying pathologies in hearing loss. Objective  To investigate the relationship between NIHL and hypercholesterolemia. Methods  The study group was selected among workers who had an occupational exposure of 85 dB of noise for at least 10 years. The audiologic assessment was recorded at seven frequencies (500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, 6,000 Hz and 8,000 Hz). A total of 456 workers were included in the study and divided into two groups: the control group (252 patients) and the NIHL group (204 patients). After the audiologic measurement, blood samples were taken and investigated for blood cholesterol levels. According to these results, the groups were compared. Results  Both groups were similarly distributed regarding age and occupational exposure time ( p  > 0.05). We could not detect any association between cholesterol levels and noise-induced hearing loss ( p   0.05). Conclusion  Noise-induced hearing loss is still a common occupational problem that can be prevented by hearing conservation programs and occupational health and safety training. Still, we know little about the relationship between NIHL and hypercholesterolemia. According to our findings, we cannot detect any relationship. Controlled studies and studies with human individuals can be made possible in the future with diagnostic innovations in tissue imaging and tissue microcircular sampling.

  5. [The role of acoustic impedance test in the diagnosis for occupational noise induced deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Xue, L J; Yang, A C; Liang, X Y; Chen, Z Q; Zheng, Q L

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of acoustic impedance test and its diagnostic role for occupational noise induced deafness, in order to provide an objective basis for the differential diagnosis of occupational noise induced deafness. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the cases on the diagnosis of occupational noise-induced deafness in Guangdong province hospital for occupational disease prevention and treatment from January 2016 to January 2017. A total of 198 cases (396 ears) were divided into occupation disease group and non occupation disease group based on the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise deafness in 2014 edition, acoustic conductivity test results of two groups were compared including tympanograms types, external auditory canal volume, tympanic pressure, static compliance and slope. Results: In the occupational disease group, 204 ears were found to have 187 ears (91.67%) of type A, which were significantly higher than those in the non occupational disease group 143/192 (74.48%) , the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=21.038, P occupation disease group in other type were 16/204 (7.84%) , 3/204 (1.47%) , were lower than Ad or As type of occupation disease group (15.63%) , other type (9.38%) , the differences were statistically significant[ (χ(2)=5.834, P Occupation disease group canal volume average (1.68±0.39) ml higher than that of non occupation disease group (1.57 ± 0.47) ml, the difference was statistically significant ( t =2.756, P occupation disease group mean static compliance (1.06±0.82) ml higher than that of non occupation disease group (0.89±0.64) ml. The difference was statistically singificant ( t =2.59, P occupational noise induced deafness, More than 90% of the confirmed cases showed an A-form tympanograms, it is one of the objective examination methods which can be used in the differential diagnosis of pseudo deafness.

  6. Comparative assessment of different treatment modalities in miners with vibration- and noise-induced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velskaya, M.L.; Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Konovalova, S.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Gonchar, I.G.; Terentyeva, D.P.; Grishchenko, L.A.; Soboleva, N.P.; Kharitonov, S.A.; Priklonskiy, I.V.

    1985-02-01

    A group of 71 miners with vibration sickness and noise-induced pathology were managed either by standard methods, or in combination with acupuncture and/or hyperbaric oxygenation for a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of the different therapeutic approaches. Analysis of subjective factors as well as standard physiological parameters (EKG, rheoencephalography, peripheral rheography, EEG, neuropsychological tests) demonstrate that both acupuncture and hyperbaric oxygenation are effective modalities in the majority of the subjects. Nevertheless, the lack of improvement in certain criteria, or even what could be regarded as adverse sequelae, suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the management of such disorders be approached with considerable care.

  7. [Criteria for the assessment of the noise-induced occupational hearing loss: international and national standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Denisov, É I; Adeninskaia, E E; Gorblianskiĭ, Iu Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review international and national standards for the criteria of assessment of the noise-induced occupational loss of hearing. The importance of healthy hearing for the occupational safety is emphasized which implies the necessity of the more rigorous criteria for hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment compared with those for the general population. A rationale for the development of the standard program of hearing conservation in the workers engaged in the noisy technological environment is proposed including hygienic norms and rules or national state standards.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies nox3 as a critical gene for susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lavinsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3. Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE and on auditory brainstem response (ABR. We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL.

  9. Modeling the Unites States government's economic cost of noise-induced hearing loss for a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Weathersby, Paul K; Rodriguez, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of developing economic cost models for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). First, we outline an economic model of NIHL for a population of US Navy sailors with an "industrial"-type noise exposure. Next, we describe the effect on NIHL-related cost of varying the two central model inputs--the noise-exposure level and the duration of exposure. Such an analysis can help prioritize promising areas, to which limited resources to reduce NIHL-related costs should be devoted. NIHL-related costs borne by the US government were computed on a yearly basis using a finite element approach that took into account varying levels of susceptibility to NIHL. Predicted hearing thresholds for the population were computed with ANSI S3.44-1996 and then used as the basis for the calculation of NIHL-related costs. Annual and cumulative costs were tracked. Noise-exposure level and duration were systematically varied to determine their effects on the expected lifetime NIHL-related cost of a specific US Navy sailor population. Our nominal noise-exposure case [93 dB(A) for six years] yielded a total expected lifetime cost of US $13,472 per sailor, with plausible lower and upper bounds of US $2,500 and US $26,000. Starting with the nominal case, a decrease of 50% in exposure level or duration would yield cost savings of approximately 23% and 19%, respectively. We concluded that a reduction in noise level would be more somewhat more cost-effective than the same percentage reduction in years of exposure. Our economic cost model can be used to estimate the changes in NIHL-related costs that would result from changes in noise-exposure level and/or duration for a single military population. Although the model is limited at present, suggestions are provided for adapting it to civilian populations.

  10. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chiang, Han-Yueh; Yen-Jean, Mei-Chu; Wang, Jung-Der

    2009-01-01

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 μg/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p < 0.05 ∼ p < 0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 μg/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  11. The association between low levels of lead in blood and occupational noise-induced hearing loss in steel workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Han-Yueh [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yen-Jean, Mei-Chu [Division of Family Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Taiwan, ROC 1, E-Da Rd., Jiau-Shu Tsuen, Yan-Chau Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Rd., Da-Shu Shiang, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jung-Der, E-mail: jdwang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Rm. 735, 17, Xu-Zhou Rd., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC No. 1, Chang-Teh St., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2009-12-15

    As the use of leaded gasoline has ceased in the last decade, background lead exposure has generally been reduced. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of low-level lead exposure on human hearing loss. This study was conducted in a steel plant and 412 workers were recruited from all over the plant. Personal information such as demographics and work history was obtained through a questionnaire. All subjects took part in an audiometric examination of hearing thresholds, for both ears, with air-conducted pure tones at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz. Subjects' blood samples were collected and analyzed for levels of manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead with inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, noise levels in different working zones were determined using a sound level meter with A-weighting network. Only subjects with hearing loss difference of no more than 15 dB between both ears and had no congenital abnormalities were included in further data analysis. Lead was the only metal in blood found significantly correlated with hearing loss for most tested sound frequencies (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and noise level, the logistic regression model analysis indicated that elevated blood lead over 7 {mu}g/dL was significantly associated with hearing loss at the sound frequencies of 3000 through 8000 Hz with odds ratios raging from 3.06 to 6.26 (p < 0.05 {approx} p < 0.005). We concluded that elevated blood lead at level below 10 {mu}g/dL might enhance the noise-induced hearing loss. Future research needs to further explore the detailed mechanism.

  12. Lévy stable noise-induced transitions: stochastic resonance, resonant activation and dynamic hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    A standard approach to analysis of noise-induced effects in stochastic dynamics assumes a Gaussian character of the noise term describing interaction of the analyzed system with its complex surroundings. An additional assumption about the existence of timescale separation between the dynamics of the measured observable and the typical timescale of the noise allows external fluctuations to be modeled as temporally uncorrelated and therefore white. However, in many natural phenomena the assumptions concerning the above mentioned properties of 'Gaussianity' and 'whiteness' of the noise can be violated. In this context, in contrast to the spatiotemporal coupling characterizing general forms of non-Markovian or semi-Markovian Lévy walks, so called Lévy flights correspond to the class of Markov processes which can still be interpreted as white, but distributed according to a more general, infinitely divisible, stable and non-Gaussian law. Lévy noise-driven non-equilibrium systems are known to manifest interesting physical properties and have been addressed in various scenarios of physical transport exhibiting a superdiffusive behavior. Here we present a brief overview of our recent investigations aimed at understanding features of stochastic dynamics under the influence of Lévy white noise perturbations. We find that the archetypal phenomena of noise-induced ordering are robust and can be detected also in systems driven by memoryless, non-Gaussian, heavy-tailed fluctuations with infinite variance

  13. Stochastic amplification and signaling in enzymatic futile cycles through noise-induced bistability with oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilov, Michael; Plyasunov, Sergey; Arkin, Adam P.

    2005-02-01

    Stochastic effects in biomolecular systems have now been recognized as a major physiologically and evolutionarily important factor in the development and function of many living organisms. Nevertheless, they are often thought of as providing only moderate refinements to the behaviors otherwise predicted by the classical deterministic system description. In this work we show by using both analytical and numerical investigation that at least in one ubiquitous class of (bio)chemical-reaction mechanisms, enzymatic futile cycles, the external noise may induce a bistable oscillatory (dynamic switching) behavior that is both quantitatively and qualitatively different from what is predicted or possible deterministically. We further demonstrate that the noise required to produce these distinct properties can itself be caused by a set of auxiliary chemical reactions, making it feasible for biological systems of sufficient complexity to generate such behavior internally. This new stochastic dynamics then serves to confer additional functional modalities on the enzymatic futile cycle mechanism that include stochastic amplification and signaling, the characteristics of which could be controlled by both the type and parameters of the driving noise. Hence, such noise-induced phenomena may, among other roles, potentially offer a novel type of control mechanism in pathways that contain these cycles and the like units. In particular, observations of endogenous or externally driven noise-induced dynamics in regulatory networks may thus provide additional insight into their topology, structure, and kinetics. network motif | signal transduction | chemical reaction | synthetic biology | systems biology

  14. Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Residences Near Two Civil Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Howe, Richard R.; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Pearsons, Karl S.; Sneddon, Matthew D.

    1995-01-01

    A large-scale field study of noise-induced sleep disturbance was conducted in the vicinities of Stapleton International Airport (DEN) and Denver International Airport (DIA) in anticipation of the closure of the former and opening of the latter. Both indoor and outdoor measurements of aircraft and other nighttime noises were made during four time periods. Measurements were made in 57 homes located as close as feasible to the runway ends of the two airports. Sleep disturbance was measured by several indices of behaviorally confirmed awakening (button pushes upon awakening) and body movement (as measured with wrist-worn actimeters). A total of 2717 subject-nights of observations were made over the course of the study. Although average noise event levels measured outdoors decreased markedly at DEN after closure of the airport and increased slightly at DIA after its opening, indoor noise event levels varied much less in homes near both airports. No large differences were observed in noise-induced sleep disturbance at either airport. Indoor sound exposure levels of noise events were, however, closely related to and good predictors of actimetrically defined motility and arousal.

  15. Combination therapy using antioxidants and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on noise induced hearing loss (NIHL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, So-Young; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Min young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun; Rhee, Chung-Ku

    2016-02-01

    One of the most common factors that cause hearing disorders is noise trauma. Noise is an increasing hazard and it is pervasive, which makes it difficult to take precautions and prevent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The prevalence of hearing loss among factory workers to be 42 %[1]. Ocupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for which there currently exists no cure, but is largely preventable. More than 30 million Americans are potentially exposed to hazardous noise levels in occupations such as transportation, construction, and coal mining, as well as recreationally. In the mainstream setting, exposure avoidance strategies aimed to reduce the incidence of ONIHL remain the focus of public health and occupational medicine approaches[2]. In military conditions this is most often caused by such things as explosions, blasts, or loud noises from vehicles ranging from 100 to 140 dB[3] and military weapons generating approximately 140-185 dB peak sound pressure levels[4].

  16. Medical surveillance of occupational Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) at RAPS hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuwal, A.K.; Ganesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: One of the most challenging roles of a Certifying Surgeon is to act as catalyst for change. This paper is a presentation of the impact of such an effort. Noise is the insidious of all industrial pollutants, involving every industry and causing severe hearing loss. Exposure to excessive noise is the major avoidable cause of permanent hearing impairment. Noise - induced hearing loss (NIHL) is bilateral and symmetrical, usually affecting the higher frequencies 3 k, 4 k or 6 kHz ) and then spreading to the lower frequencies (0.5 k,1 k or 2 kHz). The major health effects are lack of concentration, irritation, fatigue, headache, sleep disturbances etc. Hearing protectors should be used when engineering controls and work practices are not feasible for reducing noise exposure to safe levels. Ear muffs, ear plugs and ear canal caps are the main types of hearing protectors. Awareness should be created among workers about the harmful effects of noise on hearing and other body systems by implementing compulsory education noise conservation programmes. The practice followed at RAPS Hospital for medical surveillance of Occupational Noise Induced Hearing Loss is being briefed

  17. [Analysis on occupational noise-induced hearing loss of different type workers in underground mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q C; Duo, C H; Wang, Z; Yan, K; Zhang, J; Xiong, W; Zhu, M

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate hearing loss status of blasters, drillers mechanics and so on in underground mining, and put forward suggestion diagnosis of occupational explosive deafness and occupational deafness. Methods: Underground excavation workers in a metal mine were recruited in this study, those with a history of ear disease and non-occupational deafness were all excluded. Finally, the features of pure tone audiometry of 459 noise-exposed workers were analyzed. Results: High-frequency hearing loss occurred on 351workers and the positive detection rate was 74.29%, workers who had both high-frequency and linguistic frequency hearing loss were 51 and the positive detection rate was 11.11%. The positive detection of high-frequency hearing loss in right ear (χ(2)=9.427 and P = 0.024) and in left ear (χ(2)=14.375, P =0.002) was significantly different between different exposure age groups. The positive detection of high-frequency hearing loss of driving group was the highest, followed by blasting group, mining group and machine repair group. The characteristics of the hearing loss caused by drilling noise of the blasting workers with no accident occurred were in line with that of noise-induced hearing loss. Conclusion: The diagnosis grading should be carried out according to the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise-induced deafness for the employees who engaged in the blasting operation with no record of blast accident.

  18. Noise-induced chaos and basin erosion in softening Duffing oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Chunbiao

    2005-01-01

    It is common for many dynamical systems to have two or more attractors coexist and in such cases the basin boundary is fractal. The purpose of this paper is to study the noise-induced chaos and discuss the effect of noises on erosion of safe basin in the softening Duffing oscillator. The Melnikov approach is used to obtain the necessary condition for the rising of chaos, and the largest Lyapunov exponent is computed to identify the chaotic nature of the sample time series from the system. According to the Melnikov condition, the safe basins are simulated for both the deterministic and the stochastic cases of the system. It is shown that the external Gaussian white noise excitation is robust for inducing the chaos, while the external bounded noise is weak. Moreover, the erosion of the safe basin can be aggravated by both the Gaussian white and the bounded noise excitations, and fractal boundary can appear when the system is only excited by the random processes, which means noise-induced chaotic response is induced

  19. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  20. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. PMID:27413159

  1. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations: International Airport Dulles. [studies by Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W. H.; Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.; Holliday, B. G.; Deloach, R.; Finley, T. D.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Lynch, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to assess the noise-induced building vibrations associated with Concorde operations. The vibration levels of windows, walls, and floors were measured along with the associated noise levels of Concorde, subsonic aircraft and some nonaircraft events. Test sites included Sully Plantation which is adjacent to Dulles International Airport and three residential homes located in Montgomery County, Maryland. The measured vibration response levels due to Concorde operations were found to be: (1) higher than the levels due to other aircraft, (2) less than the levels due to certain household events which involve direct impulsive loading such as door and window closing, (3) less than criteria levels for building damage, and (4) comparable to levels which are perceptible to people.

  2. On common noise-induced synchronization in complex networks with state-dependent noise diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giovanni; Shorten, Robert

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the study of common noise-induced synchronization phenomena in complex networks of diffusively coupled nonlinear systems. We consider the case where common noise propagation depends on the network state and, as a result, the noise diffusion process at the nodes depends on the state of the network. For such networks, we present an algebraic sufficient condition for the onset of synchronization, which depends on the network topology, the dynamics at the nodes, the coupling strength and the noise diffusion. Our result explicitly shows that certain noise diffusion processes can drive an unsynchronized network towards synchronization. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of our result, we consider two applications: collective decision processes and synchronization of chaotic systems. We explicitly show that, in the former application, a sufficiently large noise can drive a population towards a common decision, while, in the latter, we show how common noise can synchronize a network of Lorentz chaotic systems.

  3. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL: literature review with a focus on occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metidieri, Mirella Melo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ministry of Health (2006, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is hearing loss caused by prolonged exposure to noise. It is characterized as sensorineural hearing loss and is usually bilateral, irreversible, and progressive while the exposure to noise continues. A NIHL is a predictable and preventable disease with an epidemiologically relevant prevalence in urban communities. The hearing loss begins and predominates in the frequencies of 3, 4, and 6 kHz and eventually progresses to 8, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 kHz. In Brazil, regulatory standard 15 limits the exposure to continuous noise to no more than 4 hours' exposure to 90 dBA and a maximum level of 85 dB for a full 8-hour working period. As NIHL is a preventable and predictable disease, preventive action by professionals may be able to change the prevalence of hearing loss in noisy environments.

  4. Calculation of the ex-core neutron noise induced by fuel vibrations in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Hoai Nam; Cao Van Chung; Hoang Thanh Phi Hung; Hoang Van Khanh

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of the neutron noise induced by fuel assembly vibrations in two pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores has been performed to investigate the effect of cycle burnup on the properties of the ex-core detector noise. Pendular vibrations of individual fuel assemblies were assumed to occur at different locations in the core. The auto power spectra density (APSD) of the ex-core detector noise was evaluated with the assumption of stochastic vibrations along a random two-dimensional trajectory. The results show that no general monotonic variation of APSD was found. The increase of APSD occurs predominantly for peripheral assemblies. Assuming simultaneous vibrations of a number of fuel assemblies uniformly distributed over the core with the more realistic perturbation model, the effect of the peripheral assemblies will dominate and the increase of the amplitude of the ex-core neutron noise with burnup can be confirmed. (author)

  5. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL): literature review with a focus on occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metidieri, Mirella Melo; Rodrigues, Hugo Fernandes Santos; Filho, Francisco José Motta Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Daniela Pereira; Neto, Antonio Fausto de Almeida; Torres, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    According to the Ministry of Health (2006), Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is hearing loss caused by prolonged exposure to noise. It is characterized as sensorineural hearing loss and is usually bilateral, irreversible, and progressive while the exposure to noise continues. A NIHL is a predictable and preventable disease with an epidemiologically relevant prevalence in urban communities. The hearing loss begins and predominates in the frequencies of 3, 4, and 6 kHz and eventually progresses to 8, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 kHz. In Brazil, regulatory standard 15 limits the exposure to continuous noise to no more than 4 hours' exposure to 90 dBA and a maximum level of 85 dB for a full 8-hour working period. As NIHL is a preventable and predictable disease, preventive action by professionals may be able to change the prevalence of hearing loss in noisy environments.

  6. Noise-induced multistability in the regulation of cancer by genes and pseudogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, K. G., E-mail: pkaren@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Hu, Chin-Kun, E-mail: huck@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2016-07-28

    We extend a previously introduced model of stochastic gene regulation of cancer to a nonlinear case having both gene and pseudogene messenger RNAs (mRNAs) self-regulated. The model consists of stochastic Boolean genetic elements and possesses noise-induced multistability (multimodality). We obtain analytical expressions for probabilities for the case of constant but finite number of microRNA molecules which act as a noise source for the competing gene and pseudogene mRNAs. The probability distribution functions display both the global bistability regime as well as even-odd number oscillations for a certain range of model parameters. Statistical characteristics of the mRNA’s level fluctuations are evaluated. The obtained results of the extended model advance our understanding of the process of stochastic gene and pseudogene expressions that is crucial in regulation of cancer.

  7. Possible effects of rosuvastatin on noise-induced oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alevtina Ersoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of noise has recently gained more attention as it has become an integral part of our daily lives. However, its influence has yet to be fully elucidated. Other than being an unpleasant stimulus, noise may cause health disorders through annoyance and stress, including oxidative stress. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, may possess antioxidant properties. Based on rat models, our project investigates the effect of rosuvastatin on noise-induced oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: Noise exposure plus rosuvastatin usage, only noise exposure, only rosuvastatin usage, and control. After the data had been collected, oxidant and antioxidant parameters were analyzed in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum. Results indicated that superoxide dismutase values were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex, while malondialdehyde values in the brainstem and cerebellum were significantly increased in the group with only noise exposure. Superoxide dismutase values in the brainstem were significantly increased, but nitric oxide values in the cerebellum and brainstem and malondialdehyde values in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex were significantly decreased in the group where only rosuvastatin was used. During noise exposure, the use of rosuvastatin caused significantly increased superoxide dismutase values in the cerebral cortex and brainstem, but significantly reduced malondialdehyde values in the brain stem. Consequently, our data show that brain tissue was affected by oxidative stress due to continued exposure to noise. This noise-induced stress decreases with rosuvastatin therapy.

  8. Noise-induced nitrotyrosine increase and outer hair cell death in guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei-ju; Shi, Xiao-rui; Nuttall, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Modern research has provided new insights into the biological mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss, and a number of studies showed the appearance of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) during and after noise exposure. This study was designed to investigate the noise exposure induced nitrotyrosine change and the mechanism of outer hair cells death in guinea pig cochlea. Thirty guinea pigs were used in this study. The experimental animals were either exposed for 4 hours per day to broadband noise at 122 dB SPL (A-weighted) for 2 consecutive days or perfused cochleae with 5 mg/ml of the SIN1 solutions, an exogenous NO and superoxide donor, for 30 minutes. Then the cochleae of the animals were dissected. Propidium iodide (PI), a DNA intercalating fluorescent probe, was used to trace morphological changes in OHC nuclei. The distribution of nitrotyrosine (NT) in the organ of Corti and the cochlear lateral wall tissue from the guinea pigs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry method. Whole mounts of organ of Corti were prepared. Morphological and fluorescent changes were examined under a confocal microscope. Either after noise exposure or after SIN1 perfusion, outer hair cells (OHCs) death with characteristics of both apoptotic and necrotic degradation appeared. Nitrotyrosine immunolabeling could be observed in the OHCs from the control animals. After noise exposure, NT immunostaining became much greater than the control animals in OHCs. The apoptotic OHC has significant increase of nitrotyrosine in and around the nucleus following noise exposure. In the normal later wall of cochleae, relatively weak nitrotyrosine immunolabeling could be observed. After noise exposure, nitrotyrosine immunoactivity became stronger in stria vascularis. Noise exposure induced increase of nitrotyrosine production is associated with OHCs death suggesting reactive nitrogen species participation in the cochlear pathophysiology of noise-induced

  9. Crossmodal plasticity in auditory, visual and multisensory cortical areas following noise-induced hearing loss in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormans, Ashley L; Typlt, Marei; Allman, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Complete or partial hearing loss results in an increased responsiveness of neurons in the core auditory cortex of numerous species to visual and/or tactile stimuli (i.e., crossmodal plasticity). At present, however, it remains uncertain how adult-onset partial hearing loss affects higher-order cortical areas that normally integrate audiovisual information. To that end, extracellular electrophysiological recordings were performed under anesthesia in noise-exposed rats two weeks post-exposure (0.8-20 kHz at 120 dB SPL for 2 h) and age-matched controls to characterize the nature and extent of crossmodal plasticity in the dorsal auditory cortex (AuD), an area outside of the auditory core, as well as in the neighboring lateral extrastriate visual cortex (V2L), an area known to contribute to audiovisual processing. Computer-generated auditory (noise burst), visual (light flash) and combined audiovisual stimuli were delivered, and the associated spiking activity was used to determine the response profile of each neuron sampled (i.e., unisensory, subthreshold multisensory or bimodal). In both the AuD cortex and the multisensory zone of the V2L cortex, the maximum firing rates were unchanged following noise exposure, and there was a relative increase in the proportion of neurons responsive to visual stimuli, with a concomitant decrease in the number of neurons that were solely responsive to auditory stimuli despite adjusting the sound intensity to account for each rat's hearing threshold. These neighboring cortical areas differed, however, in how noise-induced hearing loss affected audiovisual processing; the total proportion of multisensory neurons significantly decreased in the V2L cortex (control 38.8 ± 3.3% vs. noise-exposed 27.1 ± 3.4%), and dramatically increased in the AuD cortex (control 23.9 ± 3.3% vs. noise-exposed 49.8 ± 6.1%). Thus, following noise exposure, the cortical area showing the greatest relative degree of multisensory convergence

  10. Evaluation of the current practices of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the current practices in relation to best practice criteria and make recommendations for improvements to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry. A survey tool based...

  11. Temporary physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.; Gangel, D.J.; Madsen, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Terrorism and other aspects of world political instability have created a high demand for temporary physical protection systems within the nuclear materials management community. They can be used when vehicles carrying important assets are away from their permanent fixed site location, around areas where experiments are being temporarily conducted, around construction areas and one portions of a fixed site physical security system which is temporarily inoperable. Physical security systems can be grouped into four categories: tactical, portable, semi-permanent, and fixed. The resources and experience gained at Sandia National Laboratories in over forty years of developing and implementing security systems for protecting nuclear weapons and fixed nuclear facilities is now being applied to temporary physical security systems. This paper emphasizes temporary physical security systems and their component parts that are presently available and identify additional system-subsystem objectives, requirements, and concepts

  12. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  13. Predicting hearing thresholds and occupational hearing loss with multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ruey-Fen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Shun-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    An objective investigation is needed to verify the existence and severity of hearing impairments resulting from work-related, noise-induced hearing loss in arbitration of medicolegal aspects. We investigated the accuracy of multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (Mf-ASSRs) between subjects with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with and without occupational noise exposure. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary referral medical centre. Pure-tone audiometry and Mf-ASSRs were recorded in 88 subjects (34 patients had occupational noise-induced hearing loss [NIHL], 36 patients had SNHL without noise exposure, and 18 volunteers were normal controls). Inter- and intragroup comparisons were made. A predicting equation was derived using multiple linear regression analysis. ASSRs and pure-tone thresholds (PTTs) showed a strong correlation for all subjects (r = .77 ≈ .94). The relationship is demonstrated by the equationThe differences between the ASSR and PTT were significantly higher for the NIHL group than for the subjects with non-noise-induced SNHL (p tool for objectively evaluating hearing thresholds. Predictive value may be lower in subjects with occupational hearing loss. Regardless of carrier frequencies, the severity of hearing loss affects the steady-state response. Moreover, the ASSR may assist in detecting noise-induced injury of the auditory pathway. A multiple linear regression equation to accurately predict thresholds was shown that takes into consideration all effect factors.

  14. Numerical investigation on vibration and noise induced by unsteady flow in an axial-flow pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Eryun; Ma, Zui Ling; Yang, Ai Ling; Nan, Guo Fang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Gai Ping [School of Medical Instruments and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Guo Ping [Shanghai Marine Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2016-12-15

    Full-scale structural vibration and noise induced by flow in an axial-flow pump was simulated by a hybrid numerical method. An unsteady flow field was solved by a large eddy simulation-based computational fluid dynamics commercial code, Fluent. An experimental validation on pressure fluctuations was performed to impose an appropriate vibration exciting source. The consistency between the computed results and experimental tests were interesting. The modes of the axial-flow pump were computed by the finite element method. After that, the pump vibration and sound field were solved using a coupled vibro-acoustic model. The numerical results indicated that the the blade-passing frequency was the dominant frequency of the vibration acceleration of the pump. This result was consistent with frequency spectral characteristics of unsteady pressure fluctuation. Finally, comparisons of the vibration acceleration between the computed results and the experimental test were conducted. These comparisons validated the computed results. This study shows that using the hybrid numerical method to evaluate the flow-induced vibration and noise generated in an axial-flow pump is feasible.

  15. Characteristic of Noise-induced Hearing Loss among Workers in Construction Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naadia Mazlan, Ain; Yahya, Khairulzan; Haron, Zaiton; Amsharija Mohamed, Nik; Rasib, Edrin Nazri Abdul; Jamaludin, Nizam; Darus, Nadirah

    2018-03-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is among the most common occupational disease in industries. This paper investigates NIHL in construction related industries in Malaysia with particular emphasis on its relation with risk factors. The objectives of this research were to (1) quantify the prevalence of NIHL in construction related industries, and (2) assess the relationship between hearing loss and risk factors and it's characteristic. The study was conducted using 110 NIHL compensation record collected from Social Security Organisation (SOCSO), Malaysia. Risk factors namely area noise, age, temperature, smoking habit, hobby, diabetic and cardiovascular disease were identified and analysed. Results showed that there was no direct relationship between area noise with hearing impairment while there was only low relationship between age and hearing impairment. The range for area noise and age were between 70 to 140 dB(A) and 20 to 70 years, respectively. The other risk factors classified as categorical data and analysed using frequency method. Grade of impairment does not depend solely on area noise but also in combination with age and other risk factors. Characteristic of NIHL prevailed in construction related industries were presented using scatterplots and can serve as a references for future hazard control on site.

  16. Noise-induced phase space transport in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, I V; Kandrup, H E

    1999-08-01

    First passage time experiments were used to explore the effects of low amplitude noise as a source of accelerated phase space diffusion in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, and these effects were then compared with the effects of periodic driving. The objective was to quantify and understand the manner in which "sticky" chaotic orbits that, in the absence of perturbations, are confined near regular islands for very long times, can become "unstuck" much more quickly when subjected to even very weak perturbations. For both noise and periodic driving, the typical escape time scales logarithmically with the amplitude of the perturbation. For white noise, the details seem unimportant: Additive and multiplicative noise typically have very similar effects, and the presence or absence of a friction related to the noise by a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also largely irrelevant. Allowing for colored noise can significantly decrease the efficacy of the perturbation, but only when the autocorrelation time, which vanishes for white noise, becomes so large that there is little power at frequencies comparable to the natural frequencies of the unperturbed orbit. Similarly, periodic driving is relatively inefficient when the driving frequency is not comparable to these natural frequencies. This suggests that noise-induced extrinsic diffusion, like modulational diffusion associated with periodic driving, is a resonance phenomenon. The logarithmic dependence of the escape time on amplitude reflects the fact that the time required for perturbed and unperturbed orbits to diverge a given distance scales logarithmically in the amplitude of the perturbation.

  17. Falls risk and hospitalization among retired workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Serge André; Leroux, Tony; Verreault, René; Courteau, Marilène; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Baril, Julie

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to ascertain whether occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) increased the risk of falls requiring hospitalization among retired workers. The study population consisted of males (age ≥ 65) with an average occupational noise exposure of 30.6 years and whose mean bilateral hearing loss was 42.2 dB HL at 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Seventy-two retired workers admitted to hospitals after a fall were matched with 216 controls from the same industrial sectors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk (odds ratio; [OR]) of falls leading to hospitalization by NIHL categories. Results showed a relationship between severe NIHL (≥ 52.5 dB HL) and the occurrence of a fall (OR: 1.97, CI95%: 1.001-3.876). Reducing falls among seniors fosters the maintenance of their autonomy. There is a definite need to acquire knowledge about harmful effects of occupational noise to support the prevention of NIHL and ensure healthier workplaces.

  18. Implementation of a method to visualize noise-induced hearing loss in mass stranded cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Maria; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Raverty, Stephen A.; Shadwick, Robert E.; André, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of the impact of noise over-exposure in stranded cetaceans is challenging, as the lesions that lead to hearing loss occur at the cellular level and inner ear cells are very sensitive to autolysis. Distinguishing ante-mortem pathology from post-mortem change has been a major constraint in diagnosing potential impact. Here, we outline a methodology applicable to the detection of noise-induced hearing loss in stranded cetaceans. Inner ears from two mass strandings of long-finned pilot whales in Scotland were processed for scanning electron microscopy observation. In one case, a juvenile animal, whose ears were fixed within 4 hours of death, revealed that many sensory cells at the apex of the cochlear spiral were missing. In this case, the absence of outer hair cells would be compatible with overexposure to underwater noise, affecting the region which transduces the lowest frequencies of the pilot whales hearing spectrum. Perfusion of cochlea with fixative greatly improved preservation and enabled diagnostic imaging of the organ of Corti, even 30 hours after death. This finding supports adopting a routine protocol to detect the pathological legacy of noise overexposure in mass stranded cetaceans as a key to understanding the complex processes and implications that lie behind such stranding events.

  19. Acoustic noise induces attention shifts and reduces foraging performance in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Purser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic noise is known to have a variety of detrimental effects on many animals, including humans, but surprisingly little is known about its impacts on foraging behaviour, despite the obvious potential consequences for survival and reproductive success. We therefore exposed captive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus to brief and prolonged noise to investigate how foraging performance is affected by the addition of acoustic noise to an otherwise quiet environment. The addition of noise induced only mild fear-related behaviours--there was an increase in startle responses, but no change in the time spent freezing or hiding compared to a silent control--and thus had no significant impact on the total amount of food eaten. However, there was strong evidence that the addition of noise increased food-handling errors and reduced discrimination between food and non-food items, results that are consistent with a shift in attention. Consequently, noise resulted in decreased foraging efficiency, with more attacks needed to consume the same number of prey items. Our results suggest that acoustic noise has the potential to influence a whole host of everyday activities through effects on attention, and that even very brief noise exposure can cause functionally significant impacts, emphasising the threat posed by ever-increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in the environment.

  20. The state of the art of predicting noise-induced sleep disturbance in field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Pearsons, Karl S

    2010-01-01

    Several relationships between intruding noises (largely aircraft) and sleep disturbance have been inferred from the findings of a handful of field studies. Comparisons of sleep disturbance rates predicted by the various relationships are complicated by inconsistent data collection methods and definitions of predictor variables and predicted quantities. None of the relationships is grounded in theory-based understanding, and some depend on questionable statistical assumptions and analysis procedures. The credibility, generalizability, and utility of sleep disturbance predictions are also limited by small and nonrepresentative samples of test participants, and by restricted (airport-specific and relatively short duration) circumstances of exposure. Although expedient relationships may be the best available, their predictions are of only limited utility for policy analysis and regulatory purposes, because they account for very little variance in the association between environmental noise and sleep disturbance, have characteristically shallow slopes, have not been well validated in field settings, are highly context-dependent, and do not squarely address the roles and relative importance of nonacoustic factors in sleep disturbance. Such relationships offer the appearance more than the substance of precision and objectivity. Truly useful, population-level prediction and genuine understanding of noise-induced sleep disturbance will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, until the findings of field studies of broader scope and more sophisticated design become available.

  1. The state of the art of predicting noise-induced sleep disturbance in field settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanford Fidell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several relationships between intruding noises (largely aircraft and sleep disturbance have been inferred from the findings of a handful of field studies. Comparisons of sleep disturbance rates predicted by the various relationships are complicated by inconsistent data collection methods and definitions of predictor variables and predicted quantities. None of the relationships is grounded in theory-based understanding, and some depend on questionable statistical assumptions and analysis procedures. The credibility, generalizability, and utility of sleep disturbance predictions are also limited by small and nonrepresentative samples of test participants, and by restricted (airport-specific and relatively short duration circumstances of exposure. Although expedient relationships may be the best available, their predictions are of only limited utility for policy analysis and regulatory purposes, because they account for very little variance in the association between environmental noise and sleep disturbance, have characteristically shallow slopes, have not been well validated in field settings, are highly context-dependent, and do not squarely address the roles and relative importance of nonacoustic factors in sleep disturbance. Such relationships offer the appearance more than the substance of precision and objectivity. Truly useful, population-level prediction and genuine understanding of noise-induced sleep disturbance will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, until the findings of field studies of broader scope and more sophisticated design become available.

  2. Reducing Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Collegiate Music Ensembles Using Ambient Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jason; Chesky, Kris

    2017-09-01

    Student musicians are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as they develop skills and perform during instructional activities. Studies using longitudinal dosimeter data show that pedagogical procedures and instructor behaviors are highly predictive of NIHL risk, thus implying the need for innovative approaches to increase instructor competency in managing instructional activities without interfering with artistic and academic freedom. Ambient information systems, an emerging trend in human-computer interaction that infuses psychological behavioral theories into technologies, can help construct informative risk-regulating systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of introducing an ambient information system into the ensemble setting. The system used two ambient displays and a counterbalanced within-subjects treatment study design with six jazz ensemble instructors to determine if the system could induce a behavior change that alters trends in measures resulting from dosimeter data. This study assessed efficacy using time series analysis to determine changes in eight statistical measures of behavior over a 9-wk period. Analysis showed that the system was effective, as all instructors showed changes in a combination of measures. This study is in an important step in developing non-interfering technology to reduce NIHL among academic musicians.

  3. The worker's ear: a history of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Floyd E

    2013-03-01

    Hearing loss afflicts millions of people throughout the world, and many of those millions are workers who have been exposed to excessive noise. People have always been surrounded by a variety of sounds in their environments, but the invention of gunpowder and the Industrial Revolution introduced new sounds of greater intensity than ever before. It is only within the past 40 years that serious efforts to reduce excessive noise at work sites have been initiated. In the latter half of the 20th century, many governments imposed regulations to limit workers' exposure to loud sounds. Because of this recent action, some people may believe that the recognition of occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is relatively new. However, a review of selected historical and medical manuscripts, books, and articles show that the association of hearing changes with loud noise exposure was recognized for centuries before systematic attempts were made to limit the exposure. Delays in implementing controls to limit noise exposure were due to cultural reasons, technical problems in controlling noise generation, and a lack of understanding of the mechanics of hearing loss. A historical perspective on this issue may remind health care providers that they need to continue to emphasize hearing conservation measures as occupational noise exposures change with the shift of industrial activities between countries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Emergence of noise-induced oscillations in the central circadian pacemaker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline H Ko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bmal1 is an essential transcriptional activator within the mammalian circadian clock. We report here that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of Bmal1-null mutant mice, unexpectedly, generates stochastic oscillations with periods that overlap the circadian range. Dissociated SCN neurons expressed fluctuating levels of PER2 detected by bioluminescence imaging but could not generate circadian oscillations intrinsically. Inhibition of intercellular communication or cyclic-AMP signaling in SCN slices, which provide a positive feed-forward signal to drive the intracellular negative feedback loop, abolished the stochastic oscillations. Propagation of this feed-forward signal between SCN neurons then promotes quasi-circadian oscillations that arise as an emergent property of the SCN network. Experimental analysis and mathematical modeling argue that both intercellular coupling and molecular noise are required for the stochastic rhythms, providing a novel biological example of noise-induced oscillations. The emergence of stochastic circadian oscillations from the SCN network in the absence of cell-autonomous circadian oscillatory function highlights a previously unrecognized level of circadian organization.

  5. Noise-induced hearing loss in construction workers being assessed for hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ronald A; Sauvé, John T; Jiang, Depeng

    2010-01-01

    Construction workers are at risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) but often have no periodic audiometric testing. The participants were construction workers assessed for Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) at the Occupational Health Clinic, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Audiometry was offered and 169 of the 191 workers assessed for HAVS agreed to have the audiometric test. The objective was to examine the prevalence of hearing loss in these 169 workers and to determine the effect on hearing of duration of work in construction (as a proxy for noise exposure) and the severity of vibration white finger (VWF) which previous studies have suggested is a marker for increased individual susceptibility for NIHL. VWF was measured by the Stockholm vascular scale. All participants were men, median age of 57 (range: 28-75), median number of years worked in construction of 35 (range: 4-52). All of the Spearman rank correlations between years worked in construction and the hearing levels at each audiometric frequency were statistically significant (p hearing loss at or above the level at which a workers' compensation pension would be granted in Ontario and the prevalence of this auditory outcome had a statistically significant increase as years worked in construction increased. Multivariate linear regression indicated that VWF also had a statistically significant effect on hearing loss for all audiometric frequencies combined after controlling for years worked in construction. Improved prevention of hearing loss in construction workers is needed.

  6. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in auto part factory workers in welding units in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriopas, Apiradee; Chapman, Robert S; Sutammasa, Saravudh; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2017-01-24

    Most workers in auto part factories in Thailand are usually exposed to excessive noise in their workplace. This study aimed to assess the level of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and investigate risk factors causing hearing loss in auto part factory workers in the welding units in Thailand. This was a cross-sectional study. One hundred eighty subjects were recruited from 356 workers in the welding unit of three factories. Sixty eligible subjects in each factory were selected by systemic random sampling. The subjects were interviewed using a face-to-face questionnaire. Noise exposure levels and audiograms were measured by a noise dosimeter and an audiometer, respectively. The findings confirmed that noise exposure levels of 86-90 dB (A) and exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the risk of hearing loss in either ear. A noise exposure level exceeding 90 dB (A) significantly increased the prevalence of hearing loss in both ears. Regarding, a 10-pack-year smoking history increased the prevalence of hearing loss in either ear or both ears. In addition, subjects with employment duration exceeding 10 years significantly developed hearing loss in either ear. The engineering control or personal control by wearing hearing protection device should be used to decrease noise exposure levels lower than 85 dB (A) for 8 h. Moreover, if the exposure level reaches 85 dB (A) for 8 h, the employer needs to implement a hearing conservation program in the workplace.

  7. Estimates of Workers with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss and Population at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakita, T.; Ueda, A.

    1997-08-01

    Towards the goal of protecting workers from damage due to noise exposure, a vast store of knowledge has been generated about its nature, etiology and time course. There still exists, however, a strong need to reclarify the locations, nature and magnitude of the problem of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Based on the rate of positive results in a hearing screening test in the workplace, this paper presents an attempt to estimate the total number of workers with more than 40 dB hearing loss at 4 kHz caused by occupational noise exposure. The estimated values in major industry groups were as follows: about 780 000 in manufacturing; 410 000 in construction; 360 000 in agriculture; forestry and fishing; and around 2 million in total. Although it is rather difficult to estimate the number of workers exposed to noise above 85 dB(A), it may be reasonable to believe that at least several million workers exposed to noise should be covered by the 1992 guidelines for the prevention of noise hazards.

  8. Is rosuvastatin protective against on noise-induced oxidative stress in rat serum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Rabia Koc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise, one of the main components of modern society, has become an important environmental problem. Noise is not only an irritating sound, but also a stress factor leading to serious health problems. In this study, we have investigated possible effects of rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, thought to have an antioxidant effect, on noise-induced oxidative stress in the serum of rat models. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were used. In order to ease their adaptation, 2 weeks before the experiment, the rats were divided into four groups (with eight rats per each group: Noise exposure plus rosuvastatin usage, only noise exposure, only rosuvastatin usage and control. After the data had been collected, oxidant (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide [NO], protein carbonyl [PC] and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-PX], catalase [CAT] parameters were analyzed in the serum. Results indicated that SOD values were found to be significantly lower, while PC values in serum were remarkably higher in the group that was exposed to only noise. GSH-Px values in serum dramatically increased in the group on which only rosuvastatin was used. During noise exposure, the use of rosuvastatin caused significantly increased CAT values, whereas it resulted in reduced PC and NO values in serum. In conclusion, our data show that noise exposure leads to oxidative stress in rat serum; however, rosuvastatin therapy decreases the oxidative stress caused by noise exposure.

  9. The consequences of noise-induced hearing loss on dairy farm communities in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Karen; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) or noise injury (NI) affects individuals and others of dairy farm communities in New Zealand. Using "grab" or opportunistic sampling at DairyNZ discussion groups and a recreational function, a survey questionnaire was completed by 74 participants from two dairy farming communities in New Zealand. Self-reported hearing difficulties were highlighted by 48% (42) of the 74 participants. The effects of NI on individuals and others included communication difficulties leading to the development of coping strategies, social isolation; decreased employment opportunities, loss of productivity, and increased effort and adjustments by family and work colleagues. Frustration, anxiety, stress, resentment, depression, and fatigue are also negative consequences that may contribute to a loss of quality of life and contribute to further health costs. Increased lateness, absenteeism, sickness and other behavioral aspects were not expressed as normal issues in the workplace, as the majority of the individuals are/were self-employed or working in a family business. This study shows that each year in New Zealand NI results in significant negative social, psychological, and economic consequences for those individuals affected, along with their families, friends, and work colleagues.

  10. Occupational noise-induced tinnitus: does it affect workers' quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Oguztürk, Omer

    2008-02-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the quality of life of workers in a steel factory. The study group was composed of 16 male workers with tinnitus and 30 ears. Fifteen male workers without tinnitus and 30 ears were included into the control group. Workers were evaluated by questionnaire, pure-tone audiometry, and the SF-36 Health Survey. In the study group, tinnitus loudness levels (TLLs) were found. In the study group, the domains general mental health and role limitations owing to emotional problems were significantly lower than in the control group. Older age, industrial noise exposure over a long period, higher noise exposure during work, and hearing loss secondary to occupational noise caused workers to experience higher TLLs. Earheadings protected workers more than earplugs, and TLLs were lower. Important factors that affect workers' quality of life are maximum exposed noise levels, daily and total noise exposure time, and exposure to continuous noise. Occupational noise-induced tinnitus mainly causes emotional disability rather than physical disability. Emotionally impaired QOL results may be due to tinnitus-related psychological problems. Workers should have knowledge about the hazardous effects of noise. Periodic health checkups and regular seminars have great importance. Workers must be aware of other ototoxic factors, such as medications and noisy music. In the future, researchers should develop a screening method to detect those with a more hereditary affinity to hearing loss.

  11. Protective role of hydrogen sulfide against noise-induced cochlear damage: a chronic intracochlear infusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A reduction in cochlear blood flow plays an essential role in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The timely regulation of cochlear perfusion determines the progression and prognosis of NIHL. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has attracted increasing interest as a vasodilator in cardiovascular systems. This study identified the role of H(2S in cochlear blood flow regulation and noise protection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The gene and protein expression of the H(2S synthetase cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE in the rat cochlea was examined using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Cochlear CSE mRNA levels varied according to the duration of noise exposure. A chronic intracochlear infusion model was built and artificial perilymph (AP, NaHS or DL-propargylglycine (PPG were locally administered. Local sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS significantly increased cochlear perfusion post-noise exposure. Cochlear morphological damage and hearing loss were alleviated in the NaHS group as measured by conventional auditory brainstem response (ABR, cochlear scanning electron microscope (SEM and outer hair cell (OHC count. The highest percentage of OHC loss occurred in the PPG group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that H(2S plays an important role in the regulation of cochlear blood flow and the protection against noise. Further studies may identify a new preventive and therapeutic perspective on NIHL and other blood supply-related inner ear diseases.

  12. Noise-induced hearing loss and associated factors among vector control workers in a Malaysian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilamani, Retneswari; Rasib, Abdul; Darus, Azlan; Ting, Anselm Su

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among vector control workers in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted on 181 vector control workers who were working in district health offices in a state in Malaysia. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and audiometry. Prevalence of NIHL was 26% among this group of workers. NIHL was significantly associated with the age-group of 40 years and older, length of service of 10 or more years, current occupational noise exposure, listening to loud music, history of firearms use, and history of mumps/measles infection. Following logistic regression, age of more than 40 years and noise exposure in current occupation were associated with NIHL with an odds ratio of 3.45 (95% confidence interval = 1.68-7.07) and 6.87 (95% confidence interval = 1.54-30.69), respectively, among this group of vector control workers. © 2012 APJPH.

  13. Patterns of patterns of synchronization: Noise induced attractor switching in rings of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emenheiser, Jeffrey [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Chapman, Airlie; Mesbahi, Mehran [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pósfai, Márton [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Crutchfield, James P. [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); D' Souza, Raissa M. [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Following the long-lived qualitative-dynamics tradition of explaining behavior in complex systems via the architecture of their attractors and basins, we investigate the patterns of switching between distinct trajectories in a network of synchronized oscillators. Our system, consisting of nonlinear amplitude-phase oscillators arranged in a ring topology with reactive nearest-neighbor coupling, is simple and connects directly to experimental realizations. We seek to understand how the multiple stable synchronized states connect to each other in state space by applying Gaussian white noise to each of the oscillators' phases. To do this, we first analytically identify a set of locally stable limit cycles at any given coupling strength. For each of these attracting states, we analyze the effect of weak noise via the covariance matrix of deviations around those attractors. We then explore the noise-induced attractor switching behavior via numerical investigations. For a ring of three oscillators, we find that an attractor-switching event is always accompanied by the crossing of two adjacent oscillators' phases. For larger numbers of oscillators, we find that the distribution of times required to stochastically leave a given state falls off exponentially, and we build an attractor switching network out of the destination states as a coarse-grained description of the high-dimensional attractor-basin architecture.

  14. Resistance to antitumor chemotherapy due to bounded-noise-induced transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Alberto; Gandolfi, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is a landmark of solid tumor development, but it is also directly relevant to chemotherapy. Indeed, the density and quality of neovessels may influence the effectiveness of therapies based on blood-born agents. In this paper, first we define a deterministic model of antiproliferative chemotherapy in which the drug efficacy is a unimodal function of vessel density, and then we show that under constant continuous infusion therapy the tumor-vessel system may be multistable. However, the actual drug concentration profiles are affected by bounded even if possibly large fluctuations. Through numerical simulations, we show that the tumor volume may undergo transitions to the higher equilibrium value induced by the bounded noise. In case of periodically delivered boli-based chemotherapy, we model the fluctuations due to time variability of both the drug clearance rate and the distribution volume, as well as those due to irregularities in drug delivery. We observed noise-induced transitions also in case of periodic delivering. By applying a time dense scheduling with constant average delivered drug (metronomic scheduling), we observed an easier suppression of the transitions. Finally, we propose to interpret the above phenomena as an unexpected non-genetic kind of resistance to chemotherapy.

  15. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren; Sha, Su-Hua

    2016-07-13

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/367497-14$15.00/0.

  16. A retrospective analysis of noise-induced hearing loss in the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, M. C. J.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.; Dreschler, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Noise exposure is an important and highly prevalent occupational hazard in the construction industry. This study examines hearing threshold levels of a large population of Dutch construction workers and compares their hearing thresholds to those predicted by ISO-1999. Methods In this

  17. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  18. Noise-induced phase space transport in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelov, I.V.; Kandrup, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    First passage time experiments were used to explore the effects of low amplitude noise as a source of accelerated phase space diffusion in two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, and these effects were then compared with the effects of periodic driving. The objective was to quantify and understand the manner in which open-quotes stickyclose quotes chaotic orbits that, in the absence of perturbations, are confined near regular islands for very long times, can become open-quotes unstuckclose quotes much more quickly when subjected to even very weak perturbations. For both noise and periodic driving, the typical escape time scales logarithmically with the amplitude of the perturbation. For white noise, the details seem unimportant: Additive and multiplicative noise typically have very similar effects, and the presence or absence of a friction related to the noise by a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also largely irrelevant. Allowing for colored noise can significantly decrease the efficacy of the perturbation, but only when the autocorrelation time, which vanishes for white noise, becomes so large that there is little power at frequencies comparable to the natural frequencies of the unperturbed orbit. Similarly, periodic driving is relatively inefficient when the driving frequency is not comparable to these natural frequencies. This suggests that noise-induced extrinsic diffusion, like modulational diffusion associated with periodic driving, is a resonance phenomenon. The logarithmic dependence of the escape time on amplitude reflects the fact that the time required for perturbed and unperturbed orbits to diverge a given distance scales logarithmically in the amplitude of the perturbation. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. Lightning-Discharge Initiation as a Noise-Induced Kinetic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, D. I.

    2017-10-01

    The electric fields observed in thunderclouds have the peak values one order of magnitude smaller than the electric strength of air. This fact renders the issue of the lightning-discharge initiation one of the most intriguing problems of thunderstorm electricity. In this work, the lightning initiation in a thundercloud is considered as a noise-induced kinetic transition. The stochastic electric field of the charged hydrometeors is the noise source. The considered kinetic transition has some features which distinguish it from other lightning-initiation mechanisms. First, the dynamic realization of this transition, which is due to interaction of the electron and ion components, is extended for a time significantly exceeding the spark-discharge development time. In this case, the fast attachment of electrons generated by supercritical bursts of the electric field of hydrometeors is balanced during long-term time intervals by the electron-release processes when the negative ions are destroyed. Second, an important role in the transition kinetics is played by the stochastic drift of electrons and ions caused by the small-scale fluctuations of the field of charged hydrometeors. From the formal mathematical viewpoint, this stochastic drift is indistinguishable from the scalar-impurity advection in a turbulent flow. In this work, it is shown that the efficiency of "advective mixing" is several orders of magnitude greater than that of the ordinary diffusion. Third, the considered transition leads to a sharp increase in the conductivity in the exponentially rare compact regions of space against the background of the vanishingly small variations in the average conductivity of the medium. In turn, the spots with increased conductivity are polarized in the mean field followed by the streamer initiation and discharge contraction.

  20. Predictive factors of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Spanish workers: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrin, Armando Carballo; Canuet, Leonides; Rodríguez, Ángeles Arias; Morales, Maria Pilar Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main factors associated with objective noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), as indicated by abnormal audiometric testing, in Spanish workers exposed to occupational noise in the construction industry. We carried out a prospective study in Tenerife, Spain, using 150 employees exposed to occupational noise and 150 age-matched controls who were not working in noisy environments. The variables analyzed included sociodemographic data, noise-related factors, types of hearing protection, self-report hearing loss, and auditory-related symptoms (e.g., tinnitus, vertigo). Workers with pathological audiograms had significantly longer noise-exposure duration (16.2 ± 11.4 years) relative to those with normal audiograms (10.2 ± 7.0 years; t = 3.99, P hearing protection measures had audiometric abnormalities (94.1%). Additionally, workers using at least one of the protection devices (earplugs or earmuffs) had significantly more audiometric abnormalities than those using both protection measures simultaneously (Chi square = 16.07; P hearing protection measures [odds ratio (OR) = 12.30, confidence interval (CI) = 4.36-13.81, P hearing protection measures, in particular earplugs and earmuffs, associates with a lower rate of audiometric abnormalities in subjects with high occupational noise exposure. The use of hearing protection measures at work and noise-exposure duration are best predictive factors of NIHL. Auditory-related symptoms and self-report hearing loss do not represent good indicators of objective NIHL. Routine monitoring of noise levels and hearing status are of great importance as part of effective hearing conservation programs.

  1. Noise-induced hearing loss and combined noise and vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, A; Girard, S A; Courteau, M; Baril, J; Larocque, R

    2015-04-01

    While there is a wide body of literature addressing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) independently, relatively few studies have considered the combined effects of noise and vibration. These studies have suggested an increased risk of NIHL in workers with vibration white finger (VWF), though the relationship remains poorly understood. To determine whether hearing impairment is worse in noise-exposed workers with VWF than in workers with similar noise exposures but without VWF. The Quebec National Institute of Public Health audiometric database was used in conjunction with work-related accident and occupational diseases data from the Quebec workers' compensation board to analyse differences in audiometry results between vibration-exposed workers in the mining and forestry industries and the overall source population, and between mining and forestry workers with documented VWF and those without VWF. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7029 standards were used to calculate hearing loss not attributable to age. 15751 vibration-exposed workers were identified in an overall source population of 59339. Workers with VWF (n = 96) had significantly worse hearing at every frequency studied (500, 1000, 2000 4000 Hz) compared with other mining and forestry workers without VWF. This study confirms previous findings of greater hearing loss at higher frequencies in workers with VWF, but also found a significant difference in hearing loss at low frequencies. It therefore supports the association between combined noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure and NIHL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effect of occupational noise-induced sleep disturbance on worker's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In addition to the noise, sleep disturbance (SD as an outcome of the exposure to the wind turbine noises (WTNs can adversely affect general health. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SD induced from WTNs on general health indicators. Materials and Methods: A total number of fifty tree workers from Manjil wind farm voluntarily participated in this study. Based on the job similarity and vicinity to the sound sources, workers were classified into three occupational groups including repairman, security, and official staff. Individual's health and sleep status were gathered using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scales, respectively. Noise was measured based on ISO 9612. ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the SPSS 20 software environment. Results: The mean values of 8-h equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq, 8 h among whole workers was 71 ± 10 dB (A. The averages of somatic symptom, anxiety insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and general health among the participants were 5 ± 2.44, 7 ± 2.35, 11 ± 2.65, 2 ± 1.54, 22 ± 6.53, and 7.3 ± 3.1, respectively. According to the results, SD and noise exposure had an adverse health effect on physical symptoms, depression, and overall general health of participants. Moreover, SD and work experience were effective factors on anxiety-insomnia. SD had greatest effect on general health when all variables are controlled, so that general health will increase by 2.42 units for each unit increase of SD. Conclusion: We found that in addition to the sound effect, noise-induced SD also affects worker's health and strengthen sound effects on human well-being.

  3. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  4. Utility of otoacoustic emissions and olivocochlear reflex in predicting vulnerability to noise-induced inner ear damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarantis Blioskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the possible utility of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs and efferent system strength to determine vulnerability to noise exposure in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 344 volunteers who had just begun mandatory basic training as Hellenic Corps Officers Military Academy cadets. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained on both ears. Participants were also subjected to diagnostic transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs. Finally, they were all tested for efferent function through the suppression of TEOAEs with contralateral noise. Following baseline evaluation, all cadets fired 10 rounds using a 7.62 mm Heckler & Koch G3A3 assault rifle while lying down in prone position. Immediately after exposure to gunfire noise and no later than 10 h, all participants completed an identical protocol for a second time, which was then repeated a third time, 30 days later. Results: The data showed that after the firing drill, 280 participants suffered a temporary threshold shift (TTS (468 ears, while in the third evaluation conducted 30 days after exposure, 142 of these ears still presented a threshold shift compared to the baseline evaluation [permanent threshold shift (PTS ears]. A receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that OAEs amplitude is predictive of future TTS and PTS. The results were slightly different for the suppression of OAEs showing only a slight trend toward significance. The curves were used to determine cut points to evaluate the likelihood of TTS/PTS for OAEs amplitude in the baseline evaluation. Decision limits yielding 71.6% sensitivity were 12.45 dB SPL with 63.8% specificity for PTS, and 50% sensitivity were 12.35 dB SPL with 68.2% specificity for TTS. Conclusions: Interestingly, the above data yielded tentative evidence to suggest that OAEs amplitude is both sensitive and specific enough to efficiently identify participants who are

  5. Noise-induced hearing loss - An examination of the methods of assessment in a cross-sectional study of 87 industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Mulheran, M; Brewster, M; Banerjee, A R

    2018-04-01

    The surveillance of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) according to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) differs from the medico-legal criteria used to assess NIHL. Our study compares the two systems and proposes a novel method of simplifying the medico-legal criteria and applying it to ascertain noise-induced hearing loss. The anonymised audiograms of a group of 87 industrial workers from a single site were analysed with both methods. The comparison showed approximately one-third of the workers assessed in this study had their noise-induced hearing loss underestimated by the HSE criteria. The majority of these individuals were over 40 years of age. The HSE criteria for noise-induced hearing loss need review and re-alignment with the medico-legal criteria to address the discrepancy between the two systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Occupationally-acquired noise-induced hearing loss: a senseless workplace hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmis, Andrew P; Apps, Stacey A

    2007-01-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL) describes an acquired hearing deficiency directly attributable to excessive workplace noise exposure. Data suggest that excessive noise attributes to approximately 37% of all adult causes of hearing loss and remains a significant contributor to employment-related morbidity internationally. Typically insidiously-acquired, often without frank progressive symptomatology, regional medical agencies continue to struggle with this potentially debilitating condition. The aim of the study was to provide a synopsis of the current understanding of ONIHL, its impact on individual workers and the wider international community, and to identify barriers to more uniform adoption of personal hearing protection. A review of the contemporary literature was performed using defined keyword searches and OVID, PubMed, and Google Scholar as primary electronic search engines. A number of published works were identified, describing aspects of the relationship between workplace-related noise exposure and subsequent development of employee hearing impairment, which demonstrate an overwhelming gender imbalance, with up to 97% of affected individuals being male. Industry-specific associations (e.g., mining, manufacturing and heavy construction) were well documented, as were links to toxin-specific exposures, in the recognized development of hearing loss. However, evidence of integration of appraisal of the topically-current area of genetic susceptibility was often lacking. Much discordance still exists among international agencies in the prescriptive regulation and enforcement of "safe" exposure limits. Despite a high level of public awareness regarding the importance of hearing preservation and increasingly stringent international occupational health, safety and welfare requirements mandating provision of safer work environments, ONIHL continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for

  7. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... injunction: (1) Does not prejudice the rights of the parties or the child which are to be adjudicated at... temporary maintenance or temporary support of a child of the marriage entitled to support. The motion shall... the peace of the other party or of any child; (3) Excluding a party from the family home or from the...

  8. The Antioxidant Effect of Rosmarinic Acid by Different Delivery Routes in the Animal Model of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna R; Eramo, Sara Letizia Maria; Di Pino, Antonella; Rolesi, Rolando; Paciello, Fabiola; Grassi, Claudio; Troiani, Diana; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2018-03-01

    Trans-tympanic Rosmarinic Acid (RA), as compared with the systemic administration, protects against noise-induced auditory hair cell and hearing losses in rats in vivo. ROS production, lipoperoxidative damage, and an imbalance of antioxidant defences play a significant role in noise-induced hearing loss. Several molecules with antioxidant properties have been tested to restore redox homeostasis; however, drug delivery system represents a challenge for their effectiveness. In our model, acute and intense noise exposure induces hearing loss, hair cell death, and oxidative stress, with an increase in superoxide production and over-expression of lipid peroxidation in cochlear structures. RA was administrated in male Wistar rats by trans-tympanic (20 μl) and systemic (10 mg/kg) modality. In systemic administration, RA was injected 1 hour before noise exposure and once daily for the following 3 days. ABRs were measured before and at days 1, 3, 7, and 30 after noise exposure. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining, dihydroethidium and 8-isoprostane immunostainings were performed to assess and quantify outer hair cells loss, superoxide production, and lipid peroxidation in the different experimental groups. Systemic RA administration significantly decreased noise-induced hearing loss and the improvement of auditory function was paralleled by a significant reduction in cochlear oxidative stress. The trans-tympanic modality of drug administration showed a similar degree of protection both at the functional and morphological levels. The effectiveness of RA given via trans-tympanic injection could be interesting for the future application of this minimally-invasive procedure in the treatment of ROS-induced hearing loss.

  9. Effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in neural media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of possible effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in a two-dimensional network of excitable neural media with FitzHugh-Nagumo local dynamics. Small-world networks are characterized by a given fraction of so-called long-range couplings or shortcut links that connect distant units of the system, while all other units are coupled in a diffusive-like manner. Interestingly, already a small fraction of these long-range couplings can have wide-ranging effects on the temporal as well as spatial noise-induced dynamics of the system. Here we present two main effects. First, we show that the temporal order, characterized by the autocorrelation of a firing-rate function, can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of small-world connectivity, whereby the effect increases with the increasing fraction of introduced shortcut links. Second, we show that the introduction of long-range couplings induces disorder of otherwise ordered, spiral-wave-like, noise-induced patterns that can be observed by exclusive diffusive connectivity of spatial units. Thereby, already a small fraction of shortcut links is sufficient to destroy coherent pattern formation in the media. Although the two results seem contradictive, we provide an explanation considering the inherent scale-free nature of small-world networks, which on one hand, facilitates signal transduction and thus temporal order in the system, whilst on the other hand, disrupts the internal spatial scale of the media thereby hindering the existence of coherent wave-like patterns. Additionally, the importance of spatially versus temporally ordered neural network functioning is discussed

  10. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of noise-induced acoustic habitat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jennifer Beissinger

    negative physiological consequences, and that populations have adapted over short timescales to minimize the detrimental impacts of this novel pressure. Finally, I present results from a field acoustic playback experiment that show that noise from the invasive Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis ) differentially affects the vocal behavior of native anurans, with those with more similar calls being disproportionally more affected. Green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) shortened their calls, called louder, and maintained call spacing (e.g. continued actively calling) during noise stimuli whereas pine woods treefrogs (H. femoralis) did not modify vocal behavior in response to any noise stimuli. Collectively, the results of these investigations (1) provide insight into the extent of noise-induced acoustic habitat loss in space and time, (2) reveal fitness-relevant individual- and population-level consequences of this form of habitat loss, and (3) show resiliency within ecological systems through the individual- and population-level responses to this novel pressure over short time-scales. These findings advance the field by illustrating how the spatiotemporal extent of anthropogenic noise impacts important ecological processes, and by demonstrating the resiliency of some species in responding rapidly to novel pressures.

  11. Phase 3 Clinical Trials: D-Methionine to Reduce Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    tympanometry, and pure-tone hearing threshold testing at .5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 kHz bilaterally. Tinnitus will be measured using standardized ...chemistry, and urinalysis ) on all study participants. The purpose of these recommendations were 1) to exclude participants with mild renal impairment until...analysis and urinalysis for the study participants to the study protocol. Therefore, during the third quarter, no additions were made to the original

  12. A simple parameter can switch between different weak-noise-induced phenomena in a simple neuron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakou, Marius E.; Jost, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, several, apparently quite different, weak-noise-induced resonance phenomena have been discovered. Here, we show that at least two of them, self-induced stochastic resonance (SISR) and inverse stochastic resonance (ISR), can be related by a simple parameter switch in one of the simplest models, the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model. We consider a FHN model with a unique fixed point perturbed by synaptic noise. Depending on the stability of this fixed point and whether it is located to either the left or right of the fold point of the critical manifold, two distinct weak-noise-induced phenomena, either SISR or ISR, may emerge. SISR is more robust to parametric perturbations than ISR, and the coherent spike train generated by SISR is more robust than that generated deterministically. ISR also depends on the location of initial conditions and on the time-scale separation parameter of the model equation. Our results could also explain why real biological neurons having similar physiological features and synaptic inputs may encode very different information.

  13. Economic Impact of Hearing Loss and Reduction of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L; Swinburn, Tracy K; Hammer, Monica S; Eisenberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is pervasive and debilitating, and noise-induced HL is preventable by reducing environmental noise. Lack of economic analyses of HL impacts means that prevention and treatment remain a low priority for public health and environmental investment. This article estimates the costs of HL on productivity by building on established estimates for HL prevalence and wage and employment differentials between those with and without HL. We estimate that HL affects more than 13% of the working population. Not all HL can be prevented or treated, but if the 20% of HL resulting from excessive noise exposure were prevented, the economic benefit would be substantial-we estimate a range of $58 billion to $152 billion annually, with a core estimate of $123 billion. We believe this is a conservative estimate, because consideration of additional costs of HL, including health care and special education, would likely further increase the benefits associated with HL prevention. HL is costly and warrants additional emphasis in public and environmental health programs. This study represents an important first step in valuing HL prevention-in particular, prevention of noise-induced HL-where new policies and technologies appear promising.

  14. Comparison of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Tests Findings in Noise Induced Hearing Loss-Affected and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinoosh Fakharnia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Balance disturbance is one of the non-auditory effects of noisy industrial environments that is usually neglected. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise on vestibular system among workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, based on both vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP and caloric tests.Methods: Thirty male workers with noise-induced hearing loss and thirty male matched controls were examined by VEMP and caloric tests. Study parameters included unilateral weakness, p13 and n23 latencies, and p13-n23 amplitude. Caloric test was performed only for 20 patients.Results: No significant difference was observed in unilateral weakness between the two groups. On the other hand, the difference in mean latencies of p13 in the right ear (p=0.003 and left ear (p=0.01 was significant between the two groups. However, the difference in n23 latency was significant only in the right ear (p=0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in p13-n23 amplitude.Conclusion: It seems that pars inferior of vestibule is the susceptible part in individuals with NIHL. In general, abnormal findings in both VEMP and caloric tests were more common compared to functional symptoms such as vertigo, which may be due to central compensation and the symmetry of the disorder.

  15. [A cohort study on occupational noise induced hearing loss in workers at an iron and steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S F; Chen, G S; Jiao, J; Gu, G Z; Zhang, H L; Wang, X M; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Li, Y H; Zheng, Y X

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To analyze the incidence rate of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in noise-exposed workers in an iron and steel plant from 2006 to 2015. Methods: Using a cohort study method, workers exposed to occupational noise from Jan 1, 2006 to Dec 12, 2015 were followed up and the pure tone hearing test was conducted. In total, 6 297 subjects completed two or more physical checks and the pure tone hearing test and were included in the analysis. The noise exposure level at the workplace and the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level for workers was monitored and the cumulative noise exposure dose was evaluated. The subjects were divided into low, middle and high exposure groups according to the noise exposure level, and the equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level for 8 hours for each group was 80.6-85.0, 85.1-90.0 and 90.1-103.4 dB (A), respectively. While the RR and 95% CI were derived from unconditional logistic regression models. In logistic regression analysis, confounding factors such as age, gender, smoking habit, drinking habit, high temperature exposure and chemical hazards exposure level were controlled. Results: During the follow-up period, 392 cases of occupational noise-induced hearing loss were diagnosed among the 6 297 subjects, with an incidence rate of 6.23%; 318 cases of high-frequency hearing loss were diagnosed, with an incidence rate of 5.05%; and 74 cases of occupational noise-induced deafness were diagnosed, with an incidence rate of 1.18% . The incidence rates of hearing loss among the high, medium and low exposure groups were 9.22% (158/1 737), 6.49% (204/3 142) and 2.08% (30/1 442), respectively; the rates of high-frequency hearing loss were 7.41% (127/1 737), 5.25% (165/3 142) and 1.80% (26/1 442), respectively; and the rates of occupational noise-induced deafness were 1.81% (31/1 737), 1.24% (39/3 142) and 0.28% (4/1 442), respectively. For the groups corresponding to cumulative noise exposure doses of

  16. Noise-induced hearing loss among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of malaysia: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmad Filza; Daud, Aziah; Ismail, Zaliha; Abdullah, Baharudin

    2013-09-01

    Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six quarries in a north-eastern state of Malaysia, with 97 consented respondents who answered a validated version of a questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiogram. The respondents were male, aged between 18 to 50 years, working in the quarry area for at least 6-months duration with no family history of ear diseases. The mean percentage scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 44 (11), 70 (10) and 28 (16) percent, respectively. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was found to be 57 (95% CI: 47, 67) with 46 (84%) having mild and moderate noise-induced hearing loss, and 34 (62%) involved both ears. Multiple logistic regressions showed that age and practice score were the associated factors with odd ratios of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; phearing loss was contributed by factors such as poor practice and old age.

  17. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  18. The temporary international collective chronicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, Yu.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The temporary international collective brief history is presented from the time of its establishment in 1972 (and even earlier) till the termination of its activity in 1990 (and even later). Works in the temporary international collective framework demonstrate an example of successful cooperation of specialists from different countries in the field of calculation-theoretical and experimental research on the WWER reactor physics. The results of experimental and calculation studies were reported to the topical meetings, workshops, conferences, and symposia as well as were published in the temporary international collective reports and proceedings. The answers to the questions about the temporary international collective activity-What? Where? When?-are presented in this chronicle (Authors)

  19. Temporary storage area characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The preferred alternative identified in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Weldon Spring Quarry Bulk Wastes is to remove the wastes from the quarry and transport them by truck to temporary storage facility at the chemical plant site. To support the RI/FS, this report provides data to characterize the temporary storage area (TSA) site and to ensure the suitability of the proposed location. 31 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Raynaud′s phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Pettersson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raynaud′s phenomenon is characterized by constriction in blood supply to the fingers causing finger blanching, of white fingers (WF and is triggered by cold. Earlier studies found that workers using vibrating hand-held tools and who had vibration-induced white fingers (VWF had an increased risk for hearing loss compared with workers without VWF. This study examined the occurrence of Raynaud′s phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure. All 342 participants had a confirmed noise-induced hearing loss medico legally accepted as work-related by AFA Insurance. Each subject answered a questionnaire concerning their health status and the kinds of exposures they had at the time when their hearing loss was first discovered. The questionnaire covered types of exposures, discomforts in the hands or fingers, diseases and medications affecting the blood circulation, the use of alcohol and tobacco and for women, the use of hormones and whether they had been pregnant. The participation rate was 41% (n = 133 with 38% (n = 94 for men and 50% (n = 39 for women. 84 men and 36 women specified if they had Raynaud′s phenomenon and also if they had used hand-held vibrating machines. Nearly 41% of them had used hand-held vibrating machines and 18% had used vibrating machines at least 2 h each workday. There were 23 men/6 women with Raynaud′s phenomenon. 37% reported WF among those participants who were exposed to hand-arm vibration (HAV and 15% among those not exposed to HAV. Among the participants with hearing loss with daily use of vibrating hand-held tools more than twice as many reports WF compared with participants that did not use vibrating hand-held tools. This could be interpreted as Raynaud′s phenomenon could be associated with an increased risk for noise-induced hearing loss. However, the low participation rate limits the generalization of the results from this study.

  1. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but temporary...

  2. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager or...

  3. The Effect of PCDH15 Gene Variations on the Risk of Noise-induced Hearing Loss in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang Rong; Wang, Jing Jing; Yang, Qiu Yue; Jiao, Jie; He, Li Hua; Yu, Shan Fa; Gu, Gui Zhen; Chen, Guo Shun; Zhou, Wen Hui; Wu, Hui; Li, Yan Hong; Zhang, Huan Ling; Zhang, Zeng Rui; Jin, Xian Ning

    2017-02-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a complex disease caused by interactions between environmental and genetic factors. This study investigated whether genetic variability in protocadherin related 15 (PCDH15) underlies an increased susceptibility to the development of NIHL in a Chinese population. The results showed that compared with the TT genotype of rs11004085, CT/CC genotypes were associated with an increased risk of NIHL [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-6.11, P = 0.024]. Additionally, significant interactions between the rs11004085 and rs978842 genetic variations and noise exposure were observed in the high-level exposure groups (P variations in PCDH15 modify the susceptibility to NIHL development in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Opioid receptor subtypes mediating the noise-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H; Carino, M A

    1992-07-01

    Acute (20 min) exposure to 100-dB white noise elicits a naltrexone-sensitive decrease in sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. In the present study, the subtypes of opioid receptors involved were investigated by pretreating rats with microinjection of specific opioid-receptor antagonists into the lateral cerebroventricle before noise exposure. We found that the noise-induced decrease in high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus was blocked by pretreatment with either mu-, delta-, or kappa-opioid-receptor antagonists, whereas the effect of noise on frontal cortical high-affinity choline uptake was blocked by a mu- and delta- but not by a kappa-antagonist. These data further confirm the role of endogenous opioids in mediating the effects of noise on central cholinergic activity and indicate that different neural mechanisms are involved in the effects of noise on the frontal cortical and hippocampal cholinergic systems.

  5. Calculation of the neutron noise induced by periodic deformations of a large sodium-cooled fast reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylbersztejn, F.; Tran, H.N.; Pazsit, I.; Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the calculation of the neutron noise induced by small-amplitude stationary radial variations of the core size (core expansion/compaction, also called core flowering) of a large sodium-cooled fast reactor. The calculations were performed on a realistic model of the European Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) core with a thermal output of 3600 MW(thermal), using a multigroup neutron noise simulator. The multigroup cross sections and their fluctuations that represent the core geometry changes for the neutron noise calculations were generated by the code ERANOS. The space and energy dependences of the noise source represented by the core expansion/compaction and the induced neutron noise are calculated and discussed. (authors)

  6. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  7. Molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of hydrogen-saturated saline on noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Han, Mingkun; Lu, Yan; Chen, Daishi; Sun, Xuejun; Yang, Shiming; Sun, Wei; Yu, Ning; Zhai, Suoqiang

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of the protective effects of hydrogen-saturated saline on NIHL. Guinea pigs were divided into three groups: hydrogen-saturated saline; normal saline; and control. For saline administration, the guinea pigs were given daily abdominal injections 3 d before and 1 h before noise exposure. ABR were tested to examine cochlear physiology changes. The changes of 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-HOdG), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) in the cochlea were also examined. The results showed that pre-treatment with hydrogen-saturated saline could significantly attenuate noise-induced hearing loss. The concentration of 8-HOdG was also significantly decreased in the hydrogen-saturated saline group compared with the normal saline group. After noise exposure, the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and ICAM-1 in the cochlea of guinea pigs in the hydrogen-saturated saline group were dramatically reduced compared to those in the normal saline group. The concentrations of HMGB-1 and IL-10 in the hydrogen-saturated saline group were significantly higher than in those in the normal saline group immediately and at 7 d after noise exposure. This study revealed for the first time the protective effects of hydrogen-saturated saline on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are related to both the anti-oxidative activity and anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Compensation claims for occupational noise induced hearing loss between 1998 and 2008: yearly incidence rates and trends in older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Samia; Benke, Geza; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Sim, Malcolm

    2016-04-01

    To estimate yearly incidence rates for occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) claims and to describe occupational factors in relation to age for incident cases in Victoria, Australia, between 1998 and 2008. All compensation claims lodged for deafness between 1 July 1998 and 30 June 2008 in the working population covered by the Victorian compensation scheme were analysed. Denominators were provided from 1999-2000 and incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 workers for each financial year. Overall, 81.2% of the 4,518 claims lodged were accepted. Successful claimants were predominantly males (96.5%) and claimants aged 56 to 65 years formed half the overall claims. The number of accepted claims was almost five times higher in 2007-08 than 1998-99. The highest rise was in claimants aged 56 years and above, particularly in those after retirement age. The number of claims and yearly incidence rates (IR) more than doubled over the period (240 claims and IR of 15.1 per 100,000 workers in 1999-2000 versus 669 claims and IR of 34.2 in 2007-08) with a sharp increase from 2004-05 to almost double within one single year and remained at high levels afterwards. The dramatic increase in eligible claims may reflect an increase in awareness of entitlements among workers eligible to make a successful claim. This awareness may be the result of increased opportunities for screening coinciding with changes in regulations. Older workers who worked in smaller workplaces may also be targeted by services providers as they combine occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) and presbycusis (hearing loss due to age), but this hypothesis needs further evaluation. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. A temporary index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Jon; Craighead, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing management of low, intermediate and high-level nuclear waste is an unresolved issue for humanity, not least because the time-frames in question when dealing with the hazards of radioactive wastes, range from as little as a few tens of years to more than 100 000 years. It is from this starting point that we are beginning the development of an ambitious multifaceted artwork aiming to help us consider our relationship with deep-time and our nuclear legacy. The expressed aim of Temporary Index is to raise general awareness about these long-term management issues, and in doing so, to embed this knowledge into our collective cultural memory so as to transmit useful information about our nuclear waste into the future. We wish to create a series of decorative, real-time numeric counters based on the probabilistic decay (including decay of daughter products) of existing nuclear waste that we identify from the earliest weapons' development programmes in the United States right through to contemporary wastes being produced by nuclear energy production today across the world. Each display will countdown in seconds, showing the time remaining before the given item of waste (or a particular site) is considered safe to humans. A hypothetical example of one counter could be a bottle of sludge containing plutonium discovered in 2004 during an attempted clean-up of the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, United States. Another example might be the geological storage facility for vitrified nuclear waste at Horonobe in Japan, should it be established in the future. Accident sites, such as Chernobyl or Fukushima Daiichi could also be tagged with counters, as could low-level waste (LLW) repositories such as the one at Drigg near Sellafield in the United Kingdom. Whatever the items identified and this will be a complex process requiring collaboration with experts in the field, it is important that a wide range of short- and long-term counters are established to

  10. Adaptation to Cortical Noise Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Occipital Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heslip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is increasingly used as a method to modify and study functional brain activity. However, results from various studies have produced conflicting theories on how TMS of cortical tissue influences ongoing visual processing. To investigate this issue, single pulse TMS was applied over left V1 in five healthy subjects during an orientation discrimination task (vertical vs. horizontal using a Gabor patch (2 c/deg, presented 6° in the right visual field. Stimulus contrast was set to each individual's threshold, measured in the absence of TMS. When TMS was applied over V1 performance decreased in all observers (by 1.2–8.7% compared to accuracy levels obtained during stimulation of a control site (Cz. Crucially, accuracy levels during V1 stimulation gradually improved across blocks of 200 trials in some subjects, whereas performance remained stable during control site stimulation. In contrast, this pattern of recovery was not found in an analogous backward masking paradigm, using a brief visual noise mask instead of a TMS pulse. These results show that that the magnitude of TMS disruption can dissipate with repeated stimulation. This suggests that future studies using this technique should minimise the length of TMS exposure within each session to maximise its effectiveness. Our results show that the visual system can adapt dynamically to increased internal noise levels, minimising the impact of TMS induced cortical activity on sensory judgments.

  11. Connecting Temporary and Permanent Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...

  12. Noise-induced hearing loss induces loudness intolerance in a rat Active Sound Avoidance Paradigm (ASAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Senthilvelan; Spoth, Jaclyn; Radziwon, Kelly; Auerbach, Benjamin D; Salvi, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Hyperacusis is a loudness hypersensitivity disorder in which moderate-intensity sounds are perceived as extremely loud, aversive and/or painful. To assess the aversive nature of sounds, we developed an Active Sound Avoidance Paradigm (ASAP) in which rats altered their place preference in a Light/Dark shuttle box in response to sound. When no sound (NS) was present, rats spent more than 95% of the time in the Dark Box versus the transparent Light Box. However, when a 60 or 90 dB SPL noise (2-20 kHz, 2-8 kHz, or 16-20 kHz bandwidth) was presented in the Dark Box, the rats'' preference for the Dark Box significantly decreased. Percent time in the dark decreased as sound intensity in the Dark Box increased from 60 dB to 90 dB SPL. Interestingly, the magnitude of the decrease was not a monotonic function of intensity for the 16-20 kHz noise and not related to the bandwidth of the 2-20 kHz and 2-8 kHz noise bands, suggesting that sound avoidance is not solely dependent on loudness but the aversive quality of the noise as well. Afterwards, we exposed the rats for 28 days to a 16-20 kHz noise at 102 dB SPL; this exposure produced a 30-40 dB permanent threshold shift at 16 and 32 kHz. Following the noise exposure, the rats were then retested on the ASAP paradigm. High-frequency hearing loss did not alter Dark Box preference in the no-sound condition. However, when the 2-20 kHz or 2-8 kHz noise was presented at 60 or 90 dB SPL, the rats avoided the Dark Box significantly more than they did before the exposure, indicating these two noise bands with energy below the region of hearing loss were perceived as more aversive. In contrast, when the 16-20 kHz noise was presented at 60 or 90 dB SPL, the rats remained in the Dark Box presumably because the high-frequency hearing loss made 16-20 kHz noise less audible and less aversive. These results indicate that when rats develop a high-frequency hearing loss, they become less tolerant of low frequency noise, i

  13. Morbidity of temporary loop ileostomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakx, R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Bemelman, W. A.; Veldink, G. J.; Slors, J. F. M.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: A temporary loop ileostomy is constructed to protect a distal colonic anastomosis. Closure is usually performed not earlier than 8 - 12 weeks after the primary operation. During this period, stoma-related complications can occur and enhance the adverse effect on quality of life. The

  14. Temporary employment and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Joensuu, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi

    2005-06-01

    We aimed to review evidence on the relationship between temporary employment and health, and to see whether the association is dependent on outcome measure, instability of employment, and contextual factors. We systematically searched for studies of temporary employment and various health outcomes and critically appraised 27 studies. The review suggests higher psychological morbidity among temporary workers compared with permanent employees. According to some studies, temporary workers also have a higher risk of occupational injuries but their sickness absence is lower. Morbidity may be higher in temporary jobs with high employment instability and in countries with a lower number of temporary workers and unemployed workers. The evidence indicates an association between temporary employment and psychological morbidity. The health risk may depend on instability of temporary employment and the context. Confounding by occupation may have biased some of the studies. Additional research to clarify the role of employment instability, hazard accumulation, and selection is recommended.

  15. Employment protection and temporary work agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Florian; Mechtel, Mario; Stähler, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Employers who use temporary agency staff in contrast to regular staff are not affected by employment protection regulations when terminating a job. Therefore, services provided by temporary work agencies may be seen as a substitute for regular employment. In this paper, we analyze the effects of employment protection on the size of the temporary work agency sector in a model of equilibrium unemployment. We find that higher firing costs may even reduce temporary work agency employment if agenc...

  16. Noise-induced hearing loss in agriculture: Creating partnerships to overcome barriers and educate the community on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Ehlers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a common and preventable injury for farmers. Farmers are frequently exposed to excessive noise, ranking among the top three occupations and industries with the highest risk for hearing loss. Use of hearing protection among farmers is not common. Although the age when NIHL begins among farmers is unknown, its prevalence is higher among male adolescents who live and work on farms. The purpose of this paper is to describe how NIOSH created partnerships to promote hearing conservation for this hard-to-reach population. Partnerships included organizations and individuals who were trusted sources of information for the target population, young farmers 14-35 years of age and their families, and those who had linkages in rural communities. NIOSH engaged partners through exhibits and train-the-trainer workshops at state or national conventions. NIOSH workshops included basic information on NIHL as well as information on free or low-lost resources that participants could use in training others at schools and community events. People with hearing conservation expertise have an important role and many opportunities to improve the knowledge and implementation of hearing conservation among those in agriculture.

  17. Loss of Myh14 Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in CBA/CaJ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MYH14 is a member of the myosin family, which has been implicated in many motile processes such as ion-channel gating, organelle translocation, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement. Mutations in MYH14 lead to a DFNA4-type hearing impairment. Further evidence also shows that MYH14 is a candidate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL susceptible gene. However, the specific roles of MYH14 in auditory function and NIHL are not fully understood. In the present study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a Myh14 knockout mice line in CBA/CaJ background (now referred to as Myh14−/− mice and clarify the role of MYH14 in the cochlea and NIHL. We found that Myh14−/− mice did not exhibit significant hearing loss until five months of age. In addition, Myh14−/− mice were more vulnerable to high intensity noise compared to control mice. More significant outer hair cell loss was observed in Myh14−/− mice than in wild type controls after acoustic trauma. Our findings suggest that Myh14 may play a beneficial role in the protection of the cochlea after acoustic overstimulation in CBA/CaJ mice.

  18. The use of hearing protection devices with approach risk perception of noise induced hearing loss in several manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Fouladi Deahghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Noise is a widespread physical agent and although is a most risk factors in workplaces that workers of health to exposed. Thus, different actions is done for reduce exposure to it in work places, which one of them is use of hearing protection devices. The use of hearing protection devices with approach risk perception of noise induced hearing loss in several manufacturing industry Method: This study was Cross-sectional study and done in five industrial unit with a sound pressure level more of 85 dB-A with the participation of 340 workers. To collect data , individual risk perception and self-investigator questionnaires were used. After collecting data, statistical analysis including Cronbach's alpha and regression were used to analyze the data. Results : Range use of hearing protection devices during shifts work by workers, respectively equal to: 50.4% sometimes, 31.58% never and 18.2% at all times. Also, results indicate significant differences between individual differences and hearing protection devices. Conclusion : Results of this study showed that individual risk perception as an important factor, can do a significant role in predicting the behavior of personals in the use of hearing protection devices, which should be considered in any design and implementation of hearing protection program.

  19. A Method for Calculating the Area of Zostera marina Leaves from Digital Images with Noise Induced by Humidity Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Leal-Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological importance of eelgrass, nowadays anthropogenic influences have produced deleterious effects in many meadows worldwide. Transplantation plots are commonly used as a feasible remediation scheme. The characterization of eelgrass biomass and its dynamics is an important input for the assessment of the overall status of both natural and transplanted populations. Particularly, in restoration plots it is desirable to obtain nondestructive assessments of these variables. Allometric models allow the expression of above ground biomass and productivity of eelgrass in terms of leaf area, which provides cost effective and nondestructive assessments. Leaf area in eelgrass can be conveniently obtained by the product of associated length and width. Although these variables can be directly measured on most sampled leaves, digital image methods could be adapted in order to simplify measurements. Nonetheless, since width to length ratios in eelgrass leaves could be even negligible, noise induced by leaf humidity content could produce misidentification of pixels along the peripheral contour of leaves images. In this paper, we present a procedure aimed to produce consistent estimations of eelgrass leaf area in the presence of the aforementioned noise effects. Our results show that digital image procedures can provide reliable, nondestructive estimations of eelgrass leaf area.

  20. The music listening preferences and habits of youths in Singapore and its relation to leisure noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Jek Chong; Lim, Ming Yann; Kuan, Angeline Yi Wei; Teo, Joshua Han Wei; Tan, Hui Guang; Low, Wong Kein

    2014-02-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a preventable condition, and much has been done to protect workers from it. However, thus far, little attention has been given to leisure NIHL. The purpose of this study is to determine the possible music listening preferences and habits among young people in Singapore that may put them at risk of developing leisure NIHL. In our study, the proportion of participants exposed to > 85 dBA for eight hours a day (time-weighted average) was calculated by taking into account the daily number of hours spent listening to music and by determining the average sound pressure level at which music was listened to. A total of 1,928 students were recruited from Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore. Of which, 16.4% of participants listened to portable music players with a time-weighted average of > 85 dBA for 8 hours. On average, we found that male students were more likely to listen to music at louder volumes than female students (p students in our study listened to louder music than the Chinese students (p leisure NIHL from music delivered via earphones. As additional risks due to exposure to leisure noise from other sources was not taken into account, the extent of the problem of leisure NIHL may be even greater. There is a compelling need for an effective leisure noise prevention program among young people in Singapore.

  1. [Transcultural adaptation of an instrument to evaluate hearing handicap in workers with noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves; de Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2011-01-01

    The noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a chronic and irreversible disease resulting of the exposure to noise in high levels at work. Even in the beginning, this hearing loss can damage in many degrees the worker's quality of life. Before this study, there wasn't an instrument, in Portuguese, to evaluate the psychosocial disadvantages of workers with NIHL. The aim of this research was to make a transcultural adaptation of an especific instrument to evaluate the hearing handicap from the original language to Portuguese, and check the reliability and legitimacy. The selected instrument passed by a process of semantic equivalence that was conducted in five stages: translation, back translation, critical appraisal of the versions, pre-test and a final review by a multi-professional group to develop a consensual version of the instrument for current use in Brazil. The instrument called "Inabilities Scale and Hearing Handicap" had, in general, acceptable psychometric measures, considering the little size of the sample and the fact that workers' hearing loss weren't too significant. Therefore, the Portuguese version of this instrument needs to be further tested in a representative sample of Brazilian workers with NIHL to ratify its utility in order to evaluate hearing handicap in this population.

  2. Noise-induced plasticity of KCNQ2/3 and HCN channels underlies vulnerability and resilience to tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Kalappa, Bopanna I; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability to noise-induced tinnitus is associated with increased spontaneous firing rate in dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform cells. This hyperactivity is caused, at least in part, by decreased Kv7.2/3 (KCNQ2/3) potassium currents. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying resilience to tinnitus, which is observed in noise-exposed mice that do not develop tinnitus (non-tinnitus mice), remain unknown. Our results show that noise exposure induces, on average, a reduction in KCNQ2/3 channel activity in fusiform cells in noise-exposed mice by 4 days after exposure. Tinnitus is developed in mice that do not compensate for this reduction within the next 3 days. Resilience to tinnitus is developed in mice that show a re-emergence of KCNQ2/3 channel activity and a reduction in HCN channel activity. Our results highlight KCNQ2/3 and HCN channels as potential targets for designing novel therapeutics that may promote resilience to tinnitus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07242.001 PMID:26312501

  3. 36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary facilities. 13.182... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins Use of Temporary Facilities Related to Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve where the taking of fish and wildlife is...

  4. Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter; Bathelt, Harald; Malmberg, Anders

    2004-01-01

    or participating in such events are means toidentify the current market frontier, take stock of relative competitive positions and formfuture plans. These events exhibit many of the characteristics ascribed to permanentclusters, albeit in a temporary, periodic and intensified form. The temporary clusters...... arehotspots of intense knowledge exchange, network building and idea generation.In investigating the extent and nature of these phenomena, the present paper explores anumber of issues. First, it shows that international trade fairs and other professionalgatherings are events which enable firms to compare...... their own products with others whichare available to the world market. Comparisons to and interactions with other firmsstimulate processes of knowledge creation. Second, it demonstrates how trade fairs areimportant for firms when selecting partners with whom to develop global pipelines,enabling access...

  5. Temporary Residences: a becoming project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ingaramo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the experimental actions fostered so far by the Compagnia di San Paolo through its Housing Program, committed in handling the complex and fragmented housing discomfort issue, the Temporary Dwellings initiative represents a unique and innovative experience, as it actually offers the chance to activate a proper managerial direction around and about the real estate development processes. In particular, the Temporary Dwellings action is marked by two key aspects: a structured co-planning vision and projects selected through a requests for proposal system. The process in the whole aims on the one hand at reaching an high transparent level of decision making , while, on the other hand, at developing a continuous and mutual monitoring and matching activity between the Housing Program and the group of cross-curricular experts teamed up in the project: technicians, designers, managers, psychologists, contractors, and the other local stakeholders.

  6. Cochlear neuropathy and the coding of supra-threshold sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Hari M; Verhulst, Sarah; Shaheen, Luke; Liberman, M Charles; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2014-01-01

    Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses (SSSRs) in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs), paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation (FM), reveal individual differences that correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in SSSRs in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  7. Cochlear Neuropathy and the Coding of Supra-threshold Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari M Bharadwaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In humans with normal hearing thresholds, behavioral ability in paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation, correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers without any significant change in measured audiograms. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in subcortical steady-state responses in humans. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.

  8. CARA Risk Assessment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Warning remediation threshold (Red threshold): Pc level at which warnings are issued, and active remediation considered and usually executed. Analysis threshold (Green to Yellow threshold): Pc level at which analysis of event is indicated, including seeking additional information if warranted. Post-remediation threshold: Pc level to which remediation maneuvers are sized in order to achieve event remediation and obviate any need for immediate follow-up maneuvers. Maneuver screening threshold: Pc compliance level for routine maneuver screenings (more demanding than regular Red threshold due to additional maneuver uncertainty).

  9. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  10. Transcending Organization in Temporary Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal

    in temporary systems that lack stability and formal order. It advances our understanding of transcending organization in creative industries by adopting a practice based perspective. Empirically, the dissertation presents an in-depth study of the Danish film industry, which is an extreme case of a project...... film workers with different functional roles and six months of ethnographic study of film projects in the Danish film industry, in particular delving into the film project Antboy and its sequels....

  11. Temporary air-raid shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, J.; Olin, J.; Koukkari, H.

    1983-05-01

    This report deals with materials and structures of temporary air-raid shelters. At first, the weapon effects against which the temporary shelters can protect are described. These are, primarily, the fragmentation and blast pressure caused by conventional weapons and those effects of the nuclear weapons which exist outside the total disaster and fire areas. Temporary shelters built into existing buildings can give protection either from radioactive fallout or from fallout and collapse of the building above. For fallout protection heavy materials are needed, which simultaneously protect from fragmentation. In the research report, the methods and materials used for the contruction of a fallout shelter into an apartment house and a small house are introduced. The collapse loads acting on a basement ceiling and the design of additional timber supports are also presented. The use of various materials in the construction of shelters outside the buildings are introduced. Separate shelters can be built either under the ground or on the ground. The same materials can be used in both cases, but the underground shelters have a better level of protection. (author)

  12. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those thatmay exist...

  13. Noise-induced transitions at a Hopf bifurcation in a first-order delay-differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of colored noise on the Hopf bifurcation in a first-order delay-differential equation (DDE), a model paradigm for nonlinear delayed feedback systems, is considered. First, it is shown, using a stability analysis, how the properties of the DDE depend on the ratio R of system delay to response time. When this ratio is small, the DDE behaves more like a low-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations (ODE's); when R is large, one obtains a singular perturbation limit in which the behavior of the DDE approaches that of a discrete time map. The relative magnitude of the additive and multiplicative noise-induced postponements of the Hopf bifurcation are numerically shown to depend on the ratio R. Although both types of postponements are minute in the large-R limit, they are almost equal due to an equivalence of additive and parametric noise for discrete time maps. When R is small, the multiplicative shift is larger than the additive one at large correlation times, but the shifts are equal for small correlation times. In fact, at constant noise power, the postponement is only slightly affected by the correlation time of the noise, except when the noise becomes white, in which case the postponement drastically decreases. This is a numerical study of the stochastic Hopf bifurcation, in ODE's or DDE's, that looks at the effect of noise correlation time at constant power. Further, it is found that the slope at the fixed point averaged over the stochastic-parameter motion acts, under certain conditions, as a quantitative indicator of oscillation onset in the presence of noise. The problem of how properties of the DDE carry over to ODE's and to maps is discussed, along with the proper theoretical framework in which to study nonequilibrium phase transitions in this class of functional differential equations

  14. Early indication of noise-induced hearing loss from PMP use in adolescents: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C Colon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs may indicate preclinical noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in adolescents from unsafe personal music player (PMP use. Aims: The objective, therefore, was to observe preclinical signs of NIHL in 9th grade adolescents with clinically normal hearing by comparing DPOAE signals between different levels of A-weighted equivalent PMP exposure. Settings and Design: Subjects were recruited from all secondary-level schools located in the city of Regensburg, Germany during two academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Subjects and Methods: A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs for a 40-hour work week (LAeq,40h were estimated from questionnaire responses on output and duration of PMP use of the previous week. Subjects were then categorized into four levels of exposure: 85 to <90, and ≥90 A-weighted Decibel [dB(A]. DPOAE signals were collected by trained audiological staff, applying a standard optimized protocol, at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University Hospital Regensburg. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean DPOAE signals were compared between levels by unpaired t test. Novel linear regression models adjusting for other leisure noise exposures and with outcome variables DPoutcome and 4 kilo Hertz (kHz DPOAEs estimated effects between levels. Results: A total of 1468 subjects (56% female, mostly aged 15 or 16 years were available for analysis. Comparison of DPOAE means by PMP exposure typically showed no greater than 1 dB difference between groups. In fact, comparisons between ≥90 dB(A and <80 dB(A presented the least differences in magnitude. Both DPoutcome and 4 kHz linear regression models presented a weak association with the 4-level PMP exposure variable. An expected dose-response to PMP exposure was not observed in any analyses. Conclusions: DPOAE signal strength alone cannot indicate preclinical NIHL in adolescents.

  15. Analysis of serum microRNA expression in male workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.H. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL is a prevalent occupational disorder that impairs auditory function in workers exposed to prolonged noise. However, serum microRNA expression in ONIHL subjects has not yet been studied. We aimed to compare the serum microRNA expression profiles in male workers of ONIHL subjects and controls. MicroRNA microarray analysis revealed that four serum microRNAs were differentially expressed between controls (n=3 and ONIHL subjects (n=3. Among these microRNAs, three were upregulated (hsa-miR-3162-5p, hsa-miR-4484, hsa-miR-1229-5p and one was downregulated (hsa-miR-4652-3p in the ONIHL group (fold change >1.5 and Pbon value <0.05. Real time quantitative PCR was conducted for validation of the microRNA expression. Significantly increased serum levels of miR-1229-5p were found in ONIHL subjects compared to controls (n=10 for each group; P<0.05. A total of 659 (27.0% genes were predicted as the target genes of miR-1229-5p. These genes were involved in various pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Overexpression of miR-1229-5p dramatically inhibited the luciferase activity of 3′ UTR segment of MAPK1 (P<0.01. Compared to the negative control, HEK293T cells expressing miR-1229-5p mimics showed a significant decline in mRNA levels of MAPK1 (P<0.05. This preliminary study indicated that serum miR-1229-5p was significantly elevated in ONIHL subjects. Increased miR-1229-5p may participate in the pathogenesis of ONIHL through repressing MAPK1 signaling.

  16. Analysis of serum microRNA expression in male workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Yang, Y; Yan, Y T; Xu, L W; Ma, H Y; Shao, Y X; Cao, C J; Wu, X; Qi, M J; Wu, Y Y; Chen, R; Hong, Y; Tan, X H; Yang, L

    2018-01-11

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL) is a prevalent occupational disorder that impairs auditory function in workers exposed to prolonged noise. However, serum microRNA expression in ONIHL subjects has not yet been studied. We aimed to compare the serum microRNA expression profiles in male workers of ONIHL subjects and controls. MicroRNA microarray analysis revealed that four serum microRNAs were differentially expressed between controls (n=3) and ONIHL subjects (n=3). Among these microRNAs, three were upregulated (hsa-miR-3162-5p, hsa-miR-4484, hsa-miR-1229-5p) and one was downregulated (hsa-miR-4652-3p) in the ONIHL group (fold change >1.5 and Pbon value <0.05). Real time quantitative PCR was conducted for validation of the microRNA expression. Significantly increased serum levels of miR-1229-5p were found in ONIHL subjects compared to controls (n=10 for each group; P<0.05). A total of 659 (27.0%) genes were predicted as the target genes of miR-1229-5p. These genes were involved in various pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Overexpression of miR-1229-5p dramatically inhibited the luciferase activity of 3' UTR segment of MAPK1 (P<0.01). Compared to the negative control, HEK293T cells expressing miR-1229-5p mimics showed a significant decline in mRNA levels of MAPK1 (P<0.05). This preliminary study indicated that serum miR-1229-5p was significantly elevated in ONIHL subjects. Increased miR-1229-5p may participate in the pathogenesis of ONIHL through repressing MAPK1 signaling.

  17. Association of genetic variations in FOXO3 gene with susceptibility to noise induced hearing loss in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Guo

    Full Text Available Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL, a multifactorial disease involving both genetic and environmental factors, is one of the most important occupational health hazards. Nonetheless, the influence of FOXO3 variants on NIHL risk have not been illuminated. This research was conducted to explore the effects of FOXO3 polymorphisms on individual susceptibility to NIHL. A total of 2689 industrial workers from one textile factory of east China were recruited to participate in the current research. Venous blood was collected, questionnaire and pure-tone audiometry (PTA was conducted by specialist physicians. Then, we performed genotyping of three selected SNPs (rs2802292, rs10457180, and rs12206094 in FOXO3 gene in 566 NIHL patients and 566 controls. Subsequently, the main effects of genotype and its interactions were evaluated. Our results revealed that individuals with the G allele of rs2802292, G allele of rs10457180, T allele of rs12206094 (OR = 1.43, 1.43, and 1.31 respectively and the haplotype GAC and others (TGT/GGT/GGC/GAT (rs2802292-rs10457180-rs12206094 (OR = 1.49 and 2.09 respectively are associated with an increased risk of NIHL in a Chinese population. Stratified analysis showed that an increased NIHL risk was found in the subjects who exposed to noise >16 years with rs2802292 GG/GT and rs10457180 AG/GG genotype with an OR of 1.62 and 1.66 respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis indicated that rs10457180, rs2802292, and rs12206094 have interactions and are related to increased NIHL risk (OR = 1.53. The genetic polymorphism rs2802292, rs10457180, and rs12206094 within FOXO3 gene are associated with an increased risk of NIHL in a Chinese population and have potential to be biomarkers for noise exposed workers.

  18. Evaluation of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in the susceptibility to temporary hearing deterioration after music exposure in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppler Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to evaluate the predictive role of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in temporary hearing deterioration in young adults exposed to music. This was based on the fact that a noise-protective role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC system was observed in animals and that efferent suppression (ES measured using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs is capable of exploring the MOC system. Knowing an individual′s susceptibility to cochlear damage after noise exposure would enhance preventive strategies for noise-induced hearing loss. The hearing status of 28 young adults was evaluated using pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs before and after listening to music using an MP3 player during 1 h at an individually determined loud listening level. CAS of TEOAEs was measured before music exposure to determine the amount of ES. Regression analysis showed a distinctive positive correlation between temporary hearing deterioration and the preferred gain setting of the MP3 player. However, no clear relationship between temporary hearing deterioration and the amount of ES was found. In conclusion, clinical measurement of ES, using CAS of TEOAEs, is not correlated with the amount of temporary hearing deterioration after 1 h music exposure in young adults. However, it is possible that the temporary hearing deterioration in the current study was insufficient to activate the MOC system. More research regarding ES might provide more insight in the olivocochlear efferent pathways and their role in auditory functioning.

  19. Ocorrência de perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído em carpinteiros Occurrence of noise induced hearing loss in carpenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hygor Veríssimo Farias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a ocorrência de perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído (PAIR em carpinteiros, caracterizando a perda auditiva por faixa etária, tempo de exposição total ao ruído e uso regular de protetores auditivos durante o tempo total de exposição. MÉTODO: estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, em uma população de 80 carpinteiros da construção civil, atendidos em uma clínica particular. Foram analisados 60 trabalhadores, conforme dados obtidos na anamnese e ficha do exame audiométrico. RESULTADOS: 49% dos trabalhadores apresentaram audição normal, sendo 58% com limiares auditivos normais bilateralmente e 35% com entalhe audiométrico em 3 kHz, 4 kHz e/ou 6 kHz. 44% apresentaram perfil audiométrico sugestivo de PAIR, destes 74% foram classificados como PAIR bilateral e 19% como PAIR unilateral. Houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupo PAIR e Normal em relação às variáveis idade (p=0,001, assim como o tempo total de exposição ao ruído ocupacional (p=0,002. CONCLUSÃO: quanto maior a idade e o tempo de profissão como carpinteiro, maior é a sua alteração auditiva, principalmente, devido à exposição ao ruído elevado durante a jornada de trabalho, sendo também constatado que as medidas de controle pelo uso do protetor são insuficientes para prevenir perdas auditivas. Portanto, sugerem-se medidas preventivas em saúde auditiva ativamente nessa população estudada, no ramo da construção civil.PURPOSE: to investigate the occurrence of noise induced hearing loss in carpenters, characterizing the hearing loss for age group, time of total exposure to noise and regular use of hearing protectors during the total exposure time. METHOD: retrospective and descriptive study in a population of 80 construction carpenters, attended at a private clinic. 60 workers were analyzed, as data on medical history and record of audiometric testing. RESULTS: 49% of the workers shoed normal hearing, being 58% with normal

  20. Threshold quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Yuuki; Okamoto, Tatsuaki; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding

  1. Hearing threshold evaluation of dentistsin Babol (North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ehsani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Noise in dental offices is one of the risk factors in the workplace. One of the major effects of noise is hearing loss. This study aimed to determine the effects of noise on hearing thresholds of dentists of Babol city. Methods:This descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 40 dentists in Babol City (as case group and 40 office workers (as control group. Hearing thresholdswere measured from all the subjects. The mean hearing threshold was calculated at different frequencies in each group and compared with the number 15 db. The data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS17and p≤0.05was considered significant. Results:The mean and standard deviation of hearing thresholds for the right ear of dentists and the control group without considering the different frequencies were 13.6156±9.14210db and10.0156±5.4488db (P=0.036,respectively and for the left ear were12.5115± 8.7609db and 10.059 ± 5.9254db respectively. Hearing threshold of right and left ear of young and middle age dentists was not significant. The hearing thresholds of the dentists with work experience of 15 years or less were not significant for the right and left ear. Auditory thresholds were significant between male and female only for the left ear (P=0.02. Conclusion:There was a change in hearing thresholds at all frequencies. A clear difference was in the left ear of men and women and hearing loss was higher in men. Also, age and working experience were not among the contributing factors to the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss.

  2. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  3. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles in male textile workers with noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lu; Liu, Jing; Shen, Huan-Xi; Pan, Li-Ping; Liu, Qing-Dong; Zhang, Heng-Dong; Han, Lei; Shuai, Li-Guo; Ding, En-Min; Zhao, Qiu-Ni; Wang, Bo-Shen; Zhu, Bao-Li

    2016-03-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions, which may be applied in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). However, no epidemiology studies have yet examined the potential effects of NIHL or noise exposure on miRNA expression profiles. We sought to identify permanent NIHL-related miRNAs and to predict the biological functions of the putative genes encoding the indicated miRNAs. In the discovery stage, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles between pooled plasma samples from 10 noise-exposed individuals with normal hearing and 10 NIHL patients. In addition, we conducted a preliminary validation of six candidate miRNAs in the same 20 workers. Subsequently, three miRNAs were selected for expanded validation in 23 non-exposed individuals with normal hearing and 46 noise-exposed textile workers which including 23 noise-exposed workers with normal hearing and 23 NIHL patients. Moreover, we predicted the biological functions of the putative target genes using a Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis. In the discovery stage, compared with the noise exposures with normal hearing, 73 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.5-fold differential expression in the NIHL patients. In the preliminary validation, compared with the noise exposures, the plasma levels of miR-16-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-451a were all upregulated (P < 0.001) in the NIHL patients. In the expanded validation stage, compared with the non-exposures, the plasma levels of miR-24, miR-185-5p and miR-451a were all significantly downregulated (P < 0.001) in the exposures. And compared with the noise exposures, the plasma levels of miR-185-5p and miR-451a were slightly elevated (P < 0.001) in the NIHL patients, which were consistent with the results of preliminary validation and microarray analysis. The two indicated plasma miRNAs may be biomarkers of indicating responses to noise exposure

  4. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Relation With Vibration Disease and Exposure to Vibration Among Employees in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karganova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL is a form of sensorineural hearing loss that is caused by intensive and continuous exposure to noise. It is one of the most frequently encountered occupational diseases worldwide despite numerous available control measures. ONIHL is a preventable disease, however, once the damage to the inner ear structures has occurred no medical intervention can reverse it. Aim. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse incidence of registered cases of ONIHL in relation to vibration disease and exposure to vibration among employees in Latvia between 2005 and 2014. Materials and methods. The data used in the study were acquired from the Latvian State Register of Patients with Occupational Diseases and afterwards analyzed with applicable statistical tests using both Excel and IBM SPSS programmes to compare epidemiological parameters between ONIHL, vibration disease (VD and exposure to vibration and to identify the association between them. Results. In total data were obtained about 2302 patients with 2562 cases of occupational ear, nose and throat (ENT diseases. Out of them ONIHL was registered in 1699 cases (819 cases were ONIHL in combination with VD. Most of the employees with ONIHL and ONIHL simultaneously with VD were males aged 55-64. There was found statistically significant association between ONIHL and VD (p<0.001; Cramer’s V=0.42; OR=32.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI 19.62–52.45. Statistically significant association was encountered between ONIHL and exposure to vibration as well (p<0.001; Cramer’s V=0.46; OR=10.97; 95% CI: 8.63–13.96. Conclusion. In total ONIHL was the most prevalent occupational ENT disease followed by chronic laryngitis, chronic pharyngitis and allergic rhinitis. Statistically significant association was found between ONIHL and VD, and ONIHL and exposure to vibration. Study revealed that hearing quality of workers employed in manufacturing; transport, storage

  5. Temporary employment in Russia: why mostly men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Karabchuk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with temporary employment in the Russian labour market. The main focus is the gender difference regarding determinants of temporary employment. Unlike most European countries, where women are more likely to have temporary work, in Russia men predominantly have this status, comparable to the situation in many developing countries. This paper seeks to understand why this is the case. The household survey of NOBUS (held in 2003 by State Statistical Centre with World Bank participation is used to answer this question: the results suggest that gender differences in temporary employment do exist, and that the main factors that explain these differences are education, and marital status.

  6. PREVALENCE OF NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS POLICE PERSONNEL COMING FOR HEALTH CHECKUP AT GOVERNMENT THENI MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Thirugnanam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Occupational settings and transport is the prominent sources of noise that affect health. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is sensory neural hearing loss due to exposure to intense impulse or continuous sound. Exposure to noise can be occupational or non-occupational. The audiologic profile of NIHL is the presence of sensorineural hearing loss that is most pronounced in the high-frequency region between 3,000 Hz and 6,000 Hz of the audiogram and the greatest amount of hearing loss is typically around the 4,000-Hz region (i.e. 4,000 Hz dip.1 The main causes of hearing loss resulting in deafness in adults in India are excessive noise, age and ear infection. Although, occupational hearing loss is a well-recognized occupational condition arising from industries or occupations with exposure to high noise levels (e.g., airline crew,2 it has not been fully evaluated in occupations where the risk is not so overt such as the police force. Police officers are potentially exposed to multiple sources of noise including vehicle horns, gunfire, barking from police dog and traffic noise.3 The aim of the study is to study the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss amongst traffic police personnel who came for master health checkup. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 812 constables were examined. All individuals underwent a complete general, systemic and ENT examination to detect any obvious pathology, which may result in hearing loss. A detailed history was taken regarding the number of years of service in traffic branch, place of duty, past history of ear disease or intake of ototoxic drugs. Subjects suffering from preexisting ear disease such as CSO, OME, otosclerosis and suffering from URI has been excluded. Policemen suffering from hypertension and diabetes were also excluded. Remaining 774 was included in the study. This study was approved by the institutional ethical committee, Government Theni Medical College. Written consent was obtained from

  7. A Role of Medial Olivocochlear Reflex as a Protection Mechanism from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Revealed in Short-Practicing Violinists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Otsuka

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that extended exposure to a high level of sound might increase the risk of hearing loss among professional symphony orchestra musicians. One of the major problems associated with musicians' hearing loss is difficulty in estimating its risk simply on the basis of the physical amount of exposure, i.e. the exposure level and duration. The aim of this study was to examine whether the measurement of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR, which is assumed to protect the cochlear from acoustic damage, could enable us to assess the risk of hearing loss among musicians. To test this, we compared the MOCR strength and the hearing deterioration caused by one-hour instrument practice. The participants in the study were music university students who are majoring in the violin, whose left ear is exposed to intense violin sounds (broadband sounds containing a significant number of high-frequency components during their regular instrument practice. Audiogram and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs were measured before and after a one-hour violin practice. There was a larger exposure to the left ear than to the right ear, and we observed a left-ear specific temporary threshold shift (TTS after the violin practice. Left-ear CEOAEs decreased proportionally to the TTS. The exposure level, however, could not entirely explain the inter-individual variation in the TTS and the decrease in CEOAE. On the other hand, the MOCR strength could predict the size of the TTS and CEOAE decrease. Our findings imply that, among other factors, the MOCR is a promising measure for assessing the risk of hearing loss among musicians.

  8. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  9. Lessons learnt from experimental temporary octopus fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence of the fisheries effect of experimental temporary fishing closures for Octopus in the then-emergent Velondriake Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) in south-west Madagascar during 2004–2006. We present an analysis of the O. cyanea catch data for the first two years of temporary closures ...

  10. 36 CFR 13.166 - Temporary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary facilities. 13.166... facilities. A temporary facility or structure directly and necessarily related to the taking of subsistence... facilities which shall be published annually in accordance with § 1.7 of this chapter. ...

  11. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  12. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  13. Particles near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Willenbrock, S.

    1993-01-01

    We propose returning to the definition of the width of a particle in terms of the pole in the particle's propagator. Away from thresholds, this definition of width is equivalent to the standard perturbative definition, up to next-to-leading order; however, near a threshold, the two definitions differ significantly. The width as defined by the pole position provides more information in the threshold region than the standard perturbative definition and, in contrast with the perturbative definition, does not vanish when a two-particle s-wave threshold is approached from below

  14. Temporary closure of the tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    Owing to major maintenance work, the tunnel linking the various parts of the CERN site will be closed from Monday 4 July to Sunday 24 July 2005 The Host State authorities have given authorisation for persons employed by CERN or the Institutes to travel and for goods belonging to these entities to be transported between the various parts of the site via Gate E (Charles de Gaulle) while this work is being carried out, subject to strict compliance with the Rules for the Use of the Tunnel (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/8200980415.pdf). Gate E will thus be open between 7.00 a.m. and 7.00 p.m. from Monday to Friday during the period concerned. The rules governing the use of Gate E to enter the Meyrin site between 7.30 a.m. and 9.00 a.m. or to leave the site between 5.00 p.m. and 6.30 p.m. (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/12222_041027.pdf)) will remain unaffected by this temporary authorisation. Relations with the Host States Service and TS-FM Group

  15. Effect of c-myc on the ultrastructural structure of cochleae in guinea pigs with noise induced hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Cuiping; Hong, Liu; Wang, Ye; Qiao, Li; Qiu, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Noise over-stimulation may induce hair cells loss and hearing deficit. The c-myc oncogene is a major regulator for cell proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. However, the role of this gene in the mammalian cochlea is still unclear. The study was designed to firstly investigate its function under noise condition, from the aspect of cochlear ultrastructural changes. We had established the adenoviral vector of c-myc gene and delivered the adenovirus suspension into the scala tympani of guinea pigs 4 days before noise exposure. The empty adenoviral vectors were injected as control. Then, all subjects were exposed to 4-kHz octave-band noise at 110 dB SPL for 8 h/day, 3 days consecutively. Auditory thresholds were assessed by auditory brainstem response, prior to and 7 days following noise exposure. On the seventh days after noise exposure, the cochlear sensory epithelia surface was observed microscopically and the cochleae were taken to study the ultrastructural changes. The results indicated that auditory threshold shift after noise exposure was higher in the ears treated with Ad.EGFP than that treated with Ad.c-myc-EGFP. Stereocilia loss and the disarrangement of outer hair cells were observed, with greater changes found in the Ad.EGFP group. Also, the ultrastructure changes were severe in the Ad.EGFP group, but not obvious in the Ad.c-myc-EGFP group. Therefore, c-myc gene might play an unexpected role in hearing functional and morphological protection from acoustic trauma.

  16. Effect of c-myc on the ultrastructural structure of cochleae in guinea pigs with noise induced hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Cuiping [Department of Otolaryngology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China); Hong, Liu [First Division of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Ye; Qiao, Li [Department of Otolaryngology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China); Qiu, Jianhua, E-mail: qiujh@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Otolaryngology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China)

    2009-12-18

    Noise over-stimulation may induce hair cells loss and hearing deficit. The c-myc oncogene is a major regulator for cell proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. However, the role of this gene in the mammalian cochlea is still unclear. The study was designed to firstly investigate its function under noise condition, from the aspect of cochlear ultrastructural changes. We had established the adenoviral vector of c-myc gene and delivered the adenovirus suspension into the scala tympani of guinea pigs 4 days before noise exposure. The empty adenoviral vectors were injected as control. Then, all subjects were exposed to 4-kHz octave-band noise at 110 dB SPL for 8 h/day, 3 days consecutively. Auditory thresholds were assessed by auditory brainstem response, prior to and 7 days following noise exposure. On the seventh days after noise exposure, the cochlear sensory epithelia surface was observed microscopically and the cochleae were taken to study the ultrastructural changes. The results indicated that auditory threshold shift after noise exposure was higher in the ears treated with Ad.EGFP than that treated with Ad.c-myc-EGFP. Stereocilia loss and the disarrangement of outer hair cells were observed, with greater changes found in the Ad.EGFP group. Also, the ultrastructure changes were severe in the Ad.EGFP group, but not obvious in the Ad.c-myc-EGFP group. Therefore, c-myc gene might play an unexpected role in hearing functional and morphological protection from acoustic trauma.

  17. A class of stochastic delayed SIR epidemic models with generalized nonlinear incidence rate and temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuangang; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Shujing; Wei, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    A class of SIR epidemic model with generalized nonlinear incidence rate is presented in this paper. Temporary immunity and stochastic perturbation are also considered. The existence and uniqueness of the global positive solution is achieved. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the extinction and persistence of the epidemic disease are established. Moreover, the threshold behavior is discussed, and the threshold value R0 is obtained. We show that if R0 extinct with probability one, whereas if R0 > 1, then the system remains permanent in the mean.

  18. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  19. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E.; Hamby, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison's six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met

  20. Temporary Authorizations at Permitted Waste Management Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) provides EPA with the authority to grant a permittee temporary authorization, without prior public notice and comment, to conduct activities necessary to respond promptly to changing conditions.

  1. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  2. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  3. Thresholds in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Hofmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations of biological radiation effects frequently use the word 'threshold'. The meaning of this word is explored together with its relationship to the fundamental character of radiation effects and to the question of perception. It is emphasised that although the existence of either a dose or an LET threshold can never be settled by experimental radiobiological investigations, it may be argued on fundamental statistical grounds that for all statistical processes, and especially where the number of observed events is small, the concept of a threshold is logically invalid. (U.K.)

  4. Characterization of the audiologic thresholds in workers of funeral urns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, José Roberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The industrial technological advance has brought benefits and a series of implications that may commit the worker's health and life quality. The exposure to physical, chemical agents and organizational stressors contribute for the increase of work accidents risks. The noise, taken as the most frequent physical agent in the work environment, may cause auditory alterations called Noise-Induced Hearing Loss that affect the communication and life quality of the workers. Objective: To research the auditory health of employees in a funeral urns factory. Method: 90 workers took part in this study, aged between 16 and 52 years, exposed to sound pressure levels equal or higher than 85 dBNPS, vibration and/or chemical agents in the work environment. We carried out a specific interview and Threshold Tonal Audiometry. Results: This study identified altered audiometry results in 13.33% the right ear and 16.67% in the left ear and the age also influenced these auditory thresholds. Conclusion: The accomplishment of a workers' health surveillance program with all people involved is critical and will contribute for the human resources formation, in the management to proceed with actions as well as those by the proper workers being careful of their health.

  5. Headphone listening habits and hearing thresholds in swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Widen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported hearing and portable music listening habits, measured hearing function and music exposure levels in Swedish adolescents. The study was divided into two parts. Materials and Methods: The first part included 280 adolescents, who were 17 years of age and focused on self-reported data on subjective hearing problems and listening habits regarding portable music players. From this group, 50 adolescents volunteered to participate in Part II of the study, which focused on audiological measurements and measured listening volume. Results: The results indicated that longer lifetime exposure in years and increased listening frequency were associated with poorer hearing thresholds and more self-reported hearing problems. A tendency was found for listening to louder volumes and poorer hearing thresholds. Women reported more subjective hearing problems compared with men but exhibited better hearing thresholds. In contrast, men reported more use of personal music devices, and they listen at higher volumes. Discussion: Additionally, the study shows that adolescents listening for ≥3 h at every occasion more likely had tinnitus. Those listening at ≥85 dB LAeq, FF and listening every day exhibited poorer mean hearing thresholds, reported more subjective hearing problems and listened more frequently in school and while sleeping. Conclusion: Although the vast majority listened at moderate sound levels and for shorter periods of time, the study also indicates that there is a subgroup (10% that listens between 90 and 100 dB for longer periods of time, even during sleep. This group might be at risk for developing future noise-induced hearing impairments.

  6. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  7. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the...

  8. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and...

  9. Duration of works, flight hours, and blood pressure related to noise-induced hearing loss among Indonesian Air Force helicopter pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholidah Hanum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicopter pilots exposed to high intensity noise and other risk factors had increased risk to be noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Therefore, it is beneficial to study several risk factors related to NIHL. This study was a nested case-control. Data was extracted from available medical records among helicopter pilots who performed routine aerophysiology training indoctrination (ILA during 1980 through March 2004 at Saryanto Institute for Aviation and Aerospace Medicine (Lakespra, Jakarta. Case was those who had audiogram with a notch of 40 dB or more and of 4000 Hertz on one site or bilateral ears. A case was matched by two controls who free from NIHL up to 2004. All risk factors for cases and controls were counted as of reference date of cases diagnosed. There were 187 medical records available for this study. A number of 32 cases and 64 controls were identified. The final model reveals that NIHL was related to total duration of works, flight hours, and blood pressure. Those who had 500 hours or more than less 500 hours had a moderate increased risk for 2.5 to be NIHL [Adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 2.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 0.66-9.29; p = 0.180]. Those who had total duration works 11-24 years had a moderate increased to be NIHL for 2.7 times (ORa = 2.71; 95% CI=0.90-8.10; p = 0.075. Furthermore, prehypertension and hypertension stage 1 subjects than normal blood pressure had moderate trend increased risk to be NIHL. In conclusion total flight hours for 500 hours or more, total duration works 11-24 years, or prehypertension and hypertension stage 1 increased risk NIHL. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:185-90 Keywords: noise induced hearing loss, flight hours, working duration, blood pressure

  10. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Threshold guidance update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Last years' activities (1984) included the development of a threshold guidance dose, the development of threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose, the development of supporting documentation, review by a technical peer review committee, and review by the DOE community. As a result of the comments, areas have been identified for more extensive analysis, including an alternative basis for selection of the guidance dose and the development of quality assurance guidelines. Development of quality assurance guidelines will provide a reasonable basis for determining that a given waste stream qualifies as a threshold waste stream and can then be the basis for a more extensive cost-benefit analysis. The threshold guidance and supporting documentation will be revised, based on the comments received. The revised documents will be provided to DOE by early November. DOE-HQ has indicated that the revised documents will be available for review by DOE field offices and their contractors

  12. A biological tool to assess flow connectivity in reference temporary streams from the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, N., E-mail: ncid@ub.edu [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Verkaik, I. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); García-Roger, E.M. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de València (Spain); Rieradevall, M.; Bonada, N. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Sánchez-Montoya, M.M. [Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”—University of Murcia (Spain); Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin (Germany); Gómez, R.; Suárez, M.L.; Vidal-Abarca, M.R. [Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”—University of Murcia (Spain); Demartini, D.; Buffagni, A.; Erba, S. [Instituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque (CNR-IRSA) (Italy); Karaouzas, I.; Skoulikidis, N. [Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR) (Greece); Prat, N. [Grup de Recerca “Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM)”, Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-01-01

    Many streams in the Mediterranean Basin have temporary flow regimes. While timing for seasonal drought is predictable, they undergo strong inter-annual variability in flow intensity. This high hydrological variability and associated ecological responses challenge the ecological status assessment of temporary streams, particularly when setting reference conditions. This study examined the effects of flow connectivity in aquatic macroinvertebrates from seven reference temporary streams across the Mediterranean Basin where hydrological variability and flow conditions are well studied. We tested for the effect of flow cessation on two streamflow indices and on community composition, and, by performing random forest and classification tree analyses we identified important biological predictors for classifying the aquatic state either as flowing or disconnected pools. Flow cessation was critical for one of the streamflow indices studied and for community composition. Macroinvertebrate families found to be important for classifying the aquatic state were Hydrophilidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae, Planorbiidae, Heptageniidae and Gerridae. For biological traits, trait categories associated to feeding habits, food, locomotion and substrate relation were the most important and provided more accurate predictions compared to taxonomy. A combination of selected metrics and associated thresholds based on the most important biological predictors (i.e. Bio-AS Tool) were proposed in order to assess the aquatic state in reference temporary streams, especially in the absence of hydrological data. Although further development is needed, the tool can be of particular interest for monitoring, restoration, and conservation purposes, representing an important step towards an adequate management of temporary rivers not only in the Mediterranean Basin but also in other regions vulnerable to the effects of climate change. - Highlights: • The effect of flow connectivity on macroinvertebrate

  13. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hyeong Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. METHODS: We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz were computed. RESULTS: In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  14. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  15. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Workers: Co-Exposure to Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals in Nationwide Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. Methods We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. Results In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. Conclusion This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks. PMID:24870407

  16. Near threshold fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. C.; Strum, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurement of the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior provides a basis for the design and evaluation of components subjected to high cycle fatigue. Typically, the near-threshold fatigue regime describes crack growth rates below approximately 10(exp -5) mm/cycle (4 x 10(exp -7) inch/cycle). One such evaluation was recently performed for the binary alloy U-6Nb. The procedures developed for this evaluation are described in detail to provide a general test method for near-threshold FCGR testing. In particular, techniques for high-resolution measurements of crack length performed in-situ through a direct current, potential drop (DCPD) apparatus, and a method which eliminates crack closure effects through the use of loading cycles with constant maximum stress intensity are described.

  17. Temporary quadriplegia following continuous thoracic paravertebral block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Danielou, Eric; Michelin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    A case of temporary quadriplegia following a continuous thoracic paravertebral block in an adult patient scheduled for video-assisted thoracoscopy is presented. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was inserted under direct vision by the surgeon but the tip of the catheter was not localized. Postoperatively, the patient developed temporary quadriplegia 90 minutes after the start of a continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.2%. Imaging studies showed that the catheter was localized in the intrathecal space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Speech-in-Noise Tests and Supra-threshold Auditory Evoked Potentials as Metrics for Noise Damage and Clinical Trial Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-09-01

    In humans, the accepted clinical standards for detecting hearing loss are the behavioral audiogram, based on the absolute detection threshold of pure-tones, and the threshold auditory brainstem response (ABR). The audiogram and the threshold ABR are reliable and sensitive measures of hearing thresholds in human listeners. However, recent results from noise-exposed animals demonstrate that noise exposure can cause substantial neurodegeneration in the peripheral auditory system without degrading pure-tone audiometric thresholds. It has been suggested that clinical measures of auditory performance conducted with stimuli presented above the detection threshold may be more sensitive than the behavioral audiogram in detecting early-stage noise-induced hearing loss in listeners with audiometric thresholds within normal limits. Supra-threshold speech-in-noise testing and supra-threshold ABR responses are reviewed here, given that they may be useful supplements to the behavioral audiogram for assessment of possible neurodegeneration in noise-exposed listeners. Supra-threshold tests may be useful for assessing the effects of noise on the human inner ear, and the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent noise trauma. The current state of the science does not necessarily allow us to define a single set of best practice protocols. Nonetheless, we encourage investigators to incorporate these metrics into test batteries when feasible, with an effort to standardize procedures to the greatest extent possible as new reports emerge.

  19. Threshold factorization redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2018-05-01

    We reanalyze the factorization theorems for the Drell-Yan process and for deep inelastic scattering near threshold, as constructed in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), from a new, consistent perspective. In order to formulate the factorization near threshold in SCET, we should include an additional degree of freedom with small energy, collinear to the beam direction. The corresponding collinear-soft mode is included to describe the parton distribution function (PDF) near threshold. The soft function is modified by subtracting the contribution of the collinear-soft modes in order to avoid double counting on the overlap region. As a result, the proper soft function becomes infrared finite, and all the factorized parts are free of rapidity divergence. Furthermore, the separation of the relevant scales in each factorized part becomes manifest. We apply the same idea to the dihadron production in e+e- annihilation near threshold, and show that the resultant soft function is also free of infrared and rapidity divergences.

  20. Elaborating on Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Janet; Robins, Anthony; Rountree, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    We propose an expanded definition of Threshold Concepts (TCs) that requires the successful acquisition and internalisation not only of knowledge, but also its practical elaboration in the domains of applied strategies and mental models. This richer definition allows us to clarify the relationship between TCs and Fundamental Ideas, and to account…

  1. Perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído em trabalhadores de metalúrgica Noise induced hearing loss in metallurgical workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Adad Araújo

    Full Text Available Introdução: A perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído é uma patologia insidiosa cumulativa, que cresce ao longo dos anos de exposição ao ruído associado ao ambiente de trabalho. Objetivos: Identificar e quantificar a ocorrência de alterações auditivas sugestivas de Perda Auditiva Induzida pelo Ruído e os principais sintomas otorrinolaringológicos referidos pelos trabalhadores. Forma de estudo: prospectivo clínico randomizado. Casuística e métodos: Pesquisa realizada no período de janeiro a março de 2000 com 187 trabalhadores de indústria metalúrgica no município de Goiânia, avaliados por médicos otorrinolaringologistas através de roteiro de entrevista e audiometria ocupacional. Resultados: Foram obtidas audiometrias ocupacionais sendo: 21% sugestivas de PAIR, 72%, normais e 7%, sugestivas de outras doenças auditivas. Os sintomas auditivos mais freqüentes foram: dificuldade de compreensão da fala, 12%; hipoacusia, 7%; tinitus, 13%; sensação de plenitude auricular, 4%; otorreia, 6%; tonturas, 12%. Conclusão: Concluímos que em metalúrgica há ocorrência de alterações auditivas sugestivas de Perda Auditiva Induzida pelo Ruído e queixa de sintomas otorrinolaringológicos significativos.Introduction: Noise induced hearing loss is a cumulative pathological disease that increases over the years with exposure to noise associated with the work atmosphere. Objectives: To identify and quantify the occurrence of hearing loss suggestive of Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL and the principle otolaryngological symptoms referred to by workers. Study design: prospective clinical randomized. Material and method: Research was carried out from January to March of 2000 with 187 metallurgical workers in the city of Goiânia, who were evaluated by otolaryngologists by means of a combination of interviews and occupational hearing exams. Results: Occupational hearing tests results were: 21% suggestive of NIHL, 72% normal, and 7% suggestive of

  2. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

  3. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-6; Order No. 1702] Temporary Mailing Promotion... offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's filing and... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin on...

  4. Ambiguous diagnosis, futile treatments and temporary recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ambiguous diagnosis, futile treatments and temporary recovery: Meanings of medical treatment among HIV/AIDS family caregivers providing care without ARVs. ... to understand unstable treatment outcomes; and policy makers should strengthen home-based care by developing policies that integrate palliative care into HIV ...

  5. Meaningful radiation worker training for temporary craftsmen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The carefully organized Radiation Worker Training Program presented to permanently assigned personnel at a power reactor facility too often falls by the wayside when temporary craftsmen are brought in for an outage. Even though these temporary workers will frequently be assigned to outage jobs with high radiation and/or contamination exposures, their Radiation Worker Training is often squeezed into an already busy schedule, thus reducing its effectiveness. As an aid for evaluating the effectiveness of an existing Radiation Worker Training Program for temporary craftsmen or for setting up a new program, the following guides are presented and discussed in this paper: the training environment; the interest and meaningfulness of the presentation; the method or methods used for presentation of the training information; the use of demonstrations; trainee participation; and, measuring the amount and type of information retained by a trainee. Meaningful Radiation Worker Training for temporary craftsmen can pay big dividends. Craftsmen can be expected to make fewer mistakes, thus reducing radiation exposure and lessening the chance for the spread of contamination. The craftsmen will also benefit by being able to work longer and utility management will benefit by having lower outage costs

  6. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential Products Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.65 Temporary exemptions. (a) Any... January 1, 1996. (e) Any person selling or distributing, or offering to sell or distribute, any product...

  7. Temporary tattoos: a novel OSCE assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gerry; Menary, Allison; Layard, Brooke; Hart, Nigel; McCourt, Collette

    2013-08-01

    There are many issues regarding the use of real patients in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). In dermatology OSCE stations, standardised patients (SPs) with clinical photographs are often used. Temporary transfer tattoos can potentially simulate skin lesions when applied to an SP. This study aims to appraise the use of temporary malignant melanoma tattoos within an OSCE framework. Within an 11-station OSCE, a temporary malignant melanoma tattoo was developed and applied to SPs in a 'skin lesion' OSCE station. A questionnaire captured the opinions of the candidate, SP and examiners, and the degree of perceived realism of each station was determined. Standard post hoc OSCE analysis determined the psychometric reliability of the stations. The response rates were 95.9 per cent of candidates and 100 per cent of the examiners and SPs. The 'skin lesion' station achieved the highest realism score compared with other stations: 89.0 per cent of candidates felt that the skin lesion appeared realistic; only 28 per cent of candidates had ever seen a melanoma before in training. The psychometric performance of the melanoma station was comparable with, and in many instances better than, other OSCE stations. Transfer tattoo technology facilitates a realistic dermatology OSCE station encounter. Temporary tattoos, alongside trained SPs, provide an authentic, standardised and reliable experience, allowing the assessment of integrated dermatology clinical skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a single...

  9. Temporary/portable nuclear fallout shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, V E

    1991-01-15

    The design and invention of a temporary/portable fallout shelter has been described in context of schematic and representative embodiments. Tent structures are described which include disposable, exterior, semi-transparent plastic and/or fabric shield membranes covering a tent composed of stretched, tightly woven, rip-resistant fabric panels supported by tensile rods/wands. 16 figs.

  10. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  11. Hadron production near threshold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Final state interaction effects in pp → pΛK+ and pd → 3He η reactions are explored near threshold to study the sensitivity of the cross-sections to the pΛ potential and the ηN scattering matrix. The final state scattering wave functions between Λ and p and η and 3He are described rigorously. The Λ production is ...

  12. Casualties and threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.W.; National Cancer Inst., Bethesda

    1988-01-01

    Radiation effects like cancer are denoted as casualties. Other radiation effects occur almost in everyone when the radiation dose is sufficiently high. One then speaks of radiation effects with a threshold dose. In this article the author puts his doubt about this classification of radiation effects. He argues that some effects of exposure to radiation do not fit in this classification. (H.W.). 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Resonance phenomena near thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1995-12-01

    The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with both discrete and resonance states is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the discrete states can trap the resonance ones and also that the discrete states can directly influence the scattering cross section. (orig.)

  14. Protective effect of unilateral and bilateral ear plugs on noise-induced hearing loss: Functional and morphological evaluation in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kee Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the following study is to evaluate immediate protective effect of ear plug from noise morphologically and functionally. An 1-month aged 29 male C57BL/6 mice. Subjects were divided into four groups as normal control(G1, bilaterally plugged group (G2, unilaterally plugged group (G3 and noise control group (G4 and later 3 groups were exposed to 110 sound pressure level white noise for 60 min. Immediately after noise exposure, audiologic tests were performed and cochlear morphology and expression levels of a-synuclein in the cochlea were investigated. There were no functional changes in G2 and plugged ears of G3 after noise exposure, whereas unplugged ears of G3 and G4 showed significant hearing loss. In morphological study, there were a significant degeneration of the organ of Corti and mean number and diameter of efferent buttons, in unplugged ears of G3 and G4. Plugged ears of G3 also showed mild changes in morphological study. Reduction of a-synuclein was observed at the efferent terminals or cochlear extracts after noise exposure. The protective effect of ear plug on noise exposure was proven morphologically and functionally in the animal model of noise-induced hearing loss. Further study on cellular or ultrastructural level with ear plug will be needed to reveal more precise mechanism.

  15. Bioconversion of Scutellaria baicalensis extract can increase recovery of auditory function in a mouse model of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Isabel; Hong, Bin Na; Nam, Youn Hee; Kim, Eun Young; Park, Geun Ha; Ji, Min Gun; Kang, Tong Ho

    2017-09-01

    In noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), noise exposure damages cochlear sensory hair cells, which lack the capacity to regenerate. Following noise insult, intense metabolic activity occurs, resulting in a cochlear free radical imbalance. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme alterations, including lipoxygenase upregulation, have been linked to chronic inflammation, which contributes to hearing impairment. We previously proposed Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) extract as an alternative therapeutic for preventing NIHL and attributed its pharmacological effects to baicalein. Although baicalein was most effective, its concentration in SB extract is much lower compared to baicalin. In this study, we performed enzymatic bioconversion using an Sumizyme (SM) enzyme to increase baicalein concentration in SB extract and consequently improve its therapeutic efficacy. HPLC analysis revealed that baicalein concentration in SB extract after bioconversion (BSB) was significantly increased. Moreover, BSB-treated mice exhibited significantly improved auditory function compared with control mice and tended to have improved auditory function compared with SB-treated mice. We also demonstrated that BSB effectively stimulates hair cell regeneration compared to SB that did not achieve the same effect in a zebrafish model. Finally, when compared the abilities of SB and BSB to inhibit lipoxygenase (LOX), BSB showed a greater efficacy. Cumulatively, our data suggest that BSB exhibits improved pharmacological properties for treating NIHL compared with SB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure.

  17. Analysis of audiometric notch as a noise-induced hearing loss phenotype in US youth: data from the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ishan S; Guthrie, O'neil

    2017-06-01

    Bilateral audiometric notch (BN) at 4000-6000 Hz was identified as a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) phenotype for genetic association analysis in college-aged musicians. This study analysed BN in a sample of US youth. Prevalence of the BN within the study sample was determined and logistic-regression analyses were performed to identify audiologic and other demographic factors associated with BN. Computer-simulated "flat" audiograms were used to estimate potential influence of false-positive rates in estimating the prevalence of the BN. 2348 participants (12-19 years) following the inclusion criteria were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005-2010). The prevalence of BN was 16.6%. Almost 55.6% of the participants showed notch in at least one ear. Noise exposure, gender, ethnicity and age showed significant relationship with the BN. Computer simulation revealed that 5.5% of simulated participants with "flat" audiograms showed BN. Association of noise exposure with BN suggests that it is a useful NIHL phenotype for genetic association analyses. However, further research is necessary to reduce false-positive rates in notch identification.

  18. Self-assessment of hearing status and risk of noise-induced hearing loss in workers in a rolling stock plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zamojska, Małgorzata; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2012-01-01

    Noise measurements and questionnaire inquiries were carried out for 124 workers of a rolling stock plant to develop a hearing conservation program. On the basis of that data, the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was evaluated. Additionally, the workers' hearing ability was assessed with the (modified) Amsterdam inventory for auditory disability and handicap, (m)AIADH. The workers had been exposed to noise at A-weighted daily noise exposure levels of 74-110 dB for 1-40 years. Almost one third of the workers complained of hearing impairment and the (m)AIADH results showed some hearing difficulties in over half of them. The estimated risk of hearing loss over 25 dB in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz was 41-50% when the standard method of predicting NIHL specified in Standard No. ISO 1999:1990 was used. This risk increased to 50-67% when noise impulsiveness, coexposure to organic solvents, elevated blood pressure and smoking were included in calculations.

  19. A functional Ser326Cys polymorphism in hOGG1 is associated with noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanxi Shen

    Full Text Available DNA damage to cochlear hair cells caused by 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG is essential for the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Human 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase1 (hOGG1 is a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway that eliminates 8-oxoG. Many epidemiological and functional studies have suggested that the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism (rs1052133 is associated with many diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate whether the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the human BER pathway is associated with genetic susceptibility to NIHL in a Chinese population. This polymorphism was genotyped among 612 workers with NIHL and 615 workers with normal hearing. We found that individuals with the hOGG1 Cys/Cys genotype had a statistically significantly increased risk of NIHL compared with those who carried the hOGG1 Ser/Ser genotype (adjusted OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.13-2.25 and this increased risk was more pronounced among the workers in the 15- to 25- and >25-year noise exposure time, 85-92 dB(A noise exposure level, ever smoking, and ever drinking groups, similar effects were also observed in a recessive model. In summary, our data suggested that the hOGG1 Cys/Cys genotype may be a genetic susceptibility marker for NIHL in the Chinese Han population.

  20. Pathogenesis mechanism by noise induced clinical pictures-lessons from the Spandau health-survey; Pathogenesemechanismen bei laerminduzierten Krankheitsbildern - Schlussfolgerungen aus dem Spandauer Gesundheits-Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschke, C. [Forschungs- und Beratungsbuero Maschke (FBB-Maschke), Berlin (Germany); Hecht, K. [Interdisziplinaerer Forschungsverbund Laerm und Gesundheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Traffic noise (road noise, flight noise, train noise) is the predominant noise source in the living environment, followed by neighbourhood noise. Through the central nervous processes noise can lead, via disturbed sleep as well as via subjective experience, to an inadequate neuro-endocrine reaction with the possibility of finally leading to diseases which are mediated or triggered by stress. Noise induced health disturbances by traffic noise is a large and contrarily discussed problem. In the context of the Spandau health survey, both the noise load (equivalent sound level) and the noise experience (disturbances) were collected and the relationship with medically treated illnesses evaluated. The results suggest that two different ''effect mechanisms'' exist regarding the health effect of traffic noise. Besides the noise disturbed sleep, an insufficient coping with the noise exposures can lead to increased disease risks. The study shows convincing relations between impairments of the heart circulation system (e.g. with hypertension) and the nightly equivalent sound level (22.00-6:00 hours) at the place of residents of the test persons. It has to be assumed that this is the long-term result of sleep which is not restful. On the other hand, psychic disturbances were less connected to the sound level and had more correlation with the noise experience. With psychic disturbances the individual overtaxing of the information-processing processes plays an important role and is classified as an emotional stress situation. (orig.)

  1. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  2. [Investigation into the relationship between mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene, tRNA gene and cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene variations and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, J; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Li, Y H; Zhang, H L; Yang, Q Y; Xu, X R; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; He, L H; Zheng, Y X; Yu, S F

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To explore the relationship between mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene variation, tRNA gene variation and cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene point mutations and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Methods: A nested case-control study was performed that followed a cohort of 7 445 noise-exposed workers in a steel factory in Henan province, China, from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. Subjects whose average hearing threshold was more than 40 dB(A) in high frequency were defined as the case group, and subjects whose average hearing threshold was less than 35 dB(A) in high frequency and less than 25 dB (A) in speech frequency were defined as the control group. Subjects was recruited into the case group ( n =286) and the control group ( n= 286) according to gender, age, job category and time of exposure to noise, and a 1∶1 case-control study was carried out. We genotyped eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12 S rRNA gene, the mitochondrial tRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅱ gene using SNPscan high-throughput genotyping technology from the recruited subjects. The relationship between polymorphic sites and NIHL, adjusted for covariates, was analyzed using conditional logistic regression analysis, as were the subgroup data. Results: The average age of the recruited subjects was (40.3±8.1) years and the length of service exposure to noise was (18.6±8.9) years. The range of noise exposed levels and cumulative noise exposure (CNE) was 80.1- 93.4 dB (A) and 86.8- 107.9 dB (A) · year, respectively. For workers exposed to noise at a CNE level<98 dB (A) · year, smokers showed an increased risk of NIHL of 1.88 (1.16-3.05) compared with non-smokers; for workers exposed to noise at a CNE level ≥98 dB(A) · year, smokers showed an increased risk of NIHL of 2.53 (1.49- 4.30) compared with non-smokers. For workers exposed to noise at a CNE level<98 dB (A) · year, the results of univariate analysis and multifactor analysis

  3. TREHS (Temporary Rivers Ecological and Hydrological Status): new software for investigating the degree of hydrologic alteration of temporary streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Cid, Núria; latron, Jérôme; Bonada, Núria; Prat, Narcís

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of the hydrological alteration of a stream due to human activities is a first step to assess its overall quality and to design management strategies for its potential restoration. This task is currently made comparing impacted against unimpacted hydrographs, with the help of software tools, such as the IHA (Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration). Then, the environmental evaluation of the hydrological alteration is to be made in terms of its expectable menace for the original biological communities and/or its help for the spread of invasive species. However, when the regime of the target stream is not perennial, there are four main difficulties for implementing methods for assessing hydrological alteration: i) the main hydrological features relevant for biological communities in a temporary stream are not quantitative (discharges) but qualitative (temporal patterns of states such as flowing water, stagnant pools or lack of surface water), ii) stream flow records do not inform on the temporal occurrence of stagnant pools, which act as refugees for many species during the cessation of flow, iii) as most of the temporary streams are ungauged, the evaluation of their regime must be determined by using alternative methods such as remote sensing or citizen science, and iv) the biological quality assessment of the ecological status of a temporary stream must be conducted following a sampling schedule adapted to the flow regime and using adequate reference conditions. In order to overcome these challenges using an operational approach, the TREHS freely available software tool has been developed within the EU LIFE TRIVERS project (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000341). This software allows for the input of information coming from flow simulations obtained using any rainfall-runoff model (to set an unimpacted reference stream regime) and compares them with the information obtained from flow gauging records, interviews made to local citizens, instantaneous observations made by

  4. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  5. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  6. 30 CFR 47.44 - Temporary, portable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary, portable containers. 47.44 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.44 Temporary, portable containers. (a) The operator does not have to label a temporary, portable container if he or she...

  7. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....52 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief... issuance of temporary relief, the Commission will be guided by practice under Rule 65 of the Federal Rules...

  8. 77 FR 15650 - Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 60 RIN 2900-AN79 Fisher House and Other Temporary... Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations concerning Fisher House and other temporary lodging... assistance and clarify the distinctions between Fisher House and other temporary lodging provided by VA. The...

  9. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  10. Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Hearing Threshold Shift in Subjects during First Encounter with Occupational Impulse Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Yohann; Bortoni, Magda E; Sepulveda, Rosalinda; Ghelfi, Elisa; Bartos, Adam; Cotanche, Douglas; Clifford, Royce E; Rogers, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most significant occupational health issue worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with hearing threshold shift in young males undergoing their first encounter with occupational impulse noise. We report a significant association of SNP rs7598759 (p hearing loss, we tested down-regulation of nucleolin in cochlear sensory cells HEI-OC1 under oxidative stress conditions and report increased sensitivity to cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic drug with ototoxic side effects. Additional SNPs were found with suggestive association (p < 5 x 10(-4)), of which 7 SNPs were located in genes previously reported to be related to NIHL and 43 of them were observed in 36 other genes previously not reported to be associated with NIHL. Taken together, our GWAS data and in vitro studies reported herein suggest that nucleolin is a potential candidate associated with NIHL in this population.

  11. A biological tool to assess flow connectivity in reference temporary streams from the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, N; Verkaik, I; García-Roger, E M; Rieradevall, M; Bonada, N; Sánchez-Montoya, M M; Gómez, R; Suárez, M L; Vidal-Abarca, M R; Demartini, D; Buffagni, A; Erba, S; Karaouzas, I; Skoulikidis, N; Prat, N

    2016-01-01

    Many streams in the Mediterranean Basin have temporary flow regimes. While timing for seasonal drought is predictable, they undergo strong inter-annual variability in flow intensity. This high hydrological variability and associated ecological responses challenge the ecological status assessment of temporary streams, particularly when setting reference conditions. This study examined the effects of flow connectivity in aquatic macroinvertebrates from seven reference temporary streams across the Mediterranean Basin where hydrological variability and flow conditions are well studied. We tested for the effect of flow cessation on two streamflow indices and on community composition, and, by performing random forest and classification tree analyses we identified important biological predictors for classifying the aquatic state either as flowing or disconnected pools. Flow cessation was critical for one of the streamflow indices studied and for community composition. Macroinvertebrate families found to be important for classifying the aquatic state were Hydrophilidae, Simuliidae, Hydropsychidae, Planorbiidae, Heptageniidae and Gerridae. For biological traits, trait categories associated to feeding habits, food, locomotion and substrate relation were the most important and provided more accurate predictions compared to taxonomy. A combination of selected metrics and associated thresholds based on the most important biological predictors (i.e. Bio-AS Tool) were proposed in order to assess the aquatic state in reference temporary streams, especially in the absence of hydrological data. Although further development is needed, the tool can be of particular interest for monitoring, restoration, and conservation purposes, representing an important step towards an adequate management of temporary rivers not only in the Mediterranean Basin but also in other regions vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... to Tree Cutting and Wood Harvesting on Public Land in Douglas County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land... a temporary closure to wood harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz Ranch... temporary restriction of cross-country vehicle travel and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood...

  13. Temporary Blindness after Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodiya, Animesh; Thukral, Rishi; Agrawal, Shaila Mahendra; Rai, Anshul; Singh, Siddharth

    2017-03-01

    Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. This procedure is safe, but complications may still occur. Ocular complications such as diplopia, loss of vision, or ophthalmoplegia are extremely rare. This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and maxillary and middle meningeal arteries, intravascular administration of anaesthetic agent caused unusual ocular signs and symptoms such as temporary blindness.

  14. Qualitative analysis of a stochastic epidemic model with specific functional response and temporary immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattaf, Khalid; Mahrouf, Marouane; Adnani, Jihad; Yousfi, Noura

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic delayed epidemic model with specific functional response. The time delay represents temporary immunity period, i.e., time from recovery to becoming susceptible again. We first show that the proposed model is mathematically and biologically well-posed. Moreover, the extinction of the disease and the persistence in the mean are established in the terms of a threshold value R0S which is smaller than the basic reproduction number R0 of the corresponding deterministic system.

  15. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  16. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  17. Water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 formulation (Q-ter) promotes outer hair cell survival in a guinea pig model of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetoni, Anna Rita; Piacentini, Roberto; Fiorita, Antonella; Paludetti, Gaetano; Troiani, Diana

    2009-02-27

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is a powerful source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also in noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) and anti-oxidants and free-radicals scavengers have been shown to attenuate the damage. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) or ubiquinone has a bioenergetic role as a component of the mithocondrial respiratory chain, it inhibits mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, inducing ATP production and it is involved in ROS removal and prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. However the therapeutic application of CoQ(10) is limited by the lack of solubility and poor bio- availability, therefore it is a challenge to improve its water solubility in order to ameliorate the efficacy in tissues and fluids. This study was conducted in a model of acoustic trauma in the guinea pig where the effectiveness of CoQ(10) was compared with a soluble formulation of CoQ(10) (multicomposite CoQ(10) Terclatrate, Q-ter) given intraperitoneally 1 h before and once daily for 3 days after pure tone noise exposure (6 kHz for 1 h at 120 dB SPL). Functional and morphological studies were carried out by measuring auditory brainstem responses, scanning electron microscopy for hair cell loss count, active caspase 3 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP labelling assay in order to identify initial signs of apoptosis. Treatments decreased active caspase 3 expression and the number of apoptotic cells, but animals injected with Q-ter showed a greater degree of activity in preventing apoptosis and thus in improving hearing. These data confirm that solubility of Coenzyme Q(10) improves the ability of CoQ(10) in preventing oxidative injuries that result from mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. Genetic Variation in POU4F3 and GRHL2 Associated with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is an important occupational disease worldwide resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to examine whether genetic variations in POU4F3 and GRHL2 may influence susceptibility to NIHL in the Chinese population. A matched case-control study was carried out among 293 hearing loss individuals and 293 normal hearing workers drawn from a population of 3790 noise-exposed workers. Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in POU4F3 and GRHL2 were selected and genotyped. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the main effects of SNPs and the interactions between noise exposure and SNPs. Moreover, the interactions between predictor haplotypes and noise exposure were also analyzed. Analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs1981361 in the GRHL2 gene was associated with a higher risk of NIHL (adjusted OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.08–2.32, p = 0.018. Additionally, the GG genotype of rs3735715 in the GRHL2 gene was also a risk genotype (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.01–2.19, p = 0.046. Significant interactions were found between rs3735715, rs1981361 (GRHL2, rs1368402 as well as rs891969 (POU4F3 and noise exposure in the high-level exposure groups. Furthermore, the protective haplotype CA in the POU4F3 gene and the risk haplotype GCCG in the GRHL2 gene were identified combined with noise exposure. These results indicated that GRHL2 might be an NIHL susceptibility gene, but the effect of POU4F3 on NIHL could only be detected when taking noise exposure into account, and their effects were enhanced by higher levels of noise exposure. However, the differences were not significant after the Bonferroni correction was applied. These results should be seen as suggestive.

  19. Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss are associated with work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Serge-André; Leroux, Tony; Courteau, Marilene; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Richer, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on work-related injuries that required admission to hospital in a population of male workers exposed to occupational noise (≥80 dBA) which some displayed a hearing loss due to their exposure. The study population count 46 550 male workers, 1670 (3.6%) of whom incurred at least one work-related injury requiring admission to hospital within a period of 5 years following hearing tests conducted between 1987 and 2005. The noise exposure and hearing loss-related data were gathered during occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) screening. The hospital data were used to identify all members of the study population who were admitted, and the reason for admission. Finally, access to the death-related data made it possible to identify participants who died during the course of the study. Cox proportional hazards model taking into account hearing status, noise levels, age and cumulative duration of noise exposure at the time of the hearing test established the risk of work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital. For each dB of hearing loss, a statistically significant risk increase was observed (HR=1.01 dB 95% CI 1.006 to 1.01). An association (HR=2.36 95% CI 2.01 to 2.77) was also found between working in an occupational ambient noise ≥100 dBA and the risk of injury. From a safety perspective, this issue is highly relevant; especially when workers are exposed to intense ambient noise and NIHL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Trends in incidence of occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, noise-induced hearing loss, carpal tunnel syndrome and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in European countries from 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, S Jill; McNamee, Roseanne; van der Molen, Henk F; Paris, Christophe; Urban, Pavel; Campo, Giuseppe; Sauni, Riitta; Martínez Jarreta, Begoña; Valenty, Madeleine; Godderis, Lode; Miedinger, David; Jacquetin, Pascal; Gravseth, Hans M; Bonneterre, Vincent; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Faye, Serge; Mylle, Godewina; Wannag, Axel; Samant, Yogindra; Pal, Teake; Scholz-Odermatt, Stefan; Papale, Adriano; Schouteden, Martijn; Colosio, Claudio; Mattioli, Stefano; Agius, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) strategy for health and safety at work underlines the need to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (OD), but European statistics to evaluate this common goal are scarce. We aim to estimate and compare changes in incidence over time for occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders across 10 European countries. OD surveillance systems that potentially reflected nationally representative trends in incidence within Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland and the UK provided data. Case counts were analysed using a negative binomial regression model with year as the main covariate. Many systems collected data from networks of 'centres', requiring the use of a multilevel negative binomial model. Some models made allowance for changes in compensation or reporting rules. Reports of contact dermatitis and asthma, conditions with shorter time between exposure to causal substances and OD, were consistently declining with only a few exceptions. For OD with physical causal exposures there was more variation between countries. Reported NIHL was increasing in Belgium, Spain, Switzerland and the Netherlands and decreasing elsewhere. Trends in CTS and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders varied widely within and between countries. This is the first direct comparison of trends in OD within Europe and is consistent with a positive impact of European initiatives addressing exposures relevant to asthma and contact dermatitis. Taking a more flexible approach allowed comparisons of surveillance data between and within countries without harmonisation of data collection methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can have profound, negative effects on speech, language comprehension, communication, classroom learning, and social development. Studies indicate ... very loud sound, blast, or impulse, or from listening to loud sounds over an extended period. Preventing ...

  2. ‘Soglitude’- introducing a method of thinking thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Barazon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Soglitude’ is an invitation to acknowledge the existence of thresholds in thought. A threshold in thought designates the indetermination, the passage, the evolution of every state the world is in. The creation we add to it, and the objectivity we suppose, on the border of those two ideas lies our perceptive threshold. No state will ever be permanent, and in order to stress the temporary, fluent character of the world and our perception of it, we want to introduce a new suitable method to think change and transformation, when we acknowledge our own threshold nature. The contributions gathered in this special issue come from various disciplines: anthropology, philosophy, critical theory, film studies, political science, literature and history. The variety of these insights shows the resonance of the idea of threshold in every category of thought. We hope to enlarge the notion in further issues on physics and chemistry, as well as mathematics. The articles in this issue introduce the method of threshold thinking by showing the importance of the in-between, of the changing of perspective in their respective domain. The ‘Documents’ section named INTERSTICES, includes a selection of poems, two essays, a philosophical-artistic project called ‘infraphysique’, a performance on thresholds in the soul, and a dialogue with Israel Rosenfield. This issue presents a kaleidoscope of possible threshold thinking and hopes to initiate new ways of looking at things.For every change that occurs in reality there is a subjective counterpart in our perception and this needs to be acknowledged as such. What we name objective is reflected in our own personal perception in its own personal manner, in such a way that the objectivity of an event might altogether be questioned. The absolute point of view, the view from “nowhere”, could well be the projection that causes dogmatism. By introducing the method of thinking thresholds into a system, be it

  3. Crossing the Petawatt threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.

    1996-01-01

    A revolutionary new laser called the Petawatt, developed by Lawrence Livermore researchers after an intensive three-year development effort, has produced more than 1,000 trillion (open-quotes petaclose quotes) watts of power, a world record. By crossing the petawatt threshold, the extraordinarily powerful laser heralds a new age in laser research. Lasers that provide a petawatt of power or more in a picosecond may make it possible to achieve fusion using significantly less energy than currently envisioned, through a novel Livermore concept called open-quotes fast ignition.close quotes The petawatt laser will also enable researchers to study the fundamental properties of matter, thereby aiding the Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship efforts and opening entirely new physical regimes to study. The technology developed for the Petawatt has also provided several spinoff technologies, including a new approach to laser material processing

  4. Protective Effects of α-Tocopherol on ABR Threshold Shift in Rabbits Exposed to Noise and Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebi Kashani, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyyed Bagher; Khavanin, Ali; Allameh, Abdolamir; Mirzaee, Ramezan; Akbari, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Noise induced hearin gloss (NIHL) is one of the most important occupational disease world wide. NIHL has been found potentiate by simultaneous carbon monoxide (CO) exposure. Free radicals have been implicated in cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to noise and due to the CO hypoxia. This study examined whether α-tocopherol administration , as a free radical scavenger, causes the attenuation of auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts resulting from noise exposure and noise plus CO exposure. Forty-two rabbits were divided in to seven groups including control, noise + saline, noise + CO + saline, noise + α-tocopherol, noise + CO + α-tocopherol , CO + α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol alone. ABR was assessed before exposure, 1 hand 14 days post exposure. The administration of 50 mg/Kg of α-tocopherol prior, following and post exposure to noise or noise plus CO recovered permanent ABR threshold shift at 1 and KHz almost to the baseline and provided significant attenuation in permanent ABR threshold shift at 4 and 8 KHz in subject swhich were exposed to noise but it did not block the potentiating of threshold elevation by CO exposure (extra threshold loss by combined exposure) at 4 and 8 KHz. α Tocopherol provides protective effect against the hearing loss resulting from noise exposure and simultaneous exposure to noise plus CO.

  5. Tocopherol in irradiation of temporary hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaagerud, A.; Lund, N.; Peterson, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of tocopherol on the effect of local irradiation under induced ischaemia by temporary tourniquet of two rat tumours transplanted intramuscularly into one hindleg was evaluated. An impaired retardation of growth rate occurred in tumours irradiated under ischaemia. This effect was eliminated by pretreatment of animals with tocopherol. In separate experiments the method of inducing ischaemia was investigated by MDO-electrode measurements of tumour tissue oxygen pressure. A significant tumour hypoxia was found under tourniquet of the tumour-bearing leg of the animals. Pretreatment with tocopherol did not influence the tumour pO 2 . (Auth.)

  6. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  7. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  8. Temporary provision against Kernkraftwerk Biblis dismissed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    With its decision of November 19, 1979 - VIII IG 13/79 -, the Administrative Court of Hesse has refused the complaint of a Darmstadt resident whose application for a temporary provision interdicting further operation of the power plant units Biblis A and B had been refused by the Darmstadt Administrative Court. The costs of the procedure, including the extra-judicial costs of the witnesses heard, are to be paid by the plaintiff. The value in litigation was raised to DM 10 000,-. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 CKA [de

  9. Crossing the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John; Tambasco, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    First, we summarize the circumstances in which chaotic pilot-wave dynamics gives rise to quantum-like statistical behavior. For ``closed'' systems, in which the droplet is confined to a finite domain either by boundaries or applied forces, quantum-like features arise when the persistence time of the waves exceeds the time required for the droplet to cross its domain. Second, motivated by the similarities between this hydrodynamic system and stochastic electrodynamics, we examine the behavior of a bouncing droplet above the Faraday threshold, where a stochastic element is introduced into the drop dynamics by virtue of its interaction with a background Faraday wave field. With a view to extending the dynamical range of pilot-wave systems to capture more quantum-like features, we consider a generalized theoretical framework for stochastic pilot-wave dynamics in which the relative magnitudes of the drop-generated pilot-wave field and a stochastic background field may be varied continuously. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through their CMMI and DMS divisions.

  10. Local hypertrichosis: A rare complication of a temporary henna tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpolat, Nebahat Demet; Aras, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Temporary henna tattoos have become increasingly widespread among children and young people, especially in holiday spots in recent years. Although reactions to henna tattoo are becoming progressively more common, only few cases of a henna pseudo-tattoo resulting in temporary hypertrichosis have been reported so far. Here, we have reported a 5-year-old girl who developed allergic contact dermatitis and localized hypertrichosis on her right arm after application of temporary henna tattoo during summer holiday.

  11. Morbidity with temporary disability in Kozloduy NPP workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobreva, B.; Novkirishki, V.

    1993-01-01

    Changes with time in indicators of disease incidence with temporary disability in Kozloduy NPP personnel have been studied for the period 1974-1991. The data were compared with those for 'Sofia-Iztok' TPP. The causes contributing to formation of the indicators of frequency, severity, and average duration were examined. No temporary disability because of radiation exposure has been recorded. As a whole, less temporary disability has been found at NPP than at TPP. (author)

  12. Effect of GRM7 polymorphisms on the development of noise-induced hearing loss in Chinese Han workers: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peipei; Jiao, Jie; Chen, Guoshun; Zhou, Wenhui; Zhang, Huanling; Wu, Hui; Li, Yanhong; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin; Yu, Yue; Yu, Shanfa

    2018-01-05

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a complex, irreversible disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, a great many studies have been done to explore the NIHL susceptibility genes among humans. So far, high powerful detections have been founded that genes of potassium ion channel genes (KCNQ4 and KCNE1), catalase (CAT), protocadherin 15 (PCDH15), myosin 14 (MYH14) and heart shock protein (HSP70) which have been identified in more than one population may be associated with the susceptibility to NIHL. As for metabolic glutamate receptor7 gene (GRM7), a lot of researches mainly focus on age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and the results have shown that the polymorphisms of GRM7 are linked to the development of ARHL. However, little is known about the association of GRM7 and the susceptibility to NIHL. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of GRM7 polymorphisms on the susceptibility to NIHL. A nested case-control study based on the cohort in a Chinese steel factory was implemented in 292 cases and 584 controls matched with the same sex, the age difference ≤ 5 years old, the same type of work, duration of occupational noise exposure ≤2 years. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GRM7 were gained through selecting and genotyping SNPs. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the main effect of GRM7 polymorphisms on the susceptibility to NIHL and the gene-by-environment interaction. Furthermore, the gene-by-gene interactions were analyzed by generalized multiple dimensionality reduction (GMDR). This research discovered for the first time that the mutant allele C in rs1485175 of the GMR7 may decrease individuals' susceptibility to NIHL. The interaction between rs1485175 and cumulative noise exposure (CNE) at high level was found after the stratification according to CNE (p/p bon  = 0.014/0.007, OR = 0.550, 95% CI: 0.340-0.891). Permutation test of GMDR suggested

  13. Albania - Thresholds I and II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — From 2006 to 2011, the government of Albania (GOA) received two Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Threshold Programs totaling $29.6 million. Albania received...

  14. Threshold Concepts and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Brunetti, Korey; Hofer, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    What do we teach when we teach information literacy in higher education? This paper describes a pedagogical approach to information literacy that helps instructors focus content around transformative learning thresholds. The threshold concept framework holds promise for librarians because it grounds the instructor in the big ideas and underlying…

  15. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

  16. Temporary Immersion System for Date Palm Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Ahmed; Bayoudh, Chokri; Sellemi, Amel; Drira, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5.5-fold in comparison with that regenerated on agar-solidified medium) and plant material quality, thereby reducing production cost.

  17. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications

  18. 26 CFR 20.2032-1T - Alternate valuation (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) the value of the property as of the alternate valuation date. For example, assume that the decedent... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate valuation (temporary). 20.2032-1T...-1T Alternate valuation (temporary). (a) through (e) [Reserved] For further guidance, see § 20.2032-1...

  19. 19 CFR 210.77 - Temporary emergency action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary emergency action. 210.77 Section 210.77 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.77 Temporary...

  20. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary... by Individual Surety United States International Trade Commission Affidavit by Individual Surety 19...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1167 - Temporary absences and deeming rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1167 Temporary absences and deeming..., we consider your absence to be temporary through the date of discharge. (b) Child away at school. If you are an eligible child who is away at school but comes home on some weekends or lengthy holidays...

  2. 40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are temporary emergency measures... RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions What Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.10 What are temporary... security; (2) Controlling the source of contamination; (3) Containing the release to prevent spreading; (4...

  3. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25.277 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations...

  4. Impact of a temporary stoma on patients' everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne K; Soerensen, Erik E; Burcharth, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine patients' experiences of impact of a temporary stoma on their everyday life. Furthermore, we wanted to generate new knowledge and comprehension of learning how to live with a temporary stoma. BACKGROUND: There are many aspects, largely unexplored, that may influenc...

  5. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  6. 29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary heating devices. 1926.154 Section 1926.154 Labor... Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation. (1) Fresh air shall be supplied in sufficient quantities to... heating devices shall be installed to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the amount...

  7. 26 CFR 1.846-4T - Effective dates (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates (temporary). 1.846-4T Section 1.846-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.846-4T Effective dates (temporary). (a) [Reserved...

  8. 17 CFR 256.136 - Temporary cash investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary cash investments... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments. This account shall include the cost of investments, such as demand and time loans, bankers' acceptances...

  9. Factors affecting closure of a temporary stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Claire; Varma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine time to reversal of a temporary ostomy, reasons for delayed closure, and patient satisfaction with the scheduling of their closure and related hospital care. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The target population comprised patients who underwent creation of a temporary ostomy and reversal surgery within one National Health System Hospital Trust in the United Kingdom. The population served by this Trust are ethnically and socioeconomically diverse, predominantly living in urban areas around Greater London. Sixty-one persons who met inclusion criteria were identified. A two-step analytical process was undertaken. First, a literature review examining incidence and causes of delayed stoma closure was undertaken. Second, a postal survey of all patients who had had their stoma closed in 2009 was conducted. Respondents were allowed 2 weeks to complete and return the questionnaire. The survey instrument was developed locally and subjected to content validation using ostomy patients, surgical and nursing colleagues. It consisted of 9 questions querying time from original surgery to closure, reasons for delaying closure surgery beyond 12 weeks, and satisfaction with care. Twenty-seven patients returned their questionnaires, indicating they consented to participate; a response rate of 44%. Half of the respondents (n = 14 [52%]) underwent closure surgery within 6 months of stoma formation; the remaining 48% waited more than 6 months (median: 6.5 months, range: 1.5-26 months). Thirteen patients (48%) reported a delay in receiving their stoma closure; the main reason cited was the need for a course of adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. Three quarters of respondents (22 [74%]) were satisfied with the overall care they received. Findings from this study suggest that stoma closure may be associated with fewest complications if performed before 12 weeks.

  10. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  11. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a...

  12. Temporary Employment and the Future Labor Market Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Berglund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and explain the development of temporary employment in Sweden between 1992 and 2010, and to investigate the effect of temporary employment for individuals’ future career on the labor market. The article analyzes temporary employees’ status transitions on the labor market using Swedish Labour Force Survey (LFS data for the period 1992–2010. Each cohort consists of 2-year panels and focuses on changes between the first and last measuring points. The findings indicate that the specific type of temporary employment is crucial as regards whether or not it constitutes a stepping-stone toward permanent employment. The chances are greater in the case of, for example, substitutes, but are considerably less in the case of on-call employment. Certain types of temporary employment thus seem to be used by the employer to screen the employability of the employee, while others are used for achieving flexibility

  13. Associação entre perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído e zumbidos Association between noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Dias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo verificou a associação entre perda auditiva induzida por ruído (PAIR e queixa de zumbido em trabalhadores expostos ao ruído ocupacional. Foram entrevistados e avaliados trabalhadores com histórico de exposição ao ruído ocupacional atendidos em dois ambulatórios de audiologia. Estudou-se a existência de associação entre PAIR e ocorrência de zumbido por intermédio do ajuste de modelo de regressão logística, tendo como variável dependente o zumbido e como variável independente a PAIR, classificada em seis graus, controlada pelas co-variáveis idade e tempo de exposição ao ruído. Os dados foram coletados entre abril e outubro de 2003, na Cidade de Bauru, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, contemplando 284 trabalhadores. Estimou-se que a prevalência de zumbido aumenta de acordo com a evolução do dano auditivo, controlado para a idade e tempo de exposição ao ruído. Os achados justificam o investimento em programas de conservação auditiva particularmente voltados para o controle da emissão de ruídos na fonte e para a intervenção na evolução das perdas auditivas geradas pela exposição ao ruído visando à manutenção da saúde auditiva e à diminuição dos sintomas associados.The objective of this study was to verify an association between noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and tinnitus in workers exposed to occupational noise. Workers with a history of work noise exposure who attended two audiology outpatient clinics were interviewed and evaluated. The statistical association between NIHL and tinnitus was evaluated using an adjusted linear regression model, with tinnitus as the dependent variable and NIHL, classified into six levels, as the independent variable, with age and length of noise exposure as covariates. Data were collected from 284 workers between April and October, 2003, in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil. Tinnitus was observed to increase with the progression of auditory damage, controlled by age

  14. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  15. 78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a... provide law enforcement officers to work at the event. The temporary closure and temporary restrictions...) Weapon means a firearm, compressed gas or spring powered pistol or rifle, bow and arrow, cross bow...

  16. 76 FR 37147 - Notice of Temporary Closures and Temporary Restrictions on Specific Uses of Public Lands in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... days a week, to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during... provide additional law enforcement officers to work at the event. These temporary closures and temporary... authorized officer. 4. Definitions: (a) Weapon means a firearm, compressed gas or spring powered pistol or...

  17. 77 FR 63835 - Office of the Chief Information Officer; Submission for OMB Review; Temporary Contractor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... of the Chief Information Officer; Submission for OMB Review; Temporary Contractor Information... information collection requirement regarding temporary contractor information worksheet. A notice was... for temporary contractors as a result of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public...

  18. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A; Grynderup, Matias B; Hansen, Åse M; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M; Bonde, Jens P; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2017-01-01

    To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. In 2001-2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009-2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (-0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  19. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  20. Conceptions of nuclear threshold status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews some alternative definitions of nuclear threshold status. Each of them is important, and major analytical confusions would result if one sense of the term is mistaken for another. The motives for nations entering into such threshold status are a blend of civilian and military gains, and of national interests versus parochial or bureaucratic interests. A portion of the rationale for threshold status emerges inevitably from the pursuit of economic goals, and another portion is made more attraction by the derives of the domestic political process. Yet the impact on international security cannot be dismissed, especially where conflicts among the states remain real. Among the military or national security motives are basic deterrence, psychological warfare, war-fighting and, more generally, national prestige. In the end, as the threshold phenomenon is assayed for lessons concerning the role of nuclear weapons more generally in international relations and security, one might conclude that threshold status and outright proliferation coverage to a degree in the motives for all of the states involved and in the advantages attained. As this paper has illustrated, nuclear threshold status is more subtle and more ambiguous than outright proliferation, and it takes considerable time to sort out the complexities. Yet the world has now had a substantial amount of time to deal with this ambiguous status, and this may tempt more states to exploit it

  1. Permanent and temporary pacemaker implantation after orthotopic heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacal Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To determine the indication for and incidence and evolution of temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. METHODS: A retrospective review of 114 patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation InCor (Heart Institute USP BR between March 1985 and May 1993. We studied the incidence of and indication for temporary pacing, the relationship between pacing and rejection, the need for pemanent pacing and the clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Fourteen of 114 (12%heart transplant recipients required temporary pacing and 4 of 114 (3.5% patients required permanent pacing. The indication for temporary pacing was sinus node dysfunction in 11 patients (78.5% and atrioventricular (AV block in 3 patients (21.4%. The indication for permanent pacemaker implantation was sinus node dysfunction in 3 patients (75% and atrioventricular (AV block in 1 patient (25%. We observed rejection in 3 patients (21.4% who required temporary pacing and in 2 patients (50% who required permanent pacing. The previous use of amiodarone was observed in 10 patients (71.4% with temporary pacing. Seven of the 14 patients (50% died during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Sinus node dysfunction was the principal indication for temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. The need for pacing was related to worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation.

  2. Return to Work After Temporary Disability Pension in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija

    2015-09-01

    When it is possible that the employee's work ability can be restored through treatment or rehabilitation, disability pension in Finland is granted for a fixed period. We examined which factors are associated with return to work (RTW) after such temporary disability pension. The study included all Finnish residents whose temporary disability pension from the earnings-related pension system started in 2008 (N = 10,269). Competing risks regression analysis was applied to examine register-based determinants for RTW after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, other diseases, and injury over a 4-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of RTW was 25%. RTW was more probable after temporary disability pension due to injury and musculoskeletal diseases and less probable after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders. Younger age and higher education increased RTW but differences between genders, private and public sector employees, and occupational classes were relatively small. The probability of RTW was higher among those who were employed before their temporary disability pension (subhazard ratio in multivariate analysis 2.41 (95% CI 2.13-2.72) and among the 9% who participated in vocational rehabilitation during their pension [SHR 2.10 (95% CI 1.90-2.31)]. With some exceptions, the results were fairly similar for all diagnostic causes of temporary disability pension. Return to work after temporary disability pension was relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, in all diagnostic groups RTW continued for the whole follow-up period. The low educated and those not employed before temporary disability pension need more support in their RTW. The strong association between vocational rehabilitation and RTW suggests that increasing rehabilitation among those with impaired work ability may promote RTW.

  3. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss – A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.; Grynderup, Matias B.; Hansen, Åse M.; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M.; Bonde, Jens P.; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. Materials and Methods: In 2001–2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009–2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (−0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). Conclusions: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs. PMID:29192620

  4. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss – A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Frederiksen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. Materials and Methods: In 2001–2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009–2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%. Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A to 82.8 dB(A, and for workers exposed >85 dB(A, the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (−0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.36; 0.16. The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22. Conclusions: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  5. Temporary tattoo for wireless human pulse measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłowski, Andrzej; Janczak, Daniel; Krzemińska, Patrycja; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Screen-printed sensor for measuring human pulse was designed and first tests using a demonstrator device were conducted. Various materials and sensors' set ups were compared and the results are presented as the starting point for fabrication of fully functional device. As a screen printing substrate, commercially available temporary tattoo paper was used. Using previously developed nanomaterials-based pastes design of a pressure sensor was printed on the paper and attached to the epidermis. Measurements were aimed at determining sensors impedance constant component and its variability due to pressure wave caused by the human pulse. The constant component was ranging from 2kΩ to 6kΩ and the variations of the impedance were ranging from +/-200Ω to +/-2.5kΩ, depending on the materials used and the sensor's configuration. Calculated signal-to-noise ratio was 3.56:1 for the configuration yielding the highest signal level. As the device's net impedance influences the effectiveness of the wireless communication, the results presented allow for proper design of the sensor for future health-monitoring devices.

  6. Ultraconformable Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Laura M.; Sudha, Sudha; Tarantino, Sergio; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo; Cipriani, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Electrically interfacing the skin for monitoring personal health condition is the basis of skin‐contact electrophysiology. In the clinical practice the use of stiff and bulky pregelled or dry electrodes, in contrast to the soft body tissues, imposes severe restrictions to user comfort and mobility while limiting clinical applications. Here, in this work dry, unperceivable temporary tattoo electrodes are presented. Customized single or multielectrode arrays are readily fabricated by inkjet printing of conducting polymer onto commercial decal transfer paper, which allows for easy transfer on the user's skin. Conformal adhesion to the skin is provided thanks to their ultralow thickness (Tattoo electrode–skin contact impedance is characterized on short‐ (1 h) and long‐term (48 h) and compared with standard pregelled and dry electrodes. The viability in electrophysiology is validated by surface electromyography and electrocardiography recordings on various locations on limbs and face. A novel concept of tattoo as perforable skin‐contact electrode, through which hairs can grow, is demonstrated, thus permitting to envision very long‐term recordings on areas with high hair density. The proposed materials and patterning strategy make this technology amenable for large‐scale production of low‐cost sensing devices. PMID:29593975

  7. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1983-01-01

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  8. ESDRED Temporary Sealing Technology Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.; Garcia-Sineriz, J. L.; Barcena, I.; Alonso, M. C.; Fernandez Luco, L.; Garcia, J. L.; Fries, T.; Pettersson, S.; Boden, A.; Salo, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    The work in the ESDRED In te grated Project Module 4, Temporary Sealing (using low pH cement) Technology, consisted first of designing a low pH cement formulation and then of preparing several concrete designs suitable for the construction of sealing plugs and for rock support using shot crete techniques. Regarding sealing plugs, a short plug was constructed at Aspo in Sweden and it was very quickly loaded to failure i.e. slippage by applying water pressure to one face. A second, full scale plug was subsequently constructed at Grimsel test site in Switzerland. It was loaded using the swelling pressure created by bentonite blocks which were artificially hydrated. At time of writing the targeted pressure on the plug was not reached. As the saturation of the bentonite is taking longer than expected the partners involved agreed to continue with the saturation of the bentonite blocks and the related data monitoring beyond the ESDRED Project. The studies on low-pH shot crete for rock sup port were based on available recipes of low-pH concrete mixtures for use in a repository. Pilot and full scale tests were carried out in Sweden and in Switzerland. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  10. Temporary loop ileostomy: prospective study of indications and complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.; Samad, A.; Khanzada, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    To asses the indications and complications of temporary loop ileostomy. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan between February 2003 and August 2006. All patients who had temporary loop ileostomy during that period were included in this study. The indications and various postoperative complications were noted during postoperative hospital stay and subsequently during follow up till stoma were closed. Fifty six patients fulfilled the selection criteria during the study period. Typhoid (enteric) perforation was the most common indication of loop ileostomy accounting for about two thirds of all cases. Other indications were iatrogenic, covering ileostomy for rectal cancers, following resection anastomosis, tuberculosis, blunt abdominal trauma, anastomosis leak and rectovaginal fistula. Post operative skin excoriation was the most common complication while poor siting, transient edema, retraction and high output were other less common complications. Temporary loop ileostomy is the stoma of choice for temporary faecal diversion as most of its complications are manageable conservatively. (author)

  11. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... containing the following: (1) A description of the employer's business history and activities (i.e., primary...

  12. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or political subdivision. (b) In a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political... private individuals from exercising their rights to seek temporary or preliminary relief on their own...

  13. Indications, management, and complications of temporary inferior vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters.Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis.Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis.Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

  14. Doubler system quench detection threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepke, K.; Kuchnir, M.; Martin, P.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental study leading to the determination of the sensitivity needed for protecting the Fermilab Doubler from damage during quenches is presented. The quench voltage thresholds involved were obtained from measurements made on Doubler cable of resistance x temperature and voltage x time during quenches under several currents and from data collected during operation of the Doubler Quench Protection System as implemented in the B-12 string of 20 magnets. At 4kA, a quench voltage threshold in excess of 5.OV will limit the peak Doubler cable temperature to 452K for quenches originating in the magnet coils whereas a threshold of 0.5V is required for quenches originating outside of coils

  15. Drying firewood in a temporary solar kiln: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Sampson; Anthony F. Gasbarro

    1986-01-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine drying rates for small diameter, unsplit paper birch firewood that was dried: (1) in a conventional top-covered pile; (2) in a simple, temporary solar kiln; and (3) in tree length. Drying rates were the same for firewood piles whether they were in the temporary solar kilns or only covered on top to keep rain or snow from...

  16. 26 CFR 1.181-5T - Examples (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples (temporary). 1.181-5T Section 1.181-5T...) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.181-5T Examples (temporary). The following examples illustrate the application of §§ 1.181-1T through 1.181-4T: Example 1. X...

  17. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  18. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  19. Operation of Temporary Radioactive waste stoprage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinseem, A A; Abulfaraj, W H; Sohsah, M A; Kamal, S M; Mamoon, A M [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdelazizi University jeddah-21413, Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Radionuclides of various half lives have been in use for several years years at different Departments of king Abdulaziz university, the university hospital, and research center. The use of unsealed radionuclides in many laboratories, resulted in considerable amounts of solid and liquid radwaste, mainly radiopharmaceuticals. To avoid accumulation of radwastes in working areas, a temporary radioactive waste storage facility was built. Segregation of radwastes according to type was carried out, followed by collection into appropriate containers and transfer to the storage facility. Average radiation dose rate inside the store was maintained at about 75 {mu} h{sup -1} through use of appropriate shielding. The dose rates at points one meter outside the store walls were maintained at about 15-20 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. Utilization of radioisotopes during the period of 1991-1995 resulted in a volume of about 1.8 m{sup 3} of solid radwaste and about 200 L of liquid radwaste. Records of the store inventory are maintained in a computer database, listing dates, types, activities and packaging data pertinent to the radwastes delivered to the store. Quality assurance procedures are implemented during the different stages of the radwaste collection, transportation, and storage. Construction and operation of the storage facility comply with radiation safety requirements for the workers handling the radwastes, the public and the environment. The capacity of the storage facility is such that it will accommodate storage of generated radwastes of long half life up to year 2016. Permanent disposal of such radwastes may be indicated afterwards. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A threshold for dissipative fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and γ-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T thresh to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E Bar (T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T thresh /E Bar (T) thresh /E Bar (T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems

  1. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  2. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nechita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs.

  3. Threshold current for fireball generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuis, Geert C.

    1982-05-01

    Fireball generation from a high-intensity circuit breaker arc is interpreted here as a quantum-mechanical phenomenon caused by severe cooling of electrode material evaporating from contact surfaces. According to the proposed mechanism, quantum effects appear in the arc plasma when the radius of one magnetic flux quantum inside solid electrode material has shrunk to one London penetration length. A formula derived for the threshold discharge current preceding fireball generation is found compatible with data reported by Silberg. This formula predicts linear scaling of the threshold current with the circuit breaker's electrode radius and concentration of conduction electrons.

  4. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 870.3680 - Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker... § 870.3680 Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. (a) Temporary pacemaker electrode—(1) Identification. A temporary pacemaker electrode is a device consisting of flexible insulated...

  6. 48 CFR 37.112 - Government use of private sector temporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use of private sector temporaries. Contracting officers may enter into contracts with temporary help service firms for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries. Services... part 300, subpart E, Use of Private Sector Temporaries, and agency procedures. [56 FR 55380, Oct. 25...

  7. A cross-sectional study of hearing thresholds among 4627 Norwegian train and track maintenance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johnsen, Torstein Seip; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2014-10-16

    Railway workers performing maintenance work of trains and tracks could be at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss, since they are exposed to noise levels of 75-90 dB(A) with peak exposures of 130-140 dB(C). The objective was to make a risk assessment by comparing the hearing thresholds among train and track maintenance workers with a reference group not exposed to noise and reference values from the ISO 1999. Cross-sectional. A major Norwegian railway company. 1897 and 2730 male train and track maintenance workers, respectively, all exposed to noise, and 2872 male railway traffic controllers and office workers not exposed to noise. The primary outcome was the hearing threshold (pure tone audiometry, frequencies from 0.5 to 8 kHz), and the secondary outcome was the prevalence of audiometric notches (Coles notch) of the most recent audiogram. Train and track maintenance workers aged 45 years or older had a small mean hearing loss in the 3-6 kHz area of 3-5 dB. The hearing loss was less among workers younger than 45 years. Audiometric notches were slightly more prevalent among the noise exposed (59-64%) group compared with controls (49%) for all age groups. They may therefore be a sensitive measure in disclosing an early hearing loss at a group level. Train and track maintenance workers aged 45 years or older, on average, have a slightly greater hearing loss and more audiometric notches compared with reference groups not exposed to noise. Younger (<45 years) workers have hearing thresholds comparable to the controls. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Percolation Threshold Parameters of Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2009), 041141-041147 ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : percolation threshold * universality * infinite cluster Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.400, year: 2009

  9. Threshold analyses and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    In the context of threshold investigations of Lorentz violation, we discuss the fundamental principle of coordinate independence, the role of an effective dynamical framework, and the conditions of positivity and causality. Our analysis excludes a variety of previously considered Lorentz-breaking parameters and opens an avenue for viable dispersion-relation investigations of Lorentz violation

  10. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Bharucha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a mechanism to enhance the decay width of (pseudo-scalar resonances to photon pairs when the process is mediated by loops of charged fermions produced near threshold. Motivated by the recent LHC data, indicating the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum at approximately 750 GeV, we illustrate this threshold enhancement mechanism in the case of a 750 GeV pseudoscalar boson A with a two-photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the 12MA threshold and a small decay width, <1 MeV. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the A state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through loops of charginos with masses close to 12MA and ii a two Higgs doublet model in which A is again produced by gluon fusion but decays into photons through loops of vector-like charged heavy leptons. In both these scenarios, while the mass of the charged fermion has to be adjusted to be extremely close to half of the A resonance mass, the small total widths are naturally obtained if only suppressed three-body decay channels occur. Finally, the implications of some of these scenarios for dark matter are discussed.

  11. Temporary jobs and the severity of workplace accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C

    2017-06-01

    From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. We used microdata collected by the Italian national institute managing the mandatory insurance against work related accidents. We estimated linear models for a measure of the severity of the workplace accident. We controlled for time-invariant fixed effects at worker and firm levels to disentangle the impact of the type of contract from the spurious one induced by unobservables at worker and firm levels. Workers with a temporary contract, if subject to a workplace accident, were more likely to be confronted with severe injuries than permanent workers. When correcting the statistical analysis for injury under-reporting of temporary workers, we found that most of, but not all, the effect is driven by the under-reporting bias. The effect of temporary contracts on the injury severity survived the inclusion of worker and firm fixed effects and the correction for temporary workers' injury under-reporting. This, however, does not exclude the possibility that, within firms, the nature of the work may vary between different categories of workers. For example, temporary workers might be more likely to be assigned dangerous tasks because they might have less bargaining power. The findings will help in designing public policy effective in increasing temporary workers' safety at work and limiting their injury under-reporting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The issue of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, L.

    1994-01-01

    The states which have not joined the Non-proliferation Treaty nor have undertaken any other internationally binding commitment not to develop or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons are considered a threshold states. Their nuclear status is rendered opaque as a conscious policy. Nuclear threshold status remains a key disarmament issue. For those few states, as India, Pakistan, Israel, who have put themselves in this position, the security returns have been transitory and largely illusory. The cost to them, and to the international community committed to the norm of non-proliferation, has been huge. The decisions which could lead to recovery from the situation in which they find themselves are essentially at their own hands. Whatever assistance the rest of international community is able to extend, it will need to be accompanied by a vital political signal

  13. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  14. Realistic Realizations Of Threshold Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hassan M.

    1987-08-01

    Threshold logic, in which each input is weighted, has many theoretical advantages over the standard gate realization, such as reducing the number of gates, interconnections, and power dissipation. However, because of the difficult synthesis procedure and complicated circuit implementation, their use in the design of digital systems is almost nonexistant. In this study, three methods of NMOS realizations are discussed, and their advantages and shortcomings are explored. Also, the possibility of using the methods to realize multi-valued logic is examined.

  15. Root finding with threshold circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 462, Nov 30 (2012), s. 59-69 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : root finding * threshold circuit * power series Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512008006#

  16. Design proposal for door thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolka Radim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panels for openings in structures have always been an essential and integral part of buildings. Their importance in terms of a building´s functionality was not recognised. However, the general view on this issue has changed from focusing on big planar segments and critical details to sub-elements of these structures. This does not only focus on the forms of connecting joints but also on the supporting systems that keep the panels in the right position and ensure they function properly. One of the most strained segments is the threshold structure, especially the entrance door threshold structure. It is the part where substantial defects in construction occur in terms of waterproofing, as well as in the static, thermal and technical functions thereof. In conventional buildings, this problem is solved by pulling the floor structure under the entrance door structure and subsequently covering it with waterproofing material. This system cannot work effectively over the long term so local defects occur. A proposal is put forward to solve this problem by installing a sub-threshold door coupler made of composite materials. The coupler is designed so that its variability complies with the required parameters for most door structures on the European market.

  17. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

    2011-12-31

    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper

  18. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  19. Temporary brittle bone disease: fractures in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Colin R

    2009-12-01

    Temporary brittle bone disease is the name given to a syndrome first reported in 1990, in which fractures occur in infants in the first year of life. The fractures include rib fractures and metaphyseal fractures which are mostly asymptomatic. The radiological features of this disorder mimic those often ascribed to typical non-accidental injury. The subject has been controversial, some authors suggesting that the disorder does not exist. This study reports five infants with typical features of temporary brittle bone disease in whom all or most of the fractures took place while in hospital. A non-accidental cause can be eliminated with some confidence, and these cases provide evidence in support of the existence of temporary brittle bone disease.

  20. Transforming knowledge across domains in the temporary development spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise

    This paper addresses transformation of knowledge across different knowledge domains and competencies in the Front End of Innovation (FEI) [Koen 2002].We examine the temporary spaces [Clausen, Yoshinaka 2007] that emerge when different knowledge domains are brought into play (implicit or explicit......) in staging innovative concept development. FEI appears as temporary spaces for innovative processes; and studies have pointed out the limited uptake of user knowledge (Elgaard Jensen 2012). This paper will discuss the possibilities and barriers for uptake of user knowledge in FEI in relation...... to the constitutions of these temporary spaces. There seems to be a limited understanding of: how knowledge is transferred and transformed into design objects facilitating a process where knowledge enables innovative thinking across knowledge boundaries. The paper is based on empirical data primarily from case studies...

  1. Bedding material affects mechanical thresholds, heat thresholds and texture preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Francie; O’Hara, Crystal L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the bedding type animals are housed on can affect breeding behavior and cage environment. Yet little is known about its effects on evoked behavior responses or non-reflexive behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were housed for two weeks on one of five bedding types: Aspen Sani Chips® (standard bedding for our institute), ALPHA-Dri®, Cellu-Dri™, Pure-o’Cel™ or TEK-Fresh. Mice housed on Aspen exhibited the lowest (most sensitive) mechanical thresholds while those on TEK-Fresh exhibited 3-fold higher thresholds. While bedding type had no effect on responses to punctate or dynamic light touch stimuli, TEK-Fresh housed animals exhibited greater responsiveness in a noxious needle assay, than those housed on the other bedding types. Heat sensitivity was also affected by bedding as animals housed on Aspen exhibited the shortest (most sensitive) latencies to withdrawal whereas those housed on TEK-Fresh had the longest (least sensitive) latencies to response. Slight differences between bedding types were also seen in a moderate cold temperature preference assay. A modified tactile conditioned place preference chamber assay revealed that animals preferred TEK-Fresh to Aspen bedding. Bedding type had no effect in a non-reflexive wheel running assay. In both acute (two day) and chronic (5 week) inflammation induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in the hindpaw, mechanical thresholds were reduced in all groups regardless of bedding type, but TEK-Fresh and Pure-o’Cel™ groups exhibited a greater dynamic range between controls and inflamed cohorts than Aspen housed mice. PMID:26456764

  2. The Impact of Different Permissible Exposure Limits on Hearing Threshold Levels Beyond 25 dBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayapathi, Balachandar S; Su, Anselm Ting; Koh, David

    2014-10-01

    Development of noise-induced hearing loss is reliant on a few factors such as frequency, intensity, and duration of noise exposure. The occurrence of this occupational malady has doubled from 120 million to 250 million in a decade. Countries such as Malaysia, India, and the US have adopted 90 dBA as the permissible exposure limit. According to the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the exposure limit for noise is 90 dBA, while that of the US National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is 85 dBA for 8 hours of noise exposure. This study aimed to assess the development of hearing threshold levels beyond 25 dBA on adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit compared to 90 dBA. This is an intervention study done on two automobile factories. There were 203 employees exposed to noise levels beyond the action level. Hearing protection devices were distributed to reduce noise levels to a level between the permissible exposure limit and action level. The permissible exposure limits were 90 and 85 dBA in factories 1 and 2, respectively, while the action levels were 85 and 80 dBA, respectively. The hearing threshold levels of participants were measured at baseline and at first month of postshift exposure of noise. The outcome was measured by a manual audiometer. McNemar and chi-square tests were used in the statistical analysis. We found that hearing threshold levels of more than 25 dBA has changed significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention among participants from both factories (3000 Hz for the right ear and 2000 Hz for the left ear). There was a statistically significant association between participants at 3000 Hz on the right ear at 'deteriorated' level ( χ² (1) = 4.08, φ = - 0.142, P = 0.043), whereas there was worsening of hearing threshold beyond 25 dBA among those embraced 90 dBA. The adoption of 85 dBA as the permissible exposure limit has preserved hearing threshold level among participants at 3000 Hz

  3. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-10-01

    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  4. Temporary sharing prompts unrestrained disclosures that leave lasting negative impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Reto; Rüppell, Roland; John, Leslie K

    2017-11-07

    With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs ("selfies"), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media-technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces greater disclosure risks (i.e., people exhibit greater disinhibition in their selfies, studies 1 and 2). This increased disclosure is driven by reduced privacy concerns (study 2). However, observers' impressions of sharers are insensitive to permanence (i.e., whether the selfie was shared temporarily versus permanently) and are instead driven by the disinhibition exhibited in the selfie (studies 4-7). As a result, induced by the promise of temporary sharing, sharers of uninhibited selfies come across as having worse judgment than those who share relatively discreet selfies (studies 1, 2, and 4-7)-an attributional pattern that is unanticipated by sharers (study 3), that persists days after the selfie has disappeared (study 5), is robust to personal experience with temporary sharing (studies 6A and 6B), and holds even among friends (studies 7A and 7B). Temporary sharing may bring back forgetting, but not without introducing new (self-presentational) challenges. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Temporary hyperthyroidism (hypertriiodothyroninemia) to be evoked by stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehni, A.; Kampmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    From patients of intensive care unit suffering from acute myocardial infarction, decompensated hypertension with left heart insufficiency, severe coronary heart disease, pulmonary infarction, cerebral ischemia 102 were selected with suspicion of hyperthyroidism because of clinical signs. 12 patients fulfilled the criteria of temporary hyperthyroidism, 6 patients revealed persistent hyperthyroidism. Excluding other causes for evoked hyperthyroidism as common etiological factor psychogenic stress is discussed. It is concluded, that increased thyroid hormone concentration in patients of intensive care units should be controlled within a short time in order to delineate temporary hyperthyroidism against permanent hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  6. Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celegen, Mehmet; Karkıner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells’ syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells’ syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

  7. Multiple Institutional Logics in Inter-Institutional Temporary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Söderlund, Jonas

    for the planning and construction of a new super hospital in the capital of Sweden. Our empirical data demonstrates the important role institutional logics contribute with in understanding logics behind actions as well as emerging conflicts in practice throughout the project process. The paper identifies four......The idea of multiple institutional logics currently draws more and more attention as many organizational actors are forced to operate in ever more complex, temporary and vivid collaborations. We draw on findings from a unique case study of a temporary organization that carried the responsibility...

  8. Temporary emergency pacing-an orphan in district hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Knut; Johansen, Jens Brock; Gadler, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    This editorial discusses a report on the 1 year experience with temporary pacing, especially in the emergency setting, in several Norwegian district hospitals. The vast majority of the patients received transvenous temporary pacing, and the majority of leads were placed by noncardiologists....... The procedure times were long and complications were frequent. The organization of emergency pacing is discussed, and we suggest that unless qualified physicians can establish transvenous pacing, the patients who need that should be transferred with transcutaneous pacing as back-up during transport...

  9. Incidental Detection of Temporary Focal FDG Retention in the Spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youn Joon; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in discriminating malignancy from benign lesion. But because various false positive results reduce the diagnostic specificity, nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with possible false positive cases. Although many cases of high FDG uptake mimicking malignancy have been reported, temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen has not been reported previously. We report herein a phenomenon of temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen without evidence of metastasis in a 46 year old woman with a history of anal cancer.

  10. Temporary hyperthyroidism (hypertriiodothyroninemia) to be evoked by stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehni, A.; Kampmann, H.

    1982-10-01

    From patients of intensive care unit suffering from acute myocardial infarction, decompensated hypertension with left heart insufficiency, severe coronary heart disease, pulmonary infarction, cerebral ischemia 102 were selected with suspicion of hyperthyroidism because of clinical signs. 12 patients fulfilled the criteria of temporary hyperthyroidism, 6 patients revealed persistent hyperthyroidism. Excluding other causes for evoked hyperthyroidism as common etiological factor psychogenic stress is discussed. It is concluded, that increased thyroid hormone concentration in patients of intensive care units should be controlled within a short time in order to delineate temporary hyperthyroidism against permanent hyperthyroidism.

  11. Exits from Temporary Jobs in Europe: A Competing Risks Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Addio, Anna Christina; Rosholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different specificat......We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different...

  12. Optimizing Systems of Threshold Detection Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Banschbach, David C

    2008-01-01

    .... Below the threshold all signals are ignored. We develop a mathematical model for setting individual sensor thresholds to obtain optimal probability of detecting a significant event, given a limit on the total number of false positives allowed...

  13. 11 CFR 9036.1 - Threshold submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit or debit card, including one made over the Internet, the candidate shall provide sufficient... section shall not count toward the threshold amount. (c) Threshold certification by Commission. (1) After...

  14. Prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among workers of Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Kumar, Deepak Kishore

    2012-01-01

    Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have been recognized as a problem among workers in Indian industries. The major industries in India are based on manufacturing. There are appreciable numbers of casting and forging units spread across the country. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among the workers engaged in Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and compared with control group subjects. As a part of hearing protection intervention, audiometric tests were conducted at low (250-1000 Hz), medium (1500-3000 Hz), and high (4000-8000 Hz) frequencies. The occurrence of hearing loss was determined based on hearing threshold levels with a low fence of 25 dB. Comparisons were made for hearing threshold at different frequencies between the exposed and control groups using Student's t test. ANOVA was used for the comparison of hearing threshold dB at different frequencies among occupation and year of experience. A P value workers engaged in various processes of casting and forging industry showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive medium and higher frequencies. Occupation was significantly associated with NIHL, and hearing loss was particularly high among the workers of forging section. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared to the workers associated with other activities. The study shows alarming signals of NIHL, especially in forging workers. The occupational exposure to noise could be minimized by efficient control measures through engineering controls, administrative controls, and the use of personal protective devices. Applications of engineering and/or administrative controls are frequently not feasible in the developing countries for technical and financial reasons. A complete hearing conservation programme, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection

  15. Nuclear thermodynamics below particle threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Algin, E.; Bagheri, A.; Chankova, R.; Guttormsen, M.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Voinov, A.

    2005-01-01

    From a starting point of experimentally measured nuclear level densities, we discuss thermodynamical properties of nuclei below the particle emission threshold. Since nuclei are essentially mesoscopic systems, a straightforward generalization of macroscopic ensemble theory often yields unphysical results. A careful critique of traditional thermodynamical concepts reveals problems commonly encountered in mesoscopic systems. One of which is the fact that microcanonical and canonical ensemble theory yield different results, another concerns the introduction of temperature for small, closed systems. Finally, the concept of phase transitions is investigated for mesoscopic systems

  16. Perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão em condutores de ônibus Noise-induced hearing loss and high blood pressure among city bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleno Rodrigues Corrêa Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar as prevalências de perda auditiva induzida por ruído e hipertensão arterial em condutores de ônibus urbanos. MÉTODOS: Executou-se estudo transversal em amostra probabilística de 108 motoristas da cidade de Campinas, SP. Aplicou-se questionário sobre história profissional, jornadas de trabalho e repouso, e realizou-se exame físico e laboratorial incluindo medida da pressão arterial, audiometria tonal limiar, logoaudiometria e dados antropométricos, após a obtenção de consentimento. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de perda auditiva induzida por ruído foi de 32,7% do total examinado. Segundo a classificação de Merluzzi, nos 31 casos classificados em primeiro e segundo graus, observou-se que a freqüência audiométrica com perda auditiva mais acentuada foi a de 6 kHz (61,3%, seguida pela de 4 kHz (38,7%, sem diferenças significantes quanto à lateralidade. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial diastólica (PAD³90 mmHG; PAS³140 mmHG foi de 13,2% dos examinados. CONCLUSÕES: O risco de disacusia induzida por ruído foi maior para os motoristas com mais de seis anos de trabalho, após ajuste para a perda relacionada com a idade, com um odds ratio de 19,25 (1,59OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss and arterial hypertension among city bus drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on a probability random sample of 108 city bus drivers taken out of a total of 1,529 estimated professionals in the city of Campinas, Brazil, in 1991. Drivers were interviewed using questionnaires on job history, shift work and vacation schedules and underwent clinical and laboratory examinations including measures of blood pressure, pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and anthropometric data analysis after an informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was 32.7%. According to Merluzzi's classification, 91.2% (31 cases were classified as

  17. The Liminality of Temporary Agency Work: Exploring the Dimensions of Danish Temporary Agency Workers’ Liminal Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Winkler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of liminality refers to the experience to be betwixt-and-between social structures and the associated positions, statuses, and roles. We advance the original use of the concept by introducing the various meanings that the experience of being in a liminal state can take. Drawing on political anthropology we identify the dimensions of ‘types of subjects,’ ‘time,’ ‘space,’ and ‘scale’ in order to analytically unlock the liminal experience. Exemplifying our concept we present the findings from an own study of temporary agency workers in Denmark. Exploring the workers’ interpretations allows us to illustrate to what extent their employment situation constitutes a multi-dimensional liminal experience between established social structures and employment categories. The article emphasizes the complexity of the liminal experience. Theoretically and empirically, we show the many meanings along which liminality can unfold in organizational and work-related contexts. We argue that future studies should explore the various dimensions in other contexts of passages from one relatively stable state to another. In doing so, similarities and differences between various liminal experiences and the role the various dimensions play could be identified.

  18. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates 'good' glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from 'bad' glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region

  19. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  20. Epidemic threshold in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Huijuan; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2013-12-01

    Epidemics have so far been mostly studied in undirected networks. However, many real-world networks, such as the online social network Twitter and the world wide web, on which information, emotion, or malware spreads, are directed networks, composed of both unidirectional links and bidirectional links. We define the directionality ξ as the percentage of unidirectional links. The epidemic threshold τc for the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic is lower bounded by 1/λ1 in directed networks, where λ1, also called the spectral radius, is the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. In this work, we propose two algorithms to generate directed networks with a given directionality ξ. The effect of ξ on the spectral radius λ1, principal eigenvector x1, spectral gap (λ1-λ2), and algebraic connectivity μN-1 is studied. Important findings are that the spectral radius λ1 decreases with the directionality ξ, whereas the spectral gap and the algebraic connectivity increase with the directionality ξ. The extent of the decrease of the spectral radius depends on both the degree distribution and the degree-degree correlation ρD. Hence, in directed networks, the epidemic threshold is larger and a random walk converges to its steady state faster than that in undirected networks with the same degree distribution.

  1. Computational gestalts and perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desolneux, Agnès; Moisan, Lionel; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    In 1923, Max Wertheimer proposed a research programme and method in visual perception. He conjectured the existence of a small set of geometric grouping laws governing the perceptual synthesis of phenomenal objects, or "gestalt" from the atomic retina input. In this paper, we review this set of geometric grouping laws, using the works of Metzger, Kanizsa and their schools. In continuation, we explain why the Gestalt theory research programme can be translated into a Computer Vision programme. This translation is not straightforward, since Gestalt theory never addressed two fundamental matters: image sampling and image information measurements. Using these advances, we shall show that gestalt grouping laws can be translated into quantitative laws allowing the automatic computation of gestalts in digital images. From the psychophysical viewpoint, a main issue is raised: the computer vision gestalt detection methods deliver predictable perception thresholds. Thus, we are set in a position where we can build artificial images and check whether some kind of agreement can be found between the computationally predicted thresholds and the psychophysical ones. We describe and discuss two preliminary sets of experiments, where we compared the gestalt detection performance of several subjects with the predictable detection curve. In our opinion, the results of this experimental comparison support the idea of a much more systematic interaction between computational predictions in Computer Vision and psychophysical experiments.

  2. Threshold enhancement of diphoton resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha, Aoife; Goudelis, Andreas

    2016-10-10

    The data collected by the LHC collaborations at an energy of 13 TeV indicates the presence of an excess in the diphoton spectrum that would correspond to a resonance of a 750 GeV mass. The apparently large production cross section is nevertheless very difficult to explain in minimal models. We consider the possibility that the resonance is a pseudoscalar boson $A$ with a two--photon decay mediated by a charged and uncolored fermion having a mass at the $\\frac12 M_A$ threshold and a very small decay width, $\\ll 1$ MeV; one can then generate a large enhancement of the $A\\gamma\\gamma$ amplitude which explains the excess without invoking a large multiplicity of particles propagating in the loop, large electric charges and/or very strong Yukawa couplings. The implications of such a threshold enhancement are discussed in two explicit scenarios: i) the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in which the $A$ state is produced via the top quark mediated gluon fusion process and decays into photons predominantly through...

  3. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... accommodations, food and beverage, retail sales, boat rentals, and other services at Crabtree Falls, Price Lake... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0511-7182; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these

  5. Characterizing temporary hydrological regimes at a European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkby, M.J.; Gallart, F.; Kjeldsen, T.R.; Irvine, B.J.; Froebrich, J.; Porto, Lo A.

    2011-01-01

    Monthly duration curves have been constructed from climate data across Europe to help address the relative frequency of ecologically critical low flow stages in temporary rivers, when flow persists only in disconnected pools in the river bed. The hydrological model is 5 based on a partitioning of

  6. Temporary worker in the nuclear power industry: an equity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    There are clear indications based both on the statistical data and on empirical evidence that the employment of large numbers of temporary workers has become a permanent and growing characteristic of the industry. It appears that the size of that work force has been seriously underestimated and that it receives a disproportionate share of the occupational radiation. In order to stay within the limits governing individual exposure in the workplace, the risk has been spread among a larger segment of the population. These facts raise important and ongoing issues of societal and employer responsibility. By the reckonings of this study, the total number of workers employed on a temporary basis by the nuclear power industry is eighteen times greater than those much more narrowly defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as transient workers: individuals hired and terminating employment with two or more employers in one quarter. It is estimated that the whole temporary work force numbered about 23,520 in 1976, over a third (35%) of the industry total, and absorbed 47.5% of the total occupational radiation dose. The problems, then, are not inconsiderable: they affect thousands of individuals, a significant segment of the nuclear power industry's work force, members of society who are subjected to a disproportionate burden of radiation risk. Among the conclusions is that it may be necessary to establish special standards, limitations, and records for temporary workers to ensure adequate health protection, follow-up, and care

  7. Understanding the development of temporary agency work in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.S. Koene (Bas); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.M. Groenewegen (John)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article develops an explanatory framework for understanding the growth and development of temporary agency work (TAW) and the related industry. The analysis shows that explanations based on economic logic are helpful in understanding the choice of TAW in general. These explanations,

  8. 26 CFR 1.897-5T - Corporate distributions (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... also subject to the tax avoidance rules of § 1.897-6T(c). (b) Distributions by domestic corporations—(1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.897-5T Corporate distributions (temporary...) Any U.S. tax paid by or on behalf of the distributee with respect to the distribution. (2...

  9. Managing temporary workers: work identity, diversity and operational HR choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bas; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Strategic HRM theory argues that organisations should distinguish different types of employees according to their value and availability. We argue that this has resulted in an underestimation of the importance of specific HRM practices in relation to temporary employees. Building on theoretical work

  10. 41 CFR 101-1.103 - FPMR temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true FPMR temporary regulations. 101-1.103 Section 101-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101...

  11. 41 CFR 115-1.103 - Temporary-type FPMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary-type FPMR. 115-1.103 Section 115-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1...

  12. 20 CFR 655.34 - Validity of temporary labor certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... minor changes in the period of employment, only when a written request is submitted to the CO and... to make the labor certification determination required under § 655.32. (4) The CO may change the date...

  13. Temporary and long-term consequences of bereavement on happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.A.; de Graaf, P.M.

    In this article, we examine the temporary and long-term consequences of the death of a parent or child on happiness. According to set-point theory external conditions are expected to only have a short-term or limited influence on happiness. This directly contradicts the basic assumption of affective

  14. 30 CFR 816.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., revegetation, environmental monitoring, and water treatment activities that will continue during the temporary... Section 816.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING...

  15. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  16. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  17. 5 CFR 351.608 - Permissive temporary exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... This does not preclude the employee from receiving or accepting a job offer in the same competitive... date beyond the effective date of the reduction in force when the temporary retention of a lower... retention will end; and (2) List opposite the employee's name on the retention register the reasons for the...

  18. Temporary Agency Work as a Means of Achieving Flexicurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Håkansson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After decades of debate about flexibility, flexicurity has become a new buzzword in working life. Flexicurity refers to both the employer’s demand for flexibility and the employee’s demand for security. Thus, the idea is to solve the flexibility–security trade-off. There is also a discussion that mentions temporary agency work as one way of creating a flexicurity system. The flexibility potential is not called into question—numerical flexibility is a quite common motive for using temporary agency workers. However, the security dimension has to be scrutinized. The aim of this article is to analyze the temporary work agency industry’s potential for providing the security dimensions of the flexicurity model in a Swedish context. The study is based on a survey of whitecollar temporary agency workers in Sweden (n = 533. Overall, the vast majority do not perceive security. Our most important result is that both the work agency and the user firm have a dual impact on the agency workers’ perception of security.

  19. Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is it cosmetically preferable? Taha Alkhatrawi, Radi Elsherbini and Djamal Ouslimane. Purpose In an attempt to minimize the scars and improve the cosmetic outcome in children, the umbilical site has been chosen for colostomy formation in patients with.

  20. Early closure of temporary ileostomy--the EASY trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Correa-Marinez, Adiela; Angenete, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Reversal of a temporary ileostomy is generally associated with a low morbidity and mortality. However, ostomy reversal may cause complications requiring reoperation with subsequent major complications, in ranges from 0% to 7-9% and minor complications varying from 4-5% to 30%. Based on studies exploring...

  1. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts, permits and other documents... roads constructed or used thereunder so as to permit the reestablishment by artificial or natural means...

  2. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Docket 2010-0009, Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of... agency travel programs, save money on travel costs, better protect the environment, and conserve natural...

  3. Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies non-standard employment, namely temporary workers, and estimate the effect of this type of employment on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Communities of belonging in the temporariness of the Danish Asylum System: Shalini’s anchoring points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Refugees often find themselves in a protracted situation of temporariness, as applications for asylum are processed, deportations negotiated and possible extensions of temporary protection status considered within the context of increasingly restrictive governmental policies across Europe. Through...

  5. A diatom functional-based approach to assess changing environmental conditions in temporary depressional wetlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Riato, L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available is limited although important for the development of temporary wetland biological assessments. We assessed how diatom life-form and ecological guilds responded to a seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical gradient in three least human-disturbed, temporary...

  6. Physical performance deterioration of temporary housing residents after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ishii

    2015-01-01

    We revealed that standing stability was impaired among elderly temporary housing residents 1.5 years after the disaster. Disaster responders should take into account the health risks associated with living in temporary housing.

  7. Working conditions, work life and quality of life of the temporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working conditions, work life and quality of life of the temporary support staff ... and expectations of the temporary support staff with regard to their working ... conditions mainly as unpleasant, but that they adapted because of the team spirit.

  8. 5 CFR 890.1105 - Initial election of temporary continuation of coverage; application time limitations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (ii) The date of the divorce or annulment. (e) If an individual who is eligible for temporary... determines that an eligible individual was unable, for cause beyond his or her control, to elect temporary...

  9. 78 FR 46339 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of Temporary Moratoria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...] Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of Temporary Moratoria on... combat fraud, waste, and abuse in Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP... Health Insurance Programs; Additional Screening Requirements, Application Fees, Temporary Enrollment...

  10. Diatom-based models for inferring water chemistry and hydrology in temporary depressional wetlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Riato, L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the response of temporary depressional wetland diatoms to human-induced disturbances is a limited and important component for the development of temporary wetland biological assessments in human-modified landscapes. Establishing a...

  11. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard......BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without......·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100...

  12. Detection thresholds of macaque otolith afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong-Jie; Dickman, J David; Angelaki, Dora E

    2012-06-13

    The vestibular system is our sixth sense and is important for spatial perception functions, yet the sensory detection and discrimination properties of vestibular neurons remain relatively unexplored. Here we have used signal detection theory to measure detection thresholds of otolith afferents using 1 Hz linear accelerations delivered along three cardinal axes. Direction detection thresholds were measured by comparing mean firing rates centered on response peak and trough (full-cycle thresholds) or by comparing peak/trough firing rates with spontaneous activity (half-cycle thresholds). Thresholds were similar for utricular and saccular afferents, as well as for lateral, fore/aft, and vertical motion directions. When computed along the preferred direction, full-cycle direction detection thresholds were 7.54 and 3.01 cm/s(2) for regular and irregular firing otolith afferents, respectively. Half-cycle thresholds were approximately double, with excitatory thresholds being half as large as inhibitory thresholds. The variability in threshold among afferents was directly related to neuronal gain and did not depend on spike count variance. The exact threshold values depended on both the time window used for spike count analysis and the filtering method used to calculate mean firing rate, although differences between regular and irregular afferent thresholds were independent of analysis parameters. The fact that minimum thresholds measured in macaque otolith afferents are of the same order of magnitude as human behavioral thresholds suggests that the vestibular periphery might determine the limit on our ability to detect or discriminate small differences in head movement, with little noise added during downstream processing.

  13. Algorithmic-Reducibility = Renormalization-Group Fixed-Points; ``Noise''-Induced Phase-Transitions (NITs) to Accelerate Algorithmics (``NIT-Picking'') Replacing CRUTCHES!!!: Gauss Modular/Clock-Arithmetic Congruences = Signal X Noise PRODUCTS..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Cook-Levin computational-"complexity"(C-C) algorithmic-equivalence reduction-theorem reducibility equivalence to renormalization-(semi)-group phase-transitions critical-phenomena statistical-physics universality-classes fixed-points, is exploited with Gauss modular/clock-arithmetic/model congruences = signal X noise PRODUCT reinterpretation. Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS(SON of ``TRIZ''): Category-Semantics(C-S) tabular list-format truth-table matrix analytics predicts and implements "noise"-induced phase-transitions (NITs) to accelerate versus to decelerate Harel [Algorithmics(1987)]-Sipser[Intro. Theory Computation(1997) algorithmic C-C: "NIT-picking" to optimize optimization-problems optimally(OOPO). Versus iso-"noise" power-spectrum quantitative-only amplitude/magnitude-only variation stochastic-resonance, this "NIT-picking" is "noise" power-spectrum QUALitative-type variation via quantitative critical-exponents variation. Computer-"science" algorithmic C-C models: Turing-machine, finite-state-models/automata, are identified as early-days once-workable but NOW ONLY LIMITING CRUTCHES IMPEDING latter-days new-insights!!!

  14. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will be...

  15. 76 FR 34080 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary Marketing... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Temporary Marketing Permit Applications--21 CFR 130.17... submitted recent requests for temporary marketing permits. Based on this information, we estimate that there...

  16. Temporary Contracts: Effect on Job Satisfaction and Personal Lives of Recent Phd Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J. F.; Belder, Rosalie; Sonneveld, Hans; van Bochove, Cornelis A.; van der Weijden, Inge C. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we assess the effects of temporary employment on job satisfaction and the personal lives of recent PhD graduates. Temporary employment is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sectors, but has been relatively common in academia, especially for early career scientists. Labor market theory shows temporary employment to have a…

  17. 29 CFR 4.176 - Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time... to temporary and part-time employees. (a) As set forth in § 4.165(a)(2), the Act makes no distinction, with respect to its compensation provisions, between temporary, part-time, and full-time employees...

  18. The Temporary Help Industry: A Response to the Dual Internal Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Garth; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study of the rapidly growing temporary help industry draws on Commerce Department data and the results of the authors' national mail survey of employers. The authors also conducted interviews in the San Francisco area with employers of temporary help and with representatives of temporary help agencies and labor unions. (Author/CT)

  19. 75 FR 11627 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities... Department of the Treasury (Treasury) is granting temporary exemptions from certain Government Securities Act...).pdf. \\8\\ 75 FR 4626, January 28, 2010 Order Granting a Temporary Exemption from Certain Government...

  20. AGENCY CONTRIBUTION IN ACHIEVING TEMPORARY AGENCY WORKERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: A STUDY IN ABC (PVT LTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G.T.N Perera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary agency workers are coming under non-standard employments, who have temporary attachment to the working organization. With dynamic business environment and flexible work arrangements, temporary agency employments are also emerged in Sri Lanka. Temporary agency workers are dual committed employees. However, with this dual commitment, organizations face issues in achieving temporary agency workers’ commitment due to low attention of agencies to temporary agency workers. Even though the Client organization provides due attention to temporary agency workers, they fail to receive due commitment due to the lack of attention from agency to temporary agency workers. This study was conducted to identify the agency related factors affecting temporary agency workers’ commitment. This was carried out as a cross sectional field study with a sample of 93 workers from temporary agency works in the ABC (pvt ltd. 93 temporary agency workers were selected as sample. Data were collected via a standard questionnaire that met accepted standards of validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics, Simple ranking, Factor analysis, ANOVA and Independent Sample T-Test technique were performed to analyze data. No of Temporary workers to supervisor (temp to consult ratio is the most influencing factor of temporary agency workers’ commitment in agency context. Job satisfaction, agency support, side bets, interactional justice, lack of alternative employments, procedural justice, distributive justice, reciprocity norm acceptance, socialization, breach of psychological contract, lack of skill transferability are the other factors, which are ordered from most influencing factor to less affecting factor to workers’ organizational commitment . Findings revealed that eleven out of thirteen factors are job related factors, other two are organization related and person related factors. Most client companies provide their attention, while agencies fail to provide

  1. Test-retest reliability of pure-tone thresholds from 0.5 to 16 kHz using Sennheiser HDA 200 and Etymotic Research ER-2 earphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Smurzynski, Jacek

    2004-04-01

    The purposes of the study were: (1) To evaluate the intrasession test-retest reliability of pure-tone thresholds measured in the 0.5-16 kHz frequency range for a group of otologically healthy subjects using Sennheiser HDA 200 circumaural and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphones and (2) to compare the data with existing criteria of significant threshold shifts related to ototoxicity and noise-induced hearing loss. Auditory thresholds in the frequency range from 0.5 to 6 kHz and in the extended high-frequency range from 8 to 16 kHz were measured in one ear of 138 otologically healthy subjects (77 women, 61 men; mean age, 24.4 yr; range, 12-51 yr) using HDA 200 and ER-2 earphones. For each subject, measurements of thresholds were obtained twice for both transducers during the same test session. For analysis, the extended high-frequency range from 8 to 16 kHz was subdivided into 8 to 12.5 and 14 to 16 kHz ranges. Data for each frequency and frequency range were analyzed separately. There were no significant differences in repeatability for the two transducer types for all frequency ranges. The intrasession variability increased slightly, but significantly, as frequency increased with the greatest amount of variability in the 14 to 16 kHz range. Analyzing each individual frequency, variability was increased particularly at 16 kHz. At each individual frequency and for both transducer types, intrasession test-retest repeatability from 0.5 to 6 kHz and 8 to 16 kHz was within 10 dB for >99% and >94% of measurements, respectively. The results indicated a false-positive rate of HDA 200. Repeatability was similar for both transducer types. Intrasession test-retest repeatability from 0.5 to 12.5 kHz at each individual frequency including the frequency range susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss was excellent for both transducers. Repeatability was slightly, but significantly poorer in the frequency range from 14 to 16 kHz compared with the frequency ranges from 0.5 to 6

  2. Temporary Life Changes and the Timing of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Breen, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Marriage is a risky undertaking that people enter with incomplete information about their partner and their future life circumstances. A large literature has shown how new information gained from unforeseen but long-lasting or permanent changes in life circumstances may trigger a divorce. We extend this literature by considering how information gained from a temporary change in life circumstances-in our case, a couple having a child with infantile colic-may affect divorce behavior. Although persistent life changes are known to induce divorce, we argue that a temporary stressful situation allows couples more quickly to discern the quality of their relationship, in some cases leading them to divorce sooner than they otherwise would have. We formalize this argument in a model of Bayesian updating and test it using data from Denmark. We find that the incidence of infantile colic shortens the time to divorce or disruption among couples who would have split up anyway.

  3. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  4. Need for relevant timescales when crediting temporary carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    carbon storage in carbon footprinting. Methods: Implications of using a 100-year accounting period is evaluated via a literature review study of the global carbon cycle, as well as by analysing the crediting approaches that are exemplified by the PAS 2050 scheme for crediting temporary carbon storage......-term climatic benefits is considered to require storage of carbon for at least thousand years. However, it has been proposed that there may exist tipping points for the atmospheric CO2 concentration beyond which irreversible climate changes occur. To reduce the risk of passing such tipping points, fast...... mitigation of the rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration is required and in this perspective, shorter storage times may still provide climatic benefits. Conclusions: Both short- and long-term perspectives should be considered when crediting temporary carbon storage, addressing both acute effects...

  5. Threshold behavior in electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghpour, H.R.; Greene, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Ever since the classic work of Wannier in 1953, the process of treating two threshold electrons in the continuum of a positively charged ion has been an active field of study. The authors have developed a treatment motivated by the physics below the double ionization threshold. By modeling the double ionization as a series of Landau-Zener transitions, they obtain an analytical formulation of the absolute threshold probability which has a leading power law behavior, akin to Wannier's law. Some of the noteworthy aspects of this derivation are that the derivation can be conveniently continued below threshold giving rise to a open-quotes cuspclose quotes at threshold, and that on both sides of the threshold, absolute values of the cross sections are obtained

  6. A numerical study of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.S.; Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Hategan, C.

    1979-01-01

    There are some experimental evidences of charged particle threshold states. On the statistical background of levels, some simple structures were observed in excitation spectrum. They occur near the coulombian threshold and have a large reduced width for the decay in the threshold channel. These states were identified as charged cluster threshold states. Such threshold states were observed in sup(15,16,17,18)O, sup(18,19)F, sup(19,20)Ne, sup(24)Mg, sup(32)S. The types of clusters involved were d, t, 3 He, α and even 12 C. They were observed in heavy-ions transfer reactions in the residual nucleus as strong excited levels. The charged particle threshold states occur as simple structures at high excitation energy. They could be interesting both from nuclear structure as well as nuclear reaction mechanism point of view. They could be excited as simple structures both in compound and residual nucleus. (author)

  7. Mapping the temporary and perennial character of whole river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferreras, A. M.; Barquín, J.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of temporary and perennial river channels in a whole catchment is important for effective integrated basin management and river biodiversity conservation. However, this information is usually not available or is incomplete. In this study, we present a statistically based methodology to classify river segments from a whole river network (Deva-Cares catchment, Northern Spain) as temporary or perennial. This method is based on an a priori classification of a subset of river segments as temporary or perennial, using field surveys and aerial images, and then running Random Forest models to predict classification membership for the rest of the river network. The independent variables and the river network were derived following a computer-based geospatial simulation of riverine landscapes. The model results show high values of overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the evaluation of the fitted model to the training and testing data set (≥0.9). The most important independent variables were catchment area, area occupied by broadleaf forest, minimum monthly precipitation in August, and average catchment elevation. The final map shows 7525 temporary river segments (1012.5 km) and 3731 perennial river segments (662.5 km). A subsequent validation of the mapping results using River Habitat Survey data and expert knowledge supported the validity of the proposed maps. We conclude that the proposed methodology is a valid method for mapping the limits of flow permanence that could substantially increase our understanding of the spatial links between terrestrial and aquatic interfaces, improving the research, management, and conservation of river biodiversity and functioning.

  8. How Does Temporary Agency Work Impact German Agency Workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Spermann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The enormous speed of change in the working world is associated with greater job insecurity. As a dynamic external flexibilization instrument, temporary agency work is characterized by high labor turnover rates. As a result, agency workers might perceive more job insecurity than permanent staff. This paper surveys German empirical studies on outcome variables such as job satisfaction, commitment, health, employability, social participation and effects on personal life for agency workers. It i...

  9. Evaluation of color stability of different temporary restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Quinelli Mazaro

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionTemporary restorative materials are widely used, however, little is know about their color stability.Objectiveto evaluate the color stability of the following temporary restorative materials: acrylic and bis-acrylic resins after immersion in pigmenting solutions for different periods of storage.Material and methodFour materials were tested (Dêncor/Clássico, Protemp 4/3M ESPE; Structur 2 SC/Voco; Luxatemp AM Plus/DMG and 30 test specimens (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick per material were fabricated. They were divided according to the storage medium (artificial saliva, saliva + cola type soda, and saliva + coffee and storage time intervals (2, 5, 7 and 15 days. Color measurements were made before and after immersions, with use of a spectrophotometer, by means of the CIE L*a*b* system. The data were analyzed by the analysis of variance and the Tukey Test, at a level of significance of 5%.ResultAcrylic resin presented greater color stability in comparison with bis-acrylic resins (p<0.001. When bis-acrylic resins were compared no significant difference was observed between the resins Structur and Luxatemp (p=0.767. As regards solutions tested, coffee showed the highest color change values (p<0.001, and the longer the storage time interval, the greater was the color change in all the temporary restorative materials analyzed (p<0.001.ConclusionAcrylic resin presented greater color stability in comparison with bis-acrylic resins (p<0.001. Coffee caused the greatest color change, and immersion time was determinant in color stability of the temporary materials analyzed.

  10. Iran: the next nuclear threshold state?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A nuclear threshold state is one that could quickly operationalize its peaceful nuclear program into one capable of producing a nuclear weapon. This thesis compares two known threshold states, Japan and Brazil, with Iran to determine if the Islamic Republic could also be labeled a threshold state. Furthermore, it highlights the implications such a status could have on U.S. nonproliferation policy. Although Iran's nuclear program is mir...

  11. Dynamical thresholds for complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    It is our purpose here to study the effect of nuclear dissipation and shape parametrization on dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. This is done by solving numerically classical equations of motion for head-on collisions to determine whether the dynamical trajectory in a multidimensional deformation space passes inside the fission saddle point and forms a compound nucleus, or whether it passes outside the fission saddle point and reseparates in a fast-fission or deep-inelastic reaction. Specifying the nuclear shape in terms of smoothly joined portions of three quadratic surfaces of revolution, we take into account three symmetric deformation coordinates. However, in some cases we reduce the number of coordinates to two by requiring the ends of the fusing system to be spherical in shape. The nuclear potential energy of deformation is determined in terms of a Coulomb energy and a double volume energy of a Yukawa-plus-exponential folding function. The collective kinetic energy is calculated for incompressible, nearly irrotational flow by means of the Werner-Wheeler approximation. Four possibilities are studied for the transfer of collective kinetic energy into internal single-particle excitation energy: zero dissipation, ordinary two body viscosity, one-body wall-formula dissipation, and one-body wall-and-window dissipation

  12. Carbon Reduction Measures-Based LCA of Prefabricated Temporary Housing with Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary housing plays an important role in providing secure, hygienic, private, and comfortable shelter in the aftermath of disaster (such as flood, fire, earthquake, etc.. Additionally, temporary housing can also be used as a sustainable form of on-site residences for construction workers. While most of the building components used in temporary housing can be manufactured in a plant, prefabrication technology improves the production efficiency of temporary housing; furthermore, integrated renewable energy systems, for example, solar photovoltaic (PV system, offer benefits for temporary housing operations. In order to assess the environmental impacts of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems, this study first divides the life cycle of temporary housing into six stages, and then establishes a life cycle assessment (LCA model for each stage. Furthermore, with the aim of reducing the environmental impacts, life cycle carbon reduction measures are proposed for each stage of temporary housing. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case study in China. Based on the proposed carbon reduction measures, the LCA of a prefabricated temporary housing case study building equipped with renewable energy systems indicates a carbon emissions intensity of 35.7 kg/m2·per year, as well as a reduction in material embodied emissions of 18%, assembly emissions of 17.5%, and operational emissions of 91.5%. This research proposes a carbon reduction-driven LCA of temporary housing and contributes to promoting sustainable development of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems.

  13. Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew; King, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Few species are distributed uniformly in space, and populations of mobile organisms are rarely closed with respect to movement, yet many models of density rely upon these assumptions. We present a hierarchical model allowing inference about the density of unmarked populations subject to temporary emigration and imperfect detection. The model can be fit to data collected using a variety of standard survey methods such as repeated point counts in which removal sampling, double-observer sampling, or distance sampling is used during each count. Simulation studies demonstrated that parameter estimators are unbiased when temporary emigration is either "completely random" or is determined by the size and location of home ranges relative to survey points. We also applied the model to repeated removal sampling data collected on Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvancia) in the White Mountain National Forest, USA. The density estimate from our model, 1.09 birds/ha, was similar to an estimate of 1.11 birds/ha produced by an intensive spot-mapping effort. Our model is also applicable when processes other than temporary emigration affect the probability of being available for detection, such as in studies using cue counts. Functions to implement the model have been added to the R package unmarked.

  14. The Diaspora and Temporary Migrant Workers: Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the phenomenon of migrant workers who emigrated to Western European countries after World War II. The labor demands created by the economic reconstruction of these countries, most notably Great Britain, West Germany, France, Switzerland, the Benelux countries, Sweden and Austria, coupled with low birth rates and high death rates, made it necessary for them to hire immigrant workers. On the other hand, poor economic conditions, few employment opportunities and a yearning for a higher standard of living drove workers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Greece, Ireland, Finland and North Africa to seek work abroad. These temporary migrant workers represent a link between their countries of origin and their host countries, and, as a group of people maintaining links with their native countries, they can also be considered their countries’ diaspora. However, considering the temporary nature of their residence abroad, it is questionable whether they actually are a diaspora. It is for this reason that the paper juxtaposes the phenomena of the diaspora and temporary migrant workers in order to analyze the question of whether, when and how these workers become a diaspora. In particular, it focuses on migrant workers from Yugoslavia, usually referred to as “gastarbajteri” (gastarbeiter, who in the 1960s and 1970s migrated mostly to West Germany, Austria, Australia, France and Switzerland, and on their political treatment by the Yugoslav state.

  15. Temporary vs. Permanent Sub-slab Ports: A Comparative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion (VI) is the migration of subsurface vapors, including radon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from the subsurface to indoor air. The VI exposure pathway extends from the contaminant source, which can be impacted soil, non-aqueous phase liquid, or contaminated groundwater, to indoor air-exposure points. Therefore, contaminated matrices may include groundwater, soil, soil gas, and indoor air. VOC contaminants of concern typically include halogenated solvents such as trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform, as well as petroleum hydrocarbons, such as the aromatic VOCs benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Radon is a colorless radioactive gas that is released by radioactive decay of radionuclides in rock and soil that migrate into homes through VI in a similar fashion to VOCs. This project focused on the performance of permanent versus temporary sub-slab sampling ports for the determination of VI of halogenated VOCs and radon into an unoccupied house. VOC and radon concentrations measured simultaneously in soil gas using collocated temporary and permanent ports appeared to be independent of the type of port. The variability between collocated temporary and permanent ports was much less than the spatial variability between different locations within a single residential duplex. The agreement of the majority of VOC and radon concentrations, 0–36% relative percent difference, and 2–19% relative standard deviation respectively, of each sub-sl

  16. Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L and susceptibility of noise-induced hearing loss in a Chinese population: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Li

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is the second-most frequent form of sensorineural hearing loss. When exposed to the same noise, some workers develop NIHL while others do not, suggesting that NIHL may be associated with genetic factors. To explore the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L and susceptibility to NIHL in Han Chinese workers exposed to noise, a case-control association study was carried out with 286 hearing loss cases and 286 matched with gender, age, type of work, and exposure time, drawn from a population of 3790 noise-exposed workers. Four SNPs were selected and genotyped. Subsequently, the effects of the alleles and genotypes of the three HSP70 genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L on NIHL were analyzed by using a conditional logistic regression. A generalized multiple dimensionality reduction (GMDR was applied to further detect an interaction between the four SNPs. Compared with the combined genotypes CC/TC, carriers of the TT genotype of rs2763979 appeared to show greater susceptibility to NIHL (P = 0.042, adjusted OR = 1.731, 95% CI 1.021-2.935. A significant interaction between rs2763979 and CNE was found (P = 0.029, and a significant association was found between TT of s2763979 and NIHL (P = 0.024, adjusted OR = 5.694, 95%CI 1.256-25.817 in the 96 dB (A≤CNE<101 dB (A group. The results suggest that the rs2763979 locus of the HSP70 genes may be associated with susceptibility to NIHL in Chinese individuals, and other HSP70 genes may also be susceptibility genes for NIHL, but the results must be further replicated in additional independent sample sets.

  17. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction—(1) Scope. This section prescribes temporary question and... the person to whom the payment is to be made properly uses the completed contract method of accounting... amount is owed to a related person under whose method of accounting such amount is not includible in...

  18. Noise-induced effects in population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Bernardo; Cirone, Markus; La Barbera, Antonino; de Pasquale, Ferdinando

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the role of noise in the nonlinear relaxation of two ecosystems described by generalized Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of multiplicative noise. Specifically we study two cases: (i) an ecosystem with two interacting species in the presence of periodic driving; (ii) an ecosystem with a great number of interacting species with random interaction matrix. We analyse the interplay between noise and periodic modulation for case (i) and the role of the noise in the transient dynamics of the ecosystem in the presence of an absorbing barrier in case (ii). We find that the presence of noise is responsible for the generation of temporal oscillations and for the appearance of spatial patterns in the first case. In the other case we obtain the asymptotic behaviour of the time average of the ith population and discuss the effect of the noise on the probability distributions of the population and of the local field.

  19. Hearing: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce your exposure to noise by choosing quiet leisure activities rather than noisy ones. Develop the habit ... the degree of your hearing loss, you may benefit from using a hearing aid (a device you ...

  20. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  1. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  2. Time-efficient multidimensional threshold tracking method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Kowalewski, Borys; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, adaptive methods have been used to reduce the time it takes to estimate psychoacoustic thresholds. However, even with adaptive methods, there are many cases where the testing time is too long to be clinically feasible, particularly when estimating thresholds as a function of anothe...

  3. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention... process exceeds the threshold. (b) For the purposes of determining whether more than a threshold quantity... portion of the process is less than 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), the amount of the substance in the...

  4. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  5. Summary of DOE threshold limits efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste in DOE sanitary landfills. Waste above a threshold level could be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. After extensive review of a draft threshold guidance document in 1985, a second draft threshold background document was produced in March 1986. The second draft included a preliminary cost-benefit analysis and quality assurance considerations. The review of the second draft has been completed. Final changes to be incorporated include an in-depth cost-benefit analysis of two example sites and recommendations of how to further pursue (i.e. employ) the concept of threshold quantities within the DOE. 3 references

  6. Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Material and Methods: Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20–57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers’ hearing threshold levels (HTLs were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Results: Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7–94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB for a period of 3–14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers’ HTLs at 3000–6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. Conclusions: The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3:337–351

  7. [Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Czaja, Norman; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20-57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers' hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7-94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB) for a period of 3-14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers' HTLs at 3000-6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg) and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3):337-351. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  9. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of ortho-Fluorofentanyl, Tetrahydrofuranyl Fentanyl, and Methoxyacetyl Fentanyl Into Schedule I. Temporary amendment; temporary scheduling order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioids, N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)propionamide (ortho-fluorofentanyl or 2-fluorofentanyl), N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl), and 2-methoxy-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylacetamide (methoxyacetyl fentanyl), into Schedule I. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of ortho-fluorofentanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl, and methoxyacetyl fentanyl into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to Schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, ortho-fluorofentanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl, and methoxyacetyl fentanyl.

  10. Clinical outcomes of temporary shunting for infants with cerebral pseudomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A; Sambhara, Deepak; Bond, Brandon J; Lin, Julian

    2014-02-01

    Although in the case of subdural collections temporary shunting has been suggested as a viable alternative for definitive drainage of the accumulated fluid until restoration of the normal CSF dynamics, there is no agreement on the best management strategy for pseudomeningocele. The authors performed a retrospective chart review in order to evaluate the clinical outcomes of infants temporarily shunted for pseudomeningocele without encephalocele at our institution (The University of Illinois at Peoria/Illinois Neurological Institute) in the period from 2004 to 2012. The epidemiological characteristics, clinical management, and final outcomes of such subpopulation were compared with a control group which received temporary shunting for subdural hematomas (SDH) during the same period. Four patients (100% male) ranging in age from 8.9 to 27.1 months (mean = 13.88) with pseudomeningocele and 17 patients (64.7% male) ranging in age from 1.9 to 11.8 months (mean = 4.15) with SDH were identified. Although the initial management included sequential percutaneous subdural tapping in 82% of the patients, all children ultimately failed such strategy, requiring either subdural-peritoneal (81% of the cases) or subgaleal-peritoneal (19% of the cases) shunting. The mean implant duration was 201 days for the pseudomeningocele group and 384 days for the SDH one. Mean post-shunt hospitalization was 2 days for patients with pseudomeningocele and 4 days for patients with SDH. There was no statistical difference in terms of complications, length of hospitalization post-shunting, or clinical outcomes between the patients with pseudomeningocele and those with SDH. Temporary shunting of infants with pseudo-meningocele constitutes a viable therapeutic alternative with favorable clinical outcomes and a low risk of shunt dependency similar to those of children with SDH.

  11. Permanent Temporariness? Changes in Social Contracts in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Rasmussen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sociologists have argued that work no longer plays the central role in contemporary life experience because we have entered an age of insecurity in relation to employment, and knowledge workers are often pictured as egoistical portfolio workers who are only interested in their careers and no longer loyal to their employers. Cappelli (1999 on the other hand argues that more insecure employment relations is a result of employers’ strategy to buy workers rather than offering them long-term relations. Using case studies from seven different knowledge work contexts in Norway, this article argues that more temporary employment relations is not the result of career-seeking portfolio workers, but of changes in employment practices of their employers. These are not primarily changes in the formal employment contracts from permanent to temporary employment, but in the social contracts as they are practiced by the employers and experienced by the knowledge workers in the different contexts of knowledge work. The reason for more temporary relations was not because work does not matter for knowledge workers. On the contrary, we found that they accepted insecure conditions because work mattered and because they were eager to take on new tasks, learn the trade in new fields, and show that they were able to do the job. When they left their employer, it was because they were not able to do a good job in their positions or because they were increasingly directly exposed to an insecure market that signaled that they were not profitable (enough for their employer. Although changes in employment practices by the employers toward more short-term relations are not caused by disloyal portfolio workers, these practices may produce the problem of disloyal workers who have to secure their employment in the labor market.

  12. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  13. WP 54 - Temporary agency work in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kea Tijdens; Maarten Klaveren; Marc Meer; Marieke Essen; Hester Houwing

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the result of a study on temp agency workers and on the role that temp agency work played in company’s staffing strategies and on industry and national regulations regarding temp agencies and temp agency work. It was conducted in2004-2006, as part of a larger project on low wage work in the Netherlands, which was part of a five country study for the Russell Sage Foundation, USA. In order to provide a background for understanding temporary agency work, recent developments in and ...

  14. Institutional Logics in Inter-institutional Temporary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Söderlund, Jonas

    -cognitive, normative, and regulative – are unfolding and evolving in such contexts. The case study addresses the integration and disintegration of logics and normative orders in an ongoing process characterized by the co-mingling, co-existence, creation and resolutions of hybrid logics and creation of institutional...... exceptions throughout the life of the studied temporary organization. In that respect, this paper contributes with a more nuanced view on the evolution, dynamics, and co-existence of pressures from multiple institutional demands at the organizational level....

  15. Ablation by ultrashort laser pulses: Atomistic and thermodynamic analysis of the processes at the ablation threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Arun K.; Inogamov, Nail A.; Rethfeld, Baerbel; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafast laser irradiation of solids may ablate material off the surface. We study this process for thin films using molecular-dynamics simulation and thermodynamic analysis. Both metals and Lennard-Jones (LJ) materials are studied. We find that despite the large difference in thermodynamical properties between these two classes of materials--e.g., for aluminum versus LJ the ratio T c /T tr of critical to triple-point temperature differs by more than a factor of 4--the values of the ablation threshold energy E abl normalized to the cohesion energy, ε abl =E abl /E coh , are surprisingly universal: all are near 0.3 with ±30% scattering. The difference in the ratio T c /T tr means that for metals the melting threshold ε m is low, ε m abl , while for LJ it is high, ε m >ε abl . This thermodynamical consideration gives a simple explanation for the difference between metals and LJ. It explains why despite the universality in ε abl , metals thermomechanically ablate always from the liquid state. This is opposite to LJ materials, which (near threshold) ablate from the solid state. Furthermore, we find that immediately below the ablation threshold, the formation of large voids (cavitation) in the irradiated material leads to a strong temporary expansion on a very slow time scale. This feature is easily distinguished from the acoustic oscillations governing the material response at smaller intensities, on the one hand, and the ablation occurring at larger intensities, on the other hand. This finding allows us to explain the puzzle of huge surface excursions found in experiments at near-threshold laser irradiation

  16. Regenerating 'Østre Havn' - The Everyday of Temporary Use Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Mikkelsen, Jacob Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    The article taps into discussions on temporary uses as a place-producing and transformative tool. At ‘Østre Havn’, a former industrial harbour in Aalborg, on-going developments strive for mixtures of residences, business and leisure. As tools towards that end the site is currently the test bed...... for a wide range of temporary uses. These are taking place alongside construction activities. This sets boundaries for the temporary use activities while the proposed future outlined by the municipality and the developer is being established. The question is what happens at the level of the everyday, how...... is the temporary use strategy affecting and shaping the opportunities for the group of temporary use activists to create difference at the site? The article aims at answering this by depicting a real life process over a timespan of two years - mainly from the perspective of the group of temporary use activists...

  17. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  18. Reaction thresholds in doubly special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, Daniel; Major, Seth; Hinteleitner, Franz

    2004-01-01

    Two theories of special relativity with an additional invariant scale, 'doubly special relativity', are tested with calculations of particle process kinematics. Using the Judes-Visser modified conservation laws, thresholds are studied in both theories. In contrast with some linear approximations, which allow for particle processes forbidden in special relativity, both the Amelino-Camelia and Magueijo-Smolin frameworks allow no additional processes. To first order, the Amelino-Camelia framework thresholds are lowered and the Magueijo-Smolin framework thresholds may be raised or lowered

  19. 26 CFR 1.181-0T - Table of contents (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table of contents (temporary). 1.181-0T Section...-0T Table of contents (temporary). This section lists the table of contents for §§ 1.181-1T through 1... deduction allowed. § 1.181-2TElection (temporary). (a) Time and manner of making election. (b) Election by...

  20. 45 CFR 170.490 - Sunset of the temporary certification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT...