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Sample records for noise ratio cnr

  1. A novel method for contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) evaluation of digital mammography detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldelli, P.; Phelan, N.; Egan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a new, simple method of evaluating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) over the entire image field of a digital detector and to compare different mammography systems. Images were taken under clinical exposure conditions for a range of simulated breast thicknesses using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). At each PMMA thickness, a second image which included an additional 0.2-mm Al sheet was also acquired. Image processing software was used to calculate the CNR in multiple regions of interest (ROI) covering the entire area of the detector in order to obtain a 'CNR image'. Five detector types were evaluated, two CsI-αSi (GE Healthcare) flat panel systems, one αSe (Hologic) flat panel system and a two generations of scanning photon counting digital detectors (Sectra). Flat panel detectors exhibit better CNR uniformity compared with the first-generation scanning photon counting detector in terms of mean pixel value variation. However, significant improvement in CNR uniformity was observed for the next-generation scanning detector. The method proposed produces a map of the CNR and a measurement of uniformity throughout the entire image field of the detector. The application of this method enables quality control measurement of individual detectors and a comparison of detectors using different technologies. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation and comparison of contrast to noise ratio and signal to noise ratio according to change of reconstruction on breast PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Jae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eul Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Paik University Hospital Jeo-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, The Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Park, Hoon Hee; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, The Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) according to change of reconstruction from region of interest (ROI) in breast positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT), and to analyze the CNR and SNR statically. We examined images of breast PET-CT of 100 patients in a University-affiliated hospital, Seoul, Korea. Each patient's image of breast PET-CT were calculated by using Image J. Differences of CNR and SNR among four reconstruction algorithms were tested by SPSS Statistics21 ANOVA test for there was statistical significance (p<0.05). We have analysis socio-demographical variables, CNR and SNR according to reconstruction images, 95% confidence according to CNR and SNR of reconstruction and difference in a mean of CNR and SNR. SNR results, with the quality of distributions in the order of PSF{sub T}OF, Iterative and Iterative-TOF, FBP-TOF. CNR, with the quality of distributions in the order of PSF{sub T}OF, Iterative and Iterative-TOF, FBP-TOF. CNR and SNR of PET-CT reconstruction methods of the breast would be useful to evaluate breast diseases.

  3. TU-H-BRA-09: Relationship Between B0 and the Contrast-To-Noise Ratio (CNR) of Tumour to Background for MRI/Radiotherapy Hybrids

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    Wachowicz, K; DeZanche, N; Fallone, B [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Yip, E [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Volotovskyy, V [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship in MRI between B{sub 0} and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of various tumour/normal tissue pairs. This study is motivated by the current interest in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids, for which multiple magnetic field strengths have been proposed. CNR is the single most important parameter governing the ability of a system to identify a tumour in real time for treatment guidance. The MRI community has long since recognized that the SNR of a well-designed MR system is roughly proportional to B{sub 0}, the polarizing magnetic field. However, the CNR between two tissues is much more complicated - dependent not only on this signal behavior, but also on the different relaxation properties of the tissues. Methods: Experimentally-based models of B{sub 0}-dependant relaxation for various tumour and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid realtime imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumours for spoiled-gradient echo (SGE) and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequences. Results: In all cases there was an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumour sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e. bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney and liver tumours). Conclusion: Due to the variation of tissue relaxation parameters with field, lower B{sub 0} fields have been shown to perform as well or better (in terms of CNR) than higher fields for some tumour sites. In other sites this effect was less pronounced. It is the complex relationship between CNR and B{sub 0} that leads to greater CNR at 0.5 T for certain tumour types studied here for fast imaging. B. Gino Fallone is a co-founder and CEO of MagnetTx Oncology Solutions (under discussions to license Alberta bi

  4. Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and their trade-offs with resolution in axial-shear strain elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    In axial-shear strain elastography, the local axial-shear strain resulting from the application of quasi-static axial compression to an inhomogeneous material is imaged. In this paper, we investigated the image quality of the axial-shear strain estimates in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR asse ) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR asse ) using simulations and experiments. Specifically, we investigated the influence of the system parameters (beamwidth, transducer element pitch and bandwidth), signal processing parameters (correlation window length and axial window shift) and mechanical parameters (Young's modulus contrast, applied axial strain) on the SNR asse and CNR asse . The results of the study show that the CNR asse (SNR asse ) is maximum for axial-shear strain values in the range of 0.005-0.03. For the inclusion/background modulus contrast range considered in this study ( asse (SNR asse ) is maximum for applied axial compressive strain values in the range of 0.005%-0.03%. This suggests that the RF data acquired during axial elastography can be used to obtain axial-shear strain elastograms, since this range is typically used in axial elastography as well. The CNR asse (SNR asse ) remains almost constant with an increase in the beamwidth while it increases as the pitch increases. As expected, the axial shift had only a weak influence on the CNR asse (SNR asse ) of the axial-shear strain estimates. We observed that the differential estimates of the axial-shear strain involve a trade-off between the CNR asse (SNR asse ) and the spatial resolution only with respect to pitch and not with respect to signal processing parameters. Simulation studies were performed to confirm such an observation. The results demonstrate a trade-off between CNR asse and the resolution with respect to pitch

  5. Comparison study on CNR and SNR of thoracic spine lateral radiography

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    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan; Lyu, Kwang Yeul [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hei Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Beakseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo Ah [Dept. of Oncology, Catholic University of Korea Incheon St.Mary,s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Oncology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dong Chan [Dept. of Radiology, Dong Guk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soon Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Kang Dong Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was proven for the T-spine breathing technique in lateral projection, using computer radiography (CR), charge coupled device (CCD), indirect digital radiography (IDR) and direct digital radiography (DDR). All images were evaluated and compared with CNR and SNR measured with the mean pixels and the standard deviation as setting ROI of spinous process, pedicle, vertebral body, intervertebral foramen and intervertebral disk using Image J. In experiment results of 4 type detectors, T-spine breathing technique was indicated as excellent in ROI of spinous process, pedicle, vertebral body, intervertebral foramen and intervertebral disk. As T-spine breathing technique indicated excellent images compared to the existing T-spine lateral radiography, this method would be useful for elderly patients who have difficulty in deep exhalation. This study was indicated the application possibility of T-spine breathing technique by presenting contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) with quantitative value in 4 type detectors.

  6. Changes in signal-to-noise ratios and contrast-to-noise ratios of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas on ferucarbotran-enhanced dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yulri; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jongmee; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To verify changes in the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on ferucarbotran-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted MR imaging. Materials and methods: Fifty-two patients with 61 hypervascular HCCs underwent ferucarbotran-enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and then hepatic resection. Hypervascular HCCs were identified when definite enhancement was noted during the arterial dominant phase of three-phase MDCT. Dynamic MR Images with T1-weighted fast multiplanar spoiled gradient-recalled echo sequence (TR200/TE4.2) were obtained before and 20 s, and 1, 3, 5, and 10 min, after bolus injection of ferucarbotran. We estimated the signal intensities of tumors and livers, and calculated the SNRs and CNRs of the tumors. Results: On ferucarbotran-enhanced dynamic MR imaging, SNR measurements showed a fluctuating pattern, namely, an increase in SNR followed by a decrease and a subsequent increase (or a decrease in SNR followed by a increase and a subsequent decrease) in 50 (82.0%) of 61 tumors, a single-peak SNR pattern (highest SNR on 20 s, 1, 3, or 5 min delayed images followed by a decrease) in seven (11.5%), and a decrease in SNR followed by an increase in four (6.6%). Maximum absolute CNRs with positive value were noted on 10 min delayed images in 41 (67.2%) tumors, and maximum absolute CNRs with negative value were observed on 20 s delayed images in 12 (19.7%) and on 1 min delayed images in eight (13.1%). Conclusion: Despite showing various SNR and CNR changes, the majority of hypervascular HCCs demonstrated a fluctuating SNR pattern on ferucarbotran-enhanced dynamic MR imaging and a highest CNR on 10 min delayed image, which differed from the classic enhancement pattern on multiphasic CT

  7. Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of various anatomic structures - Effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality

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    Paul, Jijo, E-mail: jijopaul1980@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Biophysics, Goethe University, Max von Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Maentele, Werner [Department of Biophysics, Goethe University, Max von Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detecting various anatomic structures based on the effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality. Material and methods: Forty patients underwent a CT neck with dual energy mode (DECT under a Somatom Definition flash Dual Source CT scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany)). Tube voltage: 80-kV and Sn140-kV; tube current: 110 and 290 mA s; collimation-2 x 32 x 0.6 mm. Raw data were reconstructed using a soft convolution kernel (D30f). Fused images were calculated using a spectrum of weighting factors (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 0.8 and 1.0) generating different ratios between the 80- and Sn140-kV images (e.g. factor 0.6 corresponds to 60% of their information from the 80-kV image, and 40% from the Sn140-kV image). CT values and SNRs measured in the ascending aorta, thyroid gland, fat, muscle, CSF, spinal cord, bone marrow and brain. In addition, CNR values calculated for aorta, thyroid, muscle and brain. Subjective image quality evaluated using a 5-point grading scale. Results compared using paired t-tests and nonparametric-paired Wilcoxon-Wilcox-test. Results: Statistically significant increases in mean CT values noted in anatomic structures when increasing weighting factors used (all P {<=} 0.001). For example, mean CT values derived from the contrast enhanced aorta were 149.2 {+-} 12.8 Hounsfield Units (HU), 204.8 {+-} 14.4 HU, 267.5 {+-} 18.6 HU, 311.9 {+-} 22.3 HU, 347.3 {+-} 24.7 HU, when the weighting factors 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were used. The highest SNR and CNR values were found in materials when the weighting factor 0.6 used. The difference CNR between the weighting factors 0.6 and 0.3 was statistically significant in the contrast enhanced aorta and thyroid gland (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively). Visual image assessment for image quality showed the highest score for the data reconstructed using the

  8. Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of various anatomic structures - Effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jijo; Bauer, Ralf W.; Maentele, Werner; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detecting various anatomic structures based on the effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality. Material and methods: Forty patients underwent a CT neck with dual energy mode (DECT under a Somatom Definition flash Dual Source CT scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany)). Tube voltage: 80-kV and Sn140-kV; tube current: 110 and 290 mA s; collimation-2 x 32 x 0.6 mm. Raw data were reconstructed using a soft convolution kernel (D30f). Fused images were calculated using a spectrum of weighting factors (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 0.8 and 1.0) generating different ratios between the 80- and Sn140-kV images (e.g. factor 0.6 corresponds to 60% of their information from the 80-kV image, and 40% from the Sn140-kV image). CT values and SNRs measured in the ascending aorta, thyroid gland, fat, muscle, CSF, spinal cord, bone marrow and brain. In addition, CNR values calculated for aorta, thyroid, muscle and brain. Subjective image quality evaluated using a 5-point grading scale. Results compared using paired t-tests and nonparametric-paired Wilcoxon-Wilcox-test. Results: Statistically significant increases in mean CT values noted in anatomic structures when increasing weighting factors used (all P ≤ 0.001). For example, mean CT values derived from the contrast enhanced aorta were 149.2 ± 12.8 Hounsfield Units (HU), 204.8 ± 14.4 HU, 267.5 ± 18.6 HU, 311.9 ± 22.3 HU, 347.3 ± 24.7 HU, when the weighting factors 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were used. The highest SNR and CNR values were found in materials when the weighting factor 0.6 used. The difference CNR between the weighting factors 0.6 and 0.3 was statistically significant in the contrast enhanced aorta and thyroid gland (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively). Visual image assessment for image quality showed the highest score for the data reconstructed using the weighting factor 0

  9. Regional improvement of signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in dual-screen CR chest imaging - a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.

    2001-01-01

    The improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in dual-screen computed radiography (CR) has been investigated for various regions in images of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. With the dual-screen CR technique, two image plates are placed in a cassette and exposed together during imaging. The exposed plates are separately scanned to form a front image and a back image, which are then registered and superimposed to form a composite image with improved SNRs and CNRs. The improvement can be optimized by applying specifically selected weighting factors during superimposition. In this study, dual-screen CR images of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were acquired and formed with four different combinations of standard resolution (ST) and high-resolution (HR) screens: ST-ST, ST-HR, HR-ST, and HR-HR. SNRs and their improvements were measured and compared over twelve representative regions-of-interest (ROIs) in these images. A 19.1%-45.7% increase of the SNR was observed, depending on the ROI and screen combination used. The optimal weighting factors were found to vary by only 4.5%-12.4%. Largest improvement was found in the lung field for all screen combinations. Improvement of CNRs was investigated over two ROIs in the lung field using the rib bones as the contrast objects and a 29.2%-43.9% improvement of the CNR was observed. Among the four screen combinations, ST-ST resulted in the most SNR and CNR improvement, followed in order by HR-ST, HR-HR, and ST-HR. The HR-ST combination yielded the lowest spatial variation of the optimal weighting factors with improved SNRs and CNRs close to those of the ST-ST combination

  10. Optimizing image quality and dose for digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities using the contrast-to-noise ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, R.; Neitzel, U.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of X-ray tube voltage and filtration on image quality in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and dose for digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities and to determine conditions that give the best balance of CNR and patient dose. Materials and Methods: In a phantom study simulating the absorption properties of distal extremities, the CNR and the related patient dose were determined as a function of tube voltage in the range 40 - 66 kV, both with and without additional filtration of 0.1 mm Cu/1 mm Al. The measured CNR was used as an indicator of image quality, while the mean absorbed dose (MAD) - determined by a combination of measurement and simulation - was used as an indicator of the patient dose. Results: The most favorable relation of CNR and dose was found for the lowest tube voltage investigated (40 kV) without additional filtration. Compared to a situation with 50 kV or 60 kV, the mean absorbed dose could be lowered by 24 % and 50 %, respectively, while keeping the image quality (CNR) at the same level. Conclusion: For digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities, further CNR and dose optimization appears to be possible using lower tube voltages. Further clinical investigation of the suggested parameters is necessary. (orig.)

  11. [Study of CT Automatic Exposure Control System (CT-AEC) Optimization in CT Angiography of Lower Extremity Artery by Considering Contrast-to-Noise Ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Satoshi; Masuda, Takanori; Maruyama, Naoya; Yamashita, Yukari; Sato, Tomoyasu; Imada, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality and effect of radiation dose reduction by setting for computed tomography automatic exposure control system (CT-AEC) in computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of lower extremity artery. Two methods of setting were compared for CT-AEC [conventional and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) methods]. Conventional method was set noise index (NI): 14and tube current threshold: 10-750 mA. CNR method was set NI: 18, minimum tube current: (X+Y)/2 mA (X, Y: maximum X (Y)-axis tube current value of leg in NI: 14), and maximum tube current: 750 mA. The image quality was evaluated by CNR, and radiation dose reduction was evaluated by dose-length-product (DLP). In conventional method, mean CNRs for pelvis, femur, and leg were 19.9±4.8, 20.4±5.4, and 16.2±4.3, respectively. There was a significant difference between the CNRs of pelvis and leg (P<0.001), and between femur and leg (P<0.001). In CNR method, mean CNRs for pelvis, femur, and leg were 15.2±3.3, 15.3±3.2, and 15.3±3.1, respectively; no significant difference between pelvis, femur, and leg (P=0.973) in CNR method was observed. Mean DLPs were 1457±434 mGy⋅cm in conventional method, and 1049±434 mGy·cm in CNR method. There was a significant difference in the DLPs of conventional method and CNR method (P<0.001). CNR method gave equal CNRs for pelvis, femur, and leg, and was beneficial for radiation dose reduction in CTA of lower extremity artery.

  12. Contrast to Noise Ratio and Contrast Detail Analysis in Mammography:A Monte Carlo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaxas, V; Delis, H; Panayiotakis, G; Kalogeropoulou, C; Zampakis, P

    2015-01-01

    The mammographic spectrum is one of the major factors affecting image quality in mammography. In this study, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model was used to evaluate image quality characteristics of various mammographic spectra. The anode/filter combinations evaluated, were those traditionally used in mammography, for tube voltages between 26 and 30 kVp. The imaging performance was investigated in terms of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Contrast Detail (CD) analysis, by involving human observers, utilizing a mathematical CD phantom. Soft spectra provided the best characteristics in terms of both CNR and CD scores, while tube voltage had a limited effect. W-anode spectra filtered with k-edge filters demonstrated an improved performance, that sometimes was better compared to softer x-ray spectra, produced by Mo or Rh anode. Regarding the filter material, k-edge filters showed superior performance compared to Al filters. (paper)

  13. CT colonography at low tube potential: using iterative reconstruction to decrease noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.J.; Heisler, M.A.; Mahesh, M.; Baird, G.L.; Mayo-Smith, W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the level of iterative reconstruction required to reduce increased image noise associated with low tube potential computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: Fifty patients underwent CT colonography with a supine scan at 120 kVp and a prone scan at 100 kVp with other scan parameters unchanged. Both scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and increasing levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) at 30%, 60%, and 90%. Mean noise, soft tissue and tagged fluid attenuation, contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were collected from reconstructions at both 120 and 100 kVp and compared using a generalised linear mixed model. Results: Decreasing tube potential from 120 to 100 kVp significantly increased image noise by 30–34% and tagged fluid attenuation by 120 HU at all ASiR levels (p<0.0001, all measures). Increasing ASiR from 0% (FBP) to 30%, 60%, and 90% resulted in significant decreases in noise and increases in CNR at both tube potentials (p<0.001, all comparisons). Compared to 120 kVp FBP, ASiR greater than 30% at 100 kVp yielded similar or lower image noise. Conclusions: Iterative reconstruction adequately compensates for increased image noise associated with low tube potential imaging while improving CNR. An ASiR level of approximately 50% at 100 kVp yields similar noise to 120 kVp without ASiR. -- Highlights: •Peak kilovoltage (kVp) can be reduced to decrease radiation dose and increase contrast attenuation at a cost of increased image noise. •Utilizing iterative reconstruction can decrease image noise and increase contrast to noise ratio (CNR) independent of kVp. •Iterative reconstruction adequately compensates for increased image noise associated with low dose low kVp imaging while improving CNR. •An ASiR level of approximately 50% at 100 kVp yields similar noise to 120 kVp without ASiR

  14. Quality control in digital mammography: the noise components

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    Leyton, Fernando [Universidade de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Centro de Estudios en Ciencias Radiologicas; Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Duran, Maria Paz [Clinica Alemana, Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Radiologia; Dantas, Marcelino, E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Ubeda, Carlos, E-mail: cubeda@uta.c [Universidade de Tarapaca, Arica (Chile). Fac. de Ciencias de la Salud

    2011-07-01

    To measure the linearity of the detector and determine the noise components (quantum, electronic and structural noise) that contributed to losing image quality and to determine the signal noise ratio (SNR) and contrast noise ratio (CNR). This paper describes the results of the implementation of a protocol for quality control in digital mammography performed in two direct digital mammography equipment (Hologic, Selenia) in Santiago of Chile. Shows the results of linearity and noise analysis of the images which establishes the main cause of noise in the image of the mammogram to ensure the quality and optimize procedures. The study evaluated two digital mammography's Selenia, Hologic (DR) from Santiago, Chile. We conducted the assessment of linearity of the detector, the signal noise ratio, contrast noise ratio and was determined the contribution of different noise components (quantum, electronics and structural noise). Used different thicknesses used in clinical practice according to the protocol for quality control in digital mammography of Spanish society of medical physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. The Selenia mammography software was used for the analysis of images and Unfors Xi detector for measuring doses. The mammography detector has a linear performance, the CNR and SNR did not comply with the Protocol for the thicknesses of 60 and 70 mm. The main contribution of the noise corresponds to the quantum noise, therefore it is necessary to adjust and optimize the mammography system. (author)

  15. Quality control in digital mammography: the noise components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro; Duran, Maria Paz; Dantas, Marcelino; Ubeda, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To measure the linearity of the detector and determine the noise components (quantum, electronic and structural noise) that contributed to losing image quality and to determine the signal noise ratio (SNR) and contrast noise ratio (CNR). This paper describes the results of the implementation of a protocol for quality control in digital mammography performed in two direct digital mammography equipment (Hologic, Selenia) in Santiago of Chile. Shows the results of linearity and noise analysis of the images which establishes the main cause of noise in the image of the mammogram to ensure the quality and optimize procedures. The study evaluated two digital mammography's Selenia, Hologic (DR) from Santiago, Chile. We conducted the assessment of linearity of the detector, the signal noise ratio, contrast noise ratio and was determined the contribution of different noise components (quantum, electronics and structural noise). Used different thicknesses used in clinical practice according to the protocol for quality control in digital mammography of Spanish society of medical physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. The Selenia mammography software was used for the analysis of images and Unfors Xi detector for measuring doses. The mammography detector has a linear performance, the CNR and SNR did not comply with the Protocol for the thicknesses of 60 and 70 mm. The main contribution of the noise corresponds to the quantum noise, therefore it is necessary to adjust and optimize the mammography system. (author)

  16. Impact of coil design on the contrast-to-noise ratio, precision, and consistency of quantitative cartilage morphometry at 3 Tesla: a pilot study for the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Felix; Kunz, Manuela; Hudelmaier, Martin; Jackson, Rebecca; Yu, Joseph; Eaton, Charles B; Schneider, Erika

    2007-02-01

    Phased-array (PA) coils generally provide higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than quadrature knee coils. In this pilot study for the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) we compared these two types of coils in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), precision, and consistency of quantitative femorotibial cartilage measurements. Test-retest measurements were acquired using coronal fast low-angle shot with water excitation (FLASHwe) and coronal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) of sagittal double-echo steady state with water excitation (DESSwe) at 3T. The precision errors for cartilage volume and thickness were coil and coil with FLASHwe, and coil and sequence. The PA coil measurements did not always fully agree with the quadrature coil measurements, and some differences were significant. The higher CNR of the PA coil did not translate directly into improved precision of cartilage measurement; however, summing up cartilage plates within the medial and lateral compartment reduced precision errors. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. CNR considerations for rapid real-time MRI tumor tracking in radiotherapy hybrid devices: Effects of B0 field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachowicz, K.; De Zanche, N.; Yip, E.; Volotovskyy, V.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work examines the subject of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), specifically between tumor and tissue background, and its dependence on the MRI field strength, B 0 . This examination is motivated by the recent interest and developments in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids where real-time imaging can be used to guide treatment beams. The ability to distinguish a tumor from background tissue is of primary importance in this field, and this work seeks to elucidate the complex relationship between the CNR and B 0 that is too often assumed to be purely linear. Methods: Experimentally based models of B 0 -dependant relaxation for various tumor and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid real-time imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumors for spoiled gradient-echo, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and single-shot half-Fourier fast spin echo sequences. Results: Due to the pattern in which the relaxation properties of tissues are found to vary over B 0 field (specifically the T 1 time), there was always an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumor sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e., bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney, and liver tumors). Conclusions: In terms of CNR, lower B 0 fields have been shown to perform as well or better than higher fields for some tumor sites due to superior T 1 contrast. In other sites this effect was less pronounced, reversing the CNR advantage. This complex relationship between CNR and B 0 reveals both low and high magnetic fields as viable options for tumor tracking in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids.

  18. Increasing the darkfield contrast-to-noise ratio using a deconvolution-based information retrieval algorithm in X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas; Pelzer, Georg; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Zang, Andrea; Durst, Jürgen; Anton, Gisela; Michel, Thilo

    2013-07-29

    A novel information retrieval algorithm for X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging based on the deconvolution of the object and the reference phase stepping curve (PSC) as proposed by Modregger et al. was investigated in this paper. We applied the method for the first time on data obtained with a polychromatic spectrum and compared the results to those, received by applying the commonly used method, based on a Fourier analysis. We confirmed the expectation, that both methods deliver the same results for the absorption and the differential phase image. For the darkfield image, a mean contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) increase by a factor of 1.17 using the new method was found. Furthermore, the dose saving potential was estimated for the deconvolution method experimentally. It is found, that for the conventional method a dose which is higher by a factor of 1.66 is needed to obtain a similar CNR value compared to the novel method. A further analysis of the data revealed, that the improvement in CNR and dose efficiency is due to the superior background noise properties of the deconvolution method, but at the cost of comparability between measurements at different applied dose values, as the mean value becomes dependent on the photon statistics used.

  19. Improving Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Susceptibility Weighted Imaging: A Novel Multicomponent Non-Local Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Borrelli

    Full Text Available In susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI, the high resolution required to obtain a proper contrast generation leads to a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. The application of a denoising filter to produce images with higher SNR and still preserve small structures from excessive blurring is therefore extremely desirable. However, as the distributions of magnitude and phase noise may introduce biases during image restoration, the application of a denoising filter is non-trivial. Taking advantage of the potential multispectral nature of MR images, a multicomponent approach using a Non-Local Means (MNLM denoising filter may perform better than a component-by-component image restoration method. Here we present a new MNLM-based method (Multicomponent-Imaginary-Real-SWI, hereafter MIR-SWI to produce SWI images with high SNR and improved conspicuity. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons of MIR-SWI with the original SWI scheme and previously proposed SWI restoring pipelines showed that MIR-SWI fared consistently better than the other approaches. Noise removal with MIR-SWI also provided improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR and vessel conspicuity at higher factors of phase mask multiplications than the one suggested in the literature for SWI vessel imaging. We conclude that a proper handling of noise in the complex MR dataset may lead to improved image quality for SWI data.

  20. CNR considerations for rapid real-time MRI tumor tracking in radiotherapy hybrid devices: Effects of B{sub 0} field strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachowicz, K., E-mail: keith.wachowicz@albertahealthservices.ca; De Zanche, N.; Yip, E. [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Volotovskyy, V. [Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: This work examines the subject of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), specifically between tumor and tissue background, and its dependence on the MRI field strength, B{sub 0}. This examination is motivated by the recent interest and developments in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids where real-time imaging can be used to guide treatment beams. The ability to distinguish a tumor from background tissue is of primary importance in this field, and this work seeks to elucidate the complex relationship between the CNR and B{sub 0} that is too often assumed to be purely linear. Methods: Experimentally based models of B{sub 0}-dependant relaxation for various tumor and normal tissues from the literature were used in conjunction with signal equations for MR sequences suitable for rapid real-time imaging to develop field-dependent predictions for CNR. These CNR models were developed for liver, lung, breast, glioma, and kidney tumors for spoiled gradient-echo, balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and single-shot half-Fourier fast spin echo sequences. Results: Due to the pattern in which the relaxation properties of tissues are found to vary over B{sub 0} field (specifically the T{sub 1} time), there was always an improved CNR at lower fields compared to linear dependency. Further, in some tumor sites, the CNR at lower fields was found to be comparable to, or sometimes higher than those at higher fields (i.e., bSSFP CNR for glioma, kidney, and liver tumors). Conclusions: In terms of CNR, lower B{sub 0} fields have been shown to perform as well or better than higher fields for some tumor sites due to superior T{sub 1} contrast. In other sites this effect was less pronounced, reversing the CNR advantage. This complex relationship between CNR and B{sub 0} reveals both low and high magnetic fields as viable options for tumor tracking in MRI/radiotherapy hybrids.

  1. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, V; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. The phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols

  2. SU-E-I-23: A General KV Constrained Optimization of CNR for CT Abdominal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, V; Zhang, J [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While Tube current modulation has been well accepted for CT dose reduction, kV adjusting in clinical settings is still at its early stage. This is mainly due to the limited kV options of most current CT scanners. kV adjusting can potentially reduce radiation dose and optimize image quality. This study is to optimize CT abdomen imaging acquisition based on the assumption of a continuous kV, with the goal to provide the best contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: For a given dose (CTDIvol) level, the CNRs at different kV and pitches were measured with an ACR GAMMEX phantom. The phantom was scanned in a Siemens Sensation 64 scanner and a GE VCT 64 scanner. A constrained mathematical optimization was used to find the kV which led to the highest CNR for the anatomy and pitch setting. Parametric equations were obtained from polynomial fitting of plots of kVs vs CNRs. A suitable constraint region for optimization was chosen. Subsequent optimization yielded a peak CNR at a particular kV for different collimations and pitch setting. Results: The constrained mathematical optimization approach yields kV of 114.83 and 113.46, with CNRs of 1.27 and 1.11 at the pitch of 1.2 and 1.4, respectively, for the Siemens Sensation 64 scanner with the collimation of 32 x 0.625mm. An optimized kV of 134.25 and 1.51 CNR is obtained for a GE VCT 64 slice scanner with a collimation of 32 x 0.625mm and a pitch of 0.969. At 0.516 pitch and 32 x 0.625 mm an optimized kV of 133.75 and a CNR of 1.14 was found for the GE VCT 64 slice scanner. Conclusion: CNR in CT image acquisition can be further optimized with a continuous kV option instead of current discrete or fixed kV settings. A continuous kV option is a key for individualized CT protocols.

  3. Clinical Value of Dual-energy CT in Detection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Investigation of the Best Pancreatic Tumor Contrast to Noise Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Lan; Zhang, Da-Ming; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively compare and determine the best pancreatic tumor contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in different dual-energy derived datasets. Methods In this retrospective, single center study, 16 patients (9 male, 7 female, average age 59.4±13.2 years) with pathologically diagnosed pancreatic cancer were enrolled. All patients received an abdominal scan using a dual source CT scanner 7 to 31 days before biopsy or surgery. After injection of iodine contrast agent, arterial and pancreatic parenchyma phase were scanned consequently, using a dual-energy scan mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs) in the pancreatic parenchyma phase. A series of derived dual-energy datasets were evaluated including non-liner blending (non-linear blending width 0-500 HU; blending center -500 to 500 HU), mono-energetic (40-190 keV), 100 kVp and 140 kVp. On each datasets, mean CT values of the pancreatic parenchyma and tumor, as well as standard deviation CT values of subcutaneous fat and psoas muscle were measured. Regions of interest of cutaneous fat and major psoas muscle of 100 kVp and 140 kVp images were calculated. Best CNR of subcutaneous fat (CNRF) and CNR of the major psoas muscle (CNRM) of non-liner blending and mono-energetic datasets were calculated with the optimal mono-energetic keV setting and the optimal blending center/width setting for the best CNR. One Way ANOVA test was used for comparison of best CNR between different dual-energy derived datasets. Results The best CNRF (4.48±1.29) was obtained from the non-liner blending datasets at blending center -16.6±103.9 HU and blending width 12.3±10.6 HU. The best CNRF (3.28±0.97) was obtained from the mono-energetic datasets at 73.3±4.3 keV. CNRF in the 100 kVp and 140 kVp were 3.02±0.91 and 1.56±0.56 respectively. Using fat as the noise background, all of these images series showed significant differences (Pbest CNRF of mono-energetic image sets vs. CNRF of 100 kVp image (P=0.460). Similar results were

  4. Contrast-to-noise ratio in magnification mammography: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutalonis, M; Delis, H; Spyrou, G; Costaridou, L; Tzanakos, G; Panayiotakis, G

    2007-01-01

    Magnification views are a common way to perform a secondary examination when suspicious abnormalities are found in a screening mammogram. The visibility of microcalcifications and breast lesions is restricted by the compromise between the image quality and the absorbed dose. In this study, image quality characteristics in magnification mammography were evaluated based on Monte Carlo techniques. A breast phantom was utilized, simulating a homogeneous mixture of adipose and glandular tissue in various percentages of glandularity, containing inhomogeneities of various sizes and compositions. The effect of the magnification degree, breast glandularity, tube voltage and anode/filter material combination on image quality characteristics was investigated in terms of a contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). A performance index PI ν was introduced in order to study the overall performance of various anode/filter combinations under different exposure parameters. Results demonstrate that CNR is improved with the degree of magnification and degraded as the breast glandularity is increased. Degree of magnification 1.3 offers the best overall performance for most of the anode/filter combinations utilized. Under magnification conditions, the role of dose is demoted against the image quality, as magnification views are secondary, diagnostic examinations and not screening procedures oriented to non-symptomatic women. For decreased image quality weighting, some anode/filter combinations different from Mo/0.030mmMo can be utilized as they offer a similar performance index. However, if the desired weighting for the image quality is high, the Mo/0.030mmMo combination has the best overall performance

  5. Value of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Simon S.; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Huesers, Kristina; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Booz, Christian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Metzger, Sarah C.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate objective and subjective image quality of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Datasets of 47 patients (35 men; 64.1 ± 10.9 years) who underwent DECT angiography of heart and vascular access prior to TAVR were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monoenergetic (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV intervals from 40-100 keV. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 564 arterial segments were evaluated. Subjective analysis was rated by three blinded observers using a Likert scale. Mean SNR and CNR were highest in 40 keV VMI+ series (SNR, 27.8 ± 13.0; CNR, 26.3 ± 12.7), significantly (all p 0.05), significantly superior to all VMI and standard linearly-blended images (all p < 0.01). Low-keV VMI+ reconstructions significantly increase CNR and SNR compared to VMI and standard linear-blending image reconstruction and improve subjective image quality in preprocedural DECT angiography in the context of TAVR planning. (orig.)

  6. Evaluating optimal CNR as a preset criteria for nonlinear moidal blending of dual energy CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D. R., III; Apel, A.; Fletcher, J. G.; Guimaraes, L. S.; Eusemann, C. E.; Robb, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    Nonlinear blending of dual-energy CT data is available on current scanners. Selection of the blending parameters can be time-consuming and challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine if the Contrast-To-Noise Ratio (CNR) may be used ti automatic select of blending parameters. A Bovine liver was built with six syringes filled with varying concentrations of CT contrast yielding six 140kV HU levels (15, 47, 64, 79, 116, and 145). The phantom was scanned using 95 mAs @ 140kV and 404mAs @ 80 kV. The 80 and 140 kV datasets were blended using a modified sigmoid (moidal) function which requires two parameters - level and width. Every combination of moidal level and width was applied to the data, and the CNR was calculated as (mean(syringe ROI) - mean(liver ROI)) / STD(water). The maximum CNR was determined for each of the 6 HU levels. Pairs of blended images were presented in a blind manner to observers. Nine comparisons for each of the 6 HU settings were made by a staff radiologist, a resident, and a physicist. For each comparison, the observer selected the more "visually appealing" image. Outcomes from the study were compared using the Fisher Sign Test statistic. Analysis by observer showed a statistical (penergy CT data may provide consistency across radiologists and facilitate the clinical review process.

  7. Quantitative susceptibility mapping across two clinical field strengths: Contrast-to-noise ratio enhancement at 1.5T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippoliti, Matteo; Adams, Lisa C; Winfried, Brenner; Hamm, Bernd; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Yi; Makowski, Marcus R

    2018-04-16

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MRI postprocessing technique that allows quantification of the spatial distribution of tissue magnetic susceptibility in vivo. Contributing sources include iron, blood products, calcium, myelin, and lipid content. To evaluate the reproducibility and consistency of QSM across clinical field strengths of 1.5T and 3T and to optimize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at 1.5T through bandwidth tuning. Prospective. Sixteen healthy volunteers (10 men, 6 women; age range 24-37; mean age 27.8 ± 3.2 years). 1.5T and 3T systems from the same vendor. Four spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequences were designed with different acquisition bandwidths. QSM reconstruction was achieved through a nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion (MEDI) algorithm employing L1 regularization. CNR was calculated in seven regions of interest (ROIs), while reproducibility and consistency of QSM measurements were evaluated through voxel-based and region-specific linear correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots. Interclass correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum test, linear regression analysis, Bland-Altman analysis, Welch's t-test. CNR analysis showed a statistically significant (P limits of agreement from -18.7 to 25.8 ppb) in the ROI-based analysis, while the correlation was found to be good for the voxel-based analysis of averaged maps (R ≥ 0.90, widest limits of agreement from -9.3 to 9.1 ppb). CNR of QSM images reconstructed from 1.5T acquisitions can be enhanced through bandwidth tuning. MEDI-based QSM reconstruction demonstrated to be reproducible and consistent both across field strengths (1.5T and 3T) and bandwidth variation. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Value of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Simon S.; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Huesers, Kristina; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Booz, Christian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Metzger, Sarah C.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate objective and subjective image quality of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Datasets of 47 patients (35 men; 64.1 ± 10.9 years) who underwent DECT angiography of heart and vascular access prior to TAVR were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F{sub 0}.5), VMI+, and traditional monoenergetic (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV intervals from 40-100 keV. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 564 arterial segments were evaluated. Subjective analysis was rated by three blinded observers using a Likert scale. Mean SNR and CNR were highest in 40 keV VMI+ series (SNR, 27.8 ± 13.0; CNR, 26.3 ± 12.7), significantly (all p < 0.001) superior to all VMI series, which showed highest values at 70 keV (SNR, 18.5 ± 7.6; CNR, 16.0 ± 7.4), as well as linearly-blended F{sub 0}.5 series (SNR, 16.8 ± 7.3; CNR, 13.6 ± 6.9). Highest subjective image quality scores were observed for 40, 50, and 60 keV VMI+ reconstructions (all p > 0.05), significantly superior to all VMI and standard linearly-blended images (all p < 0.01). Low-keV VMI+ reconstructions significantly increase CNR and SNR compared to VMI and standard linear-blending image reconstruction and improve subjective image quality in preprocedural DECT angiography in the context of TAVR planning. (orig.)

  9. Ultralow dose dentomaxillofacial CT imaging and iterative reconstruction techniques: variability of Hounsfield units and contrast-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Alexander; Stratis, Andreas; Kakar, Apoorv; Bosmans, Hilde; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Gassner, Eva-Maria; Puelacher, Wolfgang; Pauwels, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether application of ultralow dose protocols and iterative reconstruction technology (IRT) influence quantitative Hounsfield units (HUs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Methods: A phantom with inserts of five types of materials was scanned using protocols for (a) a clinical reference for navigated surgery (CT dose index volume 36.58 mGy), (b) low-dose sinus imaging (18.28 mGy) and (c) four ultralow dose imaging (4.14, 2.63, 0.99 and 0.53 mGy). All images were reconstructed using: (i) filtered back projection (FBP); (ii) IRT: adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-50 (ASIR-50), ASIR-100 and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR); and (iii) standard (std) and bone kernel. Mean HU, CNR and average HU error after recalibration were determined. Each combination of protocols was compared using Friedman analysis of variance, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test. Results: Pearson's sample correlation coefficients were all >0.99. Ultralow dose protocols using FBP showed errors of up to 273 HU. Std kernels had less HU variability than bone kernels. MBIR reduced the error value for the lowest dose protocol to 138 HU and retained the highest relative CNR. ASIR could not demonstrate significant advantages over FBP. Conclusions: Considering a potential dose reduction as low as 1.5% of a std protocol, ultralow dose protocols and IRT should be further tested for clinical dentomaxillofacial CT imaging. Advances in knowledge: HU as a surrogate for bone density may vary significantly in CT ultralow dose imaging. However, use of std kernels and MBIR technology reduce HU error values and may retain the highest CNR. PMID:26859336

  10. Comparison of contrast-to-noise ratios of transmission and dark-field signal in grating-based X-ray imaging for healthy murine lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Hahn, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental comparison of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between transmission and dark-field signals in grating-based X-ray imaging for ex-vivo murine lung tissue. Materials and Methods: Lungs from three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Background noise of transmission and dark-field signal was quantified by measuring the standard deviation in a region of interest (ROI) placed in a homogeneous area outside the specimen. Image contrast was quantified by measuring the signal range in rectangular ROIs placed in central and peripheral lung parenchyma. The relative contrast gain (RCG) of dark-field over transmission images was calculated as CNRDF / CNRT. Results: In all images, there was a trend for contrast-to-noise ratios of dark-field images (CNRDF) to be higher than for transmission images (CNRT) for all ROIs (median 61 vs. 38, p = 0.10), but the difference was statistically significant only for peripheral ROIs (61 vs. 32, p = 0.03). Median RCG was >1 for all ROIs (1.84). RCG values were significantly smaller for central ROIs than for peripheral ROIs (1.34 vs. 2.43, p = 0.03). Conclusion: The contrast-to-noise ratio of dark-field images compares more favorably to the contrast-to-noise ratio of transmission images for peripheral lung regions as compared to central regions. For any specific specimen, a calculation of the RCG allows comparing which X-ray modality (dark-field or transmission imaging) produces better contrast-to-noise characteristics in a well-defined ROI. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of different cardiac MRI sequences at 1.5T/3.0T with respect to signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutberlet, M.; Spors, B.; Grothoff, M.; Freyhardt, P.; Schwinge, K.; Plotkin, M.; Amthauer, H.; Felix, R.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare image quality, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of different MRI sequences for cardiac imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T in volunteers. Material and Methods: 10 volunteers (5 male, 5 female) with a mean age of 33 years (±8) without any history of cardiac diseases were examined on a GE Signa 3.0 T and a GE Signa 1.5 T TwinSpeed Excite (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA) scanner using a 4-element phased array surface coil (same design) on the same day. For tissue characterization ECG gated Fast Spinecho (FSE) T 1 - (Double IR), T 1 -STIR (Triple IR) and T 2 -weighted sequences in transverse orientation were used. For functional analysis a steady state free precession (SSFP-FIESTA) sequence was performed in the 4-chamber, 2-chamber long axis and short axis view. The flip angle used for the SSFP sequence at 3.0 T was reduced from 45 to 30 to keep short TR times while staying within the pre-defined SAR limitations. All other sequence parameters were kept constant. Results: All acquisitions could successfully be completed for the 10 volunteers. The mean SNR 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was remarkably increased (p 2 - (160% SNR increase), the STIR-T 1 - (123%) and the T 1 - (91%) weighted FSE. Similar results were found comparing CNR at 3.0 T and 1.5 T. The mean SNR achieved using the SSFP sequences was more than doubled by 3.0 T (150%), but did not have any significant effect on the CNR. The image quality at 3.0 T did not appear to be improved, and was considered to be significantly worse when using SSFP sequences. Artefacts like shading in the area of the right ventricle (RV) were found to be more present at 3.0 T using FSE sequences. After a localized shim had been performed in 5/10 volunteers at the infero-lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV) with the SSFP sequences at 3.0 T no significant increase in artefacts could be detected. (orig.) [de

  12. Comparison study of noise reduction algorithms in dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2018-04-01

    Dual energy chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently developed medical technique that takes advantage of both tomosynthesis and dual energy X-ray images. However, quantum noise, which occurs in dual energy X-ray images, strongly interferes with diagnosis in various clinical situations. Therefore, noise reduction is necessary in dual energy CDT. In this study, noise-compensating algorithms, including a simple smoothing of high-energy images (SSH) and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR), were evaluated in a CDT system. We used a newly developed prototype CDT system and anthropomorphic chest phantom for experimental studies. The resulting images demonstrated that dual energy CDT can selectively image anatomical structures, such as bone and soft tissue. Among the resulting images, those acquired with ACNR showed the best image quality. Both coefficient of variation and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were the highest in ACNR among the three different dual energy techniques, and the CNR of bone was significantly improved compared to the reconstructed images acquired at a single energy. This study demonstrated the clinical value of dual energy CDT and quantitatively showed that ACNR is the most suitable among the three developed dual energy techniques, including standard log subtraction, SSH, and ACNR.

  13. Dual-energy CT in patients with abdominal malignant lymphoma: impact of noise-optimised virtual monoenergetic imaging on objective and subjective image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenga, L; Czwikla, R; Wichmann, J L; Leithner, D; Albrecht, M H; D'Angelo, T; Arendt, C T; Booz, C; Hammerstingl, R; Vogl, T J; Martin, S S

    2018-06-05

    To investigate the impact of noise-optimised virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstructions on quantitative and qualitative image parameters in patients with malignant lymphoma at dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) examinations of the abdomen. Thirty-five consecutive patients (mean age, 53.8±18.6 years; range, 21-82 years) with histologically proven malignant lymphoma of the abdomen were included retrospectively. Images were post-processed with standard linear blending (M_0.6), traditional VMI, and VMI+ technique at energy levels ranging from 40 to 100 keV in 10 keV increments. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were objectively measured in lymphoma lesions. Image quality, lesion delineation, and image noise were rated subjectively by three blinded observers using five-point Likert scales. Quantitative image quality parameters peaked at 40-keV VMI+ (SNR, 15.77±7.74; CNR, 18.27±8.04) with significant differences compared to standard linearly blended M_0.6 (SNR, 7.96±3.26; CNR, 13.55±3.47) and all traditional VMI series (ptraditional VMI at abdominal DECT examinations. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carotid dual-energy CT angiography: Evaluation of low keV calculated monoenergetic datasets by means of a frequency-split approach for noise reduction at low keV levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Philipp; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Sudarski, Sonja; Morelli, John N; Schmidt, Bernhard; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Henzler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Calculated monoenergetic ultra-low keV datasets did not lead to improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) due to the dramatic increase in image noise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the objective image quality of ultra-low keV monoenergetic images (MEIs) calculated from carotid DECT angiography data with a new monoenergetic imaging algorithm using a frequency-split technique. 20 patients (12 male; mean age 53±17 years) were retrospectively analyzed. MEIs from 40 to 120 keV were reconstructed using the monoenergetic split frequency approach (MFSA). Additionally MEIs were reconstructed for 40 and 50 keV using a conventional monoenergetic (CM) software application. Signal intensity, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and CNR were assessed in the basilar, common, internal carotid arteries. Ultra-low keV MEIs at 40 keV and 50 keV demonstrated highest vessel attenuation, significantly greater than those of the polyenergetic images (PEI) (all p-values 0.05). Thus MEIs with MFSA showed significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to MEIs with CM. Combining the lower spatial frequency stack for contrast at low keV levels with the high spatial frequency stack for noise at high keV levels (frequency-split technique) leads to improved image quality of ultra-low keV monoenergetic DECT datasets when compared to previous monoenergetic reconstruction techniques without the frequency-split technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pediatric CT: implementation of ASIR for substantial radiation dose reduction while maintaining pre-ASIR image noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Samuel L; Moore, Bria M; Yee, Brian S; Kaufman, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    To determine a comprehensive method for the implementation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for maximal radiation dose reduction in pediatric computed tomography (CT) without changing the magnitude of noise in the reconstructed image or the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the patient. The institutional review board waived the need to obtain informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant quality analysis. Chest and abdominopelvic CT images obtained before ASIR implementation (183 patient examinations; mean patient age, 8.8 years ± 6.2 [standard deviation]; range, 1 month to 27 years) were analyzed for image noise and CNR. These measurements were used in conjunction with noise models derived from anthropomorphic phantoms to establish new beam current-modulated CT parameters to implement 40% ASIR at 120 and 100 kVp without changing noise texture or magnitude. Image noise was assessed in images obtained after ASIR implementation (492 patient examinations; mean patient age, 7.6 years ± 5.4; range, 2 months to 28 years) the same way it was assessed in the pre-ASIR analysis. Dose reduction was determined by comparing size-specific dose estimates in the pre- and post-ASIR patient cohorts. Data were analyzed with paired t tests. With 40% ASIR implementation, the average relative dose reduction for chest CT was 39% (2.7/4.4 mGy), with a maximum reduction of 72% (5.3/18.8 mGy). The average relative dose reduction for abdominopelvic CT was 29% (4.8/6.8 mGy), with a maximum reduction of 64% (7.6/20.9 mGy). Beam current modulation was unnecessary for patients weighing 40 kg or less. The difference between 0% and 40% ASIR noise magnitude was less than 1 HU, with statistically nonsignificant increases in patient CNR at 100 kVp of 8% (15.3/14.2; P = .41) for chest CT and 13% (7.8/6.8; P = .40) for abdominopelvic CT. Radiation dose reduction at pediatric CT was achieved when 40% ASIR was implemented as a dose reduction tool only; no net change to the magnitude

  16. Improving the use of principal component analysis to reduce physiological noise and motion artifacts to increase the sensitivity of task-based fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltysik, David A; Thomasson, David; Rajan, Sunder; Biassou, Nadia

    2015-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series are subject to corruption by many noise sources, especially physiological noise and motion. Researchers have developed many methods to reduce physiological noise, including RETROICOR, which retroactively removes cardiac and respiratory waveforms collected during the scan, and CompCor, which applies principal components analysis (PCA) to remove physiological noise components without any physiological monitoring during the scan. We developed four variants of the CompCor method. The optimized CompCor method applies PCA to time series in a noise mask, but orthogonalizes each component to the BOLD response waveform and uses an algorithm to determine a favorable number of components to use as "nuisance regressors." Whole brain component correction (WCompCor) is similar, except that it applies PCA to time-series throughout the whole brain. Low-pass component correction (LCompCor) identifies low-pass filtered components throughout the brain, while high-pass component correction (HCompCor) identifies high-pass filtered components. We compared the new methods with the original CompCor method by examining the resulting functional contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), sensitivity, and specificity. (1) The optimized CompCor method increased the CNR and sensitivity compared to the original CompCor method and (2) the application of WCompCor yielded the best improvement in the CNR and sensitivity. The sensitivity of the optimized CompCor, WCompCor, and LCompCor methods exceeded that of the original CompCor method. However, regressing noise signals showed a paradoxical consequence of reducing specificity for all noise reduction methods attempted. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Signal-to-noise ratios of multiplexing spectrometers in high backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knacke, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios and the amount of multiplexing gain achieved with a Michelson spectrometer during detector and background noise are studied. Noise caused by the warm background is found in 10 and 20-micron atmospheric windows in high resolution Fourier spectroscopy. An equation is derived for the signal-to-noise ratio based on the number of channels, total time to obtain the complete spectrum, the signal power in one spectral element, and the detector noise equivalent power in the presence of negligible background. Similar expressions are derived for backgrounds yielding a noise equivalent power to a spectral element, and backgrounds having flat spectra in the frequency range under investigation.

  18. CT urography in the urinary bladder: To compare excretory phase images using a low noise index and a high noise index with adaptive noise reduction filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although CT urography (CTU) is widely used for the evaluation of the entire urinary tract, the most important drawback is the radiation exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a noise reduction filter (NRF) using a phantom and to quantitatively and qualitatively compare excretory phase (EP) images using a low noise index (NI) with those using a high NI and postprocessing NRF (pNRF). Material and Methods: Each NI value was defined for a slice thickness of 5 mm, and reconstructed images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm were assessed. Sixty patients who were at high risk of developing bladder tumors (BT) were divided into two groups according to whether their EP images were obtained using an NI of 9.88 (29 patients; group A) or an NI of 20 and pNRF (31 patients; group B). The CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bladder with respect to the anterior pelvic fat were compared in both groups. Qualitative assessment of the urinary bladder for image noise, sharpness, streak artifacts, homogeneity, and the conspicuity of polypoid or sessile-shaped BTs with a short-axis diameter greater than 10 mm was performed using a 3-point scale. Results: The phantom study showed noise reduction of approximately 40% and 76% dose reduction between group A and group B. CTDI vol demonstrated a 73% reduction in group B (4.6 ± 1.1 mGy) compared with group A (16.9 ± 3.4 mGy). The CNR value was not significantly different (P = 0.60) between group A (16.1 ± 5.1) and group B (16.6 ± 7.6). Although group A was superior (P < 0.01) to group B with regard to image noise, other qualitative analyses did not show significant differences. Conclusion: EP images using a high NI and pNRF were quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to those using a low NI, except with regard to image noise

  19. Theory and Measurement of Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Continuous-Wave Noise Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Bronisław; Susek, Waldemar

    2018-05-06

    Determination of the signal power-to-noise power ratio on the input and output of reception systems is essential to the estimation of their quality and signal reception capability. This issue is especially important in the case when both signal and noise have the same characteristic as Gaussian white noise. This article considers the problem of how a signal-to-noise ratio is changed as a result of signal processing in the correlation receiver of a noise radar in order to determine the ability to detect weak features in the presence of strong clutter-type interference. These studies concern both theoretical analysis and practical measurements of a noise radar with a digital correlation receiver for 9.2 GHz bandwidth. Firstly, signals participating individually in the correlation process are defined and the terms signal and interference are ascribed to them. Further studies show that it is possible to distinguish a signal and a noise on the input and output of a correlation receiver, respectively, when all the considered noises are in the form of white noise. Considering the above, a measurement system is designed in which it is possible to represent the actual conditions of noise radar operation and power measurement of a useful noise signal and interference noise signals—in particular the power of an internal leakage signal between a transmitter and a receiver of the noise radar. The proposed measurement stands and the obtained results show that it is possible to optimize with the use of the equipment and not with the complex processing of a noise signal. The radar parameters depend on its prospective application, such as short- and medium-range radar, ground-penetrating radar, and through-the-wall detection radar.

  20. Pediatric cT: Implementation of ASIR for Substantial Radiation Dose Reduction While Maintaining Pre-ASIR Image Noise1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Moore, Bria M.; Yee, Brian S.; Kaufman, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine a comprehensive method for the implementation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for maximal radiation dose reduction in pediatric computed tomography (CT) without changing the magnitude of noise in the reconstructed image or the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the patient. Materials and Methods The institutional review board waived the need to obtain informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant quality analysis. Chest and abdominopelvic CT images obtained before ASIR implementation (183 patient examinations; mean patient age, 8.8 years ± 6.2 [standard deviation]; range, 1 month to 27 years) were analyzed for image noise and CNR. These measurements were used in conjunction with noise models derived from anthropomorphic phantoms to establish new beam current–modulated CT parameters to implement 40% ASIR at 120 and 100 kVp without changing noise texture or magnitude. Image noise was assessed in images obtained after ASIR implementation (492 patient examinations; mean patient age, 7.6 years ± 5.4; range, 2 months to 28 years) the same way it was assessed in the pre-ASIR analysis. Dose reduction was determined by comparing size-specific dose estimates in the pre- and post-ASIR patient cohorts. Data were analyzed with paired t tests. Results With 40% ASIR implementation, the average relative dose reduction for chest CT was 39% (2.7/4.4 mGy), with a maximum reduction of 72% (5.3/18.8 mGy). The average relative dose reduction for abdominopelvic CT was 29% (4.8/6.8 mGy), with a maximum reduction of 64% (7.6/20.9 mGy). Beam current modulation was unnecessary for patients weighing 40 kg or less. The difference between 0% and 40% ASIR noise magnitude was less than 1 HU, with statistically nonsignificant increases in patient CNR at 100 kVp of 8% (15.3/14.2; P = .41) for chest CT and 13% (7.8/6.8; P = .40) for abdominopelvic CT. Conclusion Radiation dose reduction at pediatric CT was achieved when 40% ASIR was implemented as a dose

  1. The GIIDA (Management of the CNR Environmental Data for Interoperability) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.

    2009-04-01

    This work presents the GIIDA (Gestione Integrata e Interoperativa dei Dati Ambientali del CNR) inter-departimental project of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The project is an initiative of the Earth and Environment Department (Dipartimento Terra e Ambiente) of the CNR. GIIDA mission is "To implement the Spatial Information Infrastructure (SII) of CNR for Environmental and Earth Observation data". The project aims to design and develop a multidisciplinary cyber-infrastructure for the management, processing and evaluation of Earth and environmental data. This infrastructure will contribute to the Italian presence in international projects and initiatives, such as: INSPIRE, GMES, GEOSS and SEIS. The main GIIDA goals are: • Networking: To create a network of CNR Institutes for implementing a common information space and sharing spatial resources. • Observation: Re-engineering the environmental observation system of CNR • Modeling: Re-engineering the environmental modeling system del CNR • Processing: Re-engineering the environmental processing system del CNR • Mediation: To define mediation methods and instruments for implementing the international interoperability standards. The project started in July 2008 releasing a specification document of the GIIDA architecture for interoperability and security. Based on these documents, a Call for Proposals was issued in September 2008. GIIDA received 23 proposed pilots from 16 different Institutes belonging to five CNR Departments and from 15 non-CNR Institutions (e.g. three Italian regional administrations, three national research centers, four universities, some SMEs). These pilot were divided into thematic areas. In fact, GIIDA considers seven main thematic areas/domains: • Biodiversity; • Climate Changes; • Air Quality; • Soil and Water Quality; • Risks; • Infrastructures for Research and Public Administrations; • Sea and Marine resources Each of these thematic areas is covered by a

  2. A new technique for noise reduction at coronary CT angiography with multi-phase data-averaging and non-rigid image registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Nakamura, Yuko; Yamagami, Takuji; Date, Shuji; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiology, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of a newly developed noise reduction technique at coronary CT angiography (CTA) that uses multi-phase data-averaging and non-rigid image registration. Sixty-five patients underwent coronary CTA with prospective ECG-triggering. The range of the phase window was set at 70-80 % of the R-R interval. First, three sets of consecutive volume data at 70 %, 75 % and 80 % of the R-R interval were prepared. Second, we applied non-rigid registration to align the 70 % and 80 % images to the 75 % image. Finally, we performed weighted averaging of the three images and generated a de-noised image. The image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal coronary arteries between the conventional 75 % and the de-noised images were compared. Two radiologists evaluated the image quality using a 5-point scale (1, poor; 5, excellent). On de-noised images, mean image noise was significantly lower than on conventional 75 % images (18.3 HU ± 2.6 vs. 23.0 HU ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and the CNR was significantly higher (P < 0.01). The mean image quality score for conventional 75 % and de-noised images was 3.9 and 4.4, respectively (P < 0.01). Our method reduces image noise and improves image quality at coronary CTA. (orig.)

  3. Noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic images and iodine maps for the detection of venous thrombosis in second-generation dual-energy CT (DECT): an ex vivo phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, Malte N.; Schabel, Christoph; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Ketelsen, Dominik; Mangold, Stefanie; Claussen, Claus D.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Thomas, Christoph; Krauss, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) can be difficult to detect using CT due to poor and heterogeneous contrast. Dual-energy CT (DECT) allows iodine contrast optimization using noise-optimized monoenergetic extrapolations (MEIs) and iodine maps (IMs). Our aim was to assess whether MEI and IM could improve the delineation of thrombotic material within iodine-enhanced blood compared to single-energy CT (SECT). Six vessel phantoms, including human thrombus and contrast media-enhanced blood and one phantom without contrast, were placed in an attenuation phantom and scanned with DECT 100/140 kV and SECT 120 kV. IM, virtual non-contrast images (VNC), mixed images, and MEI were calculated. Attenuation of thrombi and blood were measured. Contrast and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) were calculated and compared among IM, VNC, mixed images, MEI, and SECT using paired t tests. MEI40keV and IM showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV from high to intermediate iodine concentrations (contrast:pMEI40keV < 0.002,pIM < 0.005;CNR:pMEI40keV < 0.002,pIM < 0.004). At low iodine concentrations, MEI190keV and VNC images showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV with inverted contrasts (contrast:pMEI190keV < 0.008,pVNC < 0.002;CNR:pMEI190keV < 0.003,pVNC < 0.002). Noise-optimized MEI and IM provide significantly higher contrast and CNR in the delineation of thrombosis compared to SECT, which may facilitate the detection of DVT in difficult cases. circle Poor contrast makes it difficult to detect thrombosis in CT. (orig.)

  4. Noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic images and iodine maps for the detection of venous thrombosis in second-generation dual-energy CT (DECT): an ex vivo phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, Malte N.; Schabel, Christoph; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Ketelsen, Dominik; Mangold, Stefanie; Claussen, Claus D.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Thomas, Christoph [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Krauss, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) can be difficult to detect using CT due to poor and heterogeneous contrast. Dual-energy CT (DECT) allows iodine contrast optimization using noise-optimized monoenergetic extrapolations (MEIs) and iodine maps (IMs). Our aim was to assess whether MEI and IM could improve the delineation of thrombotic material within iodine-enhanced blood compared to single-energy CT (SECT). Six vessel phantoms, including human thrombus and contrast media-enhanced blood and one phantom without contrast, were placed in an attenuation phantom and scanned with DECT 100/140 kV and SECT 120 kV. IM, virtual non-contrast images (VNC), mixed images, and MEI were calculated. Attenuation of thrombi and blood were measured. Contrast and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) were calculated and compared among IM, VNC, mixed images, MEI, and SECT using paired t tests. MEI40keV and IM showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV from high to intermediate iodine concentrations (contrast:pMEI40keV < 0.002,pIM < 0.005;CNR:pMEI40keV < 0.002,pIM < 0.004). At low iodine concentrations, MEI190keV and VNC images showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV with inverted contrasts (contrast:pMEI190keV < 0.008,pVNC < 0.002;CNR:pMEI190keV < 0.003,pVNC < 0.002). Noise-optimized MEI and IM provide significantly higher contrast and CNR in the delineation of thrombosis compared to SECT, which may facilitate the detection of DVT in difficult cases. circle Poor contrast makes it difficult to detect thrombosis in CT. (orig.)

  5. Acoustics of fish shelters: background noise and signal-to-noise ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Fish shelters (flat stones, shells, artificial covers, etc., with a hollow beneath) increase the sound pressure levels of low frequency sounds (noise ratio (SNR) in the nest. Background noise amplification by the shelter was examined under both laboratory (stones and shells) and field (stones) conditions, and the SNR of tones inside the nest cavity was measured by performing acoustic tests on stones in the stream. Stone and shell shelters amplify the background noise pressure levels inside the cavity with comparable gains and at similar frequencies of an active sound source. Inside the cavity of stream stones, the mean SNR of tones increased significantly below 125 Hz and peaked at 65 Hz (+10 dB). Implications for fish acoustic communication inside nest enclosures are discussed.

  6. Linear signal noise summer accurately determines and controls S/N ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundry, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Linear signal noise summer precisely controls the relative power levels of signal and noise, and mixes them linearly in accurately known ratios. The S/N ratio accuracy and stability are greatly improved by this technique and are attained simultaneously.

  7. Noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic images and iodine maps for the detection of venous thrombosis in second-generation dual-energy CT (DECT): an ex vivo phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Malte N; Schabel, Christoph; Krauss, Bernhard; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Ketelsen, Dominik; Mangold, Stefanie; Claussen, Claus D; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Thomas, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) can be difficult to detect using CT due to poor and heterogeneous contrast. Dual-energy CT (DECT) allows iodine contrast optimization using noise-optimized monoenergetic extrapolations (MEIs) and iodine maps (IMs). Our aim was to assess whether MEI and IM could improve the delineation of thrombotic material within iodine-enhanced blood compared to single-energy CT (SECT). Six vessel phantoms, including human thrombus and contrast media-enhanced blood and one phantom without contrast, were placed in an attenuation phantom and scanned with DECT 100/140 kV and SECT 120 kV. IM, virtual non-contrast images (VNC), mixed images, and MEI were calculated. Attenuation of thrombi and blood were measured. Contrast and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) were calculated and compared among IM, VNC, mixed images, MEI, and SECT using paired t tests. MEI40keV and IM showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV from high to intermediate iodine concentrations (contrast:pMEI40keV VNC images showed significantly higher contrast and CNR than SE120kV with inverted contrasts (contrast:pMEI190keV < 0.008,pVNC < 0.002;CNR:pMEI190keV < 0.003,pVNC < 0.002). Noise-optimized MEI and IM provide significantly higher contrast and CNR in the delineation of thrombosis compared to SECT, which may facilitate the detection of DVT in difficult cases. • Poor contrast makes it difficult to detect thrombosis in CT. • Dual-energy-CT allows contrast optimization using monoenergetic extrapolations (MEI) and iodine maps (IM). • Noise-optimized-MEI and IM are significantly superior to single-energy-CT in delineation of thrombosis. • Noise-optimized-MEI and IM may facilitate the detection of deep vein thrombosis.

  8. Long-term Aerosol Lidar Measurements At CNR-IMAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, L.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Pandolfi, M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2006-12-01

    Actual estimations of the aerosol effect on the radiation budget are affected by a large uncertainties mainly due to the high inhomogeneity and variability of atmospheric aerosol, in terms of concentration, shape, size distribution, refractive index and vertical distribution. Long-term measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties are needed to reduce these uncertainties. At CNR-IMAA (40° 36'N, 15° 44' E, 760 m above sea level), a lidar system for aerosol study is operative since May 2000 in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Until August 2005, it provided independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter at 355 nm and aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm. After an upgrade of the system, it provides independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles at 355 and 532 nm, and of aerosol backscatter profiles at 1064 nm and depolarization ratio at 532 nm. For these measurements, lidar ratio at 355 and 532 nm and Angstrom exponent profiles at 355/532 nm are also obtained. Starting on May 2000, systematic measurements are performed three times per week according to the EARLINET schedule and further measurements are performed in order to investigate particular events, like dust intrusions, volcanic eruptions and forest fires. A climatological study has been carried out in terms of the seasonal behavior of the PBL height and of the aerosol optical properties calculated inside the PBL itself. In the free troposphere, an high occurrences of Saharan dust intrusions (about 1 day of Saharan dust intrusion every 10 days) has been observed at CNR-IMAA because of the short distance from the Sahara region. During 6 years of observations, very peculiar cases of volcanic aerosol emitted by Etna volcano and aerosol released by large forest fires burning occurred in Alaska and Canada have been observed in the free troposphere at our site. Particular attention is devoted to lidar ratio both for the

  9. Noise Measurements of High Aspect Ratio Distributed Exhaust Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers far-field acoustic measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratio 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Several variations of nozzle geometry, commonly found in embedded exhaust systems, are explored, including bevels, slants, single broad chevrons and notches, and internal septae. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously for the simple rectangular nozzle, showed that increasing aspect ratio increases the high frequency noise, especially directed in the plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. Detailed changes to the nozzle geometry generally made little difference in the noise, and the differences were greatest at low speed. Having an extended lip on one broad side (bevel) did produce up to 3 decibels more noise in all directions, while extending the lip on the narrow side (slant) produced up to 2 decibels more noise, primarily on the side with the extension. Adding a single, non-intrusive chevron, made no significant change to the noise, while inverting the chevron (notch) produced up to 2decibels increase in the noise. Having internal walls (septae) within the nozzle, such as would be required for structural support or when multiple fan ducts are aggregated, reduced the noise of the rectangular jet, but could produce a highly directional shedding tone from the septae trailing edges. Finally, a nozzle with both septae and a beveled nozzle, representative of the exhaust system envisioned for a distributed electric propulsion aircraft with a common rectangular duct, produced almost as much noise as the beveled nozzle, with the septae not contributing much reduction in noise.

  10. The T2-Shortening Effect of Gadolinium and the Optimal Conditions for Maximizing the CNR for Evaluating the Biliary System: a Phantom Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoon, Choon Sik; Song, Si Young; Park, Kyung Soo; Kim, Woo Sun

    2011-01-01

    Clear depiction of the common bile duct is important when evaluating neonatal cholestasis in order to differentiate biliary atresia from other diseases. During MR cholangiopancreatography, the T2-shortening effect of gadolinium can increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bile duct and enhance its depiction. The purpose of this study was to confirm, by performing a phantom study, the T2-shortening effect of gadolinium, to evaluate the effect of different gadolinium chelates with different gadolinium concentrations and different magnetic field strengths for investigating the optimal combination of these conditions, and for identifying the maximum CNR for the evaluation of the biliary system. MR imaging using a T2-weighted single-shot fast spin echo sequence and T2 relaxometry was performed with a sponge phantom in a syringe tube. Two kinds of contrast agents (Gd-DTPA and Gd-EOB-DTPA) with different gadolinium concentrations were evaluated with 1.5T and 3T scanners. The signal intensities, the CNRs and the T2 relaxation time were analyzed. The signal intensities significantly decreased as the gadolinium concentrations increased (p < 0.001) with both contrast agents. These signal intensities were higher on a 3T (p < 0.001) scanner. The CNRs were higher on a 1.5T (p < 0.001) scanner and they showed no significant change with different gadolinium concentrations. The T2 relaxation time also showed a negative correlation with the gadolinium concentrations (p < 0.001) and the CNRs showed decrease more with Gd-EOB-DTPA (versus Gd-DTPA; p < 0.001) on a 3T scanner (versus 1.5T; p < 0.001). A T2-shortening effect of gadolinium exhibits a negative correlation with the gadolinium concentration for both the signal intensities and the T2 relaxation time. A higher CNR can be obtained with Gd-DTPA on a 1.5T MRI scanner.

  11. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Angiography of the Lower Extremity Runoff: Impact of Noise-Optimized Virtual Monochromatic Imaging on Image Quality and Diagnostic Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Julian L; Gillott, Matthew R; De Cecco, Carlo N; Mangold, Stefanie; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Yamada, Ricardo; Otani, Katharina; Canstein, Christian; Fuller, Stephen R; Vogl, Thomas J; Todoran, Thomas M; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging algorithm (VMI+) on image quality and diagnostic accuracy at dual-energy computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the lower extremity runoff. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study was approved by the local institutional review board. We evaluated dual-energy CTA studies of the lower extremity runoff in 48 patients (16 women; mean age, 63.3 ± 13.8 years) performed on a third-generation dual-source CT system. Images were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monochromatic (VMI) algorithms at 40 to 120 keV in 10-keV intervals. Vascular attenuation and image noise in 18 artery segments were measured; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used to subjectively evaluate vascular attenuation and image noise. In a subgroup of 21 patients who underwent additional invasive catheter angiography, diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant stenosis (≥50% lumen restriction) of F_0.5, 50-keV VMI+, and 60-keV VMI data sets were assessed. Objective image quality metrics were highest in the 40- and 50-keV VMI+ series (SNR: 20.2 ± 10.7 and 19.0 ± 9.5, respectively; CNR: 18.5 ± 10.3 and 16.8 ± 9.1, respectively) and were significantly (all P traditional VMI technique and standard linear blending for evaluation of the lower extremity runoff using dual-energy CTA.

  12. The deterioration of signal to noise ratio due to baseline restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henein, K.L.

    1976-02-01

    The deterioration of signal to noise ratio due to baseline restoration is theoretically studied. This study brings to the conclusion that a restorer has negligible influence on the signal to noise ratio when its time constant is ten times greater than that of the main amplifier filter, and that the rapid restorers prevail over the slow ones when the time constant of the filter is increased by at least 50% of its optimal value [fr

  13. Blind deblurring of spiral CT images - comparative studies on edge-to-noise ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ming; Wan Ge; Skinner, Margaret W.; Rubinstein, Jay T.; Vannier, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    A recently developed blind deblurring algorithm based on the edge-to-noise ratio has been applied to improve the quality of spiral CT images. Since the discrepancy measure used to quantify the edge and noise effects is not symmetric, there are several ways to formulate the edge-to-noise ratio. This article is to investigate the performance of those ratios with phantom and patient data. In the phantom study, it is shown that all the ratios share similar properties, validating the blind deblurring algorithm. The image fidelity improvement varies from 29% to 33% for different ratios, according to the root mean square error (RMSE) criterion; the optimal iteration number determined for each ratio varies from 25 to 35. Those ratios that are associated with most satisfactory performance are singled out for the image fidelity improvement of about 33% in the numerical simulation. After automatic blind deblurring with the selected ratios, the spatial resolution of CT is substantially refined in all the cases tested

  14. Study on the ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaomin; Huang Shengli; Xu Zizong; Wu Chong

    2001-01-01

    The ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer and their influence factors were studied. A method to depress the background, to shorten the measurement time and to increase the ratio of signal to noise was discussed. Results show that ratio of signal to noise is proportional to solid angle of detector to source and detection efficiency, and inverse proportional to electronics noise. Choose the activity of the source was important for decreasing of random coincidence counting. To use a coincidence gate and a discriminator of single photon were an effective way of increasing measurement accuracy and detection efficiency

  15. [The best noise index combined with ASIR weighting selection in low-dose chest scanning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huijuan; Hou, Ping; Liu, Jie; Gao, Jianbo; Tan, Hongna; Liang, Pan; Pu, Shi

    2015-10-06

    To discuss the best noise index combined with ASIR weighting selection in low-dose chest scanning based on BMI. 200 patients collected from May to December 2014 underwent non-contrast chest CT examinations, they were randomly assigned into standard dose group (Group A, NI15 combined with 30% ASIR) and low-dose groups (Group B, NI25 combined with 40% ASIR, Group C, NI30 combined with 50% ASIR, Group D, NI35 combined with 60% ASIR), 50 cases in each group; the patients were assigned into three groups based on BMI (kg/m2): BMI25. Signal-to-nosie ratio (SNR), contrast-to noise ratio (CNR), CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (ED) and subjective scoring between the standard and low-dose groups were compared and analyzed statistically. Differences of SNR, CNR, CTDIvol, DLP and ED among groups were determined with ANOVA analysis and the consistency of diagnosis with Kappa test. SNR, CTDIvol, DLP and ED reduced with the increase of nosie index, the differences among the groups were statistically significant (P25 kg/m2 group. NI35 combined with 60% ASIR in BMIASIR in 18.5 kg/m2≤BMI≤25 kg/m2 group; NI25 combined with 40% ASIR in 18.5 kg/m2≤BMI≤25 kg/m2 group were the best parameters combination which both can significantly reduce the radiation dose and ensure the image quality.

  16. Dual-energy computed tomography in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma: Comparison of noise-optimized and traditional virtual monoenergetic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon S; Wichmann, Julian L; Weyer, Hendrik; Albrecht, Moritz H; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Leithner, Doris; Lenga, Lukas; Booz, Christian; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Bodelle, Boris; Vogl, Thomas J; Hammerstingl, Renate

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstructions on quantitative and qualitative image parameters in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma at thoracoabdominal dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). Seventy-six patients (48 men; 66.6±13.8years) with metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma underwent DECT of the thorax and abdomen. Images were post-processed with standard linear blending (M_0.6), traditional virtual monoenergetic (VMI), and VMI+ technique. VMI and VMI+ images were reconstructed in 10-keV intervals from 40 to 100keV. Attenuation measurements were performed in cutaneous melanoma lesions, as well as in regional lymph node, subcutaneous and in-transit metastases to calculate objective signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios. Five-point scales were used to evaluate overall image quality and lesion delineation by three radiologists with different levels of experience. Objective indices SNR and CNR were highest at 40-keV VMI+ series (5.6±2.6 and 12.4±3.4), significantly superior to all other reconstructions (all Ptraditional VMI in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma at thoracoabdominal DECT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of liquid-gas velocity ratio on the noise of the cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Xuanzuo; Chen, Chi; Zhao, Zhouli; Song, Jinchun

    2018-05-01

    The noise from the cooling tower has a great influence on psychological performance of human beings. The cooling tower noise mainly consists of fan noise, falling water noise and mechanical noise. This thesis used DES turbulence model with FH-W model to simulate the flow and sound pressure field in cooling tower based on CFD software FLUENT and analyzed the influence of different kinds noise, which affected by diverse factors, on the cooling tower noise. It can be concluded that the addition of cooling water can reduce the turbulence and vortex noise of the rotor fluid field in the cooling tower at some extent, but increase the impact noise of the liquid-gas two phase. In general, the cooling tower noise decreases with the velocity ratio of liquid to gas increasing, and reaches the lowest when the velocity ratio of liquid to gas is close to l.

  18. A high signal-to-noise ratio composite quasar spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.J.; Hewett, P.C.; Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Weymann, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N of about 400) composite spectrum of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical region of high luminosity quasars is presented. The spectrum is derived from 718 individual spectra obtained as part of the Large Bright Quasar Survey. The moderate resolution, 4A or less, and high signal-to-noise ratio allow numerous weak emission features to be identified. Of particular note is the large equivalent-width of the Fe II emission in the rest-frame ultraviolet and the blue continuum slope of the composite. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a reference spectrum for use in line identifications, and a series of large-scale representations of the composite spectrum are shown. A measure of the standard deviation of the individual quasar spectra from the composite spectrum is also presented. 12 refs

  19. Progress in Noise Thermometry at 505 K and 693 K Using Quantized Voltage Noise Ratio Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, W. L.; Benz, S. P.; Dresselhaus, P. D.; Coakley, K. J.; Rogalla, H.; White, D. R.; Labenski, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    Technical advances and new results in noise thermometry at temperatures near the tin freezing point and the zinc freezing point using a quantized voltage noise source (QVNS) are reported. The temperatures are derived by comparing the power spectral density of QVNS synthesized noise with that of Johnson noise from a known resistance at both 505 K and 693 K. Reference noise is digitally synthesized so that the average power spectra of the QVNS match those of the thermal noise, resulting in ratios of power spectra close to unity in the low-frequency limit. Three-parameter models are used to account for differences in impedance-related time constants in the spectra. Direct comparison of noise temperatures to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is achieved in a comparison furnace with standard platinum resistance thermometers. The observed noise temperatures determined by operating the noise thermometer in both absolute and relative modes, and related statistics together with estimated uncertainties are reported. The relative noise thermometry results are combined with results from other thermodynamic determinations at temperatures near the tin freezing point to calculate a value of T - T 90 = +4(18) mK for temperatures near the zinc freezing point. These latest results achieve a lower uncertainty than that of our earlier efforts. The present value of T - T 90 is compared to other published determinations from noise thermometry and other methods.

  20. Imaging resolution signal-to-noise ratio in transverse phase amplification from classical information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Doug; Huang Zun; Pao, H.-Y.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    A quantum phase amplifier operated in the spatial domain can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging beyond the classical limit. The scaling of the signal-to-noise ratio with the gain of the quantum phase amplifier is derived from classical information theory

  1. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...... polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained...

  2. Measurement of signal-to-noise ratio performance of TV fluoroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geluk, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for direct measurement of Signal-to-Noise ratio performance on X-ray TV systems. To this end the TV signal resulting from a calibrated test object, is compared with the noise level in the image. The method is objective and produces instantaneous readout, which makes it very suitable for system evaluation under dynamic conditions. (author)

  3. Investigation of a glottal related harmonics-to-noise ratio and spectral tilt as indicators of glottal noise in synthesized and human voice signals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Peter J

    2008-03-01

    The harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) of the voiced speech signal has implicitly been used to infer information regarding the turbulent noise level at the glottis. However, two problems exist for inferring glottal noise attributes from the HNR of the speech wave form: (i) the measure is fundamental frequency (f0) dependent for equal levels of glottal noise, and (ii) any deviation from signal periodicity affects the ratio, not just turbulent noise. An alternative harmonics-to-noise ratio formulation [glottal related HNR (GHNR\\')] is proposed to overcome the former problem. In GHNR\\' a mean over the spectral range of interest of the HNRs at specific harmonic\\/between-harmonic frequencies (expressed in linear scale) is calculated. For the latter issue [(ii)] two spectral tilt measures are shown, using synthesis data, to be sensitive to glottal noise while at the same time being comparatively insensitive to other glottal aperiodicities. The theoretical development predicts that the spectral tilt measures reduce as noise levels increase. A conventional HNR estimator, GHNR\\' and two spectral tilt measures are applied to a data set of 13 pathological and 12 normal voice samples. One of the tilt measures and GHNR\\' are shown to provide statistically significant differentiating power over a conventional HNR estimator.

  4. Role of Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Gene (CNR2) Polymorphism in Children with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Beni-Suef Governorate in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Dina A; Hammam, Amira A; El-Malah, Waleed M; Khattab, Rasha A; Mangoud, Eman M

    2017-01-01

    The cannabinoid system is involved in the immune regulation by modulation of Th cells type 1 and 2. It is composed of the CB2 receptor which is expressed at 10 to 100 folds greater levels on immune cells than the CB1 receptors. The CB2 is encoded by the cannabinoid CB receptor gene (CNR2) gene. This study aims to investigate the polymorphism in CNR2 gene variation rs 35761398 (Q63R) in Egyptian children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and to investigate the relation between this gene polymorphism and either the susceptibility to or the chronicity of the disease. Forty children diagnosed as ITP were included in this study and 20 healthy children as normal control. CNR2 gene was investigated in those children by PCR RFLP technique (restriction fragment length polymorphism). CNR2 genotyping revealed that 45% of ITP patients had the QR heterotype, 50% had the RR homotype and 5% had QQ, the wild type with significantly higher frequency of homomutant genotype in comparison to controls. The relative odds ratio suggested a double risk for developing ITP in RR homotype (OR 2.152). A significant overpresentation of the RR genotype and of R allele was observed in the chronic patients (P=0.002 and 0.003, respectively). The associated risk to develop chronic ITP increased more than two folds for the RR homotype (OR=2.854). In conclusion, this study confirms the role of CNR2 Q63R polymorphism in the susceptibility to ITP in children and chronicity of the disease. Copyright© by the Egyptian Association of Immunologists.

  5. Study of improving signal-noise ratio for fluorescence channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Li, Xin; Lou, Yue; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Ran; Yan, Debao; Zhao, Qi

    2017-10-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence(LIFS), which is one of most effective discrimination methods to identify the material at the molecular level by inducing fluorescence spectrum, has been popularized for its fast and accurate probe's results. According to the research, violet laser or ultraviolet laser is always used as excitation light source. While, There is no atmospheric window for violet laser and ultraviolet laser, causing laser attenuation along its propagation path. What's worse, as the laser reaching sample, part of the light is reflected. That is, excitation laser really react on sample to produce fluorescence is very poor, leading to weak fluorescence mingled with the background light collected by LIFS' processing unit, when it used outdoor. In order to spread LIFS to remote probing under the complex background, study of improving signal-noise ratio for fluorescence channel is a meaningful work. Enhancing the fluorescence intensity and inhibiting background light both can improve fluorescence' signal-noise ratio. In this article, three different approaches of inhibiting background light are discussed to improve the signal-noise ratio of LIFS. The first method is increasing fluorescence excitation area in the proportion of LIFS' collecting field by expanding laser beam, if the collecting filed is fixed. The second one is changing field angle base to accommodate laser divergence angle. The third one is setting a very narrow gating circuit to control acquisition circuit, which is shortly open only when fluorescence arriving. At some level, these methods all can reduce the background light. But after discussion, the third one is best with adding gating acquisition circuit to acquisition circuit instead of changing light path, which is effective and economic.

  6. Optimized energy of spectral CT for infarct imaging: Experimental validation with human validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Veit; Palanisamy, Srikanth; Symons, Rolf; Pourmorteza, Amir; Ahlman, Mark A; Rice, Kelly; Thomas, Tom; Davies-Venn, Cynthia; Krauss, Bernhard; Kwan, Alan; Pandey, Ankur; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Bluemke, David A

    Late contrast enhancement visualizes myocardial infarction, but the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) is low using conventional CT. The aim of this study was to determine if spectral CT can improve imaging of myocardial infarction. A canine model of myocardial infarction was produced in 8 animals (90-min occlusion, reperfusion). Later, imaging was performed after contrast injection using CT at 90 kVp/150 kVpSn. The following reconstructions were evaluated: Single energy 90 kVp, mixed, iodine map, multiple monoenergetic conventional and monoenergetic noise optimized reconstructions. Regions of interest were measured in infarct and remote regions to calculate contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and Bhattacharya distance (a metric of the differentiation between regions). Blinded assessment of image quality was performed. The same reconstruction methods were applied to CT scans of four patients with known infarcts. For animal studies, the highest CNR for infarct vs. myocardium was achieved in the lowest keV (40 keV) VMo images (CNR 4.42, IQR 3.64-5.53), which was superior to 90 kVp, mixed and iodine map (p = 0.008, p = 0.002, p energy in conjunction with noise-optimized monoenergetic post-processing improves CNR of myocardial infarct delineation by approximately 20-25%. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The LANL C-NR counting room and fission product yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-21

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on the following areas: LANL C-NR counting room; Fission product yields; Los Alamos Neutron wheel experiments; Recent experiments ad NCERC; and Post-detonation nuclear forensics

  8. Comparison among Wavelet filters and others in the frequency domain for reducing Poisson noise in head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Diaz, M.; Ruiz Gonzalez, Y.; Lorenzo Ginori, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison among some wavelet filters and other most traditional filters in the frequency domain like Median, Wiener and Butter worth to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Five slices of CT containing the posterior fossa from an anthropomorphic phantom and from patients were selected. As their original projections contain noise from the acquisition process, some simulated noise-free lesions were added on the images. After that, the whole images were artificially contaminated with Poisson noise over the sinogram-space. The configurations using wavelets drawn from four wavelet families, using various decomposition levels, and different thresholds, were tested in order to determine de-noising performance as well as the rest of the traditional filters. The quality of the resulting images was evaluated by using Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), HVS absolute norm (H1), and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) as quantitative metrics. We have observed that Wavelet filtering is an alternative to be considered for Poisson noise reduction in image processing of posterior fossa images for head CT with similar behavior to Butter worth and better than Median or Wiener filters for the developed experiment. (Author)

  9. The dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on number of scans in covariance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Shen, Ming; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Noda, Isao; Hu, Bingwen

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on the number of scans in covariance spectroscopy has been systematically analyzed for the first time with the intriguing relationship of SNRcov∝n/2, which is different from that in FT2D spectrum with SNRFT∝n. This relationship guarantees the signal-to-noise ratio when increasing the number of scans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of 3D-VIBE for MR mammography. Phantom study and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Kazuyuki; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Takimoto, Teruo; Nagano, Shinya; Kishi, Takayuki; Shibata, Kimmochi; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2003-01-01

    Our study objective was to select moderate parameters for dynamic high-spatial-resolution MR mammography with three-dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (3D-VIBE) sequence. In phantom experiments, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured with various flip angles as a function of gadolinium (Gd) concentration. CNR showed a constant increase as the concentration of Gd increased. CNR increased rapidly with flip angles of 25 deg and 30 deg. A comparison of flip angles of 25 deg and 30 deg for SNR showed that 25 deg was superior. In clinical studies, the flip angle was selected to optimize breast parenchyma-to-fat CNR. CNR with various flip angles was lowest with a 25 deg flip angle. We found that tumor-to-breast parenchyma contrast was highest with 25 deg flip angle due to the suppression of signal of the breast parenchyma. In conclusion, a moderate parameter for dynamic high-spatial-resolution MR mammography with 3D-VIBE sequence is a 25 deg flip angle. (author)

  11. Downhole microseismic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement via strip matching shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ji, Shuo; Li, Yue; Qian, Zhihong; Lu, Weili

    2018-04-01

    Shearlet transform has been proved effective in noise attenuation. However, because of the low magnitude and high frequency of downhole microseismic signals, the coefficient values of valid signals and noise are similar in the shearlet domain. As a result, it is hard to suppress the noise. In this paper, we present a novel signal-to-noise ratio enhancement scheme called strip matching shearlet transform. The method takes into account the directivity of microseismic events and shearlets. Through strip matching, the matching degree in direction between them has been promoted. Then the coefficient values of valid signals are much larger than those of the noise. Consequently, we can separate them well with the help of thresholding. The experimental results on both synthetic records and field data illustrate that our proposed method preserves the useful components and attenuates the noise well.

  12. Improving image quality in portal venography with spectral CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Li-qin; He, Wen; Li, Jian-ying; Chen, Jiang-hong; Wang, Ke-yang; Tan, Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of energy spectral CT on the image quality of CT portal venography in cirrhosis patients. Materials and methods: 30 portal hypertension patients underwent spectral CT examination using a single-tube, fast dual tube voltage switching technique. 101 sets of monochromatic images were generated from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for portal veins from the monochromatic images were measured. An optimal monochromatic image set was selected for obtaining the best CNR for portal veins. The image noise and CNR of the intra-hepatic portal vein and extra-hepatic main stem at the selected monochromatic level were compared with those from the conventional polychromatic images. Image quality was also assessed and compared. Results: The monochromatic images at 51 keV were found to provide the best CNR for both the intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic portal veins. At this energy level, the monochromatic images had about 100% higher CNR than the polychromatic images with a moderate 30% noise increase. The qualitative image quality assessment was also statistically higher with monochromatic images at 51 keV. Conclusion: Monochromatic images at 51 keV for CT portal venography could improve CNR for displaying hepatic portal veins and improve the overall image quality.

  13. Improving image quality in portal venography with spectral CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Li-qin, E-mail: zhaolqzr@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); He, Wen, E-mail: hewen1724@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); Li, Jian-ying, E-mail: jianying.li@med.ge.com [CT Advanced Application and Research, GE Healthcare, 100176 China (China); Chen, Jiang-hong, E-mail: chenjianghong1973@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); Wang, Ke-yang, E-mail: ke7ke@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); Tan, Li, E-mail: Litan@ge.com [CT product, GE Healthcare, 100176 China (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of energy spectral CT on the image quality of CT portal venography in cirrhosis patients. Materials and methods: 30 portal hypertension patients underwent spectral CT examination using a single-tube, fast dual tube voltage switching technique. 101 sets of monochromatic images were generated from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for portal veins from the monochromatic images were measured. An optimal monochromatic image set was selected for obtaining the best CNR for portal veins. The image noise and CNR of the intra-hepatic portal vein and extra-hepatic main stem at the selected monochromatic level were compared with those from the conventional polychromatic images. Image quality was also assessed and compared. Results: The monochromatic images at 51 keV were found to provide the best CNR for both the intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic portal veins. At this energy level, the monochromatic images had about 100% higher CNR than the polychromatic images with a moderate 30% noise increase. The qualitative image quality assessment was also statistically higher with monochromatic images at 51 keV. Conclusion: Monochromatic images at 51 keV for CT portal venography could improve CNR for displaying hepatic portal veins and improve the overall image quality.

  14. Radiometric and signal-to-noise ratio properties of multiplex dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical investigations have shown important radiometric disadvantages of interferential multiplexing in Fourier transform spectrometry that apparently can be applied even to coded aperture spectrometers. We have reexamined the methods of noninterferential multiplexing in order to assess their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, relying on a theoretical modeling of the multiplexed signals. We are able to show that quite similar SNR and radiometric disadvantages affect multiplex dispersive spectrometry. The effect of noise on spectral estimations is discussed.

  15. Modeling speech intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise envelope power ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren

    of modulation frequency selectivity in the auditory processing of sound with a decision metric for intelligibility that is based on the signal-to-noise envelope power ratio (SNRenv). The proposed speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) is demonstrated to account for the effects of stationary...... through three commercially available mobile phones. The model successfully accounts for the performance across the phones in conditions with a stationary speech-shaped background noise, whereas deviations were observed in conditions with “Traffic” and “Pub” noise. Overall, the results of this thesis...

  16. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  17. Parallel imaging for first-pass myocardial perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irwan, Roy; Lubbers, Daniel D.; van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Kappert, Peter; Gotte, Marco J. W.; Sijens, Paul E.

    Two parallel imaging methods used for first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging were compared in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image artifacts. One used adaptive Time-adaptive SENSitivity Encoding (TSENSE) and the other used GeneRalized Autocalibrating

  18. Initial phantom study comparing image quality in computed tomography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and new adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction v.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungjae; Kwon, Heejin; Cho, Jinhan; Oh, Jongyoung; Yoon, Seongkuk; Kang, Myungjin; Ha, Dongho; Lee, Jinhwa; Kang, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the image quality of a novel advanced iterative reconstruction (IR) method called as "adaptive statistical IR V" (ASIR-V) by comparing the image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution from those of filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical IR (ASIR) on computed tomography (CT) phantom image. We performed CT scans at 5 different tube currents (50, 70, 100, 150, and 200 mA) using 3 types of CT phantoms. Scanned images were subsequently reconstructed in 7 different scan settings, such as FBP, and 3 levels of ASIR and ASIR-V (30%, 50%, and 70%). The image noise was measured in the first study using body phantom. The CNR was measured in the second study using contrast phantom and the spatial resolutions were measured in the third study using a high-resolution phantom. We compared the image noise, CNR, and spatial resolution among the 7 reconstructed image scan settings to determine whether noise reduction, high CNR, and high spatial resolution could be achieved at ASIR-V. At quantitative analysis of the first and second studies, it showed that the images reconstructed using ASIR-V had reduced image noise and improved CNR compared with those of FBP and ASIR (P ASIR-V had significantly improved spatial resolution than those of FBP and ASIR (P ASIR-V provides a significant reduction in image noise and a significant improvement in CNR as well as spatial resolution. Therefore, this technique has the potential to reduce the radiation dose further without compromising image quality.

  19. Optimization image of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 fast spin echo (FSE) with variation echo train length (ETL) on the rupture tendon achilles case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzamil, Akhmad; Firmansyah, Achmad Haries

    2017-01-01

    The research was done the optimization image of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) T2 Fast Spin Echo (FSE) with variation Echo Train Length (ETL) on the Rupture Tendon Achilles case. This study aims to find the variations Echo Train Length (ETL) from the results of ankle’s MRI image and find out how the value of Echo Train Length (ETL) works on the MRI ankle to produce optimal image. In this research, the used ETL variations were 12 and 20 with the interval 2 on weighting T2 FSE sagittal. The study obtained the influence of Echo Train Length (ETL) on the quality of ankle MRI image sagittal using T2 FSE weighting and analyzed in 25 images of five patients. The data analysis has done quantitatively with the Region of Interest (ROI) directly on computer MRI image planes which conducted statistical tests Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR). The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) was the highest finding on fat tissue, while the Contras to Noise Ratio (CNR) on the Tendon-Fat tissue with ETL 12 found in two patients. The statistics test showed the significant SNR value of the 0.007 (p<0.05) of Tendon tissue, 0.364 (p>0.05) of the Fat, 0.912 (p>0.05) of the Fibula, and 0.436 (p>0.05) of the Heel Bone. For the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the Tendon-FAT tissue was about 0.041 (p>0.05). The results of the study showed that ETL variation with T2 FSE sagittal weighting had difference at Tendon tissue and Tendon-Fat tissue for MRI imaging quality. SNR and CNR were an important aspect on imaging optimization process to give the diagnose information. (paper)

  20. Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio in a Chemistry Laboratory - Improving a Practical for Academic Development Students. ... Analysis of data collected in 2001 shows that the changes made a significant impact on the effectiveness of the laboratory session. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.56 2003: 47-53 ...

  1. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed

  2. Increasing signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography by oversampling in k-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Karim; Mezgebo, Biniyam; Thakur, Rahul; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography systems suffer from noise that could reduce ability to interpret reconstructed images correctly. We describe a method to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) using oversampling in k-space. Due to this oversampling, information redundancy would be introduced in the measured interferogram that could be used to reduce white noise in the reconstructed A-scan. We applied our novel scaled nonuniform discrete Fourier transform to oversampled SS-OCT interferograms to reconstruct images of a salamander egg. The peak-signal-to-noise (PSNR) between the reconstructed images using interferograms sampled at 250MS/s andz50MS/s demonstrate that this oversampling increased the signal-to-noise ratio by 25.22 dB.

  3. Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05. Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038. The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041. The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the

  4. Radiation dose reduction using 100-kVp and a sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction algorithm in adolescent head CT: Impact on grey-white matter contrast and image noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, Yasunori [Kumamoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Nakaura, Takeshi; Yuki, Hideaki; Hirarta, Kenichiro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Tsuji, Akinori; Urata, Joji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro [Kumamoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of 100-kVp scans with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (IR) for unenhanced head CT in adolescents. Sixty-nine patients aged 12-17 years underwent head CT under 120- (n = 34) or 100-kVp (n = 35) protocols. The 120-kVp images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP), 100-kVp images with FBP (100-kVp-F) and sinogram-affirmed IR (100-kVp-S). We compared the effective dose (ED), grey-white matter (GM-WM) contrast, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between protocols in supratentorial (ST) and posterior fossa (PS). We also assessed GM-WM contrast, image noise, sharpness, artifacts, and overall image quality on a four-point scale. ED was 46% lower with 100- than 120-kVp (p < 0.001). GM-WM contrast was higher, and image noise was lower, on 100-kVp-S than 120-kVp at ST (p < 0.001). CNR of 100-kVp-S was higher than of 120-kVp (p < 0.001). GM-WM contrast of 100-kVp-S was subjectively rated as better than of 120-kVp (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the other criteria between 100-kVp-S and 120-kVp (p = 0.072-0.966). The 100-kVp with sinogram-affirmed IR facilitated dramatic radiation reduction and better GM-WM contrast without increasing image noise in adolescent head CT. (orig.)

  5. The social network and the geo-hydrological information: the CNR IRPI Facebook page as example of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Fugnoli, Federico; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    Good communication is a fundamental step for the spread of news and knowledge. The effectiveness and persuasiveness of a message is a function of the interaction of characteristics of the audience, the source of the message, and content of the message. Italian Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI) has been publishing information on geo-hydrological events using the Internet (http://sici.irpi.cnr.it/, http://webmap.irpi.cnr.it/, http://geomorphology.irpi.cnr.it/, http://polaris.irpi.cnr.it/, http://giida.irpi.cnr.it/, http://events.irpi.cnr.it/ ). Our websites are mainly visited by experts and the information are used for technical purposes. The contents and the interface of the websites are designed for this type of users. Our intention is to increase the type of users, and we are testing the use of social network to catch the wide public's attention. Social networks have emerged as critical factor in information dissemination, search, marketing expertise and influence discovery, and are an important channel for people to share information. Social scientist have long recognized the importance of social networks in the spread of information. Facebook and Twitter are the most widely used social networking services. They make it simpler to communicate with multiple people at one time. Social media may also make it easier for users to monitor activities of people (friends or followers). An official Facebook page of the Italian Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI, https://www.facebook.com/CNR.IRPI ), was created and linked to a Twitter account. The purpose of this page is to disseminate information on flood and landslide events and on our research activities, in order to raise awareness of geo-hydrological matters among users. This page publishes news on current or historical landslide and flood events involving the Italian territory, or news from around the world collected on the network. The news are published as

  6. Statistical reconstruction for cone-beam CT with a post-artifact-correction noise model: application to high-quality head imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H; Stayman, J W; Sisniega, A; Xu, J; Zbijewski, W; Siewerdsen, J H; Wang, X; Foos, D H; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V E

    2015-01-01

    Non-contrast CT reliably detects fresh blood in the brain and is the current front-line imaging modality for intracranial hemorrhage such as that occurring in acute traumatic brain injury (contrast ∼40–80 HU, size  >  1 mm). We are developing flat-panel detector (FPD) cone-beam CT (CBCT) to facilitate such diagnosis in a low-cost, mobile platform suitable for point-of-care deployment. Such a system may offer benefits in the ICU, urgent care/concussion clinic, ambulance, and sports and military theatres. However, current FPD-CBCT systems face significant challenges that confound low-contrast, soft-tissue imaging. Artifact correction can overcome major sources of bias in FPD-CBCT but imparts noise amplification in filtered backprojection (FBP). Model-based reconstruction improves soft-tissue image quality compared to FBP by leveraging a high-fidelity forward model and image regularization. In this work, we develop a novel penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) image reconstruction method with a noise model that includes accurate modeling of the noise characteristics associated with the two dominant artifact corrections (scatter and beam-hardening) in CBCT and utilizes modified weights to compensate for noise amplification imparted by each correction. Experiments included real data acquired on a FPD-CBCT test-bench and an anthropomorphic head phantom emulating intra-parenchymal hemorrhage. The proposed PWLS method demonstrated superior noise-resolution tradeoffs in comparison to FBP and PWLS with conventional weights (viz. at matched 0.50 mm spatial resolution, CNR = 11.9 compared to CNR = 5.6 and CNR = 9.9, respectively) and substantially reduced image noise especially in challenging regions such as skull base. The results support the hypothesis that with high-fidelity artifact correction and statistical reconstruction using an accurate post-artifact-correction noise model, FPD-CBCT can achieve image quality allowing reliable detection of

  7. Spinal dual-energy computed tomography: improved visualisation of spinal tumorous growth with a noise-optimised advanced monoenergetic post-processing algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Mareen; Weiss, Jakob; Selo, Nadja; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Othman, Ahmed E. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of advanced monoenergetic post-processing (MEI+) on the visualisation of spinal growth in contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT (DE-CT). Twenty-six oncologic patients (age, 61 ± 17 years) with spinal tumorous growth were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner. Image acquisition was in dual-energy mode (100/Sn150kV), and scans were initiated 90 s after contrast agent administration. Virtual monoenergetic images (MEI+) were reconstructed at four different kiloelectron volts (keV) levels (40, 60, 80, 100) and compared to the standard blended portal venous computed tomography (CT{sub pv}). Image quality was assessed qualitatively (conspicuity, delineation, sharpness, noise, confidence; two independent readers; 5-point Likert scale; 5 = excellent) and quantitatively by calculating signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNR). For a subgroup of 10 patients with MR imaging within 4 months of the DE-CT, we compared the monoenergetic images to the MRIs qualitatively. Highest contrast of spinal growth was observed in MEI+ at 40 keV, with significant differences to CT{sub pv} and all other keV reconstructions (60, 80, 100; p < 0.01). Highest conspicuity, delineation and sharpness were observed in MEI+ at 40 keV, with significant differences to CT{sub pv} (p < 0.001). Similarly, MEI+ at 40 keV yielded highest diagnostic confidence (4.6 ± 0.6), also with significant differences to CT{sub pv} (3.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) and to high keV reconstructions (80, 100; p ≤ 0.001). Similarly, CNR calculations revealed highest scores for MEI+ at 40 keV followed by 60 keV and CT{sub pv}, with significant differences to high keV MEI+ reconstructions. Qualitative analysis scores peaked for MR images followed by the MEI+ 40-keV reconstructions. MEI+ at low keV levels can significantly improve image quality and delineation of spinal growth in patients with portal

  8. Balanced detection for self-mixing interferometry to improve signal-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changming; Norgia, Michele; Li, Kun

    2018-01-01

    We apply balanced detection to self-mixing interferometry for displacement and vibration measurement, using two photodiodes for implementing a differential acquisition. The method is based on the phase opposition of the self-mixing signal measured between the two laser diode facet outputs. The balanced signal obtained by enlarging the self-mixing signal, also by canceling of the common-due noises mainly due to disturbances on laser supply and transimpedance amplifier. Experimental results demonstrate the signal-to-noise ratio significantly improves, with almost twice signals enhancement and more than half noise decreasing. This method allows for more robust, longer-distance measurement systems, especially using fringe-counting.

  9. Skalabilitas Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR pada Pengkodean Video dengan Derau Gaussian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Purwadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In video transmission, there is a possibility of packet lost an d a large load variation on the bandwidth. These are the source of network congestion, which can interfere the communication data rate. This study discusses a system to overcome the congestion with Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR scalability-based approach, for the video sequence encoding method into two layers, which is a solution to decrease encoding mode for each packet and channel coding rate. The goal is to minimize any distortion from the source to the destination. The coding system used is a video coding standards that is MPEG-2 or H.263 with SNR scalability. The algorithm used for motion compensation, temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and quantization. The transmission error is simulated by adding Gaussian noise (error on motion vectors. From the simulation results, the SNR and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR in the noisy video frames decline with averages of 3dB and 4dB respectively.

  10. MEMS microphone innovations towards high signal to noise ratios (Conference Presentation) (Plenary Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehé, Alfons

    2017-06-01

    After decades of research and more than ten years of successful production in very high volumes Silicon MEMS microphones are mature and unbeatable in form factor and robustness. Audio applications such as video, noise cancellation and speech recognition are key differentiators in smart phones. Microphones with low self-noise enable those functions. Backplate-free microphones enter the signal to noise ratios above 70dB(A). This talk will describe state of the art MEMS technology of Infineon Technologies. An outlook on future technologies such as the comb sensor microphone will be given.

  11. A Determination of the Ratio of the Zinc Freezing Point to the Tin Freezing Point by Noise Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, J. R.; Tew, W. L.; Benz, S. P.; Nam, S. W.; Dresselhaus, P.

    2008-02-01

    A Johnson-noise thermometer (JNT) has been used with a quantized voltage noise source (QVNS), as a calculable reference to determine the ratio of temperatures near the Zn freezing point to those near the Sn freezing point. The temperatures are derived in a series of separate measurements comparing the synthesized noise power from the QVNS with that of Johnson noise from a known resistance. The synthesized noise power is digitally programed to match the thermal noise powers at both temperatures and provides the principle means of scaling the temperatures. This produces a relatively flat spectrum for the ratio of spectral noise densities, which is close to unity in the low-frequency limit. The data are analyzed as relative spectral ratios over the 4.8 to 450 kHz range averaged over a 3.2 kHz bandwidth. A three-parameter model is used to account for differences in time constants that are inherently temperature dependent. A drift effect of approximately -6 μK·K-1 per day is observed in the results, and an empirical correction is applied to yield a relative difference in temperature ratios of -11.5 ± 43 μK·K-1 with respect to the ratio of temperatures assigned on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). When these noise thermometry results are combined with results from acoustic gas thermometry at temperatures near the Sn freezing point, a value of T - T 90 = 7 ± 30 mK for the Zn freezing point is derived.

  12. Theoretical and experimental signal-to-noise ratio assessment in new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new direction sensing continuous-wave Doppler lidar based on an image-reject homodyne receiver has recently been demonstrated at DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. In this contribution we analyse the signal-to-noise ratio resulting from two different data processing methods both...... leading to the direction sensing capability. It is found that using the auto spectrum of the complex signal to determine the wind speed leads to a signal-to-noise ratio equivalent to that of a standard self-heterodyne receiver. Using the imaginary part of the cross spectrum to estimate the Doppler shift...... has the benefit of a zero-mean background spectrum, but comes at the expense of a decrease in the signal-to noise ratio by a factor of √2....

  13. Signal-to-Noise ratio and design complexity based on Unified Loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taguchi's quality loss function for larger-the-better performance characteristics uses a reciprocal transformation to compute quality loss. This paper suggests that reciprocal transformation unnecessarily complicates and may distort results. Examples of this distortion include the signal-to-noise ratio based on mean squared ...

  14. Low noise signal-to-noise ratio enhancing readout circuit for current-mediated active pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, Tony; Karim, Karim S.; Nathan, Arokia; Rowlands, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic digital fluoroscopic applications continuously expose patients to low doses of x-ray radiation, posing a challenge to both the digital imaging pixel and readout electronics when amplifying small signal x-ray inputs. Traditional switch-based amorphous silicon imaging solutions, for instance, have produced poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at low exposure levels owing to noise sources from the pixel readout circuitry. Current-mediated amorphous silicon pixels are an improvement over conventional pixel amplifiers with an enhanced SNR across the same low-exposure range, but whose output also becomes nonlinear with increasing dosage. A low-noise SNR enhancing readout circuit has been developed that enhances the charge gain of the current-mediated active pixel sensor (C-APS). The solution takes advantage of the current-mediated approach, primarily integrating the signal input at the desired frequency necessary for large-area imaging, while adding minimal noise to the signal readout. Experimental data indicates that the readout circuit can detect pixel outputs over a large bandwidth suitable for real-time digital diagnostic x-ray fluoroscopy. Results from hardware testing indicate that the minimum achievable C-APS output current that can be discerned at the digital fluoroscopic output from the enhanced SNR readout circuit is 0.341 nA. The results serve to highlight the applicability of amorphous silicon current-mediated pixel amplifiers for large-area flat panel x-ray imagers

  15. Multiplane wave imaging increases signal-to-noise ratio in ultrafast ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiran, Elodie; Deffieux, Thomas; Correia, Mafalda; Maresca, David; Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickael; Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Cohen, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast imaging using plane or diverging waves has recently enabled new ultrasound imaging modes with improved sensitivity and very high frame rates. Some of these new imaging modalities include shear wave elastography, ultrafast Doppler, ultrafast contrast-enhanced imaging and functional ultrasound imaging. Even though ultrafast imaging already encounters clinical success, increasing even more its penetration depth and signal-to-noise ratio for dedicated applications would be valuable.Ultrafast imaging relies on the coherent compounding of backscattered echoes resulting from successive tilted plane waves emissions; this produces high-resolution ultrasound images with a trade-off between final frame rate, contrast and resolution. In this work, we introduce multiplane wave imaging, a new method that strongly improves ultrafast images signal-to-noise ratio by virtually increasing the emission signal amplitude without compromising the frame rate. This method relies on the successive transmissions of multiple plane waves with differently coded amplitudes and emission angles in a single transmit event. Data from each single plane wave of increased amplitude can then be obtained, by recombining the received data of successive events with the proper coefficients.The benefits of multiplane wave for B-mode, shear wave elastography and ultrafast Doppler imaging are experimentally demonstrated. Multiplane wave with 4 plane waves emissions yields a 5.8  ±  0.5 dB increase in signal-to-noise ratio and approximately 10 mm in penetration in a calibrated ultrasound phantom (0.7 d MHz −1 cm −1 ). In shear wave elastography, the same multiplane wave configuration yields a 2.07  ±  0.05 fold reduction of the particle velocity standard deviation and a two-fold reduction of the shear wave velocity maps standard deviation. In functional ultrasound imaging, the mapping of cerebral blood volume results in a 3 to 6 dB increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio in

  16. Using hyperentanglement to enhance resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and measurement time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2017-03-01

    A hyperentanglement-based atmospheric imaging/detection system involving only a signal and an ancilla photon will be considered for optical and infrared frequencies. Only the signal photon will propagate in the atmosphere and its loss will be classical. The ancilla photon will remain within the sensor experiencing low loss. Closed form expressions for the wave function, normalization, density operator, reduced density operator, symmetrized logarithmic derivative, quantum Fisher information, quantum Cramer-Rao lower bound, coincidence probabilities, probability of detection, probability of false alarm, probability of error after M measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, quantum Chernoff bound, time-on-target expressions related to probability of error, and resolution will be provided. The effect of noise in every mode will be included as well as loss. The system will provide the basic design for an imaging/detection system functioning at optical or infrared frequencies that offers better than classical angular and range resolution. Optimization for enhanced resolution will be included. The signal-to-noise ratio will be increased by a factor equal to the number of modes employed during the hyperentanglement process. Likewise, the measurement time can be reduced by the same factor. The hyperentanglement generator will typically make use of entanglement in polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum and so on. Mathematical results will be provided describing the system's performance as a function of loss mechanisms and noise.

  17. Assessment of uniformity and signal-to-noise ratio in radiological image intensifier TV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.F.; O'Connor, M.K.; Maher, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    A method of measuring the uniformity of radiological Image Intensifier-TV systems is described. Large non-uniformities were observed in the systems tested. A method of estimating the Signal-to-Noise Ratio in such systems is also presented and applied to characterise the effectiveness of the noise reduction techniques used in digital fluoroscopy. (author)

  18. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0

  19. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.

  20. [Evaluation of Image Quality of Readout Segmented EPI with Readout Partial Fourier Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyahara, Kanae

    Readout segmented EPI (readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains: RESOLVE) segmented k-space in the readout direction. By using the partial Fourier method in the readout direction, the imaging time was shortened. However, the influence on image quality due to insufficient data sampling is concerned. The setting of the partial Fourier method in the readout direction in each segment was changed. Then, we examined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and distortion ratio for changes in image quality due to differences in data sampling. As the number of sampling segments decreased, SNR and CNR showed a low value. In addition, the distortion ratio did not change. The image quality of minimum sampling segments is greatly different from full data sampling, and caution is required when using it.

  1. Radiation dose reduction using 100-kVp and a sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction algorithm in adolescent head CT: Impact on grey-white matter contrast and image noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yasunori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akinori; Urata, Joji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Yuki, Hideaki; Hirarta, Kenichiro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of 100-kVp scans with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (IR) for unenhanced head CT in adolescents. Sixty-nine patients aged 12-17 years underwent head CT under 120- (n = 34) or 100-kVp (n = 35) protocols. The 120-kVp images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP), 100-kVp images with FBP (100-kVp-F) and sinogram-affirmed IR (100-kVp-S). We compared the effective dose (ED), grey-white matter (GM-WM) contrast, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between protocols in supratentorial (ST) and posterior fossa (PS). We also assessed GM-WM contrast, image noise, sharpness, artifacts, and overall image quality on a four-point scale. ED was 46% lower with 100- than 120-kVp (p < 0.001). GM-WM contrast was higher, and image noise was lower, on 100-kVp-S than 120-kVp at ST (p < 0.001). CNR of 100-kVp-S was higher than of 120-kVp (p < 0.001). GM-WM contrast of 100-kVp-S was subjectively rated as better than of 120-kVp (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the other criteria between 100-kVp-S and 120-kVp (p = 0.072-0.966). The 100-kVp with sinogram-affirmed IR facilitated dramatic radiation reduction and better GM-WM contrast without increasing image noise in adolescent head CT. • 100-kVp head CT provides 46% radiation dose reduction compared with 120-kVp. • 100-kVp scanning improves subjective and objective GM-WM contrast. • Sinogram-affirmed IR decreases head CT image noise, especially in supratentorial region. • 100-kVp protocol with sinogram-affirmed IR is suited for adolescent head CT.

  2. Rare genetic variants in the endocannabinoid system genes CNR1 and DAGLA are associated with neurological phenotypes in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R Smith

    Full Text Available Rare genetic variants in the core endocannabinoid system genes CNR1, CNR2, DAGLA, MGLL and FAAH were identified in molecular testing data from 6,032 patients with a broad spectrum of neurological disorders. The variants were evaluated for association with phenotypes similar to those observed in the orthologous gene knockouts in mice. Heterozygous rare coding variants in CNR1, which encodes the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1, were found to be significantly associated with pain sensitivity (especially migraine, sleep and memory disorders-alone or in combination with anxiety-compared to a set of controls without such CNR1 variants. Similarly, heterozygous rare variants in DAGLA, which encodes diacylglycerol lipase alpha, were found to be significantly associated with seizures and neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and abnormalities of brain morphology, compared to controls. Rare variants in MGLL, FAAH and CNR2 were not associated with any neurological phenotypes in the patients tested. Diacylglycerol lipase alpha synthesizes the endocannabinoid 2-AG in the brain, which interacts with CB1 receptors. The phenotypes associated with rare CNR1 variants are reminiscent of those implicated in the theory of clinical endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome. The severe phenotypes associated with rare DAGLA variants underscore the critical role of rapid 2-AG synthesis and the endocannabinoid system in regulating neurological function and development. Mapping of the variants to the 3D structure of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor, or primary structure of diacylglycerol lipase alpha, reveals clustering of variants in certain structural regions and is consistent with impacts to function.

  3. Robust reflective ghost imaging against different partially polarized thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Zong-Guo; Xiong, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the influence of degree of polarization (DOP) of thermal light on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the reflective ghost imaging (RGI), which is a novel and indirect imaging modality. An expression for the CNR of RGI with partially polarized thermal light is carefully derived, which suggests a weak dependence of CNR on the DOP, especially when the ratio of the object size to the speckle size of thermal light has a large value. Different from conventional imaging approaches, our work reveals that RGI is much more robust against the DOP of the light source, which thereby has advantages in practical applications, such as remote sensing.

  4. Analysis of Signal-to-Noise Ratio of the Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1973-01-01

    The signal-to-shot-noise ratio of the photocurrent of a laser Doppler anemometer is calculated as a function of the parameters which describe the system. It is found that the S/N is generally a growing function of receiver area, that few large particles are better than many small ones, and that g...

  5. Influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm on image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, Helle; Thygesen, Jesper; Gerke, Oke; Egstrup, Kenneth; Waaler, Dag; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    2016-12-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) requires high spatial and temporal resolution, increased low contrast resolution for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis, plaque detection, and/or non-coronary pathology. Therefore, new reconstruction algorithms, particularly iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques, have been developed in an attempt to improve image quality with no cost in radiation exposure. To evaluate whether adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) enhances perceived image quality in CCTA compared to filtered back projection (FBP). Thirty patients underwent CCTA due to suspected coronary artery disease. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% ASIR, and 60% ASIR. Ninety image sets were evaluated by five observers using the subjective visual grading analysis (VGA) and assessed by proportional odds modeling. Objective quality assessment (contrast, noise, and the contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) was analyzed with linear mixed effects modeling on log-transformed data. The need for ethical approval was waived by the local ethics committee as the study only involved anonymously collected clinical data. VGA showed significant improvements in sharpness by comparing FBP with ASIR, resulting in odds ratios of 1.54 for 30% ASIR and 1.89 for 60% ASIR ( P  = 0.004). The objective measures showed significant differences between FBP and 60% ASIR ( P  < 0.0001) for noise, with an estimated ratio of 0.82, and for CNR, with an estimated ratio of 1.26. ASIR improved the subjective image quality of parameter sharpness and, objectively, reduced noise and increased CNR.

  6. Comparison of image quality between 70 kVp and 80 kVp: application to paediatric cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Sebastien [Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Radiology Department, Le Plessis-Robinson (France); Paul, Jean-Francois [Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Radiology Department, Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate noise level and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) with various kVp-mAs pairs producing the same computed tomography dose index (CTDI) value. The 80 kVp and new 70-kVp settings were compared. The noise was measured in 10 ovoid water phantoms with different diameters from 10 cm to 28 cm. Contrast was obtained from CTs of iodine-filled tubes. Spiral acquisition protocols at 70 kVp and 80 kVp, with the same CTDI, were applied. In the clinical study, two matched groups, each of 21 paediatric patients, underwent 70-kVp or 80-kVp ECG-gated iodinated-enhanced sequential CT. Noise was significantly higher with 70 kVp than 80-kVp settings for all phantom sizes. Estimated CNR with phantoms was higher at 70 kVp than 80 kVp, and the difference decreased from 17 % to 3 % as phantom size increased. The mean CNR in paediatric patients was 15.2 at 70 kVp and 14.3 at 80 kVp (ns). The CNR difference was significantly larger in the small-child subgroup. Noise level is slightly higher at the 70-kVp than the 80-kVp setting, but the CNR is higher, particularly for small children. Therefore, 70 kVp may be appropriate for contrast-enhanced CT examinations and 80 kVp for non-enhanced CT in small children. (orig.)

  7. Low-tube-voltage (80 kVp) CT aortography using 320-row volume CT with adaptive iterative reconstruction: lower contrast medium and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chu, Sung-Yu; Hsu, Ming-Yi [Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou, College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Liao, Ying-Lan [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Tsai, Hui-Yu [Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Healthy Aging Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taoyuan (China)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate CT aortography at reduced tube voltage and contrast medium dose while maintaining image quality through iterative reconstruction (IR). The Institutional Review Board approved a prospective study of 48 patients who underwent follow-up CT aortography. We performed intra-individual comparisons of arterial phase images using 120 kVp (standard tube voltage) and 80 kVp (low tube voltage). Low-tube-voltage imaging was performed on a 320-detector CT with IR following injection of 40 ml of contrast medium. We assessed aortic attenuation, aortic attenuation gradient, image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}), and figure of merit (FOM) of image noise and CNR. Two readers assessed images for diagnostic quality, image noise, and artefacts. The low-tube-voltage protocol showed 23-31 % higher mean aortic attenuation and image noise (both P < 0.01) than the standard-tube-voltage protocol, but no significant difference in the CNR and aortic attenuation gradients. The low-tube-voltage protocol showed a 48 % reduction in CTDI{sub vol} and an 80 % increase in FOM of CNR. Subjective diagnostic quality was similar for both protocols, but low-tube-voltage images showed greater image noise (P = 0.01). Application of IR to an 80-kVp CT aortography protocol allows radiation dose and contrast medium reduction without affecting image quality. (orig.)

  8. Characteristics of Love and Rayleigh waves in ambient noise: wavetype ratio, source location and seasonal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzek, C.; Perleth, M.; Hadziioannou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise has become an important source of signal for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about the common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism bands is still limited. This applies in particular to constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the differently polarized wave types present in the noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. The focus lies on frequencies around the primary and secondary microseismic bands. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured at each array, and a dependence on direction is observed. We constrain the corresponding source regions of both wave types by backprojection. By using a full year of data in 2013, we are able to track the seasonal changes in our observations of Love-to-Rayleigh ratio and source locations.

  9. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in mass and ion kinetic energy spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenton, A.G.; Beynon, J.H.; Morgan, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio in mass and ion kinetic energy spectrometers is limited by noise generated from the presence of scattered ions and neutrals. Methods of eliminating this are illustrated with reference to the ZAB-2F instrument manufactured by VG-Micromass Ltd. It is estimated that after the modifications the instrument is capable, on a routine basis, of measuring peaks corresponding to the arrival of ions at a rate of the order of 1 ion s -1 . (Auth.)

  10. Study of signal-to-noise ratio in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    Mammography techniques have recently advanced from those using analog systems (the screen-film system) to those using digital systems; for example, computed radiography (CR) and flat-panel detectors (FPDs) are nowadays used in mammography. Further, phase contrast mammography (PCM)-a digital technique by which images with a magnification of 1.75× can be obtained-is now available in the market. We studied the effect of the air gap in PCM and evaluated the effectiveness of an antiscatter x-ray grid in conventional mammography (CM) by measuring the scatter fraction ratio (SFR) and relative signal-to-noise ratio (rSNR) and comparing them between PCM and the digital CM. The results indicated that the SFRs for the CM images obtained with a grid were the lowest and that these ratios were almost the same as those for the PCM images. In contrast, the rSNRs for the PCM images were the highest, which means that the scattering of x-rays was sufficiently reduced by the air gap without the loss of primary x-rays.

  11. The Influence of Nonlinearity, Noise and Extinction Ratio on the Cascading Properties of 2R-Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We have derived an expression for the BER of a cascade of 2R-regenerators including the effects of nonlinearity, noise and extinction-ratio. The best choice of threshold and the interplay bet1-55752-770-9ween device parameters are investigated.......We have derived an expression for the BER of a cascade of 2R-regenerators including the effects of nonlinearity, noise and extinction-ratio. The best choice of threshold and the interplay bet1-55752-770-9ween device parameters are investigated....

  12. Signal-to-noise ratio of FT-IR CO gas spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Clausen, Sønnik

    1999-01-01

    in emission and transmission spectrometry, an investigation of the SNR in CO gas spectra as a function of spectral resolution has been carried out. We present a method to (1) determine experimentally the SNR at constant throughput, (2) determine the SNR on the basis of measured noise levels and Hitran......The minimum amount of a gaseous compound which can be detected and quantified with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measured gas spectra. In order to use low-resolution FT-IR spectrometers to measure combustion gases like CO and CO2...... simulated signals, and (3) determine the SNR of CO from high to low spectral resolutions related to the molecular linewidth and vibrational-rotational lines spacing. In addition, SNR values representing different spectral resolutions but scaled to equal measurement times were compared. It was found...

  13. A variant on promoter of the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) moderates the effect of valence on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola; Franzago, Marica; Di Domenico, Alberto; Stuppia, Liborio; Gatta, Valentina

    2018-02-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) variants have been related to affective information processing and, in particular, to stress release. Here, we aimed to examine whether the endocannabinoid system via CNR1 signaling modulates affective working memory, the memory system that transiently maintains and manipulates emotionally charged material. We focused on rs2180619 (A > G) polymorphism and examined genotype data collected from 231 healthy females. Analyses showed how a general positivity bias in working memory (i.e., better memory for positive words) emerged as task strings lengthened only in carriers of the major allele (AA/AG). Differently, GG carriers showed better memory for affective items in general (i.e., positive and negative words). These findings are some of the first to directly highlight the role of variant on promoter of the CNR1 gene in affective working memory and to evidence a differentiation among CNR1 genotypes in terms of larger difficulties in disengaging from negative stimuli in GG carriers.

  14. Enhancing scatterometry CD signal-to-noise ratio for 1x logic and memory challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Derrick; Krishnan, Shankar; Wei, Lanhua; Shchegrov, Andrei V.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing transition from 2D to 3D structures in logic and memory has led to an increased adoption of scatterometry CD (SCD) for inline metrology. However, shrinking device dimensions in logic and high aspect ratios in memory represent primary challenges for SCD and require a significant breakthrough in improving signal-to-noise performance. We present a report on the new generation of SCD technology, enabled by a new laser-driven plasma source. The developed light source provides several key advantages over conventional arc lamps typically used in SCD applications. The plasma color temperature of the laser driven source is considerably higher than available with arc lamps resulting in >5X increase in radiance in the visible and >10X increase in radiance in the DUV when compared to sources on previous generation SCD tools while maintaining or improving source intensity noise. This high radiance across such a broad spectrum allows for the use of a single light source from 190-1700nm. When combined with other optical design changes, the higher source radiance enables reduction of measurement box size of our spectroscopic ellipsometer from 45×45um box to 25×25um box without compromising signal to noise ratio. The benefits for 1×nm SCD metrology of the additional photons across the DUV to IR spectrum have been found to be greater than the increase in source signal to noise ratio would suggest. Better light penetration in Si and poly-Si has resulted in improved sensitivity and correlation breaking for critical parameters in 1xnm FinFET and HAR flash memory structures.

  15. Improving quality of arterial spin labeling MR imaging at 3 Tesla with a 32-channel coil and parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Petr, Jan; Bannier, Elise; Barillot, Christian; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves

    2012-05-01

    To compare 12-channel and 32-channel phased-array coils and to determine the optimal parallel imaging (PI) technique and factor for brain perfusion imaging using Pulsed Arterial Spin labeling (PASL) at 3 Tesla (T). Twenty-seven healthy volunteers underwent 10 different PASL perfusion PICORE Q2TIPS scans at 3T using 12-channel and 32-channel coils without PI and with GRAPPA or mSENSE using factor 2. PI with factor 3 and 4 were used only with the 32-channel coil. Visual quality was assessed using four parameters. Quantitative analyses were performed using temporal noise, contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise ratios (CNR, SNR). Compared with 12-channel acquisition, the scores for 32-channel acquisition were significantly higher for overall visual quality, lower for noise and higher for SNR and CNR. With the 32-channel coil, artifact compromise achieved the best score with PI factor 2. Noise increased, SNR and CNR decreased with PI factor. However mSENSE 2 scores were not always significantly different from acquisition without PI. For PASL at 3T, the 32-channel coil at 3T provided better quality than the 12-channel coil. With the 32-channel coil, mSENSE 2 seemed to offer the best compromise for decreasing artifacts without significantly reducing SNR, CNR. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Symbol signal-to-noise ratio loss in square-wave subcarrier downconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Y.; Statman, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the simulated results of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss in the process of a square-wave subcarrier down conversion. In a previous article, the SNR degradation was evaluated at the output of the down converter based on the signal and noise power change. Unlike in the previous article, the SNR loss is defined here as the difference between the actual and theoretical symbol SNR's for the same symbol-error rate at the output of the symbol matched filter. The results show that an average SNR loss of 0.3 dB can be achieved with tenth-order infinite impulse response (IIR) filters. This loss is a 0.2-dB increase over the SNR degradation in the previous analysis where neither the signal distortion nor the symbol detector was considered.

  17. Influence of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm on image quality in coronary computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Precht

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA requires high spatial and temporal resolution, increased low contrast resolution for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis, plaque detection, and/or non-coronary pathology. Therefore, new reconstruction algorithms, particularly iterative reconstruction (IR techniques, have been developed in an attempt to improve image quality with no cost in radiation exposure. Purpose To evaluate whether adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR enhances perceived image quality in CCTA compared to filtered back projection (FBP. Material and Methods Thirty patients underwent CCTA due to suspected coronary artery disease. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% ASIR, and 60% ASIR. Ninety image sets were evaluated by five observers using the subjective visual grading analysis (VGA and assessed by proportional odds modeling. Objective quality assessment (contrast, noise, and the contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR] was analyzed with linear mixed effects modeling on log-transformed data. The need for ethical approval was waived by the local ethics committee as the study only involved anonymously collected clinical data. Results VGA showed significant improvements in sharpness by comparing FBP with ASIR, resulting in odds ratios of 1.54 for 30% ASIR and 1.89 for 60% ASIR (P = 0.004. The objective measures showed significant differences between FBP and 60% ASIR (P < 0.0001 for noise, with an estimated ratio of 0.82, and for CNR, with an estimated ratio of 1.26. Conclusion ASIR improved the subjective image quality of parameter sharpness and, objectively, reduced noise and increased CNR.

  18. Measurement of β/Λ ratio in IEA-R1 reactor using noise technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Kassar, E.

    1986-01-01

    The ratio β/Λ for the IEA-R1 reactor is obtained experimentally through the noise analysis technique. This technique is based on the determination of the power spectral density of the reactor neutron population, with the reactor in a subcritical state driven by a 'white' neutron source. A ratio β/Λ of 43,5 s -1 is estimated from the break frequency of the measured transfer function of the IEA-R1 reactor. (Author) [pt

  19. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  20. Enhancement of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Sonic Logging Waveforms by Seismic Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Sonic logs are essential tools for reliably identifying interval velocities which, in turn, are used in many seismic processes. One problem that arises, while logging, is irregularities due to washout zones along the borehole surfaces that scatters the transmitted energy and hence weakens the signal recorded at the receivers. To alleviate this problem, I have extended the theory of super-virtual refraction interferometry to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sonic waveforms. Tests on synthetic and real data show noticeable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancements of refracted P-wave arrivals in the sonic waveforms. The theory of super-virtual interferometric stacking is composed of two redatuming steps followed by a stacking procedure. The first redatuming procedure is of correlation type, where traces are correlated together to get virtual traces with the sources datumed to the refractor. The second datuming step is of convolution type, where traces are convolved together to dedatum the sources back to their original positions. The stacking procedure following each step enhances the signal to noise ratio of the refracted P-wave first arrivals. Datuming with correlation and convolution of traces introduces severe artifacts denoted as correlation artifacts in super-virtual data. To overcome this problem, I replace the datuming with correlation step by datuming with deconvolution. Although the former datuming method is more robust, the latter one reduces the artifacts significantly. Moreover, deconvolution can be a noise amplifier which is why a regularization term is utilized, rendering the datuming with deconvolution more stable. Tests of datuming with deconvolution instead of correlation with synthetic and real data examples show significant reduction of these artifacts. This is especially true when compared with the conventional way of applying the super-virtual refraction interferometry method.

  1. Impact of metal artifact reduction software on image quality of gemstone spectral imaging dual-energy cerebral CT angiography after intracranial aneurysm clipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunet, Vincent; Bernasconi, Martine; Hajdu, Steven David; Meuli, Reto Antoine; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Daniel, Roy Thomas [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to assess the impact of metal artifact reduction software (MARs) on image quality of gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) dual-energy (DE) cerebral CT angiography (CTA) after intracranial aneurysm clipping. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived patient written consent. From January 2013 to September 2016, single source DE cerebral CTA were performed in 45 patients (mean age: 60 ± 9 years, male 9) after intracranial aneurysm clipping and reconstructed with and without MARs. Signal-to-noise (SNR), contrast-to-noise (CNR), and relative CNR (rCNR) ratios were calculated from attenuation values measured in the internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). Volume of clip and artifacts and relative clip blurring reduction (rCBR) ratios were also measured at each energy level with/without MARs. Variables were compared between GSI and GSI-MARs using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. MARs significantly reduced metal artifacts at all energy levels but 130 and 140 keV, regardless of clips' location and number. The optimal rCBR was obtained at 110 and 80 keV, respectively, on GSI and GSI-MARs images, with up to 96% rCNR increase on GSI-MARs images. The best compromise between metal artifact reduction and rCNR was obtained at 70-75 and 65-70 keV for GSI and GSI-MARs images, respectively, with up to 15% rCBR and rCNR increase on GSI-MARs images. MARs significantly reduces metal artifacts on DE cerebral CTA after intracranial aneurysm clipping regardless of clips' location and number. It may be used to reduce radiation dose while increasing CNR. (orig.)

  2. The stability of H/V spectral ratios from noise measurements in Armutlu Peninsula (Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livaoğlu, Hamdullah, E-mail: hamdullah.livaoglu@kocaeli.edu.tr; Irmak, T. Serkan; Caka, Deniz; Yavuz, Evrim; Tunç, B.; Baris, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysics, Kocaeli University, 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Lühr, B. G.; Woith, H. [GFZ, German Research Centre for Geoscience, Postsdam (Germany)

    2016-04-18

    The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method has been successfully using in order to estimate the fundamental resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover, its thickness and amplification factor since at least 3 decades. There are numerous studies have been carried out on the stability of the H/V spectral ratios. Almost all studies showed that fundamental frequency is stable even measurements are repeated at different times. From this point of view, the results will show us an approach whether the stations are suitable for accurate estimate of earthquake studies and engineering purposes or not. Also we want to see if any effects of the amplification factor changing on the seismograms for Armutlu Seismic Network (ARNET) even though seismic stations are established far away from cultural noise and located on hard rock sites. It has been selected one hour recorded data of all stations during the most stationary times. The amplification and resonant frequency variations of H/V ratio were calculated to investigate temporal stability in time. There is a total harmony in fundamental frequencies values and H/V spectral ratio values in time-lagged periods. Some stations shows secondary minor peaks in high frequency band due to a shallow formation effect or cultural noises around. In the east side of the area ILYS station shows amplitude peak in lower fundamental frequency band from expected. This could compose a high amplification in lower frequencies and so that yield less reliable results in local earthquakes studies. By the experimental results from ambient noise analysis, it could be worked up for relocation of one station.

  3. Measurements of noise immission from wind turbines at receptor locations: Use of a vertical microphone board to improve the signal-to-noise ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegeant, Olivier

    1999-01-01

    The growing interest in wind energy has increased the need of accuracy in wind turbine noise immission measurements and thus, the need of new measurement techniques. This paper shows that mounting the microphone on a vertical board improves the signal-to-noise ratio over the whole frequency range compared to the free microphone technique. Indeed, the wind turbine is perceived two times noisier by the microphone due to the signal reflection by the board while, in addition, the wind noise is reduced. Furthermore, the board shielding effect allows the measurements to be carried out in the presence of reflecting surfaces such as building facades

  4. Signal-to-noise ratio analysis and evaluation of the Hadamard imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, D. J.; Katzberg, S. J.; Spiers, R. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio performance of the Hadamard imaging technique is analyzed and an experimental evaluation of a laboratory Hadamard imager is presented. A comparison between the performances of Hadamard and conventional imaging techniques shows that the Hadamard technique is superior only when the imaging objective lens is required to have an effective F (focus) number of about 2 or slower.

  5. Signal-to-noise ratio application to seismic marker analysis and fracture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Qun; Gui, Zhi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Seismic data with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are useful in reservoir exploration. To obtain high SNR seismic data, significant effort is required to achieve noise attenuation in seismic data processing, which is costly in materials, and human and financial resources. We introduce a method for improving the SNR of seismic data. The SNR is calculated by using the frequency domain method. Furthermore, we optimize and discuss the critical parameters and calculation procedure. We applied the proposed method on real data and found that the SNR is high in the seismic marker and low in the fracture zone. Consequently, this can be used to extract detailed information about fracture zones that are inferred by structural analysis but not observed in conventional seismic data.

  6. The Impact of Different Levels of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction 3D on Image Quality of 320-Row Coronary CT Angiography: A Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feger

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the systematic image quality evaluation of coronary CT angiography (CTA, reconstructed with the 3 different levels of adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR 3D and compared to filtered back projection (FBP with quantum denoising software (QDS.Standard-dose CTA raw data of 30 patients with mean radiation dose of 3.2 ± 2.6 mSv were reconstructed using AIDR 3D mild, standard, strong and compared to FBP/QDS. Objective image quality comparison (signal, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, contour sharpness was performed using 21 measurement points per patient, including measurements in each coronary artery from proximal to distal.Objective image quality parameters improved with increasing levels of AIDR 3D. Noise was lowest in AIDR 3D strong (p ≤ 0.001 at 20/21 measurement points; compared with FBP/QDS. Signal and contour sharpness analysis showed no significant difference between the reconstruction algorithms for most measurement points. Best coronary SNR and CNR were achieved with AIDR 3D strong. No loss of SNR or CNR in distal segments was seen with AIDR 3D as compared to FBP.On standard-dose coronary CTA images, AIDR 3D strong showed higher objective image quality than FBP/QDS without reducing contour sharpness.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00967876.

  7. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Santos, António Carvalho; Paulo, Graciano; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Santos, Joana

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT.

  8. Overall evaluability of low dose protocol for computed tomography angiography of thoracic aorta using 80 kV and iterative reconstruction algorithm using different concentration contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoni, Andrea Daniele; Mancini, Maria E; Andreini, Daniele; Formenti, Alberto; Mushtaq, Saima; Nobili, Enrica; Guglielmo, Marco; Baggiano, Andrea; Conte, Edoardo; Pepi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography (MDCTA) is presently the imaging modality of choice for aortic disease. However, the effective radiation dose and the risk related to the use of contrast agents associated with MDCTA is an issue of concern. Aim of this study was to assess image quality of a low dose ECG-gated MDCTA of thoracic aorta using different concentration contrast media without tailored injection protocol. Two-hundred patients were randomised into four different scan protocols: Group A (Iodixanol 320 and 80 Kvp tube voltage), Group B (Iodixanol 320 and 100 Kvp tube voltage), Group C (Iomeprol 400 and 80 Kvp tube voltage) and Group D (Iomeprol 400 and 100 Kvp tube voltage). Image quality, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and effective dose (ED) were compared among groups. No significant differences in image noise, SNR and CNR between groups with the same tube voltage. Significant differences in SNR and CNR were found among groups with 80 kV versus groups using 100 kV but without differences in terms of image quality. ED was significantly lower in groups with 80 kV. Multidetector Computed Tomography Angiography protocols using 80 kV and low concentration contrast media are feasible without need of tailored injection protocols. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  9. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Antonio Carvalho; Santos, Joana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT

  10. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [Federal Institute of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Antonio Carvalho; Santos, Joana [Coimbra Health School, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT.

  11. Third-generation dual-source CT of the neck using automated tube voltage adaptation in combination with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction: evaluation of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Wichmann, Julian L.; Huesers, Kristina; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Beeres, Martin; Bauer, Ralf W.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bodelle, Boris

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose in third-generation dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) of the neck using automated tube voltage adaptation (TVA) with advanced modelled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) algorithm. One hundred and sixteen patients were retrospectively evaluated. Group A (n = 59) was examined on second-generation DSCT with automated TVA and filtered back projection. Group B (n = 57) was examined on a third-generation DSCT with automated TVA and ADMIRE. Age, body diameter, attenuation of several anatomic structures, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), radiation dose (CTDI vol ) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) were assessed. Diagnostic acceptability was rated by three readers. Age (p = 0.87) and body diameter (p = 0.075) did not differ significantly. Tube voltage in Group A was set automatically to 100 kV for all patients (n = 59), and to 70 kV (n = 2), 80 kV (n = 5), and 90 kV (n = 50) in Group B. Noise was reduced and CNR was increased significantly (p < 0.001). Diagnostic acceptability was rated high in both groups, with better ratings in Group B (p < 0.001). SSDE was reduced by 34 % in Group B (20.38 ± 1.63 mGy vs. 13.04 ± 1.50 mGy, p < 0.001). Combination of automated TVA and ADMIRE in neck CT using third-generation DSCT results in a substantial radiation dose reduction with low noise and increased CNR. (orig.)

  12. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  13. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: the effect of arm position on abdominal image quality when using a human phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Hong [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Su [Wonju Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    For a considerable number of emergency computed tomography (CT) scans, patients are unable to position their arms above their head due to traumatic injuries. The arms-down position has been shown to reduce image quality with beam-hardening artifacts in the dorsal regions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys, rendering these images non-diagnostic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of arm position on the image quality in patients undergoing whole-body CT. We acquired CT scans with various acquisition parameters at voltages of 80, 120, and 140 kVp and an increasing tube current from 200 to 400 mAs in 50 mAs increments. The image noise and the contrast assessment were considered for quantitative analyses of the CT images. The image noise (IN), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the coefficient of variation (COV) were evaluated. Quantitative analyses of the experiments were performed with CT scans representative of five different arm positions. Results of the CT scans acquired at 120 kVp and 250 mAs showed high image quality in patients with both arms raised above the head (SNR: 12.4, CNR: 10.9, and COV: 8.1) and both arms flexed at the elbows on the chest (SNR: 11.5, CNR: 10.2, and COV: 8.8) while the image quality significantly decreased with both arms in the down position (SNR: 9.1, CNR: 7.6, and COV: 11). Both arms raised, one arm raised, and both arms flexed improved the image quality compared to arms in the down position by reducing beam-hardening and streak artifacts caused by the arms being at the side of body. This study provides optimal methods for achieving higher image quality and lower noise in abdominal CT for trauma patients.

  14. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: The effect of arm position on abdominal image quality when using a human phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Su

    2012-06-01

    For a considerable number of emergency computed tomography (CT) scans, patients are unable to position their arms above their head due to traumatic injuries. The arms-down position has been shown to reduce image quality with beam-hardening artifacts in the dorsal regions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys, rendering these images non-diagnostic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of arm position on the image quality in patients undergoing whole-body CT. We acquired CT scans with various acquisition parameters at voltages of 80, 120, and 140 kVp and an increasing tube current from 200 to 400 mAs in 50 mAs increments. The image noise and the contrast assessment were considered for quantitative analyses of the CT images. The image noise (IN), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the coefficient of variation (COV) were evaluated. Quantitative analyses of the experiments were performed with CT scans representative of five different arm positions. Results of the CT scans acquired at 120 kVp and 250 mAs showed high image quality in patients with both arms raised above the head (SNR: 12.4, CNR: 10.9, and COV: 8.1) and both arms flexed at the elbows on the chest (SNR: 11.5, CNR: 10.2, and COV: 8.8) while the image quality significantly decreased with both arms in the down position (SNR: 9.1, CNR: 7.6, and COV: 11). Both arms raised, one arm raised, and both arms flexed improved the image quality compared to arms in the down position by reducing beam-hardening and streak artifacts caused by the arms being at the side of body. This study provides optimal methods for achieving higher image quality and lower noise in abdominal CT for trauma patients.

  15. Whole-body CT in polytrauma patients: the effect of arm position on abdominal image quality when using a human phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Pil-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Su

    2012-01-01

    For a considerable number of emergency computed tomography (CT) scans, patients are unable to position their arms above their head due to traumatic injuries. The arms-down position has been shown to reduce image quality with beam-hardening artifacts in the dorsal regions of the liver, spleen, and kidneys, rendering these images non-diagnostic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of arm position on the image quality in patients undergoing whole-body CT. We acquired CT scans with various acquisition parameters at voltages of 80, 120, and 140 kVp and an increasing tube current from 200 to 400 mAs in 50 mAs increments. The image noise and the contrast assessment were considered for quantitative analyses of the CT images. The image noise (IN), the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the coefficient of variation (COV) were evaluated. Quantitative analyses of the experiments were performed with CT scans representative of five different arm positions. Results of the CT scans acquired at 120 kVp and 250 mAs showed high image quality in patients with both arms raised above the head (SNR: 12.4, CNR: 10.9, and COV: 8.1) and both arms flexed at the elbows on the chest (SNR: 11.5, CNR: 10.2, and COV: 8.8) while the image quality significantly decreased with both arms in the down position (SNR: 9.1, CNR: 7.6, and COV: 11). Both arms raised, one arm raised, and both arms flexed improved the image quality compared to arms in the down position by reducing beam-hardening and streak artifacts caused by the arms being at the side of body. This study provides optimal methods for achieving higher image quality and lower noise in abdominal CT for trauma patients.

  16. Toward comparability of coronary magnetic resonance angiography: proposal for a standardized quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, Martijn S.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Geest, Rob van der; Roos, Albert de

    2003-01-01

    A method is proposed for the quantitative assessment of coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) acquisitions. The method is based on four parameters: signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR); vessel length; and vessel-edge definition. A pig model (n=7) was used to illustrate the proposed quantitative analysis method. Three-dimensional gradient-echo coronary MRA was performed with and without exogenous contrast enhancement using a gadolinium-based blood-pool contrast agent (Vistarem, Guerbet, Aulnay-Sous-Bois, France). The acquired images could be well differentiated based on the four parameters. The SNR was calculated as 9.0±1.4 vs 10.4±2.1, the CNR as 6.2±0.8 vs 8.2±0.9, the vessel length as 48.2±11.6 vs 86.5±13.8 mm, and the vessel-edge definition as 4.9±1.5 vs 7.7±3.4. Different coronary MRA techniques can be evaluated objectively with the combined use of SNR, CNR, vessel length, and vessel-edge parameters. (orig.)

  17. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  18. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  19. Impact of a New Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR)-V Algorithm on Image Quality in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Gianluca; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Andreini, Daniele; Guaricci, Andrea I; Guglielmo, Marco; Baggiano, Andrea; Fazzari, Fabio; Mushtaq, Saima; Conte, Edoardo; Annoni, Andrea; Formenti, Alberto; Mancini, Elisabetta; Verdecchia, Massimo; Campari, Alessandro; Martini, Chiara; Gatti, Marco; Fusini, Laura; Bonfanti, Lorenzo; Consiglio, Elisa; Rabbat, Mark G; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Pepi, Mauro

    2018-03-27

    A new postprocessing algorithm named adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-V has been recently introduced. The aim of this article was to analyze the impact of ASIR-V algorithm on signal, noise, and image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography. Fifty consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated coronary computed tomography angiography (Revolution CT; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). Images were reconstructed using filtered back projection and ASIR-V 0%, and a combination of filtered back projection and ASIR-V 20%-80% and ASIR-V 100%. Image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated for left main coronary artery (LM), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA) and were compared between the different postprocessing algorithms used. Similarly a four-point Likert image quality score of coronary segments was graded for each dataset and compared. A cutoff value of P ASIR-V 0%, ASIR-V 100% demonstrated a significant reduction of image noise in all coronaries (P ASIR-V 0%, SNR was significantly higher with ASIR-V 60% in LM (P ASIR-V 0%, CNR for ASIR-V ≥60% was significantly improved in LM (P ASIR-V ≥80%. ASIR-V 60% had significantly better Likert image quality scores compared to ASIR-V 0% in segment-, vessel-, and patient-based analyses (P ASIR-V 60% provides the optimal balance between image noise, SNR, CNR, and image quality. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A preliminary study of endocannabinoid system regulation in psychosis: Distinct alterations of CNR1 promoter DNA methylation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Claudio; Micale, Vincenzo; Di Bartolomeo, Martina; Stark, Tibor; Pucci, Mariangela; Sulcova, Alexandra; Palazzo, Mariacarlotta; Babinska, Zuzana; Cremaschi, Laura; Drago, Filippo; Carlo Altamura, A; Maccarrone, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    Compelling evidence supports the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in psychosis vulnerability. We here evaluated the transcriptional regulation of ECS components in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from subjects suffering from bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, focusing in particular on the effects of DNA methylation. We observed selective alterations of DNA methylation at the promoter of CNR1, the gene coding for the type-1 cannabinoid receptor, in schizophrenic patients (N=25) with no changes in any other disorder. We confirmed the regulation of CNR1 in a well-validated animal model of schizophrenia, induced by prenatal methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate exposure (N=7 per group) where we found, in the prefrontal cortex, a significant increase in CNR1 expression and a consistent reduction in DNA methylation at specific CpG sites of gene promoter. Overall, our findings suggest a selective dysregulation of ECS in psychosis, and highlight the evaluation of CNR1 DNA methylation levels in PBMCs as a potential biomarker for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive quantification of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor for image-based and k-space-based parallel imaging reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Philip M; Grant, Aaron K; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Sodickson, Daniel K; McKenzie, Charles A

    2008-10-01

    Parallel imaging reconstructions result in spatially varying noise amplification characterized by the g-factor, precluding conventional measurements of noise from the final image. A simple Monte Carlo based method is proposed for all linear image reconstruction algorithms, which allows measurement of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor and is demonstrated for SENSE and GRAPPA reconstructions for accelerated acquisitions that have not previously been amenable to such assessment. Only a simple "prescan" measurement of noise amplitude and correlation in the phased-array receiver, and a single accelerated image acquisition are required, allowing robust assessment of signal-to-noise ratio and g-factor. The "pseudo multiple replica" method has been rigorously validated in phantoms and in vivo, showing excellent agreement with true multiple replica and analytical methods. This method is universally applicable to the parallel imaging reconstruction techniques used in clinical applications and will allow pixel-by-pixel image noise measurements for all parallel imaging strategies, allowing quantitative comparison between arbitrary k-space trajectories, image reconstruction, or noise conditioning techniques. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Removing the Influence of Shimmer in the Calculation of Harmonics-To-Noise Ratios Using Ensemble-Averages in Voice Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ferrer; Eduardo González; María E. Hernández-Díaz; Diana Torres; Anesto del Toro

    2009-01-01

    Harmonics-to-noise ratios (HNRs) are affected by general aperiodicity in voiced speech signals. To specifically reflect a signal-to-additive-noise ratio, the measurement should be insensitive to other periodicity perturbations, like jitter, shimmer, and waveform variability. The ensemble averaging technique is a time-domain method which has been gradually refined in terms of its sensitivity to jitter and waveform variability and required number of pulses. In this paper, shimmer is introduced ...

  3. The optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomographic imaging plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm can improve the superior mesenteric vessel image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiao-Ping; Zuo, Zi-Wei; Xu, Ying-Jin; Wang, Jia-Ning [CT/MRI room, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000 (China); Liu, Huai-Jun, E-mail: hebeiliu@outlook.com [Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000 (China); Liang, Guang-Lu [CT/MRI room, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071000 (China); Gao, Bu-Lang, E-mail: browngao@163.com [Department of Medical Research, Shijiazhuang First Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050011 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on the improvement of the image quality of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. Materials and methods: The gemstone spectral CT angiographic data of 25 patients were reconstructed in the following three groups: 70 KeV, the optimal monochromatic imaging, and the optimal monochromatic plus 40%iterative reconstruction mode. The CT value, image noises (IN), background CT value and noises, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image scores of the vessels and surrounding tissues were analyzed. Results: In the 70 KeV, the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic images plus 40% iterative reconstruction group, the mean scores of image quality were 3.86, 4.24 and 4.25 for the superior mesenteric artery and 3.46, 3.78 and 3.81 for the superior mesenteric vein, respectively. The image quality scores for the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic plus 40% iterative reconstruction groups were significantly greater than for the 70 KeV group (P < 0.05). The vascular CT value, image noise, background noise, CNR and SNR were significantly (P < 0.001) greater in the optimal monochromatic and the optimal monochromatic images plus 40% iterative reconstruction group than in the 70 KeV group. The optimal monochromatic plus 40% iterative reconstruction group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower image and background noise but higher CNR and SNR than the other two groups. Conclusion: The optimal monochromatic imaging combined with 40% iterative reconstruction using low-contrast agent dosage and low injection rate can significantly improve the image quality of the superior mesenteric artery and vein.

  4. Usefulness of acoustic noise reduction in brain MRI using Quiet-T{sub 2}-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Jy [Dept. of Medical science Graduate school, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Keun [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Gwangju Health university, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Acoustic noise during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the main source for patient discomfort. we report our preliminary experience with this technique in neuroimaging with regard to subjective and objective noise levels and image quality. 60 patients(29 males, 31 females, average age of 60.1) underwent routine brain MRI with 3.0 Tesla (MAGNETOM Tim Trio; Siemens, Germany) system and 12-channel head coil. Q-T{sub 2} and T{sub 2} sequence were performed. Measurement of sound pressure levels (SPL) and heart rate on Q-T{sub 2} and T{sub 2} was performed respectively. Quantitative analysis was carried out by measuring the SNR, CNR, and SIR values of Q-T{sub 2}, T{sub 2} and a statistical analysis was performed using independent sample T-test. Qualitative analysis was evaluated by the eyes for the overall quality image of Q-T{sub 2} and T{sub 2}. A 5-point evaluation scale was used, including excellent(5), good(4), fair(3), poor(2), and unacceptable(1). The average noise and peak noise decreased by 15dBA and 10dBA on T2 and Q-T2 test. Also, the average value of heartbeat rate was lower in Q-T2 for 120 seconds in each test, but there was no statistical significance. The quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between CNR and SIR, and there was a significant difference (p<0.05) as SNR had a lower average value on Q-T{sub 2}. According to the qualitative analysis, the overall quality image of 59 case T{sub 2} and Q-T{sub 2} was evaluated as excellent at 5 points, and 1 case was evaluated as good at 4 points due to a motion artifact. Q-T{sub 2} is a promising technique for acoustic noise reduction and improved patient comfort.

  5. Habitat-induced degradation of sound signals: Quantifying the effects of communication sounds and bird location on blur ratio, excess attenuation, and signal-to-noise ratio in blackbird song

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, T.; Larsen, O N; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    1993-01-01

    measures were calculated from changes of the amplitude functions (i.e., envelopes) of the degraded songs using a new technique which allowed a compensation for the contribution of the background noise to the amplitude values. Representative songs were broadcast in a deciduous forest without leaves......The habitat-induced degradation of the full song of the blackbird (Turdus merula) was quantified by measuring excess attenuation, reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio, and blur ratio, the latter measure representing the degree of blurring of amplitude and frequency patterns over time. All three...

  6. Estimating the planetary boundary layer height from radiosonde and doppler lidar measurements in the city of São Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcia T. A.; Moreira, Gregori de A.; Pinero, Maciel; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to compare the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) values estimated by radiosonde data through the bulk Richardson number (BRN) method and by Doppler lidar measurements through the Carrier to Noise Ratio (CNR) method, which corresponds to the maximum of the variance of CNR profile. The measurement campaign was carried during the summer of 2015/2016 in the city of São Paulo. Despite the conceptual difference between these methods, the results show great agreement between them.

  7. Frequency selective non-linear blending to improve image quality in liver CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, M.N.; Bier, G.; Kloth, C.; Schabel, C.; Nikolaou, K.; Horger, M.; Fritz, J.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a new frequency selective non-linear blending (NLB) algorithm on the contrast resolution of liver CT with low intravascular concentration of iodine contrast. Our local ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The informed consent requirement was waived. CT exams of 25 patients (60% female, mean age: 65±16 years of age) with late phase CT scans of the liver were included as a model for poor intrahepatic vascular contrast enhancement. Optimal post-processing settings to enhance the contrast of hepatic vessels were determined. Outcome variables included signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of hepatic vessels and SNR of liver parenchyma of standard and post-processed images. Image quality was quantified by two independent readers using Likert scales. The post-processing settings for the visualization of hepatic vasculature were optimal at a center of 115HU, delta of 25HU, and slope of 5. Image noise was statistically indifferent between standard and post-processed images. The CNR between the hepatic vasculature (HV) and liver parenchyma could be significantly increased for liver veins (CNR Standard 1.62±1.10, CNR NLB 3.6±2.94, p=0.0002) and portal veins (CNR Standard 1.31±0.85, CNR NLB 2.42±3.03, p=0.046). The SNR of liver parenchyma was significantly higher on post-processed images (SNR NLB 11.26±3.16, SNR Standard 8.85± 2.27, p=0.008). The overall image quality and depiction of HV were significantly higher on post-processed images (NLB DHV : 4 [3-4.75], S tandardDHV : 2 [1.3-2.5], p=<0.0001; NLBIQ : 4 [4-4], StandardIQ : 2 [2-3], p=<0.0001). The use of a frequency selective non-linear blending algorithm increases the contrast resolution of liver CT and can improve the visibility of the hepatic vasculature in the setting of a low contrast ratio between vessels and the parenchyma.

  8. Frequency selective non-linear blending to improve image quality in liver CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, M.N.; Bier, G.; Kloth, C.; Schabel, C.; Nikolaou, K.; Horger, M. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Fritz, J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States). Russell H. Morgan Dept. of Radiology and Radiological Science

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of a new frequency selective non-linear blending (NLB) algorithm on the contrast resolution of liver CT with low intravascular concentration of iodine contrast. Our local ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The informed consent requirement was waived. CT exams of 25 patients (60% female, mean age: 65±16 years of age) with late phase CT scans of the liver were included as a model for poor intrahepatic vascular contrast enhancement. Optimal post-processing settings to enhance the contrast of hepatic vessels were determined. Outcome variables included signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of hepatic vessels and SNR of liver parenchyma of standard and post-processed images. Image quality was quantified by two independent readers using Likert scales. The post-processing settings for the visualization of hepatic vasculature were optimal at a center of 115HU, delta of 25HU, and slope of 5. Image noise was statistically indifferent between standard and post-processed images. The CNR between the hepatic vasculature (HV) and liver parenchyma could be significantly increased for liver veins (CNR{sub Standard} 1.62±1.10, CNR{sub NLB} 3.6±2.94, p=0.0002) and portal veins (CNR{sub Standard} 1.31±0.85, CNR{sub NLB} 2.42±3.03, p=0.046). The SNR of liver parenchyma was significantly higher on post-processed images (SNR{sub NLB} 11.26±3.16, SNR{sub Standard} 8.85± 2.27, p=0.008). The overall image quality and depiction of HV were significantly higher on post-processed images (NLB{sub DHV}: 4 [3-4.75], S{sub tandardDHV}: 2 [1.3-2.5], p=<0.0001; {sub NLBIQ}: 4 [4-4], {sub StandardIQ}: 2 [2-3], p=<0.0001). The use of a frequency selective non-linear blending algorithm increases the contrast resolution of liver CT and can improve the visibility of the hepatic vasculature in the setting of a low contrast ratio between vessels and the parenchyma.

  9. Digital breast tomosynthesis: studies of the effects of acquisition geometry on contrast-to-noise ratio and observer preference of low-contrast objects in breast phantom images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Chan, Heang-Ping; Telang, Santosh; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A; Paramagul, Chintana; Neal, Colleen; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Larson, Sandra C; Carson, Paul L; Schmitz, Andrea; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Watcharotone, Kuanwong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acquisition geometry in digital breast tomosynthesis was evaluated with studies of contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and observer preference. Contrast-detail (CD) test objects in 5 cm thick phantoms with breast-like backgrounds were imaged. Twelve different angular acquisitions (average glandular dose for each ∼1.1 mGy) were performed ranging from narrow angle 16° with 17 projection views (16d17p) to wide angle 64d17p. Focal slices of SART-reconstructed images of the CD arrays were selected for CNR computations and the reader preference study. For the latter, pairs of images obtained with different acquisition geometries were randomized and scored by 7 trained readers. The total scores for all images and readings for each acquisition geometry were compared as were the CNRs. In general, readers preferred images acquired with wide angle as opposed to narrow angle geometries. The mean percent preferred was highly correlated with tomosynthesis angle (R = 0.91). The highest scoring geometries were 60d21p (95%), 64d17p (80%), and 48d17p (72%); the lowest scoring were 16d17p (4%), 24d9p (17%) and 24d13p (33%). The measured CNRs for the various acquisitions showed much overlap but were overall highest for wide-angle acquisitions. Finally, the mean reader scores were well correlated with the mean CNRs (R = 0.83). (paper)

  10. Digital breast tomosynthesis: Studies of the effects of acquisition geometry on contrast-to-noise ratio and observer preference of low-contrast objects in breast phantom images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Schmitz, Andrea; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Telang, Santosh; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Helvie, Mark A.; Paramagul, Chintana; Neal, Colleen; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Larson, Sandra C.; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acquisition geometry in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) was evaluated with studies of contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and observer preference. Contrast-detail (CD) test objects in 5 cm thick phantoms with breast-like backgrounds were imaged. Twelve different angular acquisitions (average glandular dose for each ~1.1 mGy) were performed ranging from narrow angle 16° with 17 projection views (16d17p) to wide angle 64d17p. Focal slices of SART-reconstructed images of the CD arrays were selected for CNR computations and the reader preference study. For the latter, pairs of images obtained with different acquisition geometries were randomized and scored by 7 trained readers. The total scores for all images and readings for each acquisition geometry were compared as were the CNRs. In general, readers preferred images acquired with wide angle as opposed to narrow angle geometries. The mean percent preferred was highly correlated with tomosynthesis angle (R=0.91). The highest scoring geometries were 60d21p (95%), 64d17p (80%), and 48d17p (72%); the lowest scoring were 16d17p (4%), 24d9p (17%) and 24d13p (33%). The measured CNRs for the various acquisitions showed much overlap but were overall highest for wide-angle acquisitions. Finally, the mean reader scores were well correlated with the mean CNRs (R=0.83). PMID:25211509

  11. Accuracy of signal-to-noise ratio measurement method for magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio; Miyai, Akira; Maeda, Fumie; Fukutake, Hiroyuki; Kikumoto, Rikiya

    2003-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a magnetic resonance image is a common measure of imager performance. However, evaluations for the calculation of the SNR use various methods. A problem with measuring SNR is caused by the distortion of noise statistics in commonly used magnitude images. In this study, measurement accuracy was compared among four methods of evaluating SNR according to the size and position of regions of interest (ROIs). The results indicated that the method that used the difference between two images showed the best agreement with the theoretical value. In the method that used a single image, the SNR calculated by using a small size of ROI showed better agreement with the theoretical value because of noise bias and image artifacts. However, in the method that used the difference between two images, a large size of ROI was better in reducing statistical errors. In the same way, the methods that used air noise and air signal were better when applied to a large ROI. In addition, the image subtraction process used to calculate pixel-by-pixel differences in images may reach zero on a minus pixel value when using an image processor with the MRI system and apparatuses associated with it. A revised equation is presented for this case. It is important to understand the characteristics of each method and to choose a suitable method carefully according to the purpose of the study. (author)

  12. Evaluation of digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms using synchrotron radiation in standard geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakova, K.; Kolitsi, Z.; Speller, R. D.; Horrocks, J. A.; Tromba, G.; Pallikarakis, N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the image quality of reconstructed volumes by four algorithms for digital tomosynthesis, applied in the case of breast, is investigated using synchrotron radiation. Methods: An angular data set of 21 images of a complex phantom with heterogeneous tissue-mimicking background was obtained using the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Trieste, Italy. The irradiated part was reconstructed using the multiple projection algorithm (MPA) and the filtered backprojection with ramp followed by hamming windows (FBR-RH) and filtered backprojection with ramp (FBP-R). Additionally, an algorithm for reducing the noise in reconstructed planes based on noise mask subtraction from the planes of the originally reconstructed volume using MPA (MPA-NM) has been further developed. The reconstruction techniques were evaluated in terms of calculations and comparison of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and artifact spread function. Results: It was found that the MPA-NM resulted in higher CNR, comparable with the CNR of FBP-RH for high contrast details. Low contrast objects are well visualized and characterized by high CNR using the simple MPA and the MPA-NM. In addition, the image quality of the reconstructed features in terms of CNR and visual appearance as a function of the initial number of projection images and the reconstruction arc was carried out. Slices reconstructed with more input projection images result in less reconstruction artifacts and higher detail CNR, while those reconstructed from projection images acquired in reduced angular range causes pronounced streak artifacts. Conclusions: Of the reconstruction algorithms implemented, the MPA-NM and MPA are a good choice for detecting low contrast objects, while the FBP-RH, FBP-R, and MPA-NM provide high CNR and well outlined edges in case of microcalcifications.

  13. MIMO Radar Transceiver Design for High Signal-to-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John

    2013-05-12

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar employs orthogonal or partially correlated transmit signals to achieve performance benefits over its phased-array counterpart. It has been shown that MIMO radar can achieve greater spatial resolution, improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and target localization, and greater clutter resolution using space-time adaptive processing (STAP). This thesis explores various methods to improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) via transmit and receive beamforming. In MIMO radar settings, it is often desirable to transmit power only to a given location or set of locations defined by a beampattern. Current methods involve a two- step process of designing the transmit covariance matrix R via iterative solutions and then using R to generate waveforms that fulfill practical constraints such as having a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this document, a closed- form method to design R is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints such as positive semidefiniteness and the uniform elemental power constraint and provides performance similar to that of iterative methods, which require a much greater computation time. Next, a transmit architecture is presented 
that exploits the orthogonality of frequencies at discrete DFT values to transmit a sum of orthogonal signals from each antenna. The resulting waveforms provide a lower mean-square error than current methods at a much lower computational cost, and a simulated detection scenario demonstrates the performance advantages achieved. It is also desirable to receive signal power only from a given set of directions defined by a beampattern. In a later chapter of this document, the problem of receive beampattern matching is formulated and three solutions to this problem are demonstrated. We show that partitioning the received data vector

  14. Bilateral ce-MR angiography of the hands at 3.0 T and 1.5 T: intraindividual comparison of quantitative and qualitative image parameters in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterer, Jan T.; Markl, Michael; Frydrychowicz, Alexander; Bley, Thorsten A.; Langer, Mathias; Moske-Eick, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefit of bilateral contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA) of the hands at 3.0 Tesla (T) compared with an established 1.5-T technique in healthy volunteers. Intraindividual bilateral ce-MRA of the hands was performed at 1.5 T and 3.0 T in 14 healthy volunteers using a timed ultra-fast GRE sequence featuring parallel acquisition. The evaluation comprised measurement of the vessel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), rating of the image quality and the assessment of artefacts and venous contamination. At 3.0 T, SNR improved up to 95% and CNR up to 129%. The image quality of the larger inflow arteries, the palm arches and common digital arteries was good or sufficient at either magnetic field strengths. However, 3.0-T MRA was clearly superior in the depiction of the digital arteries. Ce-MRA of the hand clearly profits from the use of 3.0 T. Compared with 1.5 T, a substantial increase of CNR is found resulting in a significantly better delineation of the small digital arteries. Saturation affects more the SNR of the perivascular tissue than the contrast-enhanced blood, and thus leads to a marked increase of CNR at 3.0. (orig.)

  15. Variants in the CNR1 gene predispose to headache with nausea in the presence of life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, G; Csepany, E; Magyar, M; Edes, A E; Eszlari, N; Hullam, G; Antal, P; Kokonyei, G; Anderson, I M; Deakin, J F W; Bagdy, G

    2017-03-01

    One of the main effects of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is stress adaptation with presynaptic endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 receptors) playing a major role. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of the CB1 receptor coding CNR1 gene on migraine and its symptoms is conditional on life stress. In a cross-sectional European population (n = 2426), recruited from Manchester and Budapest, we used the ID-Migraine questionnaire for migraine screening, the Life Threatening Experiences questionnaire to measure recent negative life events (RLE), and covered the CNR1 gene with 11 SNPs. The main genetic effects and the CNR1 × RLE interaction with age and sex as covariates were tested. None of the SNPs showed main genetic effects on possible migraine or its symptoms, but 5 SNPs showed nominally significant interaction with RLE on headache with nausea using logistic regression models. The effect of rs806366 remained significant after correction for multiple testing and replicated in the subpopulations. This effect was independent from depression- and anxiety-related phenotypes. In addition, a Bayesian systems-based analysis demonstrated that in the development of headache with nausea all SNPs were more relevant with higher a posteriori probability in those who experienced recent life stress. In summary, the CNR1 gene in interaction with life stress increased the risk of headache with nausea suggesting a specific pathological mechanism to develop migraine, and indicating that a subgroup of migraine patients, who suffer from life stress triggered migraine with frequent nausea, may benefit from therapies that increase the endocannabinoid tone. © 2016 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction improves image quality without affecting perfusion CT quantitation in primary colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prezzi

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effect of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR on perfusion CT (pCT parameter quantitation and image quality in primary colorectal cancer. Methods: Prospective observational study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 32 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent pCT (100 kV, 150 mA, 120 s acquisition, axial mode. Tumour regional blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT and permeability surface area product (PS were determined using identical regions-of-interests for ASIR percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR and pCT parameters were assessed across ASIR percentages. Coefficients of variation (CV, repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA and Spearman’ rank order correlation were performed with statistical significance at 5%. Results: With increasing ASIR percentages, image noise decreased by 33% while CNR increased by 61%; peak tumour CNR was greater than 1.5 with 60% ASIR and above. Mean BF, BV, MTT and PS differed by less than 1.8%, 2.9%, 2.5% and 2.6% across ASIR percentages. CV were 4.9%, 4.2%, 3.3% and 7.9%; rANOVA P values: 0.85, 0.62, 0.02 and 0.81 respectively. Conclusions: ASIR improves image noise and CNR without altering pCT parameters substantially. Keywords: Perfusion imaging, Multidetector computed tomography, Colorectal neoplasms, Computer-assisted image processing, Radiation dosage

  17. CT image quality improvement using adaptive iterative dose reduction with wide-volume acquisition on 320-detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervaise, Alban; Osemont, Benoit; Lecocq, Sophie; Blum, Alain; Noel, Alain; Micard, Emilien; Felblinger, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) on image quality and radiation dose in phantom and patient studies. A phantom was examined in volumetric mode on a 320-detector CT at different tube currents from 25 to 550 mAs. CT images were reconstructed with AIDR and with Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Image noise, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution were compared between FBP and AIDR images. AIDR was then tested on 15 CT examinations of the lumbar spine in a prospective study. Again, FBP and AIDR images were compared. Image noise and SNR were analysed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In the phantom, spatial resolution assessment showed no significant difference between FBP and AIDR reconstructions. Image noise was lower with AIDR than with FBP images with a mean reduction of 40%. CNR and SNR were also improved with AIDR. In patients, quantitative and subjective evaluation showed that image noise was significantly lower with AIDR than with FBP. SNR was also greater with AIDR than with FBP. Compared to traditional FBP reconstruction techniques, AIDR significantly improves image quality and has the potential to decrease radiation dose. (orig.)

  18. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  19. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  20. Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: “Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?”, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.

  1. The use of wavelet filters for reducing noise in posterior fossa Computed Tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Machado, Reinado; Perez-Diaz, Marlen; Lorenzo-Ginori, Juan V.; Bravo-Pino, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Wavelet transform based de-noising like wavelet shrinkage, gives the good results in CT. This procedure affects very little the spatial resolution. Some applications are reconstruction methods, while others are a posteriori de-noising methods. De-noising after reconstruction is very difficult because the noise is non-stationary and has unknown distribution. Therefore, methods which work on the sinogram-space don’t have this problem, because they always work over a known noise distribution at this point. On the other hand, the posterior fossa in a head CT is a very complex region for physicians, because it is commonly affected by artifacts and noise which are not eliminated during the reconstruction procedure. This can leads to some false positive evaluations. The purpose of our present work is to compare different wavelet shrinkage de-noising filters to reduce noise, particularly in images of the posterior fossa within CT scans in the sinogram-space. This work describes an experimental search for the best wavelets, to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Results showed that de-noising with wavelet filters improved the quality of posterior fossa region in terms of an increased CNR, without noticeable structural distortions

  2. Signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel MRI with subtraction mapping and consecutive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Ogura, Akio; Doi, Tsukasa; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Machida, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Kouzou; Kitou, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    When measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an image the used parallel magnetic resonance imaging, it was confirmed that there was a problem in the application of past SNR measurement. With the method of measuring the noise from the background signal, SNR with parallel imaging was higher than that without parallel imaging. In the subtraction method (NEMA standard), which sets a wide region of interest, the white noise was not evaluated correctly although SNR was close to the theoretical value. We proposed two techniques because SNR in parallel imaging was not uniform according to inhomogeneity of the coil sensitivity distribution and geometry factor. Using the first method (subtraction mapping), two images were scanned with identical parameters. The SNR in each pixel divided the running mean (7 by 7 pixels in neighborhood) by standard deviation/√2 in the same region of interest. Using the second (consecutive) method, more than fifty consecutive scans of the uniform phantom were obtained with identical scan parameters. Then the SNR was calculated from the ratio of mean signal intensity to the standard deviation in each pixel on a series of images. Moreover, geometry factors were calculated from SNRs with and without parallel imaging. The SNR and geometry factor using parallel imaging in the subtraction mapping method agreed with those of the consecutive method. Both methods make it possible to obtain a more detailed determination of SNR in parallel imaging and to calculate the geometry factor. (author)

  3. Influence of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Point Spread Function on Limits of Super-Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Vliet, L.J. van; Schutte, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a method to predict the limit of possible resolution enhancement given a sequence of low resolution images. Three important parameters influence the outcome of this limit: the total Point Spread Function (PSF), the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the number of input images.

  4. Influence of signal-to-noise ratio and point spread function on limits of super-resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.; Schutte, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a method to predict the limit of possible resolution enhancement given a sequence of lowresolution images. Three important parameters influence the outcome of this limit: the total Point Spread Function (PSF), the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the number of input images.

  5. Non-linear signal response functions and their effects on the statistical and noise cancellation properties of isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, W.

    2013-01-01

    A nebulizer-centric response function model of the analytical inductively coupled argon plasma ion source was used to investigate the statistical frequency distributions and noise reduction factors of simultaneously measured flicker noise limited isotope ion signals and their ratios. The response function model was extended by assuming i) a single gaussian distributed random noise source (nebulizer gas pressure fluctuations) and ii) the isotope ion signal response is a parabolic function of the nebulizer gas pressure. Model calculations of ion signal and signal ratio histograms were obtained by applying the statistical method of translation to the non-linear response function model of the plasma. Histograms of Ni, Cu, Pr, Tl and Pb isotope ion signals measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer were, without exception, negative skew. Histograms of the corresponding isotope ratios of Ni, Cu, Tl and Pb were either positive or negative skew. There was a complete agreement between the measured and model calculated histogram skew properties. The nebulizer-centric response function model was also used to investigate the effect of non-linear response functions on the effectiveness of noise cancellation by signal division. An alternative noise correction procedure suitable for parabolic signal response functions was derived and applied to measurements of isotope ratios of Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl. The largest noise reduction factors were always obtained when the non-linearity of the response functions was taken into account by the isotope ratio calculation. Possible applications of the nebulizer-centric response function model to other types of analytical instrumentation, large amplitude signal noise sources (e.g., lasers, pumped nebulizers) and analytical error in isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry are discussed. - Highlights: ► Isotope ion signal noise is modelled as a parabolic transform of a gaussian variable. ► Flicker

  6. Dependence of transformer ratio on the shaper weighting function in transformer-coupled low noise preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripamonti, G.

    1987-10-01

    The optimum turn-ratio of transformers used for coupling large capacitance detectors to amplifiers is demonstrated to be dependent on the actual weighting function of the following shaper. As an example, the optimum finite cusp shaping with a flat top is considered. For this case, the optimum turn-ratio is found to be dependent on the flat top duration. As finite magnetizing inductance in real transformers produces diverging noise with unipolar shaping, flat-top tripolar zero-area shapers are also considered.

  7. Gating in time domain as a tool for improving the signal-to-noise ratio of beam transfer function measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, U; Caspers, Fritz

    1992-01-01

    For the measurement of Beam Transfer Functions the signal-to-noise ratio is of great importance. In order to get a reasonable quality of the measured data one may apply averaging and smoothing. In the following another technique called time gating to improve the quality of the measurement will be described. By this technique the measurement data are Fourier transformed and then modified in time domain. Tune gating suppresses signal contributions that are correlated to a time interval when no interesting information is expected. Afterivards an inverse Fourier transform leads to data in frequency domain with an improved signal to noise ratio.

  8. Diagnostic performance of reduced-dose CT with a hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm for the detection of hypervascular liver lesions: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Juri, Hiroshi; Nakai, Go; Narumi, Yoshifumi [Osaka Medical College, Department of Radiology, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shushi [Osaka Medical College Hospital, Central Radiology Department, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of reduced-dose CT with a hybrid iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm for the detection of hypervascular liver lesions. Thirty liver phantoms with or without simulated hypervascular lesions were scanned with a 320-slice CT scanner with control-dose (40 mAs) and reduced-dose (30 and 20 mAs) settings. Control-dose images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), and reduced-dose images were reconstructed with FBP and a hybrid IR algorithm. Objective image noise and the lesion to liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were evaluated quantitatively. Images were interpreted independently by 2 blinded radiologists, and jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Hybrid IR images with reduced-dose settings (both 30 and 20 mAs) yielded significantly lower objective image noise and higher CNR than control-dose FBP images (P <.05). However, hybrid IR images with reduced-dose settings had lower JAFROC1 figure of merit than control-dose FBP images, although only the difference between 20 mAs images and control-dose FBP images was significant for both readers (P <.01). An aggressive reduction of the radiation dose would impair the detectability of hypervascular liver lesions, although objective image noise and CNR would be preserved by a hybrid IR algorithm. (orig.)

  9. Lidar signal-to-noise ratio improvements: Considerations and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebo, Yasser Y.

    The primary objective of this study is to improve lidar signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence extend attainable lidar ranges through reduction of the sky background noise (BGP), which dominates other sources of noise in daytime operations. This is particularly important for Raman lidar techniques where the Raman backscattered signal of interest is relatively weak compared with the elastic backscatter lidars. Two approaches for reduction of sky background noise are considered: (1) Improvements in lidar SNR by optimization of the design of the lidar receiver were examined by a series of simulations. This part of the research concentrated on biaxial lidar systems, where overlap between laser beam and receiver field of view (FOV) is an important aspect of noise considerations. The first optimized design evolved is a wedge shaped aperture. While this design has the virtue of greatly reducing background light, it is difficult to implement practically, requiring both changes in area and position with lidar range. A second more practical approach, which preserves some of the advantages of the wedge design, was also evolved. This uses a smaller area circular aperture optimally located in the image plane for desired ranges. Simulated numerical results for a biaxial lidar have shown that the best receiver parameters selection is one using a small circular aperture (field stop) with a small telescope focal length f, to ensure the minimum FOV that accepts all return signals over the entire lidar range while at the same time minimizing detected BGP and hence maximizing lidar SNR and attainable lidar ranges. The improvement in lidar SNR was up to 18%. (2) A polarization selection technique was implemented to reduce sky background signal for linearly polarized monostatic elastic backscatter lidar measurements. The technique takes advantage of naturally occurring polarization properties in scattered sky light, and then ensures that both the lidar transmitter and receiver track and

  10. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexhepaj, Elton; Jirstrom, Karin; O'Connor, Darran P; O'Brien, Sallyann L; Landberg, Goran; Duffy, Michael J; Brennan, Donal J; Gallagher, William M

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have validated survivin CNR as a marker of good prognosis in

  11. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rexhepaj, Elton

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Methods Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Results Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Conclusion Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have

  12. Stimulation of the Locus Ceruleus Modulates Signal-to-Noise Ratio in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manella, Laura C; Petersen, Nicholas; Linster, Christiane

    2017-11-29

    Norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to influence sensory, and specifically olfactory processing at the behavioral and physiological levels, potentially by regulating signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The present study is the first to look at NE modulation of olfactory bulb (OB) in regards to S/N in vivo We show, in male rats, that locus ceruleus stimulation and pharmacological infusions of NE into the OB modulate both spontaneous and odor-evoked neural responses. NE in the OB generated a non-monotonic dose-response relationship, suppressing mitral cell activity at high and low, but not intermediate, NE levels. We propose that NE enhances odor responses not through direct potentiation of the afferent signal per se, but rather by reducing the intrinsic noise of the system. This has important implications for the ways in which an animal interacts with its olfactory environment, particularly as the animal shifts from a relaxed to an alert behavioral state. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory perception can be modulated by behavioral states such as hunger, fear, stress, or a change in environmental context. Behavioral state often affects neural processing via the release of circulating neurochemicals such as hormones or neuromodulators. We here show that the neuromodulator norepinephrine modulates olfactory bulb spontaneous activity and odor responses so as to generate an increased signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the olfactory bulb. Our results help interpret and improve existing ideas for neural network mechanisms underlying behaviorally observed improvements in near-threshold odor detection and discrimination. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711605-11$15.00/0.

  13. Association of CNR1 and FAAH endocannabinoid gene polymorphisms with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: evidence for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, P; Bifulco, M; Di Filippo, C; Gazzerro, P; Canestrelli, B; Monteleone, F; Proto, M C; Di Genio, M; Grimaldi, C; Maj, M

    2009-10-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate eating behavior; hence, endocannabinoid genes may contribute to the biological vulnerability to eating disorders. The rs1049353 (1359 G/A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the gene coding the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor (CNR1) and the rs324420 (cDNA 385C to A) SNP of the gene coding fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the major degrading enzyme of endocannabinoids, have been suggested to have functional effects on mature proteins. Therefore, we explored the possibility that those SNPs were associated to anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia nervosa. The distributions of the CNR1 1359 G/A SNP and of the FAAH cDNA 385C to A SNP were investigated in 134 patients with anorexia nervosa, 180 patients with bulimia nervosa and 148 normal weight healthy controls. Additive effects of the two SNPs in the genetic susceptibility to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were also tested. As compared to healthy controls, anorexic and bulimic patients showed significantly higher frequencies of the AG genotype and the A allele of the CNR1 1359 G/A SNP. Similarly, the AC genotype and the A allele of the FAAH cDNA 385C to A SNP were significantly more frequent in anorexic and bulimic individuals. A synergistic effect of the two SNPs was evident in anorexia nervosa but not in bulimia nervosa. Present findings show for the first time that the CNR1 1359 G/A SNP and the FAAH cDNA 385C to A SNP are significantly associated to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and demonstrate a synergistic effect of the two SNPs in anorexia nervosa.

  14. Optimal Monochromatic Energy Levels in Spectral CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583

  15. Investigations on the relationship between power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio of frequency-swept pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuhong; Fan Diayuan

    1993-01-01

    The criterion for obtaining compressed chirp pulses with high signal-to-noise ratio is the shape of the power spectrum, a chirp pulse of Gaussian shaped power spectrum without modulation is needed in CPA system to get the clean compressed pulses. 4 refs., 2 figs

  16. The impact of signal-to-noise ratio on contextual cueing in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Merrill, Edward C

    2015-04-01

    Contextual cueing refers to a form of implicit spatial learning where participants incidentally learn to associate a target location with its repeated spatial context. Successful contextual learning produces an efficient visual search through familiar environments. Despite the fact that children exhibit the basic ability of implicit spatial learning, their general effectiveness in this form of learning can be compromised by other development-dependent factors. Learning to extract useful information (signal) in the presence of various amounts of irrelevant or distracting information (noise) characterizes one of the most important changes that occur with cognitive development. This research investigated whether signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) affects contextual cueing differently in children and adults. S/N was operationally defined as the ratio of repeated versus new displays encountered over time. Three ratio conditions were created: high (100%), medium (67%), and low (33%) conditions. Results suggested no difference in the acquisition of contextual learning effects in the high and medium conditions across three age groups (6- to 8-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds, and young adults). However, a significant developmental difference emerged in the low S/N condition. As predicted, adults exhibited significant contextual cueing effects, whereas older children showed marginally significant contextual cueing and younger children did not show cueing effects. Group differences in the ability to exhibit implicit contextual learning under low S/N conditions and the implications of this difference are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vessel Wall Inflammation of Takayasu Arteritis Detected by Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Association with Disease Distribution and Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kato

    Full Text Available The assessment of the distribution and activity of vessel wall inflammation is clinically important in patients with Takayasu arteritis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a useful tool, but the clinical utility of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE in Takayasu arteritis has yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of LGE in assessing vessel wall inflammation and disease activity in Takayasu arteritis.We enrolled 49 patients with Takayasu arteritis who had undergone 1.5 T MRI. Patients were divided into Active (n = 19 and Inactive disease (n = 30 groups. The distribution of vessel wall inflammation using angiography and LGE was assessed by qualitative analysis. In 79% and 63% of patients in Active and Inactive groups, respectively, greater distribution of vessel wall inflammation was observed with LGE than with conventional angiography. MRI values of pre- and post-contrast signal-to-noise ratios (SNR, SNR increment (post-SNR minus pre-SNR, pre- and post-contrast contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR, and CNR increment (post-CNR minus pre-CNR were evaluated at arterial wall sites with the highest signal intensity using quantitative analysis of post-contrast LGE images. No statistically significant differences in MRI parameters were observed between Active and Inactive groups. Contrast-enhanced MRI was unable to accurately detect active disease.Contrast-enhanced MRI has utility in detecting the distribution of vessel wall inflammation but has less utility in assessing disease activity in Takayasu arteritis.

  18. Explicit signal to noise ratio in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Chova, Luis; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonlinear feature extraction method based on kernels for remote sensing data analysis. The proposed approach is based on the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transform, which maximizes the signal variance while also minimizing the estimated noise variance. We here propose...... an alternative kernel MNF (KMNF) in which the noise is explicitly estimated in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. This enables KMNF dealing with non-linear relations between the noise and the signal features jointly. Results show that the proposed KMNF provides the most noise-free features when confronted...

  19. Parallel Array Bistable Stochastic Resonance System with Independent Input and Its Signal-to-Noise Ratio Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    with independent components and averaged output; second, we give a deduction of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for this system to show the performance. Our examples show the enhancement of the system and how different parameters influence the performance of the proposed parallel array.

  20. MRI of the wrist at 7 tesla using an eight-channel array coil combined with parallel imaging: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gregory; Friedrich, Klaus M; Wang, Ligong; Vieira, Renata L R; Schweitzer, Mark E; Recht, Michael P; Wiggins, Graham C; Regatte, Ravinder R

    2010-03-01

    To determine the feasibility of performing MRI of the wrist at 7 Tesla (T) with parallel imaging and to evaluate how acceleration factors (AF) affect signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and image quality. This study had institutional review board approval. A four-transmit eight-receive channel array coil was constructed in-house. Nine healthy subjects were scanned on a 7T whole-body MR scanner. Coronal and axial images of cartilage and trabecular bone micro-architecture (3D-Fast Low Angle Shot (FLASH) with and without fat suppression, repetition time/echo time = 20 ms/4.5 ms, flip angle = 10 degrees , 0.169-0.195 x 0.169-0.195 mm, 0.5-1 mm slice thickness) were obtained with AF 1, 2, 3, 4. T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), proton density-weighted FSE, and multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) sequences were also performed. SNR and CNR were measured. Three musculoskeletal radiologists rated image quality. Linear correlation analysis and paired t-tests were performed. At higher AF, SNR and CNR decreased linearly for cartilage, muscle, and trabecular bone (r < -0.98). At AF 4, reductions in SNR/CNR were:52%/60% (cartilage), 72%/63% (muscle), 45%/50% (trabecular bone). Radiologists scored images with AF 1 and 2 as near-excellent, AF 3 as good-to-excellent (P = 0.075), and AF 4 as average-to-good (P = 0.11). It is feasible to perform high resolution 7T MRI of the wrist with parallel imaging. SNR and CNR decrease with higher AF, but image quality remains above-average.

  1. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in ultrasound-modulated optical tomography by a lock-in amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Jingping; Lin, Guimin; Hu, Liangjun; Li, Hui

    2016-10-01

    With high spatial resolution of ultrasonic location and high sensitivity of optical detection, ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) is a promising noninvasive biological tissue imaging technology. In biological tissue, the ultrasound-modulated light signals are very weak and are overwhelmed by the strong unmodulated light signals. It is a difficulty and key to efficiently pick out the weak modulated light from strong unmodulated light in UOT. Under the effect of an ultrasonic field, the scattering light intensity presents a periodic variation as the ultrasonic frequency changes. So the modulated light signals would be escape from the high unmodulated light signals, when the modulated light signals and the ultrasonic signal are processed cross correlation operation by a lock-in amplifier and without a chopper. Experimental results indicated that the signal-to-noise ratio of UOT is significantly improved by a lock-in amplifier, and the higher the repetition frequency of pulsed ultrasonic wave, the better the signal-to-noise ratio of UOT.

  2. Electron dose dependence of signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and resolution in transmission electron microscope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Z.; Rose, H.; Lehtinen, O.; Biskupek, J.; Kaiser, U.

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the highest resolution in aberration-corrected (AC) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, high electron doses are required which only a few samples can withstand. In this paper we perform dose-dependent AC-HRTEM image calculations, and study the dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and resolution on electron dose and sampling. We introduce dose-dependent contrast, which can be used to evaluate the visibility of objects under different dose conditions. Based on our calculations, we determine optimum samplings for high and low electron dose imaging conditions. - Highlights: • The definition of dose-dependent atom contrast is introduced. • The dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and specimen resolution on electron dose and sampling is explored. • The optimum sampling can be determined according to different dose conditions

  3. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.

  4. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients

  5. A Dynamical System Exhibits High Signal-to-noise Ratio Gain by Stochastic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makra, Peter; Gingl, Zoltan

    2003-05-01

    On the basis of mixed-signal simulations, we demonstrate that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains much greater than unity can be obtained in the double-well potential through stochastic resonance (SR) with a symmetric periodic pulse train as deterministic and Gaussian white noise as random excitation. We also show that significant SNR improvement is possible in this system even for a sub-threshold sinusoid input if, instead of the commonly used narrow-band SNR, we apply an equally simple but much more realistic wide-band SNR definition. Using the latter result as an argument, we draw attention to the fact that the choice of the measure to reflect signal quality is critical with regard to the extent of signal improvement observed, and urge reconsideration of the practice prevalent in SR studies that most often the narrow-band SNR is used to characterise SR. Finally, we pose some questions concerning the possibilities of applying SNR improvement in practical set-ups.

  6. Free Energy Adjusted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (FEA-PSNR) for Image Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), the de facto universal image quality metric has been widely criticized as having poor correlation with human subjective quality ratings. In this paper, it will be illustrated that the low performance of PSNR as an image quality metric is partially due to its inability of differentiating image contents. And it is revealed that the deviation between subjective score and PSNR for each type of distortions can be systematically captured by perceptual complexity of the target image. The free energy modelling technique is then introduced to simulate the human cognitive process and measure perceptual complexity of an image. Then it is shown that performance of PSNR can be effectively improved using a linear score mapping process considering image free energy and distortion type. The proposed free energy adjusted peak signal to noise ratio (FEA-PSNR) does not change computational steps the of ordinary PSNR and therefore it inherits the merits of being simple, derivable and physically meaningful. So FEA-PSNR can be easily integrated into existing PSNR based image processing systems to achieve more visually plausible results. And the proposed analysis approach can be extended to other types of image quality metrics for enhanced performance.

  7. Spectral CT imaging in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome: investigation of image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Dong, Junqiang; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Jie; Lv, Peijie; Hu, Lili; Yan, Liangliang; Gao, Jianbo

    2014-11-01

    To assess the image quality of monochromatic imaging from spectral CT in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), fifty patients with BCS underwent spectral CT to generate conventional 140 kVp polychromatic images (group A) and monochromatic images, with energy levels from 40 to 80, 40 + 70, and 50 + 70 keV fusion images (group B) during the portal venous phase (PVP) and the hepatic venous phase (HVP). Two-sample t tests compared vessel-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the portal vein (PV), hepatic vein (HV), inferior vena cava. Readers' subjective evaluations of the image quality were recorded. The highest SNR values in group B were distributed at 50 keV; the highest CNR values in group B were distributed at 40 keV. The higher CNR values and SNR values were obtained though PVP of PV (SNR 18.39 ± 6.13 vs. 10.56 ± 3.31, CNR 7.81 ± 3.40 vs. 3.58 ± 1.31) and HVP of HV (3.89 ± 2.08 vs. 1.27 ± 1.55) in the group B; the lower image noise for group B was at 70 keV and 50 + 70 keV (15.54 ± 8.39 vs. 18.40 ± 4.97, P = 0.0004 and 18.97 ± 7.61 vs. 18.40 ± 4.97, P = 0.0691); the results show that the 50 + 70 keV fusion image quality was better than that in group A. Monochromatic energy levels of 40-70, 40 + 70, and 50 + 70 keV fusion image can increase vascular contrast and that will be helpful for the diagnosis of BCS, we select the 50 + 70 keV fusion image to acquire the best BCS images.

  8. GMTI Direction of Arrival Measurements from Multiple Phase Centers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar attempts to detect and locate targets with unknown motion. Very slow-moving targets are difficult to locate in the presence of surrounding clutter. This necessitates multiple antenna phase centers (or equivalent) to offer independent Direction of Arrival (DOA) measurements. DOA accuracy and precision generally remains dependent on target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Clutter-toNoise Ratio (CNR), scene topography, interfering signals, and a number of antenna parameters. This is true even for adaptive techniques like Space-Time-AdaptiveProcessing (STAP) algorithms.

  9. Benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors: evaluation of tumoral enhancement after mangafodipir trisodium injection on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, C.M.; Diche, T.; Mahfouz, A.E.; Alexandre, M.; Caseiro-Alves, F.; Rahmouni, A.; Vasile, N.; Mathieu, D.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ability of mangafodipir trisodium (Mn-DPDP)-enhanced MR imaging in differentiating malignant from benign hepatocellular tumors. Eleven patients with pathologically proved hepatocellular carcinomas, six with focal nodular hyperplasias, and one with a single hepatocellular adenoma were examined by spin-echo and gradient-echo T1-weighted sequences before, 1 h after, and 24 h after intravenous injection of Mn-DPDP (5 μmol/kg). Quantitative analysis including enhancement and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio, and qualitative analysis including the presence of a central area and a capsule were done on pre- and post-Mn-DPDP-enhanced images. Enhancement was observed in all the tumors with significant improvement (p < 0.05) in contrast-to-noise ratio 1 h after, and 24 h after intravenous injection of Mn-DPDP. There were no significant differences in the mean enhancement and the mean contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between benign and malignant tumors. No enhancement was seen within internal areas observed in 7 hepatocellular carcinomas, and in 5 focal nodular hyperplasias, and within capsules which were observed in 9 hepatocellular carcinomas. In our study, Mn-DPDP increased CNR of both benign and malignant tumors but did not enable differentiation between benign and malignant tumors of hepatocellular nature. (orig.)

  10. Objective and subjective image quality of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma on head and neck low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Kraft, Johannes; Noeske, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Boris; Burck, Iris; Kerl, J.M.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheerer, Friedrich [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-03-26

    To investigate low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography (CT) of head and neck primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding objective and subjective image quality. We retrospectively evaluated 65 patients (47 male, 18 female; mean age: 62.1 years) who underwent head and neck dual-energy CT (DECT) due to biopsy-proven primary (n = 50) or recurrent (n = 15) SCC. Eighty peak kilovoltage and standard blended 120-kVp images were compared. Attenuation and noise of malignancy and various soft tissue structures were measured. Tumor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective image quality was rated by three reviewers using 5-point grading scales regarding overall image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and image noise. Radiation dose was assessed as CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}). Interobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean tumor attenuation (153.8 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 97.1 HU), SNR (10.7 vs. 8.3), CNR (8.1 vs. 4.8), and subjective tumor delineation (score, 4.46 vs. 4.13) were significantly increased (all P < 0.001) with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard blended 120-kVp images. Noise of all measured structures was increased in 80-kVp acquisition (P < 0.001). Overall interobserver agreement was good (ICC, 0.86; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.82-0.89). CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 48.7 % with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard DECT (4.85 ± 0.51 vs. 9.94 ± 0.81 mGy cm, P < 0.001). Head and neck CT with low-tube-voltage 80-kVp acquisition provides increased tumor delineation, SNR, and CNR for CT imaging of primary and recurrent SCC compared to standard 120-kVp acquisition with an accompanying significant reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  11. Radiation dose and image quality of X-ray volume imaging systems: cone-beam computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography and digital fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jijo; Jacobi, Volkmar; Farhang, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Babak; Vogl, Thomas J; Mbalisike, Emmanuel C

    2013-06-01

    Radiation dose and image quality estimation of three X-ray volume imaging (XVI) systems. A total of 126 patients were examined using three XVI systems (groups 1-3) and their data were retrospectively analysed from 2007 to 2012. Each group consisted of 42 patients and each patient was examined using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and digital fluoroscopy (DF). Dose parameters such as dose-area product (DAP), skin entry dose (SED) and image quality parameters such as Hounsfield unit (HU), noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were estimated and compared using appropriate statistical tests. Mean DAP and SED were lower in recent XVI than its previous counterparts in CBCT, DSA and DF. HU of all measured locations was non-significant between the groups except the hepatic artery. Noise showed significant difference among groups (P < 0.05). Regarding CNR and SNR, the recent XVI showed a higher and significant difference compared to its previous versions. Qualitatively, CBCT showed significance between versions unlike the DSA and DF which showed non-significance. A reduction of radiation dose was obtained for the recent-generation XVI system in CBCT, DSA and DF. Image noise was significantly lower; SNR and CNR were higher than in previous versions. The technological advancements and the reduction in the number of frames led to a significant dose reduction and improved image quality with the recent-generation XVI system. • X-ray volume imaging (XVI) systems are increasingly used for interventional radiological procedures. • More modern XVI systems use lower radiation doses compared with earlier counterparts. • Furthermore more modern XVI systems provide higher image quality. • Technological advances reduce radiation dose and improve image quality.

  12. Techniques and software tools for estimating ultrasonic signal-to-noise ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; McKillip, Matthew; Engle, Brady J.; Roberts, Ronald A.

    2016-02-01

    At Iowa State University's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (ISU CNDE), the use of models to simulate ultrasonic inspections has played a key role in R&D efforts for over 30 years. To this end a series of wave propagation models, flaw response models, and microstructural backscatter models have been developed to address inspection problems of interest. One use of the combined models is the estimation of signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) in circumstances where backscatter from the microstructure (grain noise) acts to mask sonic echoes from internal defects. Such S/N models have been used in the past to address questions of inspection optimization and reliability. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Center at ISU, an effort was recently initiated to improve existing research-grade software by adding graphical user interface (GUI) to become user friendly tools for the rapid estimation of S/N for ultrasonic inspections of metals. The software combines: (1) a Python-based GUI for specifying an inspection scenario and displaying results; and (2) a Fortran-based engine for computing defect signal and backscattered grain noise characteristics. The latter makes use of several models including: the Multi-Gaussian Beam Model for computing sonic fields radiated by commercial transducers; the Thompson-Gray Model for the response from an internal defect; the Independent Scatterer Model for backscattered grain noise; and the Stanke-Kino Unified Model for attenuation. The initial emphasis was on reformulating the research-grade code into a suitable modular form, adding the graphical user interface and performing computations rapidly and robustly. Thus the initial inspection problem being addressed is relatively simple. A normal-incidence pulse/echo immersion inspection is simulated for a curved metal component having a non-uniform microstructure, specifically an equiaxed, untextured microstructure in which the average

  13. A quantitative study of ramped radio frequency, magnetization transfer, and slab thickness in three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography in a patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, K C; Blatter, D D; Parker, D L; Du, Y P; Meyer, K J; Bernstein, M A

    1996-06-01

    The authors compare the effectiveness of various magnetic resonance (MR) angiography acquisition strategies in enhancing the visibility of small intracranial vessels. Blood vessel contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in time-of-flight MR angiography was studied as a function of vessel size and several selectable imaging parameters. Contrast-to-noise measurements were made on 257 vessel segments ranging in size from 0.3 mm to 4.2 mm in patients who recently had undergone intraarterial cerebral angiography. Imaging parameters studied included magnetization transfer, spatially variable radio frequency (RF) pulse profile (ramped RF), and imaging slab thickness. The combination of thin slabs (16 slices/slab), ramped RF, and magnetization transfer resulted in the highest CNR for all but the smallest vessel sizes. The smallest vessels (slab (64 slices/slab) with ramped RF and magnetization transfer. Magnetization transfer always improved vessel CNR, but the improvement diminished as the slab thickness was reduced. The CNR increased with a decrease in slab thickness for all but the smallest vessel sizes. Overall, the results provide a quantitative demonstration that inflow enhancement of blood is reduced for small vessels. Thus, whereas magnetization transfer is important at all vessel sizes, it becomes the primary factor in improving the visibility of the smallest vessels.

  14. Effect of area x-ray beam equalization on image quality and dose in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jerry; Xu Tong; Husain, Adeel; Le, Huy; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2004-08-21

    In mammography, thick or dense breast regions persistently suffer from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) because of degraded contrast from large scatter intensities and relatively high noise. Area x-ray beam equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to under-penetrated regions without increasing the exposure to other breast regions. Optimal equalization parameters with respect to image quality and patient dose were determined through computer simulations and validated with experimental observations on a step phantom and an anthropomorphic breast phantom. Three parameters important in equalization digital mammography were considered: attenuator material (Z = 13-92), beam energy (22-34 kVp) and equalization level. A Mo/Mo digital mammography system was used for image acquisition. A prototype 16 x 16 piston driven equalization system was used for preparing patient-specific equalization masks. Simulation studies showed that a molybdenum attenuator and an equalization level of 20 were optimal for improving contrast, CNR and figure of merit (FOM = CNR{sup 2}/dose). Experimental measurements using these parameters showed significant improvements in contrast, CNR and FOM. Moreover, equalized images of a breast phantom showed improved image quality. These results indicate that area beam equalization can improve image quality in digital mammography.

  15. Optimisation of a propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast micro-CT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterets, Yakov I.; Gureyev, Timur E.; Dimmock, Matthew R.

    2018-03-01

    Micro-CT scanners find applications in many areas ranging from biomedical research to material sciences. In order to provide spatial resolution on a micron scale, these scanners are usually equipped with micro-focus, low-power x-ray sources and hence require long scanning times to produce high resolution 3D images of the object with acceptable contrast-to-noise. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PB-PCT) has the potential to significantly improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) or, alternatively, reduce the image acquisition time while preserving the CNR and the spatial resolution. We propose a general approach for the optimisation of the PB-PCT imaging system. When applied to an imaging system with fixed parameters of the source and detector this approach requires optimisation of only two independent geometrical parameters of the imaging system, i.e. the source-to-object distance R 1 and geometrical magnification M, in order to produce the best spatial resolution and CNR. If, in addition to R 1 and M, the system parameter space also includes the source size and the anode potential this approach allows one to find a unique configuration of the imaging system that produces the required spatial resolution and the best CNR.

  16. Noise-induced extinction for a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastically forced ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey population. In the deterministic case, we show that the model exhibits the stable interior equilibrium point or limit cycle corresponding to the co-existence of both species. We investigate a probabilistic mechanism of the noise-induced extinction in a zone of stable interior equilibrium point. Computational methods based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique are applied for the analysis of the dispersion of random states near stable interior equilibrium point. This method allows to construct a confidence domain and estimate the threshold value of the noise intensity for a transition from the coexistence to the extinction.

  17. MR imaging of articular cartilage : comparison of magnetization transfer contrast and fat-suppression in multiplanar and 3D gradient-echo, spin-echo, turbo spin-echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Joon; Joo, Eun Young; Eun, Choong Ki

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of magnetization transfer contrast(MTC) and fat-suppression(FS) in variable spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences for articular cartilage imaging and to determine the optimal pulse sequences. Using variable 7-pulse sequences, the knees of 15 pigs were imaged Axial images were obtained using proton density and T2-weighted spin-echo (PDWSE and T2WSE), turbo spin-echo (TSE), multiplanar gradient-echo (MPGR), and 3D steady-state gradient-echo (3DGRE) sequences, and the same pulse sequences were then repeated using MTC. Also T1-weighted spin-echo(T1WSE) and 3D spoiled gradient-echo(3DSPGR) images of knees were also acquired, and the procedure was repeated using FS. For each knee, a total of 14 axial images were acquired, and using a 6-band scoring system, the visibility of and the visibilities of the the articular cartilage was analyzed. The visual effect of MTC and FS was scored using a 4-band scale. For each image, the signal intensities of articular cartilage, subchondral bone, muscles, and saline were measured, and signal-to-noise ratios(SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios(CNR) were also calculated. Visibility of the cartilage was best when 3DSPGR and T1WSE sequences were used. MTC imaging increased the negative contrast between cartilage and saline, but FS imaging provided more positive contrast. CNR between cartilage and saline was highest when using TSE with FS(-351.1±15.3), though CNR between cartilage and bone then fell to -14.7±10.8. In MTC imaging using MPGR showed the greatest increase of negative contrast between cartilage and saline(CNR change=-74.7); the next highest was when 3DGRE was used(CNR change=-34.3). CNR between cartilage and bone was highest with MPGR(161.9±17.7), but with MTC, the greatest CNR decrease(-81.8) was observed. The greatest CNR increase between cartilage and bone was noted in T1WSE with FS. In all scans, FS provided a cartilage-only positive contrast image, though the absolute

  18. Speech perception at positive signal-to-noise ratios using adaptive adjustment of time compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Anne; Brand, Thomas; Lemke, Ulrike; Nitzschner, Stefan; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2015-11-01

    Positive signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) characterize listening situations most relevant for hearing-impaired listeners in daily life and should therefore be considered when evaluating hearing aid algorithms. For this, a speech-in-noise test was developed and evaluated, in which the background noise is presented at fixed positive SNRs and the speech rate (i.e., the time compression of the speech material) is adaptively adjusted. In total, 29 younger and 12 older normal-hearing, as well as 24 older hearing-impaired listeners took part in repeated measurements. Younger normal-hearing and older hearing-impaired listeners conducted one of two adaptive methods which differed in adaptive procedure and step size. Analysis of the measurements with regard to list length and estimation strategy for thresholds resulted in a practical method measuring the time compression for 50% recognition. This method uses time-compression adjustment and step sizes according to Versfeld and Dreschler [(2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 401-408], with sentence scoring, lists of 30 sentences, and a maximum likelihood method for threshold estimation. Evaluation of the procedure showed that older participants obtained higher test-retest reliability compared to younger participants. Depending on the group of listeners, one or two lists are required for training prior to data collection.

  19. The magnetization transfer effect in brain studies by 1.5 T magnetic resonance system. When the radiographer should apply it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M. Margarida; Farinha, Sara; Costa, Joana; Mauricio, J. Cruz; O' Neill, J. Goyri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Magnetization Transfer (MT) obtained by applying a pre-saturation pulse is, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a technique that allows for additional enhancement of lesions on conventional T1 images after contrast administration. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the technique measuring how MT could improve image quality and diagnostic values through the enhancement of lesions. Methods: Thirteen T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences, obtained by the 1.5 T system after contrast media injection, were analyzed with and without MT. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), as well as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) variables were compared in all sequences, according to the reference structures: lateral ventricles, white matter, gray matter, caudate nucleus and internal capsule. The MT ratio average was calculated using the ANOVA scale in order to assess the CNR and the magnetization transfer effect (MTE) for the different lesions and for both sequences (with and without MT). For the assessment of the flow artifact, clinical experts applied a Likert scale with 5 points. Results: For CNR values, the differences between conventional and MT-pulsed images were significant (Student t testp 0,05). Conclusion: In identical conditions of acquisition, the MT does not produce significant differences in the enhancement of lesions, however, it allows a greater capacity to detect the multiple sclerosis plaques, comparing structures around basal nucleus versus gray and white matter.

  20. Estimating achievable signal-to-noise ratios of MRI transmit-receive coils from radiofrequency power measurements: applications in quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The inverse relationship between the radiofrequency (RF) power needed to transmit a 90 deg. RF pulse, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) available from a transmit-receive RF coil is well known. The theory is restated and a formula given for the signal-to-noise ratio from water, achievable from a single-shot MRI experiment, in terms of the net forward RF power needed for a rectangular 90 deg. RF pulse of known shape and duration. The result is normalized to a signal bandwidth of 1 Hz and a sample mass of 1 g. The RF power information needed is available on most commercial scanners, as it is used to calculate specific absorption rates for RF tissue heating. The achievable SNR figure will normally be larger that that actually observed, mainly because of receiver noise, but also because of inaccuracies in setting RF pulse angles, and relaxation effects. Phantom experiments were performed on the transmit-receive RF head coil of a commercial MRI system at 0.95 T using a projection method. The measured SNR agreed with that expected from the formula for achievable SNR once a correction was made for the noise figure of the receiving chain. Comparisons of measured SNR figures with those calculated from RF power measurements are expected to be of value in acceptance testing and quality control. (author)

  1. Removing the Influence of Shimmer in the Calculation of Harmonics-To-Noise Ratios Using Ensemble-Averages in Voice Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ferrer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmonics-to-noise ratios (HNRs are affected by general aperiodicity in voiced speech signals. To specifically reflect a signal-to-additive-noise ratio, the measurement should be insensitive to other periodicity perturbations, like jitter, shimmer, and waveform variability. The ensemble averaging technique is a time-domain method which has been gradually refined in terms of its sensitivity to jitter and waveform variability and required number of pulses. In this paper, shimmer is introduced in the model of the ensemble average, and a formula is derived which allows the reduction of shimmer effects in HNR calculation. The validity of the technique is evaluated using synthetically shimmered signals, and the prerequisites (glottal pulse positions and amplitudes are obtained by means of fully automated methods. The results demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of the correction.

  2. Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.

  3. Chondroitin sulfate iron colloid as MR contrast agent in differentiation between hepatocellular carcinoma and adenomatous hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Kato, T. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Matsuo, T. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Kamba, M. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Shimatani, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Ohuchi, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Nakamura, K. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)); Ohta, Y. (Department of Radiology, Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Using a 1.5 T MR imaging unit, T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained before and after i.v. administration of chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) in order to differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma (n=20) from adenomatous hyperplasia without atypia (n=16). Differentiation was made from the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and visual evaluation of the nodule, with reference to signal intensity relative to that of the surrounding liver. The CNR of adenomatous hyperplasia was on T1-weighted images significantly decreased after CSIC administration (p<0.01). On T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference in CNR after CSIC administration. On the other hand, the CNR of hepatocellular carcinoma was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1- and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). CSIC reflects intratumor reticuloendothelial cellular functions, and is therefore useful in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from adenomatous hyperplasia without atypia. (orig.).

  4. Evaluating signal-to-noise ratios, loudness, and related measures as indicators of airborne sound insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-09-01

    Subjective ratings of the audibility, annoyance, and loudness of music and speech sounds transmitted through 20 different simulated walls were used to identify better single number ratings of airborne sound insulation. The first part of this research considered standard measures such as the sound transmission class the weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) and variations of these measures [H. K. Park and J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 208-219 (2009)]. This paper considers a number of other measures including signal-to-noise ratios related to the intelligibility of speech and measures related to the loudness of sounds. An exploration of the importance of the included frequencies showed that the optimum ranges of included frequencies were different for speech and music sounds. Measures related to speech intelligibility were useful indicators of responses to speech sounds but were not as successful for music sounds. A-weighted level differences, signal-to-noise ratios and an A-weighted sound transmission loss measure were good predictors of responses when the included frequencies were optimized for each type of sound. The addition of new spectrum adaptation terms to R(w) values were found to be the most practical approach for achieving more accurate predictions of subjective ratings of transmitted speech and music sounds.

  5. Frequency Selective Non-Linear Blending to Improve Image Quality in Liver CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, M N; Bier, G; Kloth, C; Schabel, C; Fritz, J; Nikolaou, K; Horger, M

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a new frequency selective non-linear blending (NLB) algorithm on the contrast resolution of liver CT with low intravascular concentration of iodine contrast. Materials and Methods: Our local ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The informed consent requirement was waived. CT exams of 25 patients (60 % female, mean age: 65 ± 16 years of age) with late phase CT scans of the liver were included as a model for poor intrahepatic vascular contrast enhancement. Optimal post-processing settings to enhance the contrast of hepatic vessels were determined. Outcome variables included signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of hepatic vessels and SNR of liver parenchyma of standard and post-processed images. Image quality was quantified by two independent readers using Likert scales. Results: The post-processing settings for the visualization of hepatic vasculature were optimal at a center of 115HU, delta of 25HU, and slope of 5. Image noise was statistically indifferent between standard and post-processed images. The CNR between the hepatic vasculature (HV) and liver parenchyma could be significantly increased for liver veins (CNR Standard 1.62 ± 1.10, CNR NLB 3.6 ± 2.94, p = 0.0002) and portal veins (CNR Standard 1.31 ± 0.85, CNR NLB 2.42 ± 3.03, p = 0.046). The SNR of liver parenchyma was significantly higher on post-processed images (SNR NLB 11.26 ± 3.16, SNR Standard 8.85 ± 2.27, p = 0.008). The overall image quality and depiction of HV were significantly higher on post-processed images (NLB DHV : 4 [3 - 4.75], S tandardDHV : 2 [1.3 - 2.5], p = algorithm increases the contrast resolution of liver CT and can improve the visibility of the hepatic vasculature in the setting of a low contrast ratio between vessels and the parenchyma. Key Points: • Using the new frequency selective non-linear blending algorithm is feasible in contrast

  6. Masking potency and whiteness of noise at various noise check sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, H; Rovamo, J; Näsänen, R

    1995-02-01

    The masking effect of spatial noise can be increased by increasing either the rms contrast or check size of noise. In this study, the authors investigated the largest noise check size that still mimics the effect of white noise in grating detection and how it depends on the bandwidth and spatial frequency of a grating. The authors measured contrast energy thresholds, E, for vertical cosine gratings at various spatial frequencies and bandwidths. Gratings were embedded in two-dimensional spatial noise. The side length of the square noise checks was varied in the experiments. The spectral density, N(0,0), of white spatial noise at zero frequency was calculated by multiplying the noise check area by the rms contrast of noise squared. The physical signal-to-noise ratio at threshold [E/N(0,0)]0.5 was initially constant but then started to decrease. The largest noise check that still produced a constant physical signal-to-noise ratio at threshold was directly proportional to the spatial frequency. When expressed as a fraction of grating cycle, the largest noise check size depended only on stimulus bandwidth. The smallest number of noise checks per grating cycle needed to mimic the effect of white noise decreased from 4.2 to 2.6 when the number of grating cycles increased from 1 to 64. Spatial noise can be regarded as white in grating detection if there are at least four square noise checks per grating cycle at all spatial frequencies.

  7. Comparison of a T1-weighted inversion-recovery-, gradient-echo- and spin-echo sequence for imaging of the brain at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, C.; Niederstadt, T.; Kraemer, S.; Kugel, H.; Schwindt, W.; Heindel, W.; Bachmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The increased T1 relaxation times at 3.0 Tesla lead to a reduced T1 contrast, requiring adaptation of imaging protocols for high magnetic fields. This prospective study assesses the performance of three techniques for T1-weighted imaging (T1w) at 3.0 T with regard to gray-white differentiation and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients were examined at a 3.0 T system with axial T1 w inversion recovery (IR), spin-echo (SE) and gradient echo (GE) sequences and after contrast enhancement (CE) with CE-SE and CE-GE sequences. For qualitative analysis, the images were ranked with regard to artifacts, gray-white differentiation, image noise and overall diagnostic quality. For quantitative analysis, the CNR was calculated, and cortex and basal ganglia were compared with the white matter. Results: In the qualitative analysis, IR was judged superior to SE and GE for gray-white differentiation, image noise and overall diagnostic quality, but inferior to the GE sequence with regard to artifacts. CE-GE proved superior to CE-SE in all categories. In the quantitative analysis, CNR of the based ganglia was highest for IR, followed by GE and SE. For the CNR of the cortex, no significant difference was found between IR (16.9) and GE (15.4) but both were superior to the SE (9.4). The CNR of the cortex was significantly higher for CE-GE compared to CE-SE (12.7 vs. 7.6, p<0.001), but the CNR of the basal ganglia was not significantly different. Conclusion: For unenhanced T1w imaging at 3.0 T, the IR technique is, despite increased artifacts, the method of choice due to its superior gray-white differentiation and best overall image quality. For CE-studies, GE sequences are recommended. For cerebral imaging, SE sequences give unsatisfactory results at 3.0 T. (orig.)

  8. Advanced image-based virtual monoenergetic dual-energy CT angiography of the abdomen: optimization of kiloelectron volt settings to improve image contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Moritz H.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Huesers, Kristina; Beeres, Martin; Bucher, Andreas M.; Kaup, Moritz; Martin, Simon S.; Fischer, Sebastian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L.

    2016-01-01

    To compare quantitative image quality parameters in abdominal dual-energy computed tomography angiography (DE-CTA) using an advanced image-based (Mono+) reconstruction algorithm for virtual monoenergetic imaging and standard DE-CTA. Fifty-five patients (36 men; mean age, 64.2 ± 12.7 years) who underwent abdominal DE-CTA were retrospectively included. Mono + images were reconstructed at 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 keV levels and as standard linearly blended M 0 .6 images (60 % 100 kV, 40 % 140 kV). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the common hepatic (CHA), splenic (SA), superior mesenteric (SMA) and left renal arteries (LRA) were objectively measured. Mono+ DE-CTA series showed a statistically superior CNR for 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 keV (P < 0.031) compared to M 0 .6 images for all investigated arteries except SMA at 80 keV (P = 0.08). CNR at 40 keV revealed a mean relative increase of 287.7 % compared to linearly blended images among all assessed arteries (P < 0.001). SNR of Mono+ images was consistently significantly higher at 40, 50, 60 and 70 keV compared to M 0 .6 for CHA and SA (P < 0.009). Compared to linearly blended images, Mono+ reconstructions at low keV levels of abdominal DE-CTA datasets significantly improve quantitative image quality. (orig.)

  9. Dose reduction according to the exposure condition in intervention procedure: Focus on the change of dose area and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jun Ho; Jung, Ku Min; Lee, Kyung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to suggest a method to reduce the dose by Analyzing the dose area product (DAP) and image quality according to the change of tube current using NEMA Phantom. The spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were used as evaluation criteria in addition to signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR), which are important image quality parameters of intervention. Tube voltage was fixed at 80 kVp and the amount of tube current was changed to 20, 30, 40, and 50 mAs, and the dose area product and image quality were compared and analyzed. As a result, the dose area product increased from 1066 mGycm2 to 6160 mGycm2 to 6 times as the condition increased, while the spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were higher than 20 mAs and 30 mAs, Spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were observed below the evaluation criteria. In addition, the SNR and CNR increased up to 30 mAs, slightly increased at 40 mAs, but not significantly different from the previous one, and decreased at 50 mAs. As a result, the exposure dose significantly increased due to overexposure of the test conditions and the image quality deteriorated in all areas of spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, SNR and CNR.

  10. Dedicated mobile volumetric cone-beam computed tomography for human brain imaging: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Chang-Won; Jun, Hong-Young; Heo, Dong-Woon; Lee, Jinseok; Kim, Kyong-Woo; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Mobile computed tomography (CT) with a cone-beam source is increasingly used in the clinical field. Mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) has great merits; however, its clinical utility for brain imaging has been limited due to problems including scan time and image quality. The aim of this study was to develop a dedicated mobile volumetric CBCT for obtaining brain images, and to optimize the imaging protocol using a brain phantom. The mobile volumetric CBCT system was evaluated with regards to scan time and image quality, measured as signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR), spatial resolution (10% MTF), and effective dose. Brain images were obtained using a CT phantom. The CT scan took 5.14 s at 360 projection views. SNR and CNR were 5.67 and 14.5 at 120 kV/10 mA. SNR and CNR values showed slight improvement as the x-ray voltage and current increased (p < 0.001). Effective dose and 10% MTF were 0.92 mSv and 360 μ m at 120 kV/10 mA. Various intracranial structures were clearly visible in the brain phantom images. Using this CBCT under optimal imaging acquisition conditions, it is possible to obtain human brain images with low radiation dose, reproducible image quality, and fast scan time.

  11. Antiscatter grids in mobile C-arm cone-beam CT: Effect on image quality and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, S.; Stayman, J.W.; Zbijewski, W.; Schmidgunst, C.; Kleinszig, G.; Siewerdsen, J.H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 (United States); Siemens Healthcare XP Division, Erlangen, Bavaria 91052 (Germany); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 (United States) and Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray scatter is a major detriment to image quality in cone-beam CT (CBCT). Existing geometries exhibit strong differences in scatter susceptibility with more compact geometries, e.g., dental or musculoskeletal, benefiting from antiscatter grids, whereas in more extended geometries, e.g., IGRT, grid use carries tradeoffs in image quality per unit dose. This work assesses the tradeoffs in dose and image quality for grids applied in the context of low-dose CBCT on a mobile C-arm for image-guided surgery. Methods: Studies were performed on a mobile C-arm equipped with a flat-panel detector for high-quality CBCT. Antiscatter grids of grid ratio (GR) 6:1-12:1, 40 lp/cm, were tested in ''body'' surgery, i.e., spine, using protocols for bone and soft-tissue visibility in the thoracic and abdominal spine. Studies focused on grid orientation, CT number accuracy, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in quantitative phantoms at constant dose. Results: There was no effect of grid orientation on possible gridline artifacts, given accurate angle-dependent gain calibration. Incorrect calibration was found to result in gridline shadows in the projection data that imparted high-frequency artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Increasing GR reduced errors in CT number from 31%, thorax, and 37%, abdomen, for gridless operation to 2% and 10%, respectively, with a 12:1 grid, while image noise increased by up to 70%. The CNR of high-contrast objects was largely unaffected by grids, but low-contrast soft-tissues suffered reduction in CNR, 2%-65%, across the investigated GR at constant dose. Conclusions: While grids improved CT number accuracy, soft-tissue CNR was reduced due to attenuation of primary radiation. CNR could be restored by increasing dose by factors of {approx}1.6-2.5 depending on GR, e.g., increase from 4.6 mGy for the thorax and 12.5 mGy for the abdomen without antiscatter grids to approximately 12 mGy and 30 mGy, respectively, with a high

  12. A complex symbol signal-to-noise ratio estimator and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for estimating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of signals that contain data on a downconverted suppressed carrier or the first harmonic of a square-wave subcarrier. This algorithm can be used to determine the performance of the full-spectrum combiner for the Galileo S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) mission by measuring the input and output symbol SNR. A performance analysis of the algorithm shows that the estimator can estimate the complex symbol SNR using 10,000 symbols at a true symbol SNR of -5 dB with a mean of -4.9985 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2454 dB, and these analytical results are checked by simulations of 100 runs with a mean of -5.06 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2506 dB.

  13. Radiation dose reduction in cardiovascular CT angiography with iterative reconstruction (AIDR 3D) in a swine model: a model of paediatric cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Pengfei; Hou, Yang; Liu, Qin; Ma, Yue; Guo, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the potential dose reduction in cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CTA) in a swine model using 320-detector volume CT with adaptive iterative dose reduction in three dimensions (AIDR 3D) reconstruction to maintain a comparable image quality (IQ) to that reconstructed by a conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. Methods and materials: Twenty-four mini-pigs underwent cardiovascular CTA four times at 80 KVp and different tube currents. An automatic exposure control (AEC) system was used and the noise index (NI) was predetermined at a standard deviation (SD) of 20 (Method A, routine dose), and 25, 30, 35 (Methods B–D) to reduce the dose gradually. Method A was reconstructed with FBP. Methods B–D were reconstructed using AIDR 3D (strong). Two radiologists graded IQ by reviewing both cardiac and vascular structures using a five-point scale. Quantitative IQ parameters of image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured and compared. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to select a radiation reduction threshold and maintain comparable IQ (score ≥4). Results: Method B and C had significantly lower image noise (p<0.0001), higher CNR and SNR than Method A (p<0.0001). Compared with Method A (noise: 52.7±8.3; SNR: 11.7±2.8; and CNR: 9.9±2.7), Method C had comparable subjective IQ and higher objective IQ (noise: 38.9±6.1; SNR: 16.3±3.5; and CNR: 13.5±3.3). The results of the ROC curve showed that Method C (SD30) was the optimal dose threshold to maintain a comparable subjective IQ (AUC: 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80–0.90). The effective dose (ED) of Method C was reduced by 49%, compared to that of Method A (0.33±0.08 mSv versus 0.65±0.15 mSv). Conclusion: AIDR 3D at a strong level combined with an AEC system can potentially reduce the ED by 49% and maintain an IQ comparable to that achieved using a routine-dose and FBP reconstruction

  14. Dual Energy Computed Tomography to Evaluate Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Transcatheter Arterial Chemo-Embolization: Comparison between the Linear Blending and Nonlinear Moidal Blending Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Hyeong Wook; Lee, Daun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Seon, Hyun Ju

    2012-01-01

    To compare the linear blending image with the nonlinear moidal blending image using dual energy CT for the evaluation of the viable portion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). One-hundred and twenty three HCC patients incompletely treated after TACE were enrolled in this study. The dual energy mode (80 kVp and Sn140 kVp) was only applied in the late arterial phase scanning. A paired t-test was used to compare the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the image noise between the two blending images. Lesion conspicuity, image sharpness, image noise and the overall image quality between the two blending images were compared using the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-ranks test. The lesion-to-liver CNR was significantly higher on the moidal blending image (5.6 ± 3.2) than on the linear blending image (2.7 ± 1.6) (p < 0.001). The image noise was significantly lower on the moidal blending image (10.9 ± 3.5) than on the linear blending image (17.5 ± 5.5) (p < 0.001). The lesion conspicuity and overall image quality were significantly better on the moidal blending image for both reviewers (p < 0.001). However, with respect to image sharpness, the linear blending image was significantly better for both reviewers (p < 0.01). The nonlinear moidal blending image of dual energy CT showed an increased lesion-to-liver CNR, decreased noise and improved overall image quality for the evaluation of the viable portion of HCC after TACE.

  15. Computed tomography imaging with the Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm: dependence of image quality on the blending level of reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Patrizio; Giannelli, Marco; Fantacci, Maria Evelina; Caramella, Davide

    2018-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a useful and widely employed imaging technique, which represents the largest source of population exposure to ionizing radiation in industrialized countries. Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) is an iterative reconstruction algorithm with the potential to allow reduction of radiation exposure while preserving diagnostic information. The aim of this phantom study was to assess the performance of ASIR, in terms of a number of image quality indices, when different reconstruction blending levels are employed. CT images of the Catphan-504 phantom were reconstructed using conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) and ASIR with reconstruction blending levels of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. Noise, noise power spectrum (NPS), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) were estimated for different scanning parameters and contrast objects. Noise decreased and CNR increased non-linearly up to 50 and 100%, respectively, with increasing blending level of reconstruction. Also, ASIR has proven to modify the NPS curve shape. The MTF of ASIR reconstructed images depended on tube load/contrast and decreased with increasing blending level of reconstruction. In particular, for low radiation exposure and low contrast acquisitions, ASIR showed lower performance than FBP, in terms of spatial resolution for all blending levels of reconstruction. CT image quality varies substantially with the blending level of reconstruction. ASIR has the potential to reduce noise whilst maintaining diagnostic information in low radiation exposure CT imaging. Given the opposite variation of CNR and spatial resolution with the blending level of reconstruction, it is recommended to use an optimal value of this parameter for each specific clinical application.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation studies for the determination of microcalcification thickness and glandular ratio through dual-energy mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Godeli, J.; Poletti, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    The majority of breast carcinomas can be associated to the presence of calcifications before the development of a mass. However, the overlapping tissues can obscure the visualization of microcalcification clusters due to the reduced contrast-noise ratio (CNR). In order to overcome this complication, one potential solution is the use of the dual-energy (DE) technique, in which two different images are acquired at low (LE) and high (HE) energies or kVp to highlight specific lesions or cancel out tissue background. In this work, the DE features were computationally studied considering simulated acquisitions from a modified PENELOPE Monte Carlo code. The employed irradiation geometry considered typical distances used in digital mammography, a CsI detection system and an updated breast model composed of skin, microcalcifications and glandular and adipose tissues. The breast thickness ranged from 2 to 6 cm with glandularities of 25%, 50% and 75%, where microcalcifications with dimensions from 100 up to 600 μm were positioned. In general, results pointed an efficiency index better than 87% for the microcalcification thicknesses and better than 95% for the glandular ratio. The simulations evaluated in this work can be used to optimize the elements from the DE imaging chain, in order to become a complementary tool for the conventional single-exposure images, especially for the visualization and estimation of calcification thicknesses and glandular ratios.

  17. Head CT: Image quality improvement with ASIR-V using a reduced radiation dose protocol for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Ho-Joon; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Myung-Joon

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the quality of images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V), using pediatric head CT protocols. A phantom was scanned at decreasing 20% mA intervals using our standard pediatric head CT protocols. Each study was then reconstructed at 10% ASIR-V intervals. After the phantom study, we reduced mA by 10% in the protocol for ASIR-V and by 30% in the protocol for 3- to 15-year-old patients and applied 40% ASIR-V. Increasing the percentage of ASIR-V resulted in lower noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preserved spatial resolution in the phantom study. Compared to a conventional-protocol, reduced-dose protocol with ASIR-V achieved 12.8% to 34.0% of dose reduction and showed images of lower noise (9.22 vs. 10.73, P = 0.043) and higher CNR in different levels (centrum semiovale, 2.14 vs. 1.52, P = 0.003; basal ganglia, 1.46 vs. 1.07, P = 0.001; and cerebellum, 2.18 vs. 1.33, P ASIR-V. Use of ASIR-V allowed a 12.8% to 34.0% dose reduction in each age group with potential to improve image quality. • It is possible to reduce radiation dose and improve image quality with ASIR-V. • We improved noise and CNR and decreased radiation dose. • Sharpness improved with ASIR-V. • Total radiation dose was decreased by 12.8% to 34.0%.

  18. Real-time photonic sampling with improved signal-to-noise and distortion ratio using polarization-dependent modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong; Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Wei; Tan, Qinggui

    2018-04-01

    A real-time photonic sampling structure with effective nonlinearity suppression and excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is proposed. The key points of this scheme are the polarization-dependent modulators (P-DMZMs) and the sagnac loop structure. Thanks to the polarization sensitive characteristic of P-DMZMs, the differences between transfer functions of the fundamental signal and the distortion become visible. Meanwhile, the selection of specific biases in P-DMZMs is helpful to achieve a preferable linearized performance with a low noise level for real-time photonic sampling. Compared with the quadrature-biased scheme, the proposed scheme is capable of valid nonlinearity suppression and is able to provide a better SNR performance even in a large frequency range. The proposed scheme is proved to be effective and easily implemented for real time photonic applications.

  19. Effects of dual-energy CT with non-linear blending on abdominal CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sulan; Wang, Chaoqin; Jiang, Xiao Chen; Xu, Ge

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether non-linear blending technique for arterial-phase dual-energy abdominal CT angiography (CTA) could improve image quality compared to the linear blending technique and conventional 120 kVp imaging. This study included 118 patients who had accepted dual-energy abdominal CTA in the arterial phase. They were assigned to Sn140/80 kVp protocol (protocol A, n = 40) if body mass index (BMI) < 25 or Sn140/100 kVp protocol (protocol B, n = 41) if BMI ≥ 25. Non-linear blending images and linear blending images with a weighting factor of 0.5 in each protocol were generated and compared with the conventional 120 kVp images (protocol C, n = 37). The abdominal vascular enhancements, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean vascular attenuation, CNR, SNR and subjective image quality score for the non-linear blending images in each protocol were all higher compared to the corresponding linear blending images and 120 kVp images (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.007) except for when compared to non-linear blending images for protocol B and 120 kVp images in CNR and SNR. No significant differences were found in image noise among the three kinds of images and the same kind of images in different protocols, but the lowest radiation dose was shown in protocol A. Non-linear blending technique of dual-energy CT can improve the image quality of arterial-phase abdominal CTA, especially with the Sn140/80 kVp scanning.

  20. Effects of dual-energy CT with non-linear blending on abdominal CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sulan; Wang, Chaoqin; Jiang, Xiao Chen; Xu, Ge [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    To determine whether non-linear blending technique for arterial-phase dual-energy abdominal CT angiography (CTA) could improve image quality compared to the linear blending technique and conventional 120 kVp imaging. This study included 118 patients who had accepted dual-energy abdominal CTA in the arterial phase. They were assigned to Sn140/80 kVp protocol (protocol A, n = 40) if body mass index (BMI) < 25 or Sn140/100 kVp protocol (protocol B, n = 41) if BMI ≥ 25. Non-linear blending images and linear blending images with a weighting factor of 0.5 in each protocol were generated and compared with the conventional 120 kVp images (protocol C, n = 37). The abdominal vascular enhancements, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean vascular attenuation, CNR, SNR and subjective image quality score for the non-linear blending images in each protocol were all higher compared to the corresponding linear blending images and 120 kVp images (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.007) except for when compared to non-linear blending images for protocol B and 120 kVp images in CNR and SNR. No significant differences were found in image noise among the three kinds of images and the same kind of images in different protocols, but the lowest radiation dose was shown in protocol A. Non-linear blending technique of dual-energy CT can improve the image quality of arterial-phase abdominal CTA, especially with the Sn140/80 kVp scanning.

  1. The study of selective water excitation in the MR imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Fei; Zhang Xuezhe

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of selective water excitation technique for the assessment of articular cartilage. Methods: MR sagittal scanning of knee joints was performed in the fifteen healthy volunteers. MR scan sequences were 3D-FFE-SPIR and 3D-FFE-WATS. The signal noise ratio (SNR) of the cartilage, the contrast noise ratio (CNR) between cartilage and adjacent tissue and their efficiency were calculated and analyzed statistically. Tweenty-nine patients who were suspected having cartilage injury were performed MR examination and the image characteristics and the detecting ability of each sequence on cartilage lesions were analyzed. Results: In the healthy volunteers, the cartilage SNR was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 197.93±18.58, 3D-FFE-WATS: 187.32±21.50 (P=0.159). CNR (cartilage/bone) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 185.50±18.34, 3D-FFE-WATS: 169.55±24.57 (P=0.054). CNR ( cartilage/muscle ) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 61.40±19.04, 3D-FFE-WATS: 47.27±21.05 (P=0.064). The cartilage SNR and CNR between cartilage and bone, muscle of 3D-FFE-SPIR weren't significantly higher than that of 3D-FFE- WATS. CNR(cartilage/liquid) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 91.53±14.46, 3D-FFE-WATS: 149.28±32.30 (P0.000). CNR (cartilage/marrow) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 159.26±18.83, 3D-FFE-WATS: 176.87± 22.50 (P=0.028). CNR (cartilage/fat) was 3 D-FFE-SPIR: 134.56±15.80,3 D-FFE-WATS: 154. 01 + 22.42 (P=0.010). The CNR between cartilage and liquid, marrow, fat were higher in 3 D-FFE-WATS and significantly different than that of 3 D-FFE-SPIR. Thirty detected cartilage injuries of patients were 3D-FFE- WATS: 39, 3D-FFE-SPIR: 45 and there was no statistical difference between them (P=0.37). Conclusion: 3D-FFE-WATS can show the articular cartilage clearly. It has high scan speed and suppress the fat signal evenly. Its ability for finding cartilage damage is equal to that of 3D-FFE-SPIR. So WATS can be used in the routine clinical cartilage examination. (authors)

  2. A noise-optimized virtual monochromatic reconstruction algorithm improves stent visualization and diagnostic accuracy for detection of in-stent re-stenosis in lower extremity run-off CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Yamada, Ricardo T.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Stubenrauch, Andrew C.; Fuller, Stephen R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Rome (Italy); Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Todoran, Thomas M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of noise-optimized virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI+) on stent visualization and accuracy for in-stent re-stenosis at lower extremity dual-energy CT angiography (DE-CTA). We evaluated third-generation dual-source DE-CTA studies in 31 patients with prior stent placement. Images were reconstructed with linear blending (F{sub 0}.5) and VMI+ at 40-150 keV. In-stent luminal diameter was measured and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculated. Diagnostic confidence was determined using a five-point scale. In 21 patients with invasive catheter angiography, accuracy for significant re-stenosis (≥50 %) was assessed at F{sub 0}.5 and 80 keV-VMI+ chosen as the optimal energy level based on image-quality analysis. At CTA, 45 stents were present. DSA was available for 28 stents whereas 12 stents showed significant re-stenosis. CNR was significantly higher with ≤80 keV-VMI+ (17.9 ± 6.4-33.7 ± 12.3) compared to F{sub 0}.5 (16.9 ± 4.8; all p < 0.0463); luminal stent diameters were increased at ≥70 keV (5.41 ± 1.8-5.92 ± 1.7 vs. 5.27 ± 1.8, all p < 0.001) and diagnostic confidence was highest at 70-80 keV-VMI+ (4.90 ± 0.48-4.88 ± 0.63 vs. 4.60 ± 0.66, p = 0.001, 0.0042). Sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy for re-stenosis were higher with 80 keV-VMI+ (100, 100, 96.4 %) than F{sub 0}.5 (90.9, 94.1, 89.3 %). 80 keV-VMI+ improves image quality, diagnostic confidence and accuracy for stent evaluation at lower extremity DE-CTA. (orig.)

  3. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  4. Image quality improvements using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for evaluating chronic myocardial infarction using iodine density images with spectral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junichi; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Kitao, Shinichiro; Watanabe, Tomomi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2018-04-01

    Single-source dual-energy CT (ssDECT) allows the reconstruction of iodine density images (IDIs) from projection based computing. We hypothesized that adding adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) could improve image quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect and determine the optimal blend percentages of ASiR for IDI of myocardial late iodine enhancement (LIE) in the evaluation of chronic myocardial infarction using ssDECT. A total of 28 patients underwent cardiac LIE using a ssDECT scanner. IDIs between 0 and 100% of ASiR contributions in 10% increments were reconstructed. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of remote myocardia and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of infarcted myocardia were measured. Transmural extent of infarction was graded using a 5-point scale. The SNR, CNR, and transmural extent were assessed for each ASiR contribution ratio. The transmural extents were compared with MRI as a reference standard. Compared to 0% ASiR, the use of 20-100% ASiR resulted in a reduction of image noise (p ASiR images, reconstruction with 100% ASiR image showed the highest improvement in SNR (229%; p ASiR above 80% showed the highest ratio (73.7%) of accurate transmural extent classification. In conclusion, ASiR intensity of 80-100% in IDIs can improve image quality without changes in signal and maximizes the accuracy of transmural extent in infarcted myocardium.

  5. A Ratiometric Method for Johnson Noise Thermometry Using a Quantized Voltage Noise Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, S. W.; Benz, S. P.; Martinis, J. M.; Dresselhaus, P.; Tew, W. L.; White, D. R.

    2003-09-01

    Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) involves the measurement of the statistical variance of a fluctuating voltage across a resistor in thermal equilibrium. Modern digital techniques make it now possible to perform many functions required for JNT in highly efficient and predictable ways. We describe the operational characteristics of a prototype JNT system which uses digital signal processing for filtering, real-time spectral cross-correlation for noise power measurement, and a digitally synthesized Quantized Voltage Noise Source (QVNS) as an AC voltage reference. The QVNS emulates noise with a constant spectral density that is stable, programmable, and calculable in terms of known parameters using digital synthesis techniques. Changes in analog gain are accounted for by alternating the inputs between the Johnson noise sensor and the QVNS. The Johnson noise power at a known temperature is first balanced with a synthesized noise power from the QVNS. The process is then repeated by balancing the noise power from the same resistor at an unknown temperature. When the two noise power ratios are combined, a thermodynamic temperature is derived using the ratio of the two QVNS spectral densities. We present preliminary results where the ratio between the gallium triple point and the water triple point is used to demonstrate the accuracy of the measurement system with a standard uncertainty of 0.04 %.

  6. Noise Considerations in Resistance Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1963-01-01

    A signal-to-noise analysis is made of the Wheatstone bridge, where the unknown and standard resistors may be at different temperatures, a situation which occurs in resistance thermometry. The limiting condition is assumed to be dissipation in the unknown resistor. It is shown that the ratio arms...... thermometry, where the noise in the unknown resistor will predominate strongly. An impedance step-up device (transformer or tuned circuit) is valuable in raising the bridge signal and noise level above the noise of the first amplifier tube. However, as the step-up ratio is increased, two counterfactors appear....... With certain assumptions about the noise and grid current of the first tube it is found that the equivalent temperature of a unity ratio (Mueller) bridge used for liquid helium measurements may be 400°K....

  7. T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted fast spin-echo contrast-enhanced imaging: a comparison in 20 patients with brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saeed, O.; Athyal, R. P.; Ismail, M.; Rudwan, M.; Khafajee, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tl-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence is a relatively new pulse sequence for intracranial MR imaging. This study was performed to compare the image quality of Tl-weighted FLAIR with the Tl-weighted FSE sequence. Twenty patients with brain lesions underwent Tl-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) and Tl-weighted FLAIR during the same imaging session. Four quantitative and three qualitative criteria were used to compare the two sequences after contrast. Two of four quantitative criteria pertained to lesion characteristics: lesion to white matter (WM) contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and lesion to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CNR, and two related to signals from normal tissue: grey matter to WM CNR and WM to CSF CNR. The three qualitative criteria were conspicuousness of the lesion, the presence of image artefacts and the overall image contrast. Both Tl-weighted FSE and FLAIR images were effective in demonstrating lesions. Image contrast was superior in Tl-weighted FLAIR images with significantly improved grey matter-WM CNRs and CSF-WM CNRs. The overall image contrast was judged to be superior on Tl-weighted FLAIR images compared with Tl-weighted FSE images by all neuroradiologists. Two of three reviewers considered that the FLAIR images had slightly increased imaging artefacts that, however, did not interfere with image interpretation. Tl-weighted FLAIR imaging provides improved lesion-to-background and grey to WM contrast-to-noise ratios. Superior conspicuity of lesions and overall image contrast is obtained in comparable acquisition times. These indicate an important role for Tl-weighted FLAIR in intracranial imaging and highlight its advantage over the more widely practiced Tl-weighted FSE sequence

  8. IDEAL 3D spoiled gradient echo of the articular cartilage of the knee on 3.0 T MRI: a comparison with conventional 3.0 T fast spin-echo T2 fat saturation image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chul Hee; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Chung, Eun Chul; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Yun, Ji Sup; Rho, Myung Ho

    2015-12-01

    Many two-dimensional (2D) morphologic cartilage imaging sequences have disadvantages such as long acquisition time, inadequate spatial resolution, suboptimal tissue contrast, and image degradation secondary to artifacts. IDEAL imaging can overcome these disadvantages. To compare sound-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and quality of two different methods of imaging that include IDEAL 3D SPGR and 3.0-T FSE T2 fat saturation (FS) imaging and to evaluate the utility of IDEAL 3D SPGR for knee joint imaging. SNR and CNR of the patellar and femoral cartilages were measured and calculated. Two radiologists performed subjective scoring of all images for three measures: general image quality, FS, and cartilage evaluation. SNR and CNR values were compared by paired Student's t-tests. Mean SNRs of patellar and femoral cartilages were 90% and 66% higher, respectively, for IDEAL 3D SPGR. CNRs of patellar cartilages and joint fluids were 2.4 times higher for FSE T2 FS, and CNR between the femoral cartilage and joint fluid was 2.2 times higher for FSE T2 FS. General image quality and FS were superior using FSE T2 FS compared to those of IDEAL 3D SPGR imaging according to both readers, while cartilage evaluation was superior using IDEAL 3D SPGR. Additionally, cartilage injuries were more prominent in IDEAL 3D SPGR than in FSE T2FS according to both readers. IDEAL 3D SPGR images show excellent visualization of patellar and femoral cartilages in 3.0 T and can compensate for the weaknesses of FSE T2 FS in the evaluation of cartilage injuries. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  9. Performance evaluation of a digital mammography unit using a contrast-detail phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde-Cabrera, J.; Brandan, M.-E.

    2015-01-01

    The relation between image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) has been studied for a Senographe 2000D mammographic unit used for research in our laboratory. The magnitudes were evaluated for a clinically relevant range of acrylic thicknesses and radiological techniques. The CDMAM phantom was used to determine the contrast-detail curve. Also, an alternative method based on the analysis of signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios from the CDMAM image was proposed and applied. A simple numerical model was utilized to successfully interpret the results. Optimum radiological techniques were determined using the figures-of-merit FOMSNR=SNR2/MGD and FOMCNR=CNR2/MGD. Main results were: the evaluation of the detector response flattening process (it reduces by about one half the spatial non-homogeneities due to the X- ray field), MGD measurements (the values comply with standards), and verification of the automatic exposure control performance (it is sensitive to fluence attenuation, not to contrast). For 4-5 cm phantom thicknesses, the optimum radiological techniques were Rh/Rh 34 kV to optimize SNR, and Rh/Rh 28 kV to optimize CNR.

  10. Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Juliette; Boas, David A; Chan, Suk-Tak; Evans, Karleyton C; Buckley, Erin M; Carp, Stefan A

    2014-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) are two diffuse optical technologies for brain imaging that are sensitive to changes in hemoglobin concentrations and blood flow, respectively. Measurements for both modalities are acquired on the scalp, and therefore hemodynamic processes in the extracerebral vasculature confound the interpretation of cortical hemodynamic signals. The sensitivity of NIRS to the brain versus the extracerebral tissue and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of NIRS to cerebral hemodynamic responses have been well characterized, but the same has not been evaluated for DCS. This is important to assess in order to understand their relative capabilities in measuring cerebral physiological changes. We present Monte Carlo simulations on a head model that demonstrate that the relative brain-to-scalp sensitivity is about three times higher for DCS (0.3 at 3 cm) than for NIRS (0.1 at 3 cm). However, because DCS has higher levels of noise due to photon-counting detection, the CNR is similar for both modalities in response to a physiologically realistic simulation of brain activation. Even so, we also observed higher CNR of the hemodynamic response during graded hypercapnia in adult subjects with DCS than with NIRS.

  11. Computed tomography perfusion imaging denoising using Gaussian process regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fan; Gonzalez, David Rodriguez; Atkinson, Malcolm; Carpenter, Trevor; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Brain perfusion weighted images acquired using dynamic contrast studies have an important clinical role in acute stroke diagnosis and treatment decisions. However, computed tomography (CT) images suffer from low contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) as a consequence of the limitation of the exposure to radiation of the patient. As a consequence, the developments of methods for improving the CNR are valuable. The majority of existing approaches for denoising CT images are optimized for 3D (spatial) information, including spatial decimation (spatially weighted mean filters) and techniques based on wavelet and curvelet transforms. However, perfusion imaging data is 4D as it also contains temporal information. Our approach using Gaussian process regression (GPR), which takes advantage of the temporal information, to reduce the noise level. Over the entire image, GPR gains a 99% CNR improvement over the raw images and also improves the quality of haemodynamic maps allowing a better identification of edges and detailed information. At the level of individual voxel, GPR provides a stable baseline, helps us to identify key parameters from tissue time-concentration curves and reduces the oscillations in the curve. GPR is superior to the comparable techniques used in this study. (note)

  12. Material Discrimination Based on K-edge Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral/multienergy CT employing the state-of-the-art energy-discriminative photon-counting detector can identify absorption features in the multiple ranges of photon energies and has the potential to distinguish different materials based on K-edge characteristics. K-edge characteristics involve the sudden attenuation increase in the attenuation profile of a relatively high atomic number material. Hence, spectral CT can utilize material K-edge characteristics (sudden attenuation increase to capture images in available energy bins (levels/windows to distinguish different material components. In this paper, we propose an imaging model based on K-edge characteristics for maximum material discrimination with spectral CT. The wider the energy bin width is, the lower the noise level is, but the poorer the reconstructed image contrast is. Here, we introduce the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR criterion to optimize the energy bin width after the K-edge jump for the maximum CNR. In the simulation, we analyze the reconstructed image quality in different energy bins and demonstrate that our proposed optimization approach can maximize CNR between target region and background region in reconstructed image.

  13. Differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions using fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiishi, Takeshi; Isomoto, Ichirou; Nakamura, Kazukuni; Kajiwara, Yoshifumi; Izawa, Kunihide

    1998-01-01

    To assess the value and problems of fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. In twenty-nine patients who underwent excisional biopsy or surgical resection, fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging was performed with a 0.5 T superconducting magnet. Pre- and post-contrast 3D-spoiled gradient echo sequences were employed with fat suppression. We calculated and evaluated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and contrast enhancement ratio (CER) at each contrast determination time (CDT), which is the intermediate time in the scan. Time intensity curves of CNR showed no statistically significant difference between cancers and other benign lesions. The difference in CER between malignant and benign disease was highly significant (p=0.006) at CDT 45 sec., but there was great overlap in the time intensity curve of CER after CDT 45 sec. When we attempt to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions by dynamic MR imaging, comparison of CNR is impertinent, and we should evaluate the differential diagnosis of cancer versus benign lesions by means of CER at CDT points of about 45 sec. (author)

  14. Impact of model-based iterative reconstruction on low-contrast lesion detection and image quality in abdominal CT: a 12-reader-based comparative phantom study with filtered back projection at different tube voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, Andre; Stieltjes, Bram; Eichenberger, Reto; Reisinger, Clemens; Hirschmann, Anna; Zaehringer, Caroline; Kircher, Achim; Streif, Matthias; Bucher, Sabine; Buergler, David; D' Errico, Luigia; Kopp, Sebastien; Wilhelm, Markus [University Hospital Basel, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt [Hospital Centre of Biel, Institute of Radiology, Biel (Switzerland); Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital Basel, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Institute of Radiology, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) on image quality and low-contrast lesion detection compared with filtered back projection (FBP) in abdominal computed tomography (CT) of simulated medium and large patients at different tube voltages. A phantom with 45 hypoattenuating lesions was placed in two water containers and scanned at 70, 80, 100, and 120 kVp. The 120-kVp protocol served as reference, and the volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) was kept constant for all protocols. The datasets were reconstructed with MBIR and FBP. Image noise and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) were assessed. Low-contrast lesion detectability was evaluated by 12 radiologists. MBIR decreased the image noise by 24% and 27%, and increased the CNR by 30% and 29% for the medium and large phantoms, respectively. Lower tube voltages increased the CNR by 58%, 46%, and 16% at 70, 80, and 100 kVp, respectively, compared with 120 kVp in the medium phantom and by 9%, 18% and 12% in the large phantom. No significant difference in lesion detection rate was observed (medium: 79-82%; large: 57-65%; P > 0.37). Although MBIR improved quantitative image quality compared with FBP, it did not result in increased low-contrast lesion detection in abdominal CT at different tube voltages in simulated medium and large patients. (orig.)

  15. Muon Signals at a Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Zakareishvili, Tamar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Calorimeters provide high-resolution energy measurements for particle detection. Muon signals are important for evaluating electronics performance, since they produce a signal that is close to electronic noise values. This work provides a noise RMS analysis for the Demonstrator drawer of the 2016 Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Test Beam in order to help reconstruct events in a low signal-to-noise environment. Muon signals were then found for a beam penetrating through all three layers of the drawer. The Demonstrator drawer is an electronic candidate for TileCal, part of the ATLAS experiment for the Large Hadron Collider that operates at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

  16. Polymorphism rs3123554 in the cannabinoid receptor gene type 2 (CNR2) reveals effects on body weight and insulin resistance in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Aller, Rocio

    2017-10-01

    Few studies assessing the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CNR2 and obesity or its related metabolic parameters are available. To investigate the influence of polymorphism rs3123554 in the CNR2 receptor gene on obesity anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance, and adipokines in subjects with obesity. The study population consisted of 1027 obese subjects, who were performed bioelectrical impedance analyses, blood pressure measurements, serial assessments of dietary intake during three days, and biochemical tests. Genotypes GG, GA, and AA were found in 339 (33.0%), 467 (45.5%), and 221 (21.5%) respectively. Body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride and leptin levels were higher in A-allele carriers as compared to non A-allele carriers. No differences were seen in these parameters between the GA and AA genotypes. There were no statistical differences in dietary intake. The main study finding was the association of the minor allele of the SNP rs3123554 in the CNR2 gene with body weight and triglyceride, HOMA-IR, insulin, and leptin levels. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Low concentration of a Gd-chelate increases the signal-to-noise ratio in fast pulsing BEST experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Bellot, Gaëtan; Wang, Jing; Déméné, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    Despite numerous developments in the past few years that aim to increase the sensitivity of NMR multidimensional experiments, NMR spectroscopy still suffers from intrinsic low sensitivity. In this report, we show that the combination of two developments in the field, the Band-selective Excitation Short-Transient (BEST) experiment [Schanda et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 128 (2006) 9042] and the addition of the nonionic paramagnetic gadolinium chelate gadodiamide into NMR samples, enhances the signal-to-noise ratio. This effect is shown here for four different proteins, three globular and one unfolded, of molecular weights ranging from 6.5 kDa to 40 kDa, using 2D BEST HSQC and 3D BEST triple resonance sequences. Moreover, we show that the increase in signal-to-noise ratio provided by the gadodiamide is higher for peak resonances with lower than average intensity in BEST experiments. It is interesting to note that these residues are on average the weakest ones in those experiments. In this case, the gadodiamide-mediated increase can reach a value of 60% for low and 30% for high molecular weight proteins respectively. An investigation into the origin of this “paramagnetic gain” in BEST experiments is presented.

  18. Macromolecular 3D SEM reconstruction strategies: Signal to noise ratio and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.D.; Wepf, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy generates quantitative volumetric structural data from SEM images of macromolecules. This technique provides a quick and easy way to define the quaternary structure and handedness of protein complexes. Here, we apply a variety of preparation and imaging methods to filamentous actin in order to explore the relationship between resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, structural preservation and dataset size. This information can be used to define successful imaging strategies for different applications. - Highlights: • F-actin SEM datasets were collected using 8 different preparation/ imaging techniques. • Datasets were reconstructed by back projection and compared/analyzed • 3DSEM actin reconstructions can be produced with <100 views of the asymmetric unit. • Negatively stained macromolecules can be reconstructed by 3DSEM to ∼3 nm resolution

  19. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. Materials and methods: The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Results: Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40–77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas – tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 ke

  20. Feasibility of similarity coefficient map for improving morphological evaluation of T2* weighted MRI for renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao-Yu; Bao Shang-Lian; Jiani Hu; Meng Li; Haacke, E. M.; Xie Yao-Qin; Chen Jie; Amy Yu; Wei Xin-Hua; Dai Yong-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using a similarity coefficient map (SCM) in improving the morphological evaluation of T 2 * weighted (T 2 *W) magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) for renal cancer. Simulation studies and in vivo 12-echo T 2 *W experiments for renal cancers were performed for this purpose. The results of the first simulation study suggest that an SCM can reveal small structures which are hard to distinguish from the background tissue in T 2 *W images and the corresponding T 2 * map. The capability of improving the morphological evaluation is likely due to the improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) by using the SCM technique. Compared with T 2 *W images, an SCM can improve the SNR by a factor ranging from 1.87 to 2.47. Compared with T 2 * maps, an SCM can improve the SNR by a factor ranging from 3.85 to 33.31. Compared with T 2 *W images, an SCM can improve the CNR by a factor ranging from 2.09 to 2.43. Compared with T 2 * maps, an SCM can improve the CNR by a factor ranging from 1.94 to 8.14. For a given noise level, the improvements of the SNR and the CNR depend mainly on the original SNRs and CNRs in T 2 *W images, respectively. In vivo experiments confirmed the results of the first simulation study. The results of the second simulation study suggest that more echoes are used to generate the SCM, and higher SNRs and CNRs can be achieved in SCMs. In conclusion, an SCM can provide improved morphological evaluation of T 2 *W MR images for renal cancer by unveiling fine structures which are ambiguous or invisible in the corresponding T 2 *W MR images and T 2 * maps. Furthermore, in practical applications, for a fixed total sampling time, one should increase the number of echoes as much as possible to achieve SCMs with better SNRs and CNRs

  1. Combining of Direct Search and Signal-to-Noise Ratio for economic dispatch optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Gow, Hong-Jey; Tsai, Ming-Tang

    2011-01-01

    This paper integrated the ideas of Direct Search and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) to develop a Novel Direct Search (NDS) method for solving the non-convex economic dispatch problems. NDS consists of three stages: Direct Search (DS), Global SNR (GSNR) and Marginal Compensation (MC) stages. DS provides a basic solution. GSNR searches the point with optimization strategy. MC fulfills the power balance requirement. With NDS, the infinite solution space becomes finite. Furthermore, a same optimum solution can be repeatedly reached. Effectiveness of NDS is demonstrated with three examples and the solutions were compared with previously published results. Test results show that the proposed method is simple, robust, and more effective than many other previously developed algorithms.

  2. Noise analysis of a digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, B.A.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The sources of noise in a digital video subtraction angiography system were identified and analyzed. Signal-to-noise ratios of digital radiography systems were measured using the digital image data recorded in the computer. The major sources of noise include quantum noise, TV camera electronic noise, quantization noise from the analog-to-digital converter, time jitter, structure noise in the image intensifier, and video recorder electronic noise. A new noise source was identified, which results from the interplay of fixed pattern noise and the lack of image registration. This type of noise may result from image-intensifier structure noise in combination with TV camera time jitter or recorder time jitter. A similar noise source is generated from the interplay of patient absorption inhomogeneities and patient motion or image re-registration. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured for a variety of experimental conditions using subtracted digital images. Image-intensifier structure noise was shown to be a dominant noise source in unsubtracted images at medium to high radiation exposure levels. A total-system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 750:1 was measured for an input exposure of 1 mR/frame at the image intensifier input. The effect of scattered radiation on subtracted image SNR was found to be greater than previously reported. The detail SNR was found to vary approximately as one plus the scatter degradation factor. Quantization error noise with 8-bit image processors (signal-to-noise ratio of 890:1) was shown to be of increased importance after recent improvements in TV cameras. The results of the analysis are useful both in the design of future digital radiography systems and the selection of optimum clinical techniques

  3. 3T MR Spin Echo T1 Weighted Image at Optimization of Flip Angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chung Hwang; Bae, Sung Jin

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of flip angle (FA) to obtain higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and lower specific absorption rate (SAR). T1-weighted images of the cerebrum of brain were obtained from 50 degrees to 130 degrees FA with 10 interval. Signal to noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated for white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and background noise. The proper FA was analyzed by T-test statistics and Kruskal-wallis analysis using R1 = 1- exp (-TR/T1) and Ernst angle cos = exp ((-TR/T1). The SNR of WM at 130 degrees FA is approximately 1.6 times higher than the SNR of WM at 50 degrees. The SNR of GM at 130 degrees FA is approximately 1.9 times higher than the SNR of GM at 50 degrees. Although the SNRs of WM and GM showed similar trends with the change of FA values, the slowdown point of decrease after linear fitting were different. While the SNR of WM started decreasing at 120 degrees FA, the SNR of GM started decreasing at less than 110 degrees. The highest SNRs of WM and GM were obtained at 130 degrees FA. The highest CNRs, however, were obtained at 80 degrees FA. Although SNR increased with the change of FA values from 50 degrees to 130 degrees at 3T SE T1WI, CNR was higher at 80 degrees FA than at the usually used 90 degrees FA. In addition, the SAR was decreased by using smaller FA. The CNR can be increased by using this optimized FA at 3T MR SE T1WI.

  4. High b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging of normal brain at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihangiroglu, Mutlu; Ulug, Aziz Muefit; Firat, Zeynep; Bayram, Ali; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Kovanlikaya, Ilhami

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the normative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values at 3 T using high b-value (3000 s/mm 2 ) diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and compare the signal characteristics of the high b value with standard b-value (1000 s/mm 2 ) DWI. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective study which included 20 volunteers (10 M, 10 F, mean age: 38.7 ± 14.9) without any known clinical disease or radiological findings. All brain examinations were performed with 3 T MR by using similar parameters of b1000 and b3000 DWI sequences. DWI and ADC maps were obtained. Signal intensity, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR), contrast ratio (CR), and ADC values of bilateral posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal white matter, parietal gray matter, pons, thalamus, splenium of corpus callosum were measured on b1000 and b3000 DW images. Results: In all anatomic locations, MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b3000 images were significantly lower than MR signal intensity, SNR and ADC values of b1000 images (p < 0.001). The CNR and CR values at the posterior limb of internal capsule and pons were significantly increased on b3000 images (p < 0.001) and decreased in the other regions measured. Conclusion: The ADC values calculated from standard b-value DWI were significantly higher than those calculated from high b-value DWI. These results agree with the previous studies. In the regions where CNR values increase with high b value, b3000 DWI images may provide additional clinical information.

  5. Virtual non-contrast computer tomography (CT) with spectral CT as an alternative to conventional unenhanced CT in the assessment of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shi-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lian; Wang, He-Qing; Liu, Jing-Hong; Sun, Mei-Yu; Liu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate computed tomography (CT) virtual non-contrast (VNC) spectral imaging for gastric carcinoma. Fifty-two patients with histologically proven gastric carcinomas underwent gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) including non-contrast and contrast-enhanced hepatic arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phase acquisitions prior to surgery. VNC arterial phase (VNCa), VNC venous phase (VNCv), and VNC equilibrium phase (VNCe) images were obtained by subtracting iodine from iodine/water images. Images were analyzed with respect to image quality, gastric carcinoma-intragastric water contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), gastric carcinoma-perigastric fat CNR, serosal invasion, and enlarged lymph nodes around the lesions. Carcinoma-water CNR values were significantly higher in VNCa, VNCv, and VNCe images than in normal CT images (2.72, 2.60, 2.61, respectively, vs 2.35, p≤0.008). Carcinoma- perigastric fat CNR values were significantly lower in VNCa, VNCv, and VNCe images than in normal CT images (7.63, 7.49, 7.32, respectively, vs 8.48, pVNC arterial phase images may be a surrogate for conventional non-contrast CT images in gastric carcinoma evaluation.

  6. Effect of Simultaneous Bilingualism on Speech Intelligibility across Different Masker Types, Modalities, and Signal-to-Noise Ratios in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetzke, Rachel; Lam, Boji Pak-Wing; Xie, Zilong; Sheng, Li; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing speech in adverse listening conditions is a significant cognitive, perceptual, and linguistic challenge, especially for children. Prior studies have yielded mixed results on the impact of bilingualism on speech perception in noise. Methodological variations across studies make it difficult to converge on a conclusion regarding the effect of bilingualism on speech-in-noise performance. Moreover, there is a dearth of speech-in-noise evidence for bilingual children who learn two languages simultaneously. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which various adverse listening conditions modulate differences in speech-in-noise performance between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children. To that end, sentence recognition was assessed in twenty-four school-aged children (12 monolinguals; 12 simultaneous bilinguals, age of English acquisition ≤ 3 yrs.). We implemented a comprehensive speech-in-noise battery to examine recognition of English sentences across different modalities (audio-only, audiovisual), masker types (steady-state pink noise, two-talker babble), and a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs; 0 to -16 dB). Results revealed no difference in performance between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children across each combination of modality, masker, and SNR. Our findings suggest that when English age of acquisition and socioeconomic status is similar between groups, monolingual and bilingual children exhibit comparable speech-in-noise performance across a range of conditions analogous to everyday listening environments.

  7. High spatial resolution whole-body MR angiography featuring parallel imaging: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, H.H.; Vogt, F.M.; Madewald, S.; Herborn, C.U.; Bosk, S.; Goehde, S.; Debatin, J.F.; Ladd, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Materials and methods: whole-body multi-station MRA was performed with a rolling table platform (AngioSURF) on 5 volunteers in two imaging series: 1) standard imaging protocol, 2) modified high-resolution protocol employing PAT using the generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) algorithm with an acceleration factor of 3. For an intra-individual comparison of the two MR examinations, the arterial vasculature was divided into 30 segments. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for all 30 arterial segments of each subject. Vessel segment depiction was qualitatively assessed applying a 5-point scale to each of the segments. Image reconstruction times were recorded for the standard as well as the PAT protocol. Results: compared to the standard protocol, PAT allowed for increased spatial resolution through a 3-fold reduction in mean voxel size for each of the 5 stations. Mean SNR and CNR values over all specified vessel segments decreased by a factor of 1.58 and 1.56, respectively. Despite the reduced SNR and CNR, the depiction of all specified vessel segments increased in PAT images, reflecting the increased spatial resolution. Qualitative comparison of standard and PAT images showed an increase in vessel segment conspicuity with more detailed depiction of intramuscular arterial branches in all volunteers. The time for image data reconstruction of all 5 stations was significantly increased from about 10 minutes to 40 minutes when using the PAT acquisition. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Needles and Interactive Sequences for Musculoskeletal Interventions Using an Open High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonneberger, Uta; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Streitparth, Florian; Walter, Thula; Rump, Jens; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study in vitro evaluation of needle artefacts and image quality for musculoskeletal laser-interventions in an open high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner at 1.0T with vertical field orientation. Five commercially available MRI-compatible puncture needles were assessed based on artefact characteristics in a CuSO4 phantom (0.1%) and in human cadaveric lumbar spines. First, six different interventional sequences were evaluated with varying needle orientation to the main magnetic field B0 (0 o to 90 o ) in a sequence test. Artefact width, needle-tip error, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Second, a gradient-echo sequence used for thermometric monitoring was assessed and in varying echo times, artefact width, tip error, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured. Artefact width and needle-tip error correlated with needle material, instrument orientation to B0, and sequence type. Fast spin-echo sequences produced the smallest needle artefacts for all needles, except for the carbon fibre needle (width o to B0. Overall, the proton density-weighted spin-echo sequences had the best CNR (CNR Muscle/Needle >16.8). Concerning the thermometric gradient echo sequence, artefacts remained <5 mm, and the SNR reached its maximum at an echo time of 15 ms. If needle materials and sequences are accordingly combined, guidance and monitoring of musculoskeletal laser interventions may be feasible in a vertical magnetic field at 1.0T.

  9. MR imaging of the knee: Improvement of signal and contrast efficiency of T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequences by applying a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radlbauer, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.radlbauer@stpoelten.lknoe.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Lomoschitz, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lomoschitz@stpoelten.lknoe.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Salomonowitz, Erich, E-mail: erich.salomonowitz@stpoelten.lknoe.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Eberhardt, Knut E., E-mail: info@mrt-kompetenzzentrum.d [MRT Competence Center Schloss Werneck, Balthasar-Neumann-Platz 2, 97440 Werneck (Germany); Stadlbauer, Andreas, E-mail: andi@nmr.a [MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Propst Fuehrer Strasse 4, 3100 St. Poelten (Austria); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse incorporated in a standard T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence as used in our routine MRI protocol for examination of pathologies of the knee. Sixteen consecutive patients with knee disorders were examined using the routine MRI protocol, including T1-weighted TSE-sequences with and without a DRIVE pulse. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of anatomical structures and pathologies were calculated and compared for both sequences. The differences in diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images with and without DRIVE pulse were assessed. SNR was significantly higher on images acquired with DRIVE pulse for fluid, effusion, cartilage and bone. Differences in the SNR of meniscus and muscle between the two sequences were not statistically significant. CNR was significantly increased between muscle and effusion, fluid and cartilage, fluid and meniscus, cartilage and meniscus, bone and cartilage on images acquired using the DRIVE pulse. Diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images was found to be improved for delineation of anatomic structures and for diagnosing a variety of pathologies when a DRIVE pulse is incorporated in the sequence. Incorporation of a DRIVE pulse into a standard T1-weighted TSE-sequence leads to significant increase of SNR and CNR of both, anatomical structures and pathologies, and consequently to an increase in diagnostic value within the same acquisition time.

  10. MR imaging of the knee: Improvement of signal and contrast efficiency of T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequences by applying a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlbauer, Rudolf; Lomoschitz, Friedrich; Salomonowitz, Erich; Eberhardt, Knut E.; Stadlbauer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a driven equilibrium (DRIVE) pulse incorporated in a standard T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence as used in our routine MRI protocol for examination of pathologies of the knee. Sixteen consecutive patients with knee disorders were examined using the routine MRI protocol, including T1-weighted TSE-sequences with and without a DRIVE pulse. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of anatomical structures and pathologies were calculated and compared for both sequences. The differences in diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images with and without DRIVE pulse were assessed. SNR was significantly higher on images acquired with DRIVE pulse for fluid, effusion, cartilage and bone. Differences in the SNR of meniscus and muscle between the two sequences were not statistically significant. CNR was significantly increased between muscle and effusion, fluid and cartilage, fluid and meniscus, cartilage and meniscus, bone and cartilage on images acquired using the DRIVE pulse. Diagnostic value of the T1-weighted images was found to be improved for delineation of anatomic structures and for diagnosing a variety of pathologies when a DRIVE pulse is incorporated in the sequence. Incorporation of a DRIVE pulse into a standard T1-weighted TSE-sequence leads to significant increase of SNR and CNR of both, anatomical structures and pathologies, and consequently to an increase in diagnostic value within the same acquisition time.

  11. Communication system with adaptive noise suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, David (Inventor); Devault, James A. (Inventor); Birr, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A signal-to-noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction process eliminates noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. The process first pre-emphasizes the frequency components of the input sound signal which contain the consonant information in human speech. Next, a signal-to-noise ratio is determined and a spectral subtraction proportion adjusted appropriately. After spectral subtraction, low amplitude signals can be squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoiced frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Spectral subtraction may be performed on a composite noise-corrupted signal, or upon individual sub-bands of the noise-corrupted signal. Pre-averaging of the input signal's magnitude spectrum over multiple time frames may be performed to reduce musical noise.

  12. Particle image velocimetry correlation signal-to-noise ratio metrics and measurement uncertainty quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Zhenyu; Charonko, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2014-01-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV) the measurement signal is contained in the recorded intensity of the particle image pattern superimposed on a variety of noise sources. The signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) strength governs the resulting PIV cross correlation and ultimately the accuracy and uncertainty of the resulting PIV measurement. Hence we posit that correlation SNR metrics calculated from the correlation plane can be used to quantify the quality of the correlation and the resulting uncertainty of an individual measurement. In this paper we extend the original work by Charonko and Vlachos and present a framework for evaluating the correlation SNR using a set of different metrics, which in turn are used to develop models for uncertainty estimation. Several corrections have been applied in this work. The SNR metrics and corresponding models presented herein are expanded to be applicable to both standard and filtered correlations by applying a subtraction of the minimum correlation value to remove the effect of the background image noise. In addition, the notion of a ‘valid’ measurement is redefined with respect to the correlation peak width in order to be consistent with uncertainty quantification principles and distinct from an ‘outlier’ measurement. Finally the type and significance of the error distribution function is investigated. These advancements lead to more robust and reliable uncertainty estimation models compared with the original work by Charonko and Vlachos. The models are tested against both synthetic benchmark data as well as experimental measurements. In this work, U 68.5 uncertainties are estimated at the 68.5% confidence level while U 95 uncertainties are estimated at 95% confidence level. For all cases the resulting calculated coverage factors approximate the expected theoretical confidence intervals, thus demonstrating the applicability of these new models for estimation of uncertainty for individual PIV measurements. (paper)

  13. Particle image velocimetry correlation signal-to-noise ratio metrics and measurement uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhenyu; Charonko, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2014-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV) the measurement signal is contained in the recorded intensity of the particle image pattern superimposed on a variety of noise sources. The signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) strength governs the resulting PIV cross correlation and ultimately the accuracy and uncertainty of the resulting PIV measurement. Hence we posit that correlation SNR metrics calculated from the correlation plane can be used to quantify the quality of the correlation and the resulting uncertainty of an individual measurement. In this paper we extend the original work by Charonko and Vlachos and present a framework for evaluating the correlation SNR using a set of different metrics, which in turn are used to develop models for uncertainty estimation. Several corrections have been applied in this work. The SNR metrics and corresponding models presented herein are expanded to be applicable to both standard and filtered correlations by applying a subtraction of the minimum correlation value to remove the effect of the background image noise. In addition, the notion of a ‘valid’ measurement is redefined with respect to the correlation peak width in order to be consistent with uncertainty quantification principles and distinct from an ‘outlier’ measurement. Finally the type and significance of the error distribution function is investigated. These advancements lead to more robust and reliable uncertainty estimation models compared with the original work by Charonko and Vlachos. The models are tested against both synthetic benchmark data as well as experimental measurements. In this work, {{U}68.5} uncertainties are estimated at the 68.5% confidence level while {{U}95} uncertainties are estimated at 95% confidence level. For all cases the resulting calculated coverage factors approximate the expected theoretical confidence intervals, thus demonstrating the applicability of these new models for estimation of uncertainty for individual PIV measurements.

  14. Image quality of CT angiography in young children with congenital heart disease: a comparison between the sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and advanced modelled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, S B; Jeong, D W; Choo, K S; Nam, K J; Hwang, J-Y; Lee, J W; Kim, J Y; Lim, S J

    2017-12-01

    To compare the image quality of computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed by sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with that of advanced modelled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Thirty-one children (8.23±13.92 months) with CHD who underwent CTA were enrolled. Images were reconstructed using SAFIRE (strength 5) and ADMIRE (strength 5). Objective image qualities (attenuation, noise) were measured in the great vessels and heart chambers. Two radiologists independently calculated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by measuring the intensity and noise of the myocardial walls. Subjective noise, diagnostic confidence, and sharpness at the level prior to the first branch of the main pulmonary artery were also graded by the two radiologists independently. The objective image noise of ADMIRE was significantly lower than that of SAFIRE in the right atrium, right ventricle, and myocardial wall (p0.05). The mean CNR values were 21.56±10.80 for ADMIRE and 18.21±6.98 for SAFIRE, which were significantly different (p0.05). CTA using ADMIRE was superior to SAFIRE when comparing the objective and subjective image quality in children with CHD. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiscale bilateral filtering for improving image quality in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Detection of subtle microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a challenging task because of the large, noisy DBT volume. It is important to enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of microcalcifications in DBT reconstruction. Most regularization methods depend on local gradient and may treat the ill-defined margins or subtle spiculations of masses and subtle microcalcifications as noise because of their small gradient. The authors developed a new multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization method for the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) to improve the CNR of microcalcifications without compromising the quality of masses. Methods: The MSBF exploits a multiscale structure of DBT images to suppress noise and selectively enhance high frequency structures. At the end of each SART iteration, every DBT slice is decomposed into several frequency bands via Laplacian pyramid decomposition. No regularization is applied to the low frequency bands so that subtle edges of masses and structured background are preserved. Bilateral filtering is applied to the high frequency bands to enhance microcalcifications while suppressing noise. The regularized DBT images are used for updating in the next SART iteration. The new MSBF method was compared with the nonconvex total p-variation (TpV) method for noise regularization with SART. A GE GEN2 prototype DBT system was used for acquisition of projections at 21 angles in 3° increments over a ±30° range. The reconstruction image quality with no regularization (NR) and that with the two regularization methods were compared using the DBT scans of a heterogeneous breast phantom and several human subjects with masses and microcalcifications. The CNR and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line profiles of microcalcifications and across the spiculations within their in-focus DBT slices were used as image quality measures. Results: The MSBF method reduced contouring artifacts

  16. Signal-to-noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency determination by and alternative use of photographic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgudzhiev, Z.; Koleva, D.

    1986-01-01

    A known theoretical model of an alternative use of silver-halogenid pnotographic emulsions in which the number of the granulas forming the photographic image is used as a detector output instead of the microdensiometric blackening density is applied to some real photographic emulsions. It is found that by this use the Signal-to-Noise ratio of the photographic detector can be increased to about 5 times while its detective quantum efficiency can reach about 20%, being close to that of some photomultipliers

  17. Limits of visual communication: the effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the intelligibility of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, M; Sperling, G; Riedl, T; Vanderbeek, A

    1987-12-01

    To determine the limits of human observers' ability to identify visually presented American Sign Language (ASL), the contrast s and the amount of additive noise n in dynamic ASL images were varied independently. Contrast was tested over a 4:1 range; the rms signal-to-noise ratios (s/n) investigated were s/n = 1/4, 1/2, 1, and infinity (which is used to designate the original, uncontaminated images). Fourteen deaf subjects were tested with an intelligibility test composed of 85 isolated ASL signs, each 2-3 sec in length. For these ASL signs (64 x 96 pixels, 30 frames/sec), subjects' performance asymptotes between s/n = 0.5 and 1.0; further increases in s/n do not improve intelligibility. Intelligibility was found to depend only on s/n and not on contrast. A formulation in terms of logistic functions was proposed to derive intelligibility of ASL signs from s/n, sign familiarity, and sign difficulty. Familiarity (ignorance) is represented by additive signal-correlated noise; it represents the likelihood of a subject's knowing a particular ASL sign, and it adds to s/n. Difficulty is represented by a multiplicative difficulty coefficient; it represents the perceptual vulnerability of an ASL sign to noise and it adds to log(s/n).

  18. Comparison of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging between turbo spin-echo and echo-planar imaging of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikayama, Ryoji; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nagatomo, Kazuya; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kumazawa, Seiji [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Sonoda, Shinjiro; Kobayashi, Koji [Kyushu University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Department of Medical Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    To compare image quality, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters between turbo spin-echo (TSE)-diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and echo-planar imaging (EPI)-DWI of the head and neck. Fourteen volunteers underwent head and neck imaging using TSE-DWI and EPI-DWI. Distortion ratio (DR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), ADC and IVIM-derived parameters were compared between the two techniques. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to analyse reproducibility between the quantitative parameters of TSE-DWI and EPI-DWI. DR of TSE-DWI was significantly smaller than that of EPI-DWI. SNR and CNR of TSE-DWI were significantly higher than those of EPI-DWI. ADC and IVIM-derived parameters of TSE-DWI showed higher values than those of EPI-DWI, although the difference was not significant. Bland-Altman analysis showed wide limits of agreement between the two sequences. TSE-DWI can produce better image quality than EPI-DWI, while TSE-DWI possibly exhibits different values of quantitative parameters. Therefore, TSE-DWI could be a good alternative to EPI-DWI for patients sensitive to distortion. However, it is not recommended to use both TSE-DWI and EPI-DWI on follow-up. (orig.)

  19. Fat suppression strategies in MR imaging of breast cancer at 3.0 T. Comparison of the two-point dixon technique and the frequency selective inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko Mikami, Wakako; Kazama, Toshiki; Sato, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two fat suppression methods in contrast-enhanced MR imaging of breast cancer at 3.0 T: the two-point Dixon method and the frequency selective inversion method. Forty female patients with breast cancer underwent contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T. Both the two-point Dixon method and the frequency selective inversion method were applied. Quantitative analyses of the residual fat signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) of lesion-to-breast parenchyma, lesion-to-fat, and parenchyma-to-fat were performed. Qualitative analyses of the uniformity of fat suppression, image contrast, and the visibility of breast lesions and axillary metastatic adenopathy were performed. The signal-to-noise ratio was significantly lower in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001). All CNR values were significantly higher in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). According to qualitative analysis, both the uniformity of fat suppression and image contrast with the two-point Dixon method were significantly higher (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). Visibility of breast lesions and metastatic adenopathy was significantly better in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively). The two-point Dixon method suppressed the fat signal more potently and improved contrast and visibility of the breast lesions and axillary adenopathy. (author)

  20. Study of MR sequence in detecting hyaline cartilage defects of the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songbai; He Cuiju; Sun Wenge; Li Chunkui; Qi Xixun; Li Yanliang; Xu Ke; Bai Xizhuang; Wu Zhenhua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of various MR imaging sequences for detecting hyaline cartilage defects. Methods: Ten animal models of cartilage defect were established in 5 pig knees. 5 knees were examined with nine different MR sequences. The signal noise ratio of cartilage and contrast noise ratio were calculated and compared between cartilage and adjacent tissue. Measurement of the defect depth and width on the imaging was correlated with the actual measurement before imaging. 23 patients with hyaline cartilage defects of the knee were evaluated with MR imaging. All these patients underwent subsequent arthroscopy. MR imaging protocol included the selected sequences in the experimental study. Results: The cartilage SNR was better in FSE PD, FS 3D FSPGR, and FS FSE PD sequences. CNR between cartilage and subcartilaginous bone was best in FS 3D FSPGR and FS FSE PD sequences. CNR between cartilage and joint fluid was best in FS 3D FSPGR and FS FSE T 2 WI sequences. CNR between cartilage and meniscus and ligament was best in FS 3D FSPGR, FS FSE PD, SE T 1 WI, and IR TI700 sequences. CNR between cartilage and fat was best in FS 3D FSPGR and SE T 1 WI sequences. The width and depth correlation was best in IR TI700 sequence, which showed the statistical significance (P 2 WI sequence, 68%, 99%, and 0.74, respectively with IR TI700 sequence. Conclusion: The sensitivity of FS 3D FSPGR sequence in detecting hyaline cartilage defect is the highest. T 1 WI of spin echo sequence and T 2 WI/PDWI of fast spin-echo with fat saturation should be the standard sequence in the examination of knee joint. T 1 WI of IR sequence has potential clinical value for cartilage examination

  1. Jet Noise Scaling in Dual Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James

    2010-01-01

    Power spectral laws in dual stream jets are studied by considering such flows a superposition of appropriate single-stream coaxial jets. Noise generation in each mixing region is modeled using spectral power laws developed earlier for single stream jets as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. Similarity arguments indicate that jet noise in dual stream nozzles may be considered as a composite of four single stream jets representing primary/secondary, secondary/ambient, transition, and fully mixed zones. Frequency filter are designed to highlight spectral contribution from each jet. Predictions are provided at an area ratio of 2.0--bypass ratio from 0.80 to 3.40, and are compared with measurements within a wide range of velocity and temperature ratios. These models suggest that the low frequency noise in unheated jets is dominated by the fully mixed region at all velocity ratios, while the high frequency noise is dominated by the secondary when the velocity ratio is larger than 0.80. Transition and fully mixed jets equally dominate the low frequency noise in heated jets. At velocity ratios less than 0.50, the high frequency noise from primary/bypass becomes a significant contributing factor similar to that in the secondary/ambient jet.

  2. CTA-enhanced perfusion CT: an original method to perform ultra-low-dose CTA-enhanced perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Elizabeth; Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Utilizing CT angiography enhances image quality in PCT, thereby permitting acquisition at ultra-low dose. Dynamic CT acquisitions were obtained at 80 kVp with decreasing tube current-time product [milliamperes x seconds (mAs)] in patients suspected of ischemic stroke, with concurrent CTA of the cervical and intracranial arteries. By utilizing fast Fourier transformation, high spatial frequencies of CTA were combined with low spatial frequencies of PCT to create a virtual PCT dataset. The real and virtual PCT datasets with decreasing mAs were compared by assessing contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and noise and PCT values and by visual inspection of PCT parametric maps. Virtual PCT attained CNR and SNR three- to sevenfold superior to real PCT and noise reduction by a factor of 4-6 (p < 0.05). At 20 mAs, virtual PCT achieved diagnostic parametric maps, while the quality of real PCT maps was inadequate. At 10 mAs, both real and virtual PCT maps were nondiagnostic. Virtual PCT (but not real PCT) maps regained diagnostic quality at 10 mAs by applying 40 % adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and improved further with 80 % ASIR. Our new method of creating virtual PCT by combining ultra-low-dose PCT with CTA information yields diagnostic perfusion parametric maps from PCT acquired at 20 or 10 mAs with 80 % ASIR. Effective dose is approximately 0.20 mSv, equivalent to two chest radiographs. (orig.)

  3. Semantic technologies and linked data for the Italian PA: the case of data.cnr.it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gangemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Governmental data are being published in many countries, providing an unprecedented opportunity to create innovative services and to increase societal awareness about administration dynamics. In particular, semantic technologies for linked data production and exploitation prove to be ideal for managing identity and interoperability of administrative entities and data. This paper presents the current state of art, and evolution scenarios of these technologies, with reference to several case studies, including two of them from the Italian context: CNR's Semantic Scout, and DigitPA's Linked Open IPA.

  4. Co-channel and Adjacent Channel Interference Measurement of UMTS and GSM/EDGE Systems in 900 MHz Radio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hanus

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with inter-system and intra-system interference measurements of 2.5G and 3G mobile communication systems. The both systems UMTS and GSM/EDGE are assumed to operate in a common radio band of 900 MHz. The main system parameters are briefly introduced as well as the measurement scenario. Several simulations and key measurements were performed. Important results are described and commented along with a graphical representation, namely bit error ratio (BER dependence on carrier to noise ratio (CNR in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, the measurement of adjacent channel interference ratio of each system, the coexistence of both systems in same band and the impact of a carrier offset on BER.

  5. Correlation between chondroitin sulfate iron colloid - enhanced MR imaging and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Kodama, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Kamba, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan); Ohta, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Tottori University School of Medcine, Yonago (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The association between contrast enhancement by chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was evaluated in 24 patients diagnosed by histological examination of surgical specimens (26 nodules: 11 well-differentiated and 15 poorly-moderately-differentiated nodules). In the well-differentiated HCC nodules, the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was not significantly increased after i.v. CSIC injection on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. In the moderately-poorly-differentiated HCC, CNR was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). MR imaging using CSIC may be useful for diagnosing the degree of HCC differentiation. (orig.).

  6. Correlation between chondroitin sulfate iron colloid - enhanced MR imaging and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Y.; Kodama, F.; Kamba, M.; Ohta, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The association between contrast enhancement by chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) and the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was evaluated in 24 patients diagnosed by histological examination of surgical specimens (26 nodules: 11 well-differentiated and 15 poorly-moderately-differentiated nodules). In the well-differentiated HCC nodules, the tumor-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was not significantly increased after i.v. CSIC injection on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. In the moderately-poorly-differentiated HCC, CNR was significantly increased after CSIC administration on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images (p<0.01). MR imaging using CSIC may be useful for diagnosing the degree of HCC differentiation. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of number and signal to noise ratio radiographs for defects 3D reconstruction in industrial control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruandet, J.-P.

    2001-01-01

    Among numerous techniques for non-destructive evaluation (NOE), X-rays systems are well suited to inspect inner objects. Acquiring several radiographs of inspected objects under different points of view enables to recover a three dimensional structural information. In this NOE application, a tomographic testing is considered. This work deals with two tomographic testing optimizations in order to improve the characterization of defects that may occur into metallic welds. The first one consists in the optimization of the acquisition strategy. Because tomographic testing is made on-line, the total duration for image acquisition is fixed, limiting the number of available views. Hence, for a given acquisition duration, it is possible either to acquire a very limited number of radiographs with a good signal to noise ratio in each single acquisition or a larger number of radiographs with a limited signal to noise ratio. The second one consists in optimizing the 3D reconstruction algorithms from a limited number of cone-beam projections. To manage the lack of data, we first used algebraic reconstruction algorithms such as ART or regularized ICM. In terms of acquisition strategy optimization, an increase of the number of projections was proved to be valuable. Taking into account specific prior knowledge such as support constraint or physical noise model in attenuation images also improved reconstruction quality. Then, a new regularized region based reconstruction approach was developed. Defects to reconstruct are binary (lack of material in a homogeneous object). As a consequence, they are entirely described by their shapes. Because the number of defects to recover is unknown and is totally arbitrary, a level set formulation allowing handling topological changes was used. Results obtained with a regularized level-set reconstruction algorithm are optimistic in the proposed context. (author) [fr

  8. Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

  9. Speckle reduction process based on digital filtering and wavelet compounding in optical coherence tomography for dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valverde, Juan J.; Ortuño, Juan E.; Guerra, Pedro; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Rubio-Guivernau, José L.; Santos, Andrés.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.

    2015-07-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown a great potential as a complementary imaging tool in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Speckle noise is the most prominent artifact present in OCT images and could limit the interpretation and detection capabilities. In this work we propose a new speckle reduction process and compare it with various denoising filters with high edge-preserving potential, using several sets of dermatological OCT B-scans. To validate the performance we used a custom-designed spectral domain OCT and two different data set groups. The first group consisted in five datasets of a single B-scan captured N times (with N<20), the second were five 3D volumes of 25 Bscans. As quality metrics we used signal to noise (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR) and equivalent number of looks (ENL) ratios. Our results show that a process based on a combination of a 2D enhanced sigma digital filter and a wavelet compounding method achieves the best results in terms of the improvement of the quality metrics. In the first group of individual B-scans we achieved improvements in SNR, CNR and ENL of 16.87 dB, 2.19 and 328 respectively; for the 3D volume datasets the improvements were 15.65 dB, 3.44 and 1148. Our results suggest that the proposed enhancement process may significantly reduce speckle, increasing SNR, CNR and ENL and reducing the number of extra acquisitions of the same frame.

  10. Is body weight the most appropriate criterion to select patients eligible for low-dose pulmonary CT angiography? Analysis of objective and subjective image quality at 80 kVp in 100 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Strautz, Tamara; Patak, Michael A.; Kurmann, Luzia; Vock, Peter; Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital and University of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this retrospective study was to assess image quality with pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) using 80 kVp and to find anthropomorphic parameters other than body weight (BW) to serve as selection criteria for low-dose CTA. Attenuation in the pulmonary arteries, anteroposterior and lateral diameters, cross-sectional area and soft-tissue thickness of the chest were measured in 100 consecutive patients weighing less than 100 kg with 80 kVp pulmonary CTA. Body surface area (BSA) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Three radiologists analyzed arterial enhancement, noise, and image quality. Image parameters between patients grouped by BW (group 1: 0-50 kg; groups 2-6: 51-100 kg, decadelly increasing) were compared. CNR was higher in patients weighing less than 60 kg than in the BW groups 71-99 kg (P between 0.025 and <0.001). Subjective ranking of enhancement (P=0.165-0.605), noise (P=0.063), and image quality (P=0.079) did not differ significantly across all patient groups. CNR correlated moderately strongly with weight (R=-0.585), BSA (R=-0.582), cross-sectional area (R=-0.544), and anteroposterior diameter of the chest (R=-0.457; P<0.001 all parameters). We conclude that 80 kVp pulmonary CTA permits diagnostic image quality in patients weighing up to 100 kg. Body weight is a suitable criterion to select patients for low-dose pulmonary CTA. (orig.)

  11. Signal noise ratio analysis and on-orbit performance estimation of a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bicen; Xu, Pengmei; Hou, Lizhou; Wang, Caiqin

    2017-10-01

    Taking the advantages of high spectral resolution, high sensitivity and wide spectral coverage, space borne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTS) plays more and more important role in atmospheric composition sounding. The combination of solar occultation and FTS technique improves the sensitivity of instrument. To achieve both high spectral resolution and high signal to noise ratio (SNR), reasonable allocation and optimization for instrument parameters are the foundation and difficulty. The solar occultation FTS (SOFTS) is a high spectral resolution (0.03 cm-1) FTS operating from 2.4 to 13.3 μm (750-4100cm-1), which will determine the altitude profile information of typical 10-100km for temperature, pressure, and the volume mixing ratios for several dozens of atmospheric compositions. As key performance of SOFTS, SNR is crucially important to high accuracy retrieval of atmospheric composition, which is required to be no less than 100:1 at the radiance of 5800K blackbody. Based on the study of various parameters and its interacting principle, according to interference theory and operation principle of time modulated FTS, a simulation model of FTS SNR has been built, which considers satellite orbit, spectral radiometric features of sun and atmospheric composition, optical system, interferometer and its control system, measurement duration, detector sensitivity, noise of detector and electronic system and so on. According to the testing results of SNR at the illuminating of 1000 blackbody, the on-orbit SNR performance of SOFTS is estimated, which can meet the mission requirement.

  12. C2 Swan spectrum used as a molecular pyrometer in transferred arc and the influence noise to signal ratio on the temperature values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, H

    2014-01-01

    The C 2 Swan system molecular emission spectrum is frequently observed in arc plasmas containing hydrocarbons. The spectra emitted from 5 kw in the transferred arc reactor at atmospheric pressure by CH 4 /CO 2 /Ar mixture are recorded with the help of an optical system consisting of a linear CCD array coupled with 2m spectrometer. The rotational temperature of 4300±300 K is found from the experimental Abel inverted spectra in the arc center after a point-to-point comparison of the spectrum with a computer simulated one. The influence of the noise to signal ratio has been studied, if the noise to signal ratio is about 10% we found an error of 7% at temperature 3000 K and 10% at 6000 K.

  13. Signal-to-noise ratio enhancement on SEM images using a cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay filters and weighted least squares error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, M A; Sim, K S; Nia, M E; Tso, C P

    2015-05-01

    A new technique based on cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay smoothing using weighted least squares error filter is enhanced for scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. A diversity of sample images is captured and the performance is found to be better when compared with the moving average and the standard median filters, with respect to eliminating noise. This technique can be implemented efficiently on real-time SEM images, with all mandatory data for processing obtained from a single image. Noise in images, and particularly in SEM images, are undesirable. A new noise reduction technique, based on cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay and weighted least squares error method, is developed. We apply the combined technique to single image signal-to-noise ratio estimation and noise reduction for SEM imaging system. This autocorrelation-based technique requires image details to be correlated over a few pixels, whereas the noise is assumed to be uncorrelated from pixel to pixel. The noise component is derived from the difference between the image autocorrelation at zero offset, and the estimation of the corresponding original autocorrelation. In the few test cases involving different images, the efficiency of the developed noise reduction filter is proved to be significantly better than those obtained from the other methods. Noise can be reduced efficiently with appropriate choice of scan rate from real-time SEM images, without generating corruption or increasing scanning time. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Measurement of β/Λ ratio and calibration of IPEN-MB-01 power reactor using the noise technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Moreira, J.M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The ratio β/Λ and power level for the IPEN-MB-01 critical facility are obtained experimentally through the noise analysis technique. This techniques is based on the determination of the auto and cross-power spectral density of two ionization chambers. The power measurement results obtained for channels 5 and 6 are shown in Table 2. For an effective neutron fraction of 0.00788 a prompt mean generation time of 65 microseconds was obtained. (author) [pt

  15. Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Juliette; Boas, David A.; Chan, Suk-Tak; Evans, Karleyton C.; Buckley, Erin M.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) are two diffuse optical technologies for brain imaging that are sensitive to changes in hemoglobin concentrations and blood flow, respectively. Measurements for both modalities are acquired on the scalp, and therefore hemodynamic processes in the extracerebral vasculature confound the interpretation of cortical hemodynamic signals. The sensitivity of NIRS to the brain versus the extracerebral tissue and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of NIRS to cerebral hemodynamic responses have been well characterized, but the same has not been evaluated for DCS. This is important to assess in order to understand their relative capabilities in measuring cerebral physiological changes. We present Monte Carlo simulations on a head model that demonstrate that the relative brain-to-scalp sensitivity is about three times higher for DCS (0.3 at 3 cm) than for NIRS (0.1 at 3 cm). However, because DCS has higher levels of noise due to photon-counting detection, the CNR is similar for both modalities in response to a physiologically realistic simulation of brain activation. Even so, we also observed higher CNR of the hemodynamic response during graded hypercapnia in adult subjects with DCS than with NIRS. PMID:25453036

  16. Quantum dot imaging in the second near-infrared optical window: studies on reflectance fluorescence imaging depths by effective fluence rate and multiple image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yebin; Jeong, Sanghwa; Nayoun, Won; Ahn, Boeun; Kwag, Jungheon; Geol Kim, Sang; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-04-01

    Quantum dot (QD) imaging capability was investigated by the imaging depth at a near-infrared second optical window (SOW; 1000 to 1400 nm) using time-modulated pulsed laser excitations to control the effective fluence rate. Various media, such as liquid phantoms, tissues, and in vivo small animals, were used and the imaging depths were compared with our predicted values. The QD imaging depth under excitation of continuous 20 mW/cm2 laser was determined to be 10.3 mm for 2 wt% hemoglobin phantom medium and 5.85 mm for 1 wt% intralipid phantom, which were extended by more than two times on increasing the effective fluence rate to 2000 mW/cm2. Bovine liver and porcine skin tissues also showed similar enhancement in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values. A QD sample was inserted into the abdomen of a mouse. With a higher effective fluence rate, the CNR increased more than twofold and the QD sample became clearly visualized, which was completely undetectable under continuous excitation. Multiple acquisitions of QD images and averaging process pixel by pixel were performed to overcome the thermal noise issue of the detector in SOW, which yielded significant enhancement in the imaging capability, showing up to a 1.5 times increase in the CNR.

  17. Dual Energy CT (DECT) Monochromatic Imaging: Added Value of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions (ASIR) in Portal Venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Xinlian; He, Wen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIR) on image quality in portal venography by dual energy CT (DECT) imaging. DECT scans of 45 cirrhotic patients obtained in the portal venous phase were analyzed. Monochromatic images at 70keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. The image noise (IN) (standard deviation, SD) of portal vein (PV), the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR), and the subjective score for the sharpness of PV boundaries, and the diagnostic acceptability (DA) were obtained. The IN, CNR, and the subjective scores were compared among the four ASIR groups. The IN (in HU) of PV (10.05±3.14, 9.23±3.05, 8.44±2.95 and 7.83±2.90) decreased and CNR values of PV (8.04±3.32, 8.95±3.63, 9.80±4.12 and 10.74±4.73) increased with the increase in ASIR percentage (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively), and were statistically different for the 4 ASIR groups (pASIR percentages (pASIR (pASIR addition in DECT portal venography could improve the 70 keV monochromatic image quality.

  18. Poster — Thur Eve — 01: The effect of the number of projections on MTF and CNR in Compton scatter tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chighvinadze, T; Pistorius, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dependence of the reconstructed image quality on the number of projections in multi-projection Compton scatter tomography (MPCST). The conventional relationship between the projection number used for reconstruction and reconstructed image quality pertained to CT does not necessarily apply to MPCST, which can produce images from a single projection if the detectors have sufficiently high energy and spatial resolution. Methods: The electron density image was obtained using filtered-backprojection of the scatter signal over circular arcs formed using Compton equation. The behavior of the reconstructed image quality as a function of the projection number was evaluated through analytical simulations and characterized by CNR and MTF. Results: The increase of the projection number improves the contrast with this dependence being a function of fluence. The number of projections required to approach the asymptotic maximum contrast decreases as the fluence increases. Increasing projection number increases the CNR but not spatial resolution. Conclusions: For MPCST using a 500eV energy resolution and a 2×2mm 2 size detector, an adequate image quality can be obtained with a small number of projections provided the incident fluence is high enough. This is conceptually different from conventional CT where a minimum number of projections is required to obtain an adequate image quality. While increasing projection number, even for the lowest dose value, the CNR increases even though the number of photons per projection decreases. The spatial resolution of the image is improved by increasing the sampling within a projection rather than by increasing the number of projections

  19. A method of background noise cancellation for SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, D F; Yoshizawa, M

    2003-01-01

    When superconducting quantum inference devices (SQUIDs) operate in low-cost shielding or unshielded environments, the environmental background noise should be reduced to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present a background noise cancellation method based on a spectral subtraction algorithm. We first measure the background noise and estimate the noise spectrum using fast Fourier transform (FFT), then we subtract the spectrum of background noise from that of the observed noisy signal and the signal can be reconstructed by inverse FFT of the subtracted spectrum. With this method, the background noise, especially stationary inferences, can be suppressed well and the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased. Using high-T C radio-frequency SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer, we have measured the magnetic field produced by a watch, which was placed 35 cm under a SQUID. After noise cancellation, the signal-to-noise ratio could be greatly increased. We also used this method to eliminate the vibration noise of a cryocooler SQUID

  20. The effect of signal to noise ratio on accuracy of temperature measurements for Brillouin lidar in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kun; Niu, Qunjie; Wu, Xiangkui; Xu, Jiaqi; Peng, Li; Zhou, Bo

    2017-09-01

    A lidar system with Fabry-Pérot etalon and an intensified charge coupled device can be used to obtain the scattering spectrum of the ocean and retrieve oceanic temperature profiles. However, the spectrum would be polluted by noise and result in a measurement error. To analyze the effect of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on the accuracy of measurements for Brillouin lidar in water, the theory model and characteristics of SNR are researched. The noise spectrums with different SNR are repetitiously measured based on simulation and experiment. The results show that accuracy is related to SNR, and considering the balance of time consumption and quality, the average of five measurements is adapted for real remote sensing under the pulse laser conditions of wavelength 532 nm, pulse energy 650 mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse width 8 ns and linewidth 0.003 cm-1 (90 MHz). Measuring with the Brillouin linewidth has a better accuracy at a lower temperature (15 °C), based on the classical retrieval model we adopt. The experimental results show that the temperature error is 0.71 °C and 0.06 °C based on shift and linewidth respectively when the image SNR is at the range of 3.2 dB-3.9 dB.

  1. Mixed, charge and heat noises in thermoelectric nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépieux, Adeline; Michelini, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Mixed, charge and heat current fluctuations as well as thermoelectric differential conductances are considered for non-interacting nanosystems connected to reservoirs. Using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, we derive general expressions for these quantities and consider their possible relationships in the entire ranges of temperature, voltage and coupling to the environment or reservoirs. We introduce a dimensionless quantity given by the ratio between the product of mixed noises and the product of charge and heat noises, distinguishing between the auto-ratio defined in the same reservoir and the cross-ratio between distinct reservoirs. From the linear response regime to the high-voltage regime, we further specify the analytical expressions of differential conductances, noises and ratios of noises, and examine their behavior in two concrete nanosystems: a quantum point contact in an ohmic environment and a single energy level quantum dot connected to reservoirs. In the linear response regime, we find that these ratios are equal to each other and are simply related to the figure of merit. They can be expressed in terms of differential conductances with the help of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In the non-linear regime, these ratios radically distinguish between themselves as the auto-ratio remains bounded by one, while the cross-ratio exhibits rich and complex behaviors. In the quantum dot nanosystem, we moreover demonstrate that the thermoelectric efficiency can be expressed as a ratio of noises in the non-linear Schottky regime. In the intermediate voltage regime, the cross-ratio changes sign and diverges, which evidences a change of sign in the heat cross-noise.

  2. Multi-layer imager design for mega-voltage spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronakis, Marios; Hu, Yue-Houng; Fueglistaller, Rony; Wang, Adam; Baturin, Paul; Huber, Pascal; Morf, Daniel; Star-Lack, Josh; Berbeco, Ross

    2018-05-01

    The architecture of multi-layer imagers (MLIs) can be exploited to provide megavoltage spectral imaging (MVSPI) for specific imaging tasks. In the current work, we investigated bone suppression and gold fiducial contrast enhancement as two clinical tasks which could be improved with spectral imaging. A method based on analytical calculations that enables rapid investigation of MLI component materials and thicknesses was developed and validated against Monte Carlo computations. The figure of merit for task-specific imaging performance was the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold fiducial when the CNR of bone was equal to zero after a weighted subtraction of the signals obtained from each MLI layer. Results demonstrated a sharp increase in the CNR of gold when the build-up component or scintillation materials and thicknesses were modified. The potential for low-cost, prompt implementation of specific modifications (e.g. composition of the build-up component) could accelerate clinical translation of MVSPI.

  3. CT head-scan dosimetry in an anthropomorphic phantom and associated measurement of ACR accreditation-phantom imaging metrics under clinically representative scan conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Claudia C.; Stern, Stanley H.; Chakrabarti, Kish [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States); Minniti, Ronaldo [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Parry, Marie I. [Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20889 (United States); Skopec, Marlene [National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation absorbed dose and its distribution in an anthropomorphic head phantom under clinically representative scan conditions in three widely used computed tomography (CT) scanners, and to relate those dose values to metrics such as high-contrast resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom.Methods: By inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in the head of an anthropomorphic phantom specially developed for CT dosimetry (University of Florida, Gainesville), we measured dose with three commonly used scanners (GE Discovery CT750 HD, Siemens Definition, Philips Brilliance 64) at two different clinical sites (Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Institutes of Health). The scanners were set to operate with the same data-acquisition and image-reconstruction protocols as used clinically for typical head scans, respective of the practices of each facility for each scanner. We also analyzed images of the ACR CT accreditation phantom with the corresponding protocols. While the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance protocols utilized only conventional, filtered back-projection (FBP) image-reconstruction methods, the GE Discovery also employed its particular version of an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm that can be blended in desired proportions with the FBP algorithm. We did an objective image-metrics analysis evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and CNR for images reconstructed with FBP. For images reconstructed with ASIR, we only analyzed the CNR, since MTF and NPS results are expected to depend on the object for iterative reconstruction algorithms.Results: The OSLD measurements showed that the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance scanners (located at two different clinical facilities) yield average absorbed doses in tissue of 42.6 and 43.1 m

  4. Improvement of material decomposition and image quality in dual-energy radiography by reducing image noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Jo, B.D.; Jeon, P.-H.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.

    2016-01-01

    Although digital radiography has been widely used for screening human anatomical structures in clinical situations, it has several limitations due to anatomical overlapping. To resolve this problem, dual-energy imaging techniques, which provide a method for decomposing overlying anatomical structures, have been suggested as alternative imaging techniques. Previous studies have reported several dual-energy techniques, each resulting in different image qualities. In this study, we compared three dual-energy techniques: simple log subtraction (SLS), simple smoothing of a high-energy image (SSH), and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR) with respect to material thickness quantification and image quality. To evaluate dual-energy radiography, we conducted Monte Carlo simulation and experimental phantom studies. The Geant 4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) v 6.0 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolation polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for simulation studies and digital radiography, and human chest phantoms were used for experimental studies. The results of the simulation study showed improved image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) values and bone thickness estimation accuracy by applying the ACNR and SSH methods. Furthermore, the chest phantom images showed better image quality with the SSH and ACNR methods compared to the SLS method. In particular, the bone texture characteristics were well-described by applying the SSH and ACNR methods. In conclusion, the SSH and ACNR methods improved the accuracy of material quantification and image quality in dual-energy radiography compared to SLS. Our results can contribute to better diagnostic capabilities of dual-energy images and accurate material quantification in various clinical situations.

  5. Synthesis of multi-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and high detuning robustness using the frequency transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-05-02

    Synthesis of single-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms (PSA) for interferometry is well-known and firmly based on the frequency transfer function (FTF) paradigm. Here we extend the single-wavelength FTF-theory to dual and multi-wavelength PSA-synthesis when several simultaneous laser-colors are present. The FTF-based synthesis for dual-wavelength (DW) PSA is optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and minimum number of temporal phase-shifted interferograms. The DW-PSA synthesis herein presented may be used for interferometric contouring of discontinuous industrial objects. Also DW-PSA may be useful for DW shop-testing of deep free-form aspheres. As shown here, using the FTF-based synthesis one may easily find explicit DW-PSA formulae optimized for high signal-to-noise and high detuning robustness. To this date, no general synthesis and analysis for temporal DW-PSAs has been given; only ad hoc DW-PSAs formulas have been reported. Consequently, no explicit formulae for their spectra, their signal-to-noise, their detuning and harmonic robustness has been given. Here for the first time a fully general procedure for designing DW-PSAs (or triple-wavelengths PSAs) with desire spectrum, signal-to-noise ratio and detuning robustness is given. We finally generalize DW-PSA to higher number of wavelength temporal PSAs.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI in liver cirrhosis : correlation with child-pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Hyo Won; Choi, Hye Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Yi, Sun Young

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the differences in signal changes in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, and to determine whether these differences can be used as an indicator of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 25 cases of liver cirrhosis were evaluated and as a control group, 20 subjects were also studied. Using a 1.5T MRI scannet, brain MR images were obtained, and the differences in signal intensity in both the globus pallidus and thalamus and in both white and gray matter were then quantified using the contrast to noise ratio(CNR). On the basis of the Child-Pugh classification, 25patients with liver cirrhosis were divided into three groups, with eight in group A, eight in B, and nine in C. Using clinical criteria, hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed in seven of the 25 patients. There after, CNRs(CNR1 and CNR2) were conpared between the control and cirrhotic groups and between cirrhotic groups with or without hepatic encephalopathy. In the control group, mean values were 3.2±5.9 for CNR1 and 8.4±8.0 for CNR2. In the cirrhotic group, these values were 10.6±9.0 for CNR1 and 9.8±6.4 for CNR2. A statistically significant difference was noted between normal and cirrhotic groups only for CNR1(p<0.05). CNR values in patients with liver cirrhosis were 8.5±11.5 for CNR1 and 11.7±8.7 for CNR2 in the Child A group, 10.4±5.1 for CNR1 and 9.3±3.2 for CNR2 in the B group, and 12.8±9.7 for CNR1 and 8.7±6.5 for CNR2 in the C group. There was no significant difference in mean CNRI values between patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy. Differences in signal intensities in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, cannot be used as an indicator of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis

  7. Quantitative evaluation of hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI in liver cirrhosis : correlation with child-pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Hyo Won; Choi, Hye Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Yi, Sun Young [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To investigate the differences in signal changes in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, and to determine whether these differences can be used as an indicator of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 25 cases of liver cirrhosis were evaluated and as a control group, 20 subjects were also studied. Using a 1.5T MRI scannet, brain MR images were obtained, and the differences in signal intensity in both the globus pallidus and thalamus and in both white and gray matter were then quantified using the contrast to noise ratio(CNR). On the basis of the Child-Pugh classification, 25patients with liver cirrhosis were divided into three groups, with eight in group A, eight in B, and nine in C. Using clinical criteria, hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed in seven of the 25 patients. There after, CNRs(CNR1 and CNR2) were conpared between the control and cirrhotic groups and between cirrhotic groups with or without hepatic encephalopathy. In the control group, mean values were 3.2{+-}5.9 for CNR1 and 8.4{+-}8.0 for CNR2. In the cirrhotic group, these values were 10.6{+-}9.0 for CNR1 and 9.8{+-}6.4 for CNR2. A statistically significant difference was noted between normal and cirrhotic groups only for CNR1(p<0.05). CNR values in patients with liver cirrhosis were 8.5{+-}11.5 for CNR1 and 11.7{+-}8.7 for CNR2 in the Child A group, 10.4{+-}5.1 for CNR1 and 9.3{+-}3.2 for CNR2 in the B group, and 12.8{+-}9.7 for CNR1 and 8.7{+-}6.5 for CNR2 in the C group. There was no significant difference in mean CNRI values between patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy. Differences in signal intensities in the globus pallidus and white matter, as seen on T1-weighted MR brain images, cannot be used as an indicator of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  8. Characteristics of the Aerodynamics and the Noise of a Dual-cascade Centrifugal Fan (Effects of Bare Ratio and Outlet Angle of Scroll Casing)

    OpenAIRE

    畠山, 真; 児玉, 好雄; 佐々木, 壮一; 林, 秀千人; 後藤, 健一

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of the aerodynamics and the noise of dual-cascade centrifugal fan have been experimentally investigated with respect to the effects of the bare ratio and the outlet angle of scroll casing. It was shown that the performance of the fans became best when the bare ratio was around between 9% to 25%, then the characterisitics of the dualcascade centrifugal fan were superior to that of the single-cascade centrifugal fan. The former was little influenced by the different bare ratio a...

  9. Phenomenon of entropic stochastic resonance with asymmetric dichotomous noise and white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Shao-Fu; Cheng, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The entropic stochastic resonance (ESR) in a confined system subject to asymmetric dichotomous noise, white noise, and a periodic square-wave signal is investigated. Under the adiabatic approximation condition, by use of the properties of the dichotomous noise, we obtain the expression of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on two-state theory. The SNR is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of the strength and asymmetry of the dichotomous noise, the intensity of the white noise, and the amplitude of the square-wave signal. The SNR varies non-monotonically with increases in the parameters of the confined structure. The influence of the correlation rate of the dichotomous noise and the frequency of the external constant force on the SNR is also discussed.

  10. Computed tomography of the cervical spine: comparison of image quality between a standard-dose and a low-dose protocol using filtered back-projection and iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becce, Fabio [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Universite Catholique Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Ben Salah, Yosr; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Omoumi, Patrick [Universite Catholique Louvain, Department of Radiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Verdun, Francis R. [University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University of Lausanne, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare image quality of a standard-dose (SD) and a low-dose (LD) cervical spine CT protocol using filtered back-projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Forty patients investigated by cervical spine CT were prospectively randomised into two groups: SD (120 kVp, 275 mAs) and LD (120 kVp, 150 mAs), both applying automatic tube current modulation. Data were reconstructed using both FBP and sinogram-affirmed IR. Image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were measured. Two radiologists independently and blindly assessed the following anatomical structures at C3-C4 and C6-C7 levels, using a four-point scale: intervertebral disc, content of neural foramina and dural sac, ligaments, soft tissues and vertebrae. They subsequently rated overall image quality using a ten-point scale. For both protocols and at each disc level, IR significantly decreased image noise and increased SNR and CNR, compared with FBP. SNR and CNR were statistically equivalent in LD-IR and SD-FBP protocols. Regardless of the dose and disc level, the qualitative scores with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP, were significantly higher or not statistically different for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, while significantly lower or not statistically different for soft tissues and vertebrae. The overall image quality scores were significantly higher with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP. LD-IR cervical spine CT provides better image quality for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, and worse image quality for soft tissues and vertebrae, compared with SD-FBP, while reducing radiation dose by approximately 40 %. (orig.)

  11. Computed tomography of the cervical spine: comparison of image quality between a standard-dose and a low-dose protocol using filtered back-projection and iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becce, Fabio; Ben Salah, Yosr; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Omoumi, Patrick; Verdun, Francis R.; Meuli, Reto

    2013-01-01

    To compare image quality of a standard-dose (SD) and a low-dose (LD) cervical spine CT protocol using filtered back-projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Forty patients investigated by cervical spine CT were prospectively randomised into two groups: SD (120 kVp, 275 mAs) and LD (120 kVp, 150 mAs), both applying automatic tube current modulation. Data were reconstructed using both FBP and sinogram-affirmed IR. Image noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were measured. Two radiologists independently and blindly assessed the following anatomical structures at C3-C4 and C6-C7 levels, using a four-point scale: intervertebral disc, content of neural foramina and dural sac, ligaments, soft tissues and vertebrae. They subsequently rated overall image quality using a ten-point scale. For both protocols and at each disc level, IR significantly decreased image noise and increased SNR and CNR, compared with FBP. SNR and CNR were statistically equivalent in LD-IR and SD-FBP protocols. Regardless of the dose and disc level, the qualitative scores with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP, were significantly higher or not statistically different for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, while significantly lower or not statistically different for soft tissues and vertebrae. The overall image quality scores were significantly higher with IR compared with FBP, and with LD-IR compared with SD-FBP. LD-IR cervical spine CT provides better image quality for intervertebral discs, neural foramina and ligaments, and worse image quality for soft tissues and vertebrae, compared with SD-FBP, while reducing radiation dose by approximately 40 %. (orig.)

  12. Intracranial arterial wall imaging using three-dimensional high isotropic resolution black blood MRI at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ye; Steinman, David A; Qin, Qin; Etesami, Maryam; Schär, Michael; Astor, Brad C; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2011-07-01

    To develop a high isotropic-resolution sequence to evaluate intracranial vessels at 3.0 Tesla (T). Thirteen healthy volunteers and 4 patients with intracranial stenosis were imaged at 3.0T using 0.5-mm isotropic-resolution three-dimensional (3D) Volumetric ISotropic TSE Acquisition (VISTA; TSE, turbo spin echo), with conventional 2D-TSE for comparison. VISTA was repeated for 6 volunteers and 4 patients at 0.4-mm isotropic-resolution to explore the trade-off between SNR and voxel volume. Wall signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR(wall) ), wall-lumen contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR(wall-lumen) ), lumen area (LA), wall area (WA), mean wall thickness (MWT), and maximum wall thickness (maxWT) were compared between 3D-VISTA and 2D-TSE sequences, as well as 3D images acquired at both resolutions. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlations (ICC). Compared with 2D-TSE measurements, 3D-VISTA provided 58% and 74% improvement in SNR(wall) and CNR(wall-lumen) , respectively. LA, WA, MWT and maxWT from 3D and 2D techniques highly correlated (ICCs of 0.96, 0.95, 0.96, and 0.91, respectively). CNR(wall-lumen) using 0.4-mm resolution VISTA decreased by 27%, compared with 0.5-mm VISTA but with reduced partial-volume-based overestimation of wall thickness. Reliability for 3D measurements was good to excellent. The 3D-VISTA provides SNR-efficient, highly reliable measurements of intracranial vessels at high isotropic-resolution, enabling broad coverage in a clinically acceptable time. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The efficacy of fat suppressed and gadolinium enhanced dynamic MR imaging in pancreatic adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabata, Toshifumi

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of both fat suppressed T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging (dynamic MRI) was compared with conventional MR sequences and dynamic CT in 22 patients with histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). In the control group of 30 patients without pancreatic disease, the pancreas was shown as a markedly higher signal intensity on fat suppressed T1WI than on conventional MR sequences. The signal noise ratio (SNR) of the normal pancreas and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the normal pancreas and muscle were significantly higher on fat suppressed T1WI than the other MR sequences. In the group of PAC patients without chronic pancreatitis (n=14), CNR between the tumor and the normal pancreas significantly differed among imaging techniques, including fat suppressed T1WI, dynamic MRI, and the other conventional MR sequences. In the group of PAC with chronic pancreatitis (n=8), CNR between the tumor and the associated chronic pancreatitis was remarkably diminished on both fat suppressed T1WI and conventional T1WI; however, it was significantly higher on dynamic MRI than the other pulse sequences. The early phase of dynamic MRI clearly identified the tumors in the group of PAC. The capability of conventional T1WI and dynamic CT to demonstrate peripancreatic tumor extension was significantly higher than that of fat suppressed T1WI. In conclusion, fat suppressed T1WI and dynamic MRI were useful in detecting pancreatic carcinoma. (N.K.)

  14. Contrast-enhanced turbo spin-echo(TSE) T1-weighted imaging: improved contrast of enhancing lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Wook; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Young Ju; Jeong, Se Hyung; Kim, Ho kyun

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of contrast improvement of enhancing brain lesions by inherent magnetization transfer effect in turbo spin-echo(TSE)T1-weighted MR imaging. Twenty-six enhancing lesions of 19 patients were included in this study. Using a 1.0T superconductive MR unit, contrast-enhanced SE T1-weighted images(TR=3D600 msec, TE=3D12 msec, NEX=3D2, acquistition time=3D4min 27sec) and contrast-enhanced TSE T1-weighted images(TR=3D600 msec, TE=3D12, acquistition time=3D1min 44sec) were obtained. Signal intensities at enhancing lesions and adjacent white matter were measured in the same regions of both images. Signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of enhancing lesions and adjacent white matter, and con-trast-to-noise ratio(CNR) and lesion-to-background contrast (LBC) of enhancing lesions were calculated and statistically analysed using the paired t-test. On contrast-enhanced TSE T1-weighted images, SNR of enhancing lesions and adjacent white matter decreased by 18%(p<0.01) and 32%(p<0.01), respectively, compared to contrast-enhanced SE T1-weighted images. CNR and LBC of enhancing lesions increased by 16%(p<0.05) and 66%(p<0.01), respectively. Due to the proposed inherent magnetization transfer effects in TSE imaging, con-trast-enhanced T1-weighted TSE images demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in CNR and LBC, compared to conventional contrast-enhanced T1-weighted SE images, and scan time was much shorter

  15. A basic characteristic of signal intensity in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Tsukasa

    2009-01-01

    For evaluation of the significance of signal intensity and contrast which determine the MR imaging quality, SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio) were studied as their respective measures on the cross-talk artifact (CTA), partial volume effect (PVE), intensity of the fast spin echo (SE) imaging and contrast in the 3T field area (Con). The machine used was 3.0T Signa HDx (GE). CTA, the SNR-reducing coherence between neighboring slices at multi-slice imaging, was studied with a series of phantoms of 0.75-4 mm diameter acrylic pins in cupric sulfate solution with various imaging modes and slice numbers to calculate CNR and contrast (C) involving SNR factor. PVE, the determinant of the intensity depending on the mixture of different tissues within a voxel (slice thickness), was studied with similar phantoms to above with 1-12 mm thick slices and different slice gaps to obtain CNR and C. The intensity of fast SE image was studied with phantoms in a brain-equivalent 0.125 mM Gd solution of sealed water, 0.25-0.5mM Gd, butter, salad oil and detergent on magnetization transfer, J-coupling and diffusion. Con in the 3T machine was studied with the same phantoms as above on the image contrasts at the central and peripheral imaging areas and the intensity/contrast changes by different coils. Presented data of above examinations revealed the effects of characteristic of each environmental factor, and of which recognition was concluded necessary to exactly read the obtained images. (K.T.)

  16. T2-weighted MR imaging of the liver: Qualitative and quantitative comparison of SPACE MR imaging with turbo spin-echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.dohan@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2 Rue Amboise Paré, 75010 Paris (France); Gavini, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jpgavini@gmail.com [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); Placé, Vinciane, E-mail: vinciane.place@gmail.com [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Sebbag, Delphine, E-mail: delphinesebbag@gmail.com [Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10 (France); Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 Rue de Verdun, 75010 Paris (France); Vignaud, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.vignaud@cea.fr [LRMN, Neurospin, CEA-SACLAY, Bâtiment 145, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-11-01

    Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively compare T2-weighted MR imaging of the liver using volumetric spin-echo with sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions (SPACE) with conventional turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence for fat-suppressed T2-weighted MR imaging of the liver. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients with suspected focal liver lesions had SPACE MR imaging and conventional fat-suppressed TSE MR imaging. Images were analyzed quantitatively by measuring the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of main focal hepatic lesions, hepatic and splenic parenchyma and qualitatively by evaluating the presence of vascular, respiratory motion and cardiac artifacts. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to search for differences between the two sequences. Results: SPACE MR imaging showed significantly greater CNR for focal liver lesions (median = 22.82) than TSE MR imaging (median = 14.15) (P < .001). No differences were found for SNR of hepatic parenchyma (P = .097), main focal hepatic lesions (P = .35), and splenic parenchyma (P = .25). SPACE sequence showed less artifacts than TSE sequence (vascular, P < .001; respiratory motion, P < .001; cardiac, P < .001) but needed a longer acquisition time (228.4 vs. 162.1 s; P < .001). Conclusion: SPACE MR imaging provides a significantly increased CNR for focal liver lesions and less artifacts by comparison with the conventional TSE sequence. These results should stimulate further clinical studies with a surgical standard of reference to compare the two techniques in terms of sensitivity for malignant lesions.

  17. Evaluation of chirp reversal power modulation sequence for contrast agent imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novell, A; Sennoga, CA; Escoffre, JM; Chaline, J; Bouakaz, A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant research effort has been focused on the use of chirp for contrast agent imaging because chirps are known to significantly increase imaging contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). New imaging schemes, such as chirp reversal (CR), have been developed to improve contrast detection by increasing non-linear microbubble responses. In this study we evaluated the contrast enhancement efficiency of various chirped imaging sequences in combination with well-established imaging schemes such as power modulation (PM) and pulse inversion (PI). The imaging schemes tested were implemented on a fully programmable open scanner and evaluated by ultrasonically scanning (excitation frequency of 2.5 MHz; amplitude of 350 kPa) a tissue-mimicking flow phantom comprising a 4 mm diameter tube through which aqueous dispersions (dilution fraction of 1/2000) of the commercial ultrasound contrast agent, SonoVue ® were continuously circulated. The recovery of non-linear microbubble responses after chirp compression requires the development and the optimization of a specific filter. A compression filter was therefore designed and used to compress and extract several non-linear components from the received microbubble responses. The results showed that using chirps increased the image CNR by approximately 10 dB, as compared to conventional Gaussian apodized sine burst excitation but degraded the axial resolution by a factor of 1.4, at −3 dB. We demonstrated that the highest CNR and contrast-to-noise ratio (CTR) were achievable when CR was combined with PM as compared to other imaging schemes such as PI. (paper)

  18. Comparison of a 28 Channel-Receive Array Coil and Quadrature Volume Coil for Morphologic Imaging and T2 Mapping of Knee Cartilage at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Gregory; Wiggins, Graham C.; Xia, Ding; Lattanzi, Riccardo; Madelin, Guillaume; Raya, Jose G.; Finnerty, Matthew; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Recht, Michael P.; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare a new birdcage-transmit, 28 channel-receive array (28 Ch) coil and a quadrature volume coil for 7 Tesla morphologic MRI and T2 mapping of knee cartilage. Methods The right knees of ten healthy subjects were imaged on a 7 Tesla whole body MR scanner using both coils. 3-dimensional fast low-angle shot (3D-FLASH) and multi-echo spin-echo (MESE) sequences were implemented. Cartilage signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), thickness, and T2 values were assessed. Results SNR/CNR was 17–400% greater for the 28 Ch compared to the quadrature coil (p≤0.005). Bland-Altman plots show mean differences between measurements of tibial/femoral cartilage thickness and T2 values obtained with each coil to be small (−0.002±0.009 cm/0.003±0.011 cm) and large (−6.8±6.7 ms/−8.2±9.7 ms), respectively. For the 28 Ch coil, when parallel imaging with acceleration factors (AF) 2, 3, and 4 was performed, SNR retained was: 62–69%, 51–55%, and 39–45%. Conclusion A 28 Ch knee coil provides increased SNR/CNR for 7T cartilage morphologic imaging and T2 mapping. Coils should be switched with caution during clinical studies because T2 values may differ. The greater SNR of the 28 Ch coil could be used to perform parallel imaging with AF2 and obtain similar SNR as the quadrature coil. PMID:22095723

  19. Noise Pollution--What can be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Edgar A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the ratio of energy dissipated as sound to the mechanical output of devices. Considers noise levels, ranges vs. peaks, noise indexes, and health hazards. Indicates some problems vs. solutions in the technology of noise control. (GH)

  20. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40-77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas - tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 keV was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0

  1. Coronary artery plaques: Cardiac CT with model-based and adaptive-statistical iterative reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, Hans; Stolzmann, Paul; Schlett, Christopher L.; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Major, Gyöngi Petra; Károlyi, Mihály; Do, Synho; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare image quality of coronary artery plaque visualization at CT angiography with images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques. Methods: The coronary arteries of three ex vivo human hearts were imaged by CT and reconstructed with FBP, ASIR and MBIR. Coronary cross-sectional images were co-registered between the different reconstruction techniques and assessed for qualitative and quantitative image quality parameters. Readers were blinded to the reconstruction algorithm. Results: A total of 375 triplets of coronary cross-sectional images were co-registered. Using MBIR, 26% of the images were rated as having excellent overall image quality, which was significantly better as compared to ASIR and FBP (4% and 13%, respectively, all p < 0.001). Qualitative assessment of image noise demonstrated a noise reduction by using ASIR as compared to FBP (p < 0.01) and further noise reduction by using MBIR (p < 0.001). The contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) using MBIR was better as compared to ASIR and FBP (44 ± 19, 29 ± 15, 26 ± 9, respectively; all p < 0.001). Conclusions: Using MBIR improved image quality, reduced image noise and increased CNR as compared to the other available reconstruction techniques. This may further improve the visualization of coronary artery plaque and allow radiation reduction.

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Local Bivariate Gaussian Mixture Prior in 3D Complex Wavelet Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Hossein; Sonka, Milan; Abramoff, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, MMSE estimator is employed for noise-free 3D OCT data recovery in 3D complex wavelet domain. Since the proposed distribution for noise-free data plays a key role in the performance of MMSE estimator, a priori distribution for the pdf of noise-free 3D complex wavelet coefficients is proposed which is able to model the main statistical properties of wavelets. We model the coefficients with a mixture of two bivariate Gaussian pdfs with local parameters which are able to capture the heavy-tailed property and inter- and intrascale dependencies of coefficients. In addition, based on the special structure of OCT images, we use an anisotropic windowing procedure for local parameters estimation that results in visual quality improvement. On this base, several OCT despeckling algorithms are obtained based on using Gaussian/two-sided Rayleigh noise distribution and homomorphic/nonhomomorphic model. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we use 156 selected ROIs from 650 × 512 × 128 OCT dataset in the presence of wet AMD pathology. Our simulations show that the best MMSE estimator using local bivariate mixture prior is for the nonhomomorphic model in the presence of Gaussian noise which results in an improvement of 7.8 ± 1.7 in CNR.

  3. Optical Coherence Tomography Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Local Bivariate Gaussian Mixture Prior in 3D Complex Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rabbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, MMSE estimator is employed for noise-free 3D OCT data recovery in 3D complex wavelet domain. Since the proposed distribution for noise-free data plays a key role in the performance of MMSE estimator, a priori distribution for the pdf of noise-free 3D complex wavelet coefficients is proposed which is able to model the main statistical properties of wavelets. We model the coefficients with a mixture of two bivariate Gaussian pdfs with local parameters which are able to capture the heavy-tailed property and inter- and intrascale dependencies of coefficients. In addition, based on the special structure of OCT images, we use an anisotropic windowing procedure for local parameters estimation that results in visual quality improvement. On this base, several OCT despeckling algorithms are obtained based on using Gaussian/two-sided Rayleigh noise distribution and homomorphic/nonhomomorphic model. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we use 156 selected ROIs from 650 × 512 × 128 OCT dataset in the presence of wet AMD pathology. Our simulations show that the best MMSE estimator using local bivariate mixture prior is for the nonhomomorphic model in the presence of Gaussian noise which results in an improvement of 7.8 ± 1.7 in CNR.

  4. SU-E-I-59: Image Quality and Dose Measurement for Partial Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouei, E; Ford, N [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize performance of cone beam CT (CBCT) used in dentistry investigating quantitatively the image quality and radiation dose during dental CBCT over different settings for partial rotation of the x-ray tube. Methods: Image quality and dose measurements were done on a variable field of view (FOV) dental CBCT (Carestream 9300). X-ray parameters for clinical settings were adjustable for 2–10 mA, 60–90 kVp, and two optional voxel size values, but time was fixed for each FOV. Image quality was assessed by scanning cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality phantom (SEDENTEXCT IQ), and then the images were analyzed using ImageJ to calculate image quality parameters such as noise, uniformity, and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A protocol proposed by SEDENTEXCT, dose index 1 (DI1), was applied to dose measurements obtained using a thimble ionization chamber and cylindrical PMMA dose index phantom (SEDENTEXCT DI). Dose distributions were obtained using Gafchromic film. The phantoms were positioned in the FOV to imitate a clinical positioning. Results: The image noise was 6–12.5% which, when normalized to the difference of mean voxel value of PMMA and air, was comparable between different FOVs. Uniformity was 93.5ß 99.7% across the images. CNR was 1.7–4.2 and 6.3–14.3 for LDPE and Aluminum, respectively. Dose distributions were symmetric about the rotation angle's bisector. For large and medium FOVs at 4 mA and 80–90 kVp, DI1 values were in the range of 1.26–3.23 mGy. DI1 values were between 1.01–1.93 mGy for small FOV (5×5 cm{sup 2}) at 4–5 mA and 75–84 kVp. Conclusion: Noise decreased by increasing kVp, and the CNR increased for each FOV. When FOV size increased, image noise increased and CNR decreased. DI1 values were increased by increasing tube current (mA), tube voltage (kVp), and/or FOV. Funding for this project from NSERC Discovery grant, UBC Faculty of Dentistry Research Equipment Grant and UBC Faculty of

  5. SU-E-I-59: Image Quality and Dose Measurement for Partial Cone-Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouei, E; Ford, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize performance of cone beam CT (CBCT) used in dentistry investigating quantitatively the image quality and radiation dose during dental CBCT over different settings for partial rotation of the x-ray tube. Methods: Image quality and dose measurements were done on a variable field of view (FOV) dental CBCT (Carestream 9300). X-ray parameters for clinical settings were adjustable for 2–10 mA, 60–90 kVp, and two optional voxel size values, but time was fixed for each FOV. Image quality was assessed by scanning cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality phantom (SEDENTEXCT IQ), and then the images were analyzed using ImageJ to calculate image quality parameters such as noise, uniformity, and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). A protocol proposed by SEDENTEXCT, dose index 1 (DI1), was applied to dose measurements obtained using a thimble ionization chamber and cylindrical PMMA dose index phantom (SEDENTEXCT DI). Dose distributions were obtained using Gafchromic film. The phantoms were positioned in the FOV to imitate a clinical positioning. Results: The image noise was 6–12.5% which, when normalized to the difference of mean voxel value of PMMA and air, was comparable between different FOVs. Uniformity was 93.5ß 99.7% across the images. CNR was 1.7–4.2 and 6.3–14.3 for LDPE and Aluminum, respectively. Dose distributions were symmetric about the rotation angle's bisector. For large and medium FOVs at 4 mA and 80–90 kVp, DI1 values were in the range of 1.26–3.23 mGy. DI1 values were between 1.01–1.93 mGy for small FOV (5×5 cm 2 ) at 4–5 mA and 75–84 kVp. Conclusion: Noise decreased by increasing kVp, and the CNR increased for each FOV. When FOV size increased, image noise increased and CNR decreased. DI1 values were increased by increasing tube current (mA), tube voltage (kVp), and/or FOV. Funding for this project from NSERC Discovery grant, UBC Faculty of Dentistry Research Equipment Grant and UBC Faculty of Dentistry

  6. Background Noise Reduction Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation Determined by the Cross-Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Background noise due to flow in wind tunnels contaminates desired data by decreasing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The use of Adaptive Noise Cancellation to remove background noise at measurement microphones is compromised when the reference sensor measures both background and desired noise. The technique proposed modifies the classical processing configuration based on the cross-correlation between the reference and primary microphone. Background noise attenuation is achieved using a cross-correlation sample width that encompasses only the background noise and a matched delay for the adaptive processing. A present limitation of the method is that a minimum time delay between the background noise and desired signal must exist in order for the correlated parts of the desired signal to be separated from the background noise in the crosscorrelation. A simulation yields primary signal recovery which can be predicted from the coherence of the background noise between the channels. Results are compared with two existing methods.

  7. MRI of the coronary arteries: flip angle train optimization for 3D sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietschold, V.; Kittner, T.; Abolmaali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Application of contrast agents in MRI of coronary arteries improves contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), but widens the range of T 1 relaxation times of the tissues to be imaged. The flip angle train, generated for the measurement of all phase-encoding steps in the 3 rd spatial dimension of the navigator echo FLASH sequence used, is optimal only for one T 1 . Computer simulations show that it is not advisable to optimize the sequence on the basis of an extremely short T 1 relaxation time (such as in the case of contrast-enhanced vessels) because the imaging of the surrounding tissue would be negatively influenced. A sequence optimization to a T1 of approximately 200 ms seems to allow a CNR improvement of ≥ 50%. (orig.)

  8. Energy weighted x-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Georg; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Kraus, Manuel; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, Andre; Wandner, Johannes; Weber, Thomas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Wong, Winnie S; Campbell, Michael; Meiser, Jan; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2014-10-06

    The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects' microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size even with low geometric magnification. In this publication we demonstrate that the dark-field image quality can be enhanced with an energy-resolving pixel detector. Energy-resolved x-ray dark-field images were acquired with a 16-energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector with a 1 mm thick CdTe sensor in a Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometer. A method for contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) enhancement is proposed and validated experimentally. In measurements, a CNR improvement by a factor of 1.14 was obtained. This is equivalent to a possible radiation dose reduction of 23%.

  9. Acoustic noise reduction in T 1- and proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Martin; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix; Grodzki, David; Heismann, Björn; Jakob, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To reduce acoustic noise levels in T 1-weighted and proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences, which typically reach acoustic noise levels up to 100 dB(A) in clinical practice. Five acoustic noise reduction strategies were combined: (1) gradient ramps and shapes were changed from trapezoidal to triangular, (2) variable-encoding-time imaging was implemented to relax the phase-encoding gradient timing, (3) RF pulses were adapted to avoid the need for reversing the polarity of the slice-rewinding gradient, (4) readout bandwidth was increased to provide more time for gradient activity on other axes, (5) the number of slices per TR was reduced to limit the total gradient activity per unit time. We evaluated the influence of each measure on the acoustic noise level, and conducted in vivo measurements on a healthy volunteer. Sound recordings were taken for comparison. An overall acoustic noise reduction of up to 16.8 dB(A) was obtained by the proposed strategies (1-4) and the acquisition of half the number of slices per TR only. Image quality in terms of SNR and CNR was found to be preserved. The proposed measures in this study allowed a threefold reduction in the acoustic perception of T 1-weighted and proton-density-weighted TSE sequences compared to a standard TSE-acquisition. This could be achieved without visible degradation of image quality, showing the potential to improve patient comfort and scan acceptability.

  10. Toward standardized quantitative image quality (IQ) assessment in computed tomography (CT): A comprehensive framework for automated and comparative IQ analysis based on ICRU Report 87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahn, Gregor; Skornitzke, Stephan; Schlemmer, Hans-Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stiller, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Based on the guidelines from "Report 87: Radiation Dose and Image-quality Assessment in Computed Tomography" of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), a software framework for automated quantitative image quality analysis was developed and its usability for a variety of scientific questions demonstrated. The extendable framework currently implements the calculation of the recommended Fourier image quality (IQ) metrics modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS), and additional IQ quantities such as noise magnitude, CT number accuracy, uniformity across the field-of-view, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of simulated lesions for a commercially available cone-beam phantom. Sample image data were acquired with different scan and reconstruction settings on CT systems from different manufacturers. Spatial resolution is analyzed in terms of edge-spread function, line-spread-function, and MTF. 3D NPS is calculated according to ICRU Report 87, and condensed to 2D and radially averaged 1D representations. Noise magnitude, CT numbers, and uniformity of these quantities are assessed on large samples of ROIs. Low-contrast resolution (CNR, SNR) is quantitatively evaluated as a function of lesion contrast and diameter. Simultaneous automated processing of several image datasets allows for straightforward comparative assessment. The presented framework enables systematic, reproducible, automated and time-efficient quantitative IQ analysis. Consistent application of the ICRU guidelines facilitates standardization of quantitative assessment not only for routine quality assurance, but for a number of research questions, e.g. the comparison of different scanner models or acquisition protocols, and the evaluation of new technology or reconstruction methods. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved image quality and radiation dose reduction in liver dynamic CT scan with the protocol change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yu Jin; Cho, Pyong Kon [Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The purpose is reducing radiation dose while maintaining of image quality in liver dynamic CT(LDCT) scan, by protocols generally used and the tube voltage set at a low level protocol compared to the radiation dose and image quality. The target is body mass index, 18.5-24 patients out of 40 patients who underwent the ACT(abdominal CT). Group A(tube voltage : 120 kVp, SAFIRE strength 1) of 20 people among 40 people, to apply the general abdominal CT scan protocol, group B(tube voltage : 100 kVp, apply SAFIRE strength 0-5) was 20 people, set a lower tube voltage. Image quality evaluation was setting a region of interest(ROI) in the liver parenchyma, aorta, superior mesenteric artery (SMA), celiac trunk, visceral fat of arterial phase. In the ROI were compared by measuring the noise, signal to noise ratio(SNR), contrast to noise ratio(CNR), CT number. In addition, qualitative assessments to evaluate two people in the rich professional experience in Radiology by 0-3 points. We compared the total radiation dose, dose length product(DLP) and effective dose, volume computed tomography dose index(CTDIvol). The higher SAFIRE in the tube voltage 100 kVp, noise is reduced, CT number was increased. Thus, SNR and CNR was increased higher the SAFIRE step. Compared with the tube voltage 120 kVp, noise, SNR, CNR was most similar in SAFIRE strength 2 and 3. Qualitative assessment SAFIRE strength 2 is the most common SAFIRE strength 2 the most common qualitative assessment, if the tube voltage of 100 kVp when the quality of the images better evaluated was SAFIRE strength 1. Dose was reduced from 21.69%, in 100 kVp than 120 kVp. In the case of a relatively high BMI is not LDCT scan, When it is shipped from the factory tube voltage is set higher, unnecessary radiation exposure when considering the reality that is concerned, when according to the results of this study, set a lower tube voltage and adjust the SAFIRE strength to 1 or 2, the radiation without compromising image quality

  12. Image Quality and Radiation Dose of CT Coronary Angiography with Automatic Tube Current Modulation and Strong Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction Three-Dimensional (AIDR3D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Shen

    Full Text Available To investigate image quality and radiation dose of CT coronary angiography (CTCA scanned using automatic tube current modulation (ATCM and reconstructed by strong adaptive iterative dose reduction three-dimensional (AIDR3D.Eighty-four consecutive CTCA patients were collected for the study. All patients were scanned using ATCM and reconstructed with strong AIDR3D, standard AIDR3D and filtered back-projection (FBP respectively. Two radiologists who were blinded to the patients' clinical data and reconstruction methods evaluated image quality. Quantitative image quality evaluation included image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR. To evaluate image quality qualitatively, coronary artery is classified into 15 segments based on the modified guidelines of the American Heart Association. Qualitative image quality was evaluated using a 4-point scale. Radiation dose was calculated based on dose-length product.Compared with standard AIDR3D, strong AIDR3D had lower image noise, higher SNR and CNR, their differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05; compared with FBP, strong AIDR3D decreased image noise by 46.1%, increased SNR by 84.7%, and improved CNR by 82.2%, their differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05 or 0.001. Segments with diagnostic image quality for strong AIDR3D were 336 (100.0%, 486 (96.4%, and 394 (93.8% in proximal, middle, and distal part respectively; whereas those for standard AIDR3D were 332 (98.8%, 472 (93.7%, 378 (90.0%, respectively; those for FBP were 217 (64.6%, 173 (34.3%, 114 (27.1%, respectively; total segments with diagnostic image quality in strong AIDR3D (1216, 96.5% were higher than those of standard AIDR3D (1182, 93.8% and FBP (504, 40.0%; the differences between strong AIDR3D and standard AIDR3D, strong AIDR3D and FBP were all statistically significant (P<0.05 or 0.001. The mean effective radiation dose was (2.55±1.21 mSv.Compared with standard AIDR3D and FBP, CTCA

  13. Variable impact of CSF flow suppression on quantitative 3.0T intracranial vessel wall measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Petrice M; Siero, Jeroen C W; Lants, Sarah K; Waddle, Spencer; Davis, L Taylor; Gilbert, Guillaume; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Donahue, Manus J

    2018-03-31

    Flow suppression techniques have been developed for intracranial (IC) vessel wall imaging (VWI) and optimized using simulations; however, simulation results may not translate in vivo. To evaluate experimentally how IC vessel wall and lumen measurements change in identical subjects when evaluated using the most commonly available blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow suppression modules and VWI sequences. Prospective. Healthy adults (n = 13; age = 37 ± 15 years) were enrolled. A 3.0T 3D T 1 /proton density (PD)-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisition with post-readout anti-driven equilibrium module, with and without Delay-Alternating-with-Nutation-for-Tailored-Excitation (DANTE) was applied. DANTE flip angle (8-12°) and TSE refocusing angle (sweep = 40-120° or 50-120°) were varied. Basilar artery and internal carotid artery (ICA) wall thicknesses, CSF signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and signal ratio (SR) were assessed. Measurements were made by two readers (radiology resident and board-certified neuroradiologist). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied with corrected two-sided P CSF suppression. Addition of the DANTE preparation reduced CSF SNR from 17.4 to 6.7, thereby providing significant (P CSF suppression. The DANTE preparation also resulted in a significant (P CSF CNR improvement (P = 0.87). There was a trend for a difference in blood SNR with vs. without DANTE (P = 0.05). The outer vessel wall diameter and wall thickness values were lower (P CSF suppression and CNR of the approaches evaluated. However, improvements are heterogeneous, likely owing to intersubject vessel pulsatility and CSF flow variations, which can lead to variable flow suppression efficacy in these velocity-dependent modules. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Image quality and radiation dose of low dose coronary CT angiography in obese patients: Sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction versus filtered back projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Wu, Runze; Reddy, Ryan P.; Zhang, Chuanchen; Yu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the image quality and radiation dose of low radiation dose CT coronary angiography (CTCA) using sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) compared with standard dose CTCA using filtered back-projection (FBP) in obese patients. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight consecutive obese patients were randomized into two groups and scanned using a prospectively ECG-triggered step-and-shot (SAS) CTCA protocol on a dual-source CT scanner. Thirty-nine patients (protocol A) were examined using a routine radiation dose protocol at 120 kV and images were reconstructed with FBP (protocol A). Thirty-nine patients (protocol B) were examined using a low dose protocol at 100 kV and images were reconstructed with SAFIRE. Two blinded observers independently assessed the image quality of each coronary segment using a 4-point scale (1 = non-diagnostic, 4 = excellent) and measured the objective parameters image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Radiation dose was calculated. Results: The coronary artery image quality scores, image noise, SNR and CNR were not significantly different between protocols A and B (all p > 0.05), with image quality scores of 3.51 ± 0.70 versus 3.55 ± 0.47, respectively. The effective radiation dose was significantly lower in protocol B (4.41 ± 0.83 mSv) than that in protocol A (8.83 ± 1.74 mSv, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with standard dose CTCA using FBP, low dose CTCA using SAFIRE can maintain diagnostic image quality with 50% reduction of radiation dose.

  15. An investigation of automatic exposure control calibration for chest imaging with a computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of three physical image quality metrics in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The metrics assessed were signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQ m ), all measured using a uniform chest phantom. Subsequent calibration curves were derived to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated chest images with correct detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated chest images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and anatomical noise and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves do not appear to provide optimized performance across the diagnostic energy range. Conversely, constant eNEQ m  and SNR do appear to provide optimized performance, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given as it is easier to measure in practice. Medical physicists may use the SNR image quality metric described here when setting up and optimizing AEC devices for chest radiography CR systems with a degree of confidence that resulting clinical image quality will be adequate for the required clinical task. However, this must be done with close cooperation of expert image evaluators, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma. (paper)

  16. An investigation of automatic exposure control calibration for chest imaging with a computed radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2014-05-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of three physical image quality metrics in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The metrics assessed were signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm), all measured using a uniform chest phantom. Subsequent calibration curves were derived to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated chest images with correct detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated chest images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and anatomical noise and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves do not appear to provide optimized performance across the diagnostic energy range. Conversely, constant eNEQm and SNR do appear to provide optimized performance, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given as it is easier to measure in practice. Medical physicists may use the SNR image quality metric described here when setting up and optimizing AEC devices for chest radiography CR systems with a degree of confidence that resulting clinical image quality will be adequate for the required clinical task. However, this must be done with close cooperation of expert image evaluators, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma.

  17. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  18. The position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Koichi; Yoshida, Koji; Yanagimoto, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    We studied the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gave the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement of parallel imaging (PI). Sensitivity correction processing that referred to the sensitivity distribution of the body coil improved regional uniformity more than the sensitivity uniformity correction filter with a fixed correction factor. In addition, the position dependent influence to give the SNR measurement in PI was different from the sensitivity correction processing. Therefore, if we divide SNR of the sensitivity correction processing image by SNR of the original image in each pixel and calculate SNR ratio, we can show the position dependent influence that sensitivity correction processing gives the SNR measurement in PI. It is with an index of the sensitivity correction processing precision. (author)

  19. Noise caused by semiconductor lasers in high-speed fiber-optic links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, C. M.; Stubkjær, Kristian; Olesen, H.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results are presented for the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio caused by mode partition noise, intensity noise, and reflection-induced noise in optical data links. Under given conditions an additional noise source with a S /N ratio of 20 dB will cause a power penalty of 1 d...

  20. How the signal‐to‐noise ratio influences hyperpolarized 13C dynamic MRS data fitting and parameter estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Positano, Vincenzo; Giovannetti, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    signals with low signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR). The relationship between SNR and the precision of quantitative analysis for the evaluation of the in vivo kinetic behavior of metabolites is unknown. In this article, this topic is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations, covering the problem of MRS signal model......MRS of hyperpolarized 13C‐labeled compounds represents a promising technique for in vivo metabolic studies. However, robust quantification and metabolic modeling are still important areas of investigation. In particular, time and spatial resolution constraints may lead to the analysis of MRS...

  1. Improved stochastic resonance algorithm for enhancement of signal-to-noise ratio of high-performance liquid chromatographic signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shaofei; Xiang Bingren; Deng Haishan; Xiang Suyun; Lu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the theory of stochastic resonance, an improved stochastic resonance algorithm with a new criterion for optimizing system parameters to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of HPLC/UV chromatographic signal for trace analysis was presented in this study. Compared with the conventional criterion in stochastic resonance, the proposed one can ensure satisfactory SNR as well as good peak shape of chromatographic peak in output signal. Application of the criterion to experimental weak signals of HPLC/UV was investigated and the results showed an excellent quantitative relationship between different concentrations and responses

  2. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Heljä; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antti

    2002-09-01

    Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. Contrast energy thresholds (E(th)) were measured for flicker at 1.25 to 20 Hz in strong, purely temporal (spatially uniform), additive, external noise. The masking power of white external noise, characterized by its spectral density at zero frequency N0, increases with the duration of the noise frame. For short noise frame durations, E(th) increased in direct proportion to N0, keeping the nominal signal-to-noise ratio [SNR = (E(th)/N0)(0.5)] constant at threshold. The masking effect thus increased with the duration of the noise frame and the noise mimicked white noise. When noise frame duration and N0 increased further, the nominal SNR at threshold started to decrease, indicating that noise no longer mimicked white noise. The minimum number of noise frames per flicker cycle needed to mimic white noise decreased with increasing flicker frequency from 8.3 at 1.25 Hz to 1.6 at 20 Hz. The critical high-frequency cutoff of detection-limiting temporal noise in terms of noise frames per signal cycle depends on the temporal frequency of the signal. This is opposite to the situation in the spatial domain and must be taken into consideration when temporal signals are masked with temporal noise.

  3. Inductive Sensor Performance in Partial Discharges and Noise Separation by Means of Spectral Power Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alfredo Ardila-Rey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD detection is a standardized technique to qualify electrical insulation in machines and power cables. Several techniques that analyze the waveform of the pulses have been proposed to discriminate noise from PD activity. Among them, spectral power ratio representation shows great flexibility in the separation of the sources of PD. Mapping spectral power ratios in two-dimensional plots leads to clusters of points which group pulses with similar characteristics. The position in the map depends on the nature of the partial discharge, the setup and the frequency response of the sensors. If these clusters are clearly separated, the subsequent task of identifying the source of the discharge is straightforward so the distance between clusters can be a figure of merit to suggest the best option for PD recognition. In this paper, two inductive sensors with different frequency responses to pulsed signals, a high frequency current transformer and an inductive loop sensor, are analyzed to test their performance in detecting and separating the sources of partial discharges.

  4. Simulation, calibration and validation protocols for the model 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: a case study in the Bonis’ watershed (Calabria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collalti A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, calibration and validation protocols for the model 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM: a case study in the Bonis’ watershed (Calabria, Italy. At present, the climate changes issue is perhaps the greatest threat that is affecting people and the environment. Forest ecosystems have a key role in the mitigation of climate change. In this context, the prediction of the evolution and growth dynamics of the forests including carbon and water fluxes, and in relation to forest management has become a primary objective. The present study aims at defining a protocol for data collection and the workflow for using the 3D-CMCC-CNR-FEM model in a small mountain watershed in the Calabria region. Within this work we synergistically integrate data coming from different methods (e.g., LiDAR, eddy covariance and sample area to predict forest dynamics (growth, carbon and water fluxes. Carbon and water fluxes will be simulated considering also the effects of forest management.

  5. Evaluation of auto-assessment method for C-D analysis based on support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Imai, Kuniharu; Kamihira, Hiroaki; Kishimoto, Tomonari; Goto, Hiroya

    2010-01-01

    Contrast-Detail (C-D) analysis is one of the visual quality assessment methods in medical imaging, and many auto-assessment methods for C-D analysis have been developed in recent years. However, for the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis, the effects of nonlinear image processing are not clear. So, we have made an auto-assessment method for C-D analysis using a support vector machine (SVM), and have evaluated its performance for the images processed with a noise reduction method. The feature indexes used in the SVM were the normalized cross correlation (NCC) coefficient on each signal between the noise-free and noised image, the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) on each signal, the radius of each signal, and the Student's t-test statistic for the mean difference between the signal and background pixel values. The results showed that the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis by using Student's t-test statistic agreed well with the visual assessment for the non-processed images, but disagreed for the images processed with the noise reduction method. Our results also showed that the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis by the SVM made of NCC and CNR agreed well with the visual assessment for the non-processed and noise-reduced images. Therefore, the auto-assessment method for C-D analysis by the SVM will be expected to have the robustness for the non-linear image processing. (author)

  6. Predetermining acceptable noise limits of EXAFS spectra in the limit of stochastic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yung-Jin; Booth, Corwin H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of stochastic noise on Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) data measurement, analysis, and fitting is discussed. Stochastic noise reduces the ability to uniquely fit a calculated model to measured EXAFS data. Such noise can be reduced by common methods that increase the signal-to-noise ratio; however, these methods are not always practical. Therefore, predetermined, quantitative knowledge of the level of acceptable stochastic noise when fitting for a particular model system is essential in maximizing the chances of a successful EXAFS experiment and minimizing wasted beamtime. This paper outlines a method to estimate, through simulation, the acceptable level of stochastic noise in EXAFS spectra that still allows a successful test of a proposed model compound.

  7. Predicting the effect of spectral subtraction on the speech recognition threshold based on the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    rarely been evaluated perceptually in terms of speech intelligibility. This study analyzed the effects of the spectral subtraction strategy proposed by Berouti at al. [ICASSP 4 (1979), 208-211] on the speech recognition threshold (SRT) obtained with sentences presented in stationary speech-shaped noise....... The SRT was measured in five normal-hearing listeners in six conditions of spectral subtraction. The results showed an increase of the SRT after processing, i.e. a decreased speech intelligibility, in contrast to what is predicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI). Here, another approach is proposed......, denoted the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) which predicts the intelligibility based on the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain. In contrast to the STI, the sEPSM is sensitive to the increased amount of the noise envelope power as a consequence of the spectral subtraction...

  8. Evaluation of iron colloid-enhanced T{sub 2}-weighted fast MR imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison of SE, TSE and TGSE sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Shuji; Suto, Yuji; Kamba, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kotarou; Ohta, Yoshio [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    We have applied chondroitin sulfate iron colloid (CSIC) as a contrast agent for MRI in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on conventional spin-echo sequences (SE). In this report, we evaluated CSIC-enhanced T{sub 2}-weighted fast MR imaging of HCC. MR imaging were performed before and after i.v. administration of CSIC in 15 patients with 46 HCCs. T{sub 2}-weighted SE (1800/80/2, 210 x 256 matrix), T{sub 2}-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE1800) (1800/90/5, echo train length=7, 252 x 256 matrix), TSE (3500/90/5, echo train length=7, 252 x 256 matrix) (TSE7), TSE (3500/99/5, echo train length=11, 242 x 256 matrix) (TSE11) and T{sub 2}-weighted turbo-gradient spine-echo (TGSE) (4500/108/4, echo train length=33, 252 x 256 matrix) images were compared quantitatively and qualitatively. In all sequences, liver signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was significantly decreased and lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was significantly increased after CSIC administration. Although decreased ratio in liver and tumor SNR caused by CSIC was smaller on TSE sequences compared with SE and TGSE, increased ratio in lesion-to-liver CNR was largest on TSE7. Either before or after i.v. administration of CSIC, the number of detectable lesions was largest on TSE7. TSE with used longer TR, TE and decreased echo factor was useful method for CSIC-enhanced abdominal MR imaging. (author)

  9. Nonlinear image blending for dual-energy MDCT of the abdomen: can image quality be preserved if the contrast medium dose is reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Marin, Daniele; Alfaro-Cordoba, Marcela; Eusemann, Christian D; Scribano, Emanuele; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the image quality of a dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique at reduced load of contrast medium with a simulated 120-kVp linear blending technique at a full dose during portal venous phase MDCT of the abdomen. Forty-five patients (25 men, 20 women; mean age, 65.6 ± 9.7 [SD] years; mean body weight, 74.9 ± 12.4 kg) underwent contrast-enhanced single-phase dual-energy CT of the abdomen by a random assignment to one of three different contrast medium (iomeprol 400) dose injection protocols: 1.3, 1.0, or 0.65 mL/kg of body weight. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise at the portal vein, liver, aorta, and kidney were compared among the different datasets using the ANOVA. Three readers qualitatively assessed all datasets in a blinded and independent fashion. Nonlinear blended images at a 25% reduced dose allowed a significant improvement in CNR (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), compared with simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. No statistically significant difference existed in CNR and noise between the nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose and the simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. Nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose were considered in all cases to have acceptable image quality. The dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique allows reducing the dose of contrast medium up to 50% during portal venous phase imaging of the abdomen while preserving image quality.

  10. Critical ratios in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) for tonal signals between 0.315 and 150 kHz in random Gaussian white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Wensveen, Paul J; Hoek, Lean; Au, Whitlow W L; Terhune, John M; de Jong, Christ A F

    2009-09-01

    A psychoacoustic behavioral technique was used to determine the critical ratios (CRs) of two harbor porpoises for tonal signals with frequencies between 0.315 and 150 kHz, in random Gaussian white noise. The masked 50% detection hearing thresholds were measured using a "go/no-go" response paradigm and an up-down staircase psychometric method. CRs were determined at one masking noise level for each test frequency and were similar in both animals. For signals between 0.315 and 4 kHz, the CRs were relatively constant at around 18 dB. Between 4 and 150 kHz the CR increased gradually from 18 to 39 dB ( approximately 3.3 dB/octave). Generally harbor porpoises can detect tonal signals in Gaussian white noise slightly better than most odontocetes tested so far. By combining the mean CRs found in the present study with the spectrum level of the background noise levels at sea, the basic audiogram, and the directivity index, the detection threshold levels of harbor porpoises for tonal signals in various sea states can be calculated.

  11. Speckle Reduction for Ultrasonic Imaging Using Frequency Compounding and Despeckling Filters along with Coded Excitation and Pulse Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Ullom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR while maintaining the −6 dB axial resolution of ultrasonic B-mode images is proposed. The technique proposed is known as eREC-FC, which enhances a recently developed REC-FC technique. REC-FC is a combination of the coded excitation technique known as resolution enhancement compression (REC and the speckle-reduction technique frequency compounding (FC. In REC-FC, image CNR is improved but at the expense of a reduction in axial resolution. However, by compounding various REC-FC images made from various subband widths, the tradeoff between axial resolution and CNR enhancement can be extended. Further improvements in CNR can be obtained by applying postprocessing despeckling filters to the eREC-FC B-mode images. The despeckling filters evaluated were the following: median, Lee, homogeneous mask area, geometric, and speckle-reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD. Simulations and experimental measurements were conducted with a single-element transducer (f/2.66 having a center frequency of 2.25 MHz and a −3 dB bandwidth of 50%. In simulations and experiments, the eREC-FC technique resulted in the same axial resolution that would be typically observed with conventional excitation with a pulse. Moreover, increases in CNR of 348% were obtained in experiments when comparing eREC-FC with a Lee filter to conventional pulsing methods.

  12. Detecting vocal fatigue in student singers using acoustic measures of mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisakun, Siphan

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the ability of four acoustic parameters, mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio, to detect vocal fatigue in student singers. The participants are 15 voice students, who perform two distinct tasks, data collection task and vocal fatiguing task. The data collection task includes the sustained vowel /a/, reading a standard passage, and self-rate on a vocal fatigue form. The vocal fatiguing task is the vocal practice of musical scores for a total of 45 minutes. The four acoustic parameters are extracted using the software EZVoicePlus. The data analyses are performed to answer eight research questions. The first four questions relate to correlations of the self-rating scale and each of the four parameters. The next four research questions relate to differences in the parameters over time using one-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result yields a proposed acoustic profile of vocal fatigue in student singers. This profile is characterized by increased fundamental frequency; slightly decreased jitter; slightly decreased shimmer; and slightly increased harmonics-to-noise ratio. The proposed profile requires further investigation.

  13. Assessing denoising strategies to increase signal to noise ratio in spinal cord and in brain cortical and subcortical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, L.; Moraschi, M.; Summers, P.; Favilla, S.; Mascali, D.; Cedola, A.; Porro, C. A.; Giove, F.; Fratini, M.

    2018-02-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) based on Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast has become one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience research. On the other hand, fMRI approaches have seen limited use in the study of spinal cord and subcortical brain regions (such as the brainstem and portions of the diencephalon). Indeed obtaining good BOLD signal in these areas still represents a technical and scientific challenge, due to poor control of physiological noise and to a limited overall quality of the functional series. A solution can be found in the combination of optimized experimental procedures at acquisition stage, and well-adapted artifact mitigation procedures in the data processing. In this framework, we studied two different data processing strategies to reduce physiological noise in cortical and subcortical brain regions and in the spinal cord, based on the aCompCor and RETROICOR denoising tools respectively. The study, performed in healthy subjects, was carried out using an ad hoc isometric motor task. We observed an increased signal to noise ratio in the denoised functional time series in the spinal cord and in the subcortical brain region.

  14. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2

  15. Head CT: Image quality improvement of posterior fossa and radiation dose reduction with ASiR - comparative studies of CT head examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzinski, Maciej; Waszczuk, Lukasz; Sasiadek, Marek J.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate head CT protocol developed to improve visibility of the brainstem and cerebellum, lower bone-related artefacts in the posterior fossa and maintain patient radioprotection. A paired comparison of head CT performed without Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR) and a clinically indicated follow-up with 40 % ASiR was acquired in one group of 55 patients. Patients were scanned in the axial mode with different scanner settings for the brain and the posterior fossa. Objective image quality analysis was performed with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subjective image quality analysis was based on brain structure visibility and evaluation of the artefacts. We achieved 19 % reduction of total DLP and significantly better image quality of posterior fossa structures. SNR for white and grey matter in the cerebellum were 34 % to 36 % higher, respectively, CNR was improved by 142 % and subjective analyses were better for images with ASiR. When imaging parameters are set independently for the brain and the posterior fossa imaging, ASiR has a great potential to improve CT performance: image quality of the brainstem and cerebellum is improved, and radiation dose for the brain as well as total radiation dose are reduced. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of 3D cube FLAIR with 2D FLAIR for multiple sclerosis imaging at 3 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzig, M.; Brueckmann, H.; Fesl, G. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Burke, M. [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3 D) MRI sequences allow improved spatial resolution with good signal and contrast properties as well as multiplanar reconstruction. We sought to compare Cube, a 3 D FLAIR sequence, to a standard 2 D FLAIR sequence in multiple sclerosis (MS) imaging. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in the clinical routine on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. 12 patients with definite MS were included. Lesions with MS-typical properties on the images of Cube FLAIR and 2 D FLAIR sequences were counted and allocated to different brain regions. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Results: With 384 the overall number of lesions found with Cube FLAIR was significantly higher than with 2 D FLAIR (N = 221). The difference was mostly accounted for by supratentorial lesions (N = 372 vs. N = 216) while the infratentorial lesion counts were low in both sequences. SNRs and CNRs were significantly higher in CUBE FLAIR with the exception of the CNR of lesion to gray matter, which was not significantly different. Conclusion: Cube FLAIR showed a higher sensitivity for MS lesions compared to a 2 D FLAIR sequence. 3 D FLAIR might replace 2 D FLAIR sequences in MS imaging in the future. (orig.)

  17. Readout-Segmented Echo-Planar Imaging in Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Breast Cancer: Comparison with Single-Shot Echo-Planar Imaging in Image Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Son, Yo Han; Porter, David Andrew; Song, Byung Joo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of standard single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and that of readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) in patients with breast cancer. Seventy-one patients with 74 breast cancers underwent both ss-EPI and rs-EPI. For qualitative comparison of image quality, three readers independently assessed the two sets of diffusion-weighted (DW) images. To evaluate geometric distortion, a comparison was made between lesion lengths derived from contrast enhanced MR (CE-MR) images and those obtained from the corresponding DW images. For assessment of image parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in most criteria regarding the qualitative image quality. Anatomical structure distinction, delineation of the lesion, ghosting artifact, and overall image quality were significantly better in rs-EPI. Regarding the geometric distortion, lesion length on ss-EPI was significantly different from that of CE-MR, whereas there were no significant differences between CE-MR and rs-EPI. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in SNR and CNR. Readout-segmented EPI is superior to ss-EPI in the aspect of image quality in DW MR imaging of the breast

  18. MR cholangiopancreatography. Comparison of images obtained with 1.0 and 1.5 tesla units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayasu; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Koike, Shinji; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality and visualization obtained in MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using different high-field strength (1.0 vs. 1.5 Tesla) MR units and to assess the effect of field strength on MRCP. This study population included 10 healthy volunteers and 37 patients suspected of having pancreatobiliary diseases. MRCP images were obtained using two MR units with different high-field strengths (1.0 and 1.5 Tesla), with half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) and rapid acquisition by relaxation enhancement (RARE) sequences. The image quality and visualization of each portion of the pancreatobiliary system were graded and recorded using a four-point scale. Additionally, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. The SNR and CNR in HASTE sequences acquired with the 1.5 Tesla (T) unit were significantly higher than those acquired with the 1.0 T unit (p=0.001). In qualitative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences in image quality or visualization of the ducts in either HASTE or RARE sequences between 1.0 T and 1.5 T. Our study showed that visual image quality provided by MRCP was equivalent at 1.0 and 1.5 T. (author)

  19. Head CT: Image quality improvement of posterior fossa and radiation dose reduction with ASiR - comparative studies of CT head examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzinski, Maciej; Waszczuk, Lukasz; Sasiadek, Marek J. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate head CT protocol developed to improve visibility of the brainstem and cerebellum, lower bone-related artefacts in the posterior fossa and maintain patient radioprotection. A paired comparison of head CT performed without Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR) and a clinically indicated follow-up with 40 % ASiR was acquired in one group of 55 patients. Patients were scanned in the axial mode with different scanner settings for the brain and the posterior fossa. Objective image quality analysis was performed with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subjective image quality analysis was based on brain structure visibility and evaluation of the artefacts. We achieved 19 % reduction of total DLP and significantly better image quality of posterior fossa structures. SNR for white and grey matter in the cerebellum were 34 % to 36 % higher, respectively, CNR was improved by 142 % and subjective analyses were better for images with ASiR. When imaging parameters are set independently for the brain and the posterior fossa imaging, ASiR has a great potential to improve CT performance: image quality of the brainstem and cerebellum is improved, and radiation dose for the brain as well as total radiation dose are reduced. (orig.)

  20. The Impact of Combining a Low-Tube Voltage Acquisition with Iterative Reconstruction on Total Iodine Dose in Coronary CT Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toon Van Cauteren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the impact of combining low-tube voltage acquisition with iterative reconstruction (IR techniques on the iodine dose in coronary CTA. Methods. Three minipigs underwent CCTA to compare a standard of care protocol with two alternative study protocols combining low-tube voltage and low iodine dose with IR. Image quality was evaluated objectively by the CT value, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR in the main coronary arteries and aorta and subjectively by expert reading. Statistics were performed by Mann–Whitney U test and Chi-square analysis. Results. Despite reduced iodine dose, both study protocols maintained CT values, SNR, and CNR compared to the standard of care protocol. Expert readings confirmed these findings; all scans were perceived to be of at least diagnostically acceptable quality on all evaluated parameters allowing image interpretation. No statistical differences were observed (all p values > 0.11, except for streak artifacts (p=0.02 which were considered to be more severe, although acceptable, with the 80 kVp protocol. Conclusions. Reduced tube voltage in combination with IR allows a total iodine dose reduction between 37 and 50%, by using contrast media with low iodine concentrations of 200 and 160 mg I/mL, while maintaining image quality.

  1. First Measurements of Ambient Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM at the EvK2CNR Pyramid Observatory in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratz L. E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a global-scale network of ground-based atmospheric monitoring sites is being developed with the objective of expanding the global coverage of atmospheric mercury (Hg measurements and improving our understanding of global atmospheric Hg transport. An important addition to the GMOS monitorng network has been the high altitude EvK2CNR Pyramid Observatory, located at an elevation of 5,050 meters a.s.l. in the eastern Himalaya Mountains of Nepal. Monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM using the Tekran 2537A Mercury Vapor Analyzer began at the EvK2CNR Pyramid Observatory in November 2011. From 17 November 2011 to 23 April 2012, the mean concentration of TGM at the Pyramid was 1.2 ng m−3. A range of concentrations from 0.7 to 2.6 ng m−3 has been observed. These are the first reported measurements of atmospheric Hg in Nepal, and currently this is the highest altitude monitoring station for atmospheric Hg in the world. It is anticipated that these high quality measurements, in combination with the other continuous atmospheric measurments being collected at the Pyramid station, will help to further our understanding of Hg concentrations in the free troposphere and the transport of atmospheric Hg on the global scale.

  2. Low tube voltage and low contrast material volume cerebral CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Song; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming; Meinel, Felix G.; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Qi, Li; Schoepf, U.J.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of low kVp and low contrast material volume cerebral CT angiography (CTA) in intracranial aneurysm detection. One hundred twenty patients were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40 for each): Group A, 70 ml iodinated contrast agent/120 kVp; group B, 30 ml/100 kVp; group C, 30 ml/80 kVp. The CT numbers, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured in the internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). Subjective image quality was evaluated. For patients undergoing DSA, diagnostic accuracy of CTA was calculated with DSA as reference standard and compared. CT numbers of ICA and MCA were higher in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). SNR and CNR in groups A and B were higher than in group C (both P < 0.05). There was no difference in subjective image quality among the three groups (P = 0.939). Diagnostic accuracy for aneurysm detection among these groups had no statistical difference (P = 1.00). Compared with group A, the radiation dose of groups B and C was decreased by 45 % and 74 %. Cerebral CTA at 100 or 80 kVp using 30 ml contrast agent can obtain diagnostic image quality with a low radiation dose while maintaining the same diagnostic accuracy for aneurysm detection. (orig.)

  3. Full dose reduction potential of statistical iterative reconstruction for head CT protocols in a predominantly pediatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirro, Amy E.; Brady, Samuel L.; Kaufman, Robert. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To implement the maximum level of statistical iterative reconstruction that can be used to establish dose-reduced head CT protocols in a primarily pediatric population. Methods Select head examinations (brain, orbits, sinus, maxilla and temporal bones) were investigated. Dose-reduced head protocols using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) were compared for image quality with the original filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructed protocols in phantom using the following metrics: image noise frequency (change in perceived appearance of noise texture), image noise magnitude, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution. Dose reduction estimates were based on computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) values. Patient CTDIvol and image noise magnitude were assessed in 737 pre and post dose reduced examinations. Results Image noise texture was acceptable up to 60% ASiR for Soft reconstruction kernel (at both 100 and 120 kVp), and up to 40% ASiR for Standard reconstruction kernel. Implementation of 40% and 60% ASiR led to an average reduction in CTDIvol of 43% for brain, 41% for orbits, 30% maxilla, 43% for sinus, and 42% for temporal bone protocols for patients between 1 month and 26 years, while maintaining an average noise magnitude difference of 0.1% (range: −3% to 5%), improving CNR of low contrast soft tissue targets, and improving spatial resolution of high contrast bony anatomy, as compared to FBP. Conclusion The methodology in this study demonstrates a methodology for maximizing patient dose reduction and maintaining image quality using statistical iterative reconstruction for a primarily pediatric population undergoing head CT examination. PMID:27056425

  4. Large signal-to-noise ratio quantification in MLE for ARARMAX models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yiqun; Tang, Xiafei

    2014-06-01

    It has been shown that closed-loop linear system identification by indirect method can be generally transferred to open-loop ARARMAX (AutoRegressive AutoRegressive Moving Average with eXogenous input) estimation. For such models, the gradient-related optimisation with large enough signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can avoid the potential local convergence in maximum likelihood estimation. To ease the application of this condition, the threshold SNR needs to be quantified. In this paper, we build the amplitude coefficient which is an equivalence to the SNR and prove the finiteness of the threshold amplitude coefficient within the stability region. The quantification of threshold is achieved by the minimisation of an elaborately designed multi-variable cost function which unifies all the restrictions on the amplitude coefficient. The corresponding algorithm based on two sets of physically realisable system input-output data details the minimisation and also points out how to use the gradient-related method to estimate ARARMAX parameters when local minimum is present as the SNR is small. Then, the algorithm is tested on a theoretical AutoRegressive Moving Average with eXogenous input model for the derivation of the threshold and a gas turbine engine real system for model identification, respectively. Finally, the graphical validation of threshold on a two-dimensional plot is discussed.

  5. Optimization of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography depending on clinical indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromain, Clarisse; Canale, Sandra; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Muller, Serge; Fallenberg, Eva Maria

    2014-10-01

    The objective is to optimize low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) exposure parameters of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) examinations in four different clinical applications for which different levels of average glandular dose (AGD) and ratios between LE and total doses are required. The optimization was performed on a Senographe DS with a SenoBright® upgrade. Simulations were performed to find the optima by maximizing the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on the recombined CESM image using different targeted doses and LE image quality. The linearity between iodine concentration and CNR as well as the minimal detectable iodine concentration was assessed. The image quality of the LE image was assessed on the CDMAM contrast-detail phantom. Experiments confirmed the optima found on simulation. The CNR was higher for each clinical indication than for SenoBright®, including the screening indication for which the total AGD was 22% lower. Minimal iodine concentrations detectable in the case of a 3-mm-diameter round tumor were 12.5% lower than those obtained for the same dose in the clinical routine. LE image quality satisfied EUREF acceptable limits for threshold contrast. This newly optimized set of acquisition parameters allows increased contrast detectability compared to parameters currently used without a significant loss in LE image quality.

  6. Increase of Carrier-to-Noise Ratio in GPS Receivers Caused by Continuous-Wave Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of personal private devices (PPDs is drawing greater attention to the effects of continuous-wave interference (CWI on the performance of global positioning system (GPS receivers. The effective carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0, an essential index of GNSS receiver performance, is studied in this paper. Receiver tracking performance deteriorates in the presence of interference. Hence, the effective C/N0, which measures tracking performance, decreases. However, simulations and bench tests have shown that the effective C/N0 may increase in the presence of CWI. The reason is that a sinusoidal signal is induced by the CWI in the correlator and may be tracked by the carrier tracking loop. Thus, the effective carrier power depends on the power of the signal induced by the CWI, and the effective C/N0 increases with the power of the CWI. The filtering of the CWI in the carrier tracking loop correlator and its effect on the phase locked loop (PLL tracking performance are analyzed. A mathematical model of the effect of the CWI on the effective C/N0 is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed model is more accurate than existing models, especially when the jam-to-signal ratio (JSR is greater than 30 dBc.

  7. Available number of multiplexed holograms based on signal-to-noise ratio analysis in reflection-type holographic memory using three-dimensional speckle-shift multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Tatsuya; Matoba, Osamu; Nitta, Kouichi

    2014-09-01

    The recording properties of three-dimensional speckle-shift multiplexing in reflection-type holographic memory are analyzed numerically. Three-dimensional recording can increase the number of multiplexed holograms by suppressing the cross-talk noise from adjacent holograms by using depth-direction multiplexing rather than in-plane multiplexing. Numerical results indicate that the number of multiplexed holograms in three-layer recording can be increased by 1.44 times as large as that of a single-layer recording when an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio is set to be 2 when NA=0.43 and the thickness of the recording medium is 0.5 mm.

  8. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  9. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  10. Comparison of modern 3D and 2D MR imaging sequences of the wrist at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehnitz, C.; Klaan, B.; Amarteifio, E.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A.; Stillfried, F. von; Burkholder, I.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the image quality of modern 3 D and 2 D sequences for dedicated wrist imaging at 3 Tesla (T) MRI. At 3 T MRI, 18 patients (mean age: 36.2 years) with wrist pain and 16 healthy volunteers (mean age: 26.4 years) were examined using 2 D proton density-weighted fat-saturated (PDfs), isotropic 3 D TrueFISP, 3 D MEDIC, and 3 D PDfs SPACE sequences. Image quality was rated on a five-point scale (0 - 4) including overall image quality (OIQ), visibility of important structures (cartilage, ligaments, TFCC) and degree of artifacts. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of cartilage/bone/muscle/fluid as well as the mean overall SNR/CNR were calculated using region-of-interest analysis. ANOVA, paired t-, and Wilcoxon-signed-rank tests were applied. The image quality of all tested sequences was superior to 3 D PDfs SPACE (p < 0.01). 3 D TrueFISP had the highest combined cartilage score (mean: 3.4) and performed better in cartilage comparisons against 3 D PDfs SPACE in both groups and 2 D PDfs in volunteers (p < 0.05). 3 D MEDIC performed better in 7 of 8 comparisons (p < 0.05) regarding ligaments and TFCC. 2 D PDfs provided constantly high scores. The mean overall SNR/CNR for 2 D PDfs, 3 D PDfs SPACE, 3 D TrueFISP, and 3 D MEDIC were 68/65, 32/27, 45/47, and 57/45, respectively. 2 D PDfs performed best in most SNR/CNR comparisons (p < 0.05) and 3 D MEDIC performed best within the 3 D sequences (p < 0.05). Except 3 D PDfs SPACE, all tested 3 D and 2 D sequences provided high image quality. 3 D TrueFISP was best for cartilage imaging, 3 D MEDIC for ligaments and TFCC and 2 D PDfs for general wrist imaging.

  11. 3D Whole-Heart Coronary MR Angiography at 1.5T in Healthy Volunteers: Comparison between Unenhanced SSFP and Gd-Enhanced FLASH Sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    To validate the optimal cardiac phase and appropriate acquisition window for three-dimensional (3D) whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with a steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence, and to compare image quality between SSFP and Gd-enhanced fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR techniques at 1.5 Tesla (T). Thirty healthy volunteers (M:F 25:5; mean age, 35 years; range, 24-54 years) underwent a coronary MRA at 1.5T. 3D whole-heart coronary MRA with an SSFP was performed at three different times: 1) at end-systole with a narrow (120-msec) acquisition window (ESN), 2) mid-diastole with narrow acquisition (MDN); and 3) mid-diastole with wide (170-msec) acquisition (MDW). All volunteers underwent a contrast enhanced coronary MRA after undergoing an unenhanced 3D true fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) MRA three times. A contrast enhanced coronary MRA with FLASH was performed during MDN. Visibility of the coronary artery and image quality were evaluated for 11 segments, as suggested by the American Heart Association. Image quality was scored by a five-point scale (1 = not visible to 5 = excellent). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were evaluated at the proximal coronary arteries. The SSFP sequence rendered higher visibility coronary segments, higher image quality, as well as higher SNR and CNR than the Gd-enhanced FLASH technique at 1.5T (p < 0.05). The visibility of coronary segments, image quality, SNR and CNR in the ESN, MDN and MDW with SSFP sequence did not differ significantly. An SSFP sequence provides an excellent method for the 3D whole-heart coronary MRA at 1.5T. Contrast enhanced coronary MRA using the FLASH sequence does not help improve the visibility of coronary segments, image quality, SNR or CNR on the 3D whole-heart coronary MRA.

  12. Radiation dose reduction with dictionary learning based processing for head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yang; Shi, Luyao; Hu, Yining; Luo, Limin; Yang, Jiang; Yin, Xindao; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    In CT, ionizing radiation exposure from the scan has attracted much concern from patients and doctors. This work is aimed at improving head CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast Dictionary learning (DL) based post-processing. Both Low-dose CT (LDCT) and Standard-dose CT (SDCT) nonenhanced head images were acquired in head examination from a multi-detector row Siemens Somatom Sensation 16 CT scanner. One hundred patients were involved in the experiments. Two groups of LDCT images were acquired with 50 % (LDCT50 %) and 25 % (LDCT25 %) tube current setting in SDCT. To give quantitative evaluation, Signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were computed from the Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of GM, WM and CSF tissues. A blinded qualitative analysis was also performed to assess the processed LDCT datasets. Fifty and seventy five percent dose reductions are obtained for the two LDCT groups (LDCT50 %, 1.15 ± 0.1 mSv; LDCT25 %, 0.58 ± 0.1 mSv; SDCT, 2.32 ± 0.1 mSv; P < 0.001). Significant SNR increase over the original LDCT images is observed in the processed LDCT images for all the GM, WM and CSF tissues. Significant GM–WM CNR enhancement is noted in the DL processed LDCT images. Higher SNR and CNR than the reference SDCT images can even be achieved in the processed LDCT50 % and LDCT25 % images. Blinded qualitative review validates the perceptual improvements brought by the proposed approach. Compared to the original LDCT images, the application of DL processing in head CT is associated with a significant improvement of image quality.

  13. Influence of high magnetic field strengths and parallel acquisition strategies on image quality in cardiac 2D CINE magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of 1.5 T vs. 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutberlet, Matthias; Schwinge, Kerstin; Freyhardt, Patrick; Spors, Birgit; Grothoff, Matthias; Denecke, Timm; Luedemann, Lutz; Felix, Roland; Noeske, Ralph; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image quality of cardiac CINE imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Twenty volunteers underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations using a 1.5-T and a 3.0-T scanner. Three different sets of breath-held, electrocardiogram-gated (ECG) CINE imaging techniques were employed, including: (1) unaccelerated SSFP (steady state free precession), (2) accelerated SSFP imaging and (3) gradient-echo-based myocardial tagging. Two-dimensional CINE SSFP at 3.0 T revealed an SNR improvement of 103% and a CNR increase of 19% as compared to the results obtained at 1.5 T. The SNR reduction in accelerated 2D CINE SSFP imaging was larger at 1.5 T (37%) compared to 3.0 T (26%). The mean SNR and CNR increase at 3.0 T obtained for the tagging sequence was 88% and 187%, respectively. At 3.0 T, the duration of the saturation bands persisted throughout the entire cardiac cycle. For comparison, the saturation bands were significantly diminished at 1.5 T during end-diastole. For 2D CINE SSFP imaging, no significant difference in the left ventricular volumetry and in the overall image quality was obtained. For myocardial tagging, image quality was significantly improved at 3.0 T. The SNR reduction in accelerated SSFP imaging was overcompensated by the increase in the baseline SNR at 3.0 T and did not result in any image quality degradation. For cardiac tagging techniques, 3.0 T was highly beneficial, which holds the promise to improve its diagnostic value. (orig.)

  14. Pediatric thoracic CT angiography at 70 kV: a phantom study to investigate the effects on image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, Robert D.; Kleinman, Patricia L.; Lee, Edward Y.; Yu, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that 70-kilovolt (kV) imaging enhances the contrast of iodine, potentially affording a reduction in radiation dose while maintaining the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). There is a maximum amount of image noise beyond which increased contrast does not improve structure visualization. Thus, noise should be constrained during protocol optimization. This phantom study investigated the effect of 70-kV imaging for pediatric thoracic CT angiography on image quality and radiation dose in a pediatric population when a noise constraint was considered. We measured contrast and noise using anthropomorphic thoracic phantoms ranging in size from newborn age equivalent to 10-year-old age equivalent. We inserted contrast rods into the phantoms to simulate injected contrast material used in a CT angiography study. The image-quality metric ''iodine CNR with a noise constraint'' was used to determine the relative dose factor for each phantom size, kV setting (70-140 kV) and noise constraint (1.00-1.20). A noise constraint of 1.20 indicates that noise should not increase by more than 20% of the noise level in images performed at the reference kV, selected to be 80 kV in this study. The relative dose factor can be applied to the original dose obtained at 80 kV in order to maintain iodine CNR with the noise constraint. A relative dose factor <1.0 indicates potential for dose reduction while a relative dose factor >1.0 indicates a dose penalty. Iodine contrast was highest for 70 kV and decreased with higher kV settings for all phantom sizes. The relative dose factor at 70 kV was <1.0 for all noise constraint >1.0, indicating potential for dose reduction, for the newborn, 1-year-old and 5-year-old age-equivalent phantom sizes. For the 10-year-old age-equivalent phantom, relative dose factor at 70 kV=1.22, 1.11, 1.01, 0.92 and 0.83 for noise constraint=1.00, 1.05, 1.10, 1.15, 1.20, respectively, indicating a dose penalty for noise constraint

  15. CNR LARA project, Italy: Airborne laboratory for environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fiumi, L.; Marino, C. M.; Pignatti, S.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest for the environmental problems and the study of the impact on the environment due to antropic activity produced an enhancement of remote sensing applications. The Italian National Research Council (CNR) established a new laboratory for airborne hyperspectral imaging, the LARA Project (Laboratorio Aero per Ricerche Ambientali - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Research), equipping its airborne laboratory, a CASA-212, mainly with the Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. MIVIS's channels, spectral bandwidths, and locations are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. MIVIS can make significant contributions to solving problems in many diverse areas such as geologic exploration, land use studies, mineralogy, agricultural crop studies, energy loss analysis, pollution assessment, volcanology, forest fire management and others. The broad spectral range and the many discrete narrow channels of MIVIS provide a fine quantization of spectral information that permits accurate definition of absorption features from a variety of materials, allowing the extraction of chemical and physical information of our environment. The availability of such a hyperspectral imager, that will operate mainly in the Mediterranean area, at the present represents a unique opportunity for those who are involved in environmental studies and land-management to collect systematically large-scale and high spectral-spatial resolution data of this part of the world. Nevertheless, MIVIS deployments will touch other parts of the world, where a major interest from the international scientific community is present.

  16. A systematic comparison of motion artifact correction techniques for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Robert J; Selb, Juliette; Gagnon, Louis

    2012-01-01

    a significant reduction in the mean-squared error (MSE) and significant increase in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the recovered HRF when compared to no correction and compared to a process of rejecting motion-contaminated trials. Spline interpolation produces the largest average reduction in MSE (55....... Principle component analysis, spline interpolation, wavelet analysis, and Kalman filtering approaches are compared to one another and to standard approaches using the accuracy of the recovered, simulated hemodynamic response function (HRF). Each of the four motion correction techniques we tested yields......%) while wavelet analysis produces the highest average increase in CNR (39%). On the basis of this analysis, we recommend the routine application of motion correction techniques (particularly spline interpolation or wavelet analysis) to minimize the impact of motion artifacts on functional NIRS data....

  17. Quantitative assessment of diffuse optical tomography sensitivity to the cerebral cortex using a whole-head probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, Katherine L; Diamond, Solomon G; Fang Qianqian

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the variability in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) sensitivity over the cortical surface in eight young adult subjects. We use the 10/5 electroencephalography system as a basis for our whole-head optical high-density probe design. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is calculated along with the percentage of the cortex that is above a CNR = 0 dB threshold. We also quantify the effect of including vasculature on the forward model and list our assumptions that allow us to estimate light penetration depth in the head. We show that using the 10/5 system for the optical probe design allows for the measurement of 37% of the cortical surface on average, with a mean CNR in the visible region of 5.5 dB. Certain anatomical regions, such as the lateral occipital cortex, had a very high percentage above the CNR threshold, while other regions such as the cingulate cortex were not measurable. Vasculature blocked optical sensitivity over 1% of the cortex. Cortical coverage was positively correlated with intracranial volume and relative cerebrospinal fluid volume, and negatively correlated with relative scalp volume and skull volume. These contributions allow experimenters to understand how anatomical variation in a subject population may impact DOT or functional near-infrared spectroscopy measurements. (paper)

  18. Noise in Neural Networks: Thresholds, Hysteresis, and Neuromodulation of Signal-To-Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, James D.; Pichler, Elgar E.; Ross, John

    1989-03-01

    We study a neural-network model including Gaussian noise, higher-order neuronal interactions, and neuromodulation. For a first-order network, there is a threshold in the noise level (phase transition) above which the network displays only disorganized behavior and critical slowing down near the noise threshold. The network can tolerate more noise if it has higher-order feedback interactions, which also lead to hysteresis and multistability in the network dynamics. The signal-to-noise ratio can be adjusted in a biological neural network by neuromodulators such as norepinephrine. Comparisons are made to experimental results and further investigations are suggested to test the effects of hysteresis and neuromodulation in pattern recognition and learning. We propose that norepinephrine may ``quench'' the neural patterns of activity to enhance the ability to learn details.

  19. Evaluation of a Chest Circumference-Adapted Protocol for Low-Dose 128-Slice Coronary CT Angiography with Prospective Electrocardiogram Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chenying; Wang, Zufei; Ji, Jiansong; Wang, Hailin; Hu, Xianghua; Chen, Chunmiao [Department of Radiology, Lishui Central Hospital, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000 (China)

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol on radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered coronary CT angiography (CCTA). One hundred-eighty-five consecutive patients, who had undergone prospective ECG triggering CCTA with a 128-slice CT, were included in the present study. Nipple-level chest circumference, body weight and height were measured before CT examinations. Patients were divided into four groups based on kV/ref·mAs = 100/200, 100/250, 120/200, and 120/250, when patient's chest circumference was ≤ 85.0 (n = 56), 85.0-90.0 (n = 53), 90.0-95.0 (n = 44), and > 95.0 (n = 32), respectively. Image quality per-segment was independently assessed by two experienced observers. Image noise and attenuation were also measured. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The effective radiation dose was calculated using CT dose volume index and the dose-length product. A significant correlation was observed between patients' chest circumference and body mass index (r = 0.762, p < 0.001). Chest circumference ranged from 74 to 105 cm, and the mean effective radiation dose was 1.9-3.8 mSv. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in 98.5% (2440/2478) of all evaluated coronary segments without any significant differences among the four groups (p = 0.650). No significant difference in image noise was observed among the four groups (p = 0.439), thus supporting the validity of the chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol. However, vessel attenuation, SNR and CNR were significantly higher in the 100 kV groups than in the 120 kV groups (p < 0.05). A measure of chest circumference can be used to adapt tube voltage and current for individualized radiation dose control, with resultant similar image noise and sustained diagnostic image quality.

  20. Objective measures of listening effort: effects of background noise and noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent; Hafter, Ervin

    2009-10-01

    This work is aimed at addressing a seeming contradiction related to the use of noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in hearing aids. The problem is that although some listeners claim a subjective improvement from NR, it has not been shown to improve speech intelligibility, often even making it worse. To address this, the hypothesis tested here is that the positive effects of NR might be to reduce cognitive effort directed toward speech reception, making it available for other tasks. Normal-hearing individuals participated in 2 dual-task experiments, in which 1 task was to report sentences or words in noise set to various signal-to-noise ratios. Secondary tasks involved either holding words in short-term memory or responding in a complex visual reaction-time task. At low values of signal-to-noise ratio, although NR had no positive effect on speech reception thresholds, it led to better performance on the word-memory task and quicker responses in visual reaction times. Results from both dual tasks support the hypothesis that NR reduces listening effort and frees up cognitive resources for other tasks. Future hearing aid research should incorporate objective measurements of cognitive benefits.

  1. A Comparison of seismic instrument noise coherence analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Evans, J.R.; Sandoval, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The self-noise of a seismic instrument is a fundamental characteristic used to evaluate the quality of the instrument. It is important to be able to measure this self-noise robustly, to understand how differences among test configurations affect the tests, and to understand how different processing techniques and isolation methods (from nonseismic sources) can contribute to differences in results. We compare two popular coherence methods used for calculating incoherent noise, which is widely used as an estimate of instrument self-noise (incoherent noise and self-noise are not strictly identical but in observatory practice are approximately equivalent; Holcomb, 1989; Sleeman et al., 2006). Beyond directly comparing these two coherence methods on similar models of seismometers, we compare how small changes in test conditions can contribute to incoherent-noise estimates. These conditions include timing errors, signal-to-noise ratio changes (ratios between background noise and instrument incoherent noise), relative sensor locations, misalignment errors, processing techniques, and different configurations of sensor types.

  2. Selecting optimal monochromatic level with spectral CT imaging for improving imaging quality in hepatic venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun; Luo Xianfu; Wang Shou'an; Wang Jun; Sun Jiquan; Wang Zhijun; Wu Jingtao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of spectral CT monochromatic images for improving imaging quality in hepatic venography. Methods: Thirty patients underwent spectral CT examination on a GE Discovery CT 750 HD scanner. During portal phase, 1.25 mm slice thickness polychromatic images and optimal monochromatic images were obtained, and volume rendering and maximum intensity projection were created to show the hepatic veins respectively. The overall imaging quality was evaluated on a five-point scale by two radiologists. Inter-observer agreement in subjective image quality grading was assessed by Kappa statistics. Paired-sample t test were used to compare hepatic vein attenuation, hepatic parenchyma attenuation, CT value difference between the hepatic vein and the liver parenchyma, image noise, vein-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the image quality score of hepatic venography between the two image data sets. Results: The monochromatic images at 50 keV were found to demonstrate the best CNR for hepatic vein.The hepatic vein attenuation [(329 ± 47) HU], hepatic parenchyma attenuation [(178 ± 33) HU], CT value difference between the hepatic vein and the liver parenchyma [(151 ± 33) HU], image noise (17.33 ± 4.18), CNR (9.13 ± 2.65), the image quality score (4.2 ± 0.6) of optimal monochromatic images were significantly higher than those of polychromatic images [(149 ± 18) HU], [(107 ± 14) HU], [(43 ±11) HU], 12.55 ± 3.02, 3.53 ± 1.03, 3.1 ± 0.8 (t values were 24.79, 13.95, 18.85, 9.07, 13.25 and 12.04, respectively, P < 0.01). In the comparison of image quality, Kappa value was 0.81 with optimal monochromatic images and 0.69 with polychromatic images. Conclusion: Monochromatic images of spectral CT could improve CNR for displaying hepatic vein and improve the image quality compared to the conventional polychromatic images. (authors)

  3. Adaptive EMG noise reduction in ECG signals using noise level approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, Mohamed; Saranovac, Lazar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper the usage of noise level approximation for adaptive Electromyogram (EMG) noise reduction in the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is introduced. To achieve the adequate adaptiveness, a translation-invariant noise level approximation is employed. The approximation is done in the form of a guiding signal extracted as an estimation of the signal quality vs. EMG noise. The noise reduction framework is based on a bank of low pass filters. So, the adaptive noise reduction is achieved by selecting the appropriate filter with respect to the guiding signal aiming to obtain the best trade-off between the signal distortion caused by filtering and the signal readability. For the evaluation purposes; both real EMG and artificial noises are used. The tested ECG signals are from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database Directory, while both real and artificial records of EMG noise are added and used in the evaluation process. Firstly, comparison with state of the art methods is conducted to verify the performance of the proposed approach in terms of noise cancellation while preserving the QRS complex waves. Additionally, the signal to noise ratio improvement after the adaptive noise reduction is computed and presented for the proposed method. Finally, the impact of adaptive noise reduction method on QRS complexes detection was studied. The tested signals are delineated using a state of the art method, and the QRS detection improvement for different SNR is presented.

  4. Combination of highly nonlinear fiber, an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot filter to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a supercontinuum continuous-wave optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yinbo; Huo, Li; Lou, Caiyun

    2005-05-20

    We present a theoretical study of a supercontinuum (SC) continuous-wave (cw) optical source generation in highly nonlinear fiber and its noise properties through numerical simulations based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Fluctuations of pump pulses generate substructures between the longitudinal modes that result in the generation of white noise and then in degradation of coherence and in a decrease of the modulation depths and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A scheme for improvement of the SNR of a multiwavelength cw optical source based on a SC by use of the combination of a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter is presented. Numerical simulations show that the improvement in modulation depth is relative to the HNLF's length, the 3-dB bandwidth of the optical bandpass filter, and the reflection ratio of the FP filter and that the average improvement in modulation depth is 13.7 dB under specified conditions.

  5. Image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CT angiography at 70 kVp on an integrated circuit detector dual-source computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhao, Yan'E; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Spearman, James V; Renker, Matthias; Schoepf, U Joseph; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-06-01

    Despite the well-established requirement for radiation dose reduction there are few studies examining the potential for lower extremity CT angiography (CTA) at 70 kVp. To compare the image quality and radiation dose of lower extremity CTA at 70 kVp using a dual-source CT system with an integrated circuit detector to similar studies at 120 kVp. A total of 62 patients underwent lower extremity CTA. Thirty-one patients were examined at 70 kVp using a second generation dual-source CT with an integrated circuit detector (70 kVp group) and 31 patients were evaluated at 120 kVp using a first generation dual-source CT (120 kVp group). The attenuation and image noise were measured and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Two radiologists assessed image quality. Radiation dose was compared. The mean attenuation of the 70 kVp group was higher than the 120 kVp group (575 ± 149 Hounsfield units [HU] vs. 258 ± 38 HU, respectively, P < 0.001) as was SNR (44.0 ± 22.0 vs 32.7 ± 13.3, respectively, P = 0.017), CNR (39.7 ± 20.6 vs 26.6 ± 11.7, respectively, P = 0.003) and the mean image quality score (3.7 ± 0.1 vs. 3.2 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.001). The inter-observer agreement was good for the 70 kVp group and moderate for the 120 kVp group. The dose-length product was lower in the 70 kVp group (264.5 ± 63.1 mGy × cm vs. 412.4 ± 81.5 mGy × cm, P < 0.001). Lower extremity CTA at 70 kVp allows for lower radiation dose with higher SNR, CNR, and image quality when compared with standard 120 kVp. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Measuring multielectron beam imaging fidelity with a signal-to-noise ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Maseeh; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Quoi, Kathy; Malloy, Matt; Thiel, Brad

    2016-07-01

    Java Monte Carlo Simulator for Secondary Electrons (JMONSEL) simulations are used to generate expected imaging responses of chosen test cases of patterns and defects with the ability to vary parameters for beam energy, spot size, pixel size, and/or defect material and form factor. The patterns are representative of the design rules for an aggressively scaled FinFET-type design. With these simulated images and resulting shot noise, a signal-to-noise framework is developed, which relates to defect detection probabilities. Additionally, with this infrastructure, the effect of detection chain noise and frequency-dependent system response can be made, allowing for targeting of best recipe parameters for multielectron beam inspection validation experiments. Ultimately, these results should lead to insights into how such parameters will impact tool design, including necessary doses for defect detection and estimations of scanning speeds for achieving high throughput for high-volume manufacturing.

  7. Maximizing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in 3-D large bandgap semiconductor pixelated detectors in optimal and non-optimal filtering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Miesher L.; Serra, Andre da S.; He, Zhong; Zhu, Yuefeng

    2009-01-01

    3-D pixelated semiconductor detectors are used in radiation detection applications requiring spectroscopic and imaging information from radiation sources. Reconstruction algorithms used to determine direction and energy of incoming gamma rays can be improved by reducing electronic noise and using optimum filtering techniques. Position information can be improved by achieving sub-pixel resolution. Electronic noise is the limiting factor. Achieving sub-pixel resolution - position of the interaction better than one pixel pitch - in 3-D pixelated semiconductor detectors is a challenging task due to the fast transient characteristics of these signals. This work addresses two fundamental questions: the first is to determine the optimum filter, while the second is to estimate the achievable sub-pixel resolution using this filter. It is shown that the matched filter is the optimum filter when applying the signal-to-noise ratio criteria. Also, non-optimum filters are studied. The framework of 3-D waveform simulation using the Shockley-Ramo Theorem and the Hecht Equation for electron and hole trapping is presented in this work. This waveform simulator can be used to analyze current detectors as well as explore new ideas and concepts in future work. Numerical simulations show that assuming an electronic noise of 3.3 keV it is possible to subdivide the pixel region into 5x5 sub-pixels. After analyzing these results, it is suggested that sub-pixel information can also improve energy resolution. Current noise levels present the major drawback to both achieve sub-pixel resolution as well as improve energy resolution below the current limits. (author)

  8. Assessment of an advanced monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Moritz H.; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kraft, Johannes; Bauer, Ralf W.; Kaup, Moritz; Dewes, Patricia; Bucher, Andreas M.; Burck, Iris; Lehnert, Thomas; Kerl, J.M.; Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To define optimal keV settings for advanced monoenergetic (Mono+) dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). DECT data of 44 patients (34 men, mean age 55.5 ± 16.0 years) with histopathologically confirmed SCC were reconstructed as 40, 55, 70 keV Mono + and M0.3 (30 % 80 kV) linearly blended series. Attenuation of tumour, sternocleidomastoid muscle, internal jugular vein, submandibular gland, and noise were measured. Three radiologists with >3 years of experience subjectively assessed image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and noise. The highest lesion attenuation was shown for 40 keV series (248.1 ± 94.1 HU), followed by 55 keV (150.2 ± 55.5 HU; P = 0.001). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at 40 keV (19.09 ± 13.84) was significantly superior to all other reconstructions (55 keV, 10.25 ± 9.11; 70 keV, 7.68 ± 6.31; M0.3, 5.49 ± 3.28; all P < 0.005). Subjective image quality was highest for 55 keV images (4.53; κ = 0.38, P = 0.003), followed by 40 keV (4.14; κ = 0.43, P < 0.001) and 70 keV reconstructions (4.06; κ = 0.32, P = 0.005), all superior (P < 0.004) to linear blending M0.3 (3.81; κ = 0.280, P = 0.056). Mono + DECT at low keV levels significantly improves CNR and subjective image quality in patients with head and neck SCC, as tumour CNR peaks at 40 keV, and 55 keV images are preferred by observers. (orig.)

  9. WE-FG-207B-07: Feasibility of Low Dose Lung Cancer Screening with a Whole-Body Photon Counting CT: First Human Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, R; Cork, T; Folio, L; Bluemke, D; Pourmorteza, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a whole-body photon counting detector (PCD) CT scanner for low dose lung cancer screening compared to a conventional energy integrating detector (EID) system. Methods: Radiation dose-matched EID and PCD scans of the COPDGene 2 phantom and 2 human volunteers were acquired. Phantom images were acquired at different radiation dose levels (CTDIvol: 3.0, 1.5, and 0.75 mGy) and different tube voltages (120, 100, and 80 kVp), while human images were acquired at vendor recommended low-dose lung cancer screening settings. EID and PCD images were compared for quantitative Hounsfield unit accuracy, noise levels, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and emphysema. Results: The PCD Hounsfield unit accuracy was better for water at all scan parameters, and for lung, GGN and emphysema equivalent regions of interest (ROIs) at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy. PCD attenuation accuracy was more consistent for all scan parameters (all P<0.01), while Hounsfield units for lung, GGN and emphysema ROIs changed significantly for EID with decreasing dose (all P<0.001). PCD showed lower noise levels at the lowest dose setting at 120, 100 and 80 kVp (15.2±0.3 vs 15.8±0.2, P=0.03; 16.1±0.3 vs 18.0±0.4, P=0.003; and 16.1±0.3 vs 17.9±0.3, P=0.001, respectively), resulting in superior CNR for the detection of GGNs and emphysema at 100 and 80 kVp. Significantly lower PCD noise levels were confirmed in volunteer images. Conclusion: PCD provided better Hounsfield unit accuracy for lung, ground-glass, and emphysema-equivalent foams at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy with less variability than EID. Additionally, PCD showed less noise, and higher CNR at 0.75 mGy for both 100 and 80 kVp. PCD technology may help reduce radiation exposure in lung cancer screening while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  10. WE-FG-207B-07: Feasibility of Low Dose Lung Cancer Screening with a Whole-Body Photon Counting CT: First Human Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R; Cork, T; Folio, L; Bluemke, D; Pourmorteza, A [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a whole-body photon counting detector (PCD) CT scanner for low dose lung cancer screening compared to a conventional energy integrating detector (EID) system. Methods: Radiation dose-matched EID and PCD scans of the COPDGene 2 phantom and 2 human volunteers were acquired. Phantom images were acquired at different radiation dose levels (CTDIvol: 3.0, 1.5, and 0.75 mGy) and different tube voltages (120, 100, and 80 kVp), while human images were acquired at vendor recommended low-dose lung cancer screening settings. EID and PCD images were compared for quantitative Hounsfield unit accuracy, noise levels, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and emphysema. Results: The PCD Hounsfield unit accuracy was better for water at all scan parameters, and for lung, GGN and emphysema equivalent regions of interest (ROIs) at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy. PCD attenuation accuracy was more consistent for all scan parameters (all P<0.01), while Hounsfield units for lung, GGN and emphysema ROIs changed significantly for EID with decreasing dose (all P<0.001). PCD showed lower noise levels at the lowest dose setting at 120, 100 and 80 kVp (15.2±0.3 vs 15.8±0.2, P=0.03; 16.1±0.3 vs 18.0±0.4, P=0.003; and 16.1±0.3 vs 17.9±0.3, P=0.001, respectively), resulting in superior CNR for the detection of GGNs and emphysema at 100 and 80 kVp. Significantly lower PCD noise levels were confirmed in volunteer images. Conclusion: PCD provided better Hounsfield unit accuracy for lung, ground-glass, and emphysema-equivalent foams at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy with less variability than EID. Additionally, PCD showed less noise, and higher CNR at 0.75 mGy for both 100 and 80 kVp. PCD technology may help reduce radiation exposure in lung cancer screening while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  11. Stochastic resonance in a stochastic bistable system with additive noises and square–wave signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Guo; Xiang-Dong, Luo; Shao-Fu, Li; Yu-Rong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the stochastic resonance in a stochastic bistable system driven by a periodic square-wave signal and a static force as well as by additive white noise and dichotomous noise from the viewpoint of signal-to-noise ratio. It finds that the signal-to-noise ratio appears as stochastic resonance behaviour when it is plotted as a function of the noise strength of the white noise and dichotomous noise, as a function of the system parameters, or as a function of the static force. Moreover, the influence of the strength of the stochastic potential force and the correlation rate of the dichotomous noise on the signal-to-noise ratio is investigated. (general)

  12. Using optical fibers with different modes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter measurements

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    The dual-wavelength diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter is an emerging technique enabling simultaneous measurements of blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in deep tissues. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial when applying DCS technologies in the study of human tissues where the detected signals are usually very weak. In this study, single-mode, few-mode, and multimode fibers are compared to explore the possibility of improving the SNR of DCS flow-oximeter measure...

  13. Variability of signal-to-noise ratio and the network analysis of gravitational wave burst signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S D; Rakhmanov, M; Klimenko, S; Mitselmakher, G

    2006-01-01

    The detection and estimation of gravitational wave burst signals, with a priori unknown polarization waveforms, requires the use of data from a network of detectors. Maximizing the network likelihood functional over all waveforms and sky positions yields point estimates for them as well as a detection statistic. However, the transformation from the data to estimates can become ill-conditioned over parts of the sky, resulting in significant errors in estimation. We modify the likelihood procedure by introducing a penalty functional which suppresses candidate solutions that display large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) variability as the source is displaced on the sky. Simulations show that the resulting network analysis method performs significantly better in estimating the sky position of a source. Further, this method can be applied to any network, irrespective of the number or mutual alignment of detectors

  14. SU-E-J-27: Shifting Multiple EPID Imager Layers to Improve Image Quality and Resolution in MV CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Rottmann, J; Yip, S; Berbeco, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Morf, D; Fueglistaller, R; Star-Lack, J; Zentai, G [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Vertical stacking of four conventional EPID layers can improve DQE for MV-CBCT applications. We hypothesize that shifting each layer laterally by half a pixel relative to the layer above, will improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image resolution. Methods: For CNR assessment, a 20 cm diameter digital phantom with 8 inserts is created. The attenuation coefficient of the phantom is similar to lung at the average energy of a 6 MV photon beam. The inserts have attenuations 1, 2…8 times of lung. One of the inserts is close to soft tissue, resembling the case of a tumor in lung. For resolution assessment, a digital phantom featuring a bar pattern is created. The phantom has an attenuation coefficient similar to soft tissue and the bars have an attenuation coefficient of calcium sulfate. A 2 MeV photon beam is attenuated through these phantoms and hits each of the four stacked detector layers. Each successive layer is shifted by half a pixel in the x only, y only, and x and y (combined) directions, respectively. Blurring and statistical noise are added to the projections. Projections from one, two, three and four layers are used for reconstruction. CNR and image resolution are evaluated and compared. Results: When projections from multiple layers are combined for reconstruction, CNR increases with the number of layers involved. CNR in reconstructions from two, three and four layers are 1.4, 1.7 and 1.99 times that from one layer. The resolution from the shifted four layer detector is also improved from a single layer. In a comparison between one layer versus four layers in this preliminary study, the resolution from four shifted layers is at least 20% better. Conclusion: Layer-shifting in a stacked EPID imager design enhances resolution as well as CNR for half scan MV-CBCT. The project described was supported, in part, by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Inc., and Award No. R01CA188446-01 from the National Cancer Institute. The content is solely

  15. When noise is beneficial for sensory encoding: Noise adaptation can improve face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U; Redies, Christoph; Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Gyula

    2017-10-01

    The presence of noise usually impairs the processing of a stimulus. Here, we studied the effects of noise on face processing and show, for the first time, that adaptation to noise patterns has beneficial effects on face perception. We used noiseless faces that were either surrounded by random noise or presented on a uniform background as stimuli. In addition, the faces were either preceded by noise adaptors or not. Moreover, we varied the statistics of the noise so that its spectral slope either matched that of the faces or it was steeper or shallower. Results of parallel ERP recordings showed that the background noise reduces the amplitude of the face-evoked N170, indicating less intensive face processing. Adaptation to a noise pattern, however, led to reduced P1 and enhanced N170 amplitudes as well as to a better behavioral performance in two of the three noise conditions. This effect was also augmented by the presence of background noise around the target stimuli. Additionally, the spectral slope of the noise pattern affected the size of the P1, N170 and P2 amplitudes. We reason that the observed effects are due to the selective adaptation of noise-sensitive neurons present in the face-processing cortical areas, which may enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of virtual monoenergetic imaging algorithms for dual-energy carotid and intracerebral CT angiography: Effects on image quality, artefacts and diagnostic performance for the detection of stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Doris; Mahmoudi, Scherwin; Wichmann, Julian L; Martin, Simon S; Lenga, Lukas; Albrecht, Moritz H; Booz, Christian; Arendt, Christophe T; Beeres, Martin; D'Angelo, Tommaso; Bodelle, Boris; Vogl, Thomas J; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the impact of traditional (VMI) and noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) algorithms on quantitative and qualitative image quality, and the assessment of stenosis in carotid and intracranial dual-energy CTA (DE-CTA). DE-CTA studies of 40 patients performed on a third-generation 192-slice dual-source CT scanner were included in this retrospective study. 120-kVp image-equivalent linearly-blended, VMI and VMI+ series were reconstructed. Quantitative analysis included evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of the aorta, common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery, and basilar artery. VMI and VMI+ with highest CNR, and linearly-blended series were rated qualitatively. Three radiologists assessed artefacts and suitability for evaluation at shoulder height, carotid bifurcation, siphon, and intracranial using 5-point Likert scales. Detection and grading of stenosis were performed at carotid bifurcation and siphon. Highest CNR values were observed for 40-keV VMI+ compared to 65-keV VMI and linearly-blended images (P evaluation at shoulder and bifurcation height. Suitability was significantly higher in VMI+ and VMI compared to linearly-blended images for intracranial and ICA assessment (P performance. 40-keV VMI+ showed improved quantitative image quality compared to 65-keV VMI and linearly-blended series in supraaortic DE-CTA. VMI and VMI+ provided increased suitability for carotid and intracranial artery evaluation with excellent assessment of stenosis, but did not translate into increased diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Portable Digital Radiography System with a Device for Monitoring X-ray Source-Detector Angle and Its Application in Chest Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a device measuring the X-ray source-detector angle (SDA and evaluated the imaging performance for diagnosing chest images. The SDA device consisted of Arduino, an accelerometer and gyro sensor, and a Bluetooth module. The SDA values were compared with the values of a digital angle meter. The performance of the portable digital radiography (PDR was evaluated using the signal-to-noise (SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, spatial resolution, distortion and entrance surface dose (ESD. According to different angle degrees, five anatomical landmarks were assessed using a five-point scale. The mean SNR and CNR were 182.47 and 141.43. The spatial resolution and ESD were 3.17 lp/mm (157 μm and 0.266 mGy. The angle values of the SDA device were not significantly difference as compared to those of the digital angle meter. In chest imaging, the SNR and CNR values were not significantly different according to the different angle degrees. The visibility scores of the border of the heart, the fifth rib and the scapula showed significant differences according to different angles (p < 0.05, whereas the scores of the clavicle and first rib were not significant. It is noticeable that the increase in the SDA degree was consistent with the increases of the distortion and visibility score. The proposed PDR with a SDA device would be useful for application in the clinical radiography setting according to the standard radiography guidelines.

  18. A feasibility study of projection-based energy weighting based on a photon-counting detector in contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yuna; Kim, Heejoung

    2014-01-01

    Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05 - 1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.

  19. A feasibility study of projection-based energy weighting based on a photon-counting detector in contrast-enhanced digital subtraction mammography: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yuna; Kim, Heejoung [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05 - 1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.

  20. Comparison of 3 T and 7 T MRI clinical sequences for ankle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juras, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.juras@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna General Hospital, Waeringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Measurement Science, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Welsch, Goetz, E-mail: welsch@bwh.harvard.edu [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna General Hospital, Waeringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Baer, Peter, E-mail: baerpeter@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, Richard-Strauss-Strasse 76, D81679 Munich (Germany); Kronnerwetter, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.kronnerwetter@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna General Hospital, Waeringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Fujita, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hiroyuki.fujita@qualedyn.com [Quality Electrodynamics, LCC, 777 Beta Dr, Cleveland, OH 44143-2336 (United States); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna General Hospital, Waeringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 T and 7 T signal-to-noise and contrast-to noise ratios of clinical sequences for imaging of the ankles with optimized sequences and dedicated coils. Ten healthy volunteers were examined consecutively on both systems with three clinical sequences: (1) 3D gradient-echo, T{sub 1}-weighted; (2) 2D fast spin-echo, PD-weighted; and (3) 2D spin-echo, T{sub 1}-weighted. SNR was calculated for six regions: cartilage; bone; muscle; synovial fluid; Achilles tendon; and Kager's fat-pad. CNR was obtained for cartilage/bone, cartilage/fluid, cartilage/muscle, and muscle/fat-pad, and compared by a one-way ANOVA test for repeated measures. Mean SNR significantly increased at 7 T compared to 3 T for 3D GRE, and 2D TSE was 60.9% and 86.7%, respectively. In contrast, an average SNR decrease of almost 25% was observed in the 2D SE sequence. A CNR increase was observed in 2D TSE images, and in most 3D GRE images. There was a substantial benefit from ultra high-field MR imaging of ankles with routine clinical sequences at 7 T compared to 3 T. Higher SNR and CNR at ultra-high field MR scanners may be useful in clinical practice for ankle imaging. However, carefully optimized protocols and dedicated extremity coils are necessary to obtain optimal results.

  1. Dual energy CT of the chest: how about the dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenzle, Jan C; Sommer, Wieland H; Neumaier, Klement; Michalski, Gisela; Lechel, Ursula; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Christoph R; Reiser, Maximilian F; Johnson, Thorsten R C

    2010-06-01

    New generation Dual Source computed tomography (CT) scanners offer different x-ray spectra for Dual Energy imaging. Yet, an objective, manufacturer independent verification of the dose required for the different spectral combinations is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess dose and image noise of 2 different Dual Energy CT settings with reference to a standard chest scan and to compare image noise and contrast to noise ratios (CNR). Also, exact effective dose length products (E/DLP) conversion factors were to be established based on the objectively measured dose. An anthropomorphic Alderson phantom was assembled with thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and its chest was scanned on a Dual Source CT (Siemens Somatom Definition) in dual energy mode at 140 and 80 kVp with 14 x 1.2 mm collimation. The same was performed on another Dual Source CT (Siemens Somatom Definition Flash) at 140 kVp with 0.8 mm tin filter (Sn) and 100 kVp at 128 x 0.6 mm collimation. Reference scans were obtained at 120 kVp with 64 x 0.6 mm collimation at equivalent CT dose index of 5.4 mGy*cm. Syringes filled with water and 17.5 mg iodine/mL were scanned with the same settings. Dose was calculated from the TLD measurements and the dose length products of the scanner. Image noise was measured in the phantom scans and CNR and spectral contrast were determined in the iodine and water samples. E/DLP conversion factors were calculated as ratio between the measured dose form the TLDs and the dose length product given in the patient protocol. The effective dose measured with TLDs was 2.61, 2.69, and 2.70 mSv, respectively, for the 140/80 kVp, the 140 Sn/100 kVp, and the standard 120 kVp scans. Image noise measured in the average images of the phantom scans was 11.0, 10.7, and 9.9 HU (P > 0.05). The CNR of iodine with optimized image blending was 33.4 at 140/80 kVp, 30.7 at 140Sn/100 kVp and 14.6 at 120 kVp. E/DLP conversion factors were 0.0161 mSv/mGy*cm for the 140/80 kVp protocol, 0.0181 m

  2. Quality assurance in MRI breast screening: comparing signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousi, Evanthia; Borri, Marco; Dean, Jamie; Panek, Rafal; Scurr, Erica; Leach, Martin O.; Schmidt, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    MRI has been extensively used in breast cancer staging, management and high risk screening. Detection sensitivity is paramount in breast screening, but variations of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of position are often overlooked. We propose and demonstrate practical methods to assess spatial SNR variations in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) breast examinations and apply those methods to different protocols and systems. Four different protocols in three different MRI systems (1.5 and 3.0 T) with receiver coils of different design were employed on oil-filled test objects with and without uniformity filters. Twenty 3D datasets were acquired with each protocol; each dataset was acquired in under 60 s, thus complying with current breast DCE guidelines. In addition to the standard SNR calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis, we propose other regional indices considering the mean and standard deviation of the signal over a small sub-region centred on each pixel. These regional indices include effects of the spatial variation of coil sensitivity and other structured artefacts. The proposed regional SNR indices demonstrate spatial variations in SNR as well as the presence of artefacts and sensitivity variations, which are otherwise difficult to quantify and might be overlooked in a clinical setting. Spatial variations in SNR depend on protocol choice and hardware characteristics. The use of uniformity filters was shown to lead to a rise of SNR values, altering the noise distribution. Correlation between noise in adjacent pixels was associated with data truncation along the phase encoding direction. Methods to characterise spatial SNR variations using regional information were demonstrated, with implications for quality assurance in breast screening and multi-centre trials.

  3. Reducing the effects of metal artefact using high keV monoenergetic reconstruction of dual energy CT (DECT) in hip replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mark [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (United Kingdom); Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich (United Kingdom); Reid, Karen [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (United Kingdom); Toms, Andoni P. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital and University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high keV monoenergetic reconstruction of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) could be used to overcome the effects of beam hardening artefact that arise from preferential deflection of low energy photons. Two phantoms were used: a Charnley total hip replacement set in gelatine and a Catphan 500. DECT datasets were acquired at 100, 200 and 400 mA (Siemens Definition Flash, 100 and 140 kVp) and reconstructed using a standard combined algorithm (1:1) and then as monoenergetic reconstructions at 10 keV intervals from 40 to 190 keV. Semi-automated segmentation with threshold inpainting was used to obtain the attenuation values and standard deviation (SD) of the streak artefact. High contrast line pair resolution and background noise were assessed using the Catphan 500. Streak artefact is progressively reduced with increasing keV monoenergetic reconstructions. Reconstruction of a 400 mA acquisition at 150 keV results in reduction in the volume of streak artefact from 65 cm{sup 3} to 17 cm{sup 3} (74 %). There was a decrease in the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) at higher tube voltages, with the peak CNR seen at 70-80 keV. High contrast spatial resolution was maintained at high keV values. Monoenergetic reconstruction of dual energy CT at increasing theoretical kilovoltages reduces the streak artefact produced by beam hardening from orthopaedic prostheses, accompanied by a modest increase in heterogeneity of background image attenuation, and decrease in contrast to noise ratio, but no deterioration in high contrast line pair resolution. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion weighted imaging of liver lesions suspect for metastases: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and lesion contrast are independent from Gd-EOB-DTPA administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Schelhorn, Juliane; Dietzel, Matthias; Kaiser, Werner A.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) enhanced liver MRI is widely used for detection and differentiation of focal liver lesions. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements is increasingly utilised as a fast and, with limitations, quantitative method for liver lesion detection and characterisation. Herein we investigate whether the administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA affects DWI. Materials and methods: 31 consecutive patients referred to standardised liver MRI (1.5 T, Gd-EOB-DTPA, 0.025 mmol/kg) were retrospectively reviewed. All underwent a breathhold DWI sequence before and after contrast agent administration (EPI-DWI, TR/TE (effective): 2100/62 ms, b-values: 0 and 800 s/mm 2 ). Patients with previously treated liver lesions were excluded. Signal intensity of lesion, parenchyma and noise on DWI images as well as the ADC value were measured after identification by two observers in consensus using manually placed regions of interest. The reference standard was imaging follow-up determined separately by two radiologists. Data analysis included signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) calculations, comparisons were drawn by employing multiple Bonferroni corrected Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: 50 malignant and 39 benign lesions were identified. Neither SNR, CNR nor ADC values showed significant differences between pre- and postcontrast DWI. Both pre- and postcontrast ADC values differed significantly between benign and malignant lesions (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We did not identify a significant influence of Gd-EOB-DTPA on DWI of liver lesions. This allows for individual tailoring of imaging protocols according to clinical needs.

  5. Reactor noise monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hiroto.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor noise monitoring device by detecting abnormal sounds in background noises. Vibration sounds detected by accelerometers are applied to a loose parts detector. The detector generates high alarm if there are sudden impact sounds in the background noises and applies output signals to an accumulation device. If there is slight impact sounds in the vicinity of any of the accelerometers, the accumulation device accumulates the abnormal sounds assumed to be generated from an identical site while synchronizing the waveforms for all of the channels. Then, the device outputs signals in which the background noises are cancelled, as detection signals. Therefore, S/N ratio can be improved and the abnormal sounds contained in the background noises can be detected, to thereby improve the accuracy for estimating the position where the abnormal sounds are generated. (I.S.)

  6. Is the body-coil at 3 Tesla feasible for the MRI evaluation of the painful knee? A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutterbey, G.; Behrends, K.; Falkenhausen, M.V.; Wattjes, M.P.; Morakkabati, N.; Schild, H.; Gieseke, J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in-built body coil of the 3.0-Tesla (T) scanner with a dedicated surface coil of a 1.5 T system regarding knee imaging. We performed an intraindividual prospective clinical trial on 17 patients with knee pain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 and 3.0 T systems equipped with identical gradient systems. Proton-density-weighted turbo spin echo sequences with the same spatial resolution and comparable contrast parameters were used. A quantitative measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), relative contrast (RC) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) between muscle and bone marrow was performed, followed by a qualitative assessment of anatomic/pathologic structures and the extent of artefacts. At 3.0 T, 30 lesions (91%) compared to 33 lesions at 1.5 T were detected. The SNR/CNR/RC were moderately reduced at 3.0 T versus 1.5 T (muscle 42 vs 47 and bone 83 vs 112/46 vs 69/0.33 vs 0.43). Motion artefacts from the pulsating popliteal artery were significantly increased at 3.0 T. A visible and measurable signal loss occurred at 3.0 T using the built-in body coil compared with the dedicated 1.5 T knee coil, but nearly all clinically important information could be obtained. (orig.)

  7. Is the body-coil at 3 Tesla feasible for the MRI evaluation of the painful knee? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterbey, G; Behrends, K; Falkenhausen, M V; Wattjes, M P; Morakkabati, N; Gieseke, J; Schild, H

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in-built body coil of the 3.0-Tesla (T) scanner with a dedicated surface coil of a 1.5 T system regarding knee imaging. We performed an intraindividual prospective clinical trial on 17 patients with knee pain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 and 3.0 T systems equipped with identical gradient systems. Proton-density-weighted turbo spin echo sequences with the same spatial resolution and comparable contrast parameters were used. A quantitative measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), relative contrast (RC) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) between muscle and bone marrow was performed, followed by a qualitative assessment of anatomic/pathologic structures and the extent of artefacts. At 3.0 T, 30 lesions (91%) compared to 33 lesions at 1.5 T were detected. The SNR/CNR/RC were moderately reduced at 3.0 T versus 1.5 T (muscle 42 vs 47 and bone 83 vs 112/46 vs 69/0.33 vs 0.43). Motion artefacts from the pulsating popliteal artery were significantly increased at 3.0 T. A visible and measurable signal loss occurred at 3.0 T using the built-in body coil compared with the dedicated 1.5 T knee coil, but nearly all clinically important information could be obtained.

  8. Characterization for multipurpose exploitations of genetic resources from the germplasm collection of pasture species owned by the CNR-ISPAAM in Sassari, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullitta Simonetta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of genetic resources characterization of some pasture species from the germplasm collection held at ISPAAM-CNR in Sassari, Sardinia, Italy. According to the peculiarities of each species, some of the uses suggested by the experimental results were phytoremediation, wildfi re prevention, biomass production for bioenergy, forage production and multiple uses, bioactive compounds for health care of domestic animals.

  9. Thin-Section Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain with Parallel Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oner, A.Y.; Celik, H.; Tali, T.; Akpek, S.; Tokgoz, N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Thin-section diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is known to improve lesion detectability, with long imaging time as a drawback. Parallel imaging (PI) is a technique that takes advantage of spatial sensitivity information inherent in an array of multiple-receiver surface coils to partially replace time-consuming spatial encoding and reduce imaging time. Purpose: To prospectively evaluate a 3-mm-thin-section DWI technique combined with PI by means of qualitative and quantitative measurements. Material and Methods: 30 patients underwent conventional echo-planar (EPI) DWI (5-mm section thickness, 1-mm intersection gap) without parallel imaging, and thin-section EPI-DWI with PI (3-mm section thickness, 0-mm intersection gap) for a b value of 1000 s/mm 2 , with an imaging time of 40 and 80 s, respectively. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), relative signal intensity (rSI), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured over a lesion-free cerebral region on both series by two radiologists. A quality score was assigned for each set of images to assess the image quality. When a brain lesion was present, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and corresponding ADC were also measured. Student t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean SNR values of the normal brain were 33.61±4.35 and 32.98±7.19 for conventional and thin-slice DWI (P>0.05), respectively. Relative signal intensities were significantly higher on thin-section DWI (P 0.05). Quality scores and overall lesion CNR were found to be higher in thin-section DWI with parallel imaging. Conclusion: A thin-section technique combined with PI improves rSI, CNR, and image quality without compromising SNR and ADC measurements in an acceptable imaging time. Keywords: Brain; DWI; parallel imaging; thin section

  10. A methodology for noise prediction of turbofan engines.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Di Fiore dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    A computional model is developed for prediction of noise emission from na existing or new turbofan engine. This model allows the simulation of noise generation from high bypass ratio turbofan engines, appropriate for use with computational programs for gas turbine performance developed at ITA. Analytical and empirical methods are used for spectrum shape, spectrum level, overall noise and free-field directivity noise. The most significant noise sources in turbofan engines are modeled: fan, com...

  11. Digital breast tomosynthesis: computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications on planar projection images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samala, Ravi K; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to detect microcalcification clusters (MCs) in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) via its planar projection (PPJ) image. With IRB approval, two-view (cranio-caudal and mediolateral oblique views) DBTs of human subject breasts were obtained with a GE GEN2 prototype DBT system that acquires 21 projection angles spanning 60° in 3° increments. A data set of 307 volumes (154 human subjects) was divided by case into independent training (127 with MCs) and test sets (104 with MCs and 76 free of MCs). A simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization was used to enhance microcalcifications and suppress noise. During the MSBF regularized reconstruction, the DBT volume was separated into high frequency (HF) and low frequency components representing microcalcifications and larger structures. At the final iteration, maximum intensity projection was applied to the regularized HF volume to generate a PPJ image that contained MCs with increased contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and reduced search space. High CNR objects in the PPJ image were extracted and labeled as microcalcification candidates. Convolution neural network trained to recognize the image pattern of microcalcifications was used to classify the candidates into true calcifications and tissue structures and artifacts. The remaining microcalcification candidates were grouped into MCs by dynamic conditional clustering based on adaptive CNR threshold and radial distance criteria. False positive (FP) clusters were further reduced using the number of candidates in a cluster, CNR and size of microcalcification candidates. At 85% sensitivity an FP rate of 0.71 and 0.54 was achieved for view- and case-based sensitivity, respectively, compared to 2.16 and 0.85 achieved in DBT. The improvement was significant (p-value = 0.003) by JAFROC analysis. (paper)

  12. Correlation techniques for the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio in measurements with stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, V R; Reddy, T G; Reddy, P Y; Reddy, K R

    2003-01-01

    An AC modulation technique is described to convert stochastic signal variations into an amplitude variation and its retrieval through Fourier analysis. It is shown that this AC detection of signals of stochastic processes when processed through auto- and cross-correlation techniques improve the signal-to-noise ratio; the correlation techniques serve a similar purpose of frequency and phase filtering as that of phase-sensitive detection. A few model calculations applied to nuclear spectroscopy measurements such as Angular Correlations, Mossbauer spectroscopy and Pulse Height Analysis reveal considerable improvement in the sensitivity of signal detection. Experimental implementation of the technique is presented in terms of amplitude variations of harmonics representing the derivatives of normal spectra. Improved detection sensitivity to spectral variations is shown to be significant. These correlation techniques are general and can be made applicable to all the fields of particle counting where measurements ar...

  13. A terahertz EO detector with large dynamical range, high modulation depth and signal-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinjian; Cai, Yi; Zeng, Xuanke; Zheng, Shuiqin; Li, Jingzhen; Xu, Shixiang

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a novel design for terahertz (THz) free-space time domain electro-optic (EO) detection where the static birefringent phases of the two balanced arms are set close to zero but opposite to each other. Our theoretical and numerical analyses show this design has much stronger ability to cancel the optical background noise than both THz ellipsometer and traditional crossed polarizer geometry (CPG). Its optical modulation depth is about twice as high as that of traditional CPG, but about ten times as high as that of THz ellipsometer. As for the dynamical range, our improved design is comparable to the THz ellipsometer but obviously larger than the traditional CPG. Some experiments for comparing our improved CPG with traditional CPG agree well with the corresponding theoretical predictions. Our experiments also show that the splitting ratio of the used non-polarization beam splitter is critical for the performance of our design.

  14. Analysis on frequency response of trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement in optical signal detection system using lock-in amplifier (LIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Jeon, Su-Jin; Ji, Myung-Gi; Park, Jun-Hee; Choi, Young-Wan

    2017-02-01

    Lock-in amplifier (LIA) has been widely used in optical signal detection systems because it can measure small signal under high noise level. Generally, The LIA used in optical signal detection system is composed of transimpedance amplifier (TIA), phase sensitive detector (PSD) and low pass filter (LPF). But commercial LIA using LPF is affected by flicker noise. To avoid flicker noise, there is 2ω detection LIA using BPF. To improve the dynamic reserve (DR) of the 2ω LIA, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the TIA should be improved. According to the analysis of frequency response of the TIA, the noise gain can be minimized by proper choices of input capacitor (Ci) and feed-back network in the TIA in a specific frequency range. In this work, we have studied how the SNR of the TIA can be improved by a proper choice of frequency range. We have analyzed the way to control this frequency range through the change of passive component in the TIA. The result shows that the variance of the passive component in the TIA can change the specific frequency range where the noise gain is minimized in the uniform gain region of the TIA.

  15. A nontoxic, photostable and high signal-to-noise ratio mitochondrial probe with mitochondrial membrane potential and viscosity detectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanan; Qi, Jianguo; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Xiaomin; Niu, Linqiang; Yan, Zhijie; Wang, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we reported a yellow emission probe 1-methyl-4-(6-morpholino-1, 3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl) pyridin-1-ium iodide which could specifically stain mitochondria in living immortalized and normal cells. In comparison to the common mitochondria tracker (Mitotracker Deep Red, MTDR), this probe was nontoxic, photostable and ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio, which could real-time monitor mitochondria for a long time. Moreover, this probe also showed high sensitivity towards mitochondrial membrane potential and intramitochondrial viscosity change. Consequently, this probe was used for imaging mitochondria, detecting changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and intramitochondrial viscosity in physiological and pathological processes.

  16. Coronary Stent Artifact Reduction with an Edge-Enhancing Reconstruction Kernel - A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study with 256-Slice CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Stéphanie; Soulez, Gilles; Diez Martinez, Patricia; Larrivée, Sandra; Stevens, Louis-Mathieu; Goussard, Yves; Mansour, Samer; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Metallic artifacts can result in an artificial thickening of the coronary stent wall which can significantly impair computed tomography (CT) imaging in patients with coronary stents. The objective of this study is to assess in vivo visualization of coronary stent wall and lumen with an edge-enhancing CT reconstruction kernel, as compared to a standard kernel. This is a prospective cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 71 coronary stents (24 patients), with blinded observers. After 256-slice CT angiography, image reconstruction was done with medium-smooth and edge-enhancing kernels. Stent wall thickness was measured with both orthogonal and circumference methods, averaging thickness from diameter and circumference measurements, respectively. Image quality was assessed quantitatively using objective parameters (noise, signal to noise (SNR) and contrast to noise (CNR) ratios), as well as visually using a 5-point Likert scale. Stent wall thickness was decreased with the edge-enhancing kernel in comparison to the standard kernel, either with the orthogonal (0.97 ± 0.02 versus 1.09 ± 0.03 mm, respectively; pkernel generated less overestimation from nominal thickness compared to the standard kernel, both with the orthogonal (0.89 ± 0.19 versus 1.00 ± 0.26 mm, respectively; pkernel was associated with lower SNR and CNR, as well as higher background noise (all p kernel. Stent visual scores were higher with the edge-enhancing kernel (pkernel generates thinner stent walls, less overestimation from nominal thickness, and better image quality scores than the standard kernel.

  17. Low contrast detectability and spatial resolution with model-based iterative reconstructions of MDCT images: a phantom and cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millon, Domitille; Coche, Emmanuel E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Healthcare, Brussels (Belgium); Maanen, Aline G. van; Cambier, Samantha E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Statistics Unit, King Albert II Cancer Institute, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    To compare image quality [low contrast (LC) detectability, noise, contrast-to-noise (CNR) and spatial resolution (SR)] of MDCT images reconstructed with an iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm and a filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. The experimental study was performed on a 256-slice MDCT. LC detectability, noise, CNR and SR were measured on a Catphan phantom scanned with decreasing doses (48.8 down to 0.7 mGy) and parameters typical of a chest CT examination. Images were reconstructed with FBP and a model-based IR algorithm. Additionally, human chest cadavers were scanned and reconstructed using the same technical parameters. Images were analyzed to illustrate the phantom results. LC detectability and noise were statistically significantly different between the techniques, supporting model-based IR algorithm (p < 0.0001). At low doses, the noise in FBP images only enabled SR measurements of high contrast objects. The superior CNR of model-based IR algorithm enabled lower dose measurements, which showed that SR was dose and contrast dependent. Cadaver images reconstructed with model-based IR illustrated that visibility and delineation of anatomical structure edges could be deteriorated at low doses. Model-based IR improved LC detectability and enabled dose reduction. At low dose, SR became dose and contrast dependent. (orig.)

  18. Signal noise/interferer combiner unit programmable (SINCUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinezdepison, Emilio

    1988-12-01

    The Signal Noise Interferer Combiner Unit Programmable (SINCUP) has been developed to facilitate laboratory performance testing of Very Low Frequency (VLF/Low Frequency (LF) receivers. To accomplish this, the unit allows the combining in controlled amounts of various real-world environmental and manmade interference with an information carrying signal. The externally modulated signal is combined with internally/externally generated Gaussian noise and/or with an internally/externally generated interferer. In order to test modern digital processing techniques, such as Adaptive Null Steering, Eigenvector Sorting, and Widrow-Hoff adaptive filters, SINCUP is capable of generating and meeting much higher signal-to-noise plus interference ratios than earlier channel simulators. The present software has been written to accommodate a dynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) range from -60 to +60 dB. Higher dynamic range units could be implemented.

  19. Shot-noise-limited optical Faraday polarimetry with enhanced laser noise cancelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiaming; Luo, Le; Carvell, Jeff; Cheng, Ruihua; Lai, Tianshu; Wang, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    We present a shot-noise-limited measurement of optical Faraday rotations with sub-ten-nanoradian angular sensitivity. This extremely high sensitivity is achieved by using electronic laser noise cancelling and phase sensitive detection. Specially, an electronic laser noise canceller with a common mode rejection ratio of over 100 dB was designed and built for enhanced laser noise cancelling. By measuring the Faraday rotation of ambient air, we demonstrate an angular sensitivity of up to 9.0×10 −9  rad/√(Hz), which is limited only by the shot-noise of the photocurrent of the detector. To date, this is the highest angular sensitivity ever reported for Faraday polarimeters in the absence of cavity enhancement. The measured Verdet constant of ambient air, 1.93(3)×10 −9 rad/(G cm) at 633 nm wavelength, agrees extremely well with the earlier experiments using high finesse optical cavities. Further, we demonstrate the applications of this sensitive technique in materials science by measuring the Faraday effect of an ultrathin iron film

  20. Induced Noise Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maidanik, G

    2002-01-01

    The induced noise control parameter is defined in terms of the ratio of the stored energy in a master dynamic system, when it is coupled to an adjunct dynamic system, to that stored energy when the coupling is absent...

  1. Dose and image quality in low-dose CT for urinary stone disease: added value of automatic tube current modulation and iterative reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenen, Olivier; Balliauw, Christophe; Oyen, Raymond; Zanca, Federica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare dose and image quality (IQ) of a baseline low-dose computed tomography (CT) (fix mAs) vs. an ultra-low-dose CT (automatic tube current modulation, ATCM) in patients with suspected urinary stone disease and to assess the added value of iterative reconstruction. CT examination was performed on 193 patients (103 baseline low-dose, 90 ultra-low-dose). Filtered back projection (FBP) was used for both protocols, and Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) was used for the ultra-low-dose protocol only. Dose and ureter stones information were collected for both protocols. Subjective IQ was assessed by two radiologists scoring noise, visibility of the ureter and overall IQ. Objective IQ (contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR) was assessed for the ultra-low-dose protocol only (FBP and SAFIRE). The ultra-low-dose protocol (ATCM) showed a 22% decrease in mean effective dose ( p < 0.001) and improved visibility of the pelvic ureter (p = 0.02). CNR was higher for SAFIRE (p < 0.0001). SAFIRE improves the objective IQ, but not the subjective IQ for the chosen clinical task. (authors)

  2. A study on the method for cancelling the background noise of the impact signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Ham, C. S.; Park, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we compared the noise canceller (time domain analysis method) to the spectral subtraction (frequency domain analysis method) for cancelling background noise when the Loose Part Monitoring System's accelerometers combined the noise signal with the impact signal if the impact signal exists. In the operation of a nuclear power plant monitoring, alarm triggering occurs due to a peak signal in the background noise, an amplitude increase by component operation such as control rod movement or abrupt pump operation. This operation causes the background noise in LPMS. Thus this noise inputs to LPMS together with the impact signal. In case that this noise amplitude is very large comparing to that of the impact signal, we may not analyze the impact position and mass estimation. We analyzed two methods for cancelling background noise. First, we evaluate the signal to noise ratio utilizing the noise canceller. Second, we evaluate the signal to noise ratio utilizing the spectral subtraction. The evaluation resulted superior the noise canceller to the spectral subtraction on the signal to noise ratio

  3. Experimental testing of the noise-canceling processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael D; Baer, Ralph N; Simpson, Harry J

    2011-09-01

    Signal-processing techniques for localizing an acoustic source buried in noise are tested in a tank experiment. Noise is generated using a discrete source, a bubble generator, and a sprinkler. The experiment has essential elements of a realistic scenario in matched-field processing, including complex source and noise time series in a waveguide with water, sediment, and multipath propagation. The noise-canceling processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor and provide the correct source range for signal-to-noise ratios below -10 dB. The multivalued Bartlett processor is found to outperform the Bartlett processor but not the noise-canceling processor. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Iyama, Yuji; Kidoh, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Oda, Seitaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Tokuyasu, Shinichi [Philips Electronics, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p < 0.01). The mean rate of increasing noise from 5 to 1 mm thickness images was significantly lower with IMR (1.7 ± 0.3) than with FBP (2.3 ± 0.3) and HIR (2.3 ± 0.4) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in qualitative analysis of unfamiliar image texture between the reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR. (orig.)

  5. Quantum noise and superluminal propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, Bilha; Milonni, Peter W.; Babb, James F.; Chiao, Raymond Y.

    2000-01-01

    Causal ''superluminal'' effects have recently been observed and discussed in various contexts. The question arises whether such effects could be observed with extremely weak pulses, and what would prevent the observation of an ''optical tachyon.'' Aharonov, Reznik, and Stern (ARS) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2190 (1998)] have argued that quantum noise will preclude the observation of a superluminal group velocity when the pulse consists of one or a few photons. In this paper we reconsider this question both in a general framework and in the specific example, suggested by Chiao, Kozhekin, and Kurizki (CKK) [Phys. Rev. 77, 1254 (1996)], of off-resonant, short-pulse propagation in an optical amplifier. We derive in the case of the amplifier a signal-to-noise ratio that is consistent with the general ARS conclusions when we impose their criteria for distinguishing between superluminal propagation and propagation at the speed c. However, results consistent with the semiclassical arguments of CKK are obtained if weaker criteria are imposed, in which case the signal can exceed the noise without being ''exponentially large.'' We show that the quantum fluctuations of the field considered by ARS are closely related to superfluorescence noise. More generally, we consider the implications of unitarity for superluminal propagation and quantum noise and study, in addition to the complete and truncated wave packets considered by ARS, the residual wave packet formed by their difference. This leads to the conclusion that the noise is mostly luminal and delayed with respect to the superluminal signal. In the limit of a very weak incident signal pulse, the superluminal signal will be dominated by the noise part, and the signal-to-noise ratio will therefore be very small. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. Recent developments at CNR-INSEAN on testing and modelling marine renewable energy systems for waves and currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, Francesco; Di Felice, Fabio; Fabbri Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic testing centers are nowadays challenged by a continuously increasing demand for studies aimed at the development, verification and assessment of marine renewable energy capturing systems. This paper describes the experience matured over the last years at CNR-INSEAN, the marine technology research Institute of the Italian National Research Council. Originally designed for hydrodynamics testing of marine vehicles, the Institute’s experimental facilities like wave and calm water tanks, circulating water channel, now host testing programs on wave energy converters, marine current turbines and hybrid systems, combining devices to extract energy from different marine sources like waves and winds. Selected case studies are described and main findings are discussed in the paper.

  7. Statistical model of intensity noise in con focal fluorescence microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montereali, R.M.; Almaviva, S.; Franzini, I.; Somma, F.

    2008-01-01

    The visible photoluminescence of aggregate F2 and F3+ color centers in Lithium Fluoride (LiF) thin layers, grown by thermal evaporation on various substrates (either crystalline or not) with different thicknesses, can be efficiently observed by using an optical con focal fluorescence microscope and a laser pump with emission wavelength tuned at about 450 nm. Starting from con focal fluorescence images of uniformly colored LiF samples, an automatic routine for the estimation of photoluminescence intensity noise has been developed at the Solid State Laser Laboratory and Spectroscopy of the ENEA Research Center in Frascati. We reported experimental results about application of that routine to the photoluminescence of LiF thin films, uniformly irradiated with an X-ray tube with energy spectrum centered on the Cu K? emission line (8,03 keV), at the CNR-IFN in Rome, that allow to identify a suitable statistical model for his description [it

  8. Noise Gating Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.

    2017-08-01

    I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO

  9. Signal-noise ratio of MR spectroscopy in the central gland of prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Yanjun; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Jiang Xuexiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the MRS of the prostate central gland, and study its relationship with the pathology of the lesions. Methods: Eighteen patients who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups according to the pathological findings: 7 cases of glandular-BPH (GBPH), 7 cases of stromal-BPH (SBPH) and 5 cases of incidentally detected prostate carcinoma (IDPC). The voxels in the central glands with SNR ≥5 and SNR < 5 were counted, and the relationship between the percentage of voxel with SNR < 5 and pathology was analyzed. Results: In the 18 cases, the total number of voxels measured in the regions of interest was 3632, and the voxels with SNR≥5 and SNR < 5 were 1579 (the percentage is 43%) and 1873, respectively. The percentage of voxels with SNR < 5 in SBPH group (67.6 ± 21.8)% was statistically higher than that in GBPH (37.1±14.5)% and IDPC (39.9±18.8)%. The difference between the group of GBPH and IDPC was not statistically significant. Conclusion: More than half of the voxels in the central gland could not be reliably analyzed in the prostate MRS examination because of its low SNR, especially in the case of SBPH. (authors)

  10. Stochastic resonance in a piecewise nonlinear model driven by multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongfeng; Shen, Yajun; Tan, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a piecewise nonlinear model driven by a periodic signal and correlated noises for the cases of a multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and an additive Gaussian white noise is investigated. Applying the path integral approach, the unified colored noise approximation and the two-state model theory, the analytical expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived. It is found that conventional stochastic resonance exists in this system. From numerical computations we obtain that: (i) As a function of the non-Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is increased when the non-Gaussian noise deviation parameter q is increased. (ii) As a function of the Gaussian noise intensity, the SNR is decreased when q is increased. This demonstrates that the effect of the non-Gaussian noise on SNR is different from that of the Gaussian noise in this system. Moreover, we further discuss the effect of the correlation time of the non-Gaussian noise, cross-correlation strength, the amplitude and frequency of the periodic signal on SR.

  11. Dose to population as a metric in the design of optimised exposure control in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausz, R.; Shramchenko, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a methods for automatic optimisation of parameter (AOP) in digital mammography systems. Using a model of the image chain, contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and average glandular dose (AGD) are computed for possible X-ray parameters and breast types. The optimisation process consists of the determination of the operating points providing the lowest possible AGD for each CNR level and breast type. The proposed metric for the dose used in the design of an AOP mode is the resulting dose to the population, computed by averaging the AGD values over the distribution of breast types in the population. This method has been applied to the automatic exposure control of new digital mammography equipment. Breast thickness and composition are estimated from a low dose pre-exposure and used to index tables containing sets of optimised operating points. The resulting average dose to the population ranges from a level comparable to state-of-the-art screen/film mammography to a reduction by a factor of two. Using this method, both CNR and dose are kept under control for all breast types, taking into consideration both individual and collective risk. (authors)

  12. Noise properties of semiconductor waveguides with alternating sections of saturable gain and absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne

    We investigate the dynamical noise properties of saturable semiconductor devices for optical signal processing. A trade-off between noise redistribution and extinction ratio improvement has to be made for all-optical regeneration.......We investigate the dynamical noise properties of saturable semiconductor devices for optical signal processing. A trade-off between noise redistribution and extinction ratio improvement has to be made for all-optical regeneration....

  13. Measurement time and statistics for a noise thermometer with a synthetic-noise reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. R.; Benz, S. P.; Labenski, J. R.; Nam, S. W.; Qu, J. F.; Rogalla, H.; Tew, W. L.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes methods for reducing the statistical uncertainty in measurements made by noise thermometers using digital cross-correlators and, in particular, for thermometers using pseudo-random noise for the reference signal. First, a discrete-frequency expression for the correlation bandwidth for conventional noise thermometers is derived. It is shown how an alternative frequency-domain computation can be used to eliminate the spectral response of the correlator and increase the correlation bandwidth. The corresponding expressions for the uncertainty in the measurement of pseudo-random noise in the presence of uncorrelated thermal noise are then derived. The measurement uncertainty in this case is less than that for true thermal-noise measurements. For pseudo-random sources generating a frequency comb, an additional small reduction in uncertainty is possible, but at the cost of increasing the thermometer's sensitivity to non-linearity errors. A procedure is described for allocating integration times to further reduce the total uncertainty in temperature measurements. Finally, an important systematic error arising from the calculation of ratios of statistical variables is described.

  14. Robust Frame Synchronization for Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Channels Using Energy-Corrected Differential Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Pansoo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent standards for wireless transmission require reliable synchronization for channels with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR as well as with a large amount of frequency offset, which necessitates a robust correlator structure for the initial frame synchronization process. In this paper, a new correlation strategy especially targeted for low SNR regions is proposed and its performance is analyzed. By utilizing a modified energy correction term, the proposed method effectively reduces the variance of the decision variable to enhance the detection performance. Most importantly, the method is demonstrated to outperform all previously reported schemes by a significant margin, for SNRs below 5 dB regardless of the existence of the frequency offsets. A variation of the proposed method is also presented for further enhancement over the channels with small frequency errors. The particular application considered for the performance verification is the second generation digital video broadcasting system for satellites (DVB-S2.

  15. Cardiac CT for planning redo cardiac surgery: effect of knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction on image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Seitaro; Weissman, Gaby; Weigold, W. Guy; Vembar, Mani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (IMR) on image quality in cardiac CT performed for the planning of redo cardiac surgery by comparing IMR images with images reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) and hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR). We studied 31 patients (23 men, 8 women; mean age 65.1 ± 16.5 years) referred for redo cardiac surgery who underwent cardiac CT. Paired image sets were created using three types of reconstruction: FBP, HIR, and IMR. Quantitative parameters including CT attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of each cardiovascular structure were calculated. The visual image quality - graininess, streak artefact, margin sharpness of each cardiovascular structure, and overall image quality - was scored on a five-point scale. The mean image noise of FBP, HIR, and IMR images was 58.3 ± 26.7, 36.0 ± 12.5, and 14.2 ± 5.5 HU, respectively; there were significant differences in all comparison combinations among the three methods. The CNR of IMR images was better than that of FBP and HIR images in all evaluated structures. The visual scores were significantly higher for IMR than for the other images in all evaluated parameters. IMR can provide significantly improved qualitative and quantitative image quality at in cardiac CT for planning of reoperative cardiac surgery. (orig.)

  16. Head CT: Image quality improvement with ASIR-V using a reduced radiation dose protocol for children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi [Ajou University School of Medicine, Ajou University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Joon; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Myung-Joon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Ji [Ajou University School of Medicine, Office of Biostatistics, Department of Humanities and Social Medicine, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the quality of images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V), using pediatric head CT protocols. A phantom was scanned at decreasing 20% mA intervals using our standard pediatric head CT protocols. Each study was then reconstructed at 10% ASIR-V intervals. After the phantom study, we reduced mA by 10% in the protocol for <3-year-old patients and applied 30% ASIR-V and by 30% in the protocol for 3- to 15-year-old patients and applied 40% ASIR-V. Increasing the percentage of ASIR-V resulted in lower noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preserved spatial resolution in the phantom study. Compared to a conventional-protocol, reduced-dose protocol with ASIR-V achieved 12.8% to 34.0% of dose reduction and showed images of lower noise (9.22 vs. 10.73, P = 0.043) and higher CNR in different levels (centrum semiovale, 2.14 vs. 1.52, P = 0.003; basal ganglia, 1.46 vs. 1.07, P = 0.001; and cerebellum, 2.18 vs. 1.33, P < 0.001). Qualitative analysis showed higher gray-white matter differentiation and sharpness and preserved overall diagnostic quality in the images with ASIR-V. Use of ASIR-V allowed a 12.8% to 34.0% dose reduction in each age group with potential to improve image quality. (orig.)

  17. Head CT: Image quality improvement with ASIR-V using a reduced radiation dose protocol for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Ho-Joon; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Myung-Joon; Kim, Hyun Ji

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the quality of images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V), using pediatric head CT protocols. A phantom was scanned at decreasing 20% mA intervals using our standard pediatric head CT protocols. Each study was then reconstructed at 10% ASIR-V intervals. After the phantom study, we reduced mA by 10% in the protocol for <3-year-old patients and applied 30% ASIR-V and by 30% in the protocol for 3- to 15-year-old patients and applied 40% ASIR-V. Increasing the percentage of ASIR-V resulted in lower noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preserved spatial resolution in the phantom study. Compared to a conventional-protocol, reduced-dose protocol with ASIR-V achieved 12.8% to 34.0% of dose reduction and showed images of lower noise (9.22 vs. 10.73, P = 0.043) and higher CNR in different levels (centrum semiovale, 2.14 vs. 1.52, P = 0.003; basal ganglia, 1.46 vs. 1.07, P = 0.001; and cerebellum, 2.18 vs. 1.33, P < 0.001). Qualitative analysis showed higher gray-white matter differentiation and sharpness and preserved overall diagnostic quality in the images with ASIR-V. Use of ASIR-V allowed a 12.8% to 34.0% dose reduction in each age group with potential to improve image quality. (orig.)

  18. Wavelet-Based Watermarking and Compression for ECG Signals with Verification Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Kun Tseng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current open society and with the growth of human rights, people are more and more concerned about the privacy of their information and other important data. This study makes use of electrocardiography (ECG data in order to protect individual information. An ECG signal can not only be used to analyze disease, but also to provide crucial biometric information for identification and authentication. In this study, we propose a new idea of integrating electrocardiogram watermarking and compression approach, which has never been researched before. ECG watermarking can ensure the confidentiality and reliability of a user’s data while reducing the amount of data. In the evaluation, we apply the embedding capacity, bit error rate (BER, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, compression ratio (CR, and compressed-signal to noise ratio (CNR methods to assess the proposed algorithm. After comprehensive evaluation the final results show that our algorithm is robust and feasible.

  19. Monochromatic Spectral Computed Tomography with Low Iodine Concentration Contrast Medium in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Model:: Investigation of Image Quality and Detection Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Xu, Han; Hou, Ping; Dong, Jun Q; Wang, Ming Y; Gao, Jian B

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate the feasibility of using virtual monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) with isotonic low iodine concentration contrast medium for VX2 hepatic tumors. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits with implanted VX2 hepatic tumors underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced spectral CT imaging on the 14th day after tumor implantation. They were randomly divided into groups A, B, and C, with 20 rabbits each (group A: 270 mg I/mL, monochromatic spectral images; group B: 370 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% filtered back projection [FBP]; group C: 270 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% FBP). Group A was further divided into two subgroups (subgroup A1: 100% FBP; subgroup A2: 50% FBP + 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction). Objective evaluation (signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR], and image noise), subjective rating score (image noise score, anatomical details score, overall image quality score, and lesion conspicuity score), CT dose index volume, and dose length product were compared between groups during two-phase contrast enhancement. The detection rates of the four groups were calculated as percentages. Image noise (SNR and CNR) among the four groups was statistically significant (P noise in group A2 was lower than in group A1, but higher than that in groups B and C (P noise score of group A2 was higher than that of the other three groups. In terms of the anatomic details score, the overall image quality score, and the lesion conspicuity score, the images of group A2 were superior to that of groups A1 and C. For hepatic tumor diameters more than or equal to 1.0 cm and less than 3.0 cm, group A achieved a higher detection rate than groups B and C. The CT dose index volume, dose length product, and effective dose in group A were significantly lower than that in groups B and C (P noise, increase detection rate for small tumors, and decrease radiation dose and iodine load in

  20. Jet-Surface Interaction - High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test: Test Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test was conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2015. There were four primary goals specified for this test: (1) extend the current noise database for rectangular nozzles to higher aspect ratios, (2) verify data previously acquired at small-scale with data from a larger model, (3) acquired jet-surface interaction noise data suitable for creating verifying empirical noise models and (4) investigate the effect of nozzle septa on the jet-mixing and jet-surface interaction noise. These slides give a summary of the test with representative results for each goal.

  1. Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.

  2. Mastication noise reduction method for fully implantable hearing aid using piezo-electric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sung Dae; Lee, Gihyoun; Wei, Qun; Seong, Ki Woong; Cho, Jin Ho; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2017-07-20

    Fully implantable hearing devices (FIHDs) can be affected by generated biomechanical noise such as mastication noise. To reduce the mastication noise using a piezo-electric sensor, the mastication noise is measured with the piezo-electric sensor, and noise reduction is practiced by the energy difference. For the experiment on mastication noise, a skull model was designed using artificial skull model and a piezo-electric sensor that can measure the vibration signals better than other sensors. A 1 kHz pure-tone sound through a standard speaker was applied to the model while the lower jawbone of the model was moved in a masticatory fashion. The correlation coefficients and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) before and after application of the proposed method were compared. It was found that the signal-to-noise ratio and correlation coefficients increased by 4.48 dB and 0.45, respectively. The mastication noise is measured by piezo-electric sensor as the mastication noise that occurred during vibration. In addition, the noise was reduced by using the proposed method in conjunction with MATLAB. In order to confirm the performance of the proposed method, the correlation coefficients and signal-to-noise ratio before and after signal processing were calculated. In the future, an implantable microphone for real-time processing will be developed.

  3. Superresolution near-field readout in phase-change optical disk data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chubing

    2001-01-01

    Readout of a phase-change optical disk with a superresolution (SR) near-field structure (Super-RENS) is theoretically examined on the basis of three-dimensional, full-wave vector diffraction theory. Calculations have demonstrated that Super-RENS has a high spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit in readout. The read signal is dependent on the nature of SR, the layer structure of the disk, and the state of polarization of the incident laser beam. For the Super-RENS in which antimony is used for SR readout, the readout signal is quite small, and the estimated carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is only ∼30 dB for marks of 300 nm. For the Super-RENS in which a metallic region is formed during readout, the read signal is large, and the CNR can be as high as 50 dB in reading 300-nm marks

  4. Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.

  5. Wind Noise Reduction using Non-negative Sparse Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel N.; Larsen, Jan; Hsiao, Fu-Tien

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new speaker independent method for reducing wind noise in single-channel recordings of noisy speech. The method is based on non-negative sparse coding and relies on a wind noise dictionary which is estimated from an isolated noise recording. We estimate the parameters of the model ...... and discuss their sensitivity. We then compare the algorithm with the classical spectral subtraction method and the Qualcomm-ICSI-OGI noise reduction method. We optimize the sound quality in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and provide results on a noisy speech recognition task....

  6. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A; Grynderup, Matias B; Hansen, Åse M; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M; Bonde, Jens P; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2017-01-01

    To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. In 2001-2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009-2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (-0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  7. Dual Energy CT (DECT Monochromatic Imaging: Added Value of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions (ASIR in Portal Venography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Zhao

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstructions (ASIR on image quality in portal venography by dual energy CT (DECT imaging.DECT scans of 45 cirrhotic patients obtained in the portal venous phase were analyzed. Monochromatic images at 70keV were reconstructed with the following 4 ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. The image noise (IN (standard deviation, SD of portal vein (PV, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR, and the subjective score for the sharpness of PV boundaries, and the diagnostic acceptability (DA were obtained. The IN, CNR, and the subjective scores were compared among the four ASIR groups.The IN (in HU of PV (10.05±3.14, 9.23±3.05, 8.44±2.95 and 7.83±2.90 decreased and CNR values of PV (8.04±3.32, 8.95±3.63, 9.80±4.12 and 10.74±4.73 increased with the increase in ASIR percentage (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, and were statistically different for the 4 ASIR groups (p<0.05. The subjective scores showed that the sharpness of portal vein boundaries (3.13±0.59, 2.82±0.44, 2.73±0.54 and 2.07±0.54 decreased with higher ASIR percentages (p<0.05. The subjective diagnostic acceptability was highest at 30% ASIR (p<0.05.30% ASIR addition in DECT portal venography could improve the 70 keV monochromatic image quality.

  8. Relevancies of multiple-interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio for Anger-logic based PET detector designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    A fundamental challenge for PET block detector designs is to deploy finer crystal elements while limiting the number of readout channels. The standard Anger-logic scheme including light sharing (an 8 by 8 crystal array coupled to a 2×2 photodetector array with an optical diffuser, multiplexing ratio: 16:1) has been widely used to address such a challenge. Our work proposes a generalized model to study the impacts of two critical parameters on spatial resolution performance of a PET block detector: multiple interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The study consists of the following three parts: (1) studying light output profile and multiple interactions of 511 keV photons within crystal arrays of different crystal widths (from 4 mm down to 1 mm, constant height: 20 mm); (2) applying the Anger-logic positioning algorithm to investigate positioning/decoding uncertainties (i.e., "block effect") in terms of peak-to-valley ratio (PVR), with light sharing, multiple interactions and photodetector SNR taken into account; and (3) studying the dependency of spatial resolution on SNR in the context of modulation transfer function (MTF). The proposed model can be used to guide the development and evaluation of a standard Anger-logic based PET block detector including: (1) selecting/optimizing the configuration of crystal elements for a given photodetector SNR; and (2) predicting to what extent additional electronic multiplexing may be implemented to further reduce the number of readout channels.

  9. Automated tube voltage selection for radiation dose and contrast medium reduction at coronary CT angiography using 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Poole, Zachary B.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Canstein, Christian [Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Rome (Italy); Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the relationship between automated tube voltage selection (ATVS) and body mass index (BMI) and its effect on image quality and radiation dose of coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We evaluated 272 patients who underwent CCTA with 3{sup rd} generation dual-source CT (DSCT). Prospectively ECG-triggered spiral acquisition was performed with automated tube current selection and advanced iterative reconstruction. Tube voltages were selected by ATVS (70-120 kV). BMI, effective dose (ED), and vascular attenuation in the coronary arteries were recorded. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used for subjective image quality analysis. Image quality was rated good to excellent in 98.9 % of examinations without significant differences for proximal and distal attenuation (all p ≥.0516), whereas image noise was rated significantly higher at 70 kV compared to ≥100 kV (all p <.0266). However, no significant differences were observed in SNR or CNR at 70-120 kV (all p ≥.0829). Mean ED at 70-120 kV was 1.5 ± 1.2 mSv, 2.4 ± 1.5 mSv, 3.6 ± 2.7 mSv, 5.9 ± 4.0 mSv, 7.9 ± 4.2 mSv, and 10.7 ± 4.1 mSv, respectively (all p ≤.0414). Correlation analysis showed a moderate association between tube voltage and BMI (r =.639). ATVS allows individual tube voltage adaptation for CCTA performed with 3{sup rd} generation DSCT, resulting in significantly decreased radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. (orig.)

  10. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography at Low Concentration of Contrast Agent and Low Tube Voltage in Patients with Obesity:: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Ning; Li, Ai-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Min; Wang, Jian; Ren, Da-Wei; Huang, Qiu-Li

    2016-04-01

    Using lower tube voltage can reduce the exposure to radiation and the dose of contrast agent. However, lower tube voltage is often linked to more noise and poor image quality, which create a need for more effective technology to resolve this problem. To explore the feasibility of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with obesity at low tube voltage (100 kV) and low contrast agent concentration (270 mg/mL) using iterative reconstruction. A total of 48 patients with body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2) were included and randomly divided into two groups. Group A received a traditional protocol (iopromide 370 mg/mL + 120 kV); group B received a protocol with low tube voltage (100 kV), low contrast agent concentration (270 mg/mL), and iterative reconstruction. The effective dose (ED), average attenuation values, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the figure of merit (FOM), image quality scores, and the total iodine intake were compared. No significant differences in average CT attenuations, SNR, CNR, and subjective scores were noticed between the two groups (P > 0.05), whereas the FOM of group B was significantly higher than that of group A. Effective radiation dose, total iodine, and iodine injection rate in group B were lower than those of group A (P contrast agent with low iodine concentration and low-dose CCTA were feasible. Substantial reduction in radiation dose and the iodine intake could be achieved without compromising the image quality. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. General considerations of noise in microphone preamplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, A.G.H.; van der Donk, A.G.H.; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a study of the noise performance of electret microphone systems as a part of hearing aids is presented. The signal-to-noise ratio of the microphone-preamplifier combination, containing a field-effect transistor (FET) and a high value resistive bias element in a hybrid configuration, is

  12. Signal-to-noise ratio of bilateral nonimaging transcranial Doppler recordings of the middle cerebral artery is not affected by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Dineen, Nicky E; Brodie, Fiona G; Robinson, Thompson G; Panerai, Ronney B

    2011-04-01

    Differences between transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) recordings of symmetrical vessels can show true physiologic differences, but can also be caused by measurement error and other sources of noise. The aim of this project was to assess the influence of noise on estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA), and of age, sex and breathing manoeuvres on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was monitored in 30 young (60 years) during baseline conditions, breath-holding and hyperventilation. Noise was defined as the difference between beat-to-beat values of the two mean CBF velocity (CBFV) signals. Magnitude squared coherence estimates of noise vs. ABP and ABP vs. CBFV were obtained and averaged. A similar approach was adopted for the CBFV step response. The effect of age and breathing manoeuvre on the SNR was assessed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), whilst the effect of sex was investigated using a Student's t test. No significant differences were observed in SNR (baseline 6.07 ± 3.07 dB and 7.33 ± 3.84 dB, breath-hold: 13.53 ± 3.93 dB and 14.64 ± 4.52 dB, and hyperventilation: 14.69 ± 4.04 dB and 14.84 ± 4.05 dB) estimates between young and old groups, respectively. The use of breathing manoeuvres significantly improved the SNR (p < 10(-4)) without a significant difference between manoeuvres. Sex does not appear to have an effect on SNR (p = 0.365). Coherence estimates were not influenced by the SNR, but significant differences were found in the amplitude of the CBFV step response. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced virtual monoenergetic images: improving the contrast of dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, A.; Wurnig, M.; Desbiolles, L.; Leschka, S.; Frauenfelder, T.; Alkadhi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the value of advanced virtual monoenergetic image reconstruction (mono-plus) from dual-energy computed tomography (CT) for improving the contrast of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Materials and methods: Forty consecutive patients (25 women, mean 62.5 years, range 28–87 years) underwent 192-section dual-source CTPA with dual-energy CT (90/150 SnkVp) after the administration of 60 ml contrast media (300 mg iodine/ml). Conventional virtual monochromatic images at 60 keV and 17 mono-plus image datasets from 40–190 keV (in 10 keV steps) were reconstructed. Subjective image quality (artefacts, subjective noise) was rated. Attenuation was measured in the pulmonary trunk and in the right lower lobe pulmonary artery; noise was measured in the periscapular musculature. The signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for each patient and dataset. Comparisons between monochromatic images and mono-plus images were performed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Bonferroni correction. Results: Interreader agreement was good to excellent for subjective image quality (ICC: 0.616–0.889). As compared to conventional 60 keV images, artefacts occurred less (p=0.001) and subjective noise was rated lower (p<0.001) in mono-plus 40 keV images. Noise was lower (p<0.001), and the SNR and CNR in the pulmonary trunk and right lower lobe pulmonary artery were higher (both, p<0.001) in mono-plus 40 keV images compared to conventional monoenergetic 60 keV images. Transient interruption of contrast (TIC) was found in 14/40 (35%) of patients, with subjective contrast being similar 8/40 (20%) or higher 32/40 (80%) in mono-plus 40 keV as compared to conventional monoenergetic 60 keV images. Conclusions: Compared to conventional virtual monoenergetic imaging, mono-plus images at 40 keV improve the contrast of dual-energy CTPA. - Highlights: • Advanced monoenergetic image reconstruction from dual-energy CT

  14. A Background Noise Reduction Technique Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Microphone Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background noise in wind tunnel environments poses a challenge to acoustic measurements due to possible low or negative Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) present in the testing environment. This paper overviews the application of time domain Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) to microphone array signals with an intended application of background noise reduction in wind tunnels. An experiment was conducted to simulate background noise from a wind tunnel circuit measured by an out-of-flow microphone array in the tunnel test section. A reference microphone was used to acquire a background noise signal which interfered with the desired primary noise source signal at the array. The technique s efficacy was investigated using frequency spectra from the array microphones, array beamforming of the point source region, and subsequent deconvolution using the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm. Comparisons were made with the conventional techniques for improving SNR of spectral and Cross-Spectral Matrix subtraction. The method was seen to recover the primary signal level in SNRs as low as -29 dB and outperform the conventional methods. A second processing approach using the center array microphone as the noise reference was investigated for more general applicability of the ANC technique. It outperformed the conventional methods at the -29 dB SNR but yielded less accurate results when coherence over the array dropped. This approach could possibly improve conventional testing methodology but must be investigated further under more realistic testing conditions.

  15. Dual Energy CT Angiography of Peripheral Arterial Disease: Feasibility of Using Lower Contrast Medium Volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Almutairi

    Full Text Available One of the main drawbacks associated with Dual Energy Computed Tomography Angiography (DECTA is the risk of developing contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN. The aim of the present study was firstly, to design an optimal CT imaging protocol by determining the feasibility of using a reduced contrast medium volume in peripheral arterial DECTA, and secondly, to compare the results with those obtained from using routine contrast medium volume.Thirty four patients underwent DECTA for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. They were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 (routine contrast volume group with n = 17, injection rate 4-5 ml/s, and 1.5 ml/kg of contrast medium, and Group 2 ((low contrast volume group, with n = 17, injection rate 4-5ml/s, and contrast medium volume 0.75 ml/kg. A fast kilovoltage-switching 64-slice CT scanner in the dual-energy mode was employed for the study. A total of 6 datasets of monochromatic images at 50, 55, 60, 65, 70 and 75 keV levels were reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR at 50%. A 4-point scale was the tool for qualitative analysis of results. The two groups were compared and assessed quantitatively for image quality on the basis of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR. Radiation and contrast medium doses were also compared.The overall mean CT attenuation and mean noise for all lower extremity body parts was significantly lower for the low volume contrast group (p<0.001, and varied significantly between groups (p = 0.001, body parts (p<0.001 and keVs (p<0.001. The interaction between group body parts was significant with CT attenuation and CNR (p = 0.002 and 0.003 respectively, and marginally significant with SNR (p = 0.047, with minimal changes noticed between the two groups. Group 2 (low contrast volume group displayed the lowest image noise between 65 and 70 keV, recorded the highest SNR and CNR at 65 keV, and produced significantly lower

  16. Image quality of ct angiography using model-based iterative reconstruction in infants with congenital heart disease: Comparison with filtered back projection and hybrid iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Qianjun, E-mail: jiaqianjun@126.com [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhuang, Jian, E-mail: zhuangjian5413@tom.com [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Jun, E-mail: 81711587@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: 970872804@qq.com [Department of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Huang, Meiping, E-mail: huangmeiping_vip@163.com [Department of Catheterization Lab, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of South China Structural Heart Disease, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Liang, Changhong, E-mail: cjr.lchh@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To compare the image quality, rate of coronary artery visualization and diagnostic accuracy of 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography angiography (CTA) with prospective electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering at a tube voltage of 80 kVp between 3 reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose{sup 4}) and iterative model reconstruction (IMR)) in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: Fifty-one infants with CHD who underwent cardiac CTA in our institution between December 2014 and March 2015 were included. The effective radiation doses were calculated. Imaging data were reconstructed using the FBP, iDose{sup 4} and IMR algorithms. Parameters of objective image quality (noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)); subjective image quality (overall image quality, image noise and margin sharpness); coronary artery visibility; and diagnostic accuracy for the three algorithms were measured and compared. Results: The mean effective radiation dose was 0.61 ± 0.32 mSv. Compared to FBP and iDose{sup 4}, IMR yielded significantly lower noise (P < 0.01), higher SNR and CNR values (P < 0.01), and a greater subjective image quality score (P < 0.01). The total number of coronary segments visualized was significantly higher for both iDose{sup 4} and IMR than for FBP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.025, respectively), but there was no significant difference in this parameter between iDose{sup 4} and IMR (P = 0.397). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between the FBP, iDose{sup 4} and IMR algorithms (χ{sup 2} = 0.343, P = 0.842). Conclusions: For infants with CHD undergoing cardiac CTA, the IMR reconstruction algorithm provided significantly increased objective and subjective image quality compared with the FBP and iDose{sup 4} algorithms. However, I