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Sample records for noise amplifier design

  1. Design of low noise transimpedance amplifier for intravascular ultrasound

    KAUST Repository

    Reda, Dina

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we study transimpedance amplifiers for capacitive sensing applications with a focus on Intravascular Ultra Sound (IVUS). We employ RF noise cancellation technique on capacitive feedback based transimpedance amplifiers. This technique eliminates the input-referred noise of TIAs completely and enhances the dynamic range of front-end electronics. Simulation results verify the proposed technique used in two different TIA topologies employing shunt-shunt feedback. ©2009 IEEE.

  2. Guidelines for designing BJT amplifiers with low 1/f AM and PM noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre-Pikal, E S; Walls, F L; Nelson, C W

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss guidelines for designing linear bipolar junction transistor amplifiers with low 1/f amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) noise. These guidelines are derived from a new theory that relates AM and PM noise to transconductance fluctuations, junction capacitance fluctuations, and circuit architecture. We analyze the noise equations of each process for a common emitter (CE) amplifier and use the results to suggest amplifier designs that minimize the 1/f noise while providing other required attributes such as high gain. Although we use a CE amplifier as an example, the procedure applies to other configurations as well. Experimental noise results for several amplifier configurations are presented.

  3. Noise in Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....

  4. Problems of the design of low-noise input devices. [parametric amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokhin, V. M.; Nemlikher, Y. A.; Strukov, I. A.; Sharfov, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is given of the requirements placed on the elements of parametric centimeter waveband amplifiers for achievement of minimal noise temperatures. A low-noise semiconductor parametric amplifier using germanium parametric diodes for a receiver operating in the 4 GHz band was developed and tested confirming the possibility of satisfying all requirements.

  5. Design of CMOS Tunable Image-Rejection Low-Noise Amplifier with Active Inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ler Chun Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated CMOS tunable image-rejection low-noise amplifier (IRLNA has been designed using Silterra's industry standard 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The notch filter is designed using an active inductor. Measurement results show that the notch filter designed using active inductor contributes additional 1.19 dB to the noise figure of the low-noise amplifier (LNA. A better result is possible if the active inductor is optimized. Since active inductors require less die area, the die area occupied by the IRLNA is not significantly different from a conventional LNA, which was designed for comparison. The proposed IRLNA exhibits S21 of 11.8 dB, S11 of −17.8 dB, S22 of −10.7 dB, and input 1 dB compression point of −12 dBm at 3 GHz

  6. GaAs Wideband Low Noise Amplifier Design for Breast Cancer Detection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei; Krozer, Viktor; Delcourt, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    Modern wideband systems require low-noise receivers with bandwidth approaching 10 GHz. This paper presents ultra-wideband stable low-noise amplifier MMIC with cascode and source follower buffer configuration using GaAs technology. Source degeneration, gate and shunt peaking inductors are used...... to explore simultaneous wideband noise optimization and input power matching requirement. The low-noise amplifier circuit operates across a band of 0.3 to 10 GHz with a gain of around 14 dB and the measured noise figure NF below 1.5 dB up to 8 GHz. Measured small-signal results show good stability and very...

  7. Design of low noise class D amplifiers using an integrated filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishi, Wang; Bo, Zhang

    2012-11-01

    This paper investigates the noise sources in a single-ended class D amplifier (SECDA) and suggests corresponding ways to lower the noise. The total output noise could be expressed as a function of the gain and noises from different sources. According to the function, the bias voltage (VB) is a primary noise source, especially for a SECDA with a large gain. A low noise SECDA is obtained by integrating a filter into the SECDA to lower the noise of the VB. The filter utilizes an active resister and an 80 pF capacitance to get a 3 Hz pole. A noise test and fast Fourier transform analysis show that the noise performance of this SECDA is the same as that of a SECDA with an external filter.

  8. Low-noise detector and amplifier design for 100 ns direct detection CO{sub 2} LIDAR receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, M.M.; Cooke, B.J.; Laubscher, B.E.; Olivas, N.L.; Fuller, K.

    1997-06-01

    The development and test results of a prototype detector/amplifier design for a background limited, pulsed 100 ns, 10--100 kHz repetition rate LIDAR/DIAL receiver system are presented. Design objectives include near-matched filter detection of received pulse amplitude and round trip time-of-flight, and the elimination of excess correlated detector/amplifier noise for optimal pulse averaging. A novel pole-zero cancellation amplifier, coupled with a state-of-the-art SBRC (Santa Barbara Research Center) infrared detector was implemented to meet design objectives. The pole-zero cancellation amplifier utilizes a tunable, pseudo-matched filter technique to match the width of the laser pulse to the shaping time of the filter for optimal SNR performance. Low frequency correlated noise, (l/f and drift noise) is rejected through a second order high gain feedback loop. The amplifier also employs an active detector bias stage minimizing detector drift. Experimental results will be provided that demonstrate near-background limited, 100 ns pulse detection performance given a 8.5--11.5 {micro}m (300 K B.B.) radiant background, with the total noise floor spectrally white for optimal pulse averaging efficiency.

  9. Low Noise Optical Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Technical University of Denmark, Oersteds Plads 343, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark lris@fotonik.dtu.dk, karo@fotonik.dtu.dk Abstract: Impact on the second...1990). 9. P. Kylemark, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Semi-analytic saturation theory of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J...a flat broadband gain over 87 nm. 2. Theory In general we consider an electric field consisting of four CW waves, at frequencies ω1 through ω4. In non

  10. Low-Noise Band-Pass Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit uses standard components to overcome common limitation of JFET amplifiers. Low-noise band-pass amplifier employs JFET and operational amplifier. High gain and band-pass characteristics are achieved with suitable choice of resistances and capacitances. Circuit should find use as low-noise amplifier, for example as first stage instrumentation systems.

  11. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  12. Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2005-01-01

    Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render

  13. Design of Low-Noise Output Amplifiers for P-channel Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on High-Resistivity Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, S; Frost, F Dion R.; Groulx, R; Holland, S E; Karcher, A; Kolbe, W F; Roe, N A; Wang, G; Yu, Y

    2011-12-22

    We describe the design and optimization of low-noise, single-stage output amplifiers for p-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for scientific applications in astronomy and other fields. The CCDs are fabricated on high-resistivity, 4000–5000 -cm, n-type silicon substrates. Single-stage amplifiers with different output structure designs and technologies have been characterized. The standard output amplifier is designed with an n{sup +} polysilicon gate that has a metal connection to the sense node. In an effort to lower the output amplifier readout noise by minimizing the capacitance seen at the sense node, buried-contact technology has been investigated. In this case, the output transistor has a p{sup +} polysilicon gate that connects directly to the p{sup +} sense node. Output structures with buried-contact areas as small as 2 μm × 2 μm are characterized. In addition, the geometry of the source-follower transistor was varied, and we report test results on the conversion gain and noise of the various amplifier structures. By use of buried-contact technology, better amplifier geometry, optimization of the amplifier biases and improvements in the test electronics design, we obtain a 45% reduction in noise, corresponding to 1.7 e{sup -} rms at 70 kpixels/sec.

  14. Silicon Germanium Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, J. C.; Montazeri, S.; Chang, Su-Wei

    2017-05-01

    Silicon germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors have emerged in the last decade as an excellent option for use in cryogenic low noise amplifiers. This paper begins with a review of the critical developments that have led to today’s cryogenic low noise amplifiers. Next, recent work focused on minimizing the power consumption of SiGe cryogenic amplifiers is presented. Finally, open issues related to the cryogenic noise properties of SiGe HBTs are discussed.

  15. Design and analysis of high gain and low noise figure CMOS low noise amplifier for Q-band nano-sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, K.; Malarvizhi, S.

    2018-03-01

    A high gain, low power, low Noise figure (NF) and wide band of milli-meter Wave (mmW) circuits design at 50 GHz are used for Radio Frequency (RF) front end. The fundamental necessity of a receiver front-end includes perfect output and input impedance matching and port-to-port isolation with high gain and low noise over the entire band of interest. In this paper, a design of Cascade-Cascode CMOS LNA circuit at 50 GHz for Q-band application is proposed. The design of Low noise amplifier at 50 GHz using Agilent ADS tool with microstrip lines which provides simplicity in fabrication and less chip area. The low off-leakage current Ioff can be maintained with high K-dielectrics CMOS structure. Nano-scale electronics can be achieved with increased robustness. The design has overall gain of 11.091 dB and noise figure of 2.673 dB for the Q-band of 48.3 GHz to 51.3 GHz. Impedance matching is done by T matching network and the obtained input and output reflection coefficients are S11 = packaging technology, the protection and reliability also can be achieved with the electronic packaging. The reverse transmission coefficient S21 is less than -21 dB has shown that LNA has better isolation between input and output, Stability factor greater than 1 and Power is also optimized in this design. Layout is designed, power gain of 4.6 dB is achieved and area is optimized which is nearly equal to 502 740 μm2. The observed results show that the proposed Cascade-Cascode LNA design can find its suitability in future milli-meter Wave Radar application.

  16. Co-design method for dual-band low-noise amplifier and band-pass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Runbo; Zhang, Wenmei; Han, Guorui; Li, Li; Chen, Xinwei; Han, Liping

    2012-04-01

    A co-design method for the dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA) and band-pass filter (BPF) is presented in this study. The dual-band BPF and LNA are designed separately by the traditional method first. In order to reduce the circuit, the dual-band matching networks (MNs) of the LNA and BPF are combined into the dual-band matching-filter. The validity is verified by a sample of 1.57/2.4 GHz LNA-filter after the co-design. The measured S21, NF and BW3 dB are 18.6 dB, 1.98 dB and 0.22 GHz at 1.57 GHz, and 15.2 dB, 1.95 dB and 0.3 GHz at 2.31 GHz, respectively. The results indicate that the co-design and cascade versions have same performance, but the co-design version cuts down the number of the passive components by nearly half.

  17. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua [Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Caves, Carlton M. [Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA and Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state σ for the ancillary mode; σ determines the properties of the added noise.

  18. Cryogenic ultra-low-noise SiGe transistor amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B I; Trgala, M; Grajcar, M; Il'ichev, E; Meyer, H-G

    2011-10-01

    An ultra-low-noise one-stage SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor amplifier was designed for cryogenic temperatures and a frequency range of 10 kHz-100 MHz. A noise temperature T(N) ≈ 1.4 K was measured at an ambient temperature of 4.2 K at frequencies between 100 kHz and 100 MHz for a source resistance of ~50 Ω. The voltage gain of the amplifier was 25 dB at a power consumption of 720 μW. The input voltage noise spectral density of the amplifier is about 35 pV/√Hz. The low noise resistance and power consumption makes the amplifier suitable for readout of resistively shunted DC SQUID magnetometers and amplifiers.

  19. LNA A 1.9 GHZ low noise amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Julián Moreno-Rubio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the design, the simulation, and the layout from a low noise amplifier (LNA, designed with and approximate band from 25 to 80 MHz. The design results of the matching neworks are shown, its noise figure, its available and transduced gain according to its non lineal model (TOM, the DC network, crash inductors and matching capacitors with the large impedance transmission lines.

  20. Wideband amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Hollister, Allen L

    2007-01-01

    In this book, the theory needed to understand wideband amplifier design using the simplest models possible will be developed. This theory will be used to develop algebraic equations that describe particular circuits used in high frequency design so that the reader develops a ""gut level"" understanding of the process and circuit. SPICE and Genesys simulations will be performed to show the accuracy of the algebraic models. By looking at differences between the algebraic equations and the simulations, new algebraic models will be developed that include parameters originally left out of the model

  1. Design of a Front– End Amplifier for the Maximum Power Delivery and Required Noise by HBMO with Support Vector Microstrip Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guneş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO is a recent swarm-based optimization algorithm to solve highly nonlinear problems, whose based approach combines the powers of simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, and an effective local search heuristic to search for the best possible solution to the problem under investigation within a reasonable computing time. In this work, the HBMO- based design is carried out for a front-end amplifier subject to be a subunit of a radar system in conjunction with a cost effective 3-D SONNET-based Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM microstrip model. All the matching microstrip widths, lengths are obtained on a chosen substrate to satisfy the maximum power delivery and the required noise over the required bandwidth of a selected transistor. The proposed HBMO- based design is applied to the design of a typical ultra-wide-band low noise amplifier with NE3512S02 on a substrate of Rogers 4350 for the maximum output power and the noise figure F(f=1dB within the 5-12 GHz using the T- type of microstrip matching circuits. Furthermore, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed HBMO based design are manifested by comparing it with the Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and the simple HBMO based designs.

  2. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  3. Low-noise audio amplifiers and preamplifier for use with intrinsic thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.C.; Sachs, R.D.; Stewart, F.L.

    1979-03-01

    Two simple, low-noise audio amplifiers and one low-noise preamplifier for use with intrinsic thermocouples were designed, built, and tested. The amplifiers and the preamplifier have different front end designs. One amplifier uses ultralow-noise operational amplifiers; the other amplifier uses a hybrid component. The preamplifier uses ultralow-noise discrete components. The amplifiers' equivalent noise inputs, at maximum gain, are 4.09 nV and 50 nV; the preamplifier's input is 4.05 μV. Their bandwidths are 15 600 Hz, 550 Hz, and 174 kHz, respectively. the amplifiers' equivalent noise inputs were measured from approx. 0 to 100 Hz, whereas the preamplifier's equivalent noise input was measured from approx. 0 to 174 kHz

  4. Ultra-low noise miniaturized neural amplifier with hardware averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweiri, Yazan M; Eggers, Thomas; McCallum, Grant; Durand, Dominique M

    2015-08-01

    Peripheral nerves carry neural signals that could be used to control hybrid bionic systems. Cuff electrodes provide a robust and stable interface but the recorded signal amplitude is small (noise of less than 1 μVrms for a useful signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) contacts alone generate thermal noise of at least 0.5 μVrms therefore the amplifier should add as little noise as possible. Since mainstream neural amplifiers have a baseline noise of 2 μVrms or higher, novel designs are required. Here we apply the concept of hardware averaging to nerve recordings obtained with cuff electrodes. An optimization procedure is developed to minimize noise and power simultaneously. The novel design was based on existing neural amplifiers (Intan Technologies, LLC) and is validated with signals obtained from the FINE in chronic dog experiments. We showed that hardware averaging leads to a reduction in the total recording noise by a factor of 1/√N or less depending on the source resistance. Chronic recording of physiological activity with FINE using the presented design showed significant improvement on the recorded baseline noise with at least two parallel operation transconductance amplifiers leading to a 46.1% reduction at N = 8. The functionality of these recordings was quantified by the SNR improvement and shown to be significant for N = 3 or more. The present design was shown to be capable of generating noise when connected to a FINE placed on the sciatic nerve of an awake animal. An algorithm was introduced to find the value of N that can minimize both the power consumption and the noise in order to design a miniaturized ultralow-noise neural amplifier. These results demonstrate the efficacy of hardware averaging on noise improvement for neural recording with cuff electrodes, and can accommodate the presence of high source impedances that are associated with the miniaturized contacts and the high channel count in electrode arrays. This

  5. Ultra-low noise miniaturized neural amplifier with hardware averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweiri, Yazan M.; Eggers, Thomas; McCallum, Grant; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Peripheral nerves carry neural signals that could be used to control hybrid bionic systems. Cuff electrodes provide a robust and stable interface but the recorded signal amplitude is small (noise of less than 1 μVrms for a useful signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) contacts alone generate thermal noise of at least 0.5 μVrms therefore the amplifier should add as little noise as possible. Since mainstream neural amplifiers have a baseline noise of 2 μVrms or higher, novel designs are required. Approach. Here we apply the concept of hardware averaging to nerve recordings obtained with cuff electrodes. An optimization procedure is developed to minimize noise and power simultaneously. The novel design was based on existing neural amplifiers (Intan Technologies, LLC) and is validated with signals obtained from the FINE in chronic dog experiments. Main results. We showed that hardware averaging leads to a reduction in the total recording noise by a factor of 1/√N or less depending on the source resistance. Chronic recording of physiological activity with FINE using the presented design showed significant improvement on the recorded baseline noise with at least two parallel operation transconductance amplifiers leading to a 46.1% reduction at N = 8. The functionality of these recordings was quantified by the SNR improvement and shown to be significant for N = 3 or more. The present design was shown to be capable of generating noise when connected to a FINE placed on the sciatic nerve of an awake animal. An algorithm was introduced to find the value of N that can minimize both the power consumption and the noise in order to design a miniaturized ultralow-noise neural amplifier. Significance. These results demonstrate the efficacy of hardware averaging on noise improvement for neural recording with cuff electrodes, and can accommodate the presence of high source impedances that are associated with the miniaturized contacts and

  6. Low-Noise Amplifier for 100 to 180 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Pukala, David; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; Mei, Xiaobing; Lai, Richard; Deal, William

    2009-01-01

    A three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier designed to exhibit low noise in operation at frequencies from about 100 to somewhat above 180 GHz has been built and tested. This is a prototype of broadband amplifiers that have potential utility in diverse applications, including measurement of atmospheric temperature and humidity and millimeter-wave imaging for inspecting contents of opaque containers. Figure 1 depicts the amplifier as it appears before packaging. Figure 2 presents data from measurements of the performance of the amplifier as packaged in a WR-05 waveguide and tested in the frequency range from about 150 to about 190 GHz. The amplifier exhibited substantial gain throughout this frequency range. Especially notable is the fact that at 165 GHz, the noise figure was found to be 3.7 dB, and the noise temperature was found to be 370 K: This is less than half the noise temperature of the prior state of the art.

  7. Theoretical analysis of quantum dot amplifiers with high saturation power and low noise figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers are predicted to exhibit superior characteristics such as high gain, and output power and low noise. The analysis provides criteria and design guidelines for the realization of high quality amplifiers.......Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers are predicted to exhibit superior characteristics such as high gain, and output power and low noise. The analysis provides criteria and design guidelines for the realization of high quality amplifiers....

  8. Design of an 1800 nm Raman Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    , also extended band amplifiers are required. As a solution to the latter challenge, Raman amplifiers are suggested as promising candidates. The main hurdle when designing a long wavelength Raman amplifier is the increased intrinsic fiber attenuation which as a consequence leads to an increase...... in the pump power requirement and deteriorated noise properties. Here we demonstrate a Raman amplifier designed for signal wavelengths around 1800 nm. The amplification fiber is an OFS PM Raman fiber, and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser emitting at 1680 nm [4]. The amplifier was pumped co......-polarized and backward, with respect to the singal. In Fig. 2 a measured Raman on/off gain exceeding 9 dB for 285 mW of injected pump power is obtained in a 4.35 km long fiber. A broadband supercontinuum source was used as a signal from 1700 nm to 1900 nm....

  9. Pump to signal noise transfer in parametric fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal.......Fiber optic parametric amplifiers have been suggested due to their potential low spontaneous emission. However, by nature the parametric amplifier only work in a forward pumped configuration, which result in transfer of relative intensity noise in the pump to the signal....

  10. Operational amplifiers theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsing, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This proven textbook guides readers to a thorough understanding of the theory and design of operational amplifiers (OpAmps). The core of the book presents systematically the design of operational amplifiers, classifying them into a periodic system of nine main overall configurations, ranging from one gain stage up to four or more stages. This division enables circuit designers to recognize quickly, understand, and choose optimal configurations. Characterization of operational amplifiers is given by macro models and error matrices, together with measurement techniques for their parameters. Definitions are given for four types of operational amplifiers depending on the grounding of their input and output ports. Many famous designs are evaluated in depth, using a carefully structured approach enhanced by numerous figures. In order to reinforce the concepts introduced and facilitate self-evaluation of design skills, the author includes problems with detailed solutions, as well as simulation exercises. Provides te...

  11. Optimal signal-to-noise in digital phase lock amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Charles R.; Harvey, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    An expression for the optimal signal-to-noise ratio for linear phase lock amplifiers is derived. In its digital form the optimal method can be implemented by real-time signal processing techniques. The case of detector-noise-limited systems is analyzed in detail; it is found that the optimal technique can be used to eliminate effectively the detector's time constant from the set of parameters determining the overall efficiency. This has important implications for optical detection system design. Also reported is an experimental verification of the optimal method, thus establishing its practicality.

  12. Noise-driven neuromorphic tuned amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Duccio; Ginelli, Francesco; Livi, Roberto; Zagli, Niccoló; Zankoc, Clement

    2017-12-01

    We study a simple stochastic model of neuronal excitatory and inhibitory interactions. The model is defined on a directed lattice and internodes couplings are modulated by a nonlinear function that mimics the process of synaptic activation. We prove that such a system behaves as a fully tunable amplifier: the endogenous component of noise, stemming from finite size effects, seeds a coherent (exponential) amplification across the chain generating giant oscillations with tunable frequencies, a process that the brain could exploit to enhance, and eventually encode, different signals. On a wider perspective, the characterized amplification process could provide a reliable pacemaking mechanism for biological systems. The device extracts energy from the finite size bath and operates as an out of equilibrium thermal machine, under stationary conditions.

  13. External Peltier Cooler For Low-Noise Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1990-01-01

    Inexpensive Peltier-effect cooling module made of few commercially available parts used to reduce thermal noise in microwave amplifier. Retrofitted to almost any microwave low-noise amplifier or receiver preamplifier used in communication, telemetry, or radar. Includes copper or aluminum cold plate held tightly against unit to be cooled by strap-type worm-gear clamps.

  14. A low noise, low residial offset chopped amplifier for mixed level applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanduleanu, M.A.T.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Wassenaar, R.F.; Lammers, M.C.; Wallinga, Hans

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the principle and the design of a CMOS low noise, low residual offset, chopped amplifier with a class AB output stage for noise and offset reduction in mixed analog digital applications. The operation is based on chopping and dynamic element matching to reduce noise and offset,

  15. A model for phase noise generation in amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, T D; Fynn, K; Cantoni, A

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, a model is presented for predicting the phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. The model correctly predicts the dependence of phase noise on the signal frequency (at a particular carrier offset frequency), explains the noise shaping of the phase noise about the signal frequency, and shows the functional dependence on the transistor parameters and the circuit parameters. Experimental studies on common emitter (CE) amplifiers have been used to validate the PM noise model at carrier frequencies between 10 and 100 MHz.

  16. Precise Characterization and Multiobjective Optimization of Low Noise Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although practically all function blocks of the satellite navigation receivers are realized using the CMOS digital integrated circuits, it is appropriate to create a separate low noise antenna preamplifier based on a low noise pHEMT. Such an RF front end can be strongly optimized to attain a suitable tradeoff between the noise figure and transducer power gain. Further, as all the four principal navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and COMPASS work in similar frequency bands (roughly from 1.1 to 1.7 GHz, it is reasonable to create the low noise preamplifier for all of them. In the paper, a sophisticated method of the amplifier design is suggested based on multiobjective optimization. A substantial improvement of a standard optimization method is also outlined to satisfy a uniform coverage of Pareto front. Moreover, for enhancing efficiency of many times repeated solutions of large linear systems during the optimization, a new modification of the Markowitz criterion is suggested compatible with fast modes of the LU factorization. Extraordinary attention was also given to the accuracy of modeling. First, an extraction of pHEMT model parameters was performed including its noise part, and several models were compared. The extraction was carried out by an original identification procedure based on a combination of metaheuristic and direct methods. Second, the equations of the passive elements (including transmission lines and T-splitters were carefully defined using frequency dispersion of their parameters as Q, ESR, etc. Third, an optimal selection of the operating point and essential passive elements was performed using the improved optimization method. Finally, the s-parameters and noise figure of the amplifier were measured, and stability and third-order intermodulation products were also checked.

  17. Design of a lock-amplifier circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Huang, W. J.; Song, X.; Zhang, W. Y.; Sa, L. B.

    2017-01-01

    The lock-in amplifier is recovered by phase sensitive detection technique for the weak signal submerged in the noise background. This design is based on the TI ultra low power LM358, INA129, OPA227, OP07 and other chips as the core design and production of the lock-in amplifier. Signal generator by 10m ohms /1K ohm resistance points pressure network 10 mu V 1mV adjustable sine wave signal s (T). The concomitant interference signal together through the AC amplifier and band-pass filter signal x (T), on the other hand reference signal R (T) driven by square wave phase shift etc. steps to get the signal R (T), two signals and by phase sensitive detector are a DC full wave, again through its low pass filter and a DC amplifier to be measured signal more accurate detection, the final circuit through the AD conversion and the use of single-chip will display the output.

  18. Full noise characterization of a low-noise two-stage SQUID amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falferi, P [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Mezzena, R [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Sezione di Padova, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Vinante, A [INFN, Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: falferi@science.unitn.it

    2009-07-15

    From measurements performed on a low-noise two-stage SQUID amplifier coupled to a high- Q electrical resonator we give a complete noise characterization of the SQUID amplifier around the resonator frequency of 11 kHz in terms of additive, back action and cross-correlation noise spectral densities. The minimum noise temperature evaluated at 135 mK is 10 {mu}K and corresponds to an energy resolution of 18{Dirac_h}.

  19. Cryogenic MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers for W-Band and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Church, Sarah; Cleary, Kieran; Fung, Andy; Gaier, Todd C.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lai, Richard; Lau, Judy M.; Mei, Gerry; Reeves, Rodrigo; Sieth, Matthew M.; Voll, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    We discuss results of low noise amplifier Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuits (MMICs), which were designed for specific frequencies in the range of 70-200 GHz. We report on room temperature and cryogenic noise performance for a variety of circuits. The designs utilize Northrop Grumman Corporation’s (NGC) 35 nm gate length InP HEMT technology. Some of the lowest reported noise figures to date have been observed with this process at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan HUYNH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier, measured in outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Our previous study has already shown that the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link range drastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier have been added to a ZigBee module to increase both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 1600 m with a negligible packet error rate compared to 144 m without any external amplifier for point-to-point radio connection. Thus, by increasing both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased significantly. The power consumption issue with the added amplifiers is studied as well, indicating that the module can still be battery driven with a battery lifetime of about 9 years at a normal sampling rate to the sensor.

  1. Low-power low-voltage chopped transconductance amplifier for noise and offset reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanduleanu, M.A.T.; Nauta, Bram; Wallinga, Hans

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the principle and design of a CMOS low-power, low-voltage, chopped transconductance amplifier, for noise and offset reduction in mixed analogue digital applications. The operation is based on chopping and dynamic element matching, to reduce noise and offset, without excessive

  2. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  3. A CMOS low-noise instrumentation amplifier using chopper modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Bruun, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a low-power, low-noise chopper stabilized CMOS instrumentation amplifier for biomedical applications. Low thermal noise is achieved by employing MOSTs biased in the weak/moderate inversion region, whereas chopper stabilization is utilized to shift 1/f-noise out of the signal...... band hereby ensuring overall low noise performance. The resulting equivalent input referred noise is approximately 7 nV/rootHz for a chopping frequency of 20 kHz. The amplifier operates from a modest supply voltage of 1.8 V, drawing 136 muA of current thus consuming 245 muW of power. The gain is 72.5 d...

  4. Circuit models and experimental noise measurements of micropipette amplifiers for extracellular neural recordings from live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang Hao; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Vai, Mang I; Klug, Achim; Lei, Tim C

    2014-01-01

    Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  5. Circuit Models and Experimental Noise Measurements of Micropipette Amplifiers for Extracellular Neural Recordings from Live Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  6. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...... performance of the amplifier is also investigated for both configurations. Our results show an on/off gain exceeding 20 dB at 1810 nm for which the obtained effective noise figure is below 3 dB....

  7. Noise spectra in balanced optical detectors based on transimpedance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalov, A. V.; Kuzhamuratov, A.; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    We present a thorough theoretical analysis and experimental study of the shot and electronic noise spectra of a balanced optical detector based on an operational amplifier connected in a transimpedance scheme. We identify and quantify the primary parameters responsible for the limitations of the circuit, in particular, the bandwidth and shot-to-electronic noise clearance. We find that the shot noise spectrum can be made consistent with the second-order Butterworth filter, while the electronic noise grows linearly with the second power of the frequency. Good agreement between the theory and experiment is observed; however, the capacitances of the operational amplifier input and the photodiodes appear significantly higher than those specified in manufacturers' datasheets. This observation is confirmed by independent tests.

  8. Optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Tian, Yue; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Kanoff, Daniel R; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-01-28

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical steganography method in which a data signal is transmitted using amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as a carrier. The ASE serving as a carrier for the private signal has an identical frequency spectrum to the existing noise generated by the Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in the transmission system. The system also carries a conventional data channel that is not private. The so-called "stealth" or private channel is well-hidden within the noise of the system. Phase modulation is used for both the stealth channel and the public channel. Using homodyne detection, the short coherence length of the ASE ensures that the stealth signal can only be recovered if the receiver closely matches the delay-length difference, which is deliberately changed in a dynamic fashion that is only known to the transmitter and its intended receiver.

  9. Low-Noise MMIC Amplifiers for 120 to 180 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Peralta, Alejandro; Bayuk, Brian; Grundbacher, Ron; Oliver, Patricia; Cavus, Abdullah; Liu, Po-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers capable of providing useful amounts of gain over the frequency range from 120 to 180 GHz have been developed as prototype low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to be incorporated into instruments for sensing cosmic microwave background radiation. There are also potential uses for such LNAs in electronic test equipment, passive millimeter- wave imaging systems, radar receivers, communication receivers, and systems for detecting hidden weapons. The main advantage afforded by these MMIC LNAs, relative to prior MMIC LNAs, is that their coverage of the 120-to-180-GHz frequency band makes them suitable for reuse in a wider variety of applications without need to redesign them. Each of these MMIC amplifiers includes InP transistors and coplanar waveguide circuitry on a 50- mthick chip (see Figure 1). Coplanar waveguide transmission lines are used for both applying DC bias and matching of input and output impedances of each transistor stage. Via holes are incorporated between top and bottom ground planes to suppress propagation of electromagnetic modes in the substrate. On the basis of computational simulations, each of these amplifiers was expected to operate with a small-signal gain of 14 dB and a noise figure of 4.3 dB. At the time of writing this article, measurements of noise figures had not been reported, but on-chip measurements had shown gains approaching their simulated values (see Figure 2).

  10. A new approach to control noise from entertainment facilities: Active control and measurement of amplified community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppin, Richard J.; Casamajó, Joan

    2003-04-01

    While traffic noise is perhaps the most pervasive of community noises, much of the contribution now comes from amplified sound: live music, discos, theme parks, and exercise studios. Those producing the sound or music want it loud and those not interested want to be protected against noise. Noise limits at the receiving or producing property line must be met for the minimum community acceptance. However the time-, and perhaps the spatially-, varying sound in entertainment facilities is often constantly modified (and maybe monitored) near the source of the sound. Hence it is hard to relate and to control the sound at the property line. This paper presents a unique noise control device. It is based on the octave band ``transfer function'' between the sound produced in the entertainment area and the noise received at the property line. The overall insulation can be measured and is input to the instrument. When a noise level limit is exceeded at the receiver, due to the amplified interior noise at the facility, the sound output of the device is automatically controlled to reduce the noise. The paper provides details of the design and possible abatement scenarios with examples.

  11. Design and development of a spectroscopy amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Khalaf, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spectroscopy amplifier is an integral part of my detection system used for the measurement and spectroscopy of nuclear radiations. Its performance determination the contribution of the electronics to the energy resolution of the system. A spectroscopy amplifier has been designed and developed using locally available components. The design and description of this unit is discussed in this article. (author)

  12. A sub-microwatt low-noise amplifier for neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Jeremy; Otis, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a pre-amplifier designed for neural recording applications. Extremely low power dissipation is achieved by operating in an open-loop configuration, restricting the circuit to a single current branch, and reusing current to improve noise performance. Our amplifier exhibits 3.5 microVrms of input-referred noise and has a digitally-controlled gain between 36 dB and 44 dB. The amplifier is AC-coupled, with a pass-band from 0.3 Hz to 4.7 kHz. The circuit is implemented in a 0.5 microm SOI Bi-CMOS process and consumes 805nA from a 1.0V supply, corresponding to a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 1.8, which is the lowest reported NEF to date.

  13. The Noise Performance of a Multiple-Input-Port and Multiple-Output-Port Low-Noise Amplifier Connected to an Array of Coupled Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Broydé

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the noise characterization of a multiple-input-port and multiple-output-port (MIPMOP device receiving signals from an array of antennas. A definition of the noise figures and natural noise figures of a MIPMOP device is provided, and the resulting properties are detailed in the impedance and admittance representations. We compute the natural noise figures of a low-noise MIPMOP amplifier comprising a MIMO series-series feedback amplifier (MIMO-SSFA, designed for a wireless receiver front-end.

  14. Noise Shaping Filter Compensating PWM Distortion for Fully Digital Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneya, Akihiko

    The full-digital audio amplifiers have several merits such as a high power enabling a small size of the amplifier and digital implementation of the signal processing which allows desired precision of the processing except for the final stage switching amplifiers. Unfortunately, the pulse width modulation (PWM) causes signal distortions because of the non-linearity of the modulation from the viewpoint of the transient response. This paper proposes a compensation method of the PWM distortion with feedback approach. In the noise-shaping filter of the delta-sigma modulator to calculate the pulse codes for the PWM, the distortion caused by the PWM is evaluated and fed it back to compensate the distortion. Eventually the filter is implemented as a state-variable filter with non-linear feedback from the quantizer. The calculation of the filter elements is also described. By using proposed filters, PWM signals with small distortions and small floor noise can be obtained to realize high-fidelity audio amplifiers.

  15. WDM optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Tait, Alexander N; Chang, Matthew P; Prucnal, Paul R

    2014-10-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical stealth transmission system carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. The stealth signal is hidden in both time and frequency domains by using ASE noise as the signal carrier. Each WDM channel uses part of the ASE spectrum, which provides more flexibility to apply stealth transmission in a public network and adds another layer of security to the stealth channel. Multi-channel transmission also increases the overall channel capacity, which is the major limitation of the single stealth channel transmission based on ASE noise. The relations between spectral bandwidth and coherence length of ASE carrier have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated.

  16. Specific circuit design: electrocardiogram amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laribiere, Laurent

    1991-01-01

    The electrocardiogram amplifier is a specific integrated circuit. It is based on a linear array of Raytheon. This circuit is fitted with the following functions and characteristics: - electrocardiogram signals amplification, - pacemaker detection, - electrode un-sticking detection, - defibrillator overload protection, - battery-powered, - internal regulation 5 V, - low supply current 2.5 mA, - according to French norms on electrocardiogram surveillance devices - 28 pin package, available in CMS version It can be used for any surveillance device, requiring an analog processing of cardiac signals. (author) [fr

  17. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Crescentini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter.

  18. A Cryogenic SiGe Low-noise Amplifier Optimized for Phased-array Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Wavley M., III; Morgan, Matthew A.

    2017-08-01

    The growing number of phased-array feeds (PAF) being built for radio astronomy demonstrates an increasing need for low-noise amplifiers (LNA), which are designed for repeatability, low noise, and ease of manufacture. Specific design features that help to achieve these goals include the use of unpackaged transistors (for cryogenic operation); single-polarity biasing; straight plug-in radio frequency (RF) interfaces to facilitate installation and re-work; and the use of off-the-shelf components. The focal L-band array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is a cooperative effort by Brigham Young University and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory using warm dipole antennae and cryogenic Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (SiGe HBT) LNAs. These LNAs have an in band gain average of 38 dB and 4.85 Kelvin average noise temperature. Although the FLAG instrument was the driving instrument behind this development, most of the key features of the design and the advantages they offer apply broadly to other array feeds, including independent-beam and phased, and for many antenna types such as horn, dipole, Vivaldi, connected-bowtie, etc. This paper focuses on the unique requirements array feeds have for low-noise amplifiers and how amplifier manufacturing can accommodate these needs.

  19. Note: A temperature-stable low-noise transimpedance amplifier for microcurrent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Shi, Xueyou; Zhao, Kai; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Hanlu

    2017-02-01

    Temperature stability and noise characteristics often run contradictory in microcurrent (e.g., pA-scale) measurement instruments because low-noise performance requires high-value resistors with relatively poor temperature coefficients. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier with high-temperature stability, which involves an active compensation mechanism to overcome the temperature drift mainly caused by high-value resistors, is presented. The implementation uses a specially designed R-2R compensating network to provide programmable current gain with extra-fine trimming resolution. The temperature drifts of all components (e.g., feedback resistors, operational amplifiers, and the R-2R network itself) are compensated simultaneously. Therefore, both low-temperature drift and ultra-low-noise performance can be achieved. With a current gain of 1011 V/A, the internal current noise density was about 0.4 fA/√Hz, and the average temperature coefficient was 4.3 ppm/K at 0-50 °C. The amplifier module maintains accuracy across a wide temperature range without additional thermal stabilization, and its compact size makes it especially suitable for high-precision, low-current measurement in outdoor environments for applications such as electrochemical emission supervision, air pollution particles analysis, radiation monitoring, and bioelectricity.

  20. Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyuseong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was ~400 MHz and the noise charge ~1000 electrons at a 1 μsec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of ~0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.

  1. Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gyuseong.

    1992-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was {approximately}400 MHz and the noise charge {approximately}1000 electrons at a 1 {mu}sec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of {approximately}0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.

  2. A low noise charge sensitive amplifier for use in vacuum photo diode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, R.

    1982-08-01

    The amplifier described consists of a charge sensitive pre-amplifier optimised for low noise with low values of input shunt capacitance, and a shaping amplifier providing both differentiation and integration. Amplifier gain is adjustable up to a maximum of approximately 100 μV/electron with a rise time of 2 μS to the peak of the output voltage, and with an open circuit input noise level of 150 electrons RMS. (author)

  3. Origin of 1/f PM and AM noise in bipolar junction transistor amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, F L; Ferre-Pikal, E S; Jefferts, S R

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of extensive research on phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in linear bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. BJT amplifiers exhibit 1/f PM and AM noise about a carrier signal that is much larger than the amplifiers thermal noise at those frequencies in the absence of the carrier signal. Our work shows that the 1/f PM noise of a BJT based amplifier is accompanied by 1/f AM noise which can be higher, lower, or nearly equal, depending on the circuit implementation. The 1/f AM and PM noise in BJTs is primarily the result of 1/f fluctuations in transistor current, transistor capacitance, circuit supply voltages, circuit impedances, and circuit configuration. We discuss the theory and present experimental data in reference to common emitter amplifiers, but the analysis can be applied to other configurations as well. This study provides the functional dependence of 1/f AM and PM noise on transistor parameters, circuit parameters, and signal frequency, thereby laying the groundwork for a comprehensive theory of 1/f AM and PM noise in BJT amplifiers. We show that in many cases the 1/f PM and AM noise can be reduced below the thermal noise of the amplifier.

  4. Tunable Balun Low-Noise Amplifier in 65nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sturm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper includes the design and implementation of a 65 nm CMOS low-noise amplifier (LNA based on inductive source degeneration. The amplifier is realized with an active balun enabling a single-ended input which is an important requirement for low-cost system on chip implementations. The LNA has a tunable bandpass characteristics from 4.7 GHz up to 5.6 GHz and a continuously tunable gain from 22 dB down to 0 dB, which enables the required flexibility for multi-standard, multi-band receiver architectures. The gain and band tuning is realized with an optimized tunable active resistor in parallel to a tunable L-C tank amplifier load. The amplifier achieves an IIP3 linearity of -8dBm and a noise figure of 2.7 dB at the highest gain and frequency setting with a low power consumption of 10 mW. The high flexibility of the proposed LNA structure together with the overall good performance makes it well suited for future multi-standard low-cost receiver front-ends.

  5. Simple nonlinearity evaluation and modeling of low-noise amplifiers with application to radio astronomy receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, F. J.; Pascual, J. P.; de La Fuente, M. L.; Artal, E.; Portilla, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a comparative nonlinear analysis of low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) under different stimuli for use in astronomical applications. Wide-band Gaussian-noise input signals, together with the high values of gain required, make that figures of merit, such as the 1 dB compression (1 dBc) point of amplifiers, become crucial in the design process of radiometric receivers in order to guarantee the linearity in their nominal operation. The typical method to obtain the 1 dBc point is by using single-tone excitation signals to get the nonlinear amplitude to amplitude (AM-AM) characteristic but, as will be shown in the paper, in radiometers, the nature of the wide-band Gaussian-noise excitation signals makes the amplifiers present higher nonlinearity than when using single tone excitation signals. Therefore, in order to analyze the suitability of the LNA's nominal operation, the 1 dBc point has to be obtained, but using realistic excitation signals. In this work, an analytical study of compression effects in amplifiers due to excitation signals composed of several tones is reported. Moreover, LNA nonlinear characteristics, as AM-AM, total distortion, and power to distortion ratio, have been obtained by simulation and measurement with wide-band Gaussian-noise excitation signals. This kind of signal can be considered as a limit case of a multitone signal, when the number of tones is very high. The work is illustrated by means of the extraction of realistic nonlinear characteristics, through simulation and measurement, of a 31 GHz back-end module LNA used in the radiometer of the QUIJOTE (Q U I JOint TEnerife) CMB experiment.

  6. Design and simulation of a gyroklystron amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, M. S., E-mail: mschauhan.rs.ece@iitbhu.ac.in; Swati, M. V.; Jain, P. K. [Centre of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-03-15

    In the present paper, a design methodology of the gyroklystron amplifier has been described and subsequently used for the design of a typically selected 200 kW, Ka-band, four-cavity gyroklystron amplifier. This conceptual device design has been validated through the 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and nonlinear analysis. Commercially available PIC simulation code “MAGIC” has been used for the electromagnetic study at the different location of the device RF interaction structure for the beam-absent case, i.e., eigenmode study as well as for the electron beam and RF wave interaction behaviour study in the beam present case of the gyroklystron. In addition, a practical problem of misalignment of the RF cavities with drift tubes within the tube has been also investigated and its effect on device performance studied. The analytical and simulation results confirmed the validity of the gyroklystron device design. The PIC simulation results of the present gyroklystron produced a stable RF output power of ∼218 kW for 0% velocity spread at 35 GHz, with ∼45 dB gain, 37% efficiency, and a bandwidth of 0.3% for a 70 kV, 8.2 A gyrating electron beam. The simulated values of RF output power have been found in agreement with the nonlinear analysis results within ∼5%. Further, the PIC simulation has been extended to study a practical problem of misalignment of the cavities axis and drift tube axis of the gyroklystron amplifier and found that the RF output power is more sensitive to misalignments in comparison to the device bandwidth. The present paper, gyroklystron device design, nonlinear analysis, and 3D PIC simulation using commercially available code had been systematically described would be of use to the high-power gyro-amplifier tube designers and research scientists.

  7. Low-Gain, Low-Noise Integrated Neuronal Amplifier for Implantable Artifact-Reduction Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Benazzouz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain neuroprostheses for neuromodulation are being designed to monitor the neural activity of the brain in the vicinity of the region being stimulated using a single macro-electrode. Using a single macro-electrode, recent neuromodulation studies show that recording systems with a low gain neuronal amplifier and successive amplifier stages can reduce or reject stimulation artifacts. These systems were made with off-the-shelf components that are not amendable for future implant design. A low-gain, low-noise integrated neuronal amplifier (NA with the capability of recording local field potentials (LFP and spike activity is presented. In vitro and in vivo characterizations of the tissue/electrode interface, with equivalent impedance as an electrical model for recording in the LFP band using macro-electrodes for rodents, contribute to the NA design constraints. The NA occupies 0.15 mm2 and dissipates 6.73 µW, and was fabricated using a 0.35 µm CMOS process. Test-bench validation indicates that the NA provides a mid-band gain of 20 dB and achieves a low input-referred noise of 4 µVRMS. Ability of the NA to perform spike recording in test-bench experiments is presented. Additionally, an awake and freely moving rodent setup was used to illustrate the integrated NA ability to record LFPs, paving the pathway for future implantable systems for neuromodulation.

  8. Amplifier Design for Proportional Ionization Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. H.

    1950-08-24

    This paper presents the requirements of a nuclear amplifier of short resolving time, designed to accept pulses of widely varying amplitudes. Data are given which show that a proportional ionization chamber loaded with a 1,000-ohm resistor develops pulses of 0.5 microsecond duration and several volts amplitude. Results indicate that seven basic requirements are imposed on the amplifier when counting soft beta and gamma radiation in the presence of alpha particles, without absorbers. It should, (1) have a fast recovery time, (2) have a relatively good low frequency response, (3) accept pulses of widely varying heights without developing spurious pulsed, (4) have a limiting output stage, (5) preserve the inherently short rise time of the chamber, (6) minimize pulse integration, and (7) have sufficient gain to detect the weak pulses well below the chamber voltage at which continuous discharge takes place. The results obtained with an amplifier which meets these requirements is described. A formula is derived which indicates that redesign of the proportional ionization chamber might eliminate the need for an amplifier. This may be possible if the radioactive particles are collimated parallel to the collecting electrode.

  9. In-circuit-measurement of parasitic elements in high gain high bandwidth low noise transimpedance amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochems, P; Kirk, A; Zimmermann, S

    2014-12-01

    Parasitic elements play an important role in the development of every high performance circuit. In the case of high gain, high bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers, the most important parasitic elements are parasitic capacitances at the input and in the feedback path, which significantly influence the stability, the frequency response, and the noise of the amplifier. As these parasitic capacitances range from a few picofarads down to only a few femtofarads, it is nearly impossible to measure them accurately using traditional LCR meters. Unfortunately, they also cannot be easily determined from the transfer function of the transimpedance amplifier, as it contains several overlapping effects and its measurement is only possible when the circuit is already stable. Therefore, we developed an in-circuit measurement method utilizing minimal modifications to the input stage in order to measure its parasitic capacitances directly and with unconditional stability. Furthermore, using the data acquired with this measurement technique, we both proposed a model for the complicated frequency response of high value thick film resistors as they are used in high gain transimpedance amplifiers and optimized our transimpedance amplifier design.

  10. SiGe HBT low noise amplifiers for ultra-wideband systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov V. P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the principles of design of integrated circuits low-noise amplifiers (LNA based on silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBT for ultra-wideband (UWB systems. UWB systems range 0,5—10,6 GHz are used in communications, radars of medical applications and safety systems. The proposed UWB LNA implemented by inductorless or minimum number of inductors schemes. In this paper researched and designed two variants of UWB LNA 0,5—11 GHz frequency range.

  11. Design of a transimpedance amplifier for a bio-optical fiber sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pola, L.; Camasa, J.; Gomez B, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a fairly detailed model for a photodiode coupled to an operational amplifier in the trans impedance circuit configuration, for the applications in Biotechnology. An optical signal of the fiber optic biosensor is detected by a photodiode and its photocurrent generated is introduced in the trans impedance amplifier. The proposed design uses a photodiode in photovoltaic mode, and its photocurrent is coupled to an amplifier with positive output. Finally, the trans impedance amplifier presents reliable design characteristics such as accuracy, stability, low noise, and the ability to measure photocurrent from 1nA to 100μA. (Author)

  12. An ultralow noise current amplifier based on superconducting quantum interference device for high sensitivity applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, C; Vettoliere, A; Russo, M

    2011-01-01

    An integrated ultrahigh sensitive current amplifier based on a niobium dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed. The sensor design is based on a multiturn signal coil coupled to a suitable SQUID magnetometer. The signal coil consists of 60 square niobium turns tightly coupled to a superconducting flux transformer of a SQUID magnetometer. The primary coil (pick-up coil) of the flux transformer has been suitably designed in order to accommodate the multiturn input coil. It has a side length of 10 mm and a width of 2.4 mm. In such a way we have obtained a signal current to magnetic flux transfer coefficient (current sensitivity) as low as 62 nA∕Φ(0). The sensor has been characterized in liquid helium by using a direct coupling low noise readout electronic and a standard modulated electronic in flux locked loop configuration for the noise measurements. Beside the circuit complexity, the sensor has exhibited a smooth and free resonance voltage-flux characteristic guaranteeing a reliable and a stable working operation. Considering a SQUID magnetic flux noise of S(Φ)(1∕2) = 1.8 μΦ(0)∕Hz(1∕2) at T = 4.2 K, a current noise as low as 110 fA∕Hz(1∕2) is obtained. Such a value is about a factor two less than the noise of other SQUIDs of the same category. As an application, Nyquist noise measurements of integrated test resistors using the current sensing noise thermometer technique are reported. Due to its high performance such a sensor can be employed in all applications requiring an extremely current sensitivity like the readout of the gravitational wave detectors and the current sensing noise thermometry.

  13. Raman and loss induced quantum noise in depleted fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-classical approach for predicting the quantum noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers. The unavoidable contributors of noise, vacuum fluctuations, loss-induced noise, and spontaneous Raman scattering, are included in the analysis of both phase-insensitive and phase...

  14. Low-noise two-wired buffer electrodes for bioelectric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Thomas; Torrent, Simon; Jäckel, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Active buffer electrodes are known to improve the immunity of bioelectric recordings against power line interferences. A survey of published work reveals that buffer electrodes are almost exclusively designed using operational amplifiers (opamps). In this paper, we discuss the advantage of utilizing a single transistor instead. This allows for a simple electrode, which is small and requires only two wires. In addition, a single transistor adds considerably less noise when compared to an opamp with the same power consumption. We then discuss output resistance and gain as well as their respective effect on the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). Finally, we demonstrate the use of two-wired buffer electrodes for a bioelectric amplifier.

  15. Temperature-stabilized differential amplifier for low-noise DC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märki, P.; Braem, B. A.; Ihn, T.

    2017-08-01

    A tabletop low-noise differential amplifier with a bandwidth of 100 kHz is presented. Low voltage drifts of the order of 100 nV/day are reached by thermally stabilizing relevant amplifier components. The input leakage current is below 100 fA. Input-stage errors are reduced by extensive circuitry. Voltage noise, current noise, input capacitance, and input current are extraordinarily low. The input resistance is larger than 1 T Ω . The amplifiers were tested with and deployed for electrical transport measurements of quantum devices at cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Systematic Design of EMI-Resilient Negative-Feedback Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Horst, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The information transfer capacity of negative-feedback amplifiers, and electronic circuits in general, is limited by three fundamental limitations being noise, bandwidth, and signal power. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is not a fundamental limitation, but it also hampers the information

  17. Design Of A Doherty Power Amplifier For GSM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Wasmi Osman

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and analysis of Doherty power amplifier. The Doherty amplifier is used in  a base station for mobile system because of its high efficiency. The class AB power amplifier used in the configuration of the main and auxiliary amplifier. The result obtained shows that the Doherty power amplifier can be used on a wide band spectrum, the amplifier works at 900MHz and has very good power added efficiency (PAE) and gain. The amplifier can also work at 1800MHz at input pow...

  18. Quantum and Raman Noise in a Depleted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten; McKinstrie, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    The noise properties of both phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive saturated parametric amplifiers are studied using a semi-classical approach. Vacuum fluctuations as well as spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis....

  19. Amplifiers for bioelectric events: a design with a minimal number of parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MettingVanRijn, A C; Peper, A; Grimbergen, C A

    1994-05-01

    A design for an amplifier for bioelectric events is presented that has fewer parts than conventional designs. The design allows the construction of amplifiers of a high quality in terms of noise and common mode rejection, with reduced dimensions and with a lower power consumption. Gain, bandwidth and number of channels are easily adapted to a wide range of biomedical applications. An application example is given in the form of a multichannel EEG amplifier (gain is 20,000), in which each channel consists of three operational amplifiers (one single and one dual), six resistors and two capacitors. The equivalent input noise voltage and current are 0.15 microVrms and 1 pArms, respectively, in a bandwidth of 0.2-40 Hz, and a common mode rejection ratio of 136 dB is achieved without trimming.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Coherent Ultrashort Light Pulse CDMA With Multiple Optical Amplifiers Using Additive Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Kambiz; Salehi, Jawad A.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the performance of various configurations for placing multiple optical amplifiers in a typical coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access (CULP-CDMA) communication system using the additive noise model. For this study, a comprehensive performance analysis was developed that takes into account multiple-access noise, noise due to optical amplifiers, and thermal noise using the saddle-point approximation technique. Prior to obtaining the overall system performance, the input/output statistical models for different elements of the system such as encoders/decoders,star coupler, and optical amplifiers were obtained. Performance comparisons between an ideal and lossless quantum-limited case and a typical CULP-CDMA with various losses exhibit more than 30 dB more power requirement to obtain the same bit-error rate (BER). Considering the saturation effect of optical amplifiers, this paper discusses an algorithm for amplifiers' gain setting in various stages of the network in order to overcome the nonlinear effects on signal modulation in optical amplifiers. Finally, using this algorithm,various configurations of multiple optical amplifiers in CULP-CDMA are discussed and the rules for the required optimum number of amplifiers are shown with their corresponding optimum locations to be implemented along the CULP-CDMA system.

  1. Modeling and design techniques for RF power amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Arvind; Laskar, Joy

    2008-01-01

    The book covers RF power amplifier design, from device and modeling considerations to advanced circuit design architectures and techniques. It focuses on recent developments and advanced topics in this area, including numerous practical designs to back the theoretical considerations. It presents the challenges in designing power amplifiers in silicon and helps the reader improve the efficiency of linear power amplifiers, and design more accurate compact device models, with faster extraction routines, to create cost effective and reliable circuits.

  2. Development of a low-noise, two-dimensional amplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Sakumura, Takuto; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development of a low-noise, two-dimensional analog front-end ASIC for hybrid pixel imaging detectors. Based on the Open-IP LSI project, the ASIC is designed to meet a low-noise requirement of better than 100e - (rms) with self-triggering capability. The ASIC is intended for the readout of pixel sensors utilizing silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) as detector materials for spectroscopic imaging observations in the X-ray and gamma-ray regions. The readout chip consists of a 4x4 matrix of identical 270μmx270μm pixel cells and was implemented with TSMC 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Each pixel cell contains a charge-sensitive amplifier, pole-zero cancellation circuit, shaper, comparator, and peak hold circuit. Preliminary testing of the ASIC achieved an 88e - (rms) equivalent noise charge and a 25e - /pF noise slope with power consumption of 150μW per pixel.

  3. Design and Development of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Amplifiers and Coupling Circuits for Telecommunication Systems Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Makri

    2002-01-01

    quadrature coupler and a Wilkinson one in order to reduce size. Finally, a two stages low noise amplifier was designed with the use of H40 GaAs process in order the differences between the relevant designs to be explored. The key specifications for this MMIC LNA include operation at 10 GHz with a total gain of 17 dB while the noise figure is less than 1.5 dB.

  4. Strongly coupled, low noise DC-SQUID amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pleikies, J.

    2009-01-01

    The dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (dc-SQUID) is one of the most sensitive magnetic field sensors available. In this thesis we concentrate on its application as an amplifier. In this configuration, an input circuit of interest can be connected by means of a coupling coil. The

  5. [Design of amplifier circuit for thermal conductivity detector in micro gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Chen, Zhong

    2010-08-01

    Agilent 3000 + is a typical micro gas chromatograph (micro GC) which is widely used for its fast analysis, high resolution, wide dynamic range and energy-efficient. However its amplifier circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) are of high power consumption and high working temperature. Based on the results of theoretical calculation, ADS1255, a 24-bit delta-sigma ADC from TI, was selected as the core component for its low noise and energy-efficient. Furthermore, a low noise, high common-mode voltage durable full differential amplifier circuit was designed to accomplish the functions of impedance matching, filtering, and level shifting in front of ADC. The full differential amplifier was optimized with the analysis of noise model and theoretical calculation. In addition, a testing platform was developed to test the full differential amplifier and ADC. The testing results showed that the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) noise value of new full different amplifier and ADC was as low as 1.25 microV and the power dissipation was 3.7 W lower than that of the old circuit. The new circuit is low noise, energy-efficient, compact and cheap and can cater for the requirement of the micro GC of next generation.

  6. A high-speed low-noise transimpedance amplifier in a 025 mum CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Casagrande, L; Despeisse, Matthieu; Jarron, Pierre; Pelloux, Nicolas; Saramad, Shahyar

    2003-01-01

    We present the simulated and measured performance of a transimpedance amplifier designed in a quarter micron CMOS process. Containing only NMOS and PMOS devices, this amplifier can be integrated in any submicron CMOS process. The main feature of this design is the use of a transistor in the feedback path instead of a resistor. The circuit has been optimized for reading signals coming from silicon strip detectors with few pF input capacitance. For an input charge of 4fC, an input capacitance of 4pF and a transresistance of 135kOmega, we have measured an output pulse fall time of 3ns and an Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) of around 350 electrons rms. In view of the operation of the chip at cryogenic temperatures, measurements at 130K have also been carried out, showing an overall improvement in the performance of the chip. Fall times down to 1.5ns have been measured. An integrated circuit containing 32 channels has been designed and wire bonded to a silicon strip detector and successfully used for the constructio...

  7. Wideband CMOS low noise amplifier including an active balun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    An inductorless LNA with active balun is proposed for multi-standard radio applications between 100MHz and 6GHz [1]. It exploits a combination of a common-gate (CG) stage and an common-source (CS) stage with replica biasing to maximize balanced operation, while simultaneously canceling the noise and

  8. An integrated low 1/f noise and high-sensitivity CMOS instrumentation amplifier for TMR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Luan, Bo; Zhao, Jincai; Liu, Xiaowei

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a very low 1/f noise integrated Wheatstone bridge magnetoresistive sensor ASIC based on magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) technology is presented for high sensitivity measurements. The present CMOS instrumentation amplifier employs the gain-boost folded-cascode structure based on the capacitive-feedback chopper-stabilized technique. By chopping both the input and the output of the amplifier, combined with MTJ magnetoresistive sensitive elements, a noise equivalent magnetoresistance 1 nT/Hz1/2 at 2 Hz, the equivalent input noise spectral density 17 nV/Hz1/2(@2Hz) is achieved. The chip-scale package of the TMR sensor and the instrumentation amplifier is only about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm, while the whole DC current dissipates only 2 mA.

  9. A novel method to design variable gain amplifier | Mahdavi | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method to design variable gain amplifier. S Mahdavi, A Soltani, M Jafarzadeh, T Moradi Khanshan. Abstract. A novel method to design of Variable gain Amplifiers (VGAs) is proposed. A low power VGA with wide range of gain variation and appropriate bandwidth using new technique is presented in this paper.

  10. Chaotic noise in superconducting microbridge 4-photon X-band parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.E.; Christiansen, B.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The anomalous noise rise observed in nearly all types of parametric amplifiers based on Josephson junctions has been an intriguing as well as annoying problem for many years. This phenomenon has been most spectacular in microbridge amplifiers. Here we present measurements on externally pumped single microbridge 4-photon unbiased amplifiers, where the slit with the bridge is used as a slotline resonantly coupled to the waveguide in an exceptionally simple coupling scheme. This scheme may be of interest in itself, particularly if the noise problem can be overcome, but also in other connections. Up to 16 dB gain was obtained at the top of the waveguide. However, the noise rise was observed as usual. An analog computer study on a model including an input/output circiut was performed. The results are in very good agreement with the experiments. The amplification is heralded by a seemingly chaotic noise rise. This noise is then amplified linearly when gain occurs. Amplification is found to take place very close to where the supercurrent is completely suppressed by the pump. This has previously been interpreted as loss of phaselock being the cause of the noise rise. However, the power spectra of the time-derivative of the phase show the still to be locked in the region of positive gain. Furthermore, computations of the Lyapunov exponents show one to be positive in the region where gain occurs reaching a maximum value at the parameters corresponding to maximum gain. We therefore conclude that chaotic noise is indeed present in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers where low-impedance devices like microbridges with negligible capacitance are used as the active elements. (orig.)

  11. Shot Noise and Fiber Amplifier Effects in Photonic-Doppler Velocimetry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Kirk; Larson, Eric; Lee, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    We present theoretical and experimental data to show the effects of shot noise and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) on the achievable dynamic range of photonic-Doppler velocimetry (PDV) systems. We show that many common system configurations are very nearly shot noise limited. Heterodyne gain from strong local-oscillator (LO) light creates a signal amplitude that can be recorded on high-speed digitizers, and the shot noise from the LO sets the system noise floor above the levels of electronic noise in the photoreceiver and digitizer. We show that boosting weak signal returns using an EDFA creates noise in the same proportion that it increases signal, leaving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) unchanged. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from the EDFA, when mixed with the LO light, creates a noise term proportional to the LO shot noise and to the EDFA gain. The net result is that EDFA's are useful for boosting heterodyne signal levels for recording, and they can be used to boost weak return light before lossy components, but they do not improve the fundamental SNR of the system.

  12. The influence of amplifier, interface and biological noise on signal quality in high-resolution EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Hans J; Sander, Tilmann; Trahms, Lutz

    2006-02-01

    First, the intrinsic random noise sources of a biopotential measurement in general are reviewed. For the special case of an electroencephalographic (EEG) measurement we have extended the commonly used amplifier noise model by biological generated background noise. As the strongest of all noise sources involved will dominate the resulting signal to noise ratio (S/N), we have investigated under which conditions this will be the case. We illustrate experimentally that up to 100 Hz S/N practically depends only on cortical generated background noise, while at a few hundred Hz or more amplifier and thermal noise of interelectrode resistance are the major sources.

  13. A fast, low power and low noise charge sensitive amplifier ASIC for a UV imaging single photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, A.; Cumming, H. S.; Varner, G.; Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Virta, V.

    2017-04-01

    NASA has funded, through their Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, the development of a cross strip (XS) microchannel plate (MCP) detector with the intention to increase its technology readiness level (TRL), enabling prototyping for future NASA missions. One aspect of the development is to convert the large and high powered laboratory Parallel Cross Strip (PXS) readout electronics into application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to decrease their mass, volume, and power consumption (all limited resources in space) and to make them more robust to the environments of rocket launch and space. The redesign also foresees to increase the overall readout event rate, and decrease the noise contribution of the readout system. This work presents the design and verification of the first stage for the new readout system, the 16 channel charge sensitive amplifier ASIC, called the CSAv3. The single channel amplifier is composed of a charge sensitive amplifier (pre-amplifier), a pole zero cancellation circuit and a shaping amplifier. An additional output stage buffer allows polarity selection of the output analog signal. The operation of the amplifier is programmable via serial bus. It provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of around 600 e^- and a baseline gain of 10 mV/fC. The full scale pulse shaped output signal is confined within 100 ns, without long recovery tails, enabling up to 10 MHz periodic event rates without signal pile up. This ASIC was designed and fabricated in 130 nm, TSMC CMOS 1.2 V technology. In addition, we briefly discuss the construction of the readout system and plans for the future work.

  14. A portable bio-amplifier for electric fish research: design and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Wells

    Full Text Available The weak electric organ discharges (EODs of gymnotiform knife fishes can be readily amplified with a wideband amplifier connected to submerged electrodes. The output from such an amplifier can then be monitored with audio speakers or digitized for subsequent analysis. Commercially available devices are expensive and usually require mains electrical power. Here we provide design notes and instructions for the construction and calibration of a cheap, portable, battery-powered, AC-coupled wideband bio-amplifier. This device was designed to allow electric fishes to be located in the field, and also to permit the relatively noise-free acquisition of EOD waveforms from specimens held in temporary captivity. This contribution is intended to encourage students of neotropical ichthyology to explore electric signaling in gymnotiform fishes.

  15. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...

  16. Investigation of bandwidth loading in optical fibre transmission using amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Daniel J; Saavedra, Gabriel; Shi, Kai; Semrau, Daniel; Galdino, Lidia; Killey, Robert; Thomsen, Benn C; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-08-07

    The use of spectrally shaped amplified spontaneous emission noise (SS-ASE) as a method for emulating interfering channels in optical fibre transmission systems has been studied. It is shown that the use of SS-ASE leads to a slightly pessimistic performance relative to the use of conventionally modulated interfering channels in the nonlinear regime. The additional nonlinear interference noise (on the channel under test), due to the Gaussian nature of SS-ASE, has been calculated using a combination of the Gaussian noise (GN) and enhanced GN (EGN) models for the entire C-band (4.5 THz) and experimentally shown to provide a lower bound for transmission performance.

  17. On the choice of a head element for low-noise bipolar transistor amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnokutskij, R.N.; Kurchaninov, L.L.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The measurement results of equivalent noise charge (ENC) for KT382 transistor depending on detector capacity, formation duration and collector current are given. It is shown that the measurement results for this transistor in good agreement with calculations according to the noise model, time-consuming ENC measurements can be replaced by preliminary transistor rejection according to the distributed base resistance, current gain and simple calculations. In applications in the field of nuclear electronics the KT382 transistor enables to attain the same noise parameters as NE578, NE021 transistors (Japan) and it can be recommended for using as a head element of amplifiers

  18. Design of High Power Density Amplifiers: Application to Ka Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Davide; Leggieri, Alberto; Di Paolo, Franco; Bartocci, Marco; Tafuto, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Recent developments in the design of high-power-high-frequency amplifiers are assessed in this paper by the analysis and measurements of a high power density amplifier operating in the Ka Band. Design procedure is presented and a technical investigation is reported. The proposed device has shown over 23% of useful frequency bandwidth. It is an ensemble of 16 monolithic solid state power amplifiers that employees mixed technologies as spatial and planar combiners. Test performed have given maximum delivered power of 47.2 dBm.

  19. Design of adaptive filter amplifier in UV communication based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhaoshun; Wu, Hanping; Li, Junyu

    2016-10-01

    According to the problem of the weak signal at receiving end in UV communication, we design a high gain, continuously adjustable adaptive filter amplifier. Based on proposing overall technical indicators and analyzing its working principle of the signal amplifier, we use chip LMH6629MF and two chips of AD797BN to achieve three-level cascade amplification. And apply hardware of DSP TMS320VC5509A to implement digital filtering. Design and verification by Multisim, Protel 99SE and CCS, the results show that: the amplifier can realize continuously adjustable amplification from 1000 to 10000 times without distortion. Magnification error is <=%4@1000 10000. And equivalent input noise voltage of amplification circuit is <=6 nV/ √Hz @30KHz 45KHz, and realizing function of adaptive filtering. The design provides theoretical reference and technical support for the UV weak signal processing.

  20. Class-E Amplifier Design Improvements for GSM Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nadir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient power amplifiers are essential in portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones. Also, the power amplifier (PA is the most power-consuming building block in the transmitter of a portable system. This paper investigates how the efficiency of the power amplifier (which is beneficial for multiple applications in communcation sector can be improved by increasing the efficiency of switching mode class E power amplifiers for frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The paper tackles modeling, design improvements and verification through simulation for higher efficiencies. This is the continuation of previous work by the authors. These nonlinear power amplifiers can only amplify constant-envelope RF signals without introducing significant distortion. Mobile systems such as Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM use modulation schemes which generate constant amplitude RF outputs in order to use efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers. Improvements in designs are suggested and higher efficiencies are achieved, to the tune of 67.1% (for 900 MHz and 67.0% (1800 MHz.

  1. Charge Sensitive Amplifier Design Automation Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop a CSA design automation framework to expedite the design of multi-channel front-end electronics to reduce the time-to-market, cost and...

  2. Power Amplifier Design for E-band Wireless System Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2008-01-01

    E-band wireless communications will become important as the microwave backhaul for high-speed data transmission. One of the most critical components is the front-end power amplifier in this system. The paper analyzes different technologies with potential in the E-band frequency range and present...... power and efficiency reported for an InP HBT power amplifier in this frequency range. The predicted power-added efficiency is higher than that of power amplifiers based on SiGe HBT and GaAs pHEMT technologies. The design shows the capabilities of InP DHBT for power amplifier applications...... a power amplifier design satisfying the E-band system specifications. The designed power amplifier achieves a maximum output power of ges 20 dBm with a state-of-the-art power-added efficiency of 15%. The power is realized using InP DHBT technology. To the best of our knowledge it is the highest output...

  3. Design and construction of a measurement amplifier for use in the beam diagnosis of an accelerator ring plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrath, H.

    1989-11-01

    The measurement amplifier can be used in the frequency range of 0 to 2 MHz, is VME bus compatible and has an accuracy of ± 1.5%. Its amplification of 0 to 40 dB can be set remotely. The circuit was designed with computer aid by means of the simulation program SPICE. The amplifier consists of two successive amplifier stages. The first amplifier stage uses a video operational amplifier as its main element, and the 2nd amplifier stage uses a trans-impedance amplifier. A prototype was produced, in order to be able to check the simulation results and to use the experience gained in a ready to use amplifier. The sample amplifier was fitted on a VME bus PCB using screening. Optimisation was carried out on this sample and the measured properties were compared with the calculated results from simulation. The properties of the amplifier were checked from the DC characteristic, the Bode diagram, the transient behaviour, the distortion factor, the noise figure, the temperature behaviour and the channel separation. The specifications are compiled and an assessment of the amplifier is given. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Condominium Design: Good and Bad Noise Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, C. W.; Schutz, Victor K.

    This paper discusses pitfalls in condominium design and the incorpoation of related noise control problems into classroom situations. Two case studies are provided, and a list of architectural noise problems found in many condominiums is included. (CP)

  5. Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R

    2014-01-13

    A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase.

  6. Computer-aided design of broad band reflection type amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershaimb, Edgar; Jeppesen, Palle; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Microwave negative resistance reflection type amplifiers using stable transferred electron devices (TED's) are optimized by numerical optimization techniques programmed for an interactive graphic datascreen. The small signal impedance of packaged TED's is measured on an automatic network analyzer...... on a datascreen, which allows for interactive programming. Comparisons of predicted amplifier performance for packaged and unpackaged devices form a basis for evaluating the possible degrading effect of package parasitics. The predictions of the computer-aided design are in good agreement with experimental...... results. The design procedure imposes no restraint on the frequency variation of the active device impedance and is therefore useful for any stable broad-banded negative resistance device....

  7. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of "Violin-Mode" resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m-1(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  8. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of “Violin-Mode” resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level “Violin-Mode” (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent “noise-gain peaking” arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes’ two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m −1 (rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm

  9. Tunnel diode amplifiers and their background noise as a function of the polarization point, the temperature, and the bandwidth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozveaminian, K.

    1969-01-01

    The author presents mathematical and graphical methods for the study of the stability of tunnel diode circuits. He gives an application to the realization of three amplifiers. Then he describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of these amplifiers and of its variations with the bias, the temperature and the bandwidth. (author) [fr

  10. Design considerations for an isfet multiplexer and amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet

    1984-01-01

    Design considerations for the multiplexing of pH-sensitive ISFETs are studied and discussed. Experimental results with an ordinary multiplex circuit show transients of the order of several seconds if the output voltage of the applied amplifier is required within an accuracy of 0.5 mV (corresponding

  11. Low-voltage CMOS operational amplifiers theory, design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers: Theory, Design and Implementation discusses both single and two-stage architectures. Opamps with constant-gm input stage are designed and their excellent performance over the rail-to-rail input common mode range is demonstrated. The first set of CMOS constant-gm input stages was introduced by a group from Technische Universiteit, Delft and Universiteit Twente, the Netherlands. These earlier versions of circuits are discussed, along with new circuits developed at the Ohio State University. The design, fabrication (MOSIS Tiny Chips), and characterization of the new circuits are now complete. Basic analog integrated circuit design concepts should be understood in order to fully appreciate the work presented. However, the topics are presented in a logical order and the circuits are explained in great detail, so that Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers can be read and enjoyed by those without much experience in analog circuit design. It is an invaluable reference boo...

  12. Design And Construction Of 300W Audio Power Amplifier For Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Shune Lei Aung; Kyaw Soe Lwin and Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the design and construction of 300W audio power amplifier for classroom. In the construction of this amplifier microphone preamplifier tone preamplifier equalizer line amplifier output power amplifier and sound level indicator are included. The output power amplifier is designed as O.C.L system and constructed by using Class B among many types of amplifier classes. There are two types in O.C.L system quasi system and complementary system. Between them the comple...

  13. A simplified, improved method for making amplifier equivalent noise charge measurements using a new generation digitizing oscilloscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1990-10-01

    Historically a variety of methods have been used to measure the equivalent noise charge (ENC) of amplifier/shaper systems for high energy physics. Some of these methods require several pieces of special test equipment and a fair amount of effort. The advent of digitizing oscilloscopes with statistics capabilities makes it possible to perform certain types of noise measurements accurately with very little effort. This paper describes the noise measurement method of a time invariant amplifier/shaper and of a time variant correlated sampling system, using a Tektronix DSA602 Digitizing Signal Analyzer. 4 figs

  14. Design And Construction Of 300W Audio Power Amplifier For Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shune Lei Aung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the design and construction of 300W audio power amplifier for classroom. In the construction of this amplifier microphone preamplifier tone preamplifier equalizer line amplifier output power amplifier and sound level indicator are included. The output power amplifier is designed as O.C.L system and constructed by using Class B among many types of amplifier classes. There are two types in O.C.L system quasi system and complementary system. Between them the complementary system is used in the construction of 300W audio power amplifier. The Multisim software is utilized for the construction of audio power amplifier.

  15. Linear CMOS RF power amplifiers a complete design workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Hector Solar

    2013-01-01

    The work establishes the design flow for the optimization of linear CMOS power amplifiers from the first steps of the design to the final IC implementation and tests. The authors also focuses on design guidelines of the inductor's geometrical characteristics for power applications and covers their measurement and characterization. Additionally, a model is proposed which would facilitate designs in terms of transistor sizing, required inductor quality factors or minimum supply voltage. The model considers limitations that CMOS processes can impose on implementation. The book also provides diffe

  16. Eye Noise and Map Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Mylon

    This paper describes the physiological "eye noise" effect of line contrast in maps and considers the effect of line contrast on the direct picture of terrain surface as produced by shaded relief. An attempt is made to describe map reading in its two major steps: 1) the enrichment of the brain image resulting from scanning the map sheet,…

  17. Brownian Optogenetic-Noise-Photostimulation on the Brain Amplifies Somatosensory-Evoked Field Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeli Huidobro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic resonance (SR is an inherent and counter-intuitive mechanism of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR facilitation in biological systems associated with the application of an intermediate level of noise. As a first step to investigate in detail this phenomenon in the somatosensory system, here we examined whether the direct application of noisy light on pyramidal neurons from the mouse-barrel cortex expressing a light-gated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 can produce facilitation in somatosensory evoked field potentials. Using anesthetized Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice, and a new neural technology, that we called Brownian optogenetic-noise-photostimulation (BONP, we provide evidence for how BONP directly applied on the barrel cortex modulates the SNR in the amplitude of whisker-evoked field potentials (whisker-EFP. In all transgenic mice, we found that the SNR in the amplitude of whisker-EFP (at 30% of the maximal whisker-EFP exhibited an inverted U-like shape as a function of the BONP level. As a control, we also applied the same experimental paradigm, but in wild-type mice, as expected, we did not find any facilitation effects. Our results show that the application of an intermediate intensity of BONP on the barrel cortex of ChR2 transgenic mice amplifies the SNR of somatosensory whisker-EFPs. This result may be relevant to explain the improvements found in sensory detection in humans produced by the application of transcranial-random-noise-stimulation (tRNS on the scalp.

  18. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of “Violin-Mode” resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance) Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level “Violin-Mode” (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent “noise-gain peaking” arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes’ two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m{sup −1}(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  19. Performance of a Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting filter/GaAs low noise amplifier hybrid circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Toncich, S. S.; Chorey, C. M.; Bonetti, R. R.; Williams, A. E.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting 7.3 GHz two-pole microstrip bandpass filter and a GaAs low noise amplifier (LNA) were combined into a hybrid circuit and characterized at liquid nitrogen temperatures. This superconducting/seismology circuit's performance was compared to a gold filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit. The superconducting filter/GaAs LNA hybrid circuit showed higher gain and lower noise figure than its gold counterpart.

  20. Flat supercontinuum generation pumped by amplified noise-like pulses from a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Escobar, E.; Bello-Jiménez, M.; Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; López-Estopier, R.; Durán-Sánchez, M.; Kuzin, E. A.; Andrés, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    The conditions to obtain noise-like pulses (NLPs) from a figure-eight fiber laser (F8L) and their application for supercontinuum (SC) generation in the anomalous dispersion regime are reported. The F8L is designed to remove the undesired low-intensity background radiation from pulse emission, generating NLPs with a 3 dB spectral bandwidth of 17.43 nm at the fundamental repetition frequency of 0.8 MHz. After amplification, NLPs reach a maximum average power of 9.2 mW and 123.32 nm spectral bandwidth. By controlling the amplifier pump power, flat SC generation is demonstrated through both a 800 m long spool of SMF-28 fiber and a piece of 5 m long highly nonlinear optical fiber. The results demonstrate a satisfactory flatness of ~3 dB over a bandwidth of ~1000 nm in the range from 1261 to 2261 nm, achieving to the best of our knowledge, one of the flattest SC generated from noise-like pulses.

  1. Output power PDF of a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier: Second-order noise contributions by path integral method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a second-order small-signal model for describing the nonlinear redistribution of noise in a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier. In this paper, the details of the model are presented. A numerical example is used to compare the model to statistical simulations. We show that...

  2. A Hybrid Semi-Digital Transimpedance Amplifier With Noise Cancellation Technique for Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Lun; Jiang, Haowei; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, nanopores have been a promising technology for next generation deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing. Here, we present a hybrid semi-digital transimpedance amplifier (HSD-TIA) to sense the minute current signatures introduced by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) translocating through a nanopore, while discharging the baseline current using a semi-digital feedback loop. The amplifier achieves fast settling by adaptively tuning a DC compensation current when a step input is detected. A noise cancellation technique reduces the total input-referred current noise caused by the parasitic input capacitance. Measurement results show the performance of the amplifier with 31.6 M Ω mid-band gain, 950 kHz bandwidth, and 8.5 fA/ √Hz input-referred current noise, a 2× noise reduction due to the noise cancellation technique. The settling response is demonstrated by observing the insertion of a protein nanopore in a lipid bilayer. Using the nanopore, the HSD-TIA was able to measure ssDNA translocation events.

  3. A CMOS power-efficient low-noise current-mode front-end amplifier for neural signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Liang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode front-end amplifier (CMFEA) for neural signal recording systems is proposed. In the proposed CMFEA, a current-mode preamplifier with an active feedback loop operated at very low frequency is designed as the first gain stage to bypass any dc offset current generated by the electrode-tissue interface and to achieve a low high-pass cutoff frequency below 0.5 Hz. No reset signal or ultra-large pseudo resistor is required. The current-mode preamplifier has low dc operation current to enhance low-noise performance and decrease power consumption. A programmable current gain stage is adopted to provide adjustable gain for adaptive signal scaling. A following current-mode filter is designed to adjust the low-pass cutoff frequency for different neural signals. The proposed CMFEA is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the area of the core circuit is 0.076 mm(2). The measured high-pass cutoff frequency is as low as 0.3 Hz and the low-pass cutoff frequency is adjustable from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. The measured maximum current gain is 55.9 dB. The measured input-referred current noise density is 153 fA /√Hz , and the power consumption is 13 μW at 1-V power supply. The fabricated CMFEA has been successfully applied to the animal test for recording the seizure ECoG of Long-Evan rats.

  4. The design of a 4’th order Bandpass Butterworth filter with one operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2008-01-01

    A numerical design method is presented for the design of all pole band pass active-RC filters applying just one operational amplifier. The operational amplifier model used is the integrator model: ωt/s where ωt is the unity gain fre-quency. The design method is used for the design of a fourth order...... band pass filter with Butterworth poles applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding a large dynamic range, sometimes simplifying the amplifier design and being usable over a larger...... frequency range than conventional constant gain amplifiers. The Schoeffler sensitivity index is used as a basis for a practical realization of the circuit....

  5. Physical-layer security analysis of PSK quantum-noise randomized cipher in optically amplified links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haisong; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Fang, Tao; Zhu, Huatao

    2017-08-01

    The quantitative security of quantum-noise randomized cipher (QNRC) in optically amplified links is analyzed from the perspective of physical-layer advantage. Establishing the wire-tap channel models for both key and data, we derive the general expressions of secrecy capacities for the key against ciphertext-only attack and known-plaintext attack, and that for the data, which serve as the basic performance metrics. Further, the maximal achievable secrecy rate of the system is proposed, under which secrecy of both the key and data is guaranteed. Based on the same framework, the secrecy capacities of various cases can be assessed and compared. The results indicate perfect secrecy is potentially achievable for data transmission, and an elementary principle of setting proper number of photons and bases is given to ensure the maximal data secrecy capacity. But the key security is asymptotically perfect, which tends to be the main constraint of systemic maximal secrecy rate. Moreover, by adopting cascaded optical amplification, QNRC can realize long-haul transmission with secure rate up to Gb/s, which is orders of magnitude higher than the perfect secrecy rates of other encryption systems.

  6. A 0.18 {mu}m CMOS dual-band low power low noise amplifier for a global navigation satellite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Bing; Zhuang Yiqi; Li Zhenrong; Jin Gang, E-mail: waxmax@126.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a dual-band low noise amplifier for the receiver of a global navigation satellite system. The differences between single band and multi-band design methods are discussed. The relevant parameter analysis and the details of circuit design are presented. The test chip was implemented in a TSMC 0.18 {mu}m 1P4M RF CMOS process. The LNA achieves a gain of 16.8 dB/18.9 dB on 1.27 GHz/1.575 GHz. The measured noise figure is around 1.5-1.7 dB on both bands. The LNA consumes less than 4.3 mA of current from a 1.8 V power supply. The measurement results show consistency with the design. And the LNA can fully satisfy the demands of the GNSS receiver. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Design of a high-gain laser diode-array pumped Nd:YAG alternating precessive slab amplifier (APS amplifier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    In the design of space-qualifiable laser systems for ranging and altimetry, such as NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System (GLRS), the transmitter must be kept small, powerful yet efficient, and must consist of as few components as possible. A novel preamplifier design is examined which requires no external beam steering optics, yielding a compact component with simple alignment procedures. The gains achieved are comparable to multipass zigzag amplifiers using two or more sets of external optics for extra passes through the amplifying medium.

  8. Demonstration of input-to-output gain and temporal noise mitigation in a Talbot amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Maram, Reza; Seghilani, Mohamed; Jeon, Jinwoo; Li, Xiao-Zhou; Cortes, Luis Romero; van Howe, James; Azana, Jose

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate intensity amplification of repetitive picosecond optical pulses with an input-to-output gain up to 5.5 dB using a passive Talbot amplifier. Through the dispersion-induced temporal Talbot effect, the amplifier uses electro-optic phase modulation and a low-loss dispersive medium to exploit and coherently redistribute the energy of the original pulse train into fewer, replica, amplified pulses. In addition, we show how our passive amplifier mitigates the pulse train...

  9. Active noise control in fuselage design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krakers, L.A.; Tooren, M.J.L. van; Beukers, A.; Berkhof, A.P.; Goeje, M.P. de

    2003-01-01

    To achieve comfortable noise levels inside the passenger cabin, sound damping measures have to be taken to improve the sound insulation properties of the bare airframe. Usually the sound insulation requirements of a passenger cabin are met after the mechanical design of the fuselage structure is

  10. Microwave amplifier and active circuit design using the real frequency technique

    CERN Document Server

    Jarry, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the authors' Real Frequency Technique (RFT) and its application to a wide variety of multi-stage microwave amplifiers and active filters, and passive equalizers for radar pulse shaping and antenna return loss applications. The first two chapters review the fundamentals of microwave amplifier design and provide a description of the RFT. Each subsequent chapter introduces a new type of amplifier or circuit design, reviews its design problems, and explains how the RFT can be adapted to solve these problems. The authors take a practical approach by summarizing the design steps and giving numerous examples of amplifier realizations and measured responses. Provides a complete description of the RFT as it is first used to design multistage lumped amplifiers using a progressive optimization of the equalizers, leading to a small umber of parameters to optimize simultaneously Presents modifications to the RFT to design trans-impedance microwave amplifiers that are used for photodiodes acti...

  11. Measurement of SFDR and noise in EDF amplified analog RF links using all-optical down-conversion and balanced receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Charles; Borbath, Michael; Wyatt, Jeff; DeSalvo, Richard

    2008-04-01

    Optical down-conversion techniques have become an increasingly popular architecture to realize Multi-band Enterprise Terminals (MET), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Optical Arbitrary Waveform Generation (OAWG), RF Channelizers and other technologies that need rapid frequency agile tunability in the microwave and millimeter RF bands. We describe recent SFDR, NF, Gain, and Noise modeling and measurements of Erbium-doped-fiber amplified analog RF optical links implementing all-optical down-conversion and balanced photodiode receivers. We describe measurements made on our newly designed extensive test-bed utilizing a wide array of high powered single and balanced photodiodes, polarization preserving output LN modulators, EAMs, LIMs, tunable lasers, EDFAs, RF Amplifiers, and other components to fully characterize direct and coherent detection techniques. Additionally, we compare these experimental results to our comprehensive MATLAB system modeling and optimization software tools.

  12. Parametric Amplifiers for Readout of Low-Temperature Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to make microwave parametric amplifiers with high gain, large bandwidth, ultra-low noise, and low power dissipation. Our amplifiers are designed to...

  13. Design a power amplifier for IEEE 802.16a STANDARD

    OpenAIRE

    Vilalonga Jimenez, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this theses is to design a pre-power for WiMAX in the 5.65 GHz frequency range. The pre-power amplifier main features are moderate linearity and output power. Another goal of the theses is to design the phisical layout of the amplifier for PCB presentation.The described power amplifier is designed to operate as a pre-amplifier, class AB and at 5.65 GHz with a gain of around 10 dB with an approximate bandwidth of 300 MHz. -

  14. A 7-13 GHz low-noise tuned optical front-end amplifier for heterodyne transmission system application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebskamp, Frank; Schiellerup, Gert; Høgdal, Morten

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a 7-13 GHz low-noise bandpass tuned optical front-end amplifier, showing 46±1 dBΩ transimpedance, and a noise spectral density of about 12 pA/√Hz. This is the first time such a flat response and such low noise were obtained simultaneously at these frequencies, without any...... further equalization. A new lay-out technique enabled close monitoring of each manufacturing step, and excellent agreement between the measurements and simulations was observed. The front-end was used in an optical 2.5 Gb/s coherent CPFSK continuous phase frequency shift keying system experiment......, resulting in a sensitivity of -41.7 dBm at a bit error rate of 10-9...

  15. Conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Ewing, J.J.; Center, R.E.; Mumola, P.; Olson, T.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design for an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF are presented. Optical designs, amplifier scaling with a KrF kinetics code and limitations imposed by pulsed power technology are described

  16. Design and test of a 434 MHz multi-channel amplifier system for targeted hyperthermia applicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Westra, A. H.; Schippers, H.; Van Rhoon, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: For our head-and-neck hyperthermia ( HT) applicator, an amplifier system with full amplitude and phase-control to deliver the radio-frequency signals, was not available. We therefore designed and tested a 433.92 MHz multi-channel amplifier system. System description: The design consists of

  17. Some characteristic features of the construction of the amplifying channel for working with semiconductor detectors in the charged particle energy spectrometer. [noise minimization at preamplifier input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyuta, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    A transistorized spectrometric amplifier with a shaper is reported that selects the shape of the frequency characteristic of the amplifying channel for which the primary frequency spectrum of the signal will pass, but where the noise spectrum is limited to the maximum. A procedure is presented for selecting the shaping circuits and their inclusion principles.

  18. Low Power Broadband Low-Noise Amplifiers from 1-300GHz

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A few key technology areas are moving to the use of cryogenic detectors and require state-of-the-art cryogenic amplifiers. For example, nanowire sensors for optical...

  19. Design of low noise imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Xiaolai

    2017-10-01

    In order to meet the needs of engineering applications for low noise imaging system under the mode of global shutter, a complete imaging system is designed based on the SCMOS (Scientific CMOS) image sensor CIS2521F. The paper introduces hardware circuit and software system design. Based on the analysis of key indexes and technologies about the imaging system, the paper makes chips selection and decides SCMOS + FPGA+ DDRII+ Camera Link as processing architecture. Then it introduces the entire system workflow and power supply and distribution unit design. As for the software system, which consists of the SCMOS control module, image acquisition module, data cache control module and transmission control module, the paper designs in Verilog language and drives it to work properly based on Xilinx FPGA. The imaging experimental results show that the imaging system exhibits a 2560*2160 pixel resolution, has a maximum frame frequency of 50 fps. The imaging quality of the system satisfies the requirement of the index.

  20. Design considerations in multi-output dc-dc converter with magnetic amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyashiki, T.; Ogata, T.

    1984-10-01

    A circuit is proposed which uses a magnetic amplifier to compensate for the cross-regulation error in a single-transistor forward-type multioutput converter whose main output is pulsewidth controlled. By analyzing the cross-regulation characteristics, the dead angle and control characteristics of the magnetic amplifier are determined. The results obtained provide a basis for the quantitative design of the magnetic amplifier.

  1. Extension of non-invasive EEG into the kHz range for evoked thalamocortical activity by means of very low noise amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H J; Fedele, T; Curio, G; Burghoff, M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrafast electroencephalographic signals, having frequencies above 500 Hz, can be observed in somatosensory evoked potential measurements. Usually, these recordings have a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) because weak signals are overlaid by intrinsic noise of much higher amplitude like that generated by biological sources and the amplifier. As an example, recordings at the scalp taken during electrical stimulation of the median nerve show a 600 Hz burst with submicro-volt amplitudes which can be extracted from noise by the use of massive averaging and digital signal processing only. We have investigated this signal by means of a very low noise amplifier made in-house (minimal voltage noise 2.7 nV Hz(-1/2), FET inputs). We examined how the SNR of the data is altered by the bandwidth and the use of amplifiers with different intrinsic amplifier noise levels of 12 and 4.8 nV Hz(-1/2), respectively. By analyzing different frequency contributions of the signal, we found an extremely weak 1 kHz component superimposed onto the well-known 600 Hz burst. Previously such high-frequency electroencephalogram responses around 1 kHz have only been observed by deep brain electrodes implanted for tremor therapy of Parkinson patients. For the non-invasive measurement of such signals, we recommend that amplifier noise should not exceed 4 nV Hz(-1/2).

  2. Operational amplifier speed and accuracy improvement analog circuit design with structural methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Vadim V

    2004-01-01

    Operational Amplifier Speed and Accuracy Improvement proposes a new methodology for the design of analog integrated circuits. The usefulness of this methodology is demonstrated through the design of an operational amplifier. This methodology consists of the following iterative steps: description of the circuit functionality at a high level of abstraction using signal flow graphs; equivalent transformations and modifications of the graph to the form where all important parameters are controlled by dedicated feedback loops; and implementation of the structure using a library of elementary cells. Operational Amplifier Speed and Accuracy Improvement shows how to choose structures and design circuits which improve an operational amplifier's important parameters such as speed to power ratio, open loop gain, common-mode voltage rejection ratio, and power supply rejection ratio. The same approach is used to design clamps and limiting circuits which improve the performance of the amplifier outside of its linear operat...

  3. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80...

  4. A micropower electrocardiogram amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, L; Misra, V; Sarpeshkar, R

    2009-10-01

    We introduce an electrocardiogram (EKG) preamplifier with a power consumption of 2.8 muW, 8.1 muVrms input-referred noise, and a common-mode rejection ratio of 90 dB. Compared to previously reported work, this amplifier represents a significant reduction in power with little compromise in signal quality. The improvement in performance may be attributed to many optimizations throughout the design including the use of subthreshold transistor operation to improve noise efficiency, gain-setting capacitors versus resistors, half-rail operation wherever possible, optimal power allocations among amplifier blocks, and the sizing of devices to improve matching and reduce noise. We envision that the micropower amplifier can be used as part of a wireless EKG monitoring system powered by rectified radio-frequency energy or other forms of energy harvesting like body vibration and body heat.

  5. Analysis of the background noise of field effect transistors in MOS complementary technology and application in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuville, E.

    1989-10-01

    A low noise amplifier for use in high energy physics is developed. The origin and the mechanisms of the noise in MOSFET transistors is carried out with the aim of minimizing such effects in amplifiers. The research is applied in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier. The time scale continuous filtering principle is used and allows the detection of particles arriving in the counter in a random distribution. The rules which must be taken into account in the construction of an analog integrated circuit are shown [fr

  6. Generalized randomly amplified linear system driven by Gaussian noises: Extreme heavy tail and algebraic correlation decay in plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrecher, Gyoergy; Weyssow, B.

    2004-01-01

    The extreme heavy tail and the power-law decay of the turbulent flux correlation observed in hot magnetically confined plasmas are modeled by a system of coupled Langevin equations describing a continuous time linear randomly amplified stochastic process where the amplification factor is driven by a superposition of colored noises which, in a suitable limit, generate a fractional Brownian motion. An exact analytical formula for the power-law tail exponent β is derived. The extremely small value of the heavy tail exponent and the power-law distribution of laminar times also found experimentally are obtained, in a robust manner, for a wide range of input values, as a consequence of the (asymptotic) self-similarity property of the noise spectrum. As a by-product, a new representation of the persistent fractional Brownian motion is obtained

  7. High-Voltage class-D power amplifiers: design and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nowadays transducers are ubiquitous as interfaces between the increasingly digital world and the real physical world. The same holds for the power amplifiers driving them. This thesis focuses on the design and optimization of high-voltage class-D amplifiers, which are used for driving

  8. Analysis & Design of Non-Linear Amplifiers for Efficient Microwave Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberg, Michael Dean

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of high efficiency microwave power amplifiers and rectifiers. The focus of this body of work is to optimize narrow band power amplifiers for maximization of Power Added-Efficiency (PAE) and rectifiers for maximization of RF-DC power conversion efficiency. A power amplifier performs DC-RF conversion while a rectifier performs RF-DC conversion, therefore a strong analogy exists between the two. Design with non-linear devices suffers from lack of accurate models characterizing large signal behavior, therefore measurement based techniques are often adopted in order to create high performance designs. The theoretical analysis presented in this thesis provides the microwave circuit designer intuition concerning performance expectations of design options rather than a recipe for creating a successful design. The complexity of non-linear device physics results in behavior which is often limited to qualitative description, complicating accurate model development. The presented theoretical analysis is applied to load-pull based design of S-Band and X-Band power amplifiers and S-Band power rectifiers. The measured circuits exhibit high efficiency consistent with the analysis. An implementation of a high efficiency pulsed S-band AM radar transmitter is presented along with measured results. An extension of the presented analysis is investigated in the form of a harmonic injection amplifier, which conceptually allows realization of a high power, high efficiency broadband amplifier. In summary, this thesis details (1) the load-pull measurement based design technique applied to microwave power amplifiers and rectifiers, (2) a theoretical analysis technique characterizing the performance limitations of harmonically terminated power amplifiers which may be applied to power rectifiers as well, (3) the design and measurement of several successful high efficiency power amplifiers and rectifiers and (4) interesting implementations of the

  9. Noise Suppression and Enhanced Focusability in Plasma Raman Amplifier with Multi-frequency Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Laser pulse compression/amplification through Raman backscattering in plasmas can be facilitated by using multi-frequency pump laser beams. The efficiency of amplification is increased by suppressing the Raman instability of thermal fluctuations and seed precursors. Also the focusability of the amplified radiation is enhanced due to the suppression of large-scale longitudinal speckles in the pump wave structure

  10. Design, construction and test of RF solid state power amplifier for IRANCYC-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, H.; Dehghan, M.; Abbasi Davani, F.; Ghasemi, F.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, design, simulation and construction of a high power amplifier to provide the required power of a cyclotron accelerator (IRANCYC-10) is presented step-by-step. The Push-Pull designed amplifier can generate 750 W at the operating frequency of 71 MHz continous wave (CW). In this study, achieving the best efficiency of the amplifier, as well as reducing overall volume using baluns, were two important goals. The new offered water-cooled heat sink was used for cooling the amplifier which increases the operating life of the transistor. The gain and PAE of the SSPA were obtained 20 dB and 77.7%, respectively. The simulated and measured RF results are in good agreement with each other. The results show that, using an RF transformer in matching impedance of matching networks, it causes a smaller size and also a better amplifier performance.

  11. Designing an Inverter-based Operational Transconductance Amplifier-capacitor Filter with Low Power Consumption for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefinezhad, Sajad; Kermani, Saeed; Hosseinnia, Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The operational transconductance amplifier-capacitor (OTA-C) filter is one of the best structures for implementing continuous-time filters. It is particularly important to design a universal OTA-C filter capable of generating the desired filter response via a single structure, thus reducing the filter circuit power consumption as well as noise and the occupied space on the electronic chip. In this study, an inverter-based universal OTA-C filter with very low power consumption and acceptable noise was designed with applications in bioelectric and biomedical equipment for recording biomedical signals. The very low power consumption of the proposed filter was achieved through introducing bias in subthreshold MOSFET transistors. The proposed filter is also capable of simultaneously receiving favorable low-, band-, and high-pass filter responses. The performance of the proposed filter was simulated and analyzed via HSPICE software (level 49) and 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The rate of power consumption and noise obtained from simulations are 7.1 nW and 10.18 nA, respectively, so this filter has reduced noise as well as power consumption. The proposed universal OTA-C filter was designed based on the minimum number of transconductance blocks and an inverter circuit by three transconductance blocks (OTA).

  12. Comparison of Amplitude Noise Properties of Solid State Laser Oscillators and Amplifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ewart, Roberta

    1998-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for more capable laser sources that combine high average power with quantum noise limited performance for applied physics and photonic engineering applications, including free...

  13. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yanbin; Sun, Wanrong; Ren, Aifeng; Liu, Shuming

    2016-01-01

    Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM) technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produ...

  14. Computer-Aided Design of Microstrip GaAs Mesfet Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Ole

    1976-01-01

    Results on computer-aided design of broadband GaAs MESFET amplifiers in microstrip is presented. The analysis of an amplifier is based on measured scattering parameters and a model of the microstrip structure, which includes parasitics and junction effects. The optimized performance of one stage...... amplifiers with lossless distributed matching elements is presented. Realized amplifiers are in good agreement with the theory. One stage amplifiers with a 1 ¿m FET in chip form exhibit 5.8 dB of gain in the range 8-12 GHz, while a gain of 4.5 dB from 4-8 GHz has been obtained with a packaged 1 ¿m FET....

  15. Robust AlGaN/GaN Low Noise Amplifier MMICs for C-, Ku- and Ka-Band Space Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, E.M.; Rodenburg, M.; Hoogland, J.A.; van Heijningen, M; Seelmann-Eggebert, M.; Quay, R.; Bruckner, P.; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The high power capabilities in combination with the low noise performance of gallium nitride (GaN) makes this technology an excellent choice for robust receivers. This paper presents the design and measured results of three different LNAs, which operate in C-, Ku-, and Ka-band. The designs

  16. Preliminary design studies for a 100 MW Energy Amplifier prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Abánades, A

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Amplifier (EA) is a new concept of fission system based on a subcritical assembly sustained with the neutrons generated by proton beam impact on a heavy element (spallation). This concept, proposed by the Nobel Laureate C. Rubbia (Rubbia, 1995), has remarkable capabilities in the nuclear energy field. First, it can be used to transmute radioactive wastes with a high efficiency alleviating the requirements of the geological repositories, and, second, it provides a massive energy source with the intrinsic safety derived from the use of a subcritical system and an almost null production of long-lived radioactive wastes. EA concept principles have been successfully tested by two experiments at CERN: FEAT (Andriamonge, 1995), that proved there is a net energy gain, by comparing the energy needed by the accelerator with the generated one by fission in the subcritical system. The second experiment, TARC (Abanades, 1997; Arnould, 1999) demonstrated the capability to transmute radioactive elements. The next...

  17. Low Noise Millimeter Wave LNA, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort will result in a low noise MMIC G-Band amplifier the covers the entire 165 to 193GHz frequency range. The amplifier will be designed using a 50nm...

  18. Relative phase noise estimation and mitigation in Raman amplified coherent optical communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming; Xiang, Meng; Feng, Zhenhua; Yu, Dawei

    2014-01-27

    The interplay between the stochastic intensity fluctuation of Raman pump laser and cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect in transmission optical fiber leads to additional phase noise, namely, relative phase noise (RPN) of signal in multi-level modulated coherent optical communication system. Both theoretical analysis and quantitative simulation have been performed to investigate the characteristics and impact of RPN. Being low-pass in nature, RPN is different from XPM induced phase noise in PSK/OOK hybrid system, and has not been considered yet. The noise power of RPN can accumulate incoherently along transmission links. With a proper signal model, we study the impact of RPN to the coherent optical communication system through Monte Carlo simulation. RPN will cause more cycle slips in Viterbi-and-Viterbi (V-V) phase estimation (PE), and the quantitative analysis of cycle slip probability is carried out. When using sliding window V-V without any optimization, the Q factor penalty of RPN on DQPSK signal can be as large as around 5 dB in strong RPN condition. However, it can be reduced by over 3 dB when using an optimal block size or optimal averaging weights.

  19. Optimization of the Close-to-Carrier Phase Noise in a CMOS-MEMS Oscillator Using a Phase Tunable Sustaining-Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreviela, Guillermo; Riverola, Martin; Torres, Francesc; Uranga, Arantxa; Barniol, Nuria

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the phase noise of a 24-MHz complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor microelectromechanical systems (CMOS-MEMS) oscillator with zero-level vacuum package is studied. We characterize and analyze the nonlinear regime of each one of the modules that compose the oscillator (CMOS sustaining-amplifier and MEMS resonator). As we show, the presented resonator exhibits a high nonlinear behavior. Such a fact is exploited as a mechanism to stabilize the oscillation amplitude, allowing us to maintain the sustaining-amplifier working in the linear regime. Consequently, the nonlinear resonator becomes the main close-to-carrier phase noise source. The sustaining amplifier, which functions as a phase shifter, was developed such that MEMS operation point optimization could be achieved without an increase in circuitry modules. Therefore, the system saves on area and power, and is able to improve the phase noise 26 dBc/Hz (at 1-kHz carrier frequency offset).

  20. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the typical methods used by oil and gas pipeline companies to reduce the noise level associated with their pump and compressor stations. The common method is for the design engineer to specify an acceptable noise level at a specified distance. Unfortunately, the results by this method are rarely acceptable because vendors have not considered the effects of sound propagation outside the station, the owners have not considered the cumulative effect of various machinery, and there is little methodology available to distinguish the individual components which might be contributing the acoustically unacceptable noise levels in a multi-component system. This article stresses balanced noise control designs using noise control engineering

  1. Noise analysis of a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Liu Songqiu; Xue Zhihua; Zhao Jie

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the traditional noise model, this paper makes a quantitative noise analysis of a self-made charge sensitive pre-amplifier and compares its result with that of Pspice simulation and practical measurements. Moreover, this paper figures out the practical formulas for the spectrum of output noise, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) and its slope respectively, thus facilitating the design and improvement of pre-amplifier. (authors)

  2. Development of an electrometer/amplifier and filter set for analysis of reactor noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, Claude Emile

    1996-01-01

    In nuclear power reactors, the neutron detector signal is dependent on the number of fissions and the reactor power level. The detector signal can be divided into two components: a D C component, proportional to the average value and an A C component, which is the fluctuating part superimposed to the D C component. The analysis of the fluctuating part of the signal is called noise analysis and allow us to investigate phenomena occurring within the reactor vessel, such as vibrational of fuel elements and coolant density, temperature, pressure and flow changes. On the other hand, the measure of the static D C part allows us to measure the local power density. This work describes the development of a personal computer based signal conditioning card that, together with a personal computer commercial data acquisition card, can be used for noise analysis and reactivity measurements of signals coming from ionization chambers or SPD's. (author)

  3. The design of programme-controlled gain and linear pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xuemei; Chen Chunkai; Northeast Normal Univ., Changchun; Qiao Shuang; Zhou Chuansheng

    2006-01-01

    The authors have designed a kind of new-style programme-controlled gain and linear pulse amplifier with accurate gausses of CR-RC-CR shaping circuit structure. The use of non-volatile digital electric potential device and accurate operational amplifier makes the circuit structure simple greatly, makes the ability stronger that resists assault. It can realize multistage gain in succession and make the drift of temperature low and make the linearity of pulse well. (authors)

  4. Design of a high-gain laser diode-array pumped Nd:YAG Alternating Precessive Slab Amplifier (APS-Amplifier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, D. Barry

    1991-01-01

    In the design of space qualifiable laser systems for ranging and altimetry, such as NASA's Geodynamic Laser Ranging System (GLRS), the transmitter must be kept small, powerful yet efficient, and must consist of as few components as possible. A novel preamplifier design is examined which requires no external beam steering optics, yielding a compact component with simple alignment procedures. The gains achieved are comparable to multipass zigzag amplifiers using two or more sets of external optics for extra passes through the amplifying medium.

  5. Multi-bit wavelength coding phase-shift-keying optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-bit wavelength coding phase-shift-keying (PSK) optical steganography method is proposed based on amplified spontaneous emission noise and wavelength selection switch. In this scheme, the assignment codes and the delay length differences provide a large two-dimensional key space. A 2-bit wavelength coding PSK system is simulated to show the efficiency of our proposed method. The simulated results demonstrate that the stealth signal after encoded and modulated is well-hidden in both time and spectral domains, under the public channel and noise existing in the system. Besides, even the principle of this scheme and the existence of stealth channel are known to the eavesdropper, the probability of recovering the stealth data is less than 0.02 if the key is unknown. Thus it can protect the security of stealth channel more effectively. Furthermore, the stealth channel will results in 0.48 dB power penalty to the public channel at 1 × 10-9 bit error rate, and the public channel will have no influence on the receiving of the stealth channel.

  6. Designs of two and three cavity gyroklystron amplifiers operating at fundamental, second, and fourth harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Lawson, W.; Latham, P.E.; Cheng, J.; Castle, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two and three cavity, co-axial, relativistic gyroklystron amplifiers are investigated for driving future linear colliders. Detailed designs of gyroklystrons operating at fundamental (8.568 GHz), second (17.136 GHz), and fourth harmonic (34.272 GHz) frequencies are presented. Numerical simulations predict over 40% efficiency, 45-50 dB gain, and 100-160 MW power level for the fundamental and second harmonic designs. It is shown that introducing a penultimate (buncher) cavity significantly improves efficiency and gain of the second harmonic amplifier. The fourth harmonic design has a modest efficiency of 10-15%

  7. Design and Layout of a X-Band MMIC Power Amplifier in a Phemt Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Renbin Dai; Rana Arslan Ali Khan

    2008-01-01

    The design of Class A and Class AB 2-stage X band Power Amplifier is described in this report. This power amplifier is part of a transceiver used in radar for monitoring iron characteristics in a blast furnace. The circuit was designed using foundry WIN Semiconductors. The specification requires 15dB gain in the linear region, VSWR nearly 1 at input as well as at the output, an output power of 10 dBm and good stable performance in the band 10.9-12.2 GHz. The design was im...

  8. Design and calibration of a two-channel low-noise heterodyne receiver for use in a CO2 laser Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. A.; Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1988-03-01

    A dual channel low noise heterodyne receiver has been constructed as part of a development effort to build a carbon dioxide laser based Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostic for a burning plasma experiment. The receiver employs two wide bandwidth (greater than 1 GHz) HgCdTe photovoltaic mixers followed by low noise IF amplifiers. A noise equivalent power of less than 3.0 times 10 to the 20th power WHz has been demonstrated. Design details and calibration methods are described.

  9. Generalized Design Equations for Class-E Power Amplifiers with Finite DC Feed Inductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, M.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—In literature, it is widely accepted that the design of Class-E Power Amplifier (PA) with finite dc feed inductance requires a long iterative solution procedure. To avoid such iterative solution methods, analytical design equations should be known. The problem associated with the finite dc

  10. Design and fabrication of a gallium arsenide composite operational amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon (Si) processes remain the dominant technology in integrated circuit (IC) design, but gallium arsenide (GaAs) is gaining ground. Gallium arsenide's electron mobility is five times greater than Si, so GaGs circuits are faster and have a greater rang U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.

  11. Design and test of a capacitance detection circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Linfeng; Zhang Wendong; He Changde; Zhang Rui; Song Jinlong; Xue Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) capacitance detection circuit aimed at detecting micro-capacitance, which is caused by ultrasonic stimulation applied to the capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). In the capacitance interface, a TIA is adopted to amplify the received signal with a center frequency of 400 kHz, and finally detect ultrasound pressure. The circuit has a strong anti-stray property and this paper also studies the calculation of compensation capacity in detail. To ensure high resolution, noise analysis is conducted. After optimization, the detected minimum ultrasound pressure is 2.1 Pa, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the former. The test results showed that the circuit was sensitive to changes in ultrasound pressure and the distance between the CMUT and stumbling block, which also successfully demonstrates the functionality of the developed TIA of the analog-front-end receiver. (paper)

  12. Design and Fabrication of a 1 THz Backward Wave Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, Claudio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brunetti, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    require a level of power not achievable by optoelectronic devices at room temperature or by solid-state technology. The recent availability of three-dimensional simulators and high aspect ratio micro-fabrication techniques has stimulated a class of vacuum electron devices operating in the THz regime......The THz frequency range represents a true challenge for designers, fabrication technologies and characterization systems. So far, huge technological obstacles have prohibited any system realization different from laboratory one. Furthermore, most of the applications in the THz frequency range...

  13. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  14. Analysis and design of elementary MOS amplifier stages

    CERN Document Server

    Murmann, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Analog integrated circuit (IC) design is often viewed as a “black art,” accessible only to those with special talent or years of experience. As an attempt to disprove this stereotype, this book was written to provide a customized introduction for the beginner with a minimum amount of prerequisite knowledge. Specifically, the material is positioned to fill the gap between general introductions on analog circuits, which are usually centered on discrete (printed circuit board) components, and advanced graduate books on integrated circuits. The need for filling the gap between these two types of texts has become stronger over the past decade for several reasons. The first is that advanced material has become less accessible for the inexperienced learner due to the growing complexity associated with the state-of-the-art. A second reason is that today’s typical intro course sequence has been expanded to include embedded system design; this leaves very little time to cover analog circuit principles at a level...

  15. Noise from high speed maglev systems: Noise sources, noise criteria, preliminary design guidelines for noise control, and recommendations for acoustical test facility for maglev research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. E.; Abbot, P.; Dyer, I.

    1993-01-01

    Noise levels from magnetically-levitated trains (maglev) at very high speed may be high enough to cause environmental noise impact in residential areas. Aeroacoustic sources dominate the sound at high speeds and guideway vibrations generate noticeable sound at low speed. In addition to high noise levels, the startle effect as a result of sudden onset of sound from a rapidly moving nearby maglev vehicle may lead to increased annoyance to neighbors of a maglev system. The report provides a base for determining the noise consequences and potential mitigation for a high speed maglev system in populated areas of the United States. Four areas are included in the study: (1) definition of noise sources; (2) development of noise criteria; (3) development of design guidelines; and (4) recommendations for a noise testing facility.

  16. Design Study of a Compact Megawatt Class FEL Amplifier Based on the VISA Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, T; Murphy, J B; Pinayev, I P; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Skaritka, J; Tanabé, T; Tsang, Thomas; Wang, X J; Yu, L H

    2005-01-01

    The design of a Short Rayleigh Length (SRL) FEL amplifier based on the strong focusing VISA undulator [1] is presented in this study. The SRL FEL amplifier will be operating in the IR (0.8 - 1 μm), and consists of a two-meter VISA undulator with a peak seed laser power of about 1 kW. The FEL power and transverse mode evolution along the undulator were investigated using the three-dimensional numerical code GENESIS1.3. The evolution of the FEL output from the undulator exit to the first downstream optics is also studied. The possibility of using the proposed amplifier for a two-stage cascaded HGHG FEL [2] at the BNL SDL is also explored. The design parameters and the numerical results will be presented.

  17. Design and test of a 434 MHz multi-channel amplifier system for targeted hyperthermia applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Westra, A H; Schippers, H; Van Rhoon, G C

    2010-01-01

    For our head-and-neck hyperthermia (HT) applicator, an amplifier system with full amplitude and phase-control to deliver the radio-frequency signals, was not available. We therefore designed and tested a 433.92 MHz multi-channel amplifier system. The design consists of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) system that generates 12 phase-controlled coherent 433.92 MHz signals, which are amplified to maximum 200 W output per channel. Directional couplers are placed at the amplifiers to couple a small portion of both forward and reflected signals to gain-and-phase detectors. The power setting is applied with a resolution of 2 W and for the phase it is 0.1 degrees . The channels are sequentially sampled at 100 Hz per channel. We tested the performance of the designed amplifier system by measuring the RF spectrum, power and phase accuracy, and by characterising the feedback control by using highly accurate power and phase meters. The spurious emission is less than 60 dBc and the first two harmonic frequencies are suppressed more than 45 dB. The measurement accuracy for the power (+/-5%) is valid for at least 20 days after calibration and for the phase (+/-5 degrees ) it is valid for at least 2 months. The amplifier system operates according to our design criteria to support targeted HT. It can be used for both our in-house developed superficial and head-and-neck HT applicators or any other HT applicator that works on the same frequency of 433.92 MHz.

  18. Noise-reducing designs of machines and structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3. Barriers. Barriers can be designed between noise sources and receivers. They block the line of sight between source and receiver as shown in figure 3. In the case of long barriers, the noise from the source is diffracted (bent) downwards after reaching the top of the barrier. The. Figure 2. 3-dimensional sound intensity.

  19. Design and Realization Aspects of 1-THz Cascade Backward Wave Amplifier Based on Double Corrugated Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, Claudio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bouamrane, Fayçal

    2013-01-01

    The design and fabrication challenges in the first ever attempt to realize a 1-THz vacuum tube amplifier are described. Implementation of innovative solutions including a slow-wave structure in the form of a double corrugated waveguide, lateral tapered input and output couplers, deep X-ray LIGA...

  20. Design considerations for a high power, ultrabroadband optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandolini, M J; Riedel, R; Schulz, M; Hage, A; Höppner, H; Tavella, F

    2014-01-27

    A conceptual design of a high power, ultrabroadband optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) was carried out comparing nonlinear crystals (LBO and BBO) for 810 nm centered, sub-7.0 fs pulses with energies above 1 mJ. These amplifiers are only possible with a parallel development of kilowatt-level OPCPA-pump amplifiers. It is therefore important to know good strategies to use the available OPCPA-pump energy efficiently. Numerical simulations, including self- and cross-phase modulation, were used to investigate the critical parameters to achieve sufficient spectral and spatial quality. At high output powers, thermal absorption in the nonlinear crystals starts to degrade the output beam quality. Strategies to minimize thermal effects and limits to the maximum average power are discussed.

  1. Designing a Signal Conditioning System with Software Calibration for Resistor-feedback Patch Clamp Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Zhu, Quanhui; Qu, Anlian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a programmable signal conditioning system based on software calibration for resistor-feedback patch clamp amplifier (PCA) has been described, this system is mainly composed of frequency correction, programmable gain and filter whose parameters are configured by software automatically to minimize the errors, A lab-designed data acquisition system (DAQ) is used to implement data collections and communications with PC. The laboratory test results show good agreement with design specifications.

  2. The design study of the high power solid-state amplifier in S-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozyo, E.; Kobayashi, K.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    We have designed the 500W high power solid-state amplifier for the microwave system of INS electron linac. In this design study the output pulse power level of each module is set as possible as high, so the total number of elements is well reduced within the present microwave technics. In comparison with TWTA highly stabilized and maintenance-free operations are expected with 5 years' MTF. (auth.)

  3. Systematic design of output filters for audio class-D amplifiers via Simplified Real Frequency Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzen, E.; Vennemann, T.; Mathis, W.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper a new filter design concept is proposed and implemented which takes into account the complex loudspeaker impedance. By means of techniques of broadband matching, that has been successfully applied in radio technology, we are able to optimize the reconstruction filter to achieve an overall linear frequency response. Here, a passive filter network is inserted between source and load that matches the complex load impedance to the complex source impedance within a desired frequency range. The design and calculation of the filter is usually done using numerical approximation methods which are known as Real Frequency Techniques (RFT). A first approach to systematic design of reconstruction filters for class-D amplifiers is proposed, using the Simplified Real Frequency Technique (SRFT). Some fundamental considerations are introduced as well as the benefits and challenges of impedance matching between class-D amplifiers and loudspeakers. Current simulation data using MATLAB is presented and supports some first conclusions.

  4. Noise control, sound, and the vehicle design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donavan, Paul

    2005-09-01

    For many products, noise and sound are viewed as necessary evils that need to be dealt with in order to bring the product successfully to market. They are generally not product ``exciters'' although some vehicle manufacturers do tune and advertise specific sounds to enhance the perception of their products. In this paper, influencing the design process for the ``evils,'' such as wind noise and road noise, are considered in more detail. There are three ingredients to successfully dealing with the evils in the design process. The first of these is knowing how excesses in noise effects the end customer in a tangible manner and how that effects customer satisfaction and ultimately sells. The second is having and delivering the knowledge of what is required of the design to achieve a satisfactory or even better level of noise performance. The third ingredient is having the commitment of the designers to incorporate the knowledge into their part, subsystem or system. In this paper, the elements of each of these ingredients are discussed in some detail and the attributes of a successful design process are enumerated.

  5. Broadband 0.25-um Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    ARL-TR-8091 ● AUG 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Broadband 0.25-µm Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs by John E...return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8091 ● AUG 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Broadband 0.25-µm Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power ...notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display

  6. Noise-reducing designs of machines and structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is advisable and better to consider noise control measures at the design stage itself rather than after the product is manufactured and installed. The present paper describes some of the control measures that can be incorporated during the design of machines and structures. Vibration control, barriers and enclosures can ...

  7. Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R; Wojtkowski, M; Taira, K; Fujimoto, J; Hsu, K

    2005-05-02

    We demonstrate a high-speed, frequency swept, 1300 nm laser source for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT with Fourier domain/swept-source detection. The laser uses a fiber coupled, semiconductor amplifier and a tunable fiber Fabry-Perot filter. We present scaling principles which predict the maximum frequency sweep speed and trade offs in output power, noise and instantaneous linewidth performance. The use of an amplification stage for increasing output power and for spectral shaping is discussed in detail. The laser generates ~45 mW instantaneous peak power at 20 kHz sweep rates with a tuning range of ~120 nm full width. In frequency domain reflectometry and OCT applications the frequency swept laser achieves 108 dB sensitivity and ~10 mum axial resolution in tissue. We also present a fast algorithm for real time calibration of the fringe signal to equally spaced sampling in frequency for high speed OCT image preview.

  8. Design and test of a capacitance detection circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linfeng, Mu; Wendong, Zhang; Changde, He; Rui, Zhang; Jinlong, Song; Chenyang, Xue

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) capacitance detection circuit aimed at detecting micro-capacitance, which is caused by ultrasonic stimulation applied to the capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). In the capacitance interface, a TIA is adopted to amplify the received signal with a center frequency of 400 kHz, and finally detect ultrasound pressure. The circuit has a strong anti-stray property and this paper also studies the calculation of compensation capacity in detail. To ensure high resolution, noise analysis is conducted. After optimization, the detected minimum ultrasound pressure is 2.1 Pa, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the former. The test results showed that the circuit was sensitive to changes in ultrasound pressure and the distance between the CMUT and stumbling block, which also successfully demonstrates the functionality of the developed TIA of the analog-front-end receiver. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61127008) and the Subsidized Program of the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA040404).

  9. A K-Band RF-MEMS-Enabled Reconfigurable and Multifunctional Low-Noise Amplifier Hybrid Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Malmqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A K-band (18–26.5 GHz RF-MEMS-enabled reconfigurable and multifunctional dual-path LNA hybrid circuit (optimised for lowest/highest possible noise figure/linearity, resp. is presented, together with its subcircuit parts. The two MEMS-switched low-NF (higher gain and high-linearity (lower gain LNA circuits (paths present 16.0 dB/8.2 dB, 2.8 dB/4.9 dB and 15 dBm/20 dBm of small-signal gain, noise figure, and 1 dB compression point at 24 GHz, respectively. Compared with the two (fixed LNA subcircuits used within this design, the MEMS-switched LNA circuit functions show minimum 0.6–1.3 dB higher NF together with similar values of P1 dB at 18–25 GHz. The gain of one LNA circuit path is reduced by 25–30 dB when the MEMS switch and active circuitry used within in the same switching branch are switched off to select the other LNA path and minimise power consumption.

  10. A parallel input composite transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, C.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to high performance current to voltage preamplifier design is presented. The design using multiple operational amplifiers (op-amps) has a parasitic capacitance compensation network and a composite amplifier topology for fast, precision, and low noise performance. The input stage consisting of a parallel linked JFET op-amps and a high-speed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) gain stage driving the output in the composite amplifier topology, cooperating with the capacitance compensation feedback network, ensures wide bandwidth stability in the presence of input capacitance above 40 nF. The design is ideal for any two-probe measurement, including high impedance transport and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  11. Methods For an Acceptable Traffic Noise Level Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Sviben

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Road noise disturbance on rough roads by means of loudnesssensor caused by wideband signal components with a significantimpact of tonal effects on smooth roads and in specificactions in driving lead to the annoyance of drivers. A systemicapproach has been applied for the sound quality estimation ofphysical properties of various noise sources and structuralvibroacoustic car properties and its components as an integratedparameter in car design for the purpose of the developmentand vehicle noise reduction. Simulation of the most importantcharacteristics of listening impressions was performedby modem systems of signal analysis together with the presentationof loudness, sharpness, and roughness as essential quantities.Optimization of the noise control measuring regarding vehiclesound was obtained by means of a simulation system withthe capability of the real time original sound filtering. Structuralanalysis was performed as an acoustic modal analysis on therear part and the car interior with the quantitative analysis ofsport and luxury car sounds. The possibility of active noise controlwas studied and examples are given for an application ofpsychoacoustic tools for car sound quality design. Sound qualitywas obtained by an observation of certain aspects, which areempirically or theoretically connected with the design. An experimentalsound synthesis with psychometrical measuring wasapplied. The sound quality of car interior is presented takinginto consideration the criteria of objectivity, reliability and validity.

  12. Design procedure for millimeter-wave InP DHBT stacked power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squartecchia, Michele; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Midili, Virginio

    2015-01-01

    The stacked-transistor concept for power amplifiers (PA) has been investigated in this work. Specifically, this architecture has been applied in the design of millimeter-wave monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) using indium phosphide (InP) double heterojunction bipolar transistors...... (DHBTs). In this paper we describe the design methodology adopted and the results obtained at 86 GHz and 140 GHz. In the former case, 14.5 dBm of output power at the compression point, 14.5 dB of gain and 19.6 % of PAE are obtained from a four-transistor power cell. At 140 GHz, the same architecture...

  13. Design and development of power supplies for high power IOT based RF amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Yashwant; Kumari, S.; Ghosh, M.K.; Bera, A.; Sadhukhan, A.; Pal, S.S.; Khare, V.K.; Tiwari, T.P.; Thakur, S.K.; Saha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Design, development, circuit topology, function of system components and key system specifications of different power supplies for biasing electrodes of Thales Inductive Output Tube (IOT) based high power RF amplifier are presented in this paper. A high voltage power supply (-30 kV, 3.2A dc) with fast (∼microsecond) crowbar protection circuit is designed, developed and commissioned at VECC for testing the complete setup. Other power supplies for biasing grid electrode (300V, 0.5A dc) and Ion Pump (3 kV, 0.1mA dc) of IOT are also designed, developed and tested with actual load. A HV Deck (60kV Isolation) is specially designed in house to place these power supplies which are floating at 30 kV. All these power supplies are powered by an Isolation Transformer (5 kVA, 60 kV isolation) designed and developed in VECC. (author)

  14. Design and Analysis of Compact DNA Strand Displacement Circuits for Analog Computation Using Autocatalytic Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2018-01-19

    A main goal in DNA computing is to build DNA circuits to compute designated functions using a minimal number of DNA strands. Here, we propose a novel architecture to build compact DNA strand displacement circuits to compute a broad scope of functions in an analog fashion. A circuit by this architecture is composed of three autocatalytic amplifiers, and the amplifiers interact to perform computation. We show DNA circuits to compute functions sqrt(x), ln(x) and exp(x) for x in tunable ranges with simulation results. A key innovation in our architecture, inspired by Napier's use of logarithm transforms to compute square roots on a slide rule, is to make use of autocatalytic amplifiers to do logarithmic and exponential transforms in concentration and time. In particular, we convert from the input that is encoded by the initial concentration of the input DNA strand, to time, and then back again to the output encoded by the concentration of the output DNA strand at equilibrium. This combined use of strand-concentration and time encoding of computational values may have impact on other forms of molecular computation.

  15. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  16. The Dynamics of Multiple Pair-Wise Collisions in a Chain for Designing Optimal Shock Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Rodgers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this work is to examine the dynamics of velocity amplification through pair-wise collisions between multiple masses in a chain, in order to develop useful machines. For instance low-cost machines based on this principle could be used for detailed, very-high acceleration shock-testing of MEMS devices. A theoretical basis for determining the number and mass of intermediate stages in such a velocity amplifier, based on simple rigid body mechanics, is proposed. The influence of mass ratios and the coefficient of restitution on the optimisation of the system is identified and investigated. In particular, two cases are examined: in the first, the velocity of the final mass in the chain (that would have the object under test mounted on it is maximised by defining the ratio of adjacent masses according to a power law relationship; in the second, the energy transfer efficiency of the system is maximised by choosing the mass ratios such that all masses except the final mass come to rest following impact. Comparisons are drawn between both cases and the results are used in proposing design guidelines for optimal shock amplifiers. It is shown that for most practical systems, a shock amplifier with mass ratios based on a power law relationship is optimal and can easily yield velocity amplifications of a factor 5–8 times. A prototype shock testing machine that was made using above principles is briefly introduced.

  17. A numerical design approach for single amplifier, Active-RC Butterworth filter of order 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2007-01-01

    filter applying just one operational amplifier coupled as a unity gain amplifier. It is shown that the influence from the real operational amplifier may be reduced by trimming just one resistor in the circuit. The unity gain amplifiers have the advantage of providing low power consumption, yielding...

  18. Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder J

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read

  19. Broadband 1.2- and 2.4-mm Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ARL-TR-8180 ● OCT 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Broadband 1.2- and 2.4-mm Gallium Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs by...Nitride (GaN) Power Amplifier Designs by John E Penn Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Approved for...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of

  20. Advanced design and characterization methodologies for memory-aware CMOS power-amplifier implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schleyer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an effective root-cause analysis method of memory effects in power amplifiers, as well as introduces compensation techniques on a circuit design level. Despite conventional memory-effect approaches, the discussed method uses a two-tone scan over a wide operation and modulation range. This enables an in-depth study of physical causes and helps to implement compensation techniques at design stage. On the one hand, this circuit investigation is optimized using an automated SystemC model parametrized with real device and measurement values. Hence, computation time is widely reduced which shortens design cycles. On the other hand, the implementation of the derived circuit compensation means will reduce the complexity of digital pre-distortion due to a reduced memory-effect induced AM/AM and AM/PM hysteresis. The approach is demonstrated on a 65 nm CMOS power amplifier with an OIP1 of 27 dBm and a PAE of over 30 % using WCDMA and LTE signals. In fact, mismatch could be reduced by more than 8 %.

  1. Advanced design and characterization methodologies for memory-aware CMOS power-amplifier implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Martin; Maurath, Dominic; Klar, Heinrich; Gerfers, Friedel

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on an effective root-cause analysis method of memory effects in power amplifiers, as well as introduces compensation techniques on a circuit design level. Despite conventional memory-effect approaches, the discussed method uses a two-tone scan over a wide operation and modulation range. This enables an in-depth study of physical causes and helps to implement compensation techniques at design stage. On the one hand, this circuit investigation is optimized using an automated SystemC model parametrized with real device and measurement values. Hence, computation time is widely reduced which shortens design cycles. On the other hand, the implementation of the derived circuit compensation means will reduce the complexity of digital pre-distortion due to a reduced memory-effect induced AM/AM and AM/PM hysteresis. The approach is demonstrated on a 65 nm CMOS power amplifier with an OIP1 of 27 dBm and a PAE of over 30 % using WCDMA and LTE signals. In fact, mismatch could be reduced by more than 8 %.

  2. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  3. Designing a Situational Awareness Information Display: Adopting an Affordance-Based Framework to Amplify User Experience in Environmental Interaction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Victor Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available User experience remains a crucial consideration when assessing the successfulness of information visualization systems. The theory of affordances provides a robust framework for user experience design. In this article, we demonstrate a design case that employs an affordance-based framework and evaluate the information visualization display design. SolarWheels is an interactive information visualization designed for large display walls in computer network control rooms to help cybersecurity analysts become aware of network status and emerging issues. Given the critical nature of this context, the status and performance of a computer network must be precisely monitored and remedied in real time. In this study, we consider various aspects of affordances in order to amplify the user experience via visualization and interaction design. SolarWheels visualizes the multilayer multidimensional computer network issues with a series of integrated circular visualizations inspired by the metaphor of the solar system. To amplify user interaction and experience, the system provides a three-zone physical interaction that allows multiple users to interact with the system. Users can read details at different levels depending on their distance from the display. An expert evaluation study, based on a four-layer affordance framework, was conducted to assess and improve the interactive visualization design.

  4. Optical Design of Dilute Nitride Quantum Wells Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers for Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten A. Chaqmaqchee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available III-V semiconductors components such as Gallium Arsenic (GaAs, Indium Antimony (InSb, Aluminum Arsenic (AlAs and Indium Arsenic (InAs have high carrier mobilities and direct energy gaps. This is making them indispensable for today’s optoelectronic devices such as semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers at 1.3 μm wavelength operation. In fact, these elements are led to the invention of the Gallium Indium Nitride Arsenic (GaInNAs, where the lattice is matched to GaAs for such applications. This article is aimed to design dilute nitride GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs enclosed between top and bottom of Aluminum (Gallium Arsenic Al(GaAs distributed bragg mirrors (DBRs using MATLAB® program. Vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs structures are based on Fabry Perot (FP method to design optical gain and bandwidth gain to be operated in reflection and transmission modes. The optical model gives access to the contact layer of epitaxial structure and the reflectivity for successive radiative modes, their lasing thresholds, emission wavelengths and optical field distributions in the laser cavity.

  5. Linear transceiver design for nonorthogonal amplify-and-forward protocol using a bit error rate criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2014-04-01

    The ever growing demand of higher data rates can now be addressed by exploiting cooperative diversity. This form of diversity has become a fundamental technique for achieving spatial diversity by exploiting the presence of idle users in the network. This has led to new challenges in terms of designing new protocols and detectors for cooperative communications. Among various amplify-and-forward (AF) protocols, the half duplex non-orthogonal amplify-and-forward (NAF) protocol is superior to other AF schemes in terms of error performance and capacity. However, this superiority is achieved at the cost of higher receiver complexity. Furthermore, in order to exploit the full diversity of the system an optimal precoder is required. In this paper, an optimal joint linear transceiver is proposed for the NAF protocol. This transceiver operates on the principles of minimum bit error rate (BER), and is referred as joint bit error rate (JBER) detector. The BER performance of JBER detector is superior to all the proposed linear detectors such as channel inversion, the maximal ratio combining, the biased maximum likelihood detectors, and the minimum mean square error. The proposed transceiver also outperforms previous precoders designed for the NAF protocol. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  6. Noise Reduction Design of the Volute for a Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Wen, Huabing; Hong, Liangxing; Jin, Yudong

    2017-08-01

    In order to effectively control the aerodynamic noise of a compressor, this paper takes into consideration a marine exhaust turbocharger compressor as a research object. According to the different design concept of volute section, tongue and exit cone, six different volute models were established. The finite volume method is used to calculate the flow field, whiles the finite element method is used for the acoustic calculation. Comparison and analysis of different structure designs from three aspects: noise level, isentropic efficiency and Static pressure recovery coefficient. The results showed that under the concept of volute section model 1 yielded the best result, under the concept of tongue analysis model 3 yielded the best result and finally under exit cone analysis model 6 yielded the best results.

  7. Design of e-gun for large KrF amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.A.; Von Rosenberg, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The design of very large single-aperture laser amplifier for an angular multiplexed laser fusion system requires advances in excimer laser e-gun technology beyond existing designs. Scaling considerations dictate the use of multiple e-guns to pump a single laser; in the present case the authors will discuss the scaling and design features of one of the ten e-guns being developed to pump the Los Alamos Polaris Power Amplifier Module. Multiple e-guns minimize the diode self-magnetic field, lowering the size of the imposed guide magnetic field, and reducing the diode impendance collapse. Multiple guns also result in lowered current rise times, reduce the development cost of the technology at the prototype stage, and, of course, limit the cost due to operation failures in the e-gun. The present design utilizes the expanding electron flow diode to provide uniform electron flow into the gas from a high-current density cold cathode (approx. =50 A/cm 2 ). Laminated iron and an imposed dipole field are utilized for B-field shaping. The applied B field lines trace from the anode, terminate on the cathode, and are then conducted through the shank to beyond the bushing. This feature not only provides for fully expanded electron flow from cathode to anode, but it also allows for self-magnetic field insulation of the shank and bushing, thus minimizing voltage standoff distances, inductance, and rise time. A single large aspect ratio racetrack-shaped bushing on each e-gun is provided with robust grading to limit field concentration at the ends

  8. Discrete oscillator design linear, nonlinear, transient, and noise domains

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Oscillators are an essential part of all spread spectrum, RF, and wireless systems, and today's engineers in the field need to have a firm grasp on how they are designed. Presenting an easy-to-understand, unified view of the subject, this authoritative resource covers the practical design of high-frequency oscillators with lumped, distributed, dielectric and piezoelectric resonators. Including numerous examples, the book details important linear, nonlinear harmonic balance, transient and noise analysis techniques. Moreover, the book shows you how to apply these techniques to a wide range of os

  9. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  10. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  11. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produce high-voltage output. In this paper, a switching amplifier without step-up transformer is developed based on digital pulse step modulation (PSM and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output. The relevant topological structure, operating principle, and design scheme are introduced. Finally, a prototype system is built, which can provide power up to 1400 Watts and peak voltage up to ±1700 Volts. And the performance, including efficiency, linearity, and distortion, is evaluated by experimental tests.

  12. Design and analysis of a highly-integrated CMOS power amplifier for RFID readers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Tongqiang; Zhang Chun; Chi Baoyong; Wang Zhihua

    2009-01-01

    To implement a fully-integrated on-chip CMOS power amplifier (PA) for RFID readers, the resonant frequency of each matching network is derived in detail. The highlight of the design is the adoption of a bonding wire as the output-stage inductor. Compared with the on-chip inductors in a CMOS process, the merit of the bondwire inductor is its high quality factor, leading to a higher output power and efficiency. The disadvantage of the bondwire inductor is that it is hard to control. A highly integrated class-E PA is implemented with 0.18-μm CMOS process. It can provide a maximum output power of 20 dBm and a 1 dB output power of 14.5 dBm. The maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) is 32.1%. Also, the spectral performance of the PA is analyzed for the specified RFID protocol.

  13. Optimized design of six-wave fiber optical parametric amplifiers by using a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; Zhu, Hongna; Taccheo, Stefano; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong

    2017-05-20

    A governing equation of the six-wave fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) for the power and phase difference evolution of the six interacting waves is deduced. To optimize the gain of the six-wave FOPA, a multivariate stochastic optimization algorithm, i.e., the genetic algorithm (GA), is applied. The effect of pump depletion on the gain characteristic of the six-wave FOPA is emphasized and the effect of the fiber length, the wavelength, and the power of two pumps on bandwidth, flatness, and magnitude of the gain spectrum has also been studied. A broader and flatter six-wave FOPA gain is obtained by adopting optimum design parameters, which theoretically provide a uniform gain of 65 dB with 0.3 dB uniformity over a 110 nm bandwidth for the six-wave FOPA.

  14. The Design of High-Q Sallen-Key Biquads with Unity-Gain Buffer Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Guldbrandsen, Birthe

    1997-01-01

    and to implement the Sallen- Key biquad even in the high-Q case with reasonable sensitivities. The method is based on the unity gain version of the biquad and as unity gain buffer amplifiers are readily manufactured in integrated circuit technology the results may be very useful in the fabrication of integrated...... analog filters in voltage-mode as well as current-mode technology. As an example we will choose the band-pass biquad as biquads of this type often has to be designed with high-Q values. The results in the band-pass case may readily be transferred to the low-pass and high-pass cases....

  15. Reducing Switching Artifacts in Chopper Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusuda, Y.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design, and implementation of chopper operational amplifiers (op-amps) in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs). The chopping technique periodically corrects DC errors of such op-amps, so that low 1/f noise and stable, microvolt-level offset can be achieved. However,

  16. Examination of the low frequency limit for helicopter noise data in the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool and Integrated Noise Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aircraft noise modeling tools Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDTc) and Integrated Noise Model (INM) do not currently consider noise below 50 Hz in their computations. This paper describes a preliminary ...

  17. The Emergence of an Amplified Mindset of Design: Implications for Postgraduate Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mafalda; Murphy, Emma; McAra-McWilliam, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In a global scenario of complexity, research shows that emerging design practices are changing and expanding, creating a complex and ambiguous disciplinary landscape. This directly impacts on the field of design education, calling for new, flexible models able to tackle future practitioners' needs, unknown markets and emergent societal cultures.…

  18. An intelligent subsurface buoy design for measuring ocean ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Wang, Lei

    2012-11-01

    A type of ultra-low power subsurface buoy system is designed to measure and record ocean ambient noise data. The buoy utilizes a vector hydrophone (pass band 20Hz-1.2kHz) and a 6-element vertical hydrophone array (pass band 20Hz-2kHz) to measure ocean ambient noise. The acoustic signals are passed through an automatically modified gain, a band pass filter, and an analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion module. They are then stored in high-capacity flash memory. In order to identify the direction of noise source, the vector sensor measuring system has integrated an electric-magnetic compass. The system provides a low-rate underwater acoustic communication system which is used to report the buoy state information and a high-speed USB interface which is used to retrieve the recorded data on deck. The whole system weighs about 125kg and can operate autonomously for more than 72 hours. The system's main architecture and the sea-trial test results are provided in this paper.

  19. RF power amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Albulet, Mihai

    2001-01-01

    This text presents a full account of RF amplifiers and provides a thorough understanding of power amplifier principles and their applications. This comprehensive book covers all important design techniques for power amplifiers and includes mathematical derivations and the assumptions used to develop design rules.

  20. Amplifier for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Canner, E.

    1996-01-01

    The spectroscopy amplifier model AE-020 is designed to adjust suitable the pulses coming from nuclear radiation detectors. Due to is capacity and specifications, the amplifier can be used together with high and medium resolution spectroscopy system

  1. The Design of Operational Amplifier for Low Voltage and Low Current Sound Energy Harvesting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liew Hui; Rahim, Rosemizi Bin Abd; Isa, Muzamir; Idris Syed Hassan, Syed; Ismail, Baharuddin Bin

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a combination of an operational amplifier (op-amp) with a rectifier used in an alternate current (ac) to direct current (dc) power conversion. The op-amp was designed to specifically work at low voltage and low current for a sound energy harvesting system. The goal of the op-amp design with adjustable gain was to control output voltage based on the objectives of the experiment conducted. The op-amp was designed for minimum power dissipation performance, with the means of increasing the output current when receiving a large amount of load. The harvesting circuits which designed further improved the power output efficiency by shortening the fully charged time needed by a supercapacitor bank. It can fulfil the long-time power demands for low power device. Typically, a small amount of energy sources were converted to electricity and stored in the supercapacitor bank, which was built by 10 pieces of capacitors with 0.22 F each, arranged in parallel connection. The highest capacitance was chosen based on the characteristic that have the longest discharging time to support the applications of a supercapacitor bank. Testing results show that the op-amp can boost the low input ac voltage (∼3.89 V) to high output dc voltage (5.0 V) with output current of 30 mA and stored the electrical energy in a big supercapacitor bank having a total of 2.2 F, effectively. The measured results agree well with the calculated results.

  2. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  3. Complete analysis of BSIM3 noise models for the optimum design of a low noise preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noulis, T; Drakaki, M; Siskos, S

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of a preamplifier noise performance, of a low-energy x-rays strip detector for space applications, is examined in relation to BSIM3V3 thermal and flicker noise models. These noise models (BSIM3 and Spice2) are studied and analytically presented in the frequency and voltage domain. A differentiation of the total preamplifier output noise associated with simulator noise models is demonstrated. Analysis is supported by simulation results in 0.35 μm AMS process, which confirm that the selection of the simulator noise model combination and specifically the usage of BSIM3 flicker noise model, instead of Spice2, for a given shaper, results to a different preamplifier noise response

  4. Design of resonant converter based DC power supply for RF amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Kartik; Suthar, Gajendra; Dalicha, Hrushikesh; Agarwal, Rohit; Trivedi, R.G.; Mukherjee, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    ITER require 20 MW of RF power to a large variety of plasmas in the Ion Cyclotron frequency range for heating and driving plasma current. Nine RF sources of 2.5MW RF power level each collectively will accomplish the above requirement. Each RF source consists of SSPA, driver and end stage, above which driver and end stage amplifier are tube (Tetrode/Diacrode) based which requires auxiliary DC power source viz. filament, screen grid and control grid DC power supply. DC power supply has some stringent requirements like low stored energy, fast turn off, and low ripple value, etc. This paper will focus only on Zero Current Switching (ZCS) resonant converter based buck converter. This can serve the purpose of control grid and screen grid DC power supply for above requirement. IGBT switch will be used at 20 kHz so as to lower the filter requirement hence low stored energy and ripple in the output voltage. ZCS operation will also assist us in reducing EMI/EMC effect. Design of resonant tank circuit is important aspect of the converter as it forms the backbone of the complete system and basis of selection of other important parameters as well hence mathematical model analysis with the help of circuit equations for various modes have been shown as a part of selection criteria. Peak current through the switch, duty cycle, switching frequency will be the design parameters for selecting resonant tank circuit

  5. Pulse shaping amplifier (PSA) for nuclear spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombigit, L.; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim; Nolida Yusup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Yong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pulse Shaping Amplifier (PSA) is an essential components in nuclear spectroscopy system. This networks have two functions; to shape the output pulse and performs noise filtering. In this paper, we describes procedure for design and development of a pulse shaping amplifier which can be used for nuclear spectroscopy system. This prototype was developed using high performance electronics devices and assembled on a FR4 type printed circuit board. Performance of this prototype was tested by comparing it with an equivalent commercial spectroscopy amplifier (Model SILENA 7611). The test results show that the performance of this prototype is comparable to the commercial spectroscopic amplifier. (author)

  6. Controlling the dynamic range of a Josephson parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    One of the central challenges in the development of parametric amplifiers is the control of the dynamic range relative to its gain and bandwidth, which typically limits quantum limited amplification to signals which contain only a few photons per inverse bandwidth. Here, we discuss the control of the dynamic range of Josephson parametric amplifiers by using Josephson junction arrays. We discuss gain, bandwidth, noise, and dynamic range properties of both a transmission line and a lumped element based parametric amplifier. Based on these investigations we derive useful design criteria, which may find broad application in the development of practical parametric amplifiers. (orig.)

  7. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  8. Low noise monolithic CMOS front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.; Bergmann, H.; Holl, P.; Manfredi, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Design considerations for low noise charge measurement and their application in CMOS electronics are described. The amplifier driver combination whose noise performance has been measured in detail as well as the analog multiplexing silicon strip detector readout electronics are designed with low power consumption and can be operated in pulsed mode so as to reduce heat dissipation even further in many applications. (orig.)

  9. Influence of lasers with non-white frequency noise on the design of coherent optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kakkar, Aditya; Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo; Schatz, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate for a 28 Gbaud 64-QAM metro link that the LO frequency noise causes timing impairment. Results show the existence of LO frequency noise spectrum regimes where different design criteria apply.......We experimentally demonstrate for a 28 Gbaud 64-QAM metro link that the LO frequency noise causes timing impairment. Results show the existence of LO frequency noise spectrum regimes where different design criteria apply....

  10. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Transistor Circuits: Sixth Edition discusses the principles, concepts, and practices involved integrated circuits. The current edition includes up-to-date circuits, the section on thyristors has been revised to give more information on modern types, and dated information has been eliminated. The book covers related topics such as semiconductors and junction diodes; the principles behind transistors; and common amplifiers. The book also covers bias and DC stabilization; large-signal and small-signal AF amplifiers; DC and pulse amplifiers; sinusoidal oscillators; pulse and sawtooth

  11. Linear Processing Design of Amplify-and-Forward Relays for Maximizing the System Throughput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, firstly, we study the linear processing of amplify-and-forward (AF relays for the multiple relays multiple users scenario. We regard all relays as one special “relay”, and then the subcarrier pairing, relay selection and channel assignment can be seen as a linear processing of the special “relay”. Under fixed power allocation, the linear processing of AF relays can be regarded as a permutation matrix. Employing the partitioned matrix, we propose an optimal linear processing design for AF relays to find the optimal permutation matrix based on the sorting of the received SNR over the subcarriers from BS to relays and from relays to users, respectively. Then, we prove the optimality of the proposed linear processing scheme. Through the proposed linear processing scheme, we can obtain the optimal subcarrier paring, relay selection and channel assignment under given power allocation in polynomial time. Finally, we propose an iterative algorithm based on the proposed linear processing scheme and Lagrange dual domain method to jointly optimize the joint optimization problem involving the subcarrier paring, relay selection, channel assignment and power allocation. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve a perfect performance.

  12. Design optimization of single-main-amplifier KrF laser-fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be a very promising laser fusion driver for commercial applications. The Large Amplifier Module for the Aurora Laser System at Los Alamos is the largest KrF laser in the world and is currently operating at 5 kJ with 10 to 15 kJ eventually expected. The next generation system is anticipated to be a single-main-amplifier system that generates approximately 100 kJ. This paper examines the cost and efficiency tradeoffs for a complete single-main-amplifier KrF laser fusion experimental facility. It has been found that a 7% efficient $310/joule complete laser-fusion system is possible by using large amplifier modules and high optical fluences

  13. Exploiting the 1/f structure of neural signals for the design of integrated neural amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Subramaniam; Patten, Craig; Carmena, Jose M

    2009-01-01

    Neural amplifiers require a large time-constant high-pass filter at approximately 1Hz to reject large DC offsets while amplifying low frequency neural signals. This high pass filter is typically realized using large area capacitors and teraohm resistances which makes integration difficult. In this paper, we present a novel topology for a neural amplifier which exploits the (1/f)(n) power spectra of local field potentials (LFP). Using a high-pass filter at approximately 100Hz, we pre-filter the LFP before amplification. Post digitization, we can recover the LFP signal by building the inverse of the high pass filter in software. We built an array of neural amplifiers based on this principle and tested it on rats chronically implanted with microelectrode arrays. We found that we could recover the initial LFP signal and the power spectral information over time with correlation coefficient greater than 0.94.

  14. Design and analysis of an integrated pulse modulated s-band power amplifier in gallium nitride process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlock, Steve [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The design of power amplifiers in any semi-conductor process is not a trivia exercise and it is often encountered that the simulated solution is qualitatively different than the results obtained. Phenomena such as oscillation occurring either in-band or out of band and sometimes at subharmonic intervals, continuous spectrum noticed in some frequency bands, often referred to as chaos, and jumps and hysteresis effects can all be encountered and render a design useless. All of these problems might have been identified through a more rigorous approach to stability analysis. Designing for stability is probably the one area of amplifier design that receives the least amount of attention but incurs the most catastrophic of effects if it is not performed properly. Other parameters such as gain, power output, frequency response and even matching may suitable mitigation paths. But the lack of stability in an amplifier has no mitigating path. In addition to of loss of the design completely there are the increased production cycle costs, costs involved with investigating and resolving the problem and the costs involved with schedule slips or delays resulting from it. The Linville or Rollett stability criteria that many microwave engineers follow and rely exclusively on is not sufficient by itself to ensure a stable and robust design. It will be shown that the universal belief that unconditional stability is obtained through an analysis of the scattering matrix S to determine if 1 and |{Delta}{sub S}| < 1 is only part of the procedure and other tools must be used to validate the criteria. The research shown contributes to the state of the art by developing a more thorough stability design technique for designing amplifiers of any class, whether that be current mode or switch mode, than is currently undertaken with the goal of obtaining first pass design success.

  15. Optimization design of airfoil profiles based on the noise of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    Based on design theory of airfoil profiles and airfoil self-noise prediction model, a new method with the target of the airfoil average efficiency-noise ratio of design ranges for angle of attack had been developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. The airfoil design method was optimized for a...

  16. Design and implementation of a wireless (Bluetooth) four channel bio-instrumentation amplifier and digital data acquisition device with user-selectable gain, frequency, and driven reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmanescu, Alin; Miller, Benjamin; Magno, Terence; Ahmed, Assad; Kremenic, Ian

    2006-01-01

    A portable, multi-purpose Bio-instrumentation Amplifier and Data AcQuisition device (BADAQ) capable of measuring and transmitting EMG and EKG signals wirelessly via Bluetooth is designed and implemented. Common topologies for instrumentation amplifiers and filters are used and realized with commercially available, low-voltage, high precision operational amplifiers. An 8-bit PIC microcontroller performs 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion of the amplified and filtered signals and controls a Bluetooth transceiver capable of wirelessly transmitting the data to any Bluetooth enabled device. Electrical isolation between patient/subject, circuitry, and ancillary equipment is achieved by optocoupling components. The design focuses on simplicity, portability, and affordability.

  17. IIR digital filter design for powerline noise cancellation of ECG signal using arduino platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatillah, Akif; Ataulkarim

    2017-05-01

    Powerline noise has been one of significant noises of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal measurement. This noise is characterized by a sinusoidal signal which has 50 Hz of noise and 0.3 mV of maximum amplitude. This paper describes the design of IIR Notch filter design to reject a 50 Hz power line noise. IIR filter coefficients were calculated using pole placement method with three variations of band stop cut off frequencies of (49-51)Hz, (48 - 52)Hz, and (47 - 53)Hz. The algorithm and coefficients of filter were embedded to Arduino DUE (ARM 32 bit microcontroller). IIR notch filter designed has been able to reject power line noise with average square of error value of 0.225 on (49-51) Hz filter design and 0.2831 on (48 - 52)Hz filter design.

  18. CERN-group conceptual design of a fast neutron operated high power energy amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Buono, S.

    1997-01-01

    The practical feasibility of an Energy Amplifier (EA) with power and power density which are comparable to the ones of the present generation of large PWR is discussed in this paper. This is only possible with fast neutrons. Schemes are described which offer a high gain, a large maximum power density and an extended burn-up, well in excess of 100 GW x d/t corresponding to about five years at full power operation with no intervention on the fuel core. The following topics are discussed: physics considerations and parameter definition, the accelerator complex, the energy amplifier unit, computer simulated operation, and fuel cycle closing

  19. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    1990-01-01

    Principles of Transistor Circuits, Seventh Edition discusses the fundamental concepts of transistor circuits. The book is comprised of 16 chapters that cover amplifiers, oscillators, and generators. Chapter 1 discusses semiconductors and junction nodes, while Chapter 2 covers the basic principles of transistors. The subsequent chapters focus on amplifiers, where one of the chapters discusses bias and D.C. The book also talks about sinusoidal oscillators and covers modulators, demodulators, mixers, and receivers. Chapters 13 and 14 discuss pulse generators and sawtooth generators, respectively.

  20. Multi Function and High Power Amplifier Chipset for X-Band Phased Array Frontends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Boer, A. de; Hoogland, J.A.; Wanum, M. van; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van; Brouzes, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the design and measurement results of two MMICs for X-band phased array applications: a Multi Function Chip (MFC) and High Power Amplifier (HPA). The fully integrated MFC combines the phase and attenuation setting, Transmit/Receive (T/R) switching, Low Noise Amplifier and Driver

  1. A 700mV low power low noise implantable neural recording system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guanglei; Hutchens, Chriswell; Rennaker, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    A low power, low noise implantable neural recording interface for use in a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is presented in this paper. A two stage neural amplifier and 8 bit Pipelined Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) are integrated in this system. The optimized number of amplifier stages demonstrates the minimum power and area consumption; The ADC utilizes a novel offset cancellation technique robust to device leakage to reduce the input offset voltage. The neural amplifier and ADC both utilize 700mV power supply. The midband gain of neural amplifier is 58.4dB with a 3dB bandwidth from 0.71 to 8.26 kHz. Measured input-referred noise and total power consumption are 20.7μVrms and 1.90 respectively. The ADC achieves 8 bit accuracy at 16Ksps with an input voltage of ±400mV. Combined simulation and measurement results demonstrate the neural recording interface's suitability for in situ neutral activity recording.

  2. Design of the optical Raman amplifier for the shore station of NEMO phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amico, A., E-mail: damico@lns.infn.i [LNS-INFN, Via S. Sofia 62 I-95123, Catania (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    A distributed Raman amplifier system for the NEMO phase 2 project has been simulated. The simulation goal was to optimize the Raman pump wavelengths in order to maximize the gain in the spectral region extending between 1530 and 1563 nm, where the DWDM channels of the data transport system are allocated. The results of the simulated gain will be shown.

  3. Design of mm-wave InP DHBT power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Yan, Lei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper suitable topologies for mm-wave integrated power amplifiers using InP DHBT technology is investigated. Among the standard topologies for mm-wave power cells: common-emitter, common-base, and cascode configuration, the cascode configuration proves the most promising in terms of outpu...

  4. Design Methodology of High Power Distributed Amplifier Employing Broadband Impedance Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narendra, Kumar; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Collantes, Juan Mari

    2009-01-01

    A novel topology of a high power distributed amplifier (DA) in combination with a broadband impedance transformer is presented. The advantages of the proposed topology are explored analytically and verified by a full-wave 3D simulations. Stability of the high power DA is verified with the pole-zero...

  5. Theory and Design Tools For Studies of Reactions to Abrupt Changes in Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, James M.; Ehrlich, Gary E.; Zador, Paul; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Study plans, a pre-tested questionnaire, a sample design evaluation tool, a community publicity monitoring plan, and a theoretical framework have been developed to support combined social/acoustical surveys of residents' reactions to an abrupt change in environmental noise, Secondary analyses of more than 20 previous surveys provide estimates of three parameters of a study simulation model; within individual variability, between study wave variability, and between neighborhood variability in response to community noise. The simulation model predicts the precision of the results from social surveys of reactions to noise, including changes in noise. When the study simulation model analyzed the population distribution, noise exposure environments and feasible noise measurement program at a proposed noise change survey site, it was concluded that the site could not yield sufficient precise estimates of human reaction model to justify conducting a survey. Additional secondary analyses determined that noise reactions are affected by the season of the social survey.

  6. An amplifier for VUV photomultiplier operating in cryogenic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Dahal, S. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Di Giovanni, A., E-mail: adriano.digiovanni@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); D' Inzeo, M.; Franchi, G. [Age Scientific srl – Capezzano Pianore (Italy); Pazos Clemens, L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-07-11

    We present the characterisation of an amplifier potentially interesting for noble liquid detectors. The design has been conceived considering the requirements of low power consumption (less than 30 mW), low noise, amplification factor of 10 at 100 MHz and use of commercial components. The amplifier has been integrated onto an electronic board with a voltage divider to operate an Hamamatsu R11410 photomultiplier tube (used in XENON1T, Aprile et al. (2014) [1] dark matter experiment).

  7. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.

    1993-01-01

    Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because one cannot distinguish among various contributing noise sources. This paper develops a plan for calculating an estimate of sound generation from a compressor station and the methods for controlling and measuring sounds of individual components. It also classifies the types of noise and gives various methods of dealing with each noise type

  8. TUTORIAL: Integrated circuit amplifiers for multi-electrode intracortical recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Denison, Timothy; Wolf, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Significant progress has been made in systems that interpret the electrical signals of the brain in order to control an actuator. One version of these systems senses neuronal extracellular action potentials with an array of up to 100 miniature probes inserted into the cortex. The impedance of each probe is high, so environmental electrical noise is readily coupled to the neuronal signal. To minimize this noise, an amplifier is placed close to each probe. Thus, the need has arisen for many amplifiers to be placed near the cortex. Commercially available integrated circuits do not satisfy the area, power and noise requirements of this application, so researchers have designed custom integrated-circuit amplifiers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the neural amplifiers described in publications prior to 2008. Methods to achieve high input impedance, low noise and a large time-constant high-pass filter are reviewed. A tutorial on the biological, electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena that influence amplifier design is provided. Areas for additional research, including sub-nanoampere electrolysis and chronic cortical heating, are discussed. Unresolved design concerns, including teraohm circuitry, electrical overstress and component failure, are identified.

  9. Integrated circuit amplifiers for multi-electrode intracortical recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Thomas; Denison, Timothy; Wolf, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Significant progress has been made in systems that interpret the electrical signals of the brain in order to control an actuator. One version of these systems senses neuronal extracellular action potentials with an array of up to 100 miniature probes inserted into the cortex. The impedance of each probe is high, so environmental electrical noise is readily coupled to the neuronal signal. To minimize this noise, an amplifier is placed close to each probe. Thus, the need has arisen for many amplifiers to be placed near the cortex. Commercially available integrated circuits do not satisfy the area, power and noise requirements of this application, so researchers have designed custom integrated-circuit amplifiers. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the neural amplifiers described in publications prior to 2008. Methods to achieve high input impedance, low noise and a large time-constant high-pass filter are reviewed. A tutorial on the biological, electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena that influence amplifier design is provided. Areas for additional research, including sub-nanoampere electrolysis and chronic cortical heating, are discussed. Unresolved design concerns, including teraohm circuitry, electrical overstress and component failure, are identified.

  10. Wind turbine airfoil design method with low noise and experimental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Quan; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    , though there is a certain difference between the theory results and experiment data. Compared with NACA-64-618 airfoil, the CQU-DTU-B18 airfoil exhibits lower noise, which validates the feasibility of this design method. It is a guide to design wind turbine airfoil with lower noise and to reduce airfoil...

  11. Single event mirroring and sense amplifier designs for enhanced SE tolerance of DRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, K.; Massengill, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of existing SRAM SEU hardening techniques to conventional CMOS cross-coupled sense amplifiers used in DRAM structures. We propose a novel SEU mirroring concept and implementation for hardening DRAMs to bitline hits. Simulations indicate a 24-fold improvement in critical charge during the sensing state using a 10K T-Resistor scheme and a 28-fold improvement during the highly susceptible high impedance state using 2pF dynamic capacitance coupling

  12. Class-D amplifier design and performance for driving a Piezo Actuator Drive servomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of piezoelectric stacks in a Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) motor, which shows non-linear equivalent impedance and has a dramatic impact on the overall system performance. Therefore, in this paper, the piezo stackt’s model is discussed and an improved large...... signal model is proposed and verified by measurement. Finally, a Class-D amplifier as a power driver and its associated closed-loop control are implemented and tested to control PAD drive effectively....

  13. Design of a solid state laser for low noise upconversion detection of near infrared light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To maximize signal-to-noise ratio for upconversion of near-infrared light we show that the mixing intensity should be 3 GW/m2. With emphasis on the noise contribution from random duty-cycle errors the optimum design parameters is discussed.......To maximize signal-to-noise ratio for upconversion of near-infrared light we show that the mixing intensity should be 3 GW/m2. With emphasis on the noise contribution from random duty-cycle errors the optimum design parameters is discussed....

  14. Balanced Amplifier dengan Menggunakan Driver Op Amp

    OpenAIRE

    Khoswanto, Handry; T.D.S, Yohanes; Wahyudi, Iwan

    2004-01-01

    In Bahasa Indonesia : Pada umumnya amplifier konvensional melibatkan jalur power supply (ground) yang berhubungan dengan jalur audio. Hal ini mengakibatkan pengolahan sinyal audio akan muncul IHM (Interval Hum Modulation) noise. Oleh karena itu, untuk dapat menekan timbulnya noise seminimal mungkin, maka dibuat sebuah amplifier yang tidak bereferensi pada ground power supply. Amplifier tersebut harus benar-benar balance dari input sampai ke output. Untuk merealisasikan balance amplifier ...

  15. Receiver design for SPAD-based VLC systems under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tianqi; Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-23

    Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is a promising photosensor because of its high sensitivity to optical signals in weak illuminance environment. Recently, it has drawn much attention from researchers in visible light communications (VLC). However, existing literature only deals with the simplified channel model, which only considers the effects of Poisson noise introduced by SPAD, but neglects other noise sources. Specifically, when an analog SPAD detector is applied, there exists Gaussian thermal noise generated by the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and the digital-to-analog converter (D/A). Therefore, in this paper, we propose an SPAD-based VLC system with pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) under Poisson-Gaussian mixed noise model, where Gaussian-distributed thermal noise at the receiver is also investigated. The closed-form conditional likelihood of received signals is derived using the Laplace transform and the saddle-point approximation method, and the corresponding quasi-maximum-likelihood (quasi-ML) detector is proposed. Furthermore, the Poisson-Gaussian-distributed signals are converted to Gaussian variables with the aid of the generalized Anscombe transform (GAT), leading to an equivalent additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, and a hard-decision-based detector is invoked. Simulation results demonstrate that, the proposed GAT-based detector can reduce the computational complexity with marginal performance loss compared with the proposed quasi-ML detector, and both detectors are capable of accurately demodulating the SPAD-based PAM signals.

  16. Externally pumped millimeter-wave Josephson-junction parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, M.T; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, Ole

    1980-01-01

    A unified theory of the singly and doubly degenerate Josephson-junction parametric amplifier is presented. Experiments with single junctions on both amplifier modes at frequencies 10, 35, and 70 GHz are discussed. Low-noise temperature (∼100 K, single sideband (SSB)) and reasonable gain (∼8 d......B) were obtained at 35 GHz in the singly degenerate mode. On the basis of the theory and experiments, a general procedure for optimizing junction parameters is discussed and illustrated by the specific design of a 100-GHz amplifier....

  17. Fully differential cryogenic transistor amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

    2013-10-01

    We have constructed a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating in the 4.2 K-300 K temperature range. The amplifier can be operated at high-bias setting, where it dissipates 5 mW, has noise temperature TN ≈ 0.7 K at RS ≈ 5 kΩ and >40 MHz bandwidth at 4.2 K bath temperature. The bias setting can be adjusted: at our lowest tested setting the amplifier dissipates 2 MHz bandwidth. The 1/f noise corner frequency is a few times 10 kHz. We foresee the amplifier to have an application in the readout of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detectors (STJs) and Transition Edge Sensors (TESes). We have verified the practical use of the amplifier by reading out a 4.2 K 480-SQUID array with 40 MHz bandwidth and <8 × 10-8 Φ0/Hz1/2 flux noise.

  18. Material Design of Functionally Graded Plates with the Function of Electromagnetic Noise Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi

    The development of materials to suppress electromagnetic noise is in demand. In this paper, we present a method for the material design of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with the function of electromagnetic noise suppression. The FGM plates are considered to be multilayered plates in which the material properties are homogeneous inside each layer. Therefore, the approximate analytical solutions of electromagnetic fields in the FGM plates subject to electromagnetic noise are derived. The expressions for electromagnetic noise suppression are then obtained based on the above analytical solutions. Numerical calculations are carried out for epoxy resin/titanium oxide FGM plates with graded composition distribution expressed in the form of a power function. The effects of graded composition and plate thickness on the electromagnetic noise suppression are quantitatively evaluated, and the material design suitable for the suppression of electromagnetic noise is discussed.

  19. Design and analysis of an energy-efficient O-QPSK coherent IR-UWB transceiver with a 0.52° RMS phase-noise fractional synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yutong; Lin, Fujiang; Bai, Xuefei

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores an energy-efficient pulsed ultra-wideband (UWB) radio-frequency (RF) front-end chip fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology, including a transmitter, receiver, and fractional synthesizer. The transmitter adopts a digital offset quadrature phase-shift keying (O-QPSK) modulator and passive direct-phase multiplexing technology, which are energy- and hardware-efficient, to enhance the data rate for a given spectrum. A passive mixer and a capacitor cross-coupled (CCC) source-follower driving amplifier (DA) are also designed for the transmitter to further reduce the low power consumption. For the receiver, a power-aware low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a quadrature mixer are applied. The LNA adopts a CCC boost common-gate amplifier as the input stage, and its current is reused for the second stage to save power. The mixer uses a shared amplification stage for the following passive IQ mixer. Phase noise suppression of the phase-locked loop (PLL) is achieved by utilizing an even-harmonics-nulled series-coupled quadrature oscillator (QVCO) and an in-band noise-aware charge pump (CP) design. The transceiver achieves a measured data rate of 0.8 Gbps with power consumption of 16 mW and 31.5 mW for the transmitter and the receiver, respectively. The optimized integrated phase noise of the PLL is 0.52° at 4.025 GHz. Project supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (No. 2011ZX03004-002-01).

  20. Quantifying the Q-Factor and Minimizing BER in 32-Channel DWDM System Design Using EDFA and RAMAN Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufail Ahmed Waseer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have designed, modeled and simulated a 32-channel DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing system using OptiSystem photonic simulator. The system is tested for external transmitter with NRZ (Non-Return Zero encoder using Mech-Zehnder modulator, which accepts input from CW (Continuous Wave laser array and low pass Bessel filter that supports PIN photodiode at receiver end. System performance for optical channels has been compared by varying channel length of EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier and Raman amplifiers to identify its impact in the sense of eye diagram, QF (Quality Factor and minimum BER (Bit Error Rate. Experimental setup was done by varying channel lengths of 60, 100, 120, 150 and 170Kms. It was found that EDFA has better performance in the sub-low ranges of 60Kms, whereas Raman offers better performance at wider channel lengths i.e. more than 100Kms. The proposed work can be extend for the avoidance of amplifier utilization at wider ranged.

  1. Optimization design of airfoil profiles based on the noise of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao

    2012-01-01

    Based on design theory of airfoil profiles and airfoil self-noise prediction model, a new method with the target of the airfoil average efficiency-noise ratio of design ranges for angle of attack had been developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. The airfoil design method was optimized...... for a relative thickness of 21% and a new airfoil was obtained. To illustrate the optimization method, the aerodynamic characteristics and noise of the optimized airfoil were calculated and analyzed. Through performance comparison of a DU93-W-210 airfoil and a FFA-W3-211 airfoil which are widely used in wind...

  2. Low-noise hydraulic power unit design based on vibration modal and transfer function analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SUN Yinghui; LI Zhiyin; LI Jia; PENG Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    The hydraulic power unit is the power source of a hydraulic system, and also the source causing hydraulic system vibration and noise. In order to further reduce the vibration and noise level of hydraulic systems, this paper presents a low-noise hydraulic station design method based on modal analysis and Vibration Transfer Function(VTF) analysis. The finite element model of the hydraulic station is established, the mode of the oil station solved and the modal superposition method used to optim...

  3. Operation amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a differential amplifier circuit 1;

  4. Reduction of HCCI combustion noise through piston crown design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Seven shapes of piston crowns have been evaluated for their ability to reduce HCCI knock and transmission of combustion noise to the engine. The performance of each piston crown was evaluated with measurements of cylinder pressure, engine vibration and acoustic sound pressure measured one meter....... The largest and most consistent reduction in noise level was however achieved with a diesel bowl type piston. The increased surface area as well as the larger crevice volumes of the experimental piston crowns generally resulted in lower IMEP than the flat piston. While the crevice volumes can be reduced...... reduction as well as heat losses....

  5. A systematic molecular circuit design method for gene networks under biochemical time delays and molecular noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yu-Te

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene networks in nanoscale are of nonlinear stochastic process. Time delays are common and substantial in these biochemical processes due to gene transcription, translation, posttranslation protein modification and diffusion. Molecular noises in gene networks come from intrinsic fluctuations, transmitted noise from upstream genes, and the global noise affecting all genes. Knowledge of molecular noise filtering and biochemical process delay compensation in gene networks is crucial to understand the signal processing in gene networks and the design of noise-tolerant and delay-robust gene circuits for synthetic biology. Results A nonlinear stochastic dynamic model with multiple time delays is proposed for describing a gene network under process delays, intrinsic molecular fluctuations, and extrinsic molecular noises. Then, the stochastic biochemical processing scheme of gene regulatory networks for attenuating these molecular noises and compensating process delays is investigated from the nonlinear signal processing perspective. In order to improve the robust stability for delay toleration and noise filtering, a robust gene circuit for nonlinear stochastic time-delay gene networks is engineered based on the nonlinear robust H∞ stochastic filtering scheme. Further, in order to avoid solving these complicated noise-tolerant and delay-robust design problems, based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy time-delay model and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique, a systematic gene circuit design method is proposed to simplify the design procedure. Conclusion The proposed gene circuit design method has much potential for application to systems biology, synthetic biology and drug design when a gene regulatory network has to be designed for improving its robust stability and filtering ability of disease-perturbed gene network or when a synthetic gene network needs to perform robustly under process delays and molecular noises.

  6. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Hrgovan, Iva; Okulov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    /reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using......This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline...... the concepts of Betz and Joukowski, and the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils. Performance analysis shows that the newly designed turbine rotors can achieve an overall noise reduction of 6 dB and 1.5 dB(A) with a similar power output as compared to the reference rotor....

  7. Design and Development of 256x256 Linear Mode Low-Noise Avalanche Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ping; Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Bai, Xiaogang; Boisvert, Joseph; McDonald, Paul; Chang, James

    2011-01-01

    A larger format photodiode array is always desirable for many LADAR imaging applications. However, as the array format increases, the laser power or the lens aperture has to increase to maintain the same flux per pixel thus increasing the size, weight and power of the imaging system. In order to avoid this negative impact, it is essential to improve the pixel sensitivity. The sensitivity of a short wavelength infrared linear-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) is a delicate balance of quantum efficiency, usable gain, excess noise factor, capacitance, and dark current of APD as well as the input equivalent noise of the amplifier. By using InA1As as a multiplication layer in an InP-based APD, the ionization coefficient ratio, k, is reduced from 0.40 (lnP) to 0.22, and the excess noise is reduced by about 50%. An additional improvement in excess noise of 25% was achieved by employing an impact-ionization-engineering structure with a k value of 0.15. Compared with the traditional InP structure, about 30% reduction in the noise-equivalent power with the following amplifier can be achieved. Spectrolab demonstrated 30-um mesa APD pixels with a dark current less than 10 nA and a capacitance of 60 fF at gain of 10. APD gain uninformity determines the usable gain of most pixels in an array, which is critical to focal plane array sensitivity. By fine tuning the material growth and device process, a break-down-voltage standard deviation of 0.1 V and gain of 30 on individual pixels were demonstrated in our 256x256 linear-mode APD arrays.

  8. An Efficient Application of the MOEA/D Algorithm for Designing Noise Abatement Departure Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho Huu, V.; Hartjes, S.; Visser, H.G.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to allow to increase the number of aircraft and airport operations while mitigating their negative impacts (e.g., noise and pollutant emission) on near-airport communities, the optimal design of new departure routes with less noise and fuel consumption becomes more important. In this

  9. White Noise Assumptions Revisited : Regression Models and Statistical Designs for Simulation Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Classic linear regression models and their concomitant statistical designs assume a univariate response and white noise.By definition, white noise is normally, independently, and identically distributed with zero mean.This survey tries to answer the following questions: (i) How realistic are these

  10. Efficient design of gain-flattened multi-pump Raman fiber amplifiers using least squares support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Qiu, Xiaojie; Yin, Cunyi; Jiang, Hao

    2018-02-01

    An efficient method to design the broadband gain-flattened Raman fiber amplifier with multiple pumps is proposed based on least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). A multi-input multi-output LS-SVR model is introduced to replace the complicated solving process of the nonlinear coupled Raman amplification equation. The proposed approach contains two stages: offline training stage and online optimization stage. During the offline stage, the LS-SVR model is trained. Owing to the good generalization capability of LS-SVR, the net gain spectrum can be directly and accurately obtained when inputting any combination of the pump wavelength and power to the well-trained model. During the online stage, we incorporate the LS-SVR model into the particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal pump configuration. The design results demonstrate that the proposed method greatly shortens the computation time and enhances the efficiency of the pump parameter optimization for Raman fiber amplifier design.

  11. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Maezawa, Masaaki; Urano, Chiharu

    2015-11-01

    We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80-120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  12. Antares laser power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, R.D.; Ross, G.F.; Silvernail, C.

    1979-01-01

    The overall design of the Antares laser power amplifier is discussed. The power amplifier is the last stage of amplification in the 100-kJ Antares laser. In the power amplifier a single, cylindrical, grid-controlle, cold-cathode electron gun is surrounded by 12 large-aperture CO 2 electron-beam sustained laser discharge sectors. Each power amplifier will deliver 18 kJ and the six modules used in Antares will produce the required 100 kJ for delivery to the target. A large-scale interaction between optical, mechanical, and electrical disciplines is required to meet the design objectives. Significant component advances required by the power amplifier design are discussed

  13. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Maezawa, Masaaki; Urano, Chiharu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrated RSFQ digital components of a new quantum voltage noise source. • A pseudo-random number generator and variable pulse number multiplier are designed. • Fabrication process is based on four Nb wiring layers and Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions. • The circuits successfully operated with wide dc bias current margins, 80–120%. - Abstract: We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80–120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  14. Design and test of component circuits of an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takahiro, E-mail: yamada-takahiro@aist.go.jp [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Maezawa, Masaaki [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Urano, Chiharu [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 3, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrated RSFQ digital components of a new quantum voltage noise source. • A pseudo-random number generator and variable pulse number multiplier are designed. • Fabrication process is based on four Nb wiring layers and Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions. • The circuits successfully operated with wide dc bias current margins, 80–120%. - Abstract: We present design and testing of a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a variable pulse number multiplier (VPNM) which are digital circuit subsystems in an integrated quantum voltage noise source for Jonson noise thermometry. Well-defined, calculable pseudo-random patterns of single flux quantum pulses are synthesized with the PRNG and multiplied digitally with the VPNM. The circuit implementation on rapid single flux quantum technology required practical circuit scales and bias currents, 279 junctions and 33 mA for the PRNG, and 1677 junctions and 218 mA for the VPNM. We confirmed the circuit operation with sufficiently wide margins, 80–120%, with respect to the designed bias currents.

  15. Modeling vehicle interior noise exposure dose on freeways: Considering weaving segment designs and engine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing

    2017-07-05

    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a laboratory environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic and road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex because of its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters and to improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning-based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted on 12 subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone-based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their out-of-bag-permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments was quantified to hazard quotient, NED, and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable; the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness and is subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model shows high predictive

  16. Experimental Quiet Sprocket Design and Noise Reduction in Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    iI different from, Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS ( Continuo on reverse side it n~e~cssarymid Identity by block number) Tracked Vehicles...Helmet. Reduction of the interior noise level also would improve communication between crew members. Accordingly, the goal of an interior A-weighted...S- c oo 0- L A -4-) 14~ 1E,1 H 6-1 1 -84-- Upqrading the loss factor to conform with measurements will improve the agreement only slightly for

  17. Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...

  18. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  19. Acoustic performance design and optimal allocation of sound package in ship cabin noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Deqing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sound package in noise reduction design of ship cabins has become the main approach for the future. The sound package is a specially designed acoustic component consisting of damping materials, absorption materials, sound isolation materials and base structural materials which can achieve the prescribed performance of noise reduction. Based on the Statistical Energy Analysis(SEAmethod, quick evaluation and design methods, and the optimal allocation theory of sound packages are investigated. The standard numerical acoustic performance evaluation model, sound package optimization design model and sound package optimal allocation model are presented. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the presented optimization problems. Design examples demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed models and solutions. The presented theory and methods benefit the standardization and programming of sound package design, and decrease noise reduction costs.

  20. The Noise Level Optimization for Induction Magnetometer of SEP System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Fang, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Surface Electromagnetic Penetration (SEP) System, subsidized by the SinoProbe Plan in China, is designed for 3D conductivity imaging in geophysical mineral exploration, underground water distribution exploration, oil and gas reservoir exploration. Both the Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics (CSAMT) method and Magnetotellurics (MT) method can be surveyed by SEP system. In this article, an optimization design is introduced, which can minimize the noise level of the induction magnetometer for SEP system magnetic field's acquisition. The induction magnetometer transfers the rate of the magnetic field's change to voltage signal by induction coil, and amplified it by Low Noise Amplifier The noise parts contributed to the magnetometer are: the coil's thermal noise, the equivalent input voltage and current noise of the pre-amplifier. The coil's thermal noise is decided by coil's DC resistance. The equivalent input voltage and current noise of the pre-amplifier depend on the amplifier's type and DC operation condition. The design here optimized the DC operation point of pre-amplifier, adjusted the DC current source, and realized the minimum of total noise level of magnetometer. The calculation and test results show that: the total noise is about 1pT/√Hz, the thermal noise of coils is 1.7nV/√Hz, the preamplifier equivalent input voltage and current noise is 3nV/ √Hz and 0.1pA/√Hz, the weight of the magnetometer is 4.5kg and meet the requirement of SEP system.

  1. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  2. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  3. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2011-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  4. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, S.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. ; SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  5. Amplifier Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2006-12-01

    By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

  6. The Design of High-Q Sallen-Key Biquads with Unity-Gain Buffer Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Guldbrandsen, Birthe

    1997-01-01

    In the design of active biquads with negative feedback frequently referred to as Sallen-Key networks the assumption of a low quality- or Q-factor is recommended in order to keep the active sensitivities at a reasonable low value. In this paper it will be shown that it is possible to design...

  7. Design and multi-objective optimization for a broad self-amplified 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanh-Phong Dao

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... Abstract. This paper proposes a structural design and multi-objective optimization of a two-degree-of-free- dom (DOF) monolithic mechanism. The mechanism is designed based on compliant mechanism with flexure hinge and is compact in size (126 mm by 107 mm). Unlike traditional one-lever ...

  8. Designing Small Propellers for Optimum Efficiency and Low Noise Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-26

    successful model, it is recommended that the structure is sufficient to alleviate any torsion or bending of the propeller blade, a rapid prototype...investigate propeller design based on combined blade and momentum theory. It allows the design and analysis of propellers both on and off the design...performance of propeller-motor combinations . QMIL is a companion propeller design program. The aerodynamic models used in QPROP account for induced

  9. Design study of a G-band FEL amplifier for application to cyclotron resonant heating in magnetic fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, H. P.; Read, M. E.; Jackson, R. H.; Pershing, D. E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1995-04-01

    A G-band (140-150 GHz) free-electron laser is described using a coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler. The CHI wiggler is produced by insertion into a solenoid of a central rod and an outer ring composed of alternating ferrite and nonferrite spacers. The position of the spacers is such that the ferrite (nonferrite) spacers on the central rod are opposite the nonferrite (ferrite) spacers on the outer ring. The field is cylindrically symmetric and exhibits minima in the center of the gap providing for enhanced beam focusing. We describe a tapered wiggler amplifier for plasma heating applications. Preliminary design studies using a nonlinear simulation indicates that output powers of 3.5 MW are possible using a 690 kV/40 A electron beam for a total efficiency of 13%. It is important to note that no beam loss was observed even for realistic values of beam energy spread.

  10. Using MEMS Capacitive Switches in Tunable RF Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danson John

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A MEMS capacitive switch suitable for use in tunable RF amplifiers is described. A MEMS switch is designed, fabricated, and characterized with physical and RF measurements for inclusion in simulations. Using the MEMS switch models, a dual-band low-noise amplifier (LNA operating at GHz and GHz, and a tunable power amplifier (PA at GHz are simulated in m CMOS. MEMS switches allow the LNA to operate with 11 dB of isolation between the two bands while maintaining dB of gain and sub- dB noise figure. MEMS switches are used to implement a variable matching network that allows the PA to realize up to 37% PAE improvement at low input powers.

  11. Reducing Printed Circuit Board Emissions with Low-Noise Design Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Fowler, Jennifer; Yavoich, Brian J.; Jennings, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment designed to determine the effectiveness of adopting several low-noise printed circuit board (PCB) design practices. Two boards were designed and fabricated, each consisting of identical mixed signal circuitry. Several important differences were introduced between the board layouts: one board was constructed using recommended low-noise practices and the other constructed without such attention. The emissions from the two boards were then measured and compared, demonstrating an improvement in radiated emissions of up to 22 dB.

  12. Design and multi-objective optimization for a broad self-amplified 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of design variables on the output responses such as the displacement and first natural frequency are investigated via finite-element analysis based on ... fuzzy-logic-based Taguchi method is an effectively systematic reasoning approach for optimizing the multiple quality characteristics of compliant mechanisms.

  13. Design and multi-objective optimization for a broad self-amplified 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanh-Phong Dao

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... suitable for different applications. In addition, if the mechanism has a high first natural frequency, the response of the mechanism is faster. In reality, the flexure hinges strength influences the performances of the mechanism. Hence, to achieve a large displacement and a high fre- quency, the design ...

  14. Detection of NASBA amplified bacterial tmRNA molecules on SLICSel designed microarray probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Ott; Kaplinski, Lauris; Glynn, Barry; Palta, Priit; Parkel, Sven; Toome, Kadri; Maher, Majella; Barry, Thomas; Remm, Maido; Kurg, Ants

    2011-02-28

    We present a comprehensive technological solution for bacterial diagnostics using tmRNA as a marker molecule. A robust probe design algorithm for microbial detection microarray is implemented. The probes were evaluated for specificity and, combined with NASBA (Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification) amplification, for sensitivity. We developed a new web-based program SLICSel for the design of hybridization probes, based on nearest-neighbor thermodynamic modeling. A SLICSel minimum binding energy difference criterion of 4 kcal/mol was sufficient to design of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA specific microarray probes. With lower binding energy difference criteria, additional hybridization specificity tests on the microarray were needed to eliminate non-specific probes. Using SLICSel designed microarray probes and NASBA we were able to detect S. pneumoniae tmRNA from a series of total RNA dilutions equivalent to the RNA content of 0.1-10 CFU. The described technological solution and both its separate components SLICSel and NASBA-microarray technology independently are applicative for many different areas of microbial diagnostics.

  15. Detection of NASBA amplified bacterial tmRNA molecules on SLICSel designed microarray probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toome Kadri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a comprehensive technological solution for bacterial diagnostics using tmRNA as a marker molecule. A robust probe design algorithm for microbial detection microarray is implemented. The probes were evaluated for specificity and, combined with NASBA (Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification amplification, for sensitivity. Results We developed a new web-based program SLICSel for the design of hybridization probes, based on nearest-neighbor thermodynamic modeling. A SLICSel minimum binding energy difference criterion of 4 kcal/mol was sufficient to design of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA specific microarray probes. With lower binding energy difference criteria, additional hybridization specificity tests on the microarray were needed to eliminate non-specific probes. Using SLICSel designed microarray probes and NASBA we were able to detect S. pneumoniae tmRNA from a series of total RNA dilutions equivalent to the RNA content of 0.1-10 CFU. Conclusions The described technological solution and both its separate components SLICSel and NASBA-microarray technology independently are applicative for many different areas of microbial diagnostics.

  16. Detection of NASBA amplified bacterial tmRNA molecules on SLICSel designed microarray probes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scheler, Ott

    2011-02-28

    Abstract Background We present a comprehensive technological solution for bacterial diagnostics using tmRNA as a marker molecule. A robust probe design algorithm for microbial detection microarray is implemented. The probes were evaluated for specificity and, combined with NASBA (Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification) amplification, for sensitivity. Results We developed a new web-based program SLICSel for the design of hybridization probes, based on nearest-neighbor thermodynamic modeling. A SLICSel minimum binding energy difference criterion of 4 kcal\\/mol was sufficient to design of Streptococcus pneumoniae tmRNA specific microarray probes. With lower binding energy difference criteria, additional hybridization specificity tests on the microarray were needed to eliminate non-specific probes. Using SLICSel designed microarray probes and NASBA we were able to detect S. pneumoniae tmRNA from a series of total RNA dilutions equivalent to the RNA content of 0.1-10 CFU. Conclusions The described technological solution and both its separate components SLICSel and NASBA-microarray technology independently are applicative for many different areas of microbial diagnostics.

  17. Analysis of gain and noise performance of bidirecttionally pumped Pr.sup.3+./sup. -doped fluoride fibre amplifier configurations with umbalanced pumping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallés, J. A.; Lázaro, J. A.; Hotoleanu, M.; Karásek, Miroslav; Voiculescu, E.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 12 (1998), s. 2551-2560 ISSN 0950-0340 Grant - others:EU COST(XE) OC 241.10 Keywords : optical fibre s * fibre lasers * amplifiers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.165, year: 1998

  18. Designing a Sustainable Noise Mapping System Based on Citizen Scientists Smartphone Sensor Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Shim

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to assess the feasibility of collecting population health data via mobile devices. Specifically, we constructed noise maps based on sound information monitored by individuals' smartphones. We designed a sustainable way of creating noise maps that can overcome the shortcomings of existing station-based noise-monitoring systems. Three hundred and nine Seoul residents aged 20-49 years who used Android-based smartphones were recruited, and the subjects installed a special application that we developed for this study. This application collected information on sound and geographical location every 10 min for 7 days. Using GIS, we were able to construct various types of noise maps of Seoul (e.g., daytime/nighttime and weekdays/weekends using the information on sound and geographical location obtained via the users' smartphones. Despite the public health importance of noise management, a number of countries and cities lack a sustainable system to monitor noise. This pilot study showed the possibility of using the smartphones of citizen scientists as an economical and sustainable way of monitoring noise, particularly in an urban context in developing countries.

  19. The influence of noise on the design of horizontal axis wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, I.

    1993-01-01

    This wind turbine noise study was initiated and funded by ETSU to help to eliminate noise as an obstacle to the harnessing of wind energy for the clean generation of electrical power. There is an abundance of theoretical papers on aerodynamic noise, but very few contain meaningful, practical verification of the complex analysis by tests on wind turbines where mechanical noise has been eliminated. This serious shortcoming initiated comprehensive tests on the 1MW, three bladed wind turbine at Richborough Power Station. This investigation is an integral part of this project. A study of the available literature on blade induced noise is also part of this project. A report on gearbox noise which is normally the main source of mechanical and discrete noise is also given. Four reports have been written to fulfil the objectives listed by ETSU. This final report summarises and comments on some of the work in the other three reports and also includes an appraisal of the effect and cost of basic design strategy to create acceptably quiet wind turbines. (author)

  20. Designing a Sustainable Noise Mapping System Based on Citizen Scientists Smartphone Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunyoung; Kim, Dohyeong; Woo, Hyekyung; Cho, Youngtae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to assess the feasibility of collecting population health data via mobile devices. Specifically, we constructed noise maps based on sound information monitored by individuals' smartphones. We designed a sustainable way of creating noise maps that can overcome the shortcomings of existing station-based noise-monitoring systems. Three hundred and nine Seoul residents aged 20-49 years who used Android-based smartphones were recruited, and the subjects installed a special application that we developed for this study. This application collected information on sound and geographical location every 10 min for 7 days. Using GIS, we were able to construct various types of noise maps of Seoul (e.g., daytime/nighttime and weekdays/weekends) using the information on sound and geographical location obtained via the users' smartphones. Despite the public health importance of noise management, a number of countries and cities lack a sustainable system to monitor noise. This pilot study showed the possibility of using the smartphones of citizen scientists as an economical and sustainable way of monitoring noise, particularly in an urban context in developing countries.

  1. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, Stan Amos has provided students and practitioners with a text they could rely on to keep them at the forefront of transistor circuit design. This seminal work has now been presented in a clear new format and completely updated to include the latest equipment such as laser diodes, Trapatt diodes, optocouplers and GaAs transistors, and the most recent line output stages and switch-mode power supplies.Although integrated circuits have widespread application, the role of discrete transistors is undiminished, both as important building blocks which students must understand an

  2. A Design of Experiments Investigation of Offset Streams for Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda; Papamoschou, Dimitri

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation into the noise characteristics of a dual-stream jet with four airfoils inserted in the fan nozzle was conducted. The intent of the airfoils was to deflect the fan stream relative to the core stream and, therefore, impact the development of the secondary potential core and noise radiated in the peak jet-noise direction. The experiments used a full-factorial Design of Experiments (DoE) approach to identify parameters and parameter interactions impacting noise radiation at two azimuthal microphone array locations, one of which represented a sideline viewing angle. The parameters studied included airfoil angle-of-attack, airfoil azimuthal location within the fan nozzle, and airfoil axial location relative to the fan-nozzle trailing edge. Jet conditions included subsonic and supersonic fan-stream Mach numbers. Heated jets conditions were simulated with a mixture of helium and air to replicate the exhaust velocity and density of the hot jets. The introduction of the airfoils was shown to impact noise radiated at polar angles in peak-jet noise direction and to have no impact on noise radiated at small and broadside polar angles and to have no impact on broadband-shock-associated noise. The DoE analysis showed the main effects impacting noise radiation at sideline-azimuthal-viewing angles included airfoil azimuthal angle for the airfoils on the lower side of the jet near the sideline array and airfoil trailing edge distance (with airfoils located at the nozzle trailing edge produced the lowest sound pressure levels). For an array located directly beneath the jet (and on the side of the jet from which the fan stream was deflected), the main effects impacting noise radiation included airfoil angle-of-attack and airfoil azimuthal angle for the airfoils located on the observation side of the jet as well and trailing edge distance. Interaction terms between multiple configuration parameters were shown to have significant impact on the radiated

  3. A near-quantum-limited Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, C; O'Brien, K; Hover, D; Schwartz, M E; Bolkhovsky, V; Zhang, X; Oliver, W D; Siddiqi, I

    2015-10-16

    Detecting single-photon level signals—carriers of both classical and quantum information—is particularly challenging for low-energy microwave frequency excitations. Here we introduce a superconducting amplifier based on a Josephson junction transmission line. Unlike current standing-wave parametric amplifiers, this traveling wave architecture robustly achieves high gain over a bandwidth of several gigahertz with sufficient dynamic range to read out 20 superconducting qubits. To achieve this performance, we introduce a subwavelength resonant phase-matching technique that enables the creation of nonlinear microwave devices with unique dispersion relations. We benchmark the amplifier with weak measurements, obtaining a high quantum efficiency of 75% (70% including noise added by amplifiers following the Josephson amplifier). With a flexible design based on compact lumped elements, this Josephson amplifier has broad applicability to microwave metrology and quantum optics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. RAMAN amplifier gain dynamics with ASE : Numerical analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... understanding the basic properties of the gain medium. So in this work, we demonstrate an analytical formalism and a numerical horizon of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise power for distributed Raman amplifier (DRA). Keywords: Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), optical noise, Raman amplification ...

  5. Design and hybridization of spectrometric amplification line with low background noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.

    1992-07-01

    The work of this thesis must be associated with the realization of EUROGAM detector. This device will be composed in a first time of 45 Germanium gamma radiation detectors (each being surrounded with 10 BGO detectors). The purpose of this thesis was the design and the miniaturization of the amplification line which must be associated with each Germanium detector (are also included the circuit of ballistic shortage correction). The design and study of amplifier has been effected with the help of computer-aided design in using SPICE software. The details are explained widely but in another part, the author studies the theoretical interpretation of disturbing phenomena

  6. Toward Reduced Aircraft Community Noise Impact Via a Perception-Influenced Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This is an exciting time for aircraft design. New configurations, including small multi-rotor uncrewed aerial systems, fixed- and tilt-wing distributed electric propulsion aircraft, high-speed rotorcraft, hybrid-electric commercial transports, and low-boom supersonic transports, are being made possible through a host of propulsion and airframe technology developments. The resulting noise signatures may be radically different, both spectrally and temporally, than those of the current fleet. Noise certification metrics currently used in aircraft design do not necessarily reflect these characteristics and therefore may not correlate well with human response. Further, as operations and missions become less airport-centric, e.g., those associated with on-demand mobility or package delivery, vehicles may operate in closer proximity to the population than ever before. Fortunately, a new set of tools are available for assessing human perception during the design process in order to affect the final design in a positive manner. The tool chain utilizes system noise prediction methods coupled with auralization and psychoacoustic testing, making possible the inclusion of human response to noise, along with performance criteria and certification requirements, into the aircraft design process. Several case studies are considered to illustrate how this approach could be used to influence the design of future aircraft.

  7. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2001-01-01

    on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0.5 μm CMOS single poly, n-well process. The prototype amplifier features a gain of 80 dB over a 3.6 kHz bandwidth, a CMRR of more than 87 dB and a PSRR......In this paper, a low noise high gain CMOS amplifier for minute nerve signals is presented. By using a mixture of weak- and strong inversion transistors, optimal noise suppression in the amplifier is achieved. A continuous-time offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize impact...... greater than 84 dB. The equivalent input referred noise in the bandwidth of interest is 5 nV/√Hz. The amplifier power consumption is 275 μW....

  8. Real-time monitoring and fault locating using amplified spontaneous emission noise reflection for tree-structured Ethernet passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Nani Fadzlina; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, optical networks are becoming dense while detecting faulty branches in the tree-structured networks has become problematic. Conventional methods are inconvenient as they require an engineer to visit the failure site to check the optical fiber using an optical time-domain reflectometer. An innovative monitoring technique for tree-structured network topology in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) by using the erbium-doped fiber amplifier to amplify the traffic signal is demonstrated, and in the meantime, a residual amplified spontaneous emission spectrum is used as the input signal to monitor the optical cable from the central office. Fiber Bragg gratings with distinct center wavelengths are employed to reflect the monitoring signals. Faulty branches of the tree-structured EPONs can be identified using a simple and low-cost receiver. We will show that this technique is capable of providing monitoring range up to 32 optical network units using a power meter with a sensitivity of -65 dBm while maintaining the bit error rate of 10-13.

  9. Two-stage optical parametric amplifier of a low energy nanosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, V. Kh; Bel'kov, S. A.; Garanin, S. G.; Garnov, S. V.; Nikolaev, D. A.; Orlov, S. N.; Polivanov, Y. N.; Sadovskiy, S. P.; Shcherbakov, I. A.; Tsvetkov, V. B.

    2017-05-01

    A two-stage optical parametric amplifier (OPA) design that provides over  -5  ×  107 gain at 1053 nm is presented. Noise level of the parametric amplifier in the signal wave propagation direction was 2  ×  10-6 from the signal level. The parasitic parametric oscillation under intense pump wave and its contribution to the OPA output was measured to be less than 8%.

  10. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  11. Fluids and Combustion Facility Acoustic Emissions Controlled by Aggressive Low-Noise Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Young, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a dual-rack microgravity research facility that is being developed by Northrop Grumman Information Technology (NGIT) for the International Space Station (ISS) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. As an on-orbit test bed, FCF will host a succession of experiments in fluid and combustion physics. The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) must meet ISS acoustic emission requirements (ref. 1), which support speech communication and hearing-loss-prevention goals for ISS crew. To meet these requirements, the NGIT acoustics team implemented an aggressive low-noise design effort that incorporated frequent acoustic emission testing for all internal noise sources, larger-scale systems, and fully integrated racks (ref. 2). Glenn's Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ref. 3) provided acoustical testing services (see the following photograph) as well as specialized acoustical engineering support as part of the low-noise design process (ref. 4).

  12. Odeon, a design tool for auditorium acoustics, noise control and loudspeaker systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2001-01-01

    The ODEON software was originally developed for prediction of auditorium acoustics. However current editions of the software are not limited to these fields, but also allow prediction in rooms such as churches and mosques, interior noise control, design of room acoustics and sound distribution sy......-source calculations including point, line and surface sources, facilities for noise control calculations and multi-channel auralization using fully filtered BRIR’s.......The ODEON software was originally developed for prediction of auditorium acoustics. However current editions of the software are not limited to these fields, but also allow prediction in rooms such as churches and mosques, interior noise control, design of room acoustics and sound distribution...

  13. Amperometric noise at thin film band electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Simon T; Heien, Michael L; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-09-18

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive polymers and measured the current noise in physiological buffer solution for a wide range of different electrode areas. The noise measurements could be modeled by an analytical expression, representing the electrochemical cell as a resistor and capacitor in series. The studies revealed three domains; for electrodes with low capacitance, the amplifier noise dominated, for electrodes with large capacitances, the noise from the resistance of the electrochemical cell was dominant, while in the intermediate region, the current noise scaled with electrode capacitance. The experimental results and the model presented here can be used for choosing an electrode material and dimensions and when designing chip-based devices for low-noise current measurements.

  14. Design of an auto-zeroed differential organic thin film field-effect transistor amplifier for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, David M.; Verma, Nikhil; Crawford, Robert L.; Brandon, Erik J.; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2004-10-01

    Organic strain gauge and other sensors require high-gain, precision dc amplification to process their low-level output signals. Ideally, amplifiers would be fabricated using organic thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFT's) adjacent to the sensors. However, OTFT amplifiers exhibit low gain and high input-referred dc offsets that must be effectively managed. This paper presents a four-stage, cascaded differential OTFT amplifier utilizing switched capacitor auto-zeroing. Each stage provides a nominal voltage gain of four through a differential pair driving low-impedance active loads, which provide common-mode output voltage control. p-type pentacene OTFT's are used for the amplifier devices and auto-zero switches. Simulations indicate the amplifier provides a nominal voltage gain of 280 V/V and effectively amplifies a 1 mV dc signal in the presence of 500 mV amplifier input-referred dc offset voltages. Future work could include the addition of digital gain calibration and offset correction of residual offsets associated with charge injection imbalance in the differential circuits.

  15. Design of an Auto-zeroed, Differential, Organic Thin-film Field-effect Transistor Amplifier for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, David M.; Verma, Nikhil; Crawford, Robert L.; Brandon, Erik; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    Organic strain gauge and other sensors require high-gain, precision dc amplification to process their low-level output signals. Ideally, amplifiers would be fabricated using organic thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFT's) adjacent to the sensors. However, OTFT amplifiers exhibit low gain and high input-referred dc offsets that must be effectively managed. This paper presents a four-stage, cascaded differential OTFT amplifier utilizing switched capacitor auto-zeroing. Each stage provides a nominal voltage gain of four through a differential pair driving low-impedance active loads, which provide common-mode output voltage control. p-type pentacence OTFT's are used for the amplifier devices and auto-zero switches. Simulations indicate the amplifier provides a nominal voltage gain of 280 V/V and effectively amplifies a 1-mV dc signal in the presence of 500-mV amplifier input-referred dc offset voltages. Future work could include the addition of digital gain calibration and offset correction of residual offsets associated with charge injection imbalance in the differential circuits.

  16. Design, construction, and first operational results of a 5 megawatt feedback controlled amplifier system for disruption control on the Columbia University HBT-EP tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.; Alvestad, H.A.; Bartsch, R.R.; Wurden, G.A.; Ivers, T.H.; Nadle, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the electrical design and first operational results of a 5 Megawatt feedback controlled amplifier system designed to drive a 300 uH saddle coil set on the HBT-EP tokamak. It will be used to develop various plasma feedback techniques to control and inhibit the onset of plasma disruptions that are observed in high β plasmas. To provide a well characterized system, a high fidelity, high power closed loop amplifier system has been refurbished from the Los Alamos ZT-P equilibrium feedback system. In its configuration developed for the Columbia HBT-EP tokamak, any desired waveform may be generated within a 1,100 ampere and 16 kV peak to peak dynamic range. An energy storage capacitor bank presently limits the effective full power pulse width to 10 mS. The full power bandwidth driving the saddle coil st is ∼12 kHz, with bandwidth at reduced powers exceeding 30 kHz. The system is designed similar to a grounded cathode, push-pull, transformer coupled, tube type amplifier system. The detailed electrical design of the power amplifier, transformer, and feedback system will be provided in addition to recent HBT-EP operational results

  17. A Wide-Bandwidth, Low-Noise SIS Receiver Design for Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Matthew; Blain, Andrew; Harris, Andrew; Hu, Robert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Miller, David; Rice, Frank; Weinreb, Sander; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    In principle, millimeter and submillimeter heterodyne receivers using state-of-the-art SIS detectors are capable of extremely large instantaneous bandwidths with noise temperatures within a few Kelvin of the quantum limit. We are applying modem design tools, such as 3D electromagnetic simulators and Caltech's SuperMix SIS analysis package, to develop a new generation of waveguide SIS mixers with very broad RF and IF bandwidths. Our initial design consists of a double-sideband mixer targeted for the 180- 300 GHz band that uses a single SIS junction excited by a full bandwidth, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output band, limited by the MMIC low-noise IF preamplifier, is 6-18 GHz, providing an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz (double-sideband). The SIS mixer conversion loss is predicted to be no more than 1-2 dB (single-sideband) with mixer noise temperatures across the band within 10 Kelvin of the quantum limit. The single-sideband receiver noise temperature goal is 70 Kelvin. The wide instantaneous bandwidth and low noise will result in an instrument capable of a variety of important astrophysical observations beyond the capabilities of current instruments. Lab testing of the receiver will begin in the summer of 2002, and a demonstration on the CSO should occur in the spring of 2003.

  18. An Extremely Wide Bandwidth, Low-Noise SIS Heterodyne Receiver Design for Millimeter and Submillimeter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Matthew; Blain, Andrew; Harris, Andrew; Hu, Robert; Rice, Frank; LeDuc, H. G.; Weinreb, Sander; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    Millimeter and submillimeter heterodyne receivers using state-of-the-art SIS detectors are capable of extremely large instantaneous bandwidths with noise temperatures within a few Kelvin of the quantum limit. We present the design for a broadband, sensitive, heterodyne spectrometer under development for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The 180-300 GHz double-sideband design uses a single SIS device excited by a full bandwidth, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output frequency (limited by the MMIC low noise IF preamplifier) is 6-18 GHz, providing an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz (double-sideband). The SIS mixer conversion loss should be no more than 1-2 dB with mixer noise temperatures across the band within 10 K of the quantum limit. The single-sideband receiver noise temperature goal is 70 K. The wide instantaneous bandwidth and low noise will result in an instrument capable of a variety of important astrophysical observations beyond the capabilities of current instruments. Lab testing of the receiver will begin in the summer of 2002, and the first use on the CSO should occur in the spring of 2003.

  19. An Extremely Wide Bandwidth, Low Noise SIS Heterodyne Receiver Design for Millimeter and Submillimeter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Our group has designed a heterodyne submillimeter receiver that offers a very wide IF bandwidth of 12 GHz, while still maintaining a low noise temperature. The 180-300 GHz double-sideband design uses a single SI5 device excited by a full bandwidth, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output frequency (limited by the MMIC low noise IF preamplifier) is 6-18 GHz. providing an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz (double-sideband). Intensive simulations predict that the junction will achieve a conversion loss better than 1-2 dB and a mixer noise temperature of less than 20 K across the band (twice the quantum limit). The single sideband receiver noise temperature goal is 70 K. The wide instantaneous bandwidth and low noise will result in an instrument capable of a variety of important astrophysical and environmental observations beyond the capabilities of current instruments. Lab testing of the receiver will begin this summer, and first light on the CSO should be in the Spring of 2003. At the CSO, we plan to use receiver with WASP2, a wideband spectrometer, to search for spectral lines from SCUBA sources. This approach should allow us to rapidly develop a catalog of redshifts for these objects.

  20. From bounded-noise data to robust PI-controller design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, Luc; Keesman, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    An approach is presented to design a robust PI-controller from bounded noise measurement data of a first order process with and without time delay. This controller guarantees a known robust performance. It is shown that in the case without time delay, the conservatism of the robust approach can

  1. Applications of Response Surface-Based Methods to Noise Analysis in the Conceptual Design of Revolutionary Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey A.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the growing problem of noise in today's air transportation system, there have arisen needs to incorporate noise considerations in the conceptual design of revolutionary aircraft. Through the use of response surfaces, complex noise models may be converted into polynomial equations for rapid and simplified evaluation. This conversion allows many of the commonly used response surface-based trade space exploration methods to be applied to noise analysis. This methodology is demonstrated using a noise model of a notional 300 passenger Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport. Response surfaces are created relating source noise levels of the BWB vehicle to its corresponding FAR-36 certification noise levels and the resulting trade space is explored. Methods demonstrated include: single point analysis, parametric study, an optimization technique for inverse analysis, sensitivity studies, and probabilistic analysis. Extended applications of response surface-based methods in noise analysis are also discussed.

  2. Kriging with Meta-Heuristic Methods for Optimal Design to Reduce the Noise of the Engine Cooling Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hyoun-Jin; Cha, Kyung-Joon; Oh, Jae-Eung; Ryu, Je-Seon

    This paper proposes an optimal design scheme to reduce the noise of the engine cooling fan by adapting Kriging with two meta-heuristic techniques. An engineering model has been developed for the prediction of the noise spectrum of the engine cooling fan. The noise of the fan is expressed as the discrete frequency noise peaks at the BPF and its harmonics and line spectrum at the broad band by noise generation mechanisms. The object of this paper is to find the optimal design for noise reduction of the engine cooling fan. We firstly show a comparison of the measured and calculated noise spectra of the fan for the validation of the noise prediction program. Then, L18 orthogonal array is applied as design of experiments because it is suitable for Kriging. With these simulated data, we can estimate a correlation parameter of Kriging by solving the nonlinear problem with genetic algorithm and find an optimal level for the noise reduction of the cooling fan by optimizing Kriging estimates with simulated annealing. We notice that this optimal design scheme gives noticeable results. Therefore, an optimal design for the cooling fan is proposed by reducing the noise of its system.

  3. Design of a Facility for Studying Shock-Cell Noise on Single and Coaxial Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guariglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shock-cell noise occurs in aero-engines when the nozzle exhaust is supersonic and shock-cells are present in the jet. In commercial turbofan engines, at cruise, the secondary flow is often supersonic underexpanded, with the formation of annular shock-cells in the jet and consequent onset of shock-cell noise. This paper aims at describing the design process of the new facility FAST (Free jet AeroacouSTic laboratory at the von Karman Institute, aimed at the investigation of the shock-cell noise phenomenon on a dual stream jet. The rig consists of a coaxial open jet, with supersonic capability for both the primary and secondary flow. A coaxial silencer was designed to suppress the spurious noise coming from the feeding lines. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of the coaxial jet and acoustic simulations of the silencer have been carried out to support the design choices. Finally, the rig has been validated by performing experimental measurements on a supersonic single stream jet and comparing the results with the literature. Fine-scale PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry coupled with a microphone array in the far field have been used in this scope. Preliminary results of the dual stream jet are also shown.

  4. An analytical formulation for phase noise in MEMS oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak; Seshia, Ashwin

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the design of low-noise MEMS oscillators. This paper presents a new analytical formulation for noise in a MEMS oscillator encompassing essential resonator and amplifier nonlinearities. The analytical expression for oscillator noise is derived by solving a second-order nonlinear stochastic differential equation. This approach is applied to noise modeling of an electrostatically addressed MEMS resonator-based square-wave oscillator in which the resonator and oscillator circuit nonlinearities are integrated into a single modeling framework. By considering the resulting amplitude and phase relations, we derive additional noise terms resulting from resonator nonlinearities. The phase diffusion of an oscillator is studied and the phase diffusion coefficient is proposed as a metric for noise optimization. The proposed nonlinear phase noise model provides analytical insight into the underlying physics and a pathway toward the design optimization for low-noise MEMS oscillators.

  5. Optimal filter design for shielded and unshielded ambient noise reduction in fetal magnetocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comani, S.; Mantini, D.; Alleva, G.; Di Luzio, S.; Romani, G. L.

    2005-12-01

    The greatest impediment to extracting high-quality fetal signals from fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is environmental magnetic noise, which may have peak-to-peak intensity comparable to fetal QRS amplitude. Being an unstructured Gaussian signal with large disturbances at specific frequencies, ambient field noise can be reduced with hardware-based approaches and/or with software algorithms that digitally filter magnetocardiographic recordings. At present, no systematic evaluation of filters' performances on shielded and unshielded fMCG is available. We designed high-pass and low-pass Chebychev II-type filters with zero-phase and stable impulse response; the most commonly used band-pass filters were implemented combining high-pass and low-pass filters. The achieved ambient noise reduction in shielded and unshielded recordings was quantified, and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) of the retrieved fetal signals was evaluated. The study regarded 66 fMCG datasets at different gestational ages (22-37 weeks). Since the spectral structures of shielded and unshielded magnetic noise were very similar, we concluded that the same filter setting might be applied to both conditions. Band-pass filters (1.0-100 Hz) and (2.0-100 Hz) provided the best combinations of fetal signal detection rates, SNR and SDR; however, the former should be preferred in the case of arrhythmic fetuses, which might present spectral components below 2 Hz.

  6. Optimal filter design for shielded and unshielded ambient noise reduction in fetal magnetocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comani, S; Mantini, D; Alleva, G; Luzio, S Di; Romani, G L

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediment to extracting high-quality fetal signals from fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is environmental magnetic noise, which may have peak-to-peak intensity comparable to fetal QRS amplitude. Being an unstructured Gaussian signal with large disturbances at specific frequencies, ambient field noise can be reduced with hardware-based approaches and/or with software algorithms that digitally filter magnetocardiographic recordings. At present, no systematic evaluation of filters' performances on shielded and unshielded fMCG is available. We designed high-pass and low-pass Chebychev II-type filters with zero-phase and stable impulse response; the most commonly used band-pass filters were implemented combining high-pass and low-pass filters. The achieved ambient noise reduction in shielded and unshielded recordings was quantified, and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) of the retrieved fetal signals was evaluated. The study regarded 66 fMCG datasets at different gestational ages (22-37 weeks). Since the spectral structures of shielded and unshielded magnetic noise were very similar, we concluded that the same filter setting might be applied to both conditions. Band-pass filters (1.0-100 Hz) and (2.0-100 Hz) provided the best combinations of fetal signal detection rates, SNR and SDR; however, the former should be preferred in the case of arrhythmic fetuses, which might present spectral components below 2 Hz

  7. Design of electrocardiography measurement system with an algorithm to remove noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) is an important diagnostic tool that can provide vital information about diseases that may not be detectable with other biological signals like, SpO2(Oxygen Saturation), pulse rate, respiration, and blood pressure. For this reason, EKG measurement is mandatory for accurate diagnosis. Recent development in information technology has facilitated remote monitoring systems which can check patient's current status. Moreover, remote monitoring systems can obviate the need for patients to go to hospitals periodically. Such representative wireless communication system is Zigbee sensor network because Zigbee sensor network provides low power consumption and multi-device connection. When we measure EKG signal, another important factor that we should consider is about unexpected signals mixed to EKG signal. The unexpected signals give a severe impact in distorting original EKG signal. There are three kinds of types in noise elements such as muscle noise, movement noise, and respiration noise. This paper describes the design method for EKG measurement system with Zigbee sensor network and proposes an algorithm to remove noises from measured ECG signal.

  8. Millimeter-wave power amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    du Preez, Jaco

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.

  9. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeng, Luo; Dongmei, Li

    2013-11-01

    A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise.

  10. An Efficient Application of the MOEA/D Algorithm for Designing Noise Abatement Departure Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Ho-Huu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to allow to increase the number of aircraft and airport operations while mitigating their negative impacts (e.g., noise and pollutant emission on near-airport communities, the optimal design of new departure routes with less noise and fuel consumption becomes more important. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D, which recently emerged as a potential method for solving multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs, is developed for this kind of problem. First, to minimize aircraft noise for departure routes while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders, bi-objective optimization problems involving noise and fuel consumption are formulated where both the ground track and vertical profile of a departure route are optimized simultaneously. Second, in order to make the design space of vertical profiles feasible during the optimization process, a trajectory parameterization technique recently proposed is employed. Furthermore, some modifications to MOEA/D that are aimed at significantly reducing the computational cost are also introduced. Two different examples of departure routes at Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands are shown to demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method is an effective and efficient approach for solving this kind of problem.

  11. Noise-shaping all-digital phase-locked loops modeling, simulation, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Brandonisio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a novel approach to the analysis and design of all-digital phase-locked loops (ADPLLs), technology widely used in wireless communication devices. The authors provide an overview of ADPLL architectures, time-to-digital converters (TDCs) and noise shaping. Realistic examples illustrate how to analyze and simulate phase noise in the presence of sigma-delta modulation and time-to-digital conversion. Readers will gain a deep understanding of ADPLLs and the central role played by noise-shaping. A range of ADPLL and TDC architectures are presented in unified manner. Analytical and simulation tools are discussed in detail. Matlab code is included that can be reused to design, simulate and analyze the ADPLL architectures that are presented in the book.   • Discusses in detail a wide range of all-digital phase-locked loops architectures; • Presents a unified framework in which to model time-to-digital converters for ADPLLs; • Explains a procedure to predict and simulate phase noise in oscil...

  12. Implementation of Digital Lock-in Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sabyasachi; Nasir Ahmed, Ragib; Bijoy Purkayastha, Basab; Bhattacharyya, Kaustubh

    2016-10-01

    The recovery of signal under the presence of noise is utmost essential for proper communication. The signals corrupted due to noise can be recovered using various techniques. However the weak signals are more prone to noise and hence they can be easily degraded due to noise. In such cases, a digital lock-in amplifier becomes an essential device for recovery of such weak signals. Keeping the cost, speed and other considerations, we will present the implementation of digital lock-in amplifier and how it recovers the weak signal under extreme noisy conditions.

  13. Quantum-Limited Directional Amplifiers with Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malz, Daniel; Tóth, László D.; Bernier, Nathan R.; Feofanov, Alexey K.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Directional amplifiers are an important resource in quantum-information processing, as they protect sensitive quantum systems from excess noise. Here, we propose an implementation of phase-preserving and phase-sensitive directional amplifiers for microwave signals in an electromechanical setup comprising two microwave cavities and two mechanical resonators. We show that both can reach their respective quantum limits on added noise. In the reverse direction, they emit thermal noise stemming from the mechanical resonators; we discuss how this noise can be suppressed, a crucial aspect for technological applications. The isolation bandwidth in both is of the order of the mechanical linewidth divided by the amplitude gain. We derive the bandwidth and gain-bandwidth product for both and find that the phase-sensitive amplifier has an unlimited gain-bandwidth product. Our study represents an important step toward flexible, on-chip integrated nonreciprocal amplifiers of microwave signals.

  14. Mean-square filter design for stochastic polynomial systems with Gaussian and Poisson noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basin, Michael; Rodriguez-Ramirez, Pablo

    2014-07-01

    This paper addresses the mean-square finite-dimensional filtering problem for polynomial system states with both, Gaussian and Poisson, white noises over linear observations. A constructive procedure is established to design the mean-square filtering equations for system states described by polynomial equations of an arbitrary finite degree. An explicit closed form of the designed filter is obtained in case of a third-order polynomial system. The theoretical result is complemented with an illustrative example verifying performance of the designed filter.

  15. A 0.1-1.4 GHz inductorless low-noise amplifier with 13 dBm IIP3 and 24 dBm IIP2 in 180 nm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Benqing; Chen, Jun; Chen, Hongpeng; Wang, Xuebing

    2018-01-01

    An inductorless noise-canceling CMOS low-noise amplifier (LNA) with wideband linearization technique is proposed. The complementary configuration by stacked NMOS/PMOS is employed to compensate second-order nonlinearity of the circuit. The third-order distortion of the auxiliary stage is also mitigated by that of the weak inversion transistors in the main path. The bias and scaling size combined by digital control words are further tuned to obtain enhanced linearity over the desired band. Implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process, simulated results show that the proposed LNA provides a voltage gain of 16.1 dB and a NF of 2.8-3.4 dB from 0.1 GHz to 1.4 GHz. The IIP3 and IIP2 of 13-18.9 and 24-40 dBm are obtained, respectively. The circuit core consumes 19 mW from a 1.8 V supply.

  16. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    . A continuous-time current-steering offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize the noise contribution and to minimize dynamic impact on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0...

  17. Design and Stress Analysis of Low-Noise Adjusted Bearing Contact Spiral Bevel Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Litvin, F. L.; Mullins, B. R.; Woods, R.; Handschuh, R. F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2002-01-01

    An integrated computerized approach for design and stress analysis of low-noise spiral bevel gear drives with adjusted bearing contact is proposed. The procedure of computations is an iterative process that requires four separate procedures and provide: (a) a parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to reduce the effect of errors of alignment on noise and vibration, and (b) reduction of the shift of bearing contact caused by misalignment. Application of finite element analysis enables us to determine the contact and bending stresses and investigate the formation of the bearing contact. The design of finite element models and boundary conditions is automated and does not require intermediate CAD computer programs for application of general purpose computer program for finite element analysis.

  18. Tuned Optical Front-End MMIC Amplifiers for a Coherent Optical Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Kongstad; Jagd, A M

    1992-01-01

    Two low noise tuned optical front-end GaAs MESFET MMIC amplifiers for a coherent optical CPFSK (Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying) receiver are presented. The receiver operates at 2.5 Gbit/s at an IF of approx. 9 GHz. The front-ends are based on full-custom designed MMICs and a commercially...

  19. Optimal control of a high-frequency class-D amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Nicolai J.; Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2018-01-01

    Control loops have been used with switch-mode audio amplifiers to improve the sound quality of the amplifier. Because these amplifiers use a high-frequency modulation, precautions in the controller design must be taken. Further, the quality factor of the output filter can have a great impact on t...... that the controller is able to produce a clear improvement in the Total Harmonic Distortion with up to a 30 times improvement compared to open-loop with a clear reduction in the noise. This places the audio quality on pair with current solutions.......Control loops have been used with switch-mode audio amplifiers to improve the sound quality of the amplifier. Because these amplifiers use a high-frequency modulation, precautions in the controller design must be taken. Further, the quality factor of the output filter can have a great impact...... on the controller's capabilities to suppress noise and track the audio signal. In this paper design methods for modern control are presented. The control method proves to easily overcome the challenge of designing a good performing controller when the output filter has a high quality factor. The results show...

  20. Low noise omnidirectional optical receiver for the mobile FSO networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witas, Karel; Hejduk, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir; Vitasek, Jan; Latal, Jan

    2013-05-01

    A high sensitive optical receiver design for the mobile free space optical (FSO) networks is presented. There is an array of photo-detectors and preamplifiers working into same load. It is the second stage sum amplifier getting all signals together. This topology creates a parallel amplifier with an excellent signal to noise ratio (SNR). An automatic gain control (AGC) feature is included also. As a result, the effective noise suppression at the receiver side increases optical signal coverage even with the transmitter power being constant. The design has been verified on the model car which was able to respond beyond the line of sight (LOS).

  1. Noise Properties of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1996-01-01

    model for the current conveyor is established. This model is used for the analysis of selected examples of current conveyor based operational amplifier configurations and the relative merits with respect to the noise performance of these configurations are discussed. Finally, the noise model...... is developed for a CMOS current conveyor implementation, and optimization strategies for noise reduction are discussed. It is concluded that a class AB implementation provides more flexibility than does a class A configuration. In both cases it is essential to design low noise current mirrors and current...... sources, and with the class AB design the current mirror and current source noise can be reduced by using small values of bias current without compromising the maximum available output current...

  2. Noise and False Alarm Rate Characteristics for Envelope Detector Systems Preceded by RF Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    ratio. The normalized True RMS Spectrum Voltmeter Analyzer Model # Model # HP 3403C HP 3585A Adjustable ,, I Comparator Micronetics [ Filter Noise...range of FARs measured. Figure 20 shows the detector video amplifier chain designed by Richard S. Hughes of NWC to replace the Micronetics noise sotuce

  3. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami

    2016-01-01

    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  4. Design of 0.8–2.7 GHz High Power Class-F Harmonic-Tuned Power Amplifier with Parasitic Compensation Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, implementation, and measurements of a high efficiency and high power wideband GaN HEMT power amplifier are presented. Package parasitic effect is reduced significantly by a novel compensation circuit design to improve the accuracy of impedance matching. An improved structure is proposed based on the traditional Class-F structure with all even harmonics and the third harmonic effectively controlled, respectively. Also the stepped-impedance matching method is applied to the third harmonic control network, which has a positive effect on the expansion bandwidth. CGH40025F power transistor is utilized to build the power amplifier working at 0.8 to 2.7 GHz, with the measured saturated output power 20–50 W, drain efficiency 52%–76%, and gain level above 10 dB. The second and the third harmonic suppression levels are maintained at −16 to −36 dBc and −16 to −33 dBc, respectively. The simulation and the measurement results of the proposed power amplifier show good consistency.

  5. On signal design by the R/0/ criterion for non-white Gaussian noise channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the cut-off rate criterion for modulation system design is investigated for channels with non-white Gaussian noise. A signal space representation of the waveform channel is developed, and the cut-off rate for vector channels with additive non-white Gaussian noise and unquantized demodulation is derived. When the signal input to the channel is a continuous random vector, maximization of the cut-off rate with constrained average signal energy leads to a water-filling interpretation of optimal energy distribution in signal space. The necessary condition for a finite signal set to maximize the cut-off rate with constrained energy and an equally likely probability assignment of signal vectors is presented, and an algorithm is outlined for numerically computing the optimum signal set. As an example, the rectangular signal set which has the water-filling average energy distribution and the optimum rectangular set are compared.

  6. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: bebe.luna_s@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  7. Analysis and Design of a Linear Digital Programmable Gain Amplifier in a 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuan-Quang; Knobloch, Anselm; Grözing, Markus; Buck, Matthias; Berroth, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the analysis and the design of a fully-differential digital programmable gain amplifier (PGA) in a 0.13 µm BiCMOS technology. The PGA has a gain control range of 31 dB with 1 dB gain step size and consumes 284 mW from a 3.6 V power supply. At a maximum gain of 25 dB, the PGA exhibits a 3-dB bandwidth of 10.1 GHz. The measured gain error for all 32 possible gain settings is between -0.19/+0.46 dB at 1 GHz. Up to 13 GHz the third harmonic distortion H{D3} stays below -34 dB for all 32 gain settings at a differential output peak-to-peak voltage of 1 V after the last amplifier stage.

  8. Switching power amplifier for TAR3

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Eric Wesley

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design, construction, and testing of a switching power amplifier. The major emphasis of the research and development effort reported herein is to design and construct an efficient power amplifier for varying load conditions which provides 40 Watts of power, at 85% efficiency, and with no more than 10% harmonic distortion. The power amplifier will need one voltage supply and one input audio signal. The amplifier will be used to power demonstration thermoacoust...

  9. Noise performance of frequency modulation Kelvin force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesinger, Heinrich; Deresmes, Dominique; Mélin, Thierry

    2014-01-02

    Noise performance of a phase-locked loop (PLL) based frequency modulation Kelvin force microscope (FM-KFM) is assessed. Noise propagation is modeled step by step throughout the setup using both exact closed loop noise gains and an approximation known as "noise gain" from operational amplifier (OpAmp) design that offers the advantage of decoupling the noise performance study from considerations of stability and ideal loop response. The bandwidth can be chosen depending on how much noise is acceptable and it is shown that stability is not an issue up to a limit that will be discussed. With thermal and detector noise as the only sources, both approaches yield PLL frequency noise expressions equal to the theoretical value for self-oscillating circuits and in agreement with measurement, demonstrating that the PLL components neither modify nor contribute noise. Kelvin output noise is then investigated by modeling the surrounding bias feedback loop. A design rule is proposed that allows choosing the AC modulation frequency for optimized sharing of the PLL bandwidth between Kelvin and topography loops. A crossover criterion determines as a function of bandwidth, temperature and probe parameters whether thermal or detector noise is the dominating noise source. Probe merit factors for both cases are then established, suggesting how to tackle noise performance by probe design. Typical merit factors of common probe types are compared. This comprehensive study is an encouraging step toward a more integral performance assessment and a remedy against focusing on single aspects and optimizing around randomly chosen key values.

  10. Design of a Mobile Low-Cost Sensor Network Using Urban Buses for Real-Time Ubiquitous Noise Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Alías, Francesc; Angulo, Ignacio

    2016-12-29

    One of the main priorities of smart cities is improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. Traffic noise is one of the pollutant sources that causes a negative impact on the quality of life of citizens, which is gaining attention among authorities. The European Commission has promoted the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) to inform citizens and to prevent the harmful effects of noise exposure. The measure of acoustic levels using noise maps is a strategic issue in the END action plan. Noise maps are typically calculated by computing the average noise during one year and updated every five years. Hence, the implementation of dynamic noise mapping systems could lead to short-term plan actions, besides helping to better understand the evolution of noise levels along time. Recently, some projects have started the monitoring of noise levels in urban areas by means of acoustic sensor networks settled in strategic locations across the city, while others have taken advantage of collaborative citizen sensing mobile applications. In this paper, we describe the design of an acoustic low-cost sensor network installed on public buses to measure the traffic noise in the city in real time. Moreover, the challenges that a ubiquitous bus acoustic measurement system entails are enumerated and discussed. Specifically, the analysis takes into account the feature extraction of the audio signal, the identification and separation of the road traffic noise from urban traffic noise, the hardware platform to measure and process the acoustic signal, the connectivity between the several nodes of the acoustic sensor network to store the data and, finally, the noise maps' generation process. The implementation and evaluation of the proposal in a real-life scenario is left for future work.

  11. Design and Measurement of a Low-Noise 64-Channels Front-End Readout ASIC for CdZnTe Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Bo; Wei, Tingcun; Gao, Wu; Liu, Hui; Hu, Yann [School of Computer Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors, as one of the principal detectors for the next-generation X-ray and γ-ray imagers, have high energy resolution and supporting electrode patterning in the radiation environment at room-temperature. In the present, a number of internationally renowned research institutions and universities are actively using these detector systems to carry out researches of energy spectrum analysis, medical imaging, materials characterization, high-energy physics, nuclear plant monitoring, and astrophysics. As the most important part of the readout system for the CdZnTe detector, the front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) would have an important impact on the performances of the whole detector system. In order to ensure the small signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sufficient range of the output signal, it is necessary to design a front-end readout ASIC with very low noise and very high dynamic range. In addition, radiation hardness should be considered when the detectors are utilized in the space applications and high energy physics experiments. In this paper, we present measurements and performances of a novel multi-channel radiation-hardness low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors. The readout circuits in each channel consist of charge sensitive amplifier, leakage current compensation circuit (LCC), CR-RC shaper, S-K filter, inverse proportional amplifier, peak detect and hold circuit (PDH), discriminator and trigger logic, time sequence control circuit and driving buffer. All of 64 readout channels' outputs enter corresponding inputs of a 64 channel multiplexer. The output of the mux goes directly out of the chip via the output buffer. The 64-channel readout ASIC is implemented using the TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology. The die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm x 8 mm. At room temperature, the equivalent noise level of a typical channel reaches 66 e{sup -} (rms) at zero farad for a

  12. Broadband noise and vibration reduction for lightweight chassis design using smart structure technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, L.; Gusenbauer, M.; Rittenschober, T.

    2007-04-01

    Lightweight design is gaining more and more importance in the automotive industry. Engineers are trying hard to reduce the increased weight of chassis due to safety and comfort issues. This paper presents new achievements in the field of control design for smart structures, targeting at innovative lightweight, high-performance and low-noise engineering constructions with integrated embedded systems technology: The first part of the paper focuses on new developments in the field of low-cost, highly efficient smart structure power electronics for piezoelectric elements. These elements will be integrated into automotive chassis, which are able to measure any structure-borne disturbance such as vibrations. The second part of the paper presents frontier research in the design of a high-performance control concept for smart structure applications. This innovative control concept based on a nonlinear state observer design, targets at highly robust and broadband suppression of structure-borne noise in terms of fast changing frequencies. The controller performance is not only assessed with respect to stability and disturbance rejection but also with respect to technical feasibility and implementation issues (required sample rate, rounding errors due to inappropriate data formats, latency, etc.).

  13. Common source cascode amplifiers for integrating IR-FPA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolaway, James T.; Young, Erick T.

    1989-01-01

    Space based astronomical infrared measurements present stringent performance requirements on the infrared detector arrays and their associated readout circuitry. To evaluate the usefulness of commercial CMOS technology for astronomical readout applications a theoretical and experimental evaluation was performed on source follower and common-source cascode integrating amplifiers. Theoretical analysis indicates that for conditions where the input amplifier integration capacitance is limited by the detectors capacitance the input referred rms noise electrons of each amplifier should be equivalent. For conditions of input gate limited capacitance the source follower should provide lower noise. Measurements of test circuits containing both source follower and common source cascode circuits showed substantially lower input referred noise for the common-source cascode input circuits. Noise measurements yielded 4.8 input referred rms noise electrons for an 8.5 minute integration. The signal and noise gain of the common-source cascode amplifier appears to offer substantial advantages in acheiving predicted noise levels.

  14. Characteristics research on self-amplified distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqiang; Qi, Haifeng; Guo, Jian; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gangding

    2014-09-01

    A distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser with a ratio of the backward to forward output power of 1:100 was composed by a 45-mm-length asymmetrical phase-shifted fiber grating fabricated on the 50-mm erbium-doped photosensitive fiber. Forward output laser was amplified using a certain length of Nufern EDFL-980-Hp erbium-doped fiber to absorb the surplus pump power after the active phase-shifted fiber grating and get population inversion. By using OptiSystem software, the best fiber length of the EDFL to get the highest gain was simulated. In order to keep the amplified laser with the narrow line-width and low noise, a narrow-band light filter consisting of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the same Bragg wavelength as the laser and an optical circulator was used to filter the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise of the out-cavity erbium-doped fiber. The designed laser structure sufficiently utilized the pump power, and a DFB fiber laser with the 32.5-mW output power, 11.5-kHz line width, and -87-dB/Hz relative intensity noise (RIN) at 300 mW of 980 nm pump power was brought out.

  15. Proposal of Switching Power Amplifier Using Small Capacity Linear Amplifier and LC Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Jo; Funato, Hirohito; Ogasawara, Satoshi

    The higher efficiency and the low noise in output voltage and current has been required in some applications, i.e. audio-video equipment, medical equipment and so on. This paper proposes a power amplifier in which a PWM inverter is used as a main circuit. In the proposed power amplifier, a hybrid filter composed of a simple and general LC filter and a small capacity linear amplifier is connected to the output of the inverter. The linear amplifier is inserted in series to the filter capacitor to improve the filtering effect of the LC filter. Switching ripples and LC resonances are considerably suppressed by controlling the amplifier using the proposed method and a low distortion switching power amplifier is realized. The effects of the proposal circuit are verified by simulations and experiments. As a result, the proposed circuit achieves low noise about THD=0.68% in simulation and THD=1.7% in experiment.

  16. Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Fung, King Man; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary M.; Pukala, David M.; Sin, Seth; Samoska, Lorene A.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. The amplifier module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to

  17. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  18. Phase noise and frequency stability in oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Rubiola, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Presenting a comprehensive account of oscillator phase noise and frequency stability, this practical text is both mathematically rigorous and accessible. An in-depth treatment of the noise mechanism is given, describing the oscillator as a physical system, and showing that simple general laws govern the stability of a large variety of oscillators differing in technology and frequency range. Inevitably, special attention is given to amplifiers, resonators, delay lines, feedback, and flicker (1/f) noise. The reverse engineering of oscillators based on phase-noise spectra is also covered, and end-of-chapter exercises are given. Uniquely, numerous practical examples are presented, including case studies taken from laboratory prototypes and commercial oscillators, which allow the oscillator internal design to be understood by analyzing its phase-noise spectrum. Based on tutorials given by the author at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, international IEEE meetings, and in industry, this is a useful reference for acade...

  19. Influence of current reuse LNA circuit parameters on its noise figure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2.4 GHz low noise amplifier (LNA with a bias current reuse technique is proposed in this work. To obtain the optimum noise figure (NF value, dependence of NF on its most influential LNA parameters has been analyzed. Taking into account the LNA design requirements for other figures of merit, values of the circuit parameters are given for the optimum noise figure.

  20. European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players of the Eu...

  1. low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2003-01-01

    Designs of low pump power optical amplifiers, based on photonic crystal fibres are presented. The potential of these fibre amplifiers is investigated, and it is demonstrated that such amplifiers may deliver gains of more than 15 dB at 1550 nm with less than 1 mW of optical pump power....

  2. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  3. Analysis of the Noise Characteristics of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1997-01-01

    is described. This model is used for the analysis of selected examples of current conveyor based operational amplifier configurations and the noise performance of these configurations is compared. Finally, the noise model is developed for a CMOS current conveyor implementation, and approaches...... to an optimization of the noise performance are discussed. It is concluded that a class AB implementation can yield a lower noise output for the same dynamic range than a class A implementation. For both the class A implementation and the class AB implementation it is essential to design low noise current mirrors......The definition of the current conveyor is reviewed and a multiple-output second generation current conveyor (CCII) is shown to combine the different generations of current conveyors presently existing. Next, noise sources are introduced, and a general noise model for the current conveyor...

  4. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  5. Performance Configuration of Raman-EDFA Hybrid Optical Amplifier for WDM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidin, N.; Taib, N. I. A.; Abidin, M. S. Z.; Hasbullah, N. F.; Ralib, A. A. M.

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid configuration of Raman amplifier and erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is proposed to obtain a better performance in term of gain, noise figure and flat gain. It is based on the optimum parameter configuration of a singly-based Raman amplifier and EDFA. The best parameter for both amplification has been analyze in terms of its input signal power, pump power and their fiber length whereas the best erbium ion density has also been analyze in EDFA setup. All the parameters are varied to some values to get the optimum result. The simulation is done by using Optisystem 14.0 software. The hybrid amplifier consists of Raman amplifier with multi-pump power set up and bidirectional pump power of EDFA with the pump wavelength of 980 nm is designed and simulated in order to obtain higher gain and lower noise figure. From the simulation of the hybrid configuration, the optimum output has been achieved. The hybrid configurations exhibit the average gain of 46 dB and average noise figure of 3 dB. The flat gain obtained is between 1530 nm to 1600 nm which include C-Band and L-Band frequency with the gain bandwidth of 70 nm.

  6. Capacitively-coupled chopper amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Qinwen; Huijsing, Johan H

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the concept and design of the capacitively-coupled chopper technique, which can be used in precision analog amplifiers. Readers will learn to design power-efficient amplifiers employing this technique, which can be powered by regular low supply voltage such as 2V and possibly having a +\\-100V input common-mode voltage input. The authors provide both basic design concepts and detailed design examples, which cover the area of both operational and instrumentation amplifiers for multiple applications, particularly in power management and biomedical circuit designs. Discusses basic working principles and details of implementation for proven designs; Includes a diverse set of applications, along with measurement results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique; Explains advantages and drawbacks of the technique, given particular circumstances.

  7. Efficient and Compact Optical Amplifier Using EYDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Erbium/Ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA is demonstrated using a 1058nm pumping wavelength, where the amplification is assisted by energy transfer between Yb and Er ions. The energy transfer increases the limit of erbium doping concentration that is imposed by concentration quenching in Erbium-doped fiber (EDF. Therefore, the gain and noise figure are severely degraded with 1480 nm pumping, where the energy transfer cannot be achieved. The use of optical isolator improves the small signal gain and noise figure by about 4.8 dB and 1.6 dB, respectively. By employing a double-pass configuration, a higher gain can be obtained with an expense of a noise figure penalty. The gain improvement of 17.0 dB is obtained at 20 mW and -50 dBm of pump and input signal powers. This shows that the double-pass configuration is an important aspect to consider when designing an efficient EYDFA.

  8. Design of microwave active devices

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier , Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    This book presents methods for the design of the main microwave active devices. The first chapter focuses on amplifiers working in the linear mode. The authors present the problems surrounding narrowband and wideband impedance matching, stability, polarization and the noise factor, as well as specific topologies such as the distributed amplifier and the differential amplifier. Chapter 2 concerns the power amplifier operation. Specific aspects on efficiency, impedance matching and class of operation are presented, as well as the main methods of linearization and efficiency improvement. Freq

  9. Noise reduction techniques in the design of a pneumatic-driven hand held power tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christian M.

    2005-09-01

    Pneumatic-driven hand-held power tools generate noise in the workplace. Current legislation in Europe and the USA aims at protecting workers against noise exposure. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers create a hearing conservation program if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). In the European Community under the Directive 2003/10/EC, employers are required to provide hearing protection if the noise exposure within the working environment exceeds 80 dB(A) and must require hearing protection to be worn if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). This paper examines the sources of noise which contribute to the overall noise from a hand-held power tool. A test plan was developed to identify these individual sources of noise and to determine if structure-borne noise or airborne noise is the dominant source relative to the overall noise level. The measurements were performed per International Standards Organization (ISO) 15744. This paper will describe the methodology used to identify the noise sources and reduce the overall noise of a hand-held power tool.

  10. Design of chaotic analog noise generators with logistic map and MOS QT circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Medina, R.; Diaz-Mendez, A.; Rio-Correa, J.L. del; Lopez-Hernandez, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method to design chaotic analog noise generators using MOS transistors is presented. Two aspects are considered, the determination of operation regime of the MOS circuit and the statistical distribution of its output signal. The operation regime is related with the transconductance linear (TL: translinear) principle. For MOS transistors this principle was originally formulated in weak inversion regime; but, strong inversion regimen is used because in 1991, Seevinck and Wiegerink made the generalization for this principle. The statistical distribution of the output signal on the circuit, which should be a uniform distribution, is related with the parameter value that rules the transfer function of the circuit, the initial condition (seed) in the circuit and its operation as chaotic generator. To show these concepts, the MOS Quadratic Translinear circuit proposed by Wiegerink in 1993 was selected and it is related with the logistic map and its properties. This circuit will operate as noise generator if it works in strong inversion regime using current-mode approach when the parameter that rules the transfer function is higher than the onset chaos value (3.5699456...) for the logistic map.

  11. On signal design by the R sub 0 criterion for non-white Gaussian noise channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The use of the R sub 0 criterion for modulation system design is investigated for channels with non-white Gaussian noise. A signal space representation of the waveform channel is developed, and the cut-off rate R sub 0 for vector channels with additive nonwhite Gaussian noise and unquantized demodulation is derived. When the signal unput to the channel is a continuous random vector, maximization of R sub 0 with constrained average signal energy leads to a water-filling interpretation of optimal energy distribution in signal space. The necessary condition for a finite signal set to maximize R sub 0 with constrained energy and an equally likely probability assignment of signal vectors is presented, and an algorithm is outlined for numerically computing the optimum signal set. A necessary condition on a constrained energy, finite signal set is found which maximizes a Taylor series approximation of R sub 0. This signal set is compared with the finite signal set which has the water-filling average energy distribution.

  12. In-Service Performance and Costs of Methods for Control of Urban Rail System Noise : Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    This report presents an experimental design for a project to evaluate four techniques for reducing wheel-rail noise on urban rail transit systems: (a) resilient wheels, (b) damped wheels, (c) wheel truing, and (d) rail griding. The design presents th...

  13. A digitally assisted, signal folding neural recording amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Basu, Arindam; Liu, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; Dawe, Gavin Stewart; Je, Minkyu

    2014-08-01

    A novel signal folding and reconstruction scheme for neural recording applications that exploits the 1/f(n) characteristics of neural signals is described in this paper. The amplified output is 'folded' into a predefined range of voltages by using comparison and reset circuits along with the core amplifier. After this output signal is digitized and transmitted, a reconstruction algorithm can be applied in the digital domain to recover the amplified signal from the folded waveform. This scheme enables the use of an analog-to-digital convertor with less number of bits for the same effective dynamic range. It also reduces the transmission data rate of the recording chip. Both of these features allow power and area savings at the system level. Other advantages of the proposed topology are increased reliability due to the removal of pseudo-resistors, lower harmonic distortion and low-voltage operation. An analysis of the reconstruction error introduced by this scheme is presented along with a behavioral model to provide a quick estimate of the post reconstruction dynamic range. Measurement results from two different core amplifier designs in 65 nm and 180 nm CMOS processes are presented to prove the generality of the proposed scheme in the neural recording applications. Operating from a 1 V power supply, the amplifier in 180 nm CMOS has a gain of 54.2 dB, bandwidth of 5.7 kHz, input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms and power dissipation of 2.52 μW leading to a NEF of 3.1 in spike band. It exhibits a dynamic range of 66 dB and maximum SNDR of 43 dB in LFP band. It also reduces system level power (by reducing the number of bits in the ADC by 2) as well as data rate to 80% of a conventional design. In vivo measurements validate the ability of this amplifier to simultaneously record spike and LFP signals.

  14. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  15. Design and implementation of sigma delta modulators (ΣΔm) for class D audio amplifiers using differential pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the design of a 3rd Order CT-ΣΔM where the integrator stages of the filter are implemented with Bipolar-Junction Transistors (BJT) differential pairs. These circuits are fully analyzed and the design method is carefully explained. The design method is validated through experimental measurements of several prototype circuits.

  16. Design and analysis of a BLPC vocoder-based adaptive feedback cancellation with probe noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Ankita; Kar, Asutosh; Swamy, M.N.S.

    2017-01-01

    and it is shown that a delay, greater than or equal to the length of the adaptive filter, must be introduced in the forward path to achieve an unbiased feedback path estimate. Algorithm analysis and computer simulations presented in this paper justify the reason for selecting the proposed design over the existing......The band-limited linear predictive coding (BLPC) vocoder-based adaptive feedback cancellation (AFC) removes the high-frequency bias, while the low frequency bias persists between the desired input signal and the loudspeaker signal in the estimate of the feedback path. In this paper, we present...... a BLPC vocoderbased adaptive feedback canceller with probe noise with an objective of reducing the low-frequency bias in digital hearing-aids. A step-wise mathematical analysis of the proposed feedback canceller is presented employing the recursive least square and normalized least mean square adaptive...

  17. MIMO Radar Transceiver Design for High Signal-to-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John

    2013-05-12

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar employs orthogonal or partially correlated transmit signals to achieve performance benefits over its phased-array counterpart. It has been shown that MIMO radar can achieve greater spatial resolution, improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and target localization, and greater clutter resolution using space-time adaptive processing (STAP). This thesis explores various methods to improve the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) via transmit and receive beamforming. In MIMO radar settings, it is often desirable to transmit power only to a given location or set of locations defined by a beampattern. Current methods involve a two- step process of designing the transmit covariance matrix R via iterative solutions and then using R to generate waveforms that fulfill practical constraints such as having a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this document, a closed- form method to design R is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints such as positive semidefiniteness and the uniform elemental power constraint and provides performance similar to that of iterative methods, which require a much greater computation time. Next, a transmit architecture is presented 
that exploits the orthogonality of frequencies at discrete DFT values to transmit a sum of orthogonal signals from each antenna. The resulting waveforms provide a lower mean-square error than current methods at a much lower computational cost, and a simulated detection scenario demonstrates the performance advantages achieved. It is also desirable to receive signal power only from a given set of directions defined by a beampattern. In a later chapter of this document, the problem of receive beampattern matching is formulated and three solutions to this problem are demonstrated. We show that partitioning the received data vector

  18. Low-noise low-power design for phase-locked loops multi-phase high-performance oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces low-noise and low-power design techniques for phase-locked loops and their building blocks. It summarizes the noise reduction techniques for fractional-N PLL design and introduces a novel capacitive-quadrature coupling technique for multi-phase signal generation.  The capacitive-coupling technique has been validated through silicon implementation and can provide low phase-noise and accurate I-Q phase matching, with low power consumption from a super low supply voltage.  Readers will be enabled to pick one of the most suitable QVCO circuit structures for their own designs, without additional effort to look for the optimal circuit structure and device parameters. 

  19. The design and commissioning of an acoustic liner for propeller noise testing in the ARA transonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. E.; Newman, D. A.

    An acoustic liner has been designed and manufactured for use in the ARA transonic wind tunnel to provide an acoustically acceptable environment for propeller noise testing up to high subsonic Mach number. Details of the aerodynamic design and development are presented and calibration of the liner with propeller model support systems is included. It is shown how the design of the acoustic treatment was aided by the use of a theoretical model for the tunnel reverberant field. An acoustic development program was undertaken involving horn tests to improve the quality of the liner. The success of this is demonstrated by propeller noise results. These results also provided the basis for definition of the practical acoustic test regime of the ARA lined tunnel suitable for the accurate measurement of propeller noise.

  20. Precoding Design of MIMO Amplify-and-Forward Communication System With an Energy Harvesting Relay and Possibly Imperfect CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2017-03-02

    In this paper, we investigate the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relay communication system where the relay is an energy harvesting (EH) node and harvests the energy the signals transmitted from the source. The harvested energy is partially used to forward signals from the source to the destination, and the remaining energy is stored for other usages. The SWIPT in relay-assisted communication is interesting as long as the relay stores energy from the source and the destination receives successfully the data from the source. In this context, we propose to investigate the source and relay precoders that characterize the relationship between the achievable stored energy at the relay and the achievable sourceto- destination rate, namely the rate-stored energy (R-E) tradeo region. First, we consider the ideal scheme where there is the simultaneous operation of the EH and ID receivers at the relay. Then, we consider practical schemes such as the power splitting (PS) and the time switching (TS) that separate the operation of EH and information decoding (ID) receivers over power domain or time domain, respectively. Moreover, we study the case of imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the relay and the destination and characterize its impact on the achievable R-E region. Through the simulation results, we show the eect of the position of the relay and the channel uncertainty on the achievable R-E regions of all the schemes when the used energy at the relay is constant or variable. We also show that, although it provides an outer bound on the achievable rate-energy region in one-hop MIMO systems, the ideal scheme provides only an upper bound on the maximum achievable end-to-end rate and not an outer bound on the R-E region.

  1. New non-chemically amplified molecular resist design with switchable sensitivity for multi-lithography applications and nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Guruprasad Reddy, Pulikanti; Nandi, Santu; Yogesh, Midathala; Sharma, Satinder K.; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2017-12-01

    The development of new photoresist materials for multi-lithography applications is crucial but a challenging task for semiconductor industries. During the last few decades, given the need for new resists to meet the requirements of semiconductor industries, several research groups have developed different resist materials for specific lithography applications. In this context, we have successfully synthesized a new molecular non-chemically amplified resist (n-CAR) (C3) based on the functionalization of aromatic hydroxyl core (4,4‧-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)diphenol) with radiation sensitive sulfonium triflates for various lithography applications. While, micron scale features have been developed using i-line (365 nm) and DUVL (254 nm) exposure tools, electron beam studies on C3 thin films enabled us to pattern 20 nm line features with L/3S (line/space) characteristics on the silicon substrate. The sensitivity and contrast were calculated from the contrast curve analysis as 280 µC cm‑2 and 0.025 respectively. Being an important parameter for any newly developed resists, the line edge roughness (LER) of 30 nm (L/5S) features were calculated, using SUMMIT metrology package, to be 3.66  ±  0.3 nm and found to be within the acceptable range. AFM analysis further confirmed 20 nm line width with smooth pattern wall. No deformation of patterned features was observed during AFM analysis which indicated good adhesion property between patterned resists and silicon substrates.

  2. Design and measurement of a TE{sub 13} input converter for high order mode gyrotron travelling wave amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Guo, E-mail: liuguo@uestc.edu.cn; Shu, Guoxiang; Yan, Ran; Wang, Li; Agurgo Balfour, E.; Fu, Hao; Luo, Yong [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Shafei, E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com [North Electronic Device Research Institution, Box 947, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2016-03-15

    A technique to launch a circular TE{sub 13} mode to interact with the helical electron beam of a gyrotron travelling wave amplifier is proposed and verified by simulation and cold test in this paper. The high order (HOM) TE{sub 13} mode is excited by a broadband Y-type power divider with the aid of a cylindrical waveguide system. Using grooves and convex strips loaded at the lateral planes of the output cylindrical waveguide, the electric fields of the potential competing TE{sub 32} and TE{sub 71} modes are suppressed to allow the transmission of the dominant TE{sub 13} mode. The converter performance for different structural dimensions of grooves and convex strips is studied in detail and excellent results have been achieved. Simulation predicts that the average transmission is ∼−1.8 dB with a 3 dB bandwidth of 7.2 GHz (91.5–98.7 GHz) and port reflection is less than −15 dB. The conversion efficiency to the TE{sub 32} and TE{sub 71} modes are, respectively, under −15 dB and −24 dB in the operating frequency band. Such an HOM converter operating at W-band has been fabricated and cold tested with the radiation boundary. Measurement from the vector network analyzer cold test and microwave simulations show a good reflection performance for the converter.

  3. Cryogenic Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier for Astronomical Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, H.; Shibai, H.; Hirao, T.; Watabe, T.; Noda, M.; Hibi, Y.; Kawada, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2004-02-01

    We have developed a new capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) that can be operated at 2 K, and have good performance as readout circuits of astronomical far-infrared array detectors. The circuit design of the present CTIA consists of silicon p-MOSFETs and other passive elements. The process is a standard Bi-CMOS process with 0.5$mu$m design rule. The open-loop gain of the CTIA is more than 300, resulting in good integration performance. The output voltage swing of the CTIA was 270 mV. The power consumption for each CTIA is less than 10$mu$W. The noise at the output showed a$1/rm f$noise spectrum of 4$mu$V/$surdhbox Hz$at 1 Hz. The performance of this CTIA nearly fulfills the requirements for the far-infrared array detectors onboard ASTRO-F, Japanese infrared astronomical satellite to be launched in 2005.

  4. Analytical study of interior noise control by fuselage design techniques on high-speed, propeller-driven aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, J. D.; Balena, F. J.; Koval, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical treatment mass penalties required to achieve an interior noise level of 80 dBA for high speed, fuel efficient propfan-powered aircraft are determined. The prediction method used is based on theory developed for the outer shell dynamics, and a modified approach for add-on noise control element performance. The present synthesis of these methods is supported by experimental data. Three different sized aircraft are studied, including a widebody, a narrowbody and a business sized aircraft. Noise control penalties are calculated for each aircraft for two kinds of noise control designs: add-on designs, where the outer wall structure cannot be changed, and advanced designs where the outer wall stiffness level and the materials usage can be altered. For the add-on designs, the mass penalties range from 1.7 to 2.4 percent of the takeoff gross weight (TOGW) of the various aircraft, similar to preliminary estimates. Results for advanced designs show significant reductions of the mass penalties. For the advanced aluminum designs the penalties are 1.5% of TOGW, and for an all composite aircraft the penalties range from 0.74 to 1.4% of TOGW.

  5. Hyperpolarized 13C MRS surface coil: design and signal-to-noise ratio estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Frijia, Francesca; Menichetti, Luca; Milanesi, Matteo; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; De Marchi, Daniele; Hartwig, Valentina; Positano, Vincenzo; Landini, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Santarelli, Maria Filomena

    2010-10-01

    Hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a novel and powerful tool for exploring the metabolic state of tissue, but a number of technological problems still limit this technology and need innovative solutions. In particular, the low molar concentration of derivate metabolites give rise to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which makes the design and development of dedicated RF coils a task of fundamental importance. In this article, the authors describe the simulation and the design of a dedicated 13C surface coil for cardiac metabolism assessment in pig models. A SNR model for a circular loop is presented and applied to the design of a 13C coil which guarantees the desired field-of-view and provides high SNR with a good penetration in deep sample regions. The coil resistance was calculated from Ohm's law and the magnetic field pattern was calculated using Biot-Savart law, while the sample induced resistance was calculated using a numerical finite-difference time-domain algorithm. Successively, a prototype of the coil was built and tested on the workbench and by acquisition of MR data. The comparison of SNR-vs-depth profiles between the theoretical SNR model and the experimental SNR extracted from the phantom chemical shift image (CSI) showed the accuracy of the authors' model. Moreover, the authors demonstrated the use of the coil for the acquisition of a CSI of a hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate phantom. The results demonstrated the design trade-offs to successfully design a dedicated coil for cardiac imaging in the pig with hyperpolarized 13C by developing a SNR model which allows the prediction of the coil performance. This approach can be employed for deriving SNR formulations for coil with more complex geometries.

  6. Nonlinearities and noise in micromechanical resonators: From understanding to characterization and design tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polunin, Pavel M.

    In this work we consider several nonlinearity-based and/or noise-related phenomena that have been recently observed in micro-electromechanical vibratory systems. The main goals are to closely examine these phenomena, develop an understanding of their underlying physics, derive techniques for characterizing parameters in relevant mathematical models, and determine ways to improve the performance of specific classes of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) used in applications. The general perspective of this work is based on the fact that nonlinearity and noise represent integral parts of the models needed to describe the response of these systems, and the focus is on situations where these generally undesirable features can be utilized or accounted for in design. We consider three different, but related, topics in this general area. The first topic uses the slowly varying states in a rotating frame of reference where we analyze the stationary probability distribution of a nonlinear parametrically-driven resonator subjected to Poisson pulses and thermal noise. We show that Poisson pulses with low pulse rates, as compared with the resonator decay rate, cause a power-law divergence of the probability density at the resonator equilibrium in both the underdamped (overdamped) regimes, in which the response does (does not) spiral in the rotating frame. We have also found that the shape of the probability distribution away from the equilibrium position is qualitatively different for the overdamped and underdamped cases. In particular, in the overdamped regime, the form of the secondary singularity in the probability distribution depends strongly on the reference phase of the resonator response and the pulse modulation phase, while in the underdamped regime several singular peaks occur in the distribution, and their locations are determined by the resonator frequency and decay rate in the rotating frame. Finally, we show that even weak Gaussian noise smoothens out the

  7. Design and implementation of a low-cost multichannel seismic noise recorder for array measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Llorens, Juan Luis; Juan Giner-Caturla, Jose; Molina-Palacios, Sergio; Galiana-Merino, Juan Jose; Rosa-Herranz, Julio; Agea-Medina, Noelia

    2017-04-01

    Soil characterization is the starting point for seismic hazard studies. Currently, the methods based on ambient noise measurements are very used because they are non-invasive methods and relatively easy to implement in urban areas. Among these methods, the analysis of array measurements provides the dispersion curve and subsequently the shear-wave velocity profile associated to the site under study. In this case, we need several sensors recording simultaneously and a data acquisition system with one channel by sensor, what can become the complete equipment unaffordable for small research groups. In this work, we have designed and implemented a low-cost multichannel ambient noise recorder for array measurements. The complete system is based on Arduino, an open source electronic development platform, which allows recording 12 differential input channels simultaneously. Besides, it is complemented with a conditioning circuit that includes an anti-aliasing filter and a selectable gain between 0 and 40dB. The data acquisition is set up through a user-friendly graphical user interface. It is important to note that the electronic scheme as well as the programming code are open hardware and software, respectively, so it allows other researchers to suite the system to their particular requirements. The developed equipment has been tested at several sites around the province of Alicante (southeast of Spain), where the soil characteristics are well-known from previous studies. Array measurements have been taken and after that, the recorded data have been analysed using the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) and the extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) methods. The comparison of the obtained dispersion curves with the ones obtained in previous studies shows the suitability of the implemented low-cost system for array measurements.

  8. Design and test of a novel cost-effective piezo driven actuator with a two-stage flexure amplifier for chopping mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingguo; Yang, Dehua; Li, Aihua; Zhou, Guohua; Yang, Bintang

    2012-09-01

    A fast chopping secondary mirror is the critical functioning assembly in an astronomical telescope for infrared observation. Normally, a chopping mirror is driven by precision high-load and high-stiffness linear actuators which are expected to be lightweight, compact and further cost-effective. The stroke of the actuator is typically required to up to several hundred microns with typical load capacity up to several hundred Newtons. We developed a novel piezo-based prototype linear actuator with a two-stage rhombic flexure amplifier. In this paper, first we present the detail design scheme of the actuator by analytical calculations with comprehensive Finite Element Analysis (FEA) verification. Afterwards, we also present the procedures and results of tests of linearity, load capacity, eigenfrequency, stability and repeatability. The selected piezoelectric drive unit is a block of 35x10x10 mm3 with output force up to 4000 N. The two-stage displacement amplifier is simply integrated by two identical singular rhombic flexures orthogonally mounted together. Each stage, one rhombic flexure with a longer axis of 76 mm long, is designed with an ideal amplification ratio of 3, which leads to a final theoretical compound amplification ration of 9. In order to realize the basic triangular-amplification principle in a rhombic flexure, we introduced flexure joints at all the eight ends of its four edge bars. The singular rhombic flexures can be efficiently manufactured by electrical discharge wire-cutting process at a time in batch by being overlapped in layers. Afterwards we carried out related measurements to test its performance.

  9. Fundamental Quantum 1/f Noise in Ultrasmall Semiconductor Devices and Their Optimal Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    forms of low frequency current noise observed in diodes and other junction devices. As forms which are not of i/f type we mention here: 1) Shot noise...the surface, and the additional electric field arising from the potential jumo 2U at the interface between the bulX and the oxide and passivation...Poissonian) shot noise to be present. ’What Kind of fluctuations are these? This auestion was answered in a orevious oaoer 27 . The additional

  10. The OPTHER Project: Progress toward the THz Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, C; Brunetti, F; Di Carlo, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the OPTHER (OPtically driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project and progress toward the THz amplifier realization. This project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within th...

  11. Ultra-low-noise preamplifier for condenser microphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the design of a low-noise preamplifier dedicated for condenser measurement microphones used in high sensitivity applications, in which amplifier noise is the main factor limiting sensitivity of the measurements. In measurement microphone preamplifiers, the dominant source of noise at lower frequencies is the bias resistance of the input stage. In the presented solution, resistors were connected to the input stage by means of switches. The switches are opened during measurements, which disconnects the resistors from the input stage and results in noise reduction. Closing the switches allows for fast charging of the microphone capacitance. At low frequencies the noise of the designed preamplifier is a few times lower in comparison to similar, commercially available instruments.

  12. Characteristics research of self-amplified distributed feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqiang; Qi, Haifeng; Guo, Jian; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gangding

    2013-09-01

    A distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser with a ratio of backward to forward output power of 1:100 was composed by a 45mm length asymmetrical phase-shifted fiber grating fabricated on 50mm erbium-doped photosensitive fiber. Forward output laser was amplified using a certain length of Nufern EDFL980-Hp erbium-doped fiber to absorb surplus pump power after the active phase-shifted fiber grating and get population inversion. Using OptiSystem software, the best fiber length of the EDFL to get the highest gain was simulated. In order to keep the amplified laser with narrow line-width and low noise, a narrow-band light filter consisted of a FBG with the same Bragg wavelength as the laser and an optical circulator was used to filter the ASE noise of the out-cavity erbium-doped fiber. The designed laser structure sufficiently utilized the pump power, a DFB fiber laser of 32.5mW output power, 11.5 kHz line width, and -87dB/Hz relative intensity noise (RIN) at 300mW of 980 nm pump power was brought out.

  13. Research and implementation of the key technology of digital lock-in amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; You, Jia; Feng, Cheng; Li, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    Lock-in amplifier technology is a very effective means of weak signal detection, with a center frequency stability, narrow pass band, high quality factor, which has been widely applied in physics, chemistry, biomedicine, remote sensing, materials science, etc. With the development of digital signal processing technology, digital phase-locked amplifier gradually replace analog lock-in amplifier, phase sensitive detector improved analog lock-in amplifier using analog method, by the way of the digital signal processing to achieve phase sensitive detector. FPGA has strong flexibility, can be programmed, and debugged, can be fully developed and verified. In this paper, we complete the construction of the digital lock-in amplifier based on the FPGA platform, using DSP Builder as design tool, using the ALTER's IP core to achieve rapid implementation. It is mainly divided into three modules: numerically controlled oscillator, Fast Fourier Transformation, digital phase sensitive detector. According to the process of MATLAB/Simulink/DSP Builder/Quartus II, it calls fft_v13_0 core, nco_v13_0 core provided by DSP Builder toolbox to build the model. The experimental results show that the designed digital phase-locked amplifier can effectively remove the noise interference and improve the detection accuracy.

  14. Design of a robust thin-film interference filter for erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verly, Pierre G

    2002-06-01

    Gain-flattening filters (GFFs) are key wavelength division multiplexing components in fiber-optics telecommunications. Challenging issues in the design of thin-film GFFs were recently the subject of a contest organized at the 2001 Conference on Optical Interference Coatings. The interest and main difficulty of the proposed problem was to minimize the sensitivity of a GFF to simulated fabrication errors. A high-yield solution and its design philosophy are described. The approach used to control the filter robustness is explained and illustrated by numerical results.

  15. Design and Characterization of a Radiation Tolerant Triple Mode Redundant Sense Amplifier Flip-Flop for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Acronyms/Abbreviations AMI American Megatrends Incorporated. B Boron. BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor . C Carbon. CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide...Hardening Options for the TMRSAFF Design ...........................38 3.11 Transistor Sizing...Technology Family Transistor Parameters................................97 Appendix 8. Input SAFF Schematics

  16. The design and research of anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yongqing; Li, Xingyuan; Li, Yanan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Previously a novel chaos M-ary digital communication method based on spatiotemporal chaos Hamilton oscillator has been proposed. Without chaos synchronization circumstance, it has performance improvement in bandwidth efficiency, transmission efficiency and anti-white-noise performance compared with traditional communication method. In this paper, the channel noise influence on chaotic modulation signals and the construction problem of anti-color-noise chaotic M-ary communication system are studied. The formula of zone partition demodulator’s boundary in additive white Gaussian noise is derived, besides, the problem about how to determine the boundary of zone partition demodulator in additive color noise is deeply studied; Then an approach on constructing anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system is proposed, in which a pre-distortion filter is added after the chaos baseband modulator in the transmitter and whitening filter is added before zone partition demodulator in the receiver. Finally, the chaos M-ary communication system based on Hamilton oscillator is constructed and simulated in different channel noise. The result shows that the proposed method in this paper can improve the anti-color-noise performance of the whole communication system compared with the former system, and it has better anti-fading and resisting disturbance performance than Quadrature Phase Shift Keying system.

  17. The technology on noise reduction of the APD detection circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-ying; Zheng, Yong-chao; Cui, Jian-yong

    2013-09-01

    The laser pulse detection is widely used in the field of laser range finders, laser communications, laser radar, laser Identification Friend or Foe, et al, for the laser pulse detection has the advantage of high accuracy, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference. The avalanche photodiodes (APD) has the advantage of high quantum efficiency, high response speed and huge gain. The APD is particularly suitable for weak signal detection. The technology that APD acts as the photodetector for weak signal reception and amplification is widely used in laser pulse detection. The APD will convert the laser signal to weak electrical signal. The weak signal is amplified, processed and exported by the circuit. In the circuit design, the optimal signal detection is one key point in photoelectric detection system. The issue discusses how to reduce the noise of the photoelectric signal detection circuit and how to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, related analysis and practice included. The essay analyzes the mathematical model of the signal-to-noise ratio for photoelectric conversion and the noise of the APD photoelectric detection system. By analysis the bandwidth of the detection system is determined, and the circuit devices are selected that match the APD. In the circuit design separated devices with low noise are combined with integrated operational amplifier for the purpose of noise reduction. The methods can effectively suppress the noise, and improve the detection sensitivity.

  18. Root locus analysis and design of the adaptation process in active noise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Ardekani, Iman; Abdulla, Waleed H

    2012-10-01

    This paper applies root locus theory to develop a graphical tool for the analysis and design of adaptive active noise control systems. It is shown that the poles of the adaptation process performed in these systems move on typical trajectories in the z-plane as the adaptation step-size varies. Based on this finding, the dominant root of the adaptation process and its trajectory can be determined. The first contribution of this paper is formulating parameters of the adaptation process root locus. The next contribution is introducing a mechanism for modifying the trajectory of the dominant root in the root locus. This mechanism creates a single open loop zero in the original root locus. It is shown that appropriate localization of this zero can cause the dominant root of the locus to be pushed toward the origin, and thereby the adaptation process becomes faster. The validity of the theoretical findings is confirmed in an experimental setup which is implemented using real-time multi-threading and multi-core processing techniques.

  19. Metatronic transistor amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettiar, Uday K.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing the notion of metamaterials, in recent years the concept of a circuit and lumped circuit elements have been extended to the optical domains, providing the paradigm of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, as a powerful tool for design and study of more complex systems at the nanoscale. In this paper we present a design for a new metatronic element, namely, a metatronic transistor that functions as an amplifier. As shown by our analytical and numerical paper here, this metatronic transistor provides gain as well as isolation between the input and output ports of such two-port device. The cascadability and fan-out aspects of this element are also explored.

  20. A low-noise/low-power preamplifier for capacitive microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Claus Erdmann

    1996-01-01

    A design for a microphone preamplifier for application in hearing aids is presented. The amplifier operates at a supply of 1-1.5 V, the current drain is 40 μA. The maximum sound level allowed is more than 120 dB SPL (Sound Pressure Level), with a typical noise level of 25 dB(A) SPL (A-weighted). ......A design for a microphone preamplifier for application in hearing aids is presented. The amplifier operates at a supply of 1-1.5 V, the current drain is 40 μA. The maximum sound level allowed is more than 120 dB SPL (Sound Pressure Level), with a typical noise level of 25 dB(A) SPL (A......-weighted). The amplifier is optimized for a capacitive microphone with a capacitance of 1.2 pF. The amplifier is fully integrated in a 0.7 μm n-well CMOS technology. Design details concerning noise performance are analytically described...

  1. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  2. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  3. Short Rayleigh Range Free Electron Laser Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, L H; Murphy, J B; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Wang, X J; Watanabe, T

    2005-01-01

    An important requirement for a high average power laser system is a manageable power density on the first optical element. One possibility to achieve this is a single pass amplifier which generates a short Rayleigh range (SRL) light beam. We present design parameters and calculated performances for several SRL configurations. These include a simulation of the optically guided (pinched) MW class FEL [1], the scalloped beam FEL amplifier [2] and high gain TOK amplifiers we propose to explore at our SDL facility.

  4. Design and Characterization of Low-noise Dewar for High-sensitivity SQUID Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K.; Kwon, H.; Kim, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated the low noise liquid helium(LHe) dewar with a different shape of thermal shield to apply the 64-channel SQUID(Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) gradiometer. The first shape of thermal shield was made of an aluminum plate with a wide width of 100 mm slit and the other shape was modified with a narrow width of 20 mm slit. The two types of dewars were estimated by comparing the thermal noise and the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of magnetocardiography(MCG) using the 1st order SQUID gradiometer system cooled each dewar. The white noise was different as a point of the dewar. The noise was increased as close as the edge of dewar, and also increased at the thermal shield with the more wide width slit. The white noise of the dewar with thermal shield of 100 mm slit was 6.5 fT/Hz 1/2 at the center of dewar and 25 fT/Hz 1/2 at the edge, and the white noise of the other one was 3.5 - 7 fT/Hz 1/2 . We measured the MCG using 64-channel SQUID gradiometer cooled at each LHe dewar and compared the SNR of MCG signal. The SNR was improved of 10 times at the LHe dewar with a modified thermal shield.

  5. Reduced impact of induced gate noise on inductively degenerated LNAs in deep submicron CMOS technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, P.; Svelto, F.; Mazzanti, A.

    2005-01-01

    Designers of radio-frequency inductively-degenerated CMOS low-noise-amplifiers have usually not followed the guidelines for achieving minimum noise figure. Nonetheless, state-of-the- art implementations display noise figure values very close to the theoretical minimum. In this paper, we point out...... that this is due to the effect of the parasitic overlap capacitances in the MOS device. In particular, we show that overlap capacitances lead to a significant induced-gate-noise reduction, especially when deep sub-micron CMOS processes are used....

  6. Optimal design of resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas, to be operated at ultralow temperatures, is under development by several research groups. This paper presents a theory for the optimal design of the new antennas. First, a general sensitivity limit is derived, which may be applied to any linear instrument for which the design figure of merit is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). By replacing the amplifier by its noise resistance and considering the energy dissipated in the noise resistance when a signal is applied, it is possible to show that the optimally filtered SNR is less than or equal to E/sub r//(kT/sub n/), the energy dissipated in the noise resistance divided by Boltzmann's constant times the amplifier noise temperature. This sensitivity limit will be achieved if the instrument is lossless, in which case the energy dissipated in the noise resistance is equal to the energy deposited in the system by the signal. For resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas, if the amplifier is identified as the mechanical amplifier (transducer and electronic amplifier together), then the lossless limit is accessible in practice. A useful point of view is that optimal antenna designs are those that are most loss tolerant: those that achieve the limiting SNR with the lowest possible mechanical Q values. The techniques of network synthesis may be used to design mechanical networks for matching the main antenna mass to the mechanical amplifier that are optimal in this sense. A class of loss-tolerant networks has been synthesized; their properties are summarized in a set of design charts that give the Q requirements and bandwidth as a function of the number of modes, the temperature, and the amplifier noise resistance and noise temperature

  7. Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2008-01-01

    In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....

  8. Amplifying Islam : Pluralism, Secularism, and Religious Sounds in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamimi Arab, P.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of the amplified azan, the Islamic call to prayer, in the Netherlands, adding a sonic dimension to analyses of the politics of Islamic aesthetics in the western world. Often rejected by opponents as noise pollution, facilitating the amplified azan is an

  9. Investigation into effective traffic noise abatement design solutions for mountain corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Traffic noise abatement in mountain corridors can be difficult because traditional roadside barriers may be ineffective : due to topography or may not fit the setting. This study examined current best practices from around the world to gather : conce...

  10. Adaptive digital notch filter design on the unit circle for the removal of powerline noise from biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdjallah, M; Barr, R E

    1994-06-01

    This paper investigates adaptive digital notch filters for the elimination of powerline noise from biomedical signals. Since the distribution of the frequency variation of the powerline noise may or may not be centered at 60 Hz, three different adaptive digital notch filters are considered. For the first case, an adaptive FIR second-order digital notch filter is designed to track the center frequency variation. For the second case, the zeroes of an adaptive IIR second-order digital notch filter are fixed on the unit circle and the poles are adapted to find an optimum bandwidth to eliminate the noise to a pre-defined attenuation level. In the third case, both the poles and zeroes of the adaptive IIR second-order filter are adapted to track the center frequency variation within an optimum bandwidth. The adaptive process is considerably simplified by designing the notch filters by pole-zero placement on the unit circle using some suggested rules. A constrained least mean-squared (CLMS) algorithm is used for the adaptive process. To evaluate their performance, the three adaptive notch filters are applied to a powerline noise sample and to a noisy EEG as an illustration of a biomedical signal.

  11. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, A. J.; Reed, D. K.; Nance, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of launch vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is a field best studied through experimentation, which is often carried out in the form of large scale wind tunnel testing. Measurement of the fluctuating pressures induced by the boundary layer noise is customarily made with miniature pressure transducers installed into a model of the vehicle of interest. Literature shows that noise level increases between two to five decibels (dB referenced to 20 micropascal) can be induced when the transducer surface is not mounted perfectly flush with the model outer surface. To reduce this artificially induced noise, special transducer holders have been used for aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing by NASA. This holder is a sleeve into which the transducer fits, with a cap that allows it to be mounted in a recessed hole in the model. A single hole in the holder allows the transport of the tunnel medium so the transducer can discriminate the fluctuating pressure due to the turbulent boundary layer noise. The holder is first dry fitted into the model and any difference in height between the holder and the model surface can be sanded flush. The holder is then removed from the model, the transducer glued inside the holder, and the holder replaced in the model, secured also with glue, thus eliminating the problem of noise level increases due to lack of flushness. In order to work with this holder design, special transducers have been ordered with their standard screen removed and the diaphragm moved as close to the top of the casing as possible to minimize any cavity volume. Although this greatly reduces induced noise due to the transducers being out of flush, the holders can also induce a cavity resonance that is usually at a very high frequency. This noise is termed transducer mount induced noise (XMIN). The peak of the mode can vary with the cavity depth, boundary layer noise that can excite the mode, tunnel flow medium, and the build of the transducers. Because the boundary

  12. The eight-channel ASIC bipolar transresistance amplifier D0M AMPL-8.3

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, G D; Dvornikov, O V; Khokhlov, A I; Mikhailov, V A; Odnokloubov, I A; Tokmenin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The eight-channel ASIC low-noise bipolar transresistance amplifier D0M Ampl-8.3 has been designed on the basis of BJT-JFET technology for gaseous wire detectors used in high-energy physics experiments. The amplifier has differential gain 130 mV/mu A at 1 k OMEGA, input noise 35 and 60 nA r.m.s. at 0 and 60 pF input capacitance, respectively, leading/trailing edge 7 ns, input resistance approx 50 OMEGA, crosstalks -47 dB, dissipated power 160 triple bond 640 mW/chip for +-3 triple bond 5 V supply. The Ampl-8.3 has been accepted for upgrading the Forward Angle Muon System of the D0 experiment (Fermilab, Batavia, USA), the total number of channels is about 50,000.

  13. A system for biasing a differential amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Daniel; Ittel, J.M.; Poujois, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This invention concerns a system for biasing a differential amplifier. It particularly applies to the integrated differential amplifiers designed with MOS field effect transistors. Variations in the technological parameters may well cause the amplifying transistors to work outside their usual operational area, in other words outside the linear part of the transfer characteristic. To ensure that these transistors function correctly, it is necessary that the value of the voltage difference at the output be equally null. To do this and to centre on the so called 'rest' point of the amplifier transfer charateristic, the condition will be set that the output potentials of each amplifier transistor should have a zero value or a constant value as sum. With this in view, the bias on the source (generally a transistor powered by its grid bias voltage) supplying current to the two amplifying transistors fitted in parallel, is permanently adjusted in a suitable manner [fr

  14. Noise performance of frequency modulation Kelvin force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Diesinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise performance of a phase-locked loop (PLL based frequency modulation Kelvin force microscope (FM-KFM is assessed. Noise propagation is modeled step by step throughout the setup using both exact closed loop noise gains and an approximation known as “noise gain” from operational amplifier (OpAmp design that offers the advantage of decoupling the noise performance study from considerations of stability and ideal loop response. The bandwidth can be chosen depending on how much noise is acceptable and it is shown that stability is not an issue up to a limit that will be discussed. With thermal and detector noise as the only sources, both approaches yield PLL frequency noise expressions equal to the theoretical value for self-oscillating circuits and in agreement with measurement, demonstrating that the PLL components neither modify nor contribute noise. Kelvin output noise is then investigated by modeling the surrounding bias feedback loop. A design rule is proposed that allows choosing the AC modulation frequency for optimized sharing of the PLL bandwidth between Kelvin and topography loops. A crossover criterion determines as a function of bandwidth, temperature and probe parameters whether thermal or detector noise is the dominating noise source. Probe merit factors for both cases are then established, suggesting how to tackle noise performance by probe design. Typical merit factors of common probe types are compared. This comprehensive study is an encouraging step toward a more integral performance assessment and a remedy against focusing on single aspects and optimizing around randomly chosen key values.

  15. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  16. A Novel Noise Free Transmission Technique for Designing 100Gb/s Future Generation Optical Communication System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L.; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2017-01-01

    Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) techniques are widely used in designing the high-speed communication systems. However, these techniques still need improvement for long haul communication system design. In this paper, high-speed optical signal transmission and reception system is achieved...... the transmission and reception of data for high-speed long haul communication system without using any amplifier or repeater....... for DPSK system. The system is designed using phase lock loop (PLL) based Non-return-to-Zero (NRZ) modulation scheme. The 100Gb/s DPSK signal is transmitted over single mode fiber (SMF-28) of 300 km distance using PLL based NRZ scheme. The signal is received using direct detection method. It is determined...

  17. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Verma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed.

  18. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-07-05

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed.

  19. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G. (José M. G.), 1972-; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  20. Noise modeling in a signal conditioning circuit for low power audio application using resistive sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meillère Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive sensors convert a physical value into a resistance variation. Often four resistive elements are connected together in a Wheatstone bridge to provide electrical variations of sensors. When this structure is biased with a fixed voltage source or a current source the topology provides a differential output voltage. To exploit information a conditioning circuit is associated to the bridge. In most cases it consists of an instrumentation amplifier followed by a data converter to obtain very quickly a digital representation of information. Due to the high input impedance of the instrumentation amplifier, bridge sensitivity is preserved. A filter may be added to avoid aliasing or a continuous time sigma-delta modulator that includes filtering feature. This study is concerning the conditioning structure for piezoresistive sensors bridge especially fully integrated microphones for biomedical application. The bridge signal to noise ratio is set by biasing the amplifier stage by current. The noise performance becomes the limiting factor of the read-out circuit. Current mode topologies drive amplifiers design where inputs are the main noise contributor. Modeling noise contribution is a key point in the design of the conditioning circuit. The current consumption leads noise performances too. A proposed architecture was implemented in a 65nm CMOS standard technology for performance measurement and evaluation with nanowire based microphone dedicated to hearing aids application.

  1. Spaceflight 2 um Tm Fiber MOPA Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to design, develop, and test a spaceflight prototype 2051 nm thulium (Tm)-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) optical master oscillator power amplifier...

  2. Generalized Impedance Converter (GIC) Filter Utilizing Composite Amplifier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheong, Heng W

    2005-01-01

    .... A composite operational amplifier utilizing the BiCMOS standard operational amplifier that was designed and introduced in a previous thesis is presented and its improved performance is investigated...

  3. Modelling and analysis of a high-performance Class D audio amplifier using unipolar pulse-width-modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zekun; Shi, Yue; Ming, Xin; Zhang, Bo; Li, Zhaoji; Chen, Zao

    2012-02-01

    A high-performance class D audio amplifier using unipolar pulse-width-modulation (PWM) with double-sided natural sampling is presented in this article. In order to comprehend and design the system properly, the class D audio amplifier is modelled and analysed. A wide range triangle-wave signal with good linearity and magnitude proportional to supply voltage is embedded in the proposed class D audio amplifier for maximum output power, high power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) and low total harmonic distortion (THD). Design results based on CSMC 0.5-µm 5-V complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process demonstrate that the proposed class D audio amplifier can operate with supply voltage in the range 2.4-5.5 V and supports 2.8 W output power from a 5.5 V supply; the maximum efficiency is above 95%, the PSRR is -82 dB, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 97 dB and the total harmonic distortion plus noise (THD+N) is less than 0.1% between 20 and 20 kHz with output power 0.4 W; the quiescent current without load is 1.8 mA, and the shutdown current is 0.01 µA. The active area of the class-D audio power amplifier is 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm.

  4. Towards a THz Backward Wave Amplifier in European FP7 OPTHER Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dispenza, Massimiliano; Cojocaru, C.-S.; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Within the EC funded international project OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) a considerable technological effort is being undertaken, in terms of technological development, THz device design and integration. The ultimate goal is to develop a miniaturised THz amplifier based on vacuum...... with a proper device configuration and careful optimization of the different parts of the amplifier. Two parallel schemes will be employed for amplifier realisation: THz Drive Signal Amplifier and Optically Modulated Beam THz Amplifier....

  5. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9–11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  6. All-optical noise reduction of fiber laser via intracavity SOA structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Kang; Chen, Dijun; Pan, Zhengqing; Zhang, Xi; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2016-10-10

    We have designed a unique intracavity semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) structure to suppress the relative intensity noise (RIN) for a fiber DFB laser. By exploiting the gain saturation effect of the SOA, a maximum noise suppression of 30 dB around the relaxation oscillation frequency is achieved, and the whole resonance relaxation oscillation peak completely disappears. Moreover, via a specially designed intracavity SOA structure, the optical intensity inside the SOA will be in a balanced state via the oscillation in the laser cavity, and the frequency noise of the laser will not be degraded with the SOA.

  7. The impact of a noise reduction quality improvement project upon sound levels in the open-unit-design neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W F

    2010-07-01

    To decrease measured sound levels in the neonatal intensive care unit through implementation of human factor and minor design modification strategies. Prospective time series. Two open-unit-design neonatal centers. Implementation of a coordinated program of noise reduction strategies did not result in any measurable improvement in levels of loudness or quiet. Two centers, using primarily human behavior noise reduction strategies, were unable to demonstrate measurable improvements in sound levels within the occupied open-unit-design neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. Note: Wide band amplifier for quartz tuning fork sensors with digitally controlled stray capacitance compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping; Hao, Lifeng; Ding, Ning; Jiao, Weicheng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Rongguo

    2015-11-01

    We presented a preamplifier design for quartz tuning fork (QTF) sensors in which the stray capacitance is digitally compensated. In this design, the manually controlled variable capacitor is replaced by a pair of varicap diodes, whose capacitance could be accurately tuned by a bias voltage. A tuning circuit including a single side low power operational amplifier, a digital-to-analog converter, and a microprocessor is also described, and the tuning process can be conveniently carried out on a personal computer. For the design, the noise level was investigated experimentally.

  9. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  10. Design and validation of the high performance and low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Jiangtao; Zhu, Wei Jun; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    objective, such as airfoil lift coefficient, drag coefficient and lift-drag ratio, and minimizes trailing edge noise as a constraint. To express airfoil shape, an analytical expression is used. One of the main advantages of the present designmethod is that it produces a highly smooth airfoil shape that can...

  11. Housing development near a railway tunnel: Mitigating vibration and induced noise by tweaking foundation design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galanti, F.M.B.; Koopman, A.

    2009-01-01

    Vibration insulation of buildings is often achieved by introducing springs in the foundation. It can be a very effective measure, especially against vibration induced noise, but also a very costly one. There is a need for less costly measures which, although less effective, may achieve the required

  12. Development of design tools for reduced aerodynamic noise wind turbines (draw)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, S.; Guidati, G.; Ostertag, J.; Bareiss, R.; Wittum, G.; Huurdeman, B.; Braun, K.; Hirsch, C.; Kang, S.; Khodak, A.; Overmeire, M. van; Bladt, G.; Nienhaus, A.; Dassen, A.G.M.; Parchen, R.R.; Looijmans, K.

    1997-01-01

    The major aim of the present project was the development of new predictïon models for the aerodynamic noise generation at wind turbine blades. These models should be transferred to computer codes and should be sensitive enough to consider even small changes in the airfoil geometry. This accuracy is

  13. Signal-to-Noise ratio and design complexity based on Unified Loss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taguchi's quality loss function for larger-the-better performance characteristics uses a reciprocal transformation to compute quality loss. This paper suggests that reciprocal transformation unnecessarily complicates and may distort results. Examples of this distortion include the signal-to-noise ratio based on mean squared ...

  14. Effects of entanglement in an ideal optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. D.; Brewster, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    In an ideal linear amplifier, the output signal is linearly related to the input signal with an additive noise that is independent of the input. The decoherence of a quantum-mechanical state as a result of optical amplification is usually assumed to be due to the addition of quantum noise. Here we show that entanglement between the input signal and the amplifying medium can produce an exponentially-large amount of decoherence in an ideal optical amplifier even when the gain is arbitrarily close to unity and the added noise is negligible. These effects occur for macroscopic superposition states, where even a small amount of gain can leave a significant amount of which-path information in the environment. Our results show that the usual input/output relation of a linear amplifier does not provide a complete description of the output state when post-selection is used.

  15. Research of Acoustic Properties of Materials with the Purpose of Their Use at Design of Special Noise Protective Clothes for Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drofa, E. A.; Lipilina, E. Yu

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the substantiation of the choice of a rational package of materials, which has the greatest noise-protective properties when designing special clothes with reference to the oil and gas industry. Studies were conducted to assess the factors that have the most significant effect on the noise-protective properties of clothing. Conclusions are made about the possibility of using the developed technique for studying the noise-protective properties of materials in selecting rational packages of materials for the production of special clothes with high noise-protective properties.

  16. High efficiency switching power amplifiers for multi-band radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jarred; Wells, Justin; Mendez, Sal; Wurth, Tim

    2012-06-01

    The reduction of size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C) of radio frequency (RF) components is becoming increasingly important to meet industry requirements. In meeting the SWaP-C objectives, RF components will be required to be smaller and more power efficient than the current state- of- the- art while sustaining high performance functionality. In compliance with SWaP-C and high performance functionality is a High Efficiency Switching Power Amplifier. This study focuses on the more efficient breed of switching power amplifiers (PAs), particularly the Class F PA with new techniques to operate broadband on multiple radar bands. Efficiencies in the range of 60% to 80% for Class F PAs have been reported in literature; however, this efficiency is only attainable over narrow bandwidths on the order of 10%. Several innovative techniques have been identified to increase the efficiency and operational bandwidth of RF power amplifiers (PAs) for radar applications. The amplifier design also incorporates fast turn on and turn off circuits to achieve switching times of less than one microsecond (μs). This enables the PA to be switched off during the receive period to prevent self-generated noise from corrupting the received signal. Also, high-power transmit and receive (T/R) switches at the antenna feed can be eliminated. A wideband PA enables the design of a multi-band radar, reducing the number of components needed for operation in the L and X bands. A high efficiency PA is also key to reducing battery size and cooling requirements in radar applications.

  17. Design and testing of a low impedance transceiver circuit for nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A low impedance transceiver circuit consisting of a transmit-receive switch circuit, a class-D amplifier and a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) was newly designed and tested for a nitrogen-14 NQR. An NQR signal at 1.37MHz from imidazole was successfully observed with the dead time of ~85µs under the high Q transmission (Q~120) and reception (Q~140). The noise performance of the low impedance TIA with an NQR probe was comparable with a commercial low noise 50Ω amplifier (voltage input noise: 0.25 nV/Hz) which was also connected to the probe. The protection voltage for the pre-amplifier using the low impedance transceiver was ~10 times smaller than that for the pre-amplifier using a 50Ω conventional transceiver, which is suitable for NQR remote sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photo Parametric Amplifier Using Up & Down Converter Configuration for Optical Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad Faiz Liew; Elbireki, Majdi Farag Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    A fundamental requirement in the design of an optical receiver is the achievement of high sensitivity and broad bandwidth. These two features are very important in getting reliable system. In this project a receiver circuit based on Photo parametric Amplifier (PPA), which is suggested as one of the alternative for receiver detection and amplification techniques is fully described. The PPA mode of operation involves optical detection and amplification within a single device. It is able to provide selectivity and sensitivity at the same time, as required for wireless optical communications. The most common problem that any communication system might face is the noise which must be eliminated or at least reduce it. In order to reduce the noise, filters have been implemented before the signal is passes through an amplifier. In this project an Up converter has been placed at the transmitter circuit in order to obtain high frequency, while at the receiver circuit, filters has been placed with Down converter to obtain the desired frequency. Photo diode, PIN type has been used to detect any incoming signal at the receiver circuit. Results showed that the output signal has been improved; with addition power strength and noise reduction which showed that photo parametric amplifier is more reliable and suitable to be used in wireless optical communication system.

  19. Digital automatic gain amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, L. D.; Ward, J. O. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit is described for adjusting the amplitude of a reference signal to a predetermined level so as to permit subsequent data signals to be interpreted correctly. The circuit includes an operational amplifier having a feedback circuit connected between an output terminal and an input terminal; a bank of relays operably connected to a plurality of resistors; and a comparator comparing an output voltage of the amplifier with a reference voltage and generating a compared signal responsive thereto. Means is provided for selectively energizing the relays according to the compared signal from the comparator until the output signal from the amplifier equals to the reference signal. A second comparator is provided for comparing the output of the amplifier with a second voltage source so as to illuminate a lamp when the output signal from the amplifier exceeds the second voltage.

  20. Interior Noise Predictions in the Preliminary Design of the Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Boyd, David D.

    2013-01-01

    A prediction scheme was established to compute sound pressure levels in the interior of a simplified cabin model of the second generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) during cruise conditions, while being excited by turbulent boundary layer flow over the fuselage, or by tiltrotor blade loading and thickness noise. Finite element models of the cabin structure, interior acoustic space, and acoustically absorbent (poro-elastic) materials in the fuselage were generated and combined into a coupled structural-acoustic model. Fluctuating power spectral densities were computed according to the Efimtsov turbulent boundary layer excitation model. Noise associated with the tiltrotor blades was predicted in the time domain as fluctuating surface pressures and converted to power spectral densities at the fuselage skin finite element nodes. A hybrid finite element (FE) approach was used to compute the low frequency acoustic cabin response over the frequency range 6-141 Hz with a 1 Hz bandwidth, and the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach was used to predict the interior noise for the 125-8000 Hz one-third octave bands.

  1. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  2. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, T; Wernik, C

    2006-01-01

    .... In this report, the basic theory of noise radar design is treated. The theory supports the use of noise waveforms for radar detection and imaging in such applications as covert military surveillance and reconnaissance...

  3. Auto-Zero Differential Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, Gerard T. (Inventor); Aslam, Shahid (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An autozero amplifier may include a window comparator network to monitor an output offset of a differential amplifier. The autozero amplifier may also include an integrator to receive a signal from a latched window comparator network, and send an adjustment signal back to the differential amplifier to reduce an offset of the differential amplifier.

  4. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.; Cifuentes, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. • The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. • The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. • A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. • Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk

  5. Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1964-03-01

    The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10 -8 A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10 -10 A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with very

  6. [Urban noise pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouard, C H

    2001-07-01

    Noise is responsible for cochlear and general damages. Hearing loss and tinnitus greatly depend on sound intensity and duration. Short-duration sound of sufficient intensity (gunshot or explosion) will not be described because they are not currently encountered in our normal urban environment. Sound levels of less than 75 d (A) are unlikely to cause permanent hearing loss, while sound levels of about 85 d (A) with exposures of 8 h per day will produce permanent hearing loss after many years. Popular and largely amplified music is today one of the most dangerous causes of noise induced hearing loss. The intensity of noises (airport, highway) responsible for stress and general consequences (cardiovascular) is generally lower. Individual noise sensibility depends on several factors. Strategies to prevent damage from sound exposure should include the use of individual hearing protection devices, education programs beginning with school-age children, consumer guidance, increased product noise labelling, and hearing conservation programs for occupational settings.

  7. High Average Power Optical FEL Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, I; Litvinenko, V

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL amplifier and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance a 100 kW average power FEL. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting energy recovery linacs combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs with some advantages. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Li...

  8. Evaluation of charge-integrating amplifier with silicon MOSFETs for cryogenic readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Manabu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Watabe, Toyoki; Hirao, Takanori; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu

    1998-08-01

    Low-noise and low-power cryogenic readout electronics are developed for a focal plane instrument of the IR Imaging Surveyor. We measured the static characteristics and the noise spectra of several types of silicon MOSFETs at the cryogenic temperature where silicon JFETs do not work well due to the carrier freeze-out. The 'kink' behavior of n- channel MOSFETs was observed below the carrier freeze-out temperature, but it was not obvious for the p-channel MOSFET. It was demonstrated the p-channel MOSFETs can be used for the cryogenic readout electronics of the IRIS's far-IR array with an acceptable performance. The amplifier integrated with these MOSFETs showed low-noise at 2K under a low power consumption of 1 (mu) W per MOSFET. We now design and evaluate several circuits that are fabricated by the CMOS process for cryogenic readout.

  9. Virtual sensors for active noise control in acoustic-structural coupled enclosures using structural sensing: robust virtual sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Dunant; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing

    2011-03-01

    The work was aimed to develop a robust virtual sensing design methodology for sensing and active control applications of vibro-acoustic systems. The proposed virtual sensor was designed to estimate a broadband acoustic interior sound pressure using structural sensors, with robustness against certain dynamic uncertainties occurring in an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure. A convex combination of Kalman sub-filters was used during the design, accommodating different sets of perturbed dynamic model of the vibro-acoustic enclosure. A minimax optimization problem was set up to determine an optimal convex combination of Kalman sub-filters, ensuring an optimal worst-case virtual sensing performance. The virtual sensing and active noise control performance was numerically investigated on a rectangular panel-cavity system. It was demonstrated that the proposed virtual sensor could accurately estimate the interior sound pressure, particularly the one dominated by cavity-controlled modes, by using a structural sensor. With such a virtual sensing technique, effective active noise control performance was also obtained even for the worst-case dynamics. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  10. A First Approach to Design Mobility Function and Noise Filter in VLC System Utilizing Low-cost Analog Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syifaul Fuada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Visible Light Communication (VLC as one of wireless technology must be able to offer a good capability as mobile communication system. The signal will be faded when the distance and angle of LED to photo-detector become higher at a certain distance. Other problem at VLC system is light interference noise which is caused by flicker effect from other light sources such as incandescent, fluorescent, DC-lamp (i.e. flashlight and the sunlight. Each of lights have specific carried signal characteristics and it can influences the VLC system. In this paper we offer design of mobile VLC system based on analog domain. We use Automatic Gain Controller (AGC circuit using commercially available IC and it will be placed at analog front-end receiver side. AGC can self-adjust its gain according to the input signal amplitude.  We also design analog filter to eliminate all interferences noise spectrum which is existed under 50 KHz. We design both circuits, analog filter and AGC in VLC receiver system with low-cost. The test data are obtained through the simulation and achieved good results in ideal condition.

  11. Design and evaluation of noise suppression sheet for GHz band utilizing magneto-elastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Koichi; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi

    2017-12-01

    Feasibility of realizing a noise suppression sheet (NSS) coping with the low SHF band such as the 5 GHz band was investigated, which was composed of soft magnetic metal flakes dispersed in a polymer. For suppressing noises, the higher frequency one of the bimodal frequency dispersion (lower frequency one: Dispersion DII, higher frequency one: Dispersion DIII) seen in the imaginary permeability (μ″; magnetic loss component) spectrum of the NSS was aimed to utilize. Referring to the previous finding that Dispersion DIII is originated from a magneto-elastic effect, several magnetic composite sheets were prepared using various alloy flakes with different saturation magnetostriction (λs), and their frequency (fr(DIII)) and magnitude (μ″(DIII)) of Dispersion DIII were investigated. It was found that the NSS containing flakes with higher λs exhibited higher fr(DIII) and higher μ″(DIII)/μ″(DII), which was ratio of μ″(DIII) to the magnitude of Dispersion DII (μ″(DII)). The fr(DIII) for the NSS having the highest λs containing Fe-Co alloy flake reached 7.45 GHz and μ″ in the 5 GHz band was approximately twice as high as the conventional NSS containing Fe-Si-Al alloy flake. For transmission attenuation power ratio (Rtp) when an NSS was placed on a microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω, NSS with larger fr(DIII)2 · μ″(DIII) ∝ Ms2 (Ms: saturation magnetization), which theoretically gave the frequency limit of imaginary permeability for a thin film, exhibited larger Rtp in the low SHF band. These results suggested that an NSS containing a magnetic flake material with both large λs and Ms was suitable for suppressing low SHF band noises.

  12. Autocorrelation noise removal for optical coherence tomography by sparse filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Hon Luen; Zhang, Ying; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2012-07-01

    We present a reconstruction method to eliminate the autocorrelation noise (ACN) in optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this method, the optical fields scattered from the sample features are regarded as the response of a sparse finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Then the OCT reconstruction is formulated as one of identifying the parameters of a sparse FIR filter, which are obtained via an ℓ1 optimization with soft thresholding. The experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain OCT reconstruction results with effective attenuation of ACN.

  13. Measurements of non-linear noise re-distribution in an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence.......Measurements of the noise statistics after a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) demonstrate non-linear noise re-distribution with a strong power and bandwidth dependence....

  14. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  15. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  16. Linearisation of RF Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with linearisation techniques of RF power amplifiers (PA), PA design techniques and integration of the necessary building blocks in a CMOS technology. The opening chapters introduces the theory of transmitter architectures, RF-signal representation and the principles of digital...... modulation. Furthermore different types of power amplifiers, models and measures of non-linearities are presented. A chapter is also devoted to different types of linearisation systems. The work carried out and described in this thesis can be divided into a more theoretical and system oriented treatment...... the polar loop architecture and it’s suitability to modern digital transmitters is discussed. A proposal of an architecture that is suitable for digital transmitters, which means that it has an interface to the digital back-end, defined by low-pass signals in polar form, is presented. Simulation guidelines...

  17. Noise and pile-up in liquid sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, P.

    1988-01-01

    The design and construction of detectors for the SSC presents new challenges and requires electronics of priorly unavailable performance. Most detector elements produce minute signals which can be lost in the ever present noise from thermal fluctuation and the finite charge of the electron. The author presents in these notes a pedagogical introduction to noise and pile-up, as applicable to liquid sampling calorimeters, beginning with a brief, only descriptive, introduction to amplifiers and the physical origins of noise. He then studies the particular case of noise in charge measurements, in particular for calorimeters, where parallel noise is usually negligible. By a physical example he discusses optimal filtering, proving that gaussian filters are not optimal. The scaling laws of noise versus source capacitance and filter bandwidth or shaping time, are emphasized. An explicit example for pulse shapes peaking at 1 μs is computed and extrapolated to 0.1 μs, more appropriate for an SSC detector. Solutions for the several problems arising at short shaping times are discussed and the conditions for optimal preamp-detector matching (for minimum noise) are derived. He also briefly discusses pile-up and its scaling laws. Correlations between signal samples at different times are considered and computed for an example. Correlations are necessary to compute the noise in signals reconstructed from sampling

  18. Large-angle scattered light measurements for quantum-noise filter cavity design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Sandoval, Fabian; Adhikari, Rana X; Frolov, Valera; Harms, Jan; Lee, Jacqueline; Sankar, Shannon; Saulson, Peter R; Smith, Joshua R

    2012-08-01

    Optical loss from scattered light could limit the performance of quantum-noise filter cavities being considered for an upgrade to the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) gravitational-wave detectors. This paper describes imaging scatterometer measurements of the large-angle scattered light from two high-quality sample optics, a high reflector and a beamsplitter. These optics are each superpolished fused silica substrates with silica:tantala dielectric coatings. They represent the current state-of-the art optical technology for use in filter cavities. We present angle-resolved scatter values and integrate these to estimate the total scatter over the measured angles. We find that the total integrated light scattered into larger angles can be as small as 4 ppm.

  19. Development of Submillimeter SIS Mixers and Broadband HEMT Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA grant NAG5-9493. entitled "Development of Submillimeter SIS Mixers and Broadband HEMT Amplifiers". The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new generation of superconducting tunnel junction (SIS) receivers with extremely wide instantaneous (intermediate-frequency, or IF) bandwidths. of order 12 GHz. along with the wideband low-noise microwave HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) amplifiers which follow the SIS mixer. These wideband SIS/HEMT receivers would allow rapid submillimeter wavelength spectral line surveys to be carried out, for instance with the NASA airborne observatory SOFIA. and could potentially be useful for future submillimeter space missions such as SAFIR. In addition, there are potential NASA earth science applications. such as the monitoring of the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere and troposphere using the limb-sounding technique. The overall goals of this project have been achieved: a broadband 200-300 SIS receiver was designed and constructed, and was demonstrated in the field through a test run at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea. HI. The technical details are described in the appendices. which are primarily conference publications. but Appendix A also includes an unpublished summary of the latest results. The work on the SIS mixer design are described in the conference publications (appendices B and C). The "Supermix" software package that was developed at Caltech and used for the SIS design is also described in two conference papers, but has been substantially revised, debugged. and extended as part of the work completed for this grant. The Supermix package is made available to the community at no charge. The electromagnetic design of a radial waveguide probe similar to the one used in this work is described in a journal publication. Details of the novel fabrication procedure used for producing the SIS devices at JPL are also given in an

  20. NINO An ultra-fast and low-power front-end amplifier/discriminator ASIC designed for the multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, F; Martemyanov, A N; Usenko, E; Wenninger, Horst; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    2004-01-01

    For the full exploitation of the excellent timing properties of the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC), front-end electronics with special characteristics are needed. These are (a) differential input, to profit from the differential signal from the MRPC (b) a fast amplifier with less than 1 ns peaking time and (c) input charge measurement by Time-Over-Threshold for slewing correction. An 8- channel amplifier and discriminator chip has been developed to match these requirements. This is the NINO ASIC, fabricated with 0.25 omegam CMOS technology. The power requirement at 40mW/channel is low. Results on the performance of the MRPCs using the NINO ASIC are presented. Typical time resolution a of the MRPC system is in the 50 ps range, with an efficiency of 99.9%.

  1. EQUIPMENT WITH HYDROSTATIC AMPLIFIER MODELED 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFTIMIE Dorin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The equipment with hydrostatic amplifier is a new constructive solution modeled 3D using NX 7.5 software. Hydraulic equipment allows the amplification of a constant torque of a DC electric motor of low power at a variable speed. The hydrostatic speed amplifier of constant torque with electric control device is a hydraulic device which provides by design a bridge between the conventional hydraulic and the servo-hydraulic.

  2. EQUIPMENT WITH HYDROSTATIC AMPLIFIER MODELED 3D

    OpenAIRE

    EFTIMIE Dorin; FRONE Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    The equipment with hydrostatic amplifier is a new constructive solution modeled 3D using NX 7.5 software. Hydraulic equipment allows the amplification of a constant torque of a DC electric motor of low power at a variable speed. The hydrostatic speed amplifier of constant torque with electric control device is a hydraulic device which provides by design a bridge between the conventional hydraulic and the servo-hydraulic.

  3. A low power, large dynamic range, CMOS amplifier and analog memory for capacitive sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Bloch, P; Bourotte, J; Grabit, R; Jarron, Pierre; Reynaud, S; Van Hove, A; Zamiatin, N I

    1996-01-01

    This paper has been written to announce the design of a CMOS charge to voltage amplifier and it¹s integration within an analog memory. Together they provide the necessary front end electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) preshower detector systeAspell,Pm in the LHC experiment foreseen at the CERN particle physics laboratory. The design and measurements of the amplifier realised in a 1.5mm bulk CMOS process as a 16 channel prototype chip are presented. Results show the mean gain and peaking time of = 1.74mV/mip, = 18ns with channel to channel variations; s(peak_voltage) = 8% and s(peak_time) = 6.5%. The dynamic range is shown to be linear over 400mips with an integral non linearity (INL)=0.05mV as expressed in terms of sigma from the mean gain over the 400mip range. The measured noise of the amplifier was ENC=1800+41e/pF with a power consumption of 2.4mW/channel. The amplifier can support extreme levels of leakage current. The gain remains constant for up to 200mA of leakage current. The ...

  4. Aviation noise effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  5. Dual Band High Efficiency Power Amplifier Based on CRLH Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the use of Composite Right/Left Hand (CRLH and Extended Composite Right/Left Hand (ECRLH transmission lines for the design of dual band high efficiency power amplifiers working in CE class. The harmonic termination can be synthesized using the meta-lines is particularly suitable for CE class amplifiers, which have a termination not as sensitive to the third harmonic as F class amplifier. This paper presents the design procedure and the design equations. The nonlinear phase response of a CRLH and ECRLH transmission line has been utilized to design arbitrary dual-band amplifiers.

  6. In search of random noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, DO; Bontekoe, Tj. Romke

    1994-01-01

    In order to make the best high resolution images of IRAS data it is necessary to incorporate any knowledge about the instrument into a model: the IRAS model. This is necessary since every remaining systematic effect will be amplified by any high resolution technique into spurious artifacts in the images. The search for random noise is in fact the never-ending quest for better quality results, and can only be obtained by better models. The Dutch high-resolution effort has resulted in HIRAS which drives the MEMSYS5 algorithm. It is specifically designed for IRAS image construction. A detailed description of HIRAS with many results is in preparation. In this paper we emphasize many of the instrumental effects incorporated in the IRAS model, including our improved 100 micron IRAS response functions.

  7. An EM Simulation-Based Design Flow for Custom-Built MR Coils Incorporating Signal and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneff, Andreas; Eder, Michael; Hell, Erich; Ulrici, Johannes; Felder, Jorg; Rasche, Volker; Anders, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Developing custom-built MR coils is a cumbersome task, in which an a priori prediction of the coils' SNR performance, their sensitivity pattern, and their depth of penetration helps to greatly speed up the design process by reducing the required hardware manufacturing iterations. The simulation-based design flow presented in this paper takes the entire MR imaging process into account. That is, it includes all geometric and material properties of the coil and the phantom, the thermal noise as well as the target MR sequences. The proposed simulation-driven design flow is validated using a manufactured prototype coil, whose performance was optimized regarding its SNR performance, based on the presented design flow, by comparing the coil's measured performance against the simulated results. In these experiments, the mean and the standard deviation of the relative error between the simulated and measured coil sensitivity pattern were found to be and . Moreover, the peak deviation between the simulated and measured voxel SNR was found to be less than 4%, indicating that simulations are in good accordance with the measured results, validating the proposed software-based design approach.

  8. A very low noise, high accuracy, programmable voltage source for low frequency noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Graziella; Giusi, Gino; Ciofi, Carmine

    2014-04-01

    In this paper an approach for designing a programmable, very low noise, high accuracy voltage source for biasing devices under test in low frequency noise measurements is proposed. The core of the system is a supercapacitor based two pole low pass filter used for filtering out the noise produced by a standard DA converter down to 100 mHz with an attenuation in excess of 40 dB. The high leakage current of the supercapacitors, however, introduces large DC errors that need to be compensated in order to obtain high accuracy as well as very low output noise. To this end, a proper circuit topology has been developed that allows to considerably reduce the effect of the supercapacitor leakage current on the DC response of the system while maintaining a very low level of output noise. With a proper design an output noise as low as the equivalent input voltage noise of the OP27 operational amplifier, used as the output buffer of the system, can be obtained with DC accuracies better that 0.05% up to the maximum output of 8 V. The expected performances of the proposed voltage source have been confirmed both by means of SPICE simulations and by means of measurements on actual prototypes. Turn on and stabilization times for the system are of the order of a few hundred seconds. These times are fully compatible with noise measurements down to 100 mHz, since measurement times of the order of several tens of minutes are required in any case in order to reduce the statistical error in the measured spectra down to an acceptable level.

  9. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  10. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  11. Noise in miniature microphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen C; LoPresti, Janice L; Ring, Eugene M; Nepomuceno, Henry G; Beard, John J; Ballad, William J; Carlson, Elmer V

    2002-02-01

    The internal noise spectrum in miniature electret microphones of the type used in the manufacture of hearing aids is measured. An analogous circuit model of the microphone is empirically fit to the measured data and used to determine the important sources of noise within the microphone. The dominant noise source is found to depend on the frequency. Below 40 Hz and above 9 kHz, the dominant source is electrical noise from the amplifier circuit needed to buffer the electrical signal from the microphone diaphragm. Between approximately 40 Hz and 1 kHz, the dominant source is thermal noise originating in the acoustic flow resistance of the small hole pierced in the diaphragm to equalize barometric pressure. Between approximately 1 kHz and 9 kHz, the noise originates in the acoustic flow resistances of sound entering the microphone and propagating to the diaphragm. To further reduce the microphone internal noise in the audio band requires attacking these sources. A prototype microphone having reduced acoustical noise is measured and discussed.

  12. Design of low noise front-end ASIC and DAQ system for CdZnTe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jie; Deng Zhi; Liu Yinong

    2012-01-01

    A low noise front-end ASIC has been designed for CdZnTe detector. This chip contains 16 channels and each channel consists of a dual-stage charge sensitive preamplifier, 4th order semi-Gaussian shaper, leakage current compensation (LCC) circuit, discriminator and output buffer. This chip has been fabricated in Chartered 0.35 μm CMOS process, the preliminary results show that it works well. The total channel charge gain can be adjusted from 100 mV/fC to 400 mV/fC and the peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 4 μs. The minimum measured ENC at zero input capacitance is 70 e and minimum noise slope is 20 e/pF. The peak detector and derandomizer (PDD) ASIC developed by BNL and an associated USB DAQ board are also introduced in this paper. Two front-end ASICs can be connected to the PDD ASIC on the USB DAQ board and compose a 32 channels DAQ system for CdZnTe detector. (authors)

  13. assessment of noise pollutio noise pollutio noise pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study examine. This study examined noise pollution pollution pollution from sawmillin from sawmillin using HD600 digital data l using HD600 digital data logging sound level me ogging sound level me designed to elicit noise related information. The res sawmills was 58.1 sawmills was 58.1-64.86 dB(A) while machine ...

  14. Fast pulse amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.; Poussier, E.

    1984-01-01

    This amplifier comprises an inverter transformer, the primary circuit of which receives a pulse and the secondary circuit of which is connected to several amplifying elements in parallel. The inverter transformer is made of coaxial cable segments winded around a magnetic torus; the cable cores connected in series constitute the primary circuit and the braiding of cables, connected in parallel, are the secondary circuit. The transformer comprises, besides, delay lines in series with each braiding of the secondary circuit, these ones are such that pulses issued from each braiding arrive together to the secondary circuit connectors. This invention applies, noticeably in the case of a high voltage amplifier, to the control of deflection blocks of particles used in medicine or in particle accelerators [fr

  15. Handbook Of Noise And Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.

  16. Nonclassical photon streams using rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Patrick M.; Naylor, William R.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Beavan, Sarah E.; Sellars, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a fully quantum mechanical treatment of optically rephased photon echoes. These echoes exhibit noise due to amplified spontaneous emission; however, this noise can be seen as a consequence of the entanglement between the atoms and the output light. With a rephasing pulse one can get an 'echo' of the amplified spontaneous emission, leading to light with nonclassical correlations at points separated in time, which is of interest in the context of building wide bandwith quantum repeaters. We also suggest a wideband version of DLCZ protocol based on the same ideas.

  17. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  18. A portable, differential amplifier for recording high frequency EEG signals and evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Cristian; Giurgiu, Liviu; Popescu, Aurel; Mocanu, Marian

    2010-01-01

    In a clinical context, EEG refers to recording the brain's spontaneous electric activity, using small electrodes placed on the scalp. The signals collected are electric 'potentials' measured between two electrodes. Usually, for a healthy adult, these signals have small voltage (10 μV to 100 μV) and frequencies in the 0-40 Hz range. In the scientific literature, there are mentioned EEG signals and evoked potentials that have higher frequencies (up to 600 Hz) and amplitudes lower than 500 ηV. For this reason, building an amplifier capable of recording EEG signals in the ηV range and with frequencies up to couple of kHz is necessary to continue research beyond 600 Hz. We designed a very low noise amplifier that is able to measure/record EEG signals in the ηV range over a very large frequency bandwidth (0.09 Hz -385 kHz).(Author)

  19. Vibration and Sound-Radiation Analysis for Designing a Low-Noise Gearbox with a Multi-Stage Helical Gear System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiichirou; Houjoh, Haruo; Mutoh, Daisuke; Motoshiromizu, Hirofumi; Ohno, Kousaku; Tanaka, Naoyuki

    A method for predicting gear noise from the vibration step to the sound-generation step of a complete gear system, including a gearbox, was developed. This method consists of three separate steps: gear-vibration analysis by an in-house program, gearbox-vibration analysis by an FEA program, and sound-radiation analysis by a commercial software. By using this method, it can obtain the vibration behavior of the gear and gearbox, and the distribution of the sound-pressure around the gearbox and identify the areas from which noise radiates intensely. To validate the method, we measured the displacement of a gear shaft, the acceleration of points on the surface of the gearbox, and the sound-pressure levels around the gearbox. The measured results agreed well with the corresponding calculations. According to the calculated noise, a low-noise gearbox was designed by adding ribs near the antinodes of the gearbox's vibration mode.

  20. High level white noise generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Blalock, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application

  1. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  2. Single-ion quantum lock-in amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Keselman, Anna; Ozeri, Roee

    2011-05-05

    Quantum metrology uses tools from quantum information science to improve measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The challenge is to increase sensitivity while reducing susceptibility to noise, tasks that are often in conflict. Lock-in measurement is a detection scheme designed to overcome this difficulty by spectrally separating signal from noise. Here we report on the implementation of a quantum analogue to the classical lock-in amplifier. All the lock-in operations--modulation, detection and mixing--are performed through the application of non-commuting quantum operators to the electronic spin state of a single, trapped Sr(+) ion. We significantly increase its sensitivity to external fields while extending phase coherence by three orders of magnitude, to more than one second. Using this technique, we measure frequency shifts with a sensitivity of 0.42 Hz Hz(-1/2) (corresponding to a magnetic field measurement sensitivity of 15 pT Hz(-1/2)), obtaining an uncertainty of less than 10 mHz (350 fT) after 3,720 seconds of averaging. These sensitivities are limited by quantum projection noise and improve on other single-spin probe technologies by two orders of magnitude. Our reported sensitivity is sufficient for the measurement of parity non-conservation, as well as the detection of the magnetic field of a single electronic spin one micrometre from an ion detector with nanometre resolution. As a first application, we perform light shift spectroscopy of a narrow optical quadrupole transition. Finally, we emphasize that the quantum lock-in technique is generic and can potentially enhance the sensitivity of any quantum sensor. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  3. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  4. A low noise ASIC for two dimensional neutron gas detector with performance of high spatial resolution (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Hideshi; Toh, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Sakasai, Kaoru; Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    An ASD-ASIC (Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator ASIC) with fast response and low noise performances has been designed for two-dimensional position sensitive neutron gas detectors (InSPaD). The InSPaD is a 2D neutron detector system with 3 He gas and provides a high spatial resolution by making distinction between proton and triton particles generated in the gas chamber. The new ASD-ASIC is required to have very low noise, a wide dynamic range, good output linearity and high counting rate. The new ASD-ASIC has been designed by using CMOS and consisted of 64-channel ASDs, a 16-channel multiplexer with LVTTL drivers and sum amplifier system for summing all analog signals. The performances were evaluated by the Spice simulation. It was confirmed that the new ASD-ASIC had very low noise performance, wide dynamic range and fast signal processing functions. (author)

  5. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  6. On the attenuation and amplification of molecular noise in genetic regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu-Chao

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noise has many important roles in cellular genetic regulatory functions at the nanomolar scale. At present, no good theory exists for identifying all possible mechanisms of genetic regulatory networks to attenuate the molecular noise to achieve regulatory ability or to amplify the molecular noise to randomize outcomes to the advantage of diversity. Therefore, the noise filtering of genetic regulatory network is an important topic for gene networks under intrinsic fluctuation and extrinsic noise. Results Based on stochastic dynamic regulation equation, the intrinsic fluctuation in reaction rates is modeled as a state-dependent stochastic process, which will influence the stability of gene regulatory network, especially, with low concentrations of reacting species. Then the mechanisms of genetic regulatory network to attenuate or amplify extrinsic fluctuation are revealed from the nonlinear stochastic filtering point of view. Furthermore, a simple measure of attenuation level or amplification level of extrinsic noise for genetic regulatory networks is also introduced by nonlinear robust filtering method. Based on the global linearization scheme, a convenient method is introduced to measure noise attenuation or amplification for each gene of the nonlinear stochastic regulatory network by solving a set of filtering problems, which correspond to a set of linearized stochastic regulatory networks. Finally, by the proposed methods, several simulation examples of genetic regulatory networks are given to measure their robust stability under intrinsic fluctuations, and to estimate the genes' attenuation and amplification levels under extrinsic noises. Conclusion In this study, a stochastic nonlinear dynamic model is developed for genetic regulatory networks under intrinsic fluctuation and extrinsic noise. By the method we proposed, we could determine the robust stability under intrinsic fluctuations and identify the genes that are

  7. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation

  8. A new and efficient transient noise analysis technique for simulation of CCD image sensors or particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolcato, P.; Jarron, P.; Poujois, R.

    1993-01-01

    CCD image sensors or switched capacitor circuits used for particle detectors have a certain noise level affecting the resolution of the detector. A new noise simulation technique for these devices is presented that has been implemented in the circuit simulator ELDO. The approach is particularly useful for noise simulation in analog sampling circuits. Comparison between simulations and experimental results has been made and is shown for a 1.5 μ CMOS current mode amplifier designed for high-rate particle detectors. (R.P.) 5 refs., 7 figs

  9. A power supply error correction method for single-ended digital audio class D amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeqi; Wang, Fengqin; Fan, Yangyu

    2016-12-01

    In single-ended digital audio class D amplifiers (CDAs), the errors caused by power supply noise in the power stages degrade the output performance seriously. In this article, a novel power supply error correction method is proposed. This method introduces the power supply noise of the power stage into the digital signal processing block and builds a power supply error corrector between the interpolation filter and the uniform-sampling pulse width modulation (UPWM) lineariser to pre-correct the power supply error in the single-ended digital audio CDA. The theoretical analysis and implementation of the method are also presented. To verify the effectiveness of the method, a two-channel single-ended digital audio CDA with different power supply error correction methods is designed, simulated, implemented and tested. The simulation and test results obtained show that the method can greatly reduce the error caused by the power supply noise with low hardware cost, and that the CDA with the proposed method can achieve a total harmonic distortion + noise (THD + N) of 0.058% for a -3 dBFS, 1 kHz input when a 55 V linear unregulated direct current (DC) power supply (with the -51 dBFS, 100 Hz power supply noise) is used in the power stages.

  10. Improvement of signal-to-interference ratio and signal-to-noise ratio in nerve cuff electrode systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jun-Uk; Song, Kang-Il; Han, Sungmin; Kim, Jinseok; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Choi, Kuiwon; Youn, Inchan; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Dosik

    2012-01-01

    Cuff electrodes are effective for chronic electroneurogram (ENG) recording while minimizing nerve damage. However, the ENG signals are usually contaminated by electromyogram (EMG) activity from the surrounding muscles, stimulus artifacts produced by the electrical stimulation and noise generated in the first stage of the neural signal amplifier. This paper proposed a new cuff electrode to reduce the interference from EMG signals and stimulus artifacts. As a result, when an additional middle electrode was placed at the center of the cuff electrode, a significant improvement in the signal-to-interference ratio was achieved at 11% for the EMG signals and 12% for the stimulus artifacts when compared to a conventional tripolar cuff. Furthermore, a new low-noise amplifier was proposed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The circuit was designed based on a noise analysis to minimize the noise, and the results show that the total noise of the amplifier was below 1 μV for a cuff impedance of 1 kΩ and a frequency bandwidth of 300 to 5000 Hz. (paper)

  11. Design And Calibration Of A Two-Channel Low Noise Heterodyne Receiver At 10.6 Microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. A.; Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1988-11-01

    A dual channel, low noise heterodyne receiver has been constructed for Thomson scattering from alpha particles in a burning plasma experiment. A real time calibration method has been devised which references the integrated system noise to a blackbody source. Two wideband (>1GHz) HgCdTe photovoltaic mixers yield a double sideband system noise equivalent power of less than 1.5 x 10-20 W/Hz.

  12. Model observer design for multi-signal detection in the presence of anatomical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok

    2017-02-01

    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Model observers are typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g. multifocal multicentric (MFMC) breast cancer), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g. digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MFMC than mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model observer to detect multiple signals in an image dataset. A novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. The PLS channels are adaptive to the characteristics of signals and the background, and they capture the interactions among signal locations. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our results show that: (1) the model observer can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels; (2) the model observer with PLS channels outperforms that with benchmark modified Laguerre-Gauss channels, especially when realistic signal shapes and complex background statistics are involved; (3) the tasks of clinical interest, and other constraints such as sample size would alter the optimal design of the model observer.

  13. Theoretical investigation of the noise performance of active pixel imaging arrays based on polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Liang, Albert K; Zhao, Qihua

    2017-07-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imagers, which typically incorporate a pixelated array with one a-Si:H thin-film transistor (TFT) per pixel, have become ubiquitous by virtue of many advantages, including large monolithic construction, radiation tolerance, and high DQE. However, at low exposures such as those encountered in fluoroscopy, digital breast tomosynthesis and breast computed tomography, DQE is degraded due to the modest average signal generated per interacting x-ray relative to electronic additive noise levels of ~1000 e, or greater. A promising strategy for overcoming this limitation is to introduce an amplifier into each pixel, referred to as the active pixel (AP) concept. Such circuits provide in-pixel amplification prior to readout as well as facilitate correlated multiple sampling, enhancing signal-to-noise and restoring DQE at low exposures. In this study, a methodology for theoretically investigating the signal and noise performance of imaging array designs is introduced and applied to the case of AP circuits based on low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si), a semiconductor suited to manufacture of large area, radiation tolerant arrays. Computer simulations employing an analog circuit simulator and performed in the temporal domain were used to investigate signal characteristics and major sources of electronic additive noise for various pixel amplifier designs. The noise sources include photodiode shot noise and resistor thermal noise, as well as TFT thermal and flicker noise. TFT signal behavior and flicker noise were parameterized from fits to measurements performed on individual poly-Si test TFTs. The performance of three single-stage and three two-stage pixel amplifier designs were investigated under conditions relevant to fluoroscopy. The study assumes a 20 × 20 cm 2 , 150 μm pitch array operated at 30 fps and coupled to a CsI:Tl x-ray converter. Noise simulations were performed as a function of operating conditions, including

  14. Improving the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states using a noiseless amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    By employing a nondeterministic noiseless linear amplifier, we propose to increase the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states. With the covariance matrix transformation, the expression of secret key rate under reverse reconciliation is derived against collective entangling cloner attacks. We show that the noiseless linear amplifier can compensate the detrimental effect of the preparation noise with an enhancement of the maximum transmission distance and the noise resistance. - Highlights: • Noiseless amplifier is applied in noisy coherent state quantum key distribution. • Negative effect of preparation noise is compensated by noiseless amplification. • Maximum transmission distance and noise resistance are both enhanced

  15. Transistorized pulse amplifiers (A.I.T.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyt, J.; Couly, J.P.

    1962-01-01

    The two amplifiers whose design and operation are described in this report have been studied for neutron detection units used in piles. They are designed to allow an important reduction of the volume and of the weight of the detector and its amplifier, and to simplify the operation of the detection assembly. To these characteristics can be added the mechanical and electrical robustness and the very reduced micro-phony. The first transistorized amplifier (AIT.1) is simple, very robust, and can be used for radioprotection installations. The second (AIT.4) has a better performance and makes it possible to replace the APT.2 in most of its applications (it has even been used satisfactorily in an apparatus where the micro-phony and the sensitivity to interference of the APT.2 made this latter unusable). (author) [fr

  16. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Clean Air Act Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  17. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum and gain characteristic of a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influencedby the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Amplifier development for multiplexed cryogenic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviranta, Mikko

    2012-12-01

    We make some considerations on the question of driving the cable from the cryogenic stage of refrigerators to the room temperature, in the case of multiplexed detector array systems where a high total Shannon information capacity is required. We have constructed large SQUID arrays for the purpose, some of which exhibit lower than 5 × 10-8 Φ0 Hz-1/2 flux noise at 4.2 K and do not require magnetic shielding in a typical laboratory environment. The option of using class-D amplifiers to reduce the cryogenic heat load is briefly reviewed.

  19. Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paweł; Rizzelli, Giuseppe; Tan, Mingming; Harper, Paul; Ania-Castañόn, Juan Diego

    2015-11-02

    We perform a full numerical characterisation of half-open cavity random DFB Raman fibre laser amplifier schemes for WDM transmission in terms of signal power variation, noise and nonlinear impairments, showcasing the excellent potential of this scheme to provide amplification for DWDM transmission with very low gain variation.

  20. RAMAN amplifier gain dynamics with ASE : Numerical analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Raman fiber amplifier (RFA) has merit of arbitrary gain bandwidth, which were recently being recognized as an enabling ... has several advantages including lower noise figure (NF), flexibility on the selection of gain medium, and wide gain bandwidth ..... The Signal Gain (Gs) characteristic for varying Pump Power (Pp).