Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Nurazizah, G. R.
The Resort II Salak Mountain has variety of landscape potential for created as ecotourism destination, especially the potential of the waterfall (curug) and sulphur crater (Kawah Ratu). The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the potential resources of the landscape to be created as ecotourism destination, Resort II Salak Mountain. This research was conducted through two phases: 1) identification of the attractions location that have potential resources for ecotourism destination, and 2) analysis of the level of potential resource of the landscape in each location using Analysis of Tourist Attraction Operational Destination (ATAOD). The study showed Resort II Salak Mountain has many ecotourism objects which have been used for ecotourism activities, such as hot spring baths, Curug Cigamea, Curug Ngumpet, Curug Seribu, Curug Pangeran, Curug Muara, Curug Cihurang, Kawah Ratu, camping ground, Curug Kondang and Curug Alami. The location of all waterfalls -curug, spread widely in the core zone for ecotourism. In the other hand, camping ground is located in the business zone, while Kawah Ratu is located in the natural forest, which is included in the buffer zone of Halimun-Salak National Park (HSNP). The result showed that the ecotourism objects with the highest potential value are Kawah Ratu, Curug Seribu, Curug Muara, Curug Kondang and Curug Ngumpet.
Zonta, A.; Smit, S.K.; Haasdijk, Evert
This paper presents a method to model the intended destination of a subject in real time, based on a trace of position information and prior knowledge of possible destinations. In contrast to most work in this field, it does so without the need for prior analysis of habitual travel patterns. The
Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Daniel A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.
Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.
Full Text Available Recently, a great interest is shown in MANETs potential usage and applications in several fields such as military activities, rescue operations and time-critical applications. In this work, we implement and analyse a MANET testbed considering AODV and OLSR protocols for wireless multi-hop networking. We investigate the effect of mobility and topology changing in MANET and evaluate the performance of the network through experiments in a real environment. The performance assessment of our testbed is done considering throughput, number of dropped packets and delay. We designed four scenarios: Static, Source Moving, Destination Moving and Source-Destination Moving. From our experimental results, we concluded that when the communicating nodes are moving and the routes change quickly, OLSR (as a proactive protocol performs better than AODV, which is a reactive protocol.
Stacia Reviany Mege
Full Text Available The increasing popularity of reality shows renders them as potential media for tourism promotion. However, there is limited research regarding the impact of destination exposure in reality shows. This study aimed to investigate the impact of destination exposure in television reality shows on destination image, familiarity, and travel intention. To test the hypotheses, a within subject experiment was conducted. A worldwide popular reality show, The Amazing Race, was used as a stimulus for the participants. The results revealed that, in general, both cognitive and affective destination im- ages were rated higher after watching the reality show. Furthermore, familiarity with the destination and travel intention to the destination increased after watching the destination in the reality show. The result of this study will be useful for destination marketing organization and the government to explore alternative promotional media and aid the promotion of tourism destination.
Full Text Available The present research aims at contributing to the field of Online Communication for tourism destinations. It provides a study on online communication of Romanian main tourism destinations, focusing on DMOs’ websites completeness in terms of contents and on their capability to respond to users’ needs. The results of the current research show that the Romanian Destination Websites offer a poor online experience for users, in terms of content, functionalities and fail to fully satisfy the needs and wants of potential tourists. This study is important for establishing the strategies for developing the tourism destination management in Romania.
I Gusti Ayu Oka Suryawardani
Full Text Available This study was designed to study destination marketing strategy in Bali through optimizing the potential of local products. Seventy nine of hotel managers were interviewed based on cluster sampling method to gain their point of view. The results show that destination must build their images around unique attributes that provide them sustainable competitive advantage including its attraction which should be designed to meet the needs of the target market and should be served by local products. The results also show that hotel managers thought that foreign tourists always preferred imported products, meanwhile previous statistical results indicate that foreign tourists significantly look for local products. There is a need to encourage hotel managers to change their perception and attitude about local and imported products. In fact, hoteliers expressed willingness to use local products as long as these meet the quality standard. As tourism involves four types of activities, namely something to see, something to do, something to buy, something to learn, destination product development could be focused in the above activities through offering foreign tourist, such as to stay in hotels, homestays or villas owned by Balinese; to eat in restaurants owned by Balinese by choosing the authentic local foods that are using local meat, seafood and vegetables, exotic local fruits and beverages; and to buy products that are produced by the Balinese. By promoting vacation on the real Balinese atmosphere such as stay in accommodations owned by the Balinese supported by the authenticity of local Balinese foods, fruits and beverages, these will strengthen the local economy, so the benefit of tourism development can be more beneficial to the local Balinese. The results suggests that destination management related to improvement of service and hospitality are really important through improvement of human resource by giving training to their employees, educate
Full Text Available In taking an advantages in tourism seems that image of specific tourist destination play an important role. This is very complex process but also a target for a wide list of potential stakeholders - not only organizations in this industry. Paper discuss a few relevant issues in connection to importance as well as development process of creating an image of tourist destination including well known Anhold model.
Full Text Available The management of a tourist destination in the form of networks is considered to be one of the possible approaches to destination governance structures. The concept of destination governance is based on the cooperation between actors from the public and private sectors. It is known that public–private relationships built on trust, joint risk taking and based on informal structures have a positive impact on the level of growth at a tourist destination. The aim of this paper is to quantify to what extent each of the determinants of the DMO success participate in the total destination performance, and thus point out the factors of a potential risk.
Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.
by clusters with relocation of mobile nodes between the clusters. Mobile nodes are guided by waypoints between source and destination clusters without use of localization services. The simulation results have been presented which state the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Mobile node relocation has...
Zhang, Junsong; Fan, Jiepeng; Luo, Zhenshan
Multi-destination maps are a kind of navigation maps aimed to guide visitors to multiple destinations within a region, which can be of great help to urban visitors. However, they have not been developed in the current online map service. To address this issue, we introduce a novel layout model designed especially for generating multi-destination maps, which considers the global and local layout of a multi-destination map. We model the layout problem as a graph drawing that satisfies a set of hard and soft constraints. In the global layout phase, we balance the scale factor between ROIs. In the local layout phase, we make all edges have good visibility and optimize the map layout to preserve the relative length and angle of roads. We also propose a perturbation-based optimization method to find an optimal layout in the complex solution space. The multi-destination maps generated by our system are potential feasible on the modern mobile devices and our result can show an overview and a detail view of the whole map at the same time. In addition, we perform a user study to evaluate the effectiveness of our method, and the results prove that the multi-destination maps achieve our goals well.
Ekinci, Yuksel; Hosany, Sameer
In an increasingly competitive tourism market place, destination marketers face the challenge of attracting tourists through destination branding and destination personality building practices. As places become substitutable, destination personality, defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a destination, is seen as a viable metaphor for crafting a destination’s unique identity. At the conceptual level, the importance of destination personality has been widely acknowledged,...
Full Text Available Opportunistic networks lack end-to-end paths between source nodes and destination nodes, so the communications are mainly carried out by the “store-carry-forward” strategy. Selfish behaviors of rejecting packet relay requests will severely worsen the network performance. Incentive is an efficient way to reduce selfish behaviors and hence improves the reliability and robustness of the networks. In this paper, we propose the node-dependence-based dynamic gaming incentive (NDI algorithm, which exploits the dynamic repeated gaming to motivate nodes relaying packets for other nodes. The NDI algorithm presents a mechanism of tolerating selfish behaviors of nodes. Reward and punishment methods are also designed based on the node dependence degree. Simulation results show that the NDI algorithm is effective in increasing the delivery ratio and decreasing average latency when there are a lot of selfish nodes in the opportunistic networks.
interesting destination for other members of the EU. Congress activity in Slovenia is booming, with a growing number of modern equipped convention venues with modern facilities for implementation of convention events. Slovenia has three major congress destinations; Ljubljana, Portorož and Bled that meet the conditions for organizing congresses. The Republic of Serbia with its tourism development strategy, presented business tourism as a potential selective form of tourism that can contribute to increasing tourist traffic of local and foreign tourists. Congress destinations that represent an ideal destination for congresses are: Belgrade, Novi Sad and Zlatibor. The application of sustainable development in the area of congress tourism plays an important role in form of preservation of resources and environmental protection. Therefore, congress tourism should be managed in a way to meet economic, social, ecological and aesthetic needs of a destination. Methodology used in this research paper consists of desk research, descriptive method, historical method, method of analysis, synthesis and comparative method. Beside secondary data analysis through literature review data are induced from Central Bureau of Statistics, the Institute for Tourism, Zagreb Tourist Board, Tourist Board of Opatija, The Dubrovnik Tourist Board, Serbian Convention Bureau and Research as well as from available published articles, books and internet data related to Slovenian business tourism. This research paper contributes to further scientific research and improvements needed in order to continuously develop and increase the size and quality of business tourism.
Full Text Available Prior approaches to AS-aware path selection in Tor do not consider node bandwidth or the other characteristics that Tor uses to ensure load balancing and quality of service. Further, since the AS path from the client’s exit to her destination can only be inferred once the destination is known, the prior approaches may have problems constructing circuits in advance, which is important for Tor performance. In this paper, we propose and evaluate DeNASA, a new approach to AS-aware path selection that is destination-naive, in that it does not need to know the client’s destination to pick paths, and that takes advantage of Tor’s circuit selection algorithm. To this end, we first identify the most probable ASes to be traversed by Tor streams. We call this set of ASes the Suspect AS list and find that it consists of eight highest ranking Tier 1 ASes. Then, we test the accuracy of Qiu and Gao AS-level path inference on identifying the presence of these ASes in the path, and we show that inference accuracy is 90%. We develop an AS-aware algorithm called DeNASA that uses Qiu and Gao inference to avoid Suspect ASes. DeNASA reduces Tor stream vulnerability by 74%. We also show that DeNASA has performance similar to Tor. Due to the destination-naive property, time to first byte (TTFB is close to Tor’s, and due to leveraging Tor’s bandwidth-weighted relay selection, time to last byte (TTLB is also similar to Tor’s.
Full Text Available Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential clients in the right way will a destination maximize the effectiveness of its marketing and promotion. Tourism destination marketers will continue to face considerable challenges in the future: they will have to take account of the needs, wants and expectations of more mature and knowledgeable customers, and the corresponding need for more up-to-date and reliable information upon which to base decision-making. In the future only marketing which includes collaborative dimensions will meet its objectives fully.
Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, A. George
Knowledge of the mental representations that individuals hold about tourist destinations are important to understand their intentions. These mental destination representations have often been investigated by applying the concept of destination image. This study argues that the extant literature...... is often rather atheoretical and lacks operational rigor. These are major shortcomings which undoubtedly hinder the development of academic and managerial insights. In response, this study draws on contemporary psychology to develop the destination content model, comprising three informational components...... held in individuals‘ minds about destinations. The present study further outlines preferable methods and measures for each component, thus aiding researchers to investigate mental destination representations...
Full Text Available This paper aims to establish the link between tourists’ perceptions on cultural offers and their overall satisfaction, and explore the implication of this link for sustainable tourist destination management. Assessing online customers’ reviews, this study identifies a positive correlation between visitors’ perspectives and experiences at the on-site cultural centre and visitors’ destination satisfaction. It suggests that the on-site cultural centre plays a critical role in building up visitors’ perception on cultural attributes of the destination, and its impact on visitor satisfaction is a double-edged sword. Visitors’ positive perspectives on the cultural centre enhance visitors’ experiences and contribute to their destination satisfaction; however, not only does a negative perspective on their cultural and spiritual experience compromise visitors’ satisfaction, but also subsequent negative online reviews damage the destination image and discourage visitor return/visit. The findings help destination management organisations to better understand visitors’ preference for cultural centres and therefore to improve visitors’ cultural experience. This paper appeals for further study of on-site cultural centres’ role in forming destination cultural attributes, and of social media’s potential in enriching cultural experience.
Work presents the theoretical aspects of destination management and marketing. It defines the destination management and sustainable development of tourism. The work is applied to destination management and destination marketing in region Sokolovsko. For this destiaci is proposed marketing strategy and marketing mix.
Josiassen, Alexander; Kock, Florian; Assaf, Albert G.
A central research question in tourism management concerns tourist’s choice of specific destinations. The present article reviews the extant literature on destination image. From this review we suggest that individuals have a multitude of destination associations – the total imagery which relates....... The article further provides an extensive review of the literature with regard to the definitions, dimensionality, antecedents, and outcomes of the focal concepts as well as geographical scope of destination imagery and image studies and methodologies. This review has led to a novel understanding...
Full Text Available The objective this research paper is develops a destination loyalty theoretical model by using tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction. These study analysis components, attributes, factor influencing the destination image and examine the tourist satisfaction and determinants of destination loyalty. This is a conceptual paper attempts at evaluating recent empirical on destination image, tourist satisfaction and loyalty. The conceptual framework model is developed on the basis of existing theoretical and empirical research in the field of destination marketing. The models include four constructs. Tourist Perception constructs has been influenced by factors like Historical and Cultural Attractions, Destination Affordability, Travel Environment, Natural Attractions, Entertainments and Infrastructure. Destination image construct has been influenced by factors like Infrastructure & Facilities, Heritage Attractions, Natural Made Attractions, Destination Safety & Cleanness, Friendly Local Community & Clam Atmosphere, Rejuvenation and Service Price and Affordability. The satisfaction construct has been influenced by factors like Entertainments, Destination Attractions and Atmosphere, Accommodation, Food, Transportation Services and Shopping. The destination loyalty construct has influenced by intentions to revisit, word of mouth promotion and recommending to others . The earlier study result reveals that tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction directly influence destination loyalty. The outcomes of the study have significant managerial implications for destination marketing managers.
Full Text Available In this exploratory study authors combine several approaches to explore the images of two highly attractive tourist destinations: Hawai’i and Croatia. Two convenience samples were used: the image of Hawai’i was measured among Croatian undergraduate business students, and the image of Croatia was measured among Hawaiian tourism students. Functional and psychological image components were assessed at both a holistic and the attribute level. In addition, an importance-perception analysis was performed to assess the degree to which the destination image at the attribute level coincides with the students’ perception of an optimal destination. Finally, the authors conduct an importance grid analysis to explore the key drivers of the overall perceived destination attractiveness. The results provide a detailed insight into the images of Croatia and Hawaii, and reveal several interesting differences between the two student samples.
Ariadna Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the destination image of Bucovina among Romanian tourists. Bucovina is one of the most important tourist destinations of Romania, it is located in the North Eastern region of Romania and tourism has the potential to provide significant support for economic development of this region. This economic development may occur if the elements of tourism are well-managed. One of the factors influencing the success of a destination is its image. Earlier studies showed the importance of destination image, even though no studies have been conducted for Bucovina to identify the image of this destination. To implement this study, we used survey as the research method and the questionnaire as our research tool. We conducted the content analysis of responses to open questions. The items were included into a broader questionnaire although this article comprises just the qualitative research in which we included emergent coding.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between destination image and destination personality. The sample group of the study consisted of tourists visiting Alanya district of Antalya province between June and August 2013. A brand personality scale developed by Aaker (1997 and a survey used for grading the destination image were used as tools for collecting data which were obtained from a total of 395 tourists for the application. Descriptive analyses such percentage, frequency, factor analysis (confirmatory and explanatory as well as statistical tests such as the reliability analysis were used for analyzing the obtained data. In addition the relationship between destination image and destination personality was analyzed with the Structural Equation Modeling (SEMAt the conclusion of the study there appeared to be negative and very weak relationship between affective image and destination personality while the relationship between cognitive image and destination personality appeared to be positive and strong. In addition Aaker’s (1997 5 dimensional brand personality grading turned out to be 4 dimensions. These dimensions were determined as excitement, ruggedness, competence and sincerity
Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander
, a disruptive biclustering approach advanced by recent developments of Bayesian relational modeling. This new approach, for the first time in tourism research, allows to design and conduct a segmentation analysis by simultaneously biclustering multiple datasets consisting of cases and variables in a parallel...... format. We demonstrate how the new analytical framework can be applied to analyze and compare patterns of associations which individuals have of multiple destinations. Subsequently, this paper elaborates potential contributions the Bayesian relational modeling framework makes to the tourism research...
Norhaslin Abu Hassan
Full Text Available This study proposed to explore how the image of a destination could influence medical tourists in choosing a destination as their future medical and tourism destination choice. Scholars argued that destination image had a significant relationship with behavioral intentions. Destination image influence not only the decision-making process but also conditions after-decision-making behaviors of tourists. In the current study context, the future destination choice behavior referred to the intention to revisit the previous destination and the intention to spread the positive word-of-mouth to others. For this study, inbound medical tourists from private hospitals registered with Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council (MHTC in Penang, Malacca, Kuala Lumpur and Selangor in Malaysia will be approached quantitatively by survey questionnaires. This study will contribute to an understanding of the significant factors influencing medical tourists’ intention for future destination choice.
The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment  is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz . Over 300 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at 1 MHz over a commercial 70 Gigabyte/s switching network to a distributed event building and trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes . In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a powerful non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. A high-speed FPGA-based central master module controls the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load balancing and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also ...
da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo
The need for strategic thinking in destination branding has been demanded regarding the challenges tourism destinations are facing nowadays, such as at the digital level. The utilization of Information Communication Technology by tourism destinations, when well-articulated with a destination
Full Text Available The classical distinction between countries of tourist offer and countries of tourist demand has already been surpassed considering that many countries of tourist demand (USA, Germany, Great Britain … earn much more from tourism than the countries of tourist offer (Italy, Greece, Portugal …. The changes in customers' behaviour are reflected through restructuring of tourist movements towards new destinations. What is essential in creating, promoting and marketing tourist destinations for the specific tourism forms development is the identification of all the positive and negative factors that influence the development of these destinations. Converting a potential into a tourist destination depends on many factors both in qualitative and in quantitative sense. Discovering an area of preserved environment that also possesses attractive motifs presents the beginning of the possible tourist destination creating. Further 'destiny' of a tourist destination depends on its planning and development intensity. Rural tourism is a significant component of integral and sustainable development and revitalization of the village, as well as a component that is missing in stimulating the local market development for agricultural and non-agricultural activities in the country, along with a special stimulation to employment. Serbia possesses remarkable natural resources and other potentials for the development of all forms of rural tourism. However, rural tourism in Serbia is an insufficiently organized field that is not being developed adequately to the possibilities available to it. That is why this paper wants to point out the potential opportunities for the development of rural tourism in Serbia through sustainable development and correct performance policy on both national and international tourist market.
Ye, H.; Tussyadiah, Iis
A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims...... at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found...
Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. This paper reports on experiences and activities that are taken in destination management and marketing in Korça tourist region. Primarily it is told about importance of management and the role of marketing in the development of tourist destination and how to be combined them to grow up competitive advantages. Then are described all main problems of destination management and marketing in Korça region and all problems that are viewed in tourist villages of this region. In the end is suggested a model that can be used to develop sustainable tourism, to grow up profits and to reduce negative impacts that would come from this industry.
Olsen, Lise Smed
through stakeholder collaboration in Jokkmokk, Sweden and Kautokeino, Norway. The study indicates that collaboration between destination marketing organisations and Sami stakeholders has been initiated and has improved destination marketing. Conflicts relating to indigenous identity and land use are more......Indigenous tourism has become an important component of the tourism industry. Previous indigenous tourism research has indicated three conflict areas that can have an impact on destination development - internal conflicts over indigenous identity, the use of indigenous culture in destination...... marketing, and land-use conflicts. To varying degrees these areas of conflict have been found to impact local and regional destination development in northern Europe. This paper draws on case studies to understand how conflicts in Sami tourism in local and regional destination development are addressed...
Full Text Available In times when competition between countries in the world is stronger, in order to attract as many tourists as possible, and strengthening their brand as a tourist destination, Republic of Macedonia started to build and strengthen its tourism brand. Due to the enormous competition, traditional destinations maintain and improve their brand through new innovative tourist attractions. On the contrary, the new tourist destinations strongly attack potential tourists with intention of gaining a better position on the tourist market. The subject of this paper is Macedonia as a tourist destination seen through the prism of promotional activities that Agency for promotion and support tourism in Republic of Macedonia realized in period 2009– 2012. This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 65 tourist stockholders (travel agencies and hotels in Macedonia in 2012. In this study it will be analyzed what other countries have undertaken regarding the aspect of promotion of their tourist product, concerning promotion of their tourist destination and what Macedonia has undertaken and should undertake regarding that aspect.
Full Text Available The study of commuters’ origins and destinations (O_D promises to assist transportation planners with prediction models to inform decision making. Conventionally O_D surveys are undertaken through travel surveys and traffic counts, however data collection for these surveys has historically proven to be time consuming and having a strain on human resources, thus a need for an alternative data source arises. This study combines the use social media data and geographic information systems in the creation of a model for origin and destination surveys. The model tests the potential of using big data from Echo echo software which contains Twitter and Facebook data obtained from social media users in Gauteng. This data contains geo-location and it is used to determine origin and destination as well as concentration levels of Gautrain commuters. A kriging analysis was performed on the data to determine the O-D and concentration levels of Gautrain users. The results reveal the concentration of Gautrain commuters at various points of interest that is where they work, live or socialise. The results from the study highlight which nodes attract the most commuters and also possible locations for the expansion for Gautrain. Lastly, the study also highlights some weakness of crowdsourced data for informing transportation planning.
Moyo, T.; Musakwa, W.
The study of commuters' origins and destinations (O_D) promises to assist transportation planners with prediction models to inform decision making. Conventionally OD surveys are undertaken through travel surveys and traffic counts, however data collection for these surveys has historically proven to be time consuming and having a strain on human resources, thus a need for an alternative data source arises. This study combines the use social media data and geographic information systems in the creation of a model for origin and destination surveys. The model tests the potential of using big data from Echo echo software which contains Twitter and Facebook data obtained from social media users in Gauteng. This data contains geo-location and it is used to determine origin and destination as well as concentration levels of Gautrain commuters. A kriging analysis was performed on the data to determine the O-D and concentration levels of Gautrain users. The results reveal the concentration of Gautrain commuters at various points of interest that is where they work, live or socialise. The results from the study highlight which nodes attract the most commuters and also possible locations for the expansion for Gautrain. Lastly, the study also highlights some weakness of crowdsourced data for informing transportation planning.
Karmen Andrea MEZEI
Full Text Available Tourism development has environmental and social consequences upon local and global communities. The impact of tourism must be kept within certain limits which are set up by sustainable tourism. Meanwhile the viability of the investment must be assured. Tourism development matrix is the tourist destination. Destination management must ensure the balance between economic, social, cultural, and environmental activities. Competitive destination management organization means a harmonious combination between planning, lobby, coordination and marketing (promotion. The recommendation of an integrated meta plan for Romanian balneal spa could be the choice for a successful tourism development.
Savaş Artuğer; Burçin Cevdet Çetinsöz
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between destination image and destination personality. The sample group of the study consisted of tourists visiting Alanya district of Antalya province between June and August 2013. A brand personality scale developed by Aaker (1997) and a survey used for grading the destination image were used as tools for collecting data which were obtained from a total of 395 tourists for the application. Descriptive analyses such percentage, frequenc...
Full Text Available In the Southeast Asia region, Vietnam is a developing country and also a developing tourism destination. The number of international tourists to Vietnam has been increasing in recent years. However, the post-trip issues (e.g., not returning, bad word-of-mouth have become the focal points of many arguments. Based on the existing literature, this study devel- oped and tested a theoretical model to predict international tourists’ loyalty to Vietnam from a combination of destination image, tourist motivation, and overall trip satisfaction. The findings revealed that destination image significantly and positively predicted tourists’ overall satisfaction with the trip and their loyalty to the country in the future. Tourist motiva- tion had some weak but significant effects on both overall trip satisfaction and destination loyalty when tested separately; however, the effect on overall trip satisfaction could not be observed when controlled by destination image. Implications were discussed for Vietnam and other small emerging destinations.
Full Text Available One of the strategic development of the Serbian economy is tourism. Tourist destinations Tara has great tourism potential. The starting assumption for the development of tourism and creating a tourist destination brand of Tara is the analysis of image of tourism, and this is exactly the subject of the current paper. The image analysis includes the examination of preferences, attitudes and behavior of visitors to this tourist destination. This research is exploratory, but may be a useful starting point for further, more comprehensive research on which the results would be based upon serious analysis and making relevant decisions.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the weakest point of Serbian destination competitiveness as a tourist destination in comparation with its main competitors. The paper is organized as follows. The short introduction of the previous research on the destination competitiveness is followed by description of the Integrated model of destination competitiveness (Dwyer et al, 2003 that was used as the main reference framework. Section three is devoted to the description of the previous studies on competitiveness of Serbian tourism, while section four outlines the statistical methodology employed in this study and presents and interprets the empirical results. The results showed that Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and created resources than in destination management while, according to the Integrated model, Serbia is less competitive in demand conditions that refer to the image and awareness of the destination itself.
El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe
Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger destinations. This hypothesis is based on empirical research showing better memory for older faces than for younger faces in older adults. Forty-one older adults and 44 younger adults were asked to tell proverbs to older and younger destinations (i.e., coloured faces). On a later recognition test, participants had to decide whether they had previously told some proverb to an older/younger destination or not. Prior to this task, participants reported their frequency of contact with other-age groups. The results showed lower destination memory in older adults than in younger adults. Interestingly, older adults displayed better memory for older than for younger destinations. The opposite pattern was seen in younger adults. The low memory for younger destinations, as observed in older adults, was significantly correlated with limited exposure to younger individuals. These findings suggest that for older adults, the social experience can play a crucial role in the destination memory, at least as far as exposure to other-age groups is concerned.
Yu, Lu; Zhou, Jin; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor
The Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems (EGSCS) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers in buildings. Double-deck elevators, where two elevators are connected with each other, serve passengers at two consecutive floors simultaneously. Double-deck Elevator systems (DDES) become more complex in their behavior than conventional single-deck elevator systems (SDES). Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology has been used in such complex systems. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a graph-based evolutionary method, has been applied to EGSCS and its advantages are shown in some papers. GNP can obtain the strategy of a new hall call assignment to the optimal elevator when it performs crossover and mutation operations to judgment nodes and processing nodes. Meanwhile, Destination Floor Guidance System (DFGS) is installed in DDES, so that passengers can also input their destinations at elevator halls. In this paper, we have applied GNP to DDES and compared DFGS with normal systems. The waiting time and traveling time of DFGS are all improved because of getting more information from DFGS. The simulations showed the effectiveness of the double-deck elevators with DFGS in different building traffics.
Olga E. Bashina
Full Text Available The article describes the main problems of the Russian regional tourism. The article includes concepts touristic destination and cartographic taxonomy. In the article suggestions were made for the formation of “the Health Cluster”.
Ni Made - Asti Aksari
Full Text Available Bali's economy has grown rapidly since a decade ago. This is possible because tourism is growing continuously. However, tourism growth is not optimal because of insufficient promotion and tourism destination identity is unclear. The growth of Web 2.0 as a platform to share travel information has prompted tourism bodies to pay closer attention to how their destinations are perceived by target markets. Set within the context of the emergence of Web 2.0, a platform designed to enable users to generate and share information on the Internet, this paper evaluates the relationship between destination identity and destination image and adopts the view that a successful destination brand relies on the congruence between destination identity and destination image. The elements of destination identity are composed from the supply side and the elements of destination image are composed from the consumer side. The objective of exploring the alignment between these two perspectives is to propose a model to encourage the alignment of these two perspectives and evaluate the effectiveness of a destination branding strategy.
Biran, Avital; Liu, W.; Li, G.; Eichhorn, V.
Addressing the call for a better understanding of tourist behavior in relation to post-disaster destinations, this study explores the motivations and intentions of potential domestic tourists (from non-hit areas) to visit Sichuan, China in the aftermath of an earthquake. Drawing on dark tourism theories, this study offers a more comprehensive insight into the consumption of post-disaster destinations, aiming to capture the impact of the changes to the destination’s attributes on tourist behav...
Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism destinations are more and more determined to build a unique and competitive identity and image in consumers’ minds. Even though the marketing of tourism destinations has been awarded an intended purpose, in practice there is a lack of steadiness, sometimes an unexplained deficiency of empirical academic research. In some countries, many without "a tradition in tourism", building a marketing strategy for travel destinations is based on artificial and without substance images/perceptions of real and potential tourists. The paper describes the role of marketing in the domain of tourism, emphasizing the importance of public relations in the promotion process of the region of Bucovina.
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks Display on August 6... Guard's ability to protect the public from the potential hazards associated with fireworks displays...
Full Text Available Globalisation on the tourism market causes that the competition is not formed only between stakeholders in a destination, but more and more it is created among destinations. Therefore tourism stakeholders in a destination have to act together and cooperate. The cooperative behaviour of destination stakeholders is seen as a main prerequisite of applying the cooperative destination management, which influences the competitiveness of destination on tourism market.
Full Text Available Tourism worldwide is becoming increasingly competitive. Competitiveness has been associated in the tourism literature as a critical element for the success of tourism destinations. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying and analyzing the various factors that influence the competitiveness of tourism destinations. The paper extends the Richie & Crouch (2000 model and develops a set of indicators that considers the different issues concerning tourism competitiveness. The indicators are focused on the various dimensions of sustainability. The paper offers insights into the model, each determinant has been extensively described. The aim of the paper is to test whether and to what extent the current set of indicators integrated into the present model can help explaining the competitiveness of a tourism destination. The model is tested on a unique dataset of 610 Italian Destinations of Excellence. Principal Component Analysis is applied on the responses to the items measuring destination competitiveness.
Full Text Available Planning and developing urban tourism destinations must encompass landscape optimization to achieve healthy urban ecosystems, as well as for evolution sustainability. This study explored sustainable landscape planning by examining the optimization of landscape spatial distribution in an urban tourism destination–Nanjing, China—using an integrated approach that included remote sensing (RS, geographic information system (GIS, and landscape metrics in the context of an urban tourism destination evolution model. Least-cost modeling in GIS was also used to optimize decision-making from an ecological perspective. The results indicated that landscapes were more homogenous, fragmented, and less connected. Except for the eastern area, the landscape evolution showed characteristics of both degeneration and growth. A complete greenway network including sources, greenways, and nodes were constructed, and an increase in natural landscapes was strongly recommended. The findings provide geographic insights for sustainable urban tourism planning and development via comprehensive methodological applications.
Cox, Natasha; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Gardiner, Sarah
Achieving a consistent brand experience across a destination and all brand-touch points is a major challenge in destination branding efforts. Strategies to manage the complexity of coordination across multiple network stakeholders are therefore critical for destination management organisations....... However, theories to inform these strategies are limited. This paper proposes that internal brand management theory provides a framework to explore strategies that may increase operator buy-in to the destination brand, thus creating a more consistent brand experience for visitors. Semi......-structured interviews with members of a destination brand network indicate that highly centralised networks hinder operator buy-in to the destination brand. Informal communication via more personalised sub-networks rather than directive leadership appear to facilitate knowledge sharing and create support mechanisms...
Carlson, Cynthia; Aytur, Semra; Gardner, Kevin; Rogers, Shannon
This study investigates the relationships between the built environment, the physical attributes of the neighborhood, and the residents' perceptions of those attributes. It focuses on destination walking and self-reported health, and does so at the neighborhood scale. The built environment, in particular sidewalks, road connectivity, and proximity of local destinations, correlates with destination walking, and similarly destination walking correlates with physical health. It was found, however, that the built environment and health metrics may not be simply, directly correlated but rather may be correlated through a series of feedback loops that may regulate risk in different ways in different contexts. In particular, evidence for a feedback loop between physical health and destination walking is observed, as well as separate feedback loops between destination walking and objective metrics of the built environment, and destination walking and perception of the built environment. These feedback loops affect the ability to observe how the built environment correlates with residents' physical health. Previous studies have investigated pieces of these associations, but are potentially missing the more complex relationships present. This study proposes a conceptual model describing complex feedback relationships between destination walking and public health, with the built environment expected to increase or decrease the strength of the feedback loop. Evidence supporting these feedback relationships is presented.
R. Govers (Robert); F.M. Go (Frank); K. Kumar (Kuldeep)
textabstractThis article examines the role of tourism promotion as a component of destination image formation. It reports the findings of a study in which 1,100 respondents from around the globe described their previsit perceived image of seven sample destinations, as well as the information sources
Full Text Available Bucovina is a cultural landscape in the triangle bordered between the Ukraine, Romania and Moldova. Based on a theoretical planning approach in destination marketing management, Bucovina is to be regarded as a destination situated at the end of the involvement stage of the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC. Literature, internet research, qualitative interviews, and on site-observations depict Bucovina as a travel destination. The authors explore the impact of the financial crisis on Bucovina and forecast the destination trend for the next few years. Finally, they give recommendations for development of the Bucovina region in a sustainable, rapid and regulated manner.
Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming; Barnes, Stuart
Destination branding has developed considerably as a topic area in the last decade with numerous conceptualizations focusing on different aspects of the brand. However, a unified view has not yet emerged. This paper examines destination branding via a new conceptualization, destination brand expe...
Full Text Available The growing relevance of tourism industry for modern advanced economies has increased the interest among researchers and policy makers in the statistical analysis of destination competitiveness. In this paper we outline a new model of destination competitiveness based on sound theoretical grounds and we develop a statistical test of the model on sample data based on Italian tourist destination decisions and choices. Our model focuses on the tourism decision process which starts from the demand schedule for holidays and ends with the choice of a specific holiday destination. The demand schedule is a function of individual preferences and of destination positioning, while the final decision is a function of the initial demand schedule and the information concerning services for accommodation and recreation in the selected destinations. Moreover, we extend previous studies that focused on image or attributes (such as climate and scenery by paying more attention to the services for accommodation and recreation in the holiday destinations. We test the proposed model using empirical data collected from a sample of 1.200 Italian tourists interviewed in 2007 (October - December. Data analysis shows that the selection probability for the destination included in the consideration set is not proportional to the share of inclusion because the share of inclusion is determined by the brand image, while the selection of the effective holiday destination is influenced by the real supply conditions. The analysis of Italian tourists preferences underline the existence of a latent demand for foreign holidays which points out a risk of market share reduction for Italian tourism system in the global market. We also find a snow ball effect which helps the most popular destinations, mainly in the northern Italian regions.
Wili Wilu, Amina; Coello, Yann; El Haj, Mohamad
Destination memory, which is socially driven, refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information. Our study investigated destination memory in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Patients and control participants were invited to tell proverbs (e.g., "the pen is mightier than the sword") to pictures of celebrities (e.g., Barack Obama). Then they were asked to indicate to which celebrity they had previously told the proverbs. Besides the assessment of destination memory, participants performed a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their corresponding location. Analysis demonstrated less destination memory and binding in patients with TBIs than in controls. In both populations, significant correlations were observed between destination memory and performances on the binding task. These findings demonstrate difficulty in the ability to attribute information to its appropriate destination in TBI patients, perhaps owing to difficulties in binding separate information together to form a coherent representation of an event in memory.
Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic phenomenon, which is in continuous change. The tourism market is in constant transformation due to competition and growing. Tourist destinations, is facing many challenges in order to enter and remain on the market. Thus tourist destination is a well-defined service which is an assembly designed to meet tourists. The marketing mix includes the following elements: product, price, distribution, promotion. Tourists come to this area because of monasteries, some of which are included in UNESCO and are recognized nationally and internationally. Thus Romanian tourists choose this tourist destination just for a weekend. To prolong the stay of both foreigners and Romanians, as well as to attract a large number of tourists is necessary to develop tourism products type tours: 5-6 days for visiting the tourist area of Radauti. These products must contain an offer as varied and diverse, so every day contain different activities and be adjusted, for example by age segments. Linked pricing policy usually access tariffs are differentiated between Romanian and foreign tourists, being lower in the first category. Travel agencies prefer to organize package tours on request only devise some that distribute them internally and externally. There are initiatives to promote tourism area Radauti, due to the high attractiveness among destinations in Romania. Thus, this must be considered a tourist destination tourism brand renowned nationally and internationally.
Full Text Available Contemporary promotion of tourist destinations represents a challenge and gives rise to many questions in a regard to numerous ways of communicating and transferring information. With concern to modern communication practices in society and due to fast-paced lifestyle, individuals are looking for information online and are making decisions based on available Internet data. Attracting tourists through traditional promotional techniques such as brochures, leaflets, printed guidebooks, fairs and festivals are unsufficient with a respect to the rising number of online users. Promotion of tourism is based on destination image which is created through direct or mediated experience and projected on the minds of individuals. It is greatly dependent on available information mostly visual. YouTube is a popular video sharing site that counts over one billion users. It gives open access to a great number of videos and therefore could have an important role in promoting tourist destinations. The website was firstly used for non-commercial purposes but today it is very attractive for advertisers. The author examines phenomena of YouTube and its potential for destination image creation. The aim of this article is to give an insight on characteristics of promotional videos used for tourism and to explore how various national and local tourist boards can use them on YouTube. The author identifies the public relations profession’s role in creation of promotional audio-visual material.
Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Understanding potential visitors is one of the fundamental tasks for researchers and businesses, destination marketing organizations as well as many other stakeholders in tourism domain. Despite the fact that Internet has become one of the major marketing channels for hospitality and tourism, researchers indicate that there is a notable gap in understanding how to effectively use social media in travel destination marketing. The...
Arup Kumar Baksi
Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.
Full Text Available Rural tourism is a form of tourism that best illustrates the importance of tradition in the development of tourist destinations. Music, dance, clothing, culinary specialties of local cuisine, unique natural beauty and the very mentality and hospitality of people in rural areas, represent some of the factors that influence the tourist's consciousness when choosing this type of holiday. The research is focused on the main hypothesis that the tradition is an initiator of rural tourism destinations development. Furthermore, this would imply positive effects in the field of tourism and economy in general and the economy of the region. The goal of the paper is to show the importance of tradition in the cultural identity of rural areas and potentials of tradition in the role of initiating rural tourism destinations development. The interview with staff members in Pozarevac Tourism Organization has helped in the SWOT analysis of the observed rural destination. An empirical research is conducted on a random sample of 232 participants in order to highlight the benefits of rural tourism development in Pozarevac and its surrounding area. The data were processed in SPSS program (version 17.0.
The aim of this bachelor's thesis was to provide points of development for the subject company Kyrö Distillery Company in the developing of a gastronomic tourism destination. The subject company mainly operates as a distillery, but it has promising tourism potential in the field of gastronomic tourism. The company and the restaurant located in the destination, Kyrönmaan matkailunedistämiskeskus, also operate as a tourism destination providing tours and tastings of the company. The objecti...
El Haj, Mohamad; Caillaud, Marie; Verny, Christophe; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe
Destination memory refers to the recall of the destination of previously relayed information, and source memory refers to the recollection of the origin of received information. We compared both memory systems in Huntington's disease (HD) participants. For this, HD participants and healthy adults had to put 12 items in a black or a white box (destination task), and to extract another 12 items from a blue or a red box (source task). Afterwards, they had to decide in which box each item had previously been deposited (destination memory), and from which box each item had previously been extracted (source memory). HD participants showed poorer source as well as destination recall performance than healthy adults in the proposed tasks. Correlation analysis showed that destination recall was significantly correlated with episodic recall in HD participants. Destination memory impairment in HD participants seems to be considerably influenced by their episodic memory performance. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available In today's global economy, each place competes with other places for economic benefits. Destination has become a product that has to be promoted and sold in the most advantageous terms. The work bellow is an analysis of "brand equity" concept for touristic destinations, as found in the specific literature. Destination brands differ from product brands, major distinction being given by their stability/ instability. Brands of products are stable; this constant is maintained by the use of quality standards. Even in case of services, situation can be controlled, as quality standards could be perpetuated by a franchise system. Destinations are not depending on a single person, who decides, but a variety of them, economic agents, businesses, institutions and local population that can create/print form and structure changes of the destination. The concept de brand equity applied for touristic destinations, is something relatively recent. The dimensions of a brand for touristic destinations are: awareness, image, loyalty, quality and value. All these dimensions build the branding equity of a destination. There is interdependency, between quality, image, loyalty and value. In order to determine the perception in regards to the quality of tourism services in Romania, in 2010 a comprehensive study was done among the inhabitants of Oradea city. Through this study we have pursued several objectives: to assess the importance of service characteristics, performance evaluation of tourism services in Romania, tourism personnel evaluation, in terms of evaluation and performance, perception of the quality-price ratio for Romania, compared with other tourist destinations. We call on the exploratory study conducted, as the value of the dimension- destination of the brand equity is given by the price-quality ratio. Using an explorative study on the market of Oradea city, it was highlighted the connection between perception of touristic services, estimation price
Biel Horrach Estarellas
Full Text Available Globalizing dynamic sources are making of tourist destinations, spaces each time more homogeneous, unable to respond to the tourist’s new motivation and to the specific characteristics of the territory and the local landscape. Tourist space has gone through changes, resulting in conurbations without urban structure that require new planning patterns. Despite predictions, which determine a declining process or a post-stagnation, there is a high potential of reconversion of obsolete tourist destinations based on its typological characteristics and its interaction with the territory. The new challenges faced by tourist activity: diversity of tourist resources, travel flexibility and the differentiation of the destination from the rest by enhancing its identity, are methodologically tackled by testing regional tourist dynamics experimented in one of the most paradigmatic cases of tourist coastline development, Majorca Island.
Full Text Available The personality of a destination is vital to build a coherent destination brand and strengthen the place identity. Furthermore, brand personality appears in literature as a strategic axis that can be explored by tourist destinations in order to differentiate themselves from competitors. Since a brand encompasses not only functional but also symbolic elements, its image, as perceived by consumers, can be assessed with respect to both its functional and psychological components. Hence, this exploratory study investigates the brand personality of Portugal as a tourist destination, from the perspective of the Czech market, through a destination image approach. The online survey instrument included open-ended items to depict functional and psychological destination features and additional questions to characterize the profile of a sample of Czech university students. The main findings of this research highlight positive personality traits that are related to the brand of Portugal, which suggest its potential as a vacation destination for the Czech market under study.
Full Text Available The Internet’s rapid development from the 1.0 version to the 2.0 one has triggered the appearance of social networks. Facebook is Illustrative of them due to the number of users it attracts and its international range of dispersion. Although a beginner in communication, Facebook Romania is prone to contribute highly to the “content generator” market in what concerns its users. In order to create or maintain a brand’s positive image it is necessary to know some elements regarding the demographic aspects of the target public, and its attitudes, predilections or behaviours in general. Thus, web pages created on Facebook can “transform” its users into fans and there is a possibility that afterwards these fans become image -vectors by way of the delivered experiences. This article tries to study the fundamental elements that could make up the profile of a user from the targeted group as a potential destination image- vector.
Hernández, Juan M.; González-Martel, Christian
Tourism is a complex dynamic system including multiple actors which are related each other composing an evolving social network. This paper presents a growing model that explains how part of the supply components in a tourism system forms a social network. Specifically, the lodgings and services in a destination are the network nodes and a link between them appears if a representative tourist hosted in the lodging visits/consumes the service during his/her stay. The specific link between both categories are determined by a random and preferential attachment rule. The analytic results show that the long-term degree distribution of services follows a shifted power-law distribution. The numerical simulations show slight disagreements with the theoretical results in the case of the one-mode degree distribution of services, due to the low order of convergence to zero of X-motifs. The model predictions are compared with real data coming from a popular tourist destination in Gran Canaria, Spain, showing a good agreement between analytical and empirical data for the degree distribution of services. The theoretical model was validated assuming four type of perturbations in the real data.
Full Text Available Taking tourists’ perspective rather than destination offerings as its core concept, this study introduces “perceived destination brand worldness” as a variable. Perceived destination brand worldness is defined as the positive perception that a tourist has of a country that is visited by tourists from all over the world. Then, the relationship between perceived destination brand worldness and intention to revisit is analyzed using partial least squares regression. This empirical study selects Taiwanese tourists as its sample, and the results show that perceived destination brand worldness is a direct predictor of intention to revisit. In light of these empirical findings and observations, practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
MONICA PAULA RAŢIU
Full Text Available Romania, as tourism destination with its component micro-destinations (Muntenia, Oltenia, Banat - Crişana, Transylvania, Bucovina, Maramureş, Moldavia and Dobrogea, possesses many tourism attractions and at the same time has a real tourism potential. The fact that it is not included among the Europe’s „valuable” destinations represents a loss both for its inhabitants and for Europeans in general, too. One of the reasons is the lack of an image consolidated by identity elements or / and simply the lack of image that would represent the starting point for development of appropriate tourism products (developing a strategy. This paper proposes, starting from the image perceived by the inhabitants about their own destination – based on the example of Transylvania – to emphasize the importance and also the role of the destination image in developing the main directions of actions and, especially, in developing the strategy for the specific tourism products.
Stanciulescu Gabriela Cecilia
Full Text Available Tourism is a competitive industry, even on a global scale. If access to a destination or attraction is too complicated, time consuming, expensive or not providing adequate capacity, even the most spectacular attraction will remain a secret to most tourists, as they will prefer competitive alternatives” (Smiths, 2003. And to continue this, it is considered that „that cultural differences and uniqueness are important if one wants cultural products to become a commercial success” (Lindenberg, 2004. When cultural tourists are looking to experiment or to improve their knowledge, the question is: “Which are the best strategies and practices to market that experience and knowledge for the cultural tourists” (Kantanen, 2005. This paper will be dedicated to presenting city tourist destinations, their marketing and market positioning, also to analyze the way in which potential customers’ perception is built and how the process can be influenced, and to analyze the way the tourist product is assembled.
The goal of this dissertation is to develop a conceptual framework and associated methods for evaluating alternative tourism planning strategies in terms of dematerialization and acceptability amongst tourists. Its objectives are to (1) examine the technical potential of dematerialization planning options in tourism destinations, (2) investigate tourist perspectives concerning destination planning alternatives that promote dematerialization, (3) assess the travel market responses and demateri...
El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Le Gall, Didier; Allain, Philippe
In order to assess their destination memory, sixteen patients with probable mild Alzheimer Disease (AD), sixteen older adults and 16 young adults were asked to tell facts to pictures. On a subsequent task, they were asked to remember whether they had previously told that fact to that face or not. AD patients showed poorer destination recall than the older adults, and the older adults showed poorer destination recall than the young adults. Our results suggest that destination memory is highly ...
Nieweg, O. E.; Estourgie, S. H.; Deurloo, E. E.; Rutgers, E. J. Th; Kroon, B. B. R.
Sentinel node biopsy has the potential to provide more accurate staging information than axillary node dissection. Given the considerable morbidity of axillary node dissection this less invasive approach is attractive. However, there are a number of issues to be resolved before the best technique of
Price, L.L.; Duran, F.A.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. It may be possible to dispose of some of the DOE's special-case waste using greater confinement disposal techniques at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The DOE asked Sandia National Laboratories to investigate this possibility by performing system configuration analyses. The first step in performing system configuration analyses is to estimate the characteristics of special-case waste that might be destined for disposal at the NTS. The objective of this report is to characterize this special-case waste based upon information available in the literature. No waste was sampled and analyzed specifically for this report. The waste compositions given are not highly detailed, consisting of grains and curies of specific radionuclides per cubic meter. However, such vague waste characterization is adequate for the purposes of the system configuration task. In some previous work done on this subject, Kudera et al.  identified nine categories of special-case radioactive waste and estimated volumes and activities for these categories. It would have been difficult to develop waste compositions based on the categories proposed by Kudera et al. , so we created five groups of waste on which to base the waste compositions. These groups are (1) transuranic waste, (2) fission product waste, (3) activation product waste, (4) mobile/volatile waste, and (5) sealed sources. The radionuclides within a given group share common characteristics (e.g., alpha-emitters, heat generators), and we believe that these groups adequately represent the DOE's special-case waste potentially destined for greater confinement disposal at the NTS
Full Text Available During the last several decades tourism has more and more significant role in economic and social development of other countries, as well as in everyday life of a contemporary man. The Republic of Serbia, also, tends to use valorization of its touristic potentials to realize numerous objectives of its economic and general social development. Number of destinations that offer their tourist products on the tourist market increases, leading to intensified competition. Competitiveness is emphasized as a crucial issue in contemporary tourism, as destinations strive to be better than competitors. Observed from today's perspective we can come to a general conclusion that Serbia as a touristic destination, still hasn't taken adequate competitive position regarding other tourist destinations in the region. The aim of this paper is to point out the necessity of repositioning the present competitive position of Serbia to make it, within as short time period as possible, an attractive tourist destination on the regional and international tourist market. With adequate implementation of theoretical concepts and chosen research methods this paper is expected to enrich domestic professional literature from this field, also to point out new possibilities of Serbian tourism development to creators and those who carry out such economic and touristic politics.
Full Text Available In the current climate of severe competition among tourist destinations, the importance of brand equity in tourism marketing is increasing. This study looks at the impact of branding in relation to the largest group of inbound overseas tourists to South Korea, the Chinese. Data for the current study were obtained from a survey of tourists visiting Seoul from the Greater China region, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and the Chinese living in Southeast Asia. The survey was conducted in popular sightseeing spots, four and five-star hotels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, and the Incheon International Airport. The respondents were selected randomly, with effort expended to avoid any potential bias in the composition of the sample. Out of a total of 385 distributed questionnaires, 350 (China 191, Hong Kong 71, Taiwan 68, others 20 were selected as valid and finally used in the analysis. The results of this study suggest that price and word of mouth have beneficial effects on perceived quality, publicity, and brand awareness, and advertisement has beneficial effects on brand image. We also found that brand awareness and perceived quality have impacts on brand image, and brand image is related to brand loyalty. This is a pioneering study on the relationships between influencing factors, destination brand equity and its elements, and brand loyalty, with respect to Seoul, South Korea, as a tourism destination for tourists from China.
Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes
Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.
I Ketut Surya Diarta
Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment, choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.
Otor Samera U.
Full Text Available Existing Misbehaviour Detection Systems in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks MANETs are challenged with routing overhead and high latency resulting from complexity and failure to isolate and block misbehaving nodes for the reason that it is difficult to detect them as they participate fully in route finding. In this work a Mobile Agent-Based Acknowledgement scheme MAACK was formulated to address this problem using an object oriented algorithm deployed to report misbehaving nodes to the source and destination by registering the Internet Protocol IP address of misbehaving nodes in their header. The scheme was simulated using Network Simulator-3 NS-3 and results benchmarked with an existing scheme the Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgment EAACK using packet delivery ratio routing overhead and latency as performance metrics in the two scenarios. The results showed that the MAACK paradigm guaranteed a higher packet delivery ratio lower latency and routing overhead than the EAACK scheme. The model can be adapted by Ad-Hoc network protocol developers.
Haryono, E.; Sasongko, M. H. D.; Barianto, D. H.; Setiawan, J. B.; Hakim, A. A.; Zaenuri, A.
Maratua Island is one of the islands of Berau District, East Kalimantan which has great potential of natural beauty for tourism development. The area currently is one of famous tourist destination in East Kalimantan which is a carbonate reef built-up or so-called karst island. This paper is an endeavor 1) to unveil geomorphological and hydrogeological characteristics of the island, and 2) to recommend Island development as a tourist destination. Maratua Island is a V shape atoll with the open lagoon. Six geomorphological units were found on the island, i.e., fringing reef, beach, marine terrace, karst ridge, structural valley, and lagoon. Caves are also found in the karst ridge and the coast as an inundated passage. Three structural depressions in the karst ridge are other unique geomorphological feature in the area of which a marine lake environment with jellyfish is inhabited. The island is typified by two different aquifer units, i.e., porous media and fractured media aquifer. Porous aquifer lies on the beach of Boibukut area. Fractured-aquifer characterizes the other geomorphological units in the area. Freshwater accordingly is found in the beach area with a limited amount. Unfortunately, the groundwater in the marine terrace and karst ridge are saline. Maratua Island has enormous potential for tourism destination development. The major tourist activities in the area based on the geomorphological unit are snorkeling and diving (in fringing reef and lagoo n), hiking, cave exploration and marine lake exploration and cave diving (in karst ridge and structural valley); recreation and picnic (beach). The major limitation in the area is a shortage of freshwater resource and land. Limited water supply should be extracted from the beach area of Bohe Bukut village. Groundwater extraction from the beach area of Bohe Bukut must be for drinking water only. Supply of drinking water should be substituted from collected rainwater or desalination from sea water and water in
Full Text Available Urban tourist destinations or City Break destinations are representing one of main destination products on tourist market. City Break destinations are big cities, administrative, economic and political centers of states and regions. These cities are 'open' 24 hours per day, seven days in week. Inside these tourist destination we can find different range of products (culture, entertainment, recreation, leisure, history, modern infrastructure. In these destinations season is not present and it lasts trough out the year. Promotional campaigns in City Break destinations are truing to create distinguished images in tourists mind as also as on investors, consumers and future residents. They emphasize advantages that those cities are delivering to their consumers, but often we forget that all these cities are having specific geographic landscapes. In the era of limiting of mass tourism to preserve resources for future generations and emphasizing the importance of sustainable development for tourism perspectives, the importance of specific geographic landscapes inside urban destinations for their further development as tourist destinations an their overall development is slightly neglected.
El Haj, M.; Raffard, S.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.
Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger
Rayamajhi, Subash; Nepali, Manoj
Destination marketing is an important tool to attract travellers to the destination in this fast growing economic sector of tourism industry. The main factor which should be considered during destination marketing is customer environment where the customer experience, product and prices act as the value cluster for the traveller. The second factor includes competitor environment where destination should keep itself most popular among its competitor destinations to attract a significant share ...
Blazquez-Resino, Juan J.; Muro-Rodriguez, Ana I.; Perez-Jimenez, Israel R.
In this paper, a study of the perceived destination image created by promotional Web Pages is expounded in an attempt to identify their differences as generators of destination image in the consumers' mind. Specifically, it seeks to analyse whether the web sites of different Spanish regions improve the image that consumers have of the destination, identifying their main dimensions and analysing its effect on satisfaction and intentions of the future behavior of potential visitors. To achieve these objectives and verify the hypotheses, a laboratory experiment was performed, where it was determined what changes are produced in the tourist's previous image after browsing the tourist webs of three different regions. Moreover, it analyses the differences in the effect of the perceived image on satisfaction and potential visitors' future behavioral intentions. The results obtained enable us to identify differences in the composition of the perceived image according to the destination, while confirming the significant effect of different perceived image dimensions regarding satisfaction. The results allow managers to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of their sites from a consumer perspective as well as suggestions to follow in order to achieve greater efficiency in their communication actions in order to improve the motivation of visitors to go to the destination. PMID:27933027
Juan Jose Blazquez-Resino
Full Text Available In this paper, a study of the perceived destination image created by promotional Web Pages is expounded in an attempt to identify their differences as generators of destination image in the consumers’ mind. Specifically, it seeks to analyse whether the web sites of different Spanish regions improve the image that consumers have of the destination, identifying their main dimensions and analysing its effect on satisfaction and intentions of the future behaviour of potential visitors. To achieve these objectives and verify the hypotheses, a laboratory experiment was performed, where it was determined what changes are produced in the tourist´s previous image after browsing the tourist webs of three different regions. Moreover, it analyses the differences in the effect of the perceived image on satisfaction and potential visitors´ future behavioural intentions. The results obtained enable us to identify differences in the composition of the perceived image according to the destination, while confirming the significant effect of different perceived image dimensions regarding satisfaction. The results allow managers to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of their sites from a consumer perspective as well as suggestions to follow in order to achieve greater efficiency in their communication actions in order to improve the motivation of visitors to go to the destination.
Kitsukawa, Mika; Tsuchiyama, Hiromi; Maeda, Akihisa; Oshida, Keiyu; Miyamoto, Yohei
2-Cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester (CDDO-Me; bardoxolone methyl) is one of the synthetic oleanane triterpenoids (SOs). It is known that it is the strongest Nrf2/ARE signaling inducer of SOs and slightly inhibits immune response. Little was known about the immunomodulatory action of CDDO-Me in vivo. We assessed its immunosuppressive potential by using the modified mouse lymph node assay (LLNA) including immunosuppression-related gene expression analysis. In the modified LLNA, CDDO-Me showed a significant decrease in lymph node weight and changes in expressions of the immunosuppression-related genes, Zfp459 and Fmo2. It has been already reported that a decrease in lymph node weight was induced by several types of immunosuppressive chemicals such as calcineurin inhibitors, antimetabolites, steroids, and alkylators. In addition, changes in Zfp459 and Fmo2 expression was reported in response after only treatment of antimetabolites. From these results, CDDO-Me is considered to have an immunosuppressive action and similar mechanism to antimetabolites.
Roxana - Andreea SARAGEA
Full Text Available In the context of increased competition on the international tourism market, the assessment of destination image has become a research subject for both managers aiming to improve destination positioning and academic researchers. In order to obtain a competitive advantage, every tourist destination must identify, maintain and reinforce, through appropriate marketing policies, unique items that form and build over time "the destination' s image". Accordingly, the ultimate target of the tourist destinations' promoters should be to achieve a high level of coincidence between the promoted or projected image and the perceived image of the destination, held by potential and actual tourists. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illustrate promotional techniques and methods used by the authorities of the Canary Islands over the years (projected image, and to identify, through a survey among the citizens of Braşov, the image that they have of the Canary Islands (perceived image.
Yang, You Jung; Lim, Sung Jig; Song, Jeong Yoon
To evaluate the potential of Tc-99m diphosphonate as a tracer for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer. Lymphoscintigraphy of 35 patients (50.9±10.2 years) with breast cancer were acquired after administering a subauroral intradermal injection of Tc-99m diphosphonate 18 h before surgery. Static images were taken within 15 min (early phase) and 15 h after injection (delayed phase). The lymphoscintigraphy identification rate was defined as the percentage of subjects studied with visible foci at axillae. Sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed using a gamma probe and by blue dye injection. Any node that was radioactive or stained with blue dye was labeled as a sentinel lymph node. Lymph nodes without radioactivity or blue dye staining were defined as non sentinel lymph nodes. The intraoperative identification rate was defined as the percentage of patients with a radioactive sentinel lymph node. Percentages of lymphoid cells expressing S-100, CD83, and CD1a were compared. The lymphoscintigraphy identification rate was 94.3% (33/35) during the early phase and 96.9% (31/32) during the delayed phase, whereas the intraoperative identification rate was 94.3% (33/35). The mean percentages of lymphoid cells that stained positively for S-100 or CD83 were lower in sentinel lymph nodes than in non sentinel lymph nodes (1.5% vs. 9.0% for S-100, and 4.5% vs. 9.3% for CD83, respectively, p=0.0286). The mean percentages of lymphoid cells in sentinel lymph nodes and non-sentinel lymph nodes expressing CD1a were 3.3% and 7.0%, respectively (p=ns). Conclusions Tc-99m diphosphonate can reliably detect regional lymph nodes in breast cancer.
Kadi Alaa J.
Full Text Available Rural heritage tourism destination management is an essential knowledge area that should be investigated to achieve sustainable destination, especially for an emerging destination. The goal of this process is to ensure that these elements are thoroughly inspected and rigidly organized due to the main concepts, theories, methods and approaches mentioning different perspectives to tackle these certain elements. In order to cope with the complexity of the relation between the destination elements and its characteristics and sequence of the maturity of the selected destination, all that needs in-depth knowledge to assist the researchers in developing and improving different types of approaches and tools, and in structuring and assessing the destination. We develop a neat backbone literature review concerning the all aspects of the sustainable rural heritage tourism destination. We review the existing methods, approaches and theories applied on the relative field, and further study the relevant challenges that have been the target of investigation in the academic literature. The paper is intended to be the newest and the most important existing study on the topic of rural heritage emerging tourism destination. The results are particularly relevant to practitioners seeking a better grasp on managing tourism destination as well as achieving sustainability in tourism destinations. As a major finding of the review, the results strongly suggest the need for more practitioner-oriented and industry-driven empirical studies in the area of flexible managerial framework to cope with special and dynamic characteristics of different tourism destinations.
El Haj, M.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.
Background/Study Context: Destination memory, remembering the destination of the information that one tells, shows significant age-related decline. In the present paper, the authors sought to determine whether destination memory can be improved in older adults using emotional stimuli. This aim was
Tham, Min-En Aaron
The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of social media in destination choice. The evolution of social media within tourism has provided further impetus towards destination information search and image formation. To this end, existing studies have presented the influence of social media at destination micro-levels, such as accommodation and restaurants. At a macro-level, some studies have investigated the influence of social media on a destination. However, current scope is l...
Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, Albert
Most studies that investigate tourists' choices of destinations apply the concept of mental destination representations, also referred to as destination image. The present study investigates tourists’ destination choice processes by conceptualizing how different components of destination image...... are mentally processed in tourists' minds. Specifically, the seminal dual processing approach is applied to the destination image literature. By doing this, we argue that some components of mental destination representations are processed systematically while others serve as inputs for heuristics...... that individuals apply to inform their decision making. Understanding how individuals make use of their mental destination representations and how they color their decision-making is essential in order to better explain tourist behavior....
Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of the destination in strategic tourism develop- ment. It will then look at international best practice and how the SVP/ Hudson Model can be used as a tool to shape the planning, management and marketing of tourism destinations. This analysis will include a review of the critical success factors from lea- ding destinations and in particular, the role of and need for innovation. The concept ofinnovation in tourism will be examined and examples of how innovation has been used in a range of European destinations will be considered in detail. This will include evi- dence from key stakeholders, as well as analysis of the PR and media interest generated by an innovative approach to tourism destination development. The paper will examine key issues such as branding and positioning, along with the importance of clear strate- gic planning, having an effective destination management organisation and delivering benefits to the host community. In an increasingly competitive marketplace the need for destinations to ‘’stand out in a crowd” is essential. International benchmarking is vital to understand how well you are doing compa- red with your competitors whilst innovation ensures that the competitive edge is always maintained. The paper will include detailed case studies, consideration of the concepts of in- novation and benchmarking and focus on the main lessons for destinations in emerging tourism economies
Full Text Available Motto: "Ecological and economic deficits are now shaping not only our future, but our present. The future is here." Lester R. Brown (World on the Edge After 50 years of communism, of values destruction, of chaotic real estate evolution, of a kitsch tourist image perceived by those visiting our country, of values reversal, of values dilution, all of us who love our country and tourism wonder what and how to do to transform Romania into an attractive destination. We all know that we have marvelous places, we know that they are not promoted, but why those authorized to do so, don't do it, we don't know! Recently, the ones from National Geographic Traveler (the travelling publication with the widest audience, having over 8.5 million readers have given us a ball of oxygen, have shown us a ray of hope by classifying Maramures in the Top 20 mandatory tourist destinations for 2015, summing up a series of criteria: authenticity, sustainability, cultural richness, etc. Maramures has all these qualities. But it remains a micro region, and the rest of the country (with small exceptions has not attracted attention or tourists... The perception of Romania as a tourist destination is unclear; it has not got a good reputation as a bona fide destination for occasional tourists. This is caused partly by: deficiencies in the destination marketing, the absence of governmental support in tourism, the unprofessional practices in the business tourism sector, the low standards of the services for the visitors, the deficient infrastructure, improper facilities and pass-time activities, etc. The re-launching of tourism from Romania, of the tourist destinations and the attraction of a larger number of foreign tourists could bring supplementary benefits, but with many necessary changes, in the tourism managers’ opinion. “Two elements are essential in the tourism industry system: how to make use environmentally, sustainably of the tourism potential of the landscape and
Full Text Available The degree to which a country can benefit from its tourism industry depends largely on this competitive position on the international tourist market. Therefore, it is very important for one destination to realise its real competitive position on the tourism market as well as to address its weaknesses comparing them to its major competitors. There are different models for measuring the competitiveness. Among all, we follow the framework of authors Dwyer, Livaic and Mellor (2003, so called Integrated model of destination competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to present the model of destination competitiveness and results of the survey, based on indicators associated with the model. The results showed that Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and created resources than in destination management while, according to the Integrated model, Serbia is less competitive in demand conditions, which refer to the image and awareness of the destination itself.
This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...
Gruescu, Ramona; Nanu, Roxana; Pirvu, Gheorghe
We identify the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes "bottom to top" analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT. Two essential basis of the competitive advantage are isolated: differentiation and cost adv...
Gruescu, Ramona; Nanu, Roxana; Pirvu, Gheorghe
The paper envisages aspects concerning identification of the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes ‘bottom to top’ analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT technologies. Two essential basis of the compet...
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Full Text Available The strength of the senior traveler segment is the high purchasing power the length of stay in a destination, making this market segment increasingly important in present and future. Consequently, this research aims to establish a model of motivation and its relationship with the image of Bali as an international tourism destination, especially from the perspective of senior tourists. This research employed survey method and utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques. Factor analysis condensed various indicators into several key indicators to form a model with goodness of fit. Indicators representing push motivation variable include the improvement of health/fitness and the drive to perform physical exercise. Indicators representing destination identity variable include the culture and nature of Bali. Indicators representing destination creation variable include the service quality of travel agencies and service quality of travel guides. Indicators representing destination image variable include the image of cultural uniqueness and holiday atmosphere of Bali. The survey in this study involved 400 respondents of senior tourists, exclusively only foreign nationals. Goodness of fit is affirmed on the results of the analysis model, which answered the hypothesis that push motivation and destination creation affect destination images.
Abubakar, Abubakar Mohammed; Ilkan, Mustafa; Al-Tal, Raad Meshall; Eluwole, Kayode
This article investigates the impact of eWOM on intention to revisit and destination trust, and the moderating role of gender in medical tourism industry. Result from structural equation modeling (n=240) suggests the following: (1) that eWOM influences intention to revisit and destination trust; (2) that destination trust influences intention to revisit; (3) that the impact of eWOM on intention to revisit is about 1.3 times higher in men; (4) that the impact of eWOM on destination trust is ab...
Seaside tourism has become one of the popular tourism destinations to the tourists. It is necessary for manager to study the strategy marketing of seaside tourism destination to promote the seaside tourism. This paper examines the characteristics of seaside tourism and uses the SWOT to analyze the strengths, weakness, opportunities and treats of seaside tourism. Then, the challenges of seaside tourism destination are introduced and should be noticed by the marketing managers.
Claudio Sunao Saito
Full Text Available This bibliometric study aims to understand the main subjects, approaches, and theoretical references related to travel destination choice. The Scopus database, statistical software, and citation analysis defined the relevance and prestige of the articles, authors, models, and theoretical foundations, based on the number of citations in later articles. The results demonstrate that there are a diversity of perspectives and approaches related to the topic and the articles can be grouped into studies related to decision models or destination choice, motivating factors for tourism, personal characteristics or factors, destination characteristics and attractiveness, scope of the intended trip (holiday, size, distance, duration of the trip, etc., travel experiences (humor, feelings during the trip, post-purchase evaluations, etc., influence of the destination’s image, and influence of information/communication on the travel destination choice. The results also indicate a difference regarding the origin of the articles (countries/institution, authors, and theoretical references used in research related to the topic.
Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E
Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.
van Rijk, Maartje C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Olmos, Renato Valdés; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Kroon, Bin B R
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the sentinel node was identified in on average 89%, and the false-negative rate was on average 10%. Because of these mediocre results, no author dares to omit axillary clearance just yet. In our institute, sentinel lymph node biopsy is performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with this approach. Sentinel node biopsy was performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 25 T2N0 patients by using lymphoscintigraphy, a gamma ray detection probe, and patent blue dye. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed after chemotherapy if the sentinel node contained metastases. Ten patients had a tumor-positive axillary sentinel node, and one patient had an involved lateral intramammary node. Four patients had additional involved nodes in the completion lymph node dissection specimen. The other 14 patients (56%) had a tumor-negative sentinel node and did not undergo axillary lymph node dissection. No recurrences have been observed after a median follow-up of 18 months. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were spared axillary lymph node dissection when the sentinel node was found to be disease free. Performing sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy seems successful and reliable in patients with T2N0 breast cancer.
Božena Krce Miočić
Full Text Available Destination presents a set of different organizations and individuals who can work towards realising the same objectives or their objectives can be diametrically opposed. Harmonisation of such objectives in a unique strategic development of the entire destination is usually taken over by destination management organization (DMO established to accomplish the mentioned objective. The opposed interests in such a system as complex as tourism result in the degradation of space and society in which tourism takes place. Therefore sustainable development in tourism represents a primary concept of development today. Tourism is a fast growing phenomenon and its sustainable development represents a necessity. Besides the positive economic outputs of tourism, we should also mention its negative impact on the particular destination, the environmental degradation to some extent, as well as socio-economic elements of local community. Accordingly, multi-stakeholder concept in destination management should include all interest and influential groups in tourism development planning. Such integrated destination management connects all stakeholders independent from influence or interest powers to participate directly or indirectly in creating and implementing the quality tourism development. This concept’s basic function is connecting and coordinating stakeholders with different interests within a tourism destination, in order to create quality product and a recognizable destination image, and to achieve a long-term sustainable competitiveness on the market. However, based on the stakeholder approach, the most emphasized issue in sustainable tourism development concept is the government that holds a key role in socio-economic development. In this paper, we analysed current involvement of stakeholders in Zadar County tourism development and examined their interest in future involvement in sustainable destination development. Based on the analysis of focus group
Full Text Available Considering the fat that a rate of up to 70% of tourists visiting Romania have a professional motivation, the present papers intends to provide an overview of the advantages held by Romania for offering tourists the proper conditions for spending quality time in this emerging country. Within the present article, the authors provide to readers an overview regarding destination branding, business travel and the critical elements in achieving economic advantages over competing regions/countries; the article emphasizes the fact that -intelligently exploited-, business tourism can be an element of prosperity within the tumultuous period of time through which Romania and other emerging states are crossing nowadays. The results of this paper work are focused on the identifying, analysing and correlating the main factors that can influence a destination' development through its propulsion as a brand destination for business tourism. Generally speaking, the paper approaches aspects regarding business tourism. The methodology used in order to write the present article is limited to the collection and processing empirical data and information. In this regard, the literature in the field has been reviewed, so that the authors could identify and expose the importance of destination branding through business travel for sustainable development in Romania.
Piccotti, Joseph R; Kawabata, Thomas T
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to assess the contact hypersensitivity potential of compounds. In the standard assay, mice are treated topically with test compound to the dorsum of both ears on Days 1-3. The induction of a hypersensitivity response is assessed on Day 6 by injecting [(3)H]-thymidine into a tail vein and measuring thymidine incorporation into DNA of lymph node cells draining the ears. The ex vivo LLNA is conducted similarly except lymphocyte proliferation is assessed after in vitro incubation of lymph node cells with [(3)H]-thymidine, which significantly reduces the amount of radioactive waste. The current study tested the use of this approach for hazard assessment of contact hypersensitivity and to estimate allergenic potency. Female BALB/c mice were treated on Days 1-3 with two nonsensitizers (4' -methoxyacetophenone, diethyl phthalate), three weak sensitizers (hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, citral), one weak-to-moderate sensitizer (hexylcinnamic aldehyde), two moderate sensitizers (isoeugenol, phenyl benzoate), and one strong sensitizer (dinitrochlorobenzene). On Day 6, isolated lymph node cells were incubated overnight with [(3)H]-thymidine and thymidine incorporation was measured by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. The ex vivo LLNA accurately distinguished the contact sensitizers from the nonsensitizing chemicals, and correctly ranked the relative potency of the compounds tested. The EC3 values, i.e., the effective concentration of test substance needed to induce a stimulation index of 3, were as follows: 4' -methoxyacetophenone (> 50%), diethyl phthalate (> 50%), hydroxycitronellal (20.4%), eugenol (13.6%), citral (8.9%), isoeugenol (3.8%), hexylcinnamic aldehyde (2.7%), phenyl benzoate (2%), and dinitrochlorobenzene (0.02%). In addition, low inter-animal and inter-experiment variability was seen with 25% hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde (assay positive control). The results of the ex vivo LLNA in the current study were consistent with
Lindner, Isabel; Drouin, Héloïse; Tanguay, Annick F N; Stamenova, Vessela; Davidson, Patrick S R
Whereas source memory involves remembering from whom you have heard something, destination memory involves remembering to whom you have told something. Despite its practical relevance, destination memory has been studied little. Recently, two reports suggested that generally destination memory should be poorer than source memory, and that it should be particularly difficult for older people. We tested these predictions by having young and older participants read sentences to two examiners (destination encoding) and listen to sentences read by two examiners (source encoding), under intentional (Experiment 1) or incidental encoding (Experiments 2 and 3). Only in Experiment 3 (in which cognitive demands during destination encoding were increased) was destination memory significantly poorer than source memory. In none of the experiments were older adults inferior to the young on destination or source memory. Destination- and source-memory scores were significantly correlated. Item memory was consistently superior for sentences that had been read out loud (during destination encoding) versus those that had been heard (during source encoding). Destination memory needs not always be poorer than source memory, appears not to be particularly impaired by normal ageing and may depend on similar processes to those supporting source memory.
RAMDAN MUHAMAD RIZKY; RAHARDJO KUSDI; ABDILLAH YUSRI
Electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) is a new development of word of mouth by using social media platform to interact in the internet. Current studies only examine the model on its own basis by using theory planned behavior (TPB). Based on this idea, this research is trying to examine the model of e-WOM, Destination Image, Attitude Toward Destination together to reveal which factor that give the greater effects against travel intention both direct effect, indirect effects and total effects. The s...
If we think of a tourist destination as a platform from which a variety of tourist experiences can be delivered, we could conceptualize these experiences as the "product line" offered by or associated with the tourist destination. That conceptualization enables the manager of the destination to employ the logic and discipline associated with product line...
Full Text Available Performance evaluations are a critical tool in promoting the sustainability of tourist destinations. The literature shows a lack of consensus on basic terminology and definitions of destination performance. While research focuses on business efficiency, areas such as development effectiveness, social equality, and environmental integrity are still not well understood, even though these are salient elements of sustainable development. This paper provides a framework for evaluating destination performance under the 4E rubric of economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental quality, which reflects a more holistic and effective destination performance. The information entropy weight method and a multi-factor comprehensive evaluation model are developed and applied to an international destination, Zhangjiajie, China, which was selected as a case study to test the framework developed. Results show that the economy, efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental quality aspects should be considered when evaluating tourism development performance. The empirical analysis shows that based on these criteria, Zhangjiajie’s destination performance improved measurably during the test period from 2005 to 2009. The results indicate that significant events, natural disasters, and financial crises influence performance most.
Until recently, very little was known about Saturn's largest satellite, Titan. But that has changed dramatically since the Cassini spacecraft started orbiting in the Saturn system in 2004. Larger than Mercury and with a dense atmosphere, Titan has many of the characteristics of a planet. Indeed, many scientists now see it as the most interesting place in the Solar System for robotic exploration, with many unique features and even the possibility of exotic forms of life. This paper points out that Titan is also a potential destination for humans. With its predominantly nitrogen atmosphere, moderate gravity, and available water and oxygen, it also appears that, once it becomes possible to travel there, it will prove to be much more hospitable for human visitors than any other destination in the Solar System.
El Haj, Mohamad; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane
Destination memory, or the ability to remember the destination to whom a piece of information was addressed, is found to be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper investigated the relationship between destination memory and theory of mind in AD since both destination memory and theory of mind are social abilities that require processing attributes of interlocutors. Mild AD participants and controls were administered tasks tapping destination memory, affective theory of mind, and 1st and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind. Relative to controls, AD participants showed compromise in destination memory and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind, but preserved performance on affective and 1st order cognitive theory of mind. Significant correlations were observed between destination memory, and 1st and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind in AD participants and controls. By demonstrating a relationship between compromises in 2nd order theory of mind and in destination memory, our work highlights links between social cognition and memory functioning in AD.
Cradock, Angie L; Melly, Steven J; Allen, Joseph G; Morris, Jeffrey S; Gortmaker, Steven L
Limited availability of desirable destinations within walkable distances and unsuitable weather may adversely affect physical activity among adolescents on weekends. This study examines evidence for associations between objective measures of local environment and physical activity levels of adolescents. Students (n=152, 59% male; mean age, 13.7 years) from 10 neighborhoods with schools in four communities wore TriTrac-R3D accelerometers recording physical movements on weekends. Minute-by-minute data were summed over 15-minute intervals providing estimates of proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and (log) mean physical activity levels on weekends (n=7,506 intervals). Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were calculated using geographic information systems including average daily traffic, housing density, open space, and density of employees per square kilometer in youth destinations. Linear mixed models were fit examining associations between neighborhood environmental variables and accelerometer measures of physical activity, controlling for time, day, age, body mass index, gender of respondent, race/ethnicity, precipitation, and temperature deviation. On weekends, the presence of greater densities of employees in neighborhood destinations serving youth (beta=3.96, p=0.050) was directly associated with MVPA, independent of student characteristics. Young people attending schools in neighborhoods characterized by greater densities of employees in destinations for youth are more physically active on weekends. Compared with neighborhoods with lower densities, attending a school in neighborhoods with higher densities of employees in potential destinations for youth may contribute to participation in an additional 30 minutes of MVPA per day on weekends.
Gopie, Nigel; Craik, Fergus I M; Hasher, Lynn
Older adults are assumed to have poor destination memory-knowing to whom they tell particular information-and anecdotes about them repeating stories to the same people are cited as informal evidence for this claim. Experiment 1 assessed young and older adults' destination memory by having participants tell facts (e.g., "A dime has 118 ridges around its edge") to pictures of famous people (e.g., Oprah Winfrey). Surprise recognition memory tests, which also assessed confidence, revealed that older adults, compared to young adults, were disproportionately impaired on destination memory relative to spared memory for the individual components (i.e., facts, faces) of the episode. Older adults also were more confident that they had not told a fact to a particular person when they actually had (i.e., a miss); this presumably causes them to repeat information more often than young adults. When the direction of information transfer was reversed in Experiment 2, such that the famous people shared information with the participants (i.e., a source memory experiment), age-related memory differences disappeared. In contrast to the destination memory experiment, older adults in the source memory experiment were more confident than young adults that someone had shared a fact with them when a different person actually had shared the fact (i.e., a false alarm). Overall, accuracy and confidence jointly influence age-related changes to destination memory, a fundamental component of successful communication. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
This thesis is about the dark tourism and destination marketing. The aim of the thesis is to display how these two terms can be combined. The term dark tourism is a relatively new research area; therefore the thesis will provide an outlook of the current situation of dark tourism. It starts with the beginning of dark tourism and continuous to the managerial aspects of dark tourism sites. The second part of the theoretical background is about destination marketing. It provides an overvie...
Lina Georgieva ANASTASSOVA
Full Text Available Within the context of enormous competition on the international tourist market, destination branding is getting an increasing importance as a way to attract more tourists and visitors. There is an overall trend away from product features towards lifestyle or value systems which reveals that the consumer of today makes choices based on whether or not a product fits into her or his lifestyle and whether a destination represents a desirable tourist experience. After theoretical literature review on brand identity, the results of a festival visitors’ opinion survey about “Include the city” festival’s contribution to the brand identity of Burgas city are discussed. The survey methodology includes descriptive statistics, Z-score method in order to classify in groups visitor’s opinion as well as content analysis of visitors’ opinion. Three research hypotheses are checked and suggestions about the festival’s marketing contribution in three aspects to the brand identity extension of urban destination Burgas are presented.
Full Text Available Branding in tourism is a process that selects a particular destination by its characteristics, thus creating destination identity. The greatest success in this process is achieved by emphasizing authenticity, where Slavonia has great potential. By creating international recognisability of the region, a brand attracts investments and a skilled labour force, thus indirectly having a positive effect on export growth. Values that should draw the attention of both domestic and foreign tourists, i.e. values that are sufficiently attractive to bring tourists, are embedded in the brand. These values should be realistically based. Although Slavonia is an underdeveloped region in terms of tourism, it has a realistic perspective to become a desirable tourist destination. The paper provides analysis of the results of the conducted primary research about the perception that tourists have about Slavonia as a tourist destination. One of the goals was to determine the key components and areas that would be used in the future as a foundation for the definition of a unique brand identity of Slavonia and creation of a desirable tourist environment in this area. Based on the conducted research, clear indicators reflect the opinion of tourists which makes Slavonia unique and attractive, being at the same time elements of its unique brand identity. The results showed that the possible strong driving force of tourism development in Slavonia may include products such as rural tourism, thematic events, special interests (cycling, hiking, fishing and hunting, religious tourism, health and nautical tourism. Another conclusion that was made during the research is that Slavonia should aim at the target population. Thus, segmentation results in several target groups such as tourists with special interests, tourists preferring cultural heritage and other traditional values, nature lovers, recreational athletes and athletes. The aim was to gather data that could be used in the
Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala
Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households.
The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.
The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.
El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Verny, C.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.
Destination memory refers to the recall of the destination of previously relayed information, and source memory refers to the recollection of the origin of received information. We compared both memory systems in Huntington's disease (HD) participants. For this, HD participants and healthy adults
Ahuja, V; Platzek, T; Fink, H; Sonnenburg, A; Stahlmann, R
Disperse dyes, which are suitable for dyeing synthetic fibres, are responsible for the great majority of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) cases to textile dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitising potential of various disperse dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Briefly, mice were shaved over a surface of approximately 2 cm(2) on their backs and treated using a "sensitisation-challenge protocol". The shaved surface was treated once daily on days 1-3 with 50 microl of the test solution. Animals remained untreated on days 4-14. On days 15-17, mice were treated with 25 microl of the test solution on the dorsum of both ears. Mice were killed on day 19 with deep CO(2) anaesthesia, the lymph nodes prepared and various end points, such as ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count and the proportion of various lymphocyte subpopulations, were determined by flow cytometry. The results were compared to control group treated with the vehicle alone. Our results showed that almost all of the tested textile dyes caused a significant increase in lymph node cell count and lymph node weight. We also observed an increase in ear thickness and ear punch weight in most of the concentrations tested for various textile dyes. We observed a decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells and an increase in CD19+, CD45+ and CD45+/1A+ cells in most of the cases, which is characteristic for allergens. The CD4+/CD69+ cells increased in only few experiments mainly with Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106. Based on our results, the disperse dyes could be arranged in four groups on the basis of their sensitising potency in the following decreasing order (in parenthesis: lowest concentration causing a significant increase in lymph node cell number): group 1, strong: Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106 (0.003%); group 2, moderate: Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Blue 1 (3%); group 3, weak: Disperse Orange 37 and
Full Text Available This study develops and tests an integrated model of the moderated mediation of risks (man-made and natural disasters that explains the associations between the benefits of tourism and the destination image. The study also considers how tourists are influenced by natural disasters and provides empirical evidence to predict the hypothesis models. The results of a study of 635 foreign tourists indicate that the tourism risks of man-made disasters positively influence the tourists’ experienced benefits and feeling experience. Foreign tourists’ risk evaluation may have a positive effect on their benefit and feeling experience and, thus, may link to the destination image. Somewhat as expected, the moderating effect of tourist benefit is found to strengthen the relationship between feeling experience and the destination image. Alternatively, foreign tourists’ feeling experiences foster a positive link between tourism risk and destination image. The implications of the moderated mediation results are discussed.
Célia Maria Conceição Salmim Rafael
Full Text Available The influence of the destination image in the decision process and choice of destination by tourists is transverse to its intangible nature. Recent studies expand and modify the conventional image constructs specifying information sources transmitted through the internet. The scenario resulting from the literature review allows us to understand the importance of experience for touristic activity and theoretical proposition of virtual tourism as "virtual tourist experience", its determinants and its implications for the overall image destination formation. This study presents a literature review base to the empiric research proposal whose general objective comprises the analysis of the influence of factors, such as interactivity, in online communication and contact with virtual tourism experiences online in image destination formation and image destination.
Full Text Available This paper concerns the topic of rural destination quality from the viewpoint of tourism development. The research exploring crucial quality factors from the viewpoint of demand is presented. Rural tourism participants attribute the highest significance to Destination cleanliness and Sense of security. The evaluation of the importance of most research quality factors is not dependent on gender and on the contrary, the importance of 16 quality factors depends on the visitor´s age. In the case of the factor of “Friendly acceptance by the locals”, the most significant influence on the visitor´s return to the destination was confirmed. On the contrary, this impact was not proven for the factor of “Level of prices of services and goods in the destination”. The research and the successive factor analysis revealed 6 dimensions representing the rural destination quality: Services, Image, Transportation, Well-being, Information/Communication and Attractions/ Experiences; Well-being was identified as the most important. This was consecutively confirmed by the analysis of the quality factors’ impact on the visitor´s overall satisfaction and loyalty to the destination. The research findings provide the theory with topical destination quality dimensions as well as contribute to better understanding of visitor´s behavioural mechanisms in rural areas.
Bhagchandani, Neeraj Vishindas
Singaporeans are known to have high disposable incomes and come from one of the more influential economies in Asia. Singaporeans have a sizeable impact on the world’s tourism industry. Thus, it is not surprising that they are the target of many tourism destination marketing organizations. Influencing this segment bears great international interest. Existing research identifies the many methods new destinations enter the holiday maker’s mind and move along the destination decision making p...
Full Text Available Today, the part played by the image in the development of tourism, and, specially, as a diffe- rentiation element of a destination area is widely acknowledged. This is reflected to a great extent in the literature that focuses its interest on identifying the variables that motivate the purchase or stimulate the decision process. However, the reference to feedback processes or image control mechanisms as well as their creation, is surprising. An approach model to these processes will be exposed in this article.
Ahuja, Varun; Wanner, Reinhard; Platzek, Thomas; Stahlmann, Ralf
Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) is used while manufacturing natural rubber products. Our study deals with assessing its allergenic potential following dermal and oral routes of exposure, using a biphasic local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female Balb/c mice were treated with MBT (dermally 3, 10, 30% concentrations in DMSO; orally 1, 10, 100 mg/kg doses in corn oil) on the back (dermal study) or through oral administration (oral study) on days 1-3 followed by auricular application of 3, 10 and 30% concentrations, respectively, on days 15-17. End points determined on day 19 included ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count, and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+, CD45+). After dermal application of 3% or 10% solution, a significant increase in cell count and lymph node weight along with significant decrease in CD8+ cells was observed. After initial oral administration of 1 mg/kg, we noticed a significant amplification in cell count. Following oral administration of 10 mg/kg, we observed a similar increase in cell count and lymph node weight. The results of our study show that the modified biphasic LLNA protocol can be used to study the sensitising potential of a compound also following the oral route of exposure.
Full Text Available Tourism destinations are vulnerable to negative impacts of tourism development and thus require a sustainable approach. It is significant mainly in destinations with fragile environments such as cultural destinations with their historical value and mountain destinations with specific natural conditions. The aim of this paper is to propose the monitoring system for sustainable development of cultural and mountain destinations based on the critical scientific literature review. The added value of this work resides in defining specific indicators (creating monitoring system for measurement of sustainability in cultural routes and mountain destinations.
Full Text Available In this paper an analysis was conducted of the existing touristic position of Serbia as a destination on the international toursitic market. Almost all countries worldwide tend to valorise their touristic potentials by offering various touristic products/services on touristic markets in order to realize numerous objectives of its economic and general social development. The Republic of Serbia also classified the development of touristic activity into priorities of its actual economic politics and developing strategy. Observing from today's perspective one can conclude that Serbia still hasn't taken an adequate competing position regarding other toursitic destinations, not only in the region but in the world as well. The aim of this paper is to point out the main causes of the present market position of Serbia and the necessity of its repositioning, so that it can become attractive and respectable touristic destination as soon as possible both in regional and international touristic market.
Tussyadiah, Iis; Park, S.; Fesenmaier, D.R.
Using tourists' stories to promote destinations is believed to be an innovative approach in destination marketing. This study conceptualizes and investigates the effectiveness of such an approach. This study supports the underlying premise of introducing narrative in marketing, that is......, the narrative reasoning that human beings possess with which they can retrieve information better through a story. Furthermore, it is argued that the increased knowledge of a destination will have a stronger effect on the intention to visit a destination if the audiences can identify themselves with the story...
Full Text Available Policy makers and tourism developers must understand visitors’ mobility behavior and how they consume space and tourism resources in order to set up sustainable cultural tourism destinations. With this in mind, it should also be pointed out that the mobility patterns of tourists in urban destinations are mainly located in the city center (spatial centrality, the analysis of which enables us to define “how central” the resources (museums, monuments, etc. are and what the interactions between them are. Comprehending which factors influence visitors’ urban mobility behavior is key to understanding tourists’ consumption of space and their connections with the tourism assets of the city. Furthermore, when tourists visit a destination, they make a mental representation of the destination, constructing a mental map of it. Thus, tourists consume not only spaces but also the image of a city/destination. Moreover, the latter influences the former. The quality of surrounding architecture and urbanism plays a crucial role in enhancing the experiential value of a destination and influencing space consumption preferences. Clearly, visitors are more likely to use/consume environments that are easily navigated and mentally legible. In order to explore these patterns, a real experiment was performed based on visitor behavior in the city of Bilbao. In addition, the central places of Bilbao were determined and an analysis of the spatial interaction between cultural sites was performed, making use of a new methodology based on GPS technologies, network analysis, and surveys. This methodology is the main contribution of this work. The results suggest that (1 easy mobility (walkability, accessibility, different transport modes of the visited space facilitates the tourist experience; (2 simple and eligible mental maps of the city that are easily perceived by visitors facilitate the rapid consumption of the tourist destination; and (3 the centrality of the
Helena Maria Pascoal Melo
Full Text Available Destinations are currently seeking to become more distinctive in an increasingly competitive market in which image is a decisive element in tourists’ destination selection. This study sought to understand the Azores’ overall image as a tourist destination in major source markets and to ascertain these markets’ level of satisfaction and behavioural intentions concerning the archipelago. The literature review in this paper addresses the definition of tourist destination image and the issue of satisfaction, since these influence intention to return and/or intention to recommend tourist destinations. The results indicate that (1 overall image influences satisfaction and intention to recommend and/or return to tourist destinations and (2 satisfaction influences intention to recommend and/or return to tourist destinations. This study also verified that most tourists are very satisfied with the Azores, as well as having a quite positive overall image of this destination.
This paper deals with coastal tourists’ food experiences and focuses on the potentials and challenges the New Nordic Cuisine (NNC) concept holds in relation to German tourists visiting Danish coastal destinations. By means of a conceptual model, the characteristics of the NNC are related to schol...
Full Text Available Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs operate at many levels ranging from the national to the municipal and have evolved over the years to respond to the geographical and political realities that are associated with tourism supply. Alongside providing information to potential visitors, DMOs work to make a destination attractive by showcasing its unique aspects and attractions. As the appeal of destinations, cost of doing business and the destination brand may be affected by the possible effects of climate change, this study aims to identify opportunities and threats to municipal and provincial/territorial DMOs and their members as well as identify measures they are undertaking to address the potential impacts. A study conducted of Canada’s provincial and municipal large DMOs was conducted in 2009. This research found that awareness of climate change in Canada’s tourism industry is increasing, but more efforts must be undertaken to mitigate climate change. To address climate change and tourism, this paper suggests doing three things: (a DMOs need to demonstrate leadership about climate change education and mitigation to all their members; (b government policy and action are needed to provide incentives for industry to address climate change; and (c industry members require further education to take the steps necessary mitigate risk and to adapt. The internet has changed the DMOs’ roles and how they provide information to the consumer; as such, they have been presented with an opportunity to take on new roles as educational and marketing providers. This paper will outline in the current shifts among Canadian DMOs and will discuss the key issues that are applicable to DMOs worldwide.
Full Text Available Visitors’ perceptions of the quality of a tourism destination are fundamental for effective destination management and marketing. This paper deals with the topic of destination quality from the viewpoint of demand, i.e. from the viewpoint of a destination visitor. The results of perceiving the destination quality partial factors in the context of different behavioural characteristics of a visitor are presented, particularly, the way how spending and organizing a holiday influences the perception of destination quality factors (Kruskal-Wallis test. The research nineteen factors were designed on the basis of contemporary theories and on qualitative research. Some important quality aspects related to tourism were identified and assessed for the Czech population. The primary data were obtained through a questionnaire survey with quota sampling (n = 1097. The dependence of destination quality perception on the way of spending the holiday was revealed in the case of 8 factors (e.g., Availability of transportation to the destination, Availability and quality of information; Additional infrastructure, Sense of security, Destination cleanliness, Uniqueness of destination, Price level in the destination, Cultural monuments. The significant differences identified among various groups of respondents are described in detail in this study. The research findings contribute to better understanding of the behavioural mechanism and can be used by destination managers to design communication strategies for different segments of consumers for individual destinations to improve their competiveness.
Full Text Available Destination branding has become one of the most popular contemporary topics, both among tourism practitioners and politicians, because there is strong evidence that strong national destination brand supports commercial brands in industries related to tourism. Therefore, factors that influence destination brand loyalty are of crucial importance for understanding and promoting the brand. Building brand loyalty is not just about repeat buying, but also about building customers emotional attachment to the brand. Global growth and diversification of tourist markets has transformed destinations from “vacation industry” concept, to “industry of experience” concept.The study performed statistical tests with a goal to analyze the factors influencing brand loyalty in Serbia: age, length of stay and daily spending. Additionally, sub-brand loyalty levels are presented (by major destinations inside Serbia, markets of origin and by major themes for travel in order to identify groups of tourists that are more loyal, and the ones that are less loyal to the destination brand of Serbia. The study results and recommendations should be used as a contribution towards designing national and regional destination marketing strategies.
Full Text Available The focus of the submitted article is to introduce the findings of author’s research in the area of destination management process conducted in the developed (Alpine tourist destinations in the year of 2014. The theoretical part based on a literature review summarizes current knowledge dealing with the destination management process in terms of approaches and research findings. Problems influencing either positively or negatively this process, e.g. financing, legislation or cooperation among stakeholders are also defined. The practical application part includes an analysis of model destinations in Lower Austria and Upper Austria and presents the results of qualitative research conducted in these destinations. The collected information can be used to design methods leading to the improvement of the destination management process in tourist less developed destinations.
Purpose – Destination branding is one of the most popular topics among tourism destinations researchers and practitioners however recent research revealed that it doesn’t have a clear concept. The purpose of presented paper is to enhance the destination branding theory by introducing some new elements taken from other popular concepts used in destination management into destination branding theory. The concept of destination brand licensing was undertaken as a response to several critical arg...
Full Text Available The paper deals with the quality of tourism services. It mentions various ways of approaching quality management, such as the standards of quality, systems based on ISO standards and systems of complex quality management. It describes approaches applied in the Czech Republic and points out the difficulty keeping the quality in tourism. Tourism services are not offered individually, which is why it is necessary to assess the quality of a whole complex of services within the frame of a tourism product or a tourist destination. The level of tourists' satisfaction is not based on the quality of individual tourism services or a destination product but it arises from their overall impression which is formed from the hospitality of local inhabitants, the willingness of employees, the cleanness of the environment, security and so on. The presumption of maintaining the quality of a destination is a unified approach of all participants in tourism development that can be reached by various forms of cooperation. Creating a strategic alliance is one of such possibilities. The main objective of the article is to introduce the European system of Integrated Quality Management (IQM and the tool for assessing the quality in a destination “Qualitest”. The Integrated Quality Management is an approach based on the cooperation of all areas taking part in tourism development in a destination. The quality is assessed in a complex way with respect to tourism development impacts on local inhabitants and the environment. “Qualitest” is made of 16 indexes that are focused on the quality of a destination and the quality of a product. Each index is evaluated by three indicators that asses the quality of conditions (QPCI, the quality of management (QMI and the quality of a destination performance (QPI. These indicators combine qualitative as well as quantitative values. The precondition for using “Qualitest” in our destinations is the existence of a
Abdulhamid, Shafii Muhammad; Usman, Gana
The use of information and communication technology in our day to day activities is now unavoidable. In tourism developments, destination information and management systems are used to guide visitors and provide information to both visitors and management of the tour sites. In this paper, information and navigation system was designed for tourists, taking some Niger state of Nigeria tourism destinations into account. The information management system was designed using Java Applet (NetBeans I...
Situmorang, Syafrizal Helmi
All successful brands have social, emotional and identity value to users: they have personalities and enhance the perceived utility, desirability and quality of a product. Every country, regional or state should build destination brand for competitive advantage. A destination brand can be developed in a variety of ways, most obviously in advertising, through direct marketing, personal selling, on websites and in brochures, but also through public and media relations, and through the co-operat...
Malema, H. K.; Musakwa, W.
Social media and big data have emerged to be a useful source of information that can be used for planning purposes, particularly transportation planning and trip-distribution studies. Cities in developing countries such as South Africa often struggle with out-dated, unreliable and cumbersome techniques such as traffic counts and household surveys to conduct origin and destination studies. The emergence of ubiquitous crowd sourced data, big data, social media and geolocation based services has shown huge potential in providing useful information for origin and destination studies. Perhaps such information can be utilised to determine the origin and destination of commuters using the Gautrain, a high-speed railway in Gauteng province South Africa. To date little is known about the origins and destinations of Gautrain commuters. Accordingly, this study assesses the viability of using geolocation-based services namely Facebook and Twitter in mapping out the network movements of Gautrain commuters. Explorative Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), Echo-social and ArcGis software were used to extract social media data, i.e. tweets and Facebook posts as well as to visualize the concentration of Gautrain commuters. The results demonstrate that big data and geolocation based services have the significant potential to predict movement network patterns of commuters and this information can thus, be used to inform and improve transportation planning. Nevertheless use of crowd sourced data and big data has privacy concerns that still need to be addressed.
H. K. Malema
Full Text Available Social media and big data have emerged to be a useful source of information that can be used for planning purposes, particularly transportation planning and trip-distribution studies. Cities in developing countries such as South Africa often struggle with out-dated, unreliable and cumbersome techniques such as traffic counts and household surveys to conduct origin and destination studies. The emergence of ubiquitous crowd sourced data, big data, social media and geolocation based services has shown huge potential in providing useful information for origin and destination studies. Perhaps such information can be utilised to determine the origin and destination of commuters using the Gautrain, a high-speed railway in Gauteng province South Africa. To date little is known about the origins and destinations of Gautrain commuters. Accordingly, this study assesses the viability of using geolocation-based services namely Facebook and Twitter in mapping out the network movements of Gautrain commuters. Explorative Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA, Echo-social and ArcGis software were used to extract social media data, i.e. tweets and Facebook posts as well as to visualize the concentration of Gautrain commuters. The results demonstrate that big data and geolocation based services have the significant potential to predict movement network patterns of commuters and this information can thus, be used to inform and improve transportation planning. Nevertheless use of crowd sourced data and big data has privacy concerns that still need to be addressed.
Boes, Kim; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Inversini, Alessandro
Purpose\\ud – Grounded in service-dominant (S-D) logic, the purpose of this paper is to explore the core components of smartness to present a framework for the development of the smart tourism destination.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – The paper explores the core components of smartness through case study analysis of well-established smart cities.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud – The paper conceptualises smartness and argues ICT, leadership, innovation and social capital supported by human capit...
Arup Kumar Baksi
Full Text Available Practice of traditional handicrafts play a significant role in enhancing destination attractiveness. Visitors assign considerable weightage to local craft practices to satisfy their desire to participate in the learning and production process, a case of role-reversal. Promoting this scope of role-reversal has been used by the Destination Marketing Organizations as differentiators. Craftourism has gained considerable momentum. This paper focuses on examining the moderating effects of craftourism on place attachment and destination loyalty. Dimensions of craftourism were identified by applying suitable statistical procedure. The results revealed craftourism, with option for visitors to enact role-reversal, improves the chances of destination loyalty following antecedent effects of place attachment. Keywords: craftourism, place attachment, destination loyalty, visitor, moderating
Gopie, Nigel; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Hasher, Lynn
Older adults are assumed to have poor destination memory— knowing to whom they tell particular information—and anecdotes about them repeating stories to the same people are cited as informal evidence for this claim. Experiment 1 assessed young and older adults’ destination memory by having participants tell facts (e.g., “A dime has 118 ridges around its edge”) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Oprah Winfrey). Surprise recognition memory tests, which also assessed confidence, revealed that o...
Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng
As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.
Scully, Maura King
Increasingly today, with the growing and sophisticated skill set alumni professionals need to get the job done, alumni relations has become a destination career rather than a stop along the way. Modern alumni relations is "so much more than homecoming and punch-and-cookie receptions." It's marketing, volunteer management, and social networking. To…
Li, Jianyi; Jia, Shi; Zhang, Wenhai; Qiu, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Gu, Xi; Xue, Jinqi
The practice of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in China varies to that in western developed countries. With the unavailability of radioactive tracer technique for sentinel lymph nodes biopsy (SLNB), using blue dye alone has been the only option in China. Also, the diagnosis of breast malignant tumor in most Chinese centres heavily relies on intraoperative instant frozen histology which is normally followed by sentinel lymph nodes mapping, SLNB and the potential breast and axillary operations in one consecutive session. This practice appears to cause a high false negative rate (FNR) for SLNB. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the current practice in China on the accuracy of SLNB, and whether partial axillary lymph node dissection (PALND), dissection of lymph nodes inferior to the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), was a good complementary procedure following SLNB using blue dye. 289 patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer were identified and recruited. Tumorectomy, intraoperative instant frozen histological diagnosis, SLNB using methylene blue dye, and PALND or complete axillary node dissection (ALND) were performed in one consecutive operative session. The choice of SLNB only, SLNB followed by PALND or by ALND was based on the pre-determined protocol and preoperative choice by the patient. Clinical parameters were analyzed and survival analysis was performed. 37% patients with clinically negative nodes were found nodes positive. 59 patients with positive SLN underwent ALND, including 47 patients with up to two positive nodes which were all located inferior to the ICBN. 9 patients had failed SLNB and underwent PALND. Among them, 3 (33.3%) patients were found to have one metastatic node. 149 patients showed negative SLNB but chose PALND. Among them, 30 (20.1%), 14 (9.4) and 1 (0.7%) patients were found to have one, two and three metastatic node(s), respectively. PALND detected 48 (30.4%) patients who had either failed SLNB or
El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine
Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?"). This ability is found to be impaired in normal ageing. Our work aimed to link this deterioration to the decline in theory of mind. Forty younger adults (M age = 23.13 years, SD = 4.00) and 36 older adults (M age = 69.53 years, SD = 8.93) performed a destination memory task. They also performed the False-belief test addressing cognitive theory of mind and the Reading the mind in the eyes test addressing affective theory of mind. Results showed significant deterioration in destination memory, cognitive theory of mind and affective theory of mind in the older adults. The older adults' performance on destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by their performance on cognitive theory of mind. Difficulties in the ability to interpret and predict others' mental states are related to destination memory decline in older adults.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the implementation of innovations and networking in the sector of tourism in two Slovak mountain destinations of international significance. The main objective of the paper is to identify and evaluate how innovations and networking contribute to tourist destination development in Slovakia. The implementation of institutional innovation resulted in the establishment of formal and informal networks. The developed networks consist of representatives of all sectors co-ordinating all relevant stakeholders. Formal and informal networks and the collaboration among stakeholders have launched other types of innovations in the tourism sector. The interactions and intensity of relations among stakeholders are analysed by network analysis. Destinations are compared with the network of the same size and density through quantitative network characteristics. Based on empirical research we investigate the impact of networks and innovations on tourist destination development. Due to the synergy effect of networking and implementation of multiple innovations, tourist destination development is observed.
Ding, Linfang; Meng, Liqiu; Yang, Jian; Krisp, Jukka M.
In this paper, we propose a visual analytics approach for the exploration of spatiotemporal interaction patterns of massive origin-destination data. Firstly, we visually query the movement database for data at certain time windows. Secondly, we conduct interactive clustering to allow the users to select input variables/features (e.g., origins, destinations, distance, and duration) and to adjust clustering parameters (e.g. distance threshold). The agglomerative hierarchical clustering method is applied for the multivariate clustering of the origin-destination data. Thirdly, we design a parallel coordinates plot for visualizing the precomputed clusters and for further exploration of interesting clusters. Finally, we propose a gradient line rendering technique to show the spatial and directional distribution of origin-destination clusters on a map view. We implement the visual analytics approach in a web-based interactive environment and apply it to real-world floating car data from Shanghai. The experiment results show the origin/destination hotspots and their spatial interaction patterns. They also demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is bring up the effects of films and television dramas on destination image. Image is a picture and a imagery which ia about destination and also image affects the purchase decision making. The population of the study contains domestic tourists who visited Mardin. The result of the study suggests that there is a substantive relationship between destination images and films and television dramas.
This article takes heterogeographical approaches to understand Bollywood-induced destination transformations in Switzerland. Positioned within the theoretical field of mediatized mobility, the study contextualizes Bollywood-induced tourism in Europe the concept of texture. Textural analysis (base...
Mattsson, Jan; Barnes, Stuart; Sørensen, Flemming
Destination branding has developed considerably as a topic area in the last decade with numerous conceptualizations focusing on different aspects of the brand. However, a unified view has not yet emerged. This paper examines destination branding via a new conceptualization, brand destination...... experience, which provides a more holistic and unified view of the brand destination. The research uses a logistic regression model to determine the role of satisfaction and brand experience in determining revisit intentions. The study also examines differences among subgroups and four brand experience sub...
Full Text Available This purpose of this paper is to elaborate the understanding of destination development of rural tourism in Wanayasa, Purwakarta, Jawa Barat. It has a rich potential for the rural tourism prosperity. Then author incorporates destination development through Butler‘s Area Life Cycle. Research was conducted in August 2015 with qualitative approaches i.e. interview and focus group discussion to 120 respondents which comprises representation from several different group. In addition, some of data also produced from secondary sources such as government regulation and official website. Findings show that Wanayasa possessed their ability in developing aspect of internal factors, attractions and accommodation facilities. Apart from that quality, it is obvious that their rural tourism development is lack of destination management and chaotic strategy marketing formulation as a result of disorganized planning processes. With those conditions, it will be tough for them to formulate the true competitive advantage as a basic foundation of their tourism development. This paper illustrates a detailed analysis of the destination‘s strengths and weaknesses, and a more distinctive understanding of what facilitates a destination‘s competitive position.
Seraphin, Hugues; Gowreesunkar, Vanessa; Hugues Seraphin
Purpose\\ud This concluding article filters out meaningful marketing strategies that aim at re-positioning and re-establishing struggling tourism destinations with negative image. Drawing from a collection of case studies around the world, the article provides evidences from post-colonial, post-conflict and post-disaster destinations to finally anchor the overall conclusion of the theme issue.\\ud \\ud Design\\ud The article summarizes key issues faced by destinations plagued with a negative imag...
Full Text Available This study based on literature review aims to evaluate and emphasize the affect of the strategic facility management (SFM on choice of medical tourism destination. Medical Tourism, which ranges from the health care services involving a cure to the wellness services involving no specific health trouble to pleasure and amusement services, is one of the most growing sectors in the world. Cost and quality of medical services are among the main reasons for the choice of destination. Strategic facility management has a positive correlation on the levels of quality, cost and customer satisfaction. Thus medical tourism and destination managers should take into account of the potential advantages of value creation offered through SFM in order to be chosen by customers (stakeholders.
Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis
tourists' characteristics and the destination choices. The results indicate that (1) teens and people in their 50s and above were interested in visiting more popular places, (2) tourists who are more familiar with Japan tended to visit less popular destinations, and (3) tourists with more travel...
Milandrie Marais; Engelina du Plessis; Melville Saayman
Orientation: Globally, destinations offer various products and services to visitors featuring different attributes and characteristics, making each destination unique. The critical success factors (CSFs) of each of these destinations may differ, making the management process more complex. Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to identify the CSFs for business tourism destinations in South Africa from a supply viewpoint. Motivation for the study: Because of the importance of...
This diploma thesis deals with the benchmarking method and its practical use in continuous process of destinations' competitiveness enhancement. It describes the importance of tourism for destination's development and increasing need of its management, in order to become more competitive. Revealing the key factors of success that are created by destinations' competitive advantages enables destinations to keep or even to strengthen their position on the international tourism market. The main g...
Full Text Available Tourism is a promise and destinations communicate the credibility of that promise by means of destination brands. Branding has become a key tool for tourism destinations to make explicit the complexity of experiences to be expected by tourists visiting a destination. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of various issues associated with tourism destination branding. It brings together a wide range of debates in the generic marketing literature, places them alongside the nuances of tourism, and thereby identifies unique challenges of branding in tourism destination contexts. Finally, a case study of USP based national tourism branding campaigns in the Caribbean is presented.
Full Text Available Social networks have become the modern means of communication. Intensive electronic word of mouth to mouth (eWOM leads to faster sharing of experiences, and the creation of positive and negative attitudes. On the other hand, branding of tourist destinations has become one of the most powerful resources in the implementation of marketing strategies in tourism. The aim of this study, which is based on primary research, is to examine the concept of electronic word of mouth, as well as the role of social networks in the process of branding tourist destinations.
Full Text Available The development of new types of tourism (stand-alone, connected or components, from marketing experience, implies a broad spectrum of challenges, which, placed in a planned background, has the purpose the creation and then, the development of tourism products that correspond, at least, to consumers’ expectations. In order to optimize the new type of tourism, it is necessary to be correlated with the relevant resources of the destination, which, harmonized, can lead to the elaboration of destination marketing strategies, in this situation being the medical tourism, component of health tourism.
Atmospheric probes have been successfully flown to planets and moons in the solar system to conduct in situ measurements. They include the Pioneer Venus multi-probes, the Galileo Jupiter probe, and Huygens probe. Probe mission concepts to five destinations, including Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, have all utilized similar-shaped aeroshells and concept of operations, namely a 45-degree sphere cone shape with high density heatshield material and parachute system for extracting the descent vehicle from the aeroshell. Each concept designed its probe to meet specific mission requirements and to optimize mass, volume, and cost. At the 2017 International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW), NASA Headquarters postulated that a common aeroshell design could be used successfully for multiple destinations and missions. This "common probe"� design could even be assembled with multiple copies, properly stored, and made available for future NASA missions, potentially realizing savings in cost and schedule and reducing the risk of losing technologies and skills difficult to sustain over decades. Thus the NASA Planetary Science Division funded a study to investigate whether a common probe design could meet most, if not all, mission needs to the five planetary destinations with extreme entry environments. The Common Probe study involved four NASA Centers and addressed these issues, including constraints and inefficiencies that occur in specifying a common design. Study methodology: First, a notional payload of instruments for each destination was defined based on priority measurements from the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Steep and shallow entry flight path angles (EFPA) were defined for each planet based on qualification and operational g-load limits for current, state-of-the-art instruments. Interplanetary trajectories were then identified for a bounding range of EFPA. Next, 3-degrees-of-freedom simulations for entry trajectories were run using the entry state
Ye, Helen Yi; Tussyadiah, Iis
Today’s tourists seek unique destinations that could associate with their self identity in a profound way. It is meaningful for destinations to design unique physical elements that offer transformational travel experiences. This study aims at identifying how tourists encounter architecture...... in a destination and if architecture facilitates tourists’ self transformation. Based on narrative structure analysis by deconstruction of travel blog posts, the results suggest that tourists perceive architectural landscape as an important feature that reflects destinations’ identity. Four different interaction...
El Haj, Mohamad; Allain, Philippe
Until recently, little was known about destination memory, or memory for the destination of outputted information. In the present work, this memory was evaluated in 32 older adults and 36 younger adults, who had to associate proverbs to pictures of famous people and decide, on a subsequent recognition task, whether they had previously told that proverb to that face or not. When deciding about the destination, participants had to provide contextual judgment, that is, whether each picture had been previously exposed in color or in black and white. Participants also performed a neuropsychological battery tapping episodic memory and executive functions. Findings showed poor destination recall in older participants. Destination recall in older adults was reliably predicted by with their context recall. Destination memory seems to be particularly affected by aging, a deterioration that can be related to deficits in processing contextual features during encoding.
Soteriades, Marios D.; Avgeli, Vasiliki A.
This paper provides an outline of principal marketing strategy issues and their application in promoting tourism destinations. It provides an overview of a report prepared for the Tourism Promotion Committee (T.P.C.) of Heraklion District, Crete. In the context of the tourist industry, the ‘product’ is an experience achieved through the combination of a diverse range of products and services. Nowadays tourism destinations face new and increasing marketing challenges arising from changing tour...
Adventure tourism is one of the key factors of the Nepalese tourism industry. The main aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to clarify the current situation and challenges for developing adventure tourism in Nepal and to evaluate the importance of appropriate marketing strategies. The thesis also focuses on promoting adventure tourism activities and rural tourism destinations. The objective of the thesis was to explore Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve as an adventure tourism destination at internationa...
Amaya-Molinar, Carlos Mario; Sosa-Ferreira, Ana Pricila; Ochoa-Llamas, Ileana; Moncada-Jiménez, Pedro
Based on a review of the academic literature this study identifies some of the most frequently mentioned factors and indicators in the field of a tourist destination competitiveness to design a survey subsequently conducted among tourists in Cancun, México. An exploratory factor analysis was performed with the collected data; the result was the reduction from twelve competitiveness factors most commonly mentioned in academic literature to five: Destination marketing and attractions, Destinati...
Full Text Available In this paper, a cooperative algorithm to improve the orthogonal space-timefrequency block codes (OSTFBC in frequency selective channels for 2*1, 2*2, 4*1, 4*2 MIMO-OFDM systems, is presented. The algorithm of three node, a source node, a relay node and a destination node is formed, and is implemented in two stages. During the first stage, the destination and the relay antennas receive the symbols sent by the source antennas. The destination node and the relay node obtain the decision variables employing time-space-frequency decoding process by the received signals. During the second stage, the relay node transmits decision variables to the destination node. Due to the increasing diversity in the proposed algorithm, decision variables in the destination node are increased to improve system performance. The bit error rate of the proposed algorithm at high SNR is estimated by considering the BPSK modulation. The simulation results show that cooperative orthogonal space-time-frequency block coding, improves system performance and reduces the BER in a frequency selective channel.
Jamaludin, Nor Lelawati; Sam, David Lackland; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim
This study aims to understand factors predicting destination-loyalty intention in international education. A sample of 378 long-term (n = 195) and short-term (n = 183) international students participated in the study carried out in 2014 through an on-line survey at the University of Bergen, Norway. Using a series of hierarchical regression…
Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Thelijjagoda, Samantha; Good, Alice
YouTube has now evolved into a powerful medium for social interaction. Utilizing YouTube for enhancing marketing endeavours is a strategy practiced by marketing professionals across several industries. This paper rationalizes on the different strategies of leveraging YouTube-based platforms...... for effective destination marketing by the hospitality industry (hotels) and provides insights on the critical drivers and challenges embedded within YouTube-based community interactions for destination marketing. The comments made by YouTube users have been subjected to a content analysis and the results...... are reported under the five broad clusters of virtual communities. More broadly, the typology of virtual communities is adapted to evaluate the YouTube platform for effective destination marketing....
Full Text Available To achieve the favourable competitiveness position, tourist destination has to offer quality experiences to tourists that can make the destination more attractive compared to other tourist destinations. The role of destination management is to exploit and develop existing resources by using clear and effective strategies for developing tourism products and creating additional value of tourist experience. The first step of analysis is to define destination competitiveness by using the indicators which will review and give the guidelines for improvement of competitive position. This paper discusses the tourist destinations' competitiveness and indicators for its measurement with a special reference to Serbia. Tourism development of Serbia is a big chance for overall economic development of the country. Current competitive position of Serbian tourism on international market is not satisfactory and this paper is trying to analyze and to point out the reasons of Serbia's tourism low competitiveness. Conclusions about the competitive positioning of Serbia as a tourist destination are drawn out firstly based on the relevant studies as well as on the Serbian Tourism Development Strategy. The results of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (WEF TTCI reports for Serbia are also presented. Based on own research, this paper is also showing the results related to competitiveness of Serbia as a tourist destination in terms of two groups of indicators: natural, cultural and historical resources as well as destination management. According to the results, Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and historical resources comparing to the role of destination management.
Adina Nicoleta CANDREA
Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.
Ryan Pratama Sutanto
Full Text Available High profit income has attracted South Asian countries to compete in the fields of tourism marketing. Destination branding as a differentiating factor is an alternative approach in marketing communication. The purpose of this research is to make a comparison study of destination branding application in Singapore's, Malaysia's and Indonesia's tourism official websites. Destination branding in websites as part of promotion campaigns is a strategy used by each country to promote tourism to consumers worldwide. This research uses qualitative method, and involves experts in the fields of Information Technology (IT and Visual Communication Design. Each website's elements contributes in the success of a country's destination branding and influences its brand image.
Zou, Zhen-Zhen [State Key Lab. of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Yu, Xu-Tao, E-mail: email@example.com [State Key Lab. of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Gong, Yan-Xiao [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Zhang, Zai-Chen [National Mobile Communications Research Lab, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China)
A multihop teleportation protocol in quantum communication network is introduced to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state, between two nodes without directly sharing entanglement pairs. Quantum channels are built among neighbor nodes based on a five-qubit entangled system composed of GHZ and Bell pairs. The von Neumann measurements in all intermediate nodes and the source node are implemented, and then the measurement outcomes are sent to the destination node independently. After collecting all the measurement outcomes at the destination node, an efficient method is proposed to calculate the unitary operations for transforming the receiver's states to the state teleported. Therefore, only adopting the proper unitary operations at the destination node, the desired quantum state can be recovered perfectly. The transmission flexibility and efficiency of quantum network with composite GHZ–Bell channel are improved by transmitting measurement outcomes of all nodes in parallelism and reducing hop-by-hop teleportation delay. - Highlights: • A multihop teleportation protocol is introduced to teleport two-qubit state. • Quantum channels are built by composite of GHZ and Bell pairs. • Measurement outcomes are sent to the destination node independently. • Destination node calculates and adopts unitary operations to recover initial state.
Drawing on the concept of mediation and scripting, this chapter applies a content-extraction method in an attempt to identify similarities and differences between images used by destination marketers and those shared by tourists at the visit and post-visit stages, and, most importantly, to identify...... the values created by the shared images for audiences in tourism settings. The official image data were selected from photo galleries of the Greater Philadelphia Tourism Marketing Corporation (GPTMC) website (gophila.com), resulting in 412 samples. Similarities of images provided on the GoPhila photo...... galleries within and between categories prove that destination marketing organizations have typically used similar types of images to communicate notions of the tourist experience to reinforce the desired image in the minds of potential travellers. On the other hand, based on the high similarities...
Ryan Pratama Sutanto; Listia Natadjaja; Erandaru .
High profit income has attracted South Asian countries to compete in the fields of tourism marketing. Destination branding as a differentiating factor is an alternative approach in marketing communication. The purpose of this research is to make a comparison study of destination branding application in Singapore's, Malaysia's and Indonesia's tourism official websites. Destination branding in websites as part of promotion campaigns is a strategy used by each country to promote tourism to consu...
Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yamanaka, Hidenori; Takeyoshi, Masahiro
Photoallergic dermatitis, caused by pharmaceuticals and other consumer products, is a very important issue in human health. However, S10 guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization do not recommend the existing prediction methods for photoallergy because of their low predictability in human cases. We applied local lymph node assay (LLNA), a reliable, quantitative skin sensitization prediction test, to develop a new photoallergy prediction method. This method involves a three-step approach: (1) ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis; (2) determination of no observed adverse effect level for skin phototoxicity based on LLNA; and (3) photoallergy evaluation based on LLNA. Photoallergic potential of chemicals was evaluated by comparing lymph node cell proliferation among groups treated with chemicals with minimal effect levels of skin sensitization and skin phototoxicity under UV irradiation (UV+) or non-UV irradiation (UV-). A case showing significant difference (P < .05) in lymph node cell proliferation rates between UV- and UV+ groups was considered positive for photoallergic reaction. After testing 13 chemicals, seven human photoallergens tested positive and the other six, with no evidence of causing photoallergic dermatitis or UV absorption, tested negative. Among these chemicals, both doxycycline hydrochloride and minocycline hydrochloride were tetracycline antibiotics with different photoallergic properties, and the new method clearly distinguished between the photoallergic properties of these chemicals. These findings suggested high predictability of our method; therefore, it is promising and effective in predicting human photoallergens. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nadezhda K. Serdyukova
Full Text Available The article considers major characteristics of Sochi market as a health tourism destination, analyses the structure of resort collective accommodation facilities, dynamics of tourist flows and their structure, prevailing kinds of tourism and estimates tourist flows of health tourism in Sochi in 2008-2012. The authors indicate major characteristics and trends of Sochi tourist market development and the prospects of Sochi development as a health tourism destination. The percent of health tourist flow in the general tourist flow of Sochi and the percent of domestic tourist flow in the sector of collective accommodation facilities are estimated. The authors came to the conclusion that to develop tourism in Sochi in post-Games period, it is necessary to promote Sochi as a health tourism destination.
Danko Nataliya I.
Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing publications and documents of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, the authors clarified the concept of «tourist destination»; considered and clarified the concept of «brand of the tourist destination»; suggested the mechanism for development of the brand of the tourist destination. The existing brand of Kharkiv – «Kharkiv – smart city» – has been analyzed and it was concluded that this brand is promising and successful for educational tourism, for attracting foreign students and scholars – connoisseurs of new technologies and science fiction. The direction of further work on the brand of Kharkiv city as a tourist destination is to enhance the already existing brand «Kharkiv – smart city» by introducing a set of marketing communications, aggressive advertising campaign in Ukrainian and international media and travel exhibitions. Besides, it is considered to be promising to design brands intended for other target segments of consumers – «Kharkiv – historic city», «Kharkiv – sport city», etc., which will lead to a synergistic effect in the tourism industry of Kharkiv. Prospects for further research in this direction are studying new strategic directions of development of Kharkiv city as a tourist destination
Full Text Available Thus, uncontrollable elements such as nice weather, nature/scenery, accessibility, transformed into controllable elements such as pleasant environment, relaxing atmosphere, infrastructure, can create a favourable artistic image that would determine the tourist to pick the destination. Uncontrollable elements such as local culture, diversity of sport activities, of restaurant, cafes etc. that can increase the value of a destination, transformed into controllable elements such as historical sites, events (cultural activities, festivals etc. form an environment where “there are plenty of things to do” and can create a favourable psychological image that will make the tourist return to this destination. The transformation of these attributes into advantages for the tourist, so that a destination can be differentiated, takes places within a positioning strategy.
Full Text Available The image of a destination is more than a distinguishing element; it is a component of the supply and brings more value to it. The image of a destination can be the decisive component, while the other elements re relatively alike (1. The image of a tourist destination is strongly connected to the image of a country, the image of a nation and the image of a place. The image of a place is formed for a receiver naturally by accumulating experiences with that place, the use of the sources of personal and impersonal information. For the transmitter, the image is the result of some direct and indirect actions. The branding of the place is the conscientious and coordinated process of an image achievement. In the paper there are presented some examples of actions of image research, an essential step having in view the branding or re-branding It is presented a study of the citizens of Oradea regarding their perception of tourist Romania.
Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Woo, Linda
, government support, disposable income, and number of international arrivals within a tourism destination. Results indicate that the most important barriers to hotel performance are the competition among accommodation providers, tax rate and fuel price. We argue for the need for hotel providers to develop......The increased market saturation and competition in both domestic and international tourism destinations have renewed interest among hotel operators in identifying the key drivers of hotel performance. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of hotel performance...... strategies that take cognisance of the key drivers and barriers to enhancing hotel performance in an ever-changing global tourism sector....
El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe
Destination memory refers to remembering the destination of information that people output. This present paper establishes a new distinction between external and internal processes within this memory system for both normal aging and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Young adults, older adults, and mild AD patients were asked either to tell facts (i.e., external destination memory condition) or to imagine telling facts (i.e., internal destination memory condition) to pictures of famous people. The experiment established three major findings. First, the destination memory performance of the AD patients was significantly poorer than that of older adults, which in turn was poorer than that of the young adults. Furthermore, internal destination processes were more prone to being forgotten than external destination memory processes. In other words, participants had more difficulty in remembering whether they had previously imagined telling the facts to the pictures or not (i.e., imagined condition) than in remembering whether they had previously told the facts to the pictures or not (i.e., enacted condition). Second, significant correlations were detected between performances on destination memory and several executive measures such as the Stroop, the Plus-Minus and the Binding tasks. Third, among the executive measures, regression analyses showed that performance on the Stroop task was a main factor in explaining variance in destination memory performance. Our findings reflect the difficulty in remembering the destination of internally generated information. They also demonstrate the involvement of inhibitory processes in destination memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between travel satisfaction and destination loyalty intention. The research was conducted with 486 tourists visiting Arade, a Portuguese tourist destination. Taking as the basis the use of structural equation modelling (SEM, the results substantiate the importance of tourism satisfaction as a determinant of destination loyalty. Also, a categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA provides a detailed analysis of this cause-effect relationship by establishing that greater levels of satisfaction (measured by overall satisfaction in terms of holiday experience, destination ttributes and met expectations result in increased likelihood of future repeat visits and a keen willingness to recommend the destination to others. Clusters of tourists were also identified and characterized in relation to satisfaction levels and loyalty intentions. These analyses provide a useful background in the planning of future tourist marketing strategies.
Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the issues of rural tourism with regard to the visitor’s loyalty towards the destination in a sustainable development context. Particularly, the findings of the research focused on exploring mutual relations among quality dimensions of the rural destination, overall satisfaction of the visitor, and his or her loyalty towards the destination are presented. A structural model was used to explore the relations among quality dimensions, overall satisfaction, and loyalty in the specific environment of the Czech Republic (inland European country, EU member, until 1989 a socialist country, nearly 93% municipalities with fewer than 3000 inhabitants. The research results allow deeper understanding of the visitor’s behavior and the factors influencing the loyalty towards the destination. The significance order of the dimensions according to their direct influence on the required loyalty towards the destination, i.e., coming back to the destination and spreading positive references to the destination, is as follows: 1. well-being, 2. image, 3. services. We conclude that overall satisfaction directly influences loyalty towards the destination.
Full Text Available In an ever changing and competitive environment, the tourism industry of each country must be developed in a sustainable manner, able to generate substantial economic benefits for key stakeholders and minimize negative environmental impacts. Thus, the pronounced dynamism of the tourism sector currently makes tourist destinations to be in fierce competition where the long-term success is conditioned by the sustainable development strategy adopted and operationalized by management organizations destinations. In this context, the minimum requirements for sustainable tourism development are: supporting the diversity of ecosystems; conservation and management of natural resources; finding ways to reduce uncontrolled population growth and unification of national decisions concerning the environment and the economy. Based on these considerations and the fact that Romania has a valuable ecotourism potential, internationally recognized by profile associations and other stakeholders, this paper presents an overview regarding the way in which sustainable management of tourist destination influence obtaining sustainable competitive advantage.
Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.
Carmen Díaz Domínguez
Full Text Available Tourist destinations are constantly required to renew their products, services and projected image. This is possible, among other processes, through business innovation and co-management between tour operators and administrations in order to reach markets. This paper focusses on case studies of two specialised agrotourism businesses located in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, and shows how innovation in products is limited when tour operators also come to control the supply of small and medium-sized companies, at least in destinations where mass tourism predominate. Here remotivation is presented as a means of providing the tourist with local supply in the destination in a way that allows it to stand out, aid the creation of local businesses and products, enrich the tourist experience and redistribute the profits of tourism across the area.
Full Text Available The problematic area of the tourism destination image has a high expansion in marketing, the efforts of its conceptualization and phenomenalism being remarkable among specialists. In this context, the authors propose a systemic approach, the result of which refers to a model regarding the image research of a tourism destination, whose validation has been attained using Transalpina destination. The model created by the authors envisages morphological features and specific functional relationships, which are consistent with the marketing theory, and, in context, with the consumer behaviour theory. The conceptualmethodological solutions are magnified by applicative-experimental validations, which enhance the theoretical and practical valences of the created model. The main direction of developing the elaborated model consists in efforts of formalization and abstracting, in the perspective offered by several scientific disciplines.
Full Text Available In the research on network security, distinguishing the vulnerable components of networks is very important for protecting infrastructures systems. Here, we probe how to identify the vulnerable nodes of complex networks in cascading failures, which was ignored before. Concerned with random attack (RA and highest load attack (HL on nodes, we model cascading dynamics of complex networks. Then, we introduce four kinds of weighting methods to characterize the nodes of networks including Barabási-Albert scale-free networks (SF, Watts-Strogatz small-world networks (WS, Erdos-Renyi random networks (ER, and two real-world networks. The simulations show that, for SF networks under HL attack, the nodes with small value of the fourth kind of weight are the most vulnerable and the ones with small value of the third weight are also vulnerable. Also, the real-world autonomous system with power-law distribution verifies these findings. Moreover, for WS and ER networks under both RA and HL attack, when the nodes have low tolerant ability, the ones with small value of the fourth kind of weight are more vulnerable and also the ones with high degree are easier to break down. The results give us important theoretical basis for digging the potential safety loophole and making protection strategy.
Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.
O'Halloran, Damien M
Full Text Available Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. Energy management deals with the process of managing energy resources by means of controlling the battery discharge, adjusting the transmission power and scheduling of power sources so as to increase the lifetime of the nodes of an ad hoc wireless network. In this paper, two protocols are proposed to improve the lifetime of the nodes. The first protocol assumes smart battery packages with L cells and uses dynamic programming (DP to optimally select the set of cells used to satisfy a request for power. The second one proposes a MAC layer protocol denoted as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC protocol which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. The life time of the nodes using the DP based scheduling policy is found through simulation and compared with that obtained using the techniques reported in the literature. It is found that DP based policy increases the lifetime of the mobile nodes by a factor of 1.15 to 1.8. The life expectancy, the average power consumption and throughput of the network using PAMAC protocol are computed through simulation and compared with that of the other MAC layer protocols 802.11, MACA, and CSMA. Besides this, the life expectancy and average power consumption of the network for different values of threshold are also compared. From the simulation results, it is observed that PAMAC consumes the least power and provides the longest lifetime among the various MAC Layer protocols. Moreover, using PAMAC as the MAC layer protocol, the performance obtained using different routing layer
d'Ambrosio, Luigi; Madsen, Jan Halberg; Wejrum, Lone Møller
Backgorund: - The background of this paper is a student initiated study trip to the area of Campi Flegrei (Italy) in April 2014. The authors of this paper participated as lecturers and arranged meetings with a variety of tourism- and hospitality organizations operating in the destination. Through...... with their own research including data collection under the supervision of the lecturers. Methods/data: - The methodology of this study is based on a qualitative investigation of local tourism and hospitality stakeholders that operate in the destination collected by lecturers/researchers and students through...
Global trends highlight the growing tourist interest in authentic and sustainable holiday experiences. Designing strategies that enable destinations to catch this tourist segment is, therefore, becoming more and more important for competitiveness. A long-term outlook calls into question the “next generation” of actual and potential tourists, i.e., young people: understanding their attitude towards sustainability is paramount to drive tourism development in a direction which is coherent to the...
Informed by actor-network theory (ANT), this research aims at improving understanding of the nature of tourism destinations in Thailand and their development by investigating through three main notions: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. These notions enabled to study how tourism
Full Text Available The global economic crisis, the decline of standard and climatic factors influence the allocation of tourism trends at the global level. Certain types of tourist movements start up and develop; they have been present, but not sufficiently studied by authors. They also include a short trip or visit to a particular destination. Considering their characteristics, they do not require a lot of money and they make an increasingly important segment of the tourism market. Therefore, the importance of same-day trips should not be neglected on today's tourism market. Although in practice this part of the tourist offers and demand has not often been attached enough importance, same day trip can achieve a very significant inflow of funds and encourage the development of many potential tourist destinations. For all the reasons mentioned above, and because of its importance, the organization of same day-trips should be the fundamental basis and essential focus for tourism development. Taking into consideration that inbound tourist agencies show special interest for same-day trips, we have tried to give a starting point for further research in this part of the tourism market.
Nazem, Mohsen; Trépanier, Martin; Morency, Catherine
An Enhanced Intervening Opportunities Model (EIOM) is developed for Public Transit (PT). This is a distribution supply dependent model, with single constraints on trip production for work trips during morning peak hours (6:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m.) within the Island of Montreal, Canada. Different data sets, including the 2008 Origin-Destination (OD) survey of the Greater Montreal Area, the 2006 Census of Canada, GTFS network data, along with the geographical data of the study area, are used. EIOM is a nonlinear model composed of socio-demographics, PT supply data and work location attributes. An enhanced destination ranking procedure is used to calculate the number of spatially cumulative opportunities, the basic variable of EIOM. For comparison, a Basic Intervening Opportunities Model (BIOM) is developed by using the basic destination ranking procedure. The main difference between EIOM and BIOM is in the destination ranking procedure: EIOM considers the maximization of a utility function composed of PT Level Of Service and number of opportunities at the destination, along with the OD trip duration, whereas BIOM is based on a destination ranking derived only from OD trip durations. Analysis confirmed that EIOM is more accurate than BIOM. This study presents a new tool for PT analysts, planners and policy makers to study the potential changes in PT trip patterns due to changes in socio-demographic characteristics, PT supply, and other factors. Also it opens new opportunities for the development of more accurate PT demand models with new emergent data such as smart card validations.
Hill, Terry R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Korona, F. Adam
This paper continues forward where EVA Space Suit Architecture: Low Earth Orbit Vs. Moon Vs. Mars left off in the development of a space suit architecture that is modular in design and could be reconfigured prior to launch or during any given mission depending on the tasks or destination. This space suit system architecture and technologies required based on human exploration (EVA) destinations will be discussed, and how these systems should evolve to meet the future exploration EVA needs of the US human space flight program. A series of exercises and analyses provided a strong indication that the Constellation Program space suit architecture, with its maximum reuse of technology and functionality across a range of mission profiles and destinations, is postured to provide a viable solution for future space exploration missions. The destination environmental analysis demonstrates that the modular architecture approach could provide the lowest mass and mission cost for the protection of the crew, given any human mission outside of low-Earth orbit. Additionally, some of the high-level trades presented here provide a review of the environmental and nonenvironmental design drivers that will become increasingly important as humans venture farther from Earth. The presentation of destination environmental data demonstrates a logical clustering of destination design environments that allows a focused approach to technology prioritization, development, and design that will maximize the return on investment, largely independent of any particular design reference mission.
Full Text Available Introduction:The World Wide Web has become the primary instrument used by tourists in order to search for information. As a result, tourism websites pertaining to destinations need to be appealing and must convey their brand image in an appropriate, effective manner. However, there is no methodology in place to assess the quality and communicative effectiveness of destination websites that is scientifically sound and universally accepted. The development of such a methodology is one of the tasks we have proposed within the framework of the research project: “New strategies for advertising and promoting Spanish tourism brands online” (CSO2008-02627, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Method: The project team have developed an interdisciplinary, all-embracing analysis template combining certain automated analyses with other qualitative and quantitative ones. The template comprises a total of 12 subject areas and 154 indicators prepared on the basis of contributions from prominent experts in each of the fields of work. This article sets out the analysis methodology drawn up and possible applications are given. Results: The primary aim of the project is to provide an assessment methodology that would make it possible to optimise destination brand websites, thus providing a tool to support the work of public tourism destination managers.
Full Text Available The newest member joined the European Union (EU with a well-conceived destination branding strategy. Croatia is becoming more and more identifiable world-wide by creating a distinctive brand in order to maintain a solid positioning as a destination place. As competition is becoming more intense, an increasing number of countries struggle to make themselves visible in the global tourism market. Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector, where the bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Although not very successful in public diplomacy, a complex system of coordinated activities that Croatia implemented resulted in strengthening the perception and image of the overall destination brand. This research aims at exploring the Croatian destination branding strategy as a potential model for its closest neighboring country, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. Sharing a common history, borders and people, BIH and Croatia represent a unique comparative case study for regional spill-over development between the EU and non-EU countries. Therefore, this study takes into account what has been done so far on both sides regarding destination branding strategy, thus exploring what lessons could be learned from Croatia and what is the best future regional approach for creating a BIH’s destination brand.
Kristian Steen Jacobsen, Jens; Munar, Ana Maria
word-of-mouth, Web 1.0 sources and own experience are highly resilient and influential when tourists to a well-known destination area decide where to spend their summer holiday. Moreover, results indicate a complementary nature of Web 1.0 and Web 2.0. In this context of destination decision......This study provides empirical evidence of self-reported impacts of selected electronic and other information sources on international tourists' destination choices regarding a popular, mature and mainstream summer holiday location. It is shown that traditional information provisions such as direct...
Ramona Gruescu; Roxana Nanu; Anca Tanasie
The paper envisages aspects concerning identification of the competitive advantage of a tourist destination from a double perspective: the critical contribution of the employees and the ICT impact on promoting and selling the destination. Research methodology includes „bottom to top” analysis of the mentioned indicators. Thus, results include the eficientisation of tourist businesses and destinations due to both human element development and ICT technologies. Two essential basis of the compet...
Andreu, Rosario; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego
China is one of the fastest growing outbound tourism markets. Europe is an attractive destination for Chinese tourists. However, Europe still accounts for a small percentage of Chinese outbound tourism. If European countries want to benefit from this market, they should pay attention to Chinese tourists’ preferences. This article contributes to the understanding of Chinese outbound tourism by analyzing those destination attributes that can influence the number of Chinese tourists received. Fr...
Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that there is a variety of products and accordingly a diversity of types of tourism in the municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria: urban and "non-urban", mass and specialized, tourism based on natural and anthropogenic, on tangible and intangible resources. In this regard, diverse tourism products of the destination may be offered to its visitors, which to a greater extent meets their various needs and contributes to the sustainable tourism development. Thus, the aim of the paper is to reveal whether tourism professionals in Sofia are aware of the possibilities for combining various types of tourism and promoting the diversified destination tourism product among local and foreign visitors.
Francisco Vicente Sales Melo
Full Text Available Since its advent, the Internet has become an important tool for tourism. Furthermore, some studies tend to indicate that this may contribute directly to the process of identity formation of a tourism destination. Thus, this paper investigates how websites can help in promoting the identity of tourist destinations on the Internet. The study is characterized as exploratory qualitative in nature, which is constituted from a desk research. It was possible to verify that the website is a key means for managing the identity of a tourist destination, as this can help visitors to form a positive image of the place being visited from the information that makes up the identity of the destination.
Full Text Available In recent decades the importance of destination image has been increasingly analyzed and it is generally considered to be vital in the marketing of destinations. It can be noted that the tourism industry in Russia has not been the subject of a great deal of research with regard to its destination image. Therefore the purpose of this work is to assess Russia’s destination image in the perspective of Portuguese people. The research instrument was an online questionnaire, comprised of open-ended and closed questions. A combination of two software programs, NVivo and IBM SPSS Statistics 21, was employed to analyze the data. This exploratory study suggests that Portuguese peoples’ perceptions of Russia are mostly favorable and they have a high awareness about Russia’s destination features.
Miller, Mahalia; Baker, Jack W.
In this paper, we develop a framework for coupling mode-destination accessibility with quantitative seismic risk assessment to identify communities at high risk for travel disruptions after an earthquake. Mode-destination accessibility measures the ability of people to reach destinations they desire. We use a probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure, including a stochastic set of earthquake events, ground-motion intensity maps, damage maps, and realizations of traffic and accessibility impacts. For a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area, we couple our seismic risk framework with a practical activity-based traffic model. As a result, we quantify accessibility risk probabilistically by community and household type. We find that accessibility varies more strongly as a function of travelers' geographic location than as a function of their income class, and we identify particularly at-risk communities. We also observe that communities more conducive to local trips by foot or bike are predicted to be less impacted by losses in accessibility. This work shows the potential to link quantitative risk assessment methodologies with high-resolution travel models used by transportation planners. Quantitative risk metrics of this type should have great utility for planners working to reduce risk to a region's infrastructure systems. - Highlights: • We couple mode-destination accessibility with probabilistic seismic risk assessment. • Results identify communities at high risk for post-earthquake travel disruptions. • Accessibility varies more as a function of home location than by income. • Our model predicts reduced accessibility risk for more walking-friendly communities.
Kurniawan, B.; Pranoto, H.
Bandung is a city in West Java, Indonesia with many interesting locations to visit. For most favourite destinations, we can easily look for it on Google and we will find some blogs there discussing about related content. The problem is we can not guarantee that the destination is frequented by visitor. In this research, we utilizes an application to help everyone choosing destination frequented by visitor. The use of information technology in the form of picture, maps, and textual on Android application makes it possible for user to have information about destination with its visitor in a period of time. If destination has visit history, selection of proper destination will be given with fresh informations. This application can run well on Android Lollipop (API Level 21) or above with a minimum RAM of 2 GB since it will compare two coordinates for every data. The use of this app make it possible to access information about location with its visitor history and could help choosing proper destinations for the users.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the difference between destination image and loyalty among first-time and repeat-visit tourists. The study was undertaken to examine aspects of underlying factors of destination image that influenced tourists’ willingness to recommend Malaysia to their friends and relatives as well as spread positive word-of-mouth to others. In addition, it was to ascertain the relationship between destination image and loyalty among first-time and repeat-visit tourists. The data was collected at Kuala Lumpur International Airport at the departure hall using self-administered questionnaires. 248 usable questionnaires were returned and analysed. The findings of the study revealed that both groups of tourists perceived Malaysia as providing a nature-based destination. The study also empirically proved that both first-time and repeat-visit tourists were willing to disseminate positive word-of-mouth and recommend Malaysia to their friends and relatives as a vacation destination to visit. However, there was a significant difference in destination loyalty between first-visit and repeat-visit tourists.
Clements, David Mark
José María Gemma Cánoves
Full Text Available The Costa Brava is a consolitaded coastal tourist destination, based on sun and sand tourism. In order to mitigate its decline, according to the traditional life–cycle of tourism products (Butler, 1980 and theories of productive restructuring (Agarwal, 2002, 2005, considering the impact of emerging market trends in such well–established tourism destinations, the Costa Brava has evolved to offer multiple recreational activities in order to renew the destination with emerging new products (Vera and Bath, 2010. One such activity is cultural tourism, with significant potential even with smaller capacity, in order to generate many sectorial and territorial changes. However, the diversification of the tourists demand new products and focuses on the search of sensations, the sense of the tourist event, the perception of the authenticity of the product and the conservation of the site (Dann, 1994; Urry, 1994. All these new elements are the cultural resources available to the tourism sector, that have increased in recent decades in advanced societies (Richards, 1996.
Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the increasing importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs in smart tourism destinations, in their integration in the activity of the tourism companies, and in their interaction with visitors/tourists. In summary, it is intended to evaluate in the city of Porto how the use of technology before, during and after the visit influences the tourist experience. Design/methodology/approach - The authors empirically investigate the importance of using ICTs during tourism experience, assess the access/availability of ICT at the destination and its importance in tourist’s decisions. It is analyzed if the applications and/or information available on the internet are important and positively influence the tourism experience in Porto, that is, the degree of tourist satisfaction. The empirical evidence is based on a quantitative analysis, using a data set involving 423 tourists in the city of Porto. Findings - The importance of the internet access at the destination, especially in places like airports and hotels, since most tourists are primarily using their mobile devices and computers during the trip, and the existing information technologies available in the destination (internet, smartphones or other mobile devices and applications are considered very important in explaining tourists’ experience. Originality/value - This study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the technological strategies, providing useful information for destination management, discussing innovation in tourism, and proposing a framework that empirically evaluates how technological components used in smart tourism destinations can improve tourists’ experiences.
Munar, Ana Maria
This study provides insights into social media practices and strategic considerations used by destination management organizations (DMOs). It examines a theoretical model of generic social media strategies for destination management and applies qualitative methods to analyze the social media...... initiatives of DMOs of Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and the Scandinavian Tourist Board Asia/Pacific in the Nordic European Region. The study provides empirical evidence of emerging social media strategies among DMOs and confirms the growing importance of these new media. The findings point...... to the conflicting relationship between corporate culture and social media culture, the challenges innovative communication tools present for traditional management structures, poor levels of formalization and the lack of a knowledge base which results in ad-hoc decision making. Overall, the paper discusses...
Full Text Available Purpose: This research study analyzes Moldovans' intentions to visit Greece, and their perceptions of Greece's image as a tourism destination, according to the following dimensions: (1 environmental beauty and convenience, (2 country's citizens, (3 place and architectural structure, (4 shopping and tourist accommodation and (5 similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. The goal is split into four objectives. Design/methodology/approach: For attaining the goal, a self-administered questionnaire was delivered. The empirical study was conducted in the capital of Moldova. The findings are based upon a sample of 139 respondents. Findings: The findings reveal that, overall, Greece's image as a tourist destination among Moldovan consumers is partially positive. The perceptions of the tourism dimensions were evaluated in the descending order as follows: place and architectural structure, shopping and tourist accommodation, environmental beauty and convenience, country's citizens and similarity of the local culture and cuisine with the Moldovan one. Research limitations/implications: As it was undertaken only in the capital of Republic of Moldova and because most respondents are young people and females, the findings of this investigation do not absolutely reflect the perceptions of all Moldovans. Also, because the number of respondents is small, it is not representative of the whole Moldovan population. Hence, the results might not be very realistic and accurate. Originality/value: This study provides insightful theoretical implications and practical recommendations in creating marketing strategies that would help in managing and improving Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan tourists. Also, no study, at least to the researcher's knowledge, has evaluated Greece's image as a destination among Moldovan consumers. Finally, due to the increasing number of Moldovan tourists in Greece, it is important that Greece grasps this
Full Text Available Contemporary business is largely based on digital information. Traditional media forms lose battle in a new global surrounding. Therefore, knowing specific terminology and postulates of new conditions in the digital information market is essential. Globalization is an inevitable process overtaking all economic activities, including tourism sector intertwined with various advertising activities in order to place and sell its products and services. Digital marketing is thus more and more used. In that context, world tourism organizations and national tourist agencies play a role of communicator, trying to create desired mental image of a specific country as a tourism destination in the minds of final consumers. They use branding to make one country uniquely recognizable in the market. The aim of this paper is to present new trends in tourism destination branding process by using the means of digital marketing. The main purpose of this research was to analyse marketing activities and communication strategies of European countries, perceived as the largest tourism market, and compare them with the tourism promotion of Croatia in various markets. The results of the analysis of Croatian activities in promoting its tourism destinations imply there is still a large potential to improve implementation of digital marketing means by preparing the strategy of integrated market communication. The analysis of marketing activities of tourism developed countries shows trends in digital marketing that can serve as a model for development of Croatian tourism brand in global digital surrounding.
van Rijk, Maartje C.; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Valdés Olmos, Renato; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A.; Kroon, Bin B. R.
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,
Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.
The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.
Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.
Sarwar, Abdullah Am; Manaf, Noorhazilah A; Omar, Azura
The need for better healthcare has grown significantly in recent years. In addition, the rising healthcare costs in the U.S. and in many European countries have forced many patients to seek medical treatment abroad, which has created the demand for medical tourism. With little yet known as to the perception of a medical tourist's destination selection, this study aims to explore medical tourist's perception in selecting their destination while going for medical treatment. Realizing the current need to examine closely the perception of medical tourists, this study had conducted a secondary study to collect data for assessing and identification of the key factors on patient's perception and destination selection criteria. The result confirms the existence of a very strong relationship between cost, service quality, treatment types and availability and marketing impact on the perception of the medical tourists' in selecting their medical tourism destination. This study offers support for the proposed conceptual model and an empirical basis for comparison in future research.
Craggs, Ruth; Gorman, Catherine; Griffin, Kevin; mottiar, ziene; Quinn, Deirdre; Quinn, Bernadette; Ryan, Theresa
The Students in Action Project in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism was established in 2012 as a way of engaging students and working with stakeholders in a destination. The overall aim of the project was to immerse students in an active collaborative learning environment within the destination to identify ways in which tourism could be enhanced. In the 2014/2015 academic year the project involved over 300 students from a variety of programmes and modules working with local sta...
Hussain, Syed Imtiaz
Underlay cognitive networks operate simultaneously with primary networks satisfying stringent interference constraints, which reduces their transmission power and coverage area. To reach remote destinations, secondary sources use relaying techniques. Selecting the best relay among the available ones is a well known technique. Recently, selective cooperation is investigated in cognitive networks where the secondary nodes can adapt their transmission power to always satisfy the interference threshold. In this paper, we investigate a situation where the secondary nodes have a fixed transmission power and may violate the interference threshold. We present two relay selection schemes; the first one excludes the relays not satisfying the interference constraint and then picks up a relay from the remaining ones that can provide the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The other scheme uses a quotient of the relay link SNR and the interference from the relay to the primary user and optimizes it to maximise the relay link SNR. We derive closed form expressions for outage probability, bit error rate, channel capacity and diversity of the system for both schemes by using tight approximations. We also study mutual effects of interference. Simulation results confirm the analytical results and reveal that the relay selection is feasible at low SNRs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lía Domínguez de Nakayama
Full Text Available Since long time ago population dynamics in Argentina has been linked to migration. Nevertheless, scientists have concluded that no research has found migration to be due to positive attractors. Almost every research presents migration as the unavoidable outcome of constraining environmental conditions. Recently a new type of migration has come to be, linked with tourism, which has received the denomination of amenity migration, and has as its subjects people who, after being tourist in a certain destination, decide to come back to it as dwellers. They can stay either for the season or the whole year. This movement produces important effects in the collective profile of tourism destinations. This article intends to study demographic and social processes quickened in mountain tourism destinations by this peculiar kind of migration, with a case study in two Argentinean cities San Martín de los Andes (Neuquén y Villa General Belgrano (Córdoba. Documental research and in-depth interviews with migrants as well as natives enables an preliminary understanding of the way this kind of migration affects socio cultural configuration in destination places as well as relationship amongst residents and newcomers and sustainability policies for local development.
Uren, R.F.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Roberts, J.; Renwick, S.; Gillett, D.; Neische, F.; Ramsay-Stewart, G.
Full text: Mammary lymphoscintigraphy using small volume (0.1-0.2 ml) peritumoral injections of 99 Tc m -antimony sulphide colloid provided a map of the lymph drainage of a breast cancer to its draining sentinel lymph nodes in 92 of 102 patients (over 90%). Non-migration of tracer is reduced by post-injection massage for 5 min but may occur especially if the lymphatics are blocked by metastases. Drainage included the axilla in 92%, internal mammary nodes in 43%, supraclavicular nodes in 12% and intramammary interval nodes in 10% of patients. One patient drained to an interpectoral node. Drainage across the centre-line of the breast occurred in 46% of patients but direct drainage to the contralateral side of the patient was not seen. Lymphatic drainage occurred to 1 node field in 52 patients, 2 node fields in 34 patients and 3 node fields in 6 patients, so that 43% of patients had multiple draining node fields. Drainage to non-axillary sites occurred in 51% of patients. In conclusion, mammary lymphoscintigraphy accurately maps sentinel node location in breast cancer. Approximately half of the patients will have sentinel nodes outside the axilla. To achieve complete lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer, it is logical to biopsy these non-axillary sentinel nodes as well as the sentinel nodes in the axilla. Failure to do so will potentially understage the node status in 50% of patients
Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.
The invention provides a method wherein a first network node advertises available resources that a second network node may use to offload network node functions transparently to the first network node. Examples of the first network node are a client device (e.g. PC, notebook, tablet, smart phone), a
Full Text Available The process of tourist decision-making is heavily influenced by a number of external and internal factors, and can be interpreted only by using multidisciplinary theories and techniques in researches. The main goal of tourist s behavior analysis is to understand the motives and reasons of customer decisions during their choice of tourist destination. By getting to know the potential and existing customers, tourism companies can adjust the characteristics of their products. Higher customer satisfaction also means better the financial results. The research was conducted in the summer of 2013, through a structured questionnaire with 28 questions. The sample consists of 100 tourists, who visited the Greek island of Zakynthos as the customers of Rhapsody travel, tour operator from Belgrade, Serbia. The aim of this research is to determine the needs and motivation in the process of destination selection of tourists, who visited Zakynthos, and their comparison between genders. Data was processed with the IBM SPSS 19.0. software package for statistical research, through the Chi-Square statistical test. Results of the study showed that there are statistically significant differences only at the question categories of destination decision-making and expressing satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
Innovation and interorganizational collaboration have been identified as important elements of competitive tourism strategies. This study proposes a model that relates aspects of organizational settings and collaboration to the success of innovation within the organization. In particular, this st......Innovation and interorganizational collaboration have been identified as important elements of competitive tourism strategies. This study proposes a model that relates aspects of organizational settings and collaboration to the success of innovation within the organization. In particular......, this study focuses on destination marketing organizations (DMOs) as they collaborate with destination businesses to assist in the development of new services in marketing the destination. A national survey among American DMOs indicates that partner collaboration is a significant driver of visitor......-orientated innovation. Specifically, innovation success was found to be driven solely by the development of market-oriented rather than strategyoriented new services, indicating that many of the American DMOs respond to visitor changes at the expense of providing new services that somehow do not fit within current...
Full Text Available The importance of involving diverse stakeholders in tourism planning is receiving growing recognition. Tourism destination planning is a complex process, due to the existence of a wide variety of stakeholders with a wide range of opinions, multiple problem visions and different interests. Despite the complexity of the planning process one feature acknowledged for successful destination management planning is high level of stakeholder cooperation. The paper examines the level of stakeholder cooperation on the specific example of the sustainable development concept implementation in Montenegrin tourism. It starts with two hypotheses: first, the development level of instruments for managing tourist destination depends on stakeholder cooperation level in a particular destination, and second, implementation of the sustainable development concept is positively correlated with the development of instruments for managing tourist destination. The results have indicated poor implementation of tourism development plans and low level of stakeholder cooperation.
El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Matton, C.; Bacquet, J.E.; Urso, L.; Cool, G.; Guidez, F.; Potier, S.; Nandrino, J.L.; Antoine, P.
BACKGROUND: Context memory, or the ability to remember the context in which an episodic event has occurred (e.g., where and when an event took place), has been found to be compromised in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study examined whether a similar deficit would be observed for destination memory,
El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Matton, C.; Bacquet, J.E.; Urso, L.; Cool, G.; Guidez, F.; Potier, S.; Nandrino, J.L.; Antoine, P.
Background: Context memory, or the ability to remember the context in which an episodic event has occurred (e.g., where and when an event took place), has been found to be compromised in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study examined whether a similar deficit would be observed for destination memory,
Full Text Available Purpose – This paper describes the marketing potential of film-induced tourism in marketing Japan, as a popular tourism destination for non-Asian visitors. In particular, it focuses on the popular culture and on engaging young people from Europe, America, and Australia in discovering and promoting its cultural heritage. Design/Methodology/Approach – The number of Western tourists to Japan rose by 50 % between 2010 and 2015. Many of these tourists are attracted by the films associated with Japan in one way or another. We assume that, even though the majority of incoming tourists in Japan are Chinese visitors, the marketing potential of film-induced tourism in Japan represents a source of untapped potential. One can trace the increase in the popularity of Japan as the tourism destination to a number of new Western films taking place in Japan. Findings and implications – We employ the monthly data on the combined box office revenues of recent films set in Japan, as well as the monthly statistics on the number of visitors from Australia, Europe, and North America. We find causality between the popularity of the films and the number of tourists from the destinations that are mostly impacted by those films. Limitations – The research is limited by the issue of popularity of Western culture and films in Asia. One should remember that just 3 million out of 19 million foreign tourists that visited Japan in 2015 were non-Asian. Originality – The popularity of films either related to or taking place in Japan is enormous in the Western world. Headed by the recent 2015 Hungarian dark comedy “Liza, the Fox-Fairy”, there is a whole array of films drawing from both exotic and cosmopolitan Japanese culture. The Japanese setting offers a picturesque scenery for melodramas, such as “Lost in translation” (USD 119.7 million in box office revenues or “Memories of a Geisha” (USD 162 million, horrors and thrillers, including “The Grudge” (USD
... can help to frame the experience in all three stages. For that reason it is advisable for destinations to employ some kind of visual identity system management to package the city image into a clear brand. Keywords: European Capital of Culture, Leeuwarden 2018, Chinese visitors, destination branding, flanking research ...
Márcio Marreiro das Chagas
Full Text Available This paper analysis tourism destination image influences on satisfaction and loyalty to Sun and Sea tourism destinations, investigating Natal/RN as a case. Quality dimensions were control variables. Therefore, it was conducted an exploratory and descriptive research with quantitative analytical approach. Data collection was performed by a questionnaire addressed to International tourists at the Augusto Severo International Airport. The composition was a simple random sampling by reaching the final number of 300 international tourists interviewed. Among the main results, it was noted that nine are the dimensions of perceived Quality of Sun and Sea segment, it means, Beaches, Public Equipment, Restaurants, Transportation, Information and Finance Services, Hotel Equipment, Diversity of Restaurants and Food, Complementary Services and Access to the hotel and Tourism Attractions, Urban and Natural Scenery. From the results, it was concluded that tourism destination image influences satisfaction and loyalty. Moreover, quality seems to be other important dimension for the satisfaction and loyalty process.
Full Text Available The importance of involving diverse stakeholders in tourism planning is receiving growing recognition. Effective tourism destination planning is a complex process, due to the existence of a wide variety of stakeholders with a wide range of opinions, multiple problem visions and different interests. Despite the complexity of the planning process one feature acknowledged for successful destination management planning is a high level of stakeholder engagement and cooperation. The implementation and success of a tourism plan often relies on the support of destination stakeholders.
Felipe Nasrallah Bedran
Full Text Available This study aimed to find out how cosmopolitanism influences the destination image building. To accomplish this objective we interviewed foreign people, who know São Paulo, a city with national and international importance, due to its structure, economy, size, population and by its intense cultural and business life. This work reviewed cosmopolitanism that is the desire to know other cultures, besides his native one. This leads to an intention to travel through different regions, countries, to deepen in other societies and try to blend into it. Thus, one has particular characteristics, which influence the way one lives and consume products. The destination image can be defined as the sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions that a person has about a destination. To understand how cosmopolitanism influences the destination image, two approaches were used. A qualitative approach used interviews with professionals from SPTuris, as well as personal interviews with foreign tourists at the airport., This data was analyzed using content analysis. The quantitative approach included a survey with 205 foreigners. Data was analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics, ANOVA and structural equation modeling. The result showed that cosmopolitanism and income influences the affective aspect in the destination image formation. It also showed that the stay purpose influenced the cognitive aspect, and that the length of stay influenced both aspects of the destination image. The research result showed that the cosmopolitanism influences mainly the affective aspect of São Paulo destination image.
Saitya Brata Das
Full Text Available How can we think the destinal place of language in the essentially historical condition of our existence if such historicity cannot be understood on the basis of the labor of negativity alone? The attempt is made here to think language in a more originary manner, as non-negative finitude, that affirms what is outside dialectical-speculative closure, what is to come. The notion of 'destinal' itself is thus transformed. No longer being merely a categorical grasp of "entities presently given", language is an originary exposure to the event of arrival in its lightning flash. Destiny appears as that of the messianic arrival of the 'not yet' which is not a telos that the immanent movement of historical reason reaches by an irresistible force of the negative. This essay reads Schelling, Heidegger and Kierkegaard to think language as a "place" of exposure to the non-teleological destiny that may erupt even today, here and now, without any given conditionality.Como nós podemos pensar o lugar destinal da linguagem na condição essencialmente histórica de nossa existência se tal historicidade não pode ser entendida com base apenas no trabalho da negatividade? Faz-se aqui a tentativa de pensar a linguagem de um modo mais originário, como finitude não negativa, que afirma o que se encontra fora do fechamento dialético-especulativo, o que está por vir. A própria noção de 'destinal' é então transformada. Não sendo mais apenas uma apreensão categorial de "entidades presentemente dadas", a linguagem é uma exposição originária ao evento da chegada em seu instante iluminador. O destino aparece como o da chegada messiânica do 'ainda não' que não é um telos que o movimento imanente da razão histórica atinge por meio de uma irresistível força do negativo. Este ensaio lê Schelling, Heidegger e Kierkegaard para pensar a linguagem como um "lugar" de exposição ao destino não teológico que pode irromper mesmo hoje, aqui e agora, sem
Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.
The invention provides a method wherein a first network node advertises available resources that a second network node may use to offload network node functions transparently to the first network node. Examples of the first network node are a client device (e.g. PC, notebook, tablet, smart phone), a server (e.g. application server, a proxy server, cloud location, router). Examples of the second network node are an application server, a cloud location or a router. The available resources may b...
Full Text Available The image of the tourist destination plays an essential role in the decision making process regarding the choice of a holiday. Image has a crucial role in the success of the destination because it influences the consumers’ satisfaction and helps in drawing up a promotion strategy for the positioning/repositioning on a certain market, branding/rebranding the tourist destination. Information from different sources contribute to the formation of the image of a certain destination, information which can be distributed into: the promotion performed by the destination; the other’s opinions (direct or indirect; mass-media and the popular culture. We intended to investigate Romania’s image a a tourist destination among the Turkish students. The results showed that the students had very poor knowledge of our country.
Sony Manggala Putra
Full Text Available The tourism sector as one of the leading sectors in Pasuruan still faces many obstacles. The constraints associated with conditions that require improvement on tourist destination related to the presence of infrastructure, zoning, the gap between the tourism destination in the West and the East area, up to the level of visitation which has decreased from year to year. The aims of the studi were to describe and analyze Tourism Destination Management conducted by Department of Culture and Tourism Pasuruan at Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati object to become competitive and sustainable tourism destination. This study used a qualitative approach with a case study method locus in the Department of Culture and Tourism Pasuruan. The results of this study indicate that the tourism destination management of Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati when reviewed in terms of competitiveness, still needs a lot of improvement related to the presence of tourism facilities and the quality of employees as service providers. In terms of sustainability, it shows that the synergy between the regional government and tourism stakeholders need to be improved. The need for the establishment of cooperation with third parties in management of tourism destination in Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati, can be used to optimize the carrying capacity and tourist destination marketing system at Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati in order to compete in a competitive and sustainable way Keywords: tourism destination management, competitiveness, sustainability
Tourist destination choices depend, among other factors, on the match between the destination’s personality image and consumers’ self-concept, in line with self-image congruence theory. Motives also mediate this relationship, yet tourism research largely neglects the influence of avoidance motives. This study applies the product-based construct of undesired congruity, or consumers’ tendency to avoid undesired stereotypical images, to the context of web-based vacation destination information s...
ABSTRACT: Going through application of destination personality in North Cyprus and finding about the essence of its relation to tourist satisfaction, and tourist behavior, considering the moderating effect of tourist motivation on relation between destination personality and tourist satisfaction as the main aim of this study. This study focused on two aims: 1) the relationship between destination personality adopted from Aaker (1997) personality scale in tourism realm _ North Cyprus_ due ...
A new method for computing the node-pair reliability of network systems modeled by random graphs with nodes arranged in sequence is presented. It is based on a recursive algorithm using the 'sliding window' technique, the window being composed of several consecutive nodes. In a single step, the connectivity probabilities for all nodes included in the window are found. Subsequently, the window is moved one node forward. This process is repeated until, in the last step, the window reaches the terminal node. The connectivity probabilities found at that point are used to compute the node-pair reliability of the network system considered. The algorithm is designed especially for graphs with small distances between adjacent nodes, where the distance between two nodes is defined as the absolute value of the difference between the nodes' numbers. The maximal distance between any two adjacent nodes is denoted by Γ(G), where G symbolizes a random graph. If Γ(G)=2 then the method can be applied for directed as well as undirected graphs whose nodes and edges are subject to failure. This is important in view of the fact that many algorithms computing network reliability are designed for graphs with failure-prone edges and reliable nodes. If Γ(G)=3 then the method's applicability is limited to undirected graphs with reliable nodes. The main asset of the presented algorithms is their low numerical complexity-O(n), where n denotes the number of nodes
Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.
A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.
Chudyk, Anna M; Winters, Meghan; Moniruzzaman, Md; Ashe, Maureen C; Gould, Joanie Sims; McKay, Heather
The positive effect of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases and age-related disabilities, such as mobility-disability, are widely accepted. Mobility is broadly defined as the ability of individuals to move themselves within community environments. These two concepts -physical activity and mobility - are closely linked and together contribute to older adults living healthy, independent lives. Neighborhood destinations may encourage mobility, as older adults typically leave their homes to travel to specific destinations. Thus, neighborhoods with a high prevalence of destinations may provide older adults an attractive opportunity to walk, instead of drive, and thereby obtain incidental physical activity. We know surprisingly little about the specific types of destinations older adults deem relevant and even less about destinations that support the mobility of older adults with low income. Accessible neighborhood destinations may be especially important to older adults with low income as they are more likely to walk as a primary travel mode. Conversely, this population may also be at increased risk of functional impairments that negatively affect their ability to walk. As a means to fill this information gap we aimed to better understand the mobility habits of older adults with low income. Thus, our specific objectives were to: (1) describe the types of destinations older adults with low income most commonly travel to in one week; and (2) determine the association between the prevalence of neighborhood destinations and the number of transportation walking trips these individuals make (average per day). We conducted a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults with low income residing within Metro Vancouver, Canada. We assessed participant travel behavior (frequency, purpose, mode, destination) using seven-day travel diaries and measured the prevalence of neighborhood destinations using the Street Smart Walk Score. We
Full Text Available The paper tend to show some of the challenges of matured and world-known tourism destination, as well some of the modalities in keeping and increasing a level of Honolulu cluster's competitiveness. Accordingly, specific tourism experience as socio-cultural dimension of destination competitiveness was evaluated. A core of the paper is primary research of tourism event "Brunch on the Beach" Honolulu, Hawaii, that was done in 2004. Data for analysis were collected during the internship that author did in the City and Country - Honolulu. Internship was a part of JFDP scholarship received by the American Councils for International Educations (ACIE. George Washington University was the institution where the author completed the most of specialization and which gave a support for the internship organization. Questionnaire method was used for the research, while SPSS software was used for data analyses.
Lund, Niels Frederik; Cohen, S.A.; Scarles, C.
A large part of the global population is now connected in online social networks in social media where they share experiences and stories and consequently influence each other’s perceptions and buying behaviour. This poses a distinct challenge for destination management organisations, who must cope with a new reality where destination brands are increasingly the product of people’s shared tourism experiences and storytelling in social networks, rather than marketing strategies. This article s...
Candela Guido; Castellani Massimiliano; Mussoni Maurizio
In this paper we investigate the effects of a Keynesian policy in tourists destinations where tourism products are mainly sold through «direct sales» (decentralized solution) and the tourism market equilibrium is characterized by sticky prices and unemployment (coordination failure). A Keynesian demand policy is a Pareto improving solution with respect to the organization of sales by Tour operators or Destination managers (centralized solution), since tourism firms are not worse-off in terms ...
Full Text Available Active transport is a convenient way to incorporate physical activity in adolescents' daily life. The present study aimed to investigate which psychosocial and environmental factors are associated with walking, cycling, public transport (train, tram, bus, metro and passive transport (car, motorcycle, moped over short distances (maximum eight kilometres among older adolescents (17-18 years, to school and to other destinations.562 older adolescents completed an online questionnaire assessing socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables, environmental variables and transport to school/other destinations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were performed.More social modelling and a higher residential density were positively associated with walking to school and walking to other destinations, respectively. Regarding cycling, higher self-efficacy and a higher social norm were positively associated with cycling to school and to other destinations. Regarding public transport, a higher social norm, more social modelling of siblings and/or friends, more social support and a higher land use mix access were positively related to public transport to school and to other destinations, whereas a greater distance to school only related positively to public transport to school. Regarding passive transport, more social support and more perceived benefits were positively associated with passive transport to school and to other destinations. Perceiving less walking and cycling facilities at school was positively related to passive transport to school only, and more social modelling was positively related to passive transport to other destinations.Overall, psychosocial variables seemed to be more important than environmental variables across the four transport modes. Social norm, social modelling and social support were the most consistent psychosocial factors which indicates that it is important to target both older adolescents and their social
Full Text Available The study aims to propose a new approach to analyse visitor perceptions and experiences in a tourism destination. The purpose is to discuss how the discrete choice models can contribute to the analysis of the tourism destination in the visitor experience perspective. The study pays particular attention to the role of food and wine supply in thetourism experience and the destination perception. This research deepens the theoretical approach to the analysis of visitor perceptions for a tourist urban destination. The proposed framework has been applied to the city of Verona. The findings concern an exploratory survey and the subsequent building of the causal analysis. The discrete choice model application and the development of the experimental design are discussed, in order to take the role of food and wine attractions into account. The exploratory survey identified seven relevant themes for visitors. Among them, food and wine specialties may play a relevant role in the assessment of a tourist destination. Attributes and levels have been outlined to apply the discrete choice models. A survey questionnaire has been developed to be submitted to a large sample of visitors or potential visitors of Verona. The methodological contribution of this study is the application of the discrete choice models to the study of tourism experiences. The empirical innovation consists in a different marketing perspective for an urban tourist destination, whose competitiveness is strengthened by the agrofood industry.
Full Text Available Rural tourism and diversification of economic activities are now an integral part of sustainable development of rural areas and regions of Šumadija and Pomoravlje. Development of rural tourism improves the economic position and social activity of the population of rural areas. Šumadija and Pomoravlje region has significant natural and human resources for the development of rural tourism, which have not been adequately utilized. The preservation of authentic values of climate, especially of traditional crafts and gastronomy, can contribute to the development and recognition of the region as a new destination for rural tourism in Serbia. Traditional products due to their features, quality and heritage, can become a regional brand, and also promote the region as a unique destination of rural tourism. The aim of the paper is to explore the representation of traditional crafts, production of handicrafts and traditional cuisine in the region of Šumadija and Pomoravlje. The results of the research conducted point to a significant and under-utilized potential of traditional values in the development and promotion of the region as a rural tourism destination.
Khafagy, Mohammad Galal
-duplex potentials. Full-duplex relaying (FDR), where intermediate nodes may now support source-destination communication via simultaneous listening/forwarding, represents one of two full-duplex settings currently recommended for deployment in future fifth
Vekony, David; Korneliussen, Simen
Although the concept of virtual reality (VR) has been studied and used for many years, recent technological development has led to the commercial availability of immersive VR, specifically head-mounted displays. Little research has been conducted on the potential for immersive VR to influence consumer behavior. The aim of this thesis is to give insight into how immersive VR can be utilized in destination marketing, through investigating its effect on consumer outcomes directly,...
Full Text Available Tour operators have been identified as vital information sources influencing the images and decision-making processes of tourists. Bloemfontein is situated in Central South Africa. Tourism marketers believe that the city is an ideal stopover destination for national tour operators en route to other destinations. Research was conducted among national tour operators in Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town to determine their perceptions of Bloemfontein and whether they regard the city as a tourist or stopover destination. The research indicates that the city is not regarded as a tourist destination, but is seen as an ideal stopover destination which could be included in future tour itineraries. It is currently excluded because operators are unfamiliar with the tourism offering(s of Bloemfontein due to insufficient marketing by the tourism officials of the city.
de Ridder, M.; Marres, C. C. M.; Smeele, L. E.; van den Brekel, M. W. M.; Hauptmann, M.; Balm, A. J. M.; van Velthuysen, M. L. F.
In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the search for better prognostic factors beyond TNM-stage is ongoing. Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/total lymph nodes) is gaining interest in view of its potential prognostic significance. All HNSCC patients at the Netherlands Cancer
Full Text Available The existence of tourist offer varieties does not imply the existence of high-quality approach to and management of a tourist destination, nor a quality development of tourist products, which is the case of the City of Mostar. Despite the existing potential, it is necessary to invest a lot of effort and mobilize several players in order to build a modern and attractive tourist destination, integrate the existing and develop new tourist products and develop the City brand. In the context of holistic approach to tourism development in the City of Mostar and its image building, it is necessary to look into the role of indigenous traditional products that can have a significant impact on the overall effects of tourist offer. The goal of the paper is to present an innovative approach to building a modern brand and tourist product of the City of Mostar, as a unique tourist destination that is founded on authentic, traditional products and the way of life. The paper is based on the research conducted in 2010 through in-depth interviews with players involved in tourism development and players in the tourism industry.
When Canadian researchers examine the subject of medical tourism, they typically focus on ethical, social, public health and health policy issues related to Canadians seeking health services in other countries. They emphasize study of Canada as a departure point for medical tourists rather than as a potential destination for international patients. Several influential voices have recently argued that provincial healthcare systems in Canada should market health services to international patients. Proponents of marketing Canada as a destination for medical tourists argue that attracting international patients will generate revenue for provincial healthcare systems. Responding to such proposals, I argue that there are at least seven reasons why provincial health systems in Canada should not dedicate institutional, financial and health human resources to promoting themselves as destinations for medical tourists.
Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T
There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the academic and practitioner literature on urban destination marketing, suggesting that it contains within it a dominant paradigm which the author characterises as 'the theory of marketing competitive advantage'. As such, this theory requires towns and cities to differentiate themselves through the provision of unique products, based on which they subsequently undertake branding, market positioning, distribution and other activities through bespoke destination marketing organisations (DMOs. Practice is then contrasted with theory by reference to a discordant strad of the literature as well as the actual destination marketing currently being undertaken in 60 European towns and cities. The theory of marketing competitive advantage is shown to be an ideal which rarely translates into practice. Irrespective of whether or not a town or city possesses competitive advantage, DMO destination marketing gravitates almost inexorably towards a 'marketing of everything'. Such an approach, in turn, reduces to a bland and monolithic 'theming of urban sameness', all of which is diametrically opposite to what one would expect to be the case as per the theory of marketing competitive advantage. The author contends that this gap between theory and practice matters, necessitating a rethinking of how academics and practitioners should in future seek to explain or otherwise account for urban destination marketing.
Full Text Available The uplifting financial impact that tourism may have on local and global economies of scale has resulted in tourists becoming a highly sought-after commodity capable of turning almost any tourism destination and its attractions into thriving exports. With the rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the introduction of smart technologies in particular, however, tourism has become not only more accessible, but arguably also more competitive with an online, try-before-youbuy tourism experience now becoming a reality. Subsequently, the battle is no longer for top offline destination only, but also for online destination of choice. An opportunity thus exists for Official Destination Websites (ODWs to take advantage of these, and additional opportunities, to enhance a prospective tourist’s online, pre-tourism experience. By analysing seven of the world’s most popular destinations’ capital city ODWs, one comes to realise that ODWs have become an integrated, rather than independent, part of facilitating tourism. As such, the importance of developing, implementing and maintaining an ODW to increase the likelihood of a possible tourist conversion from mere browser to buyer is highlighted. Finally, the similarities and differences between the analysed ODWs are also listed in an attempt to guide prospective tourism destinations in their endeavour to establish a new ODW, as well as allowing destinations with an existing ODW to possibly implement improvements.
Full Text Available The uplifting financial impact that tourism may have on local and global economies of scale has resulted in tourists becoming a highly sought-after commodity capable of turning almost any tourism destination and its attractions into thriving exports. With the rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the introduction of smart technologies in particular, however, tourism has become not only more accessible, but arguably also more competitive with an online, try-before-you-buy tourism experience now becoming a reality. Subsequently, the battle is no longer for top offline destination only, but also for online destination of choice. An opportunity thus exists for Official Destination Websites (ODWs to take advantage of these, and additional opportunities, to enhance a prospective tourist’s online, pre-tourism experience. By analysing seven of the world’s most popular destinations’ capital city ODWs, one comes to realise that ODWs have become an integrated, rather than independent, part of facilitating tourism. As such, the importance of developing, implementing and maintaining an ODW to increase the likelihood of a possible tourist conversion from mere browser to buyer is highlighted. Finally, the similarities and differences between the analysed ODWs are also listed in an attempt to guide prospective tourism destinations in their endeavour to establish a new ODW, as well as allowing destinations with an existing ODW to possibly implement improvements.
Haisma, Marjolijn S.; Plaat, Boudewijn E. C.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Diercks, Gilles F. H.; Romeijn, Tonnis R.; Terra, Jorrit B.
Background: The current knowledge about potential risk factors for lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HNcSCC) is primarily based on studies that lack adjustment for confounding variables. Objectives: We sought to identify independent risk
Jamaludin, N L; Sam, D L; Sandal, G M; Adam, A A
What are the factors that predict international students' destination-loyalty intention? This is the main question this paper addresses, using an online survey among 396 (short-term, N = 182) and (long-term, N = 214) international students at a Norwegian university. Structural equation model-AMOS was conducted to examine relationships among personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intentions. The results showed that: (1) universalism was positively related to subjective well-being for short-term students; and (2) subjective well-being was positively related to destination-loyalty intention for all groups. We found that relatively stable and happy individuals might be important for ensuring destination-loyalty intentions. Results also indicated that personal values that emphasize justice and equity are also important for short-term international students' well-being.
Full Text Available Within the most recent European Policy for Tourism, the competitiveness of the European tourism industry is directly linked to the image of Europe and to its perception, as a collection of sustainable and high-quality tourist destinations. In such context, improving the profile of the European tourist destinations has become a main target. During the last years, the European Commission focused on the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Several projects were developed, the most recent one introducing a practical tool - the European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS for the sustainable development of destinations. The present paper advances the idea that such tool can be successfully used in order to achieve the goal of improving the profile of the European tourist destinations.
A new form of cultural tourism called film-induced tourism has developed in the 1990s as a new special travel form. Research shows that film can have a strong influence in tourist decision-making behaviour and films do not only provide short-term tourism revenue but long term prosperity to the destinations. In recent years, the number of Chinese visitors has increased rapidly in Finland. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to explore the poten-tial of Finland as a film location and the o...
Crowley, Martha; Lichter, Daniel T; Turner, Richard N
The geographic diffusion of Latinos from immigrant gateways to newly-emerging rural destinations is one of the most significant recent trends in U.S. population redistribution. Yet, few studies have explored how Latinos have fared in new destinations, and even fewer have examined economic implications for other minority workers and their families. We use county-level data from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey to compare the changing economic circumstances (e.g., employment and unemployment, poverty, income, and homeownership) of Latinos and African Americans in new Latino boomtowns. We also evaluate the comparative economic trajectories of Latinos in new destinations and established gateways. During the 1990s, new rural destinations provided clear economic benefits to Latinos, even surpassing African Americans on some economic indicators. The 2000s, however, ushered in higher rates of Latino poverty; the economic circumstances of Latinos also deteriorated more rapidly in new vis-à-vis traditional destinations. By 2010, individual and family poverty rates in new destinations were significantly higher among Latinos than African Americans, despite higher labor force participation and lower levels of unemployment. Difference-in-difference models demonstrate that in both the 1990s and 2000s, economic trajectories of African Americans in new Latino destinations largely mirrored those observed in places without large Latino influxes. Any economic benefits for Latinos in new rural destinations thus have not come at the expense of African Americans. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rainer Andergassen; Guido Candela
This paper investigates the effectiveness of development strategies for tourism destinations. We argue that resource investments unambiguously increase tourism revenues and that increasing the degree of tourism sophistication, that is increasing the variety of tourism related goods and services, increases tourism activity and decreases the perceived quality of the destination's resource endowment, leading to an ambiguous effect on tourism revenues. We disentangle these two effects and charact...
Full Text Available Tourists are now more open in selecting tourist destination. The number of holiday trips were growing rapidly. There were various promotions available to attract tourists to travel either within or outside the country. Travel distance is not an obstacle for tourists to travel, regardless of local and foreign destination. This study will be conducted to identify the motivation of long journey travel that involves push and pull factors. The long journey involves distance, cost and the type of transportation used to get to the destination. For this purpose a comprehensive review and discussion on previous sources which involved a variety of secondary data sources will be used to meet every need of the study objectives. The finding showed that the travel distance was dependent on the motivation for tourists to travel and the type of transport they want to use. Mode of transport used has advantages and disadvantages for long journey travel depending on traveller choice.
Full Text Available Studies on migration in Nepal primarily focused on the causes of migration, in general. While a few studies examined the remittances received or sent by migrants, there is little information about the variation in remittances received by households by migrant’s destination. Thus, this exploratory study attempts to answer: Does the extent to which households receive remittances vary by migrant’s destination? Using the data collected in 2013 from the western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, the findings from multivariate analysis reveal that net of controls, both the receipt (whether a household received any remittance or not as well as the amount of remittances received by a household varied by migrant’s destination. Evidence suggests that households are less likely to receive remittances from migrants working in India (a country of low earning potential as compared to those working in Nepal. On the other hand, households received significantly more amount of remittances from migrants working in countries with high earning potentials (such as Middle East, East or South East Asia, and America, Australia and Europe as compared to the domestic migrants who were working inside of Nepal but outside of Chitwan. Adjusting for other factors, the largest amount of remittances was received from migrants working in the East or South East Asian countries (e.g. South Korea, Malaysia, Japan followed by those in America, Australia, and Europe and the Middle East. The insights gained from this exploratory study are discussed.
Full Text Available The diversification of supply sources owned causes differences between destinations and special interest which is shaped for demand leads to become tourism widespread. In Turkey, there are many destinations where different features exist together. By means of alternative tourism types, various destinations and tourism types emerge. When all the events happened during the Independence War are considered in terms of national heritage, Afyonkarahisar is an important centre among grief tourism destinations. In research related to image components of Afyonkarahisar, confectionery, food products, and thermal tourism are the values of this destination that come to mind first. When the city is considered in terms of tourism, by highlighting the thermal tourism, the slogan “The Capital of Thermal Tourism” has been used. However it is hard to say that thermal tourism has a success taking the research into consideration. Therefore either other tourism values will be used to support the slogan available or with the work of a new image, a new image destination image will be created. The aim of this study is to eliminate the current negativity of Afyonkarahisar province’s destination image, strengthen the image and examine the availability of grief tourism which is one of the heritage tourism types so as to increase its market share
Full Text Available Tourists’ satisfaction has been acknowledged as one of the most important elements of competitive advantage and formulating effective destination management strategies because it is a reliable standard to evaluate performance of tangible and intangible elements of tourism products and services. The purpose of this study is to investigate tourists’ satisfaction by examining the relationship between destination attribute importance and performance in a tourist destination. Trijuginarayan, an emerging spiritual and adventure tourist destination located in Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state of India was selected as the study area for this research. Importance-Performance Analysis was employed to examine the relationship between importance and performance of various destination attributes. Results revealed that attributes related to tourism product of spiritual and cultural nature, atmosphere and climate, a variety of tourist activities, hospitality and safety are significant factors in determining tourist satisfaction, whereas basic facilities such as accommodation, transportation, tourism infrastructure and hygiene and sanitation at destination are of significant importance in satisfaction evaluation. Findings also reveal that tourists were satisfied with the core products, but were dissatisfied with basic tourist facilities offered at the destination. The findings alert concerned tourism stakeholders for outlining effective strategies for holistic development and improving performance of attributes in a given destination.
Bu, Youjun; Zhang, Chuanhao; Jiang, YiMing; Zhang, Zhen
With the network scales rapidly and new network applications emerge frequently, bandwidth supply for today's Internet could not catch up with the rapid increasing requirements. Unfortunately, irrational using of network sources makes things worse. Actual network deploys single-next-hop optimization paths for data transmission, but such "best effort" model leads to the imbalance use of network resources and usually leads to local congestion. On the other hand Multi-path routing can use the aggregation bandwidth of multi paths efficiently and improve the robustness of network, security, load balancing and quality of service. As a result, multi-path has attracted much attention in the routing and switching research fields and many important ideas and solutions have been proposed. This paper focuses on implementing the parallel transmission of multi next-hop data, balancing the network traffic and reducing the congestion. It aimed at exploring the key technologies of the multi-path communication network, which could provide a feasible academic support for subsequent applications of multi-path communication networking. It proposed a novel multi-path algorithm based on node potential in the network. And the algorithm can fully use of the network link resource and effectively balance network link resource utilization.
Barbee, Brent W.
The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) is a system that monitors the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population to identify NEAs whose orbital characteristics may make them potential destinations for future round-trip human space flight missions. To accomplish this monitoring, Brent Barbee (GSFC) developed and automated a system that applies specialized trajectory processing to the orbits of newly discovered NEAs, and those for which we have updated orbit knowledge, obtained from the JPL Small Bodies Database (SBDB). This automated process executes daily and the results are distributed to the general public and the astronomy community. This aids in prioritizing telescope radar time allocations for obtaining crucial follow-up observations of highly accessible NEAs during the critical, because it is often fleeting, time period surrounding the time at which the NEAs are initially discovered.
Dronkers, J.; Levels, M.; de Heus, M.
Background Earlier studies using a double perspective (destination & origin) indicate that several macro-characteristics of both destination and origin countries affect the educational performance of migrant children. This paper explores the extent to which educational system features of destination
Ellis-Perry, B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Yogendran, Y. [NRC Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)
'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a
Ellis-Perry, B.; Yogendran, Y.
'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a reality
El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Allain, Philippe; Fasotti, Luciano; Antoine, Pascal
Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD participants and 30 healthy elderly subjects were asked to tell 10 different proverbs to 10 different celebrities (List 1). Afterwards, half of the participants were instructed to forget the destinations (i.e., the celebrities) whereas the other half were asked to keep them in mind. After telling 10 other proverbs to 10 other celebrities (List 2), participants were asked to read numbers aloud. Subsequently, all the participants were asked to remember the destinations of List 1 and List 2, regardless of the forget or remember instructions. The results show similar destination memory in AD participants who were asked to forget the destinations of List 1 and those who were asked to retain them. These findings are attributed to inhibitory deficits, by which AD participants have difficulties to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory.
Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring [Berkeley, CA; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick [Hayward, CA; Kyker, Ronald Dean [Livermore, CA
A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.
Marković Ana Tripković
Full Text Available There are various definitions of tourist destination. All of them define tourist destination as an area with specific tourist facilities and attractions, (primary and secondary elements which tourists choose as their journey goal. Budva individually represents the largest tourist destination due to number of arrivals and overnight stays. During its life cycle Budva has gone through different phases as a tourist destination. This thesis implies that it is not enough to use only common quantitative indicator of visitor number to define proper the position of tourist destination and predict further development. This text is based on a comparative analysis of the attitudes of tourists and local stakeholders in the three field researches, conducted in the period between 2015 and 2016. The thesis comes to the conclusion that the actual growth is based on meeting the needs of existing markets and tourists. On the other side, aspect of desired market position disagrees with scores of tourist offer elements- which should be input for improvement and preparation for the next stage in the destination development.
Wondowossen, T.A.; Nakagoshi, N.; Yukio, Y.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Dawit, A.Z.
Competitiveness can be applied to predict the economic sustainability of tourism in destinations which has been measured in terms of leakages and linkage related to employment and income generation opportunities to the destinations. This article examines destination competitiveness of Ethiopia based
When Canadian researchers examine the subject of medical tourism, they typically focus on ethical, social, public health and health policy issues related to Canadians seeking health services in other countries. They emphasize study of Canada as a departure point for medical tourists rather than as a potential destination for international patients. Several influential voices have recently argued that provincial healthcare systems in Canada should market health services to international patients. Proponents of marketing Canada as a destination for medical tourists argue that attracting international patients will generate revenue for provincial healthcare systems. Responding to such proposals, I argue that there are at least seven reasons why provincial health systems in Canada should not dedicate institutional, financial and health human resources to promoting themselves as destinations for medical tourists. PMID:23634159
Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.
Using an approximate expression for the Landau levels of the electrons located near a nodal line of a topological line-node semimetal, we obtain formulas for the magnetization of this semimetal at an arbitrary shape of its line. It is also shown that the dependence of the chemical potential on the magnetic field can be strong in these materials, and this dependence can essentially influence the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. The obtained results are applied to the rhombohedral graphite, which is one of the line-node semimetals. For this material, we find temperature and magnetic field dependencies of its magnetic susceptibility.
Full Text Available Events have become an increasingly significant component of destination branding. Many destinations throughout the world have developed events portfolios as a strategic initiative to attract tourists and to reinforce their brand. In this paper, the focus of research will be on tourist destination branding by means of events. The relationship between events and destination branding is examined through six phases of the process of building a destination brand identity with the use of events. When it comes to destination branding, a need for an analysis of strategic documents of destination development imposes because event tourism strategies help destinations plan how to use events in a tourism role. The purpose of this study is to examine which factors are of the top priorities when using events as a marketing approach. The method of case study will be used, by which two cultural events which take place in the Republic of Croatia will be analyzed, namely, “Špancirfest” in Varaždin and “Trka na prstenac” in Barban. Varaždin and Barban are on different levels in their branding work. The different sizes and locations of the destinations naturally affect the operating procedures. This article may be of interest to destination marketers and event organizers, especially in developing destinations which intend to differentiate themselves from the competitive market.
Peck, Christopher P.; van Manen, Frank T.; Costello, Cecily M.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Landenburger, Lisa; Roberts, Lori L.; Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Mace, Richard D.
For several decades, grizzly bear populations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) have increased in numbers and range extent. The GYE population remains isolated and although effective population size has increased since the early 1980s, genetic connectivity between these populations remains a long-term management goal. With only ~110 km distance separating current estimates of occupied range for these populations, the potential for gene flow is likely greater now than it has been for many decades. We sought to delineate potential paths that would provide the opportunity for male-mediated gene flow between the two populations. We first developed step-selection functions to generate conductance layers using ecological, physical, and anthropogenic landscape features associated with non-stationary GPS locations of 124 male grizzly bears (199 bear-years). We then used a randomized shortest path (RSP) algorithm to estimate the average number of net passages for all grid cells in the study region, when moving from an origin to a destination node. Given habitat characteristics that were the basis for the conductance layer, movements follow certain grid cell sequences more than others and the resulting RSP values thus provide a measure of movement potential. Repeating this process for 100 pairs of random origin and destination nodes, we identified paths for three levels of random deviation (θ) from the least-cost path. We observed broad-scale concordance between model predictions for paths originating in the NCDE and those originating in the GYE for all three levels of movement exploration. Model predictions indicated that male grizzly bear movement between the ecosystems could involve a variety of routes, and verified observations of grizzly bears outside occupied range supported this finding. Where landscape features concentrated paths into corridors (e.g., because of anthropogenic influence), they typically
Geneviève Brisson; Rocci Luppicini
Increasingly, gastronomy is playing a role in people's motivation for travel, and destinations are making food and beverages their main attraction. This study explored the growing field of gastronomic tourism, a type of niche tourism, through the theoretical framework of destination branding theory. Using a qualitative case study research design, this research examined the branding of the emergent region of Prince Edward County, Ontario, Canada as a gastronomic niche tourism destination from ...
Maruyama, Atsushi; Shibata, Naoki; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru
We propose a personal navigation system (called PNS) which navigates a tourist through multiple destinations efficiently. In our PNS, a tourist can specify multiple destinations with desired arrival/stay time and preference degree. The system calculates the route including part of the destinations satisfying tourist's requirements and navigates him/her. For the above route search problem, we have developed an efficient route search algorithm using a genetic algorithm. We have designed and imp...
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks Introduction, problem statement and aims of the study Collaborative regional networks has been long considered as a must in successful tourism development (Dredge & Jenkins 2003) owing to benefits such as scale and scope economics......, as well as joint planning and coordination of supply facilities. However, the setting up and governance of destination networks is paved with managerial challenges, including, among others: the balancing of conflicting stakeholder interest (Wilkinson & March 2008), and bridging over the gap between...... the bureaucratic culture of public administration and the marketing culture adopted by private tourism firms (Palmer 1996). This regional coordinating role must be undertaken in spite of limited ownership, budget or power to control how individual firms deliver (D’Angella & Go 2007). Furthermore, various actors...
Kokkali, Panagiota; Koutsouris, Alex; Chrysochou, Polymeros
This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image focusing on TDI cognitive components. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, the cognitive components of the area's TDI were identified along with their eff......This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image focusing on TDI cognitive components. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, the cognitive components of the area's TDI were identified along......; (3) visitors can be classified in four clusters according the cognitive factors; (4) tourists' clusters differ in terms of age, education and income as well as number of visits and perception of the area's attractiveness. Such findings point towards the need of both a new strategy for the area...
Sarwar, Abdullah AM; Manaf, Noorhazilah A; Omar, Azura
Background: The need for better healthcare has grown significantly in recent years. In addition, the rising healthcare costs in the U.S. and in many European countries have forced many patients to seek medical treatment abroad, which has created the demand for medical tourism. With little yet known as to the perception of a medical tourist’s destination selection, this study aims to explore medical tourist’s perception in selecting their destination while going for medical treatment. Methods: Realizing the current need to examine closely the perception of medical tourists, this study had conducted a secondary study to collect data for assessing and identification of the key factors on patient’s perception and destination selection criteria. Results: The result confirms the existence of a very strong relationship between cost, service quality, treatment types and availability and marketing impact on the perception of the medical tourists’ in selecting their medical tourism destination. Conclusion: This study offers support for the proposed conceptual model and an empirical basis for comparison in future research. PMID:23113218
Full Text Available Introduction. There has been recent interest in validity of completion axillary node dissection after a positive sentinel node. This systematic review aims to ascertain if sentinel lymph node dissection alone was noninferior to axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients who have a positive sentinel node. Method. A systematic review of the electronic databases Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials was carried out. Only randomised trials that had patients with positive sentinel node as the study sample were included in the meta-analysis using the reported hazard ratios with a fixed effect model. Results. Three randomised controlled trials and five retrospective studies were identified. The pooled effect for overall survival was HR 0.94, 95% CI [0.79, 1.19], and for disease free survival was HR 0.83, 95% CI [0.60, 1.14]. The reported rates for locoregional recurrence were similar in both groups. The surgical morbidity was found to be significantly more in patients who had underwent axillary dissection. Conclusion. Amongst patients with micrometastasis in the sentinel node, no further axillary dissection is necessary. For patients with macrometastasis in the sentinel node, it is reasonable to consider omitting axillary dissection to avoid the morbidity of the procedure.
Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN
Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.
CONAGHAN, Aíne; HANRAHAN, James; McLOUGHLIN, Emmet
Tourism destination management has significant importance in controlling many impacts of tourism, thus insuring its sustainability. Destination management requires the integration of different planning tools, approaches and concepts that help shape the management and daily operation of tourism related activities. This study examines the sustainable management of a tourism destination, focusing on County Clare, Ireland. Qualitative interviews were conducted with tourism stake...
Thomson, P C; Hayek, A R; Jones, B; Evans, D L; McGreevy, P D
Significant proportions of horses leave the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, which has ramifications for both the economic sustainability and the public perception of racing. The aim of this study was to quantify potential horse wastage, describe the destinations of exiting horses and identify risk factors for horses going to these destinations. Questionnaires were sent to 1258 selected Thoroughbred and 981 Standardbred trainers, with response rates of 30% and 32%, respectively. The survey investigated the role of various risk factors for wastage, including horse age, sex and number of years in training. The destination of departing horses was also examined in relation to these risk factors. Total horse exit rates for the 2002-03 official race year were 39.7% and 38.7% for the Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, respectively. Reasons for leaving included 'poor performance/slow' (36.5% Thoroughbreds, 35.2% Standardbreds), 'illness/injury' (31.0%, 27.1%), 'to breed' (9.4%, 10.1%), 'unsuitable temperament/behaviour' (6.4%, 6.4%) and 'other' (16.8%, 21.2%). Statistically significant (P Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing horses included whether the trainer owned the horses, sex, age and reasons for leaving. In addition, some factors were specific to one breed or the other. Improved behaviour training and early identification of the causes of poor performance could assist in reducing wastage. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.
Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)
The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.
Hu, Xuguang; Wen, Ya; Liu, Shasha; Luo, Jiabo; Tan, Xiaomei; Li, Zhiheng; Lu, Xinhua; Long, Xiaoying
The anaphylactoid reactions induced by andrographis injection have repeatedly been reported. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immuno-sensitizing potential of extracts from Andrographis paniculata Nees and to screen for the constituent that is responsible for inducing the anaphylactoid reaction. In the direct popliteal lymph node assay (D-PLNA), female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into several groups with ten mice per group according to the experiment design, the right hind footpads of mice received a single subcutaneous injection of Andrographis paniculata (50 μl), and the left hind footpads received the same volume of vehicle. Seven days later, the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the popliteal lymph nodes from both the left and right sides were removed. The weight (WI) and cellularity indices (CI) of the popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs) were then calculated, and the pathological changes of the PLNs were measured. In addition, P815 mast cells were collected for the in vitro cell degranulation experiment. The level of histamine, the percentage of cell degranulation and the ratio of ammonia glycosidase released were measured to further evaluate the potential allergenicity. Alcohol extract (AEE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE) and n-butanol extract (NBE) significantly increased the weight (WI > 2) and cell number (CI > 5) of PLNs (P andrographis, namely NAD, AND, and DDA, significantly increased the weight (WI > 2) and cell number (CI > 5) of the PLNs (P andrographis markedly elevated the level of histamine, the percentage of cell degranulation and the ratio of ammonia glycosidase released. The diterpene lactone compounds of Andrographis paniculata Nees (total lactones of andrographolide) may have a potential sensitizing capacity in andrographis injection.
Full Text Available Tourist destinations are now faced with increased competition at the market and holders of tourist policy and offers have realized that understanding the factors that contribute to a better positioning in the market place, and therefore the competitiveness, is of crucial importance for further development. The aim of this paper is to determine how much Vojvodina is competitive as a rural tourism destination, and to assess the current state of all the factors that affect/could affect the competitiveness of rural tourism destinations in Vojvodina Province (Northern Serbia. The total of 136 tourism experts were interviewed, and we concluded that the key resources and attraction of rural areas in Vojvodina are rated better than the macro and industry-related factors. This suggests that a rural development strategy should have a special bond with resources and attractions of the destination, that priority should be given to maintaining all aspects of safety and security, continuous improvement of services, diversity of culinary products, as well as the application of the principles of sustainability in environmental management. The work of national and provincial institutions should have the aim to ensure that the destination has a clear idea of where it is going and what it takes to become successful in the long term.
Al-Habob, Ahmed A.
In this paper, we study the performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique in a multi-destination dual-hop underlay cognitive relay network with multiple primary receivers. Information transmission from the secondary source to destinations is performed entirely via a decode- and-forward (DF) relay. The relay is assumed to have no embedded power source and to harvest energy from the source signal using a power splitting (PS) protocol and employing opportunistic scheduling to forward the information to the selected destination. We derive analytical expressions for the outage probability assuming Rayleigh fading channels and considering the energy harvesting efficiency at relay, the source maximum transmit power and primary receivers interference constraints. The system performance is also studied at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values where approximate expressions for the outage probability are provided and analyzed in terms of diversity order and coding gain. Monte-Carlo simulations and some numerical examples are provided to validate the derived expressions and to illustrate the effect of various system parameters on the system performance. In contrast to their conventional counterparts where a multi- destination diversity is usually achieved, the results show that the multi-destination cognitive radio relay networks with the SWIPT technique achieve a constant diversity order of one.
Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the tourism is extremely important for any country including Republic of Macedonia, it is necessary to pay attention to the quality of the tourist destinations and increasing of their attractiveness. So winners in the field of tourism will be those countries that have attractive tourist destination that will attract a lot of visitors. In this paper is defined the relationship between the factors of attractiveness of the destination and the achieving of competitiveness. In order to become competitive in the global market, the tourist destination has to be innovative and to continually search for new competitive advantages. Those kind of competitive advantages enable stable and long-term sustainable development of the tourist destination. In this paper special emphasis is put to the monitoring of the quality of the tourist destination with constant inquiries of the tourists (domestic and foreign regarding the most important segments of the quality of the tourist product which they are using, in order to perceive the satisfaction or the eventual dissatisfaction in order to be taken concrete strategies for the following period. The obtained results clearly confirm the dissatisfaction with the road infrastructure and signalization, the price of the services and the conditions for the stay, as well as the additional attractions that were expected to get.
Taiyang Wu; Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit
Wearable sensor nodes have gained a lot of attention during the past few years as they can monitor and record people's physical parameters in real time. Wearable sensor nodes can promote healthy lifestyles and prevent the occurrence of potential illness or injuries. This paper presents a flexible wearable sensor system powered by an efficient solar energy harvesting technique. It can measure the subject's heartbeats using a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and perform activity monitoring using an accelerometer. The solar energy harvester adopts an output current based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, which controls the solar panel to operate within its high output power range. The power consumption of the flexible sensor nodes has been investigated under different operation conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that wearable sensor nodes can work for more than 12 hours when they are powered by the solar energy harvester for 3 hours in the bright sunlight.
Full Text Available The decision-making process of choosing an ideal tourism destination is influenced by a number of psychological and nonpsychological variables. Tourists need a method to quickly and easily select a suitable destination. Driven by this practical decision issue, a novel approach of tourist destination evaluation, grey relation analysis (GRA, is developed and applied to the ranking evaluation of Taiwan tourism destinations in China. In the evaluating process, we apply entropy to calculate the weight of each index, which is a more objective method of calculating weights. The results of the study indicate that although the same size is small and the distribution of data is unknown, GRA can still be successfully used in evaluating tourist destinations. In addition, we compare the GRA results with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and show that more accurate ranking results can be obtained.
Inoue, S.; Becker, A. E.
Catheter ablation procedures have revived interest in the detailed anatomy of the specialized atrioventricular (AV) septal junctional area. The compact AV node usually is considered to have a blunt posterior end. The objective of this study was to reconstruct the human compact AV node in relation to
Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip
A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for routing data packet in a computing system comprising a multidimensional torus compute node network including a multitude of compute nodes, and an I/O node network including a plurality of I/O nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises assigning to each of the data packets a destination address identifying one of the compute nodes; providing each of the data packets with a toio value; routing the data packets through the compute node network to the destination addresses of the data packets; and when each of the data packets reaches the destination address assigned to said each data packet, routing said each data packet to one of the I/O nodes if the toio value of said each data packet is a specified value. In one embodiment, each of the data packets is also provided with an ioreturn value used to route the data packets through the compute node network.
El Haj, Mohamad; Altman, Rosalie; Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Raffard, Stéphane
Destination memory refers to the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously transmitted. Our paper assessed this ability in schizophrenia. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 25 control participants told proverbs (e.g., "send a thief to catch a thief") to pictures of celebrities (e.g., Elvis Presley). Afterward, participants had to indicate to which celebrity they had previously said the proverbs. Participants also completed a binding task in which they were required to associate letters with their corresponding context (i.e., location). Analysis revealed worse destination memory and binding in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. In both populations, destination memory was significantly correlated with performances on the binding task. Our findings suggest difficulty in the ability to attribute information to its appropriate destination in schizophrenia. This difficulty may be related to compromise in binding separate cues together to form a coherent representation of an event in memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
KASHIF, MUHAMMAD; SAMSI, SITI ZAKIAH MELATU; SARIFUDDIN, SYAMSULANG
ABSTRACTStudies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire deve...
Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard; Townley, Matthew
In the 1990s, the immigrant population in the United States dispersed to non-traditional settlement locations (what have become known as "new immigrant destinations"). This paper examines whether the allure of new destinations persisted in the 2000s with a particular focus on the internal migration of the foreign born during the recent deep recessionary period and its aftermath. Three specific questions motivate the analysis. First, are immigrants, much like the US-born population, becoming less migratory within the country over time? Second, is immigrant dispersal from traditional gateways via internal migration continuing despite considerable economic contraction in many new destination metropolitan areas? Third, is immigration from aboard a substitute for what appears to be declining immigrant internal migration to new destinations? The findings reveal a close correlation between the declining internal migration propensity of the US-born and immigrants in the last two decades. We also observe parallels between the geographies of migration of native- and foreign-born populations with both groups moving to similar metropolitan areas in the 1990s. This redistributive association, however, weakened in the subsequent decade as new destination metropolitan areas lost their appeal for both groups, especially immigrants. There is no evidence to suggest that immigration from abroad is substituting for the decline in immigrant redistribution through internal migration to new destinations. Across destination types the relationship between immigration from abroad and the internal migration of the foreign born remained the same before, during, and after the Great Recession.
Albert Tóth Attila
Full Text Available This paper focuses on a complex question from the perspective of the hotel industry. It tries to draw attention to the importance of hotels, enhancing it on the basis of the tourism destination competitiveness models and introducing the role and place of the hotel industry in the most important models. The hotel industry research evaluates the most important tourism destinations of Hungary on the micro-regional level that justifies the importance and contribution of the hotels and accommodations to competitiveness and success of tourism destinations with exact results. As a result of the research, the micro-regional destinations can be ranged within three groups in Hungary. In the first group of the most developed and most competitive tourism destinations, the hotel industry plays a very important role. In these regions, the hotel industry has a significant effect not only on competitiveness of tourism but also on general development of the regions. In the second group, which can be still called tourism destination, tourism and the hotel industry both play a significant role, but only the competitiveness of tourism can be considered good, the effects of the tourism on general development of the region can be proved only to a lesser extent. In the third group, the effects of tourism and the hotel industry can only be experienced to a lesser extent. The majority of these regions are not considered to be attractive tourism destinations for tourists any more.
Lee, Ga Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Sujin; Choi, Namgyung; Jeong, Dong Seop; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Lee, Young Tak
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a good treatment option for the patients ineligible for cardiac transplantation. Several studies have demonstrated that a ventricular assist device improves the quality of life and prognosis of the patients with end-stage heart failure. A 75-yr-old man debilitated with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III-IV due to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction received LVAD implantation as a destination therapy. The patient was discharged with improved functional status (NYHA functional class II) after appropriate cardiac rehabilitation and education about how to manage the device and potential emergency situations. This is the first case of successful continuous-flow LVAD implantation as a destination therapy in Korea.
El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Allain, Philippe; Fasotti, Luciano; Antoine, Pascal
Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD participants and 30 healthy elderly subjects were asked to tell 10 different proverbs to 10 different celebrities (List 1). Afterwards, half of the participants were instructed to forget the destinations (i.e., the celebrities) whereas the other half were asked to keep them in mind. After telling 10 other proverbs to 10 other celebrities (List 2), participants were asked to read numbers aloud. Subsequently, all the participants were asked to remember the destinations of List 1 and List 2, regardless of the forget or remember instructions. The results show similar destination memory in AD participants who were asked to forget the destinations of List 1 and those who were asked to retain them. These findings are attributed to inhibitory deficits, by which AD participants have difficulties to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. PMID:25918456
The object of the study was to investigate the opportunity of destination brand-ing through the tool of its gastronomy. In order to render concrete to the topic I chose a popular destination – Sicily and Sicilian gastronomy. It is a fact that the theme of gastronomic direction in tourism and the role of gastronomy in des-tination branding is not developed at all. Besides, personally I have been always attracted by gastronomic experiences in tourism. So it was a challenge for my-self to explor...
Full Text Available Tourism destination management has significant importance in controlling many impacts of tourism, thus insuring its sustainability. Destination management requires the integration of different planning tools, approaches and concepts that help shape the management and daily operation of tourism related activities. This study examines the sustainable management of a tourism destination, focusing on County Clare, Ireland. Qualitative interviews were conducted with tourism stakeholders. Additionally a theoretical framework incorporating the various elements that emerged from the theory was also utilised to examine existing tourism strategies and plans. Stakeholders all agreed it would be an advantage to have a Destination Management Office (DMO lead that would coordinate destination management. However, it was found many tourism visions lack consistency and a timeframe with only a few addressing sustainability itself. Also the multiple regulations and guidelines identified by the framework were not communicated effectively to both stakeholders and policy makers when managing tourism in County Clare.
Heggie, Travis W
Volcano tourism and tourism to geothermal destinations is increasingly popular. If such endeavors are to be a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, tourists must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. With the aim of creating awareness amongst the tourism industry and practitioners of travel medicine, this paper reviews the potential influences and effects of volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide (CO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and hydrogen chloride/hydrochloric acid (HCl). It also reviews the negative health impacts of tephra and ash, lava flows, landslides, and mudflows. Finally, future research striving to quantify the health risks facing volcano tourists is recommended.
Neubauer, S; Mena, I; Iglesis, R; Schwartz, R; Acevedo, J C; Leon, A; Gomez, L
The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of Tc99m B Dextran as a lymphoscintigraphic agent in the detection of the sentinel node in skin lesions. Forty-one patients with melanomas (39) and Merkel cell tumors (2) had perilesional intradermal injection of Tc99m-Dextran 2 hours before surgery. Serial gamma camera images and a handheld gamma probe were used to direct sentinel node biopsy. In 39/41 patients, lymph channels and 52 sentinel nodes (one to three sentinel nodes/patient) could be visualized. In one patient, with a dorsal melanoma, no lymph channels or lymph nodes could be demonstrated on the images and only minimal radioactivity was found in the regional nodes with the probe. Another patient with a facial lesion failed to demonstrate lymph channels or nodes. No adverse reactions were observed. Tc99m-Dextran provided good definition of lymph channels and sentinel node localization, without the risks related to the use of potentially hazardous labeled materials of biological origin.
Francisco Vicente Sales Melo; Salomão Alencar de Farias
When choosing a vacation destination, consumers consider various factors, such as culture, natural attractions, history and points of interest, among others. In this article we analyze whether the question of sustainability is a determining factor in the choice of tourist destinations. Therefore, the article investigates the relationship of the identity of tourist destinations, as presented at their official websites, according to sustainability characteristics, the evaluation of the destinat...
Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.
El Haj, M.; Gandolphe, M.C.; Allain, P.; Fasotti, L.; Antoine, P.
Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD
Full Text Available Since 2003, New European Union Member States have made large capital inflows, which led to a credit crunch and recession. Whether they are foreign direct investment, or banking flows, capital inflows ultimately affect GDP, depending on how they are invested. In the specialty literature, analysis of capital flows was done especially in terms of their structure, with a lack of analysis in terms of final destination of capital inflows. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of capital inflows on GDP in the New Member States of the European Union (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia over the last economic cycle. Based on experiences of the new Member States during the recent boom and crisis, the paper studies the impact of capital inflows on GDP growth, inflows channeled to economic sectors, such as real estate and corporate investment sector. The results of this research tries to highlight the extent to which the final destination of capital flows is important for the evolution of GDP.
Full Text Available We apply the concept of artificial and controlled interference in a two-hop relay network with an untrusted relay, aiming at enhancing the wireless communication secrecy between the source and the destination node. In order to shield the square quadrature amplitude-modulated (QAM signals transmitted from the source node to the relay, the destination node designs and transmits artificial noise (AN symbols to jam the relay reception. The objective of our considered AN design is to degrade the error probability performance at the untrusted relay, for different types of channel state information (CSI at the destination. By considering perfect knowledge of the instantaneous CSI of the source-to-relay and relay-to-destination links, we first present an analytical expression for the symbol error rate (SER performance at the relay. Based on the assumption of an average power constraint at the destination node, we then derive the optimal phase and power distribution of the AN that maximizes the SER at the relay. Furthermore, we obtain the optimal AN design for the case where only statistical CSI is available at the destination node. For both cases, our study reveals that the Gaussian distribution is generally not optimal to generate AN symbols. The presented AN design takes into account practical parameters for the communication links, such as QAM signaling and maximum likelihood decoding.
Full Text Available Of all the activities associated with tourism, transport is the one that creates most pollution. However, the mobility of tourists at their destination is an activity that has so far received very little attention from researchers in comparison with that afforded to the transport mode used to travel from their point of origin to their destination. This paper provides new evidence about the use of public transport by tourists at their final destination. The study is based on data obtained from a survey conducted with tourists (N = 4336 on the Costa Daurada (Catalonia, a Mediterranean sun and beach resort. The empirical analysis is based on estimations made using a multinomial model of the transport mode chosen by tourists to travel to the Costa Daurada combined with another model that estimated the probability of them using public transport during their stay. The results show that the tourists who arrived by private car were the ones who least used public transport at the destination. This was despite the fact that these tourists had the profile that made them most likely to use this type of transportation. On the other hand, although the tourists who arrived by plane had the profile that made them least likely to use public transport, they were the ones who used it most. It is, therefore, possible to conclude that, in addition to tourist profile, another key factor in deciding whether tourists will use public transport at their destination is whether they will take their own car.
El Haj, Mohamad; Omigie, Diana; Samson, Séverine
Familiarity is assumed to exert a beneficial effect on memory in older adults. Our paper investigated this issue specifically for destination memory, that is, memory of the destination of previously relayed information. Young and older adults were told familiar (Experiment 1) and unfamiliar (Experiment 2) proverbs associated with pictures depicting faces of celebrities (e.g., Elvis Presley) or unknown people, with a specific proverb assigned to each face. In a later recognition task, participants were presented with the previously exposed proverb-face pairs and for each pair had to decide whether they had previously relayed the given proverb to the given face. In general, destination performance was found to be higher for familiar than for unfamiliar faces. However while there was no difference between the two groups when the proverbs being relayed were unfamiliar, the advantage of face familiarity on destination memory was present only for older adults when the proverbs being relayed were familiar. Our results show that destination memory in older adults is sensitive to familiarity of both destination and output information.
Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji
Full Text Available Tourists pay for destination brands. This study checked for the relationships between tourists’ profile and how they perceived the destination brand of Cape Town. A questionnaire survey of 220 tourists visiting Cape Town was done. This study found that repeat visit, age of tourist, length of stay, and tourist origin, have significant influences on how tourists visiting Cape Town perceived the destination. The top three destination attributes of Cape Town (cognitive images, which enhance visitor experience satisfaction are (1 the overall level of service quality at facilities in Cape Town, (2 the city being one of the best places the tourists have visited, and (3 the destination’s good value for money. The top three emotional valuations of destination attributes (affective images which enhance visitor experience satisfaction in Cape Town include (1 memorable visit, (2 valuable visit, and (3 friendly and hospitable population. It is therefore recommended that tourism businesses in Cape Town develop relationship marketing tools to attract and retain its tourists segments of loyal, advanced in age, long-staying and domestic tourists. Results from this research could be compared with related findings in the international arena and have related implications, especially for developing economies
Haj, Mohamad El; Saloppé, Xavier; Nandrino, Jean Louis
This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i.e., those with high vs. those with low deception). Participants with high tendency to deceive demonstrated similar destination memory for both false and true information, whereas those with low deception demonstrated higher destination memory for lies than for true information. Individuals with a high tendency to deceive seem to keep track of the destination of both true information and lies to be consistent in their future social interactions, and thus to avoid discovery of their deception. However, the inconsistency between deceiving and the moral standard of individuals with a low tendency to deceive may result in high destination memory in these individuals.
Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.
This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi
Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M
This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi
Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi
Full Text Available To be able to promote itself efficiently on the market, a destination, given the marketing perspective – has to be aware about the authentic and crucial elements of its own identity as being the only way to transfer, virtually and materially, of what it has best – the social-cultural and artistic identity (which, from a tourist perspective, represents its perceived image, along with psychological and artistic image of the destination. Hence without a detailed knowledge of this aspect, the promotion leads to a presentation of a distorted image of the destination which, in time, can distort the socio-cultural identity of the inhabitants of that region. To build the image of a destination (a notoriously long and complex process, begins with the need to profoundly understand tourists’ complexity of expectations (both functional and psychological and, on their basis, to use these as attributes of the destination in order to improve attractiveness. In Romania’s case such an aspect gains more importance due to the fact that, after the 1989, young generation, an important population segment, seem to register a continuous and dangerous process of “identity erosion”, which over time could result into disconnecting from the essence of the Romanian spirit, not being able to understand or even ignoring sense of belonging, sense of identity, heritage and “tourism heritage”.
Full Text Available The uplifting financial impact that tourism may have on local and global economies of scale has resulted in tourists becoming a highly sought-after commodity capable of turning almost any tourism destination and its attractions into thriving exports. With the rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the introduction of smart technologies in particular, however, tourism has become not only more accessible, but arguably also more competitive with an online, try-before-you-buy tourism experience now becoming a reality. Subsequently, the battle is no longer for top offline\tdestination only, but also for online destination of choice. An opportunity thus exists for Official Destination Websites (ODWs to take advantage of these, and additional opportunities, to enhance a\tprospective tourist’s online, pre-tourism experience. By analysing seven of the world’s most popular destinations’ capital city ODWs, one comes to realise that ODWs have become an integrated, rather than independent, part of facilitating tourism. As such, the importance of developing, implementing and maintaining an ODW to increase the likelihood of a possible tourist conversion from mere browser to buyer is highlighted. Finally, the similarities and differences between the analysed ODWs are also listed in an attempt to guide prospective tourism destinations in their endeavour to establish a new ODW, as well as allowing destinations with an existing ODW to possibly implement improvements.
Full Text Available Tourism destination brand equity is defined as all assets (or debts of brands provided with name and symbol of tourism destination to make changes in value services of experiences. In many cases, brand equity is more than physical assets. This survey performs an investigation to identify effective factors in tourism destination equity, cause and affects relationships, and proposes a model for perceived value of tourism destination. The proposed study is performed in one of free islands named Gheshm. The preliminary results indicate that there is a positive relationship between tourism destination brand awareness and destination brand equity, tourism destination brand image, destination brand equity and tourism destination brand loyalty.
Tan, Yongqiang; Lu, Lin; Bonde, Apurva; Wang, Deling; Qi, Jing; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zhao, Binsheng
Enlarged lymph nodes are indicators of cancer staging, and the change in their size is a reflection of treatment response. Automatic lymph node segmentation is challenging, as the boundary can be unclear and the surrounding structures complex. This work communicates a new three-dimensional algorithm for the segmentation of enlarged lymph nodes. The algorithm requires a user to draw a region of interest (ROI) enclosing the lymph node. Rays are cast from the center of the ROI, and the intersections of the rays and the boundary of the lymph node form a triangle mesh. The intersection points are determined by dynamic programming. The triangle mesh initializes an active contour which evolves to low-energy boundary. Three radiologists independently delineated the contours of 54 lesions from 48 patients. Dice coefficient was used to evaluate the algorithm's performance. The mean Dice coefficient between computer and the majority vote results was 83.2%. The mean Dice coefficients between the three radiologists' manual segmentations were 84.6%, 86.2%, and 88.3%. The performance of this segmentation algorithm suggests its potential clinical value for quantifying enlarged lymph nodes. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Full Text Available Purpose - An official destination website (ODW is a key component for tourist’s decision-making processes. ODW acts as a direct channel where users may share experiences and opinions about previous or future travels. At the same time, it drives user participation in destination branding activities. In this context, it is crucial to identify how the destination website, using Web 2.0 technologies, could motivate user’s participation with the brand. The purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate a model that posits the destination website quality as a determinant factor to predict users’ attitudes toward the website and their willingness to participate in co-creation experiences. Design/methodology/approach - Using a combined qualitative and quantitative method, this paper provides an exploratory research that examines the role of destination website quality on attitudes toward the website and the willingness to participate in online co-creation experiences. Findings - Findings confirm that there is a direct and significant relationship between website quality, attitudes toward the website and willingness to participate in online co-creation experiences. Moreover, attitudes toward the website partially mediate relationships between destination website quality and willingness to participate in online co-creation experiences. Originality/value - The literature of value co-creation is trying to identify which factors drive consumer’s participation with brands across different consumption contexts. This study provides evidence that confirms, from a tourism destination website point of view, that website quality is one of these key factors that motives user’s co-creation with a destination.
Full Text Available The paper examines tourism sector development in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of the country’s strategic priorities till 2020 of knowledge-based economy, sustainable growth and smart specialization, the opportunities for its integration with agri-food sector and potential contribution to balanced rural development. The principles and roles of destination management and marketing organizations are discussed and the opportunities for their application in the national conditions are explored. A framework for of establishment, management and functioning of such organizations is proposed based on integrated and participatory approaches, planning, coordination and communication activities, permanent monitoring and controlling.
Bertelsen, Claus A; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anders; Nielsen, Mingyuan
BACKGROUND: Extended mesocolic lymph node dissection in colon cancer surgery seems to improve oncological outcome. A possible reason might be related to metastases in the central mesocolic lymph nodes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mesocolic lymph node...... metastases, particularly in central lymph nodes, and the risk of skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament metastases as the argument for performing extended lymph node dissection. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE and PubMed were searched using the terms colon or colorectal with sentinel node, lymph node mapping, or skip...... node; lymph node resection colon; and complete or total and mesocolic excision. STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing the risk of metastases in central, skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament lymph node metastases from colon adenocarcinomas in 10 or more patients were included. No languages were...
Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng
In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.
Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to explore factors which influence city destination choice among young people in Serbia. In order to achieve this we conducted a survey consisting of 20 different items influencing the choice of city destination. Afterwards the principal component exploratory factor analysis (EFA was carried out in order to extract factors. T-test and ANOVA test were also used to determine if there is a difference between different gender and age groups in terms of which factors influence their choice of a city destination. The results indicate four motivating factors extracted by factor analysis, from which Good hospitality and restaurant service seems to be the major motivating factor. The results also show that respondents belonging to the age group of under 25 give more importance to Information and promotion as well as to Good hospitality and restaurant service than those belonging to older age groups. The same two factors are also more important to females than males.
Full Text Available Global trends highlight the growing tourist interest in authentic and sustainable holiday experiences. Designing strategies that enable destinations to catch this tourist segment is, therefore, becoming more and more important for competitiveness. A long-term outlook calls into question the “next generation” of actual and potential tourists, i.e., young people: understanding their attitude towards sustainability is paramount to drive tourism development in a direction which is coherent to the forthcoming demand. Drawing from an ad hoc survey of 1156 members of the largest Italian association of student and youth tourism, this contribution (a discusses youth attitudes towards sustainability, their travel motivations and behavior (b identifies different profiles of young tourists with reference to sustainability. By using characteristics and dimensions linked with “harder ecotourists” we identify hard path young tourists (HPYT and soft path young tourists (SPYT. The findings confirm young people’s interest in certain dimensions of sustainability and the influence this interest has on their decision-making processes, motivations, and behaviors. HPYT and SPYT are profiles which should be considered in destination strategies: the strong sensitivity of HPYT to sustainability suggests the possibility of creating offers that optimize the unique features of a territory.
Ahuja, Varun; Schreiber, Clemens; Platzek, Thomas; Stahlmann, Ralf
We used a modified protocol of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) to study the cross-sensitising potential of (a) textile dye disperse yellow 3 and its metabolite 2-amino-p-cresol, (b) two antibiotics, penicillin G and cefotiam. The test substances were applied in a biphasic manner, i.e. first on the shaved skin of the back followed by application on the dorsal side of the ears after 2 weeks. The end-points analysed included thickness and weight of an ear-biopsy, weight and cell number of the draining lymph node, and lymphocyte cell surface markers analysed by flow-cytometry. Disperse yellow 3 and its metabolite significantly altered the various end-points at both the tested concentrations (0.5 and 1%), thus demonstrating the sensitising potential of the two substances. The cross-sensitisation study showed significant modulation in the tested variables in the treated group as compared to the control, signifying cross-sensitisation potential of the two substances. Penicillin G and cefotiam showed significant changes in various end-points, pointing towards their sensitising potential. However, even at 50% concentration of the beta-lactams no significant change in any end-point indicating absence of cross-reactivity of the antibiotics was noticed. We conclude that a biphasic, modified protocol of the LLNA is a suitable approach to test for a cross-reactivity potential of two related compounds.
Sarvari, Neda Gholizadeh
ABSTRACT: This study revisits the previous studies carried out by several researchers on Customer – Based Brand Equity with an intension to further investigate the applications and testing of the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model in relation to destination branding. The study specifically examines the effects of Brand Equity Dimensions (Brand Awareness, Brand Loyalty, Brand Value, Brand Quality and Brand Image) on Tourists Satisfaction and ultimately on Future Behaviours that result i...
Wong Kee Mun
Full Text Available The growth of global medical tourism in the recent years had spurred the interest of many governments to join in the bandwagon, particularly from Asia. Using the SWOT analytical model, this paper provides pertinent comparative analysis of the medical tourism destinations here being Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and India. Each destination possesses its own value propositions to convince the demands of medical tourists. Malaysia and Thailand have a good mixture of elements (medical, tourism and wellness to be an excellent medical tourism destination while Singapore and India need further development in some of these elements. Meeting or exceeding the medical tourists’ expectations and requirements are the priority of medical tourism destination marketers in ensuring a successful medical tourism industry development.
Mihaela Jucan; Cornel Jucan; Ilie Rotariu
The paper deals with the most important changes that have occurred in business because of social media and its impact on organisations and leadership in recent years. It seeks to synthesize existing research, theories and concepts, in order to understand "social destinations", and to provide a bridge from past research to future success. Becoming a "social destination" is a strategic and tactical leadership and management issue and the paper will present the importance of destination leadersh...
Ellsworth, R.E.; Field, L.A.; Kane, J.L.; Love, B.; Hooke, J.A.; Shriver, C.D.
Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n=41) and positive (n=35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser micro dissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis
Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Field, Lori A.; Love, Brad; Kane, Jennifer L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.
Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n = 41) and positive (n = 35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis. PMID:22295210
Rachel E. Ellsworth
Full Text Available Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (=41 and positive (=35 lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (1.5 revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis.
Erick da Silva Santos
Full Text Available This article introduces the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA associated with factor analysis to evaluate the relative efficiency of tourism demand of 18 Brazilian capital cities within a three-year period. Such assessment includes data on factors that affect tourism demand as cities’ budgets allocated on health, transportation, security, infrastructure, tourism as well as the result of this investment on number of tourist arrivals and creation of employments in each destination. The results show the capitals that reached 100% efficiency and also the only three capitals that touched the maximum efficiency over the three years. Findings also revealed that factor analysis associated with DEA offers a potential tool for managers to provide themselves with a set of practical indicators that better assist in decision-making regarding investment on sectors that positively interfere the demand in tourism locations.
Iuliana Ioana Merce
Full Text Available Romania has about 800 protected areas, which now covers about 5% of the country. Most ecotourism destinations are located within or adjacent to these protected areas such as Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, northern communities National Park, Yosemite National Park, Apuseni Natural Park. In Romania there are still non-fragmented forest, and over a third of the population of bears, wolves and lynx in Europe, unique paradise of birds in the Danube Delta, more than 12 000 caves and, not least, full of authentic local traditions. Ecotourism allows recovery and conservation of the country's natural capital.
Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is about festivals in the southern west city in the Republic of Macedonia – Ohrid, empirical research of influence of the Ohrid summer festival on Ohrid tourism destination branding. Its strength to attract foreign tourist and the role of Ohrid municipality and tourism stockholders to use festival as a tool to attract more foreign tourist and branding Ohrid as a tourism destination. Nowadays, many tourist organization develop strategy for creating or support festivals on their destination. The festivals have strong influence of the destination attracting many foreign tourist. Some cities are branding as a festival cities, attract over million visitors per year. Ohrid summer festival as a member of European festival association, is the most important festival in Ohrid city but also in the country. The festival has the role to promote and present culture achievements from the country but also it is attractive factor for foreign tourist to visit Ohrid city and the region in the summer period. It is held from 12 of July until 20 of August each year. Ohrid municipality should incorporate Ohrid summer festival and other festivals in general promotion on Ohrid city. It should support and create new festivals.This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 150 foreign visitors on Ohrid summer festival during the festival from 12 July till 20 august 2010.
Full Text Available Tourism today is marked by various social-economic trends. Croatia as a tourist destination is present on the networked international tourism market, which imposes daily adjustments to varying conditions on the market, primarily through improvement of the competitiveness of its own tourism offer. An important precondition for forming such an offer is an effective system for managing a tourist destination or destination management. With its accession to the European Union, Croatia has become a part of the European tourist market, which is a boost for tourism but also challenging, as it needs to stay true to its identity and maintain its uniqueness. Due to Croatia’s new macroenvironment, conditions and rapidly changing consumer requirements on the global tourism market, as well as global economic and political instability, which has not left the European Union unscathed, strategic operational planning and clear guidance for the future development of tourism in Croatia are essential. Thus, the goal of this paper is to emphasize the importance and functionality of destination management for the development of competitiveness of Croatian tourism, with emphasis on strategic managing of its development and review the challenges and adaptations to the conditions on the European tourism market.
Bin Abas, Faizulsalihin; Takayama, Shigeru
This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and ''Cloud'' System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster
Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru
This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.
Full Text Available Studies on tourists crowding are developed to explore the perception of crowding, and these studies indicate crowding influence on sustainable development of tourist destinations. This study aims to reveal the influential factors of tourists’ perceived crowding. We obtained data from interviewing over 400 tourists and five senior tourism officials in Xi’an, China. This study firstly applies factor analysis to identify the constructed variables of tourists’ motivations from the principle component analysis. It then examines the correlation between nationality and perceived crowding. Consequently, a multiple regression is used to identify the connection between motivations and perceived crowding. The results of the study indicate nationality and motivation as two significant influential factors to perceived crowding management. This study also shows that management in tourist destinations would benefit from provision of the authentic travel experience integrated with zoning the travel destination.
Budnik, Thomas A [Rochester, MN; Knudson, Brant L [Rochester, MN; Megerian, Mark G [Rochester, MN; Miller, Samuel J [Rochester, MN; Stockdell, William M [Byron, MN
Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.
Rouwendal, J.; van Loon, R.R.
The authors study the probability of taking a vacation, foreign or domestic, and the expenditures of Dutch households on vacations. The paper first provides a brief review of Dutch vacation behaviour over the past 30 years. It then presents the results of statistical models for destination choice
Full Text Available Countries develop their nautical tourism depending on their nature potentials and resources and in line with their national economic strategies. The main development determinant is a national strategy as the basis of all plans and activities. The nautical tourism development encourages tourism destination development and impacts on economic and social sustainability. Nautical tourism is a specific form of modern tourism trends whose extremely important and highly profitable economic influence is largely visible in numerous multiplicative effects. Renown world researches prove that nautical tourism is one of the most important economic activities in tourism sector, perceived in Croatia as one of the most competitive tourism products. The objective of this paper is to point at the necessity of differentiation of communication strategy and marketing placements towards target markets focused on attracting yachtsmen taking into account their different demographic and sociographic profile. The research and comparative analysis conducted in American and European yacht clubs showed significant differences in selection of tourism destinations based on demographic and sociographic profile of yachtsmen in specific geolocation. The purpose of this work is to prepare the comparative analysis of the European and American yachtsmen profiles, which will serve to create targeted strategic marketing model of attracting foreign yachtsmen in selection of their holiday tourism destination. The conclusions of this research show that Croatia has still not fully capitalized its potential in the nautical tourism sector and that the more comprehensive market segmentation is necessary in the process of planning how to attract foreign yachtsmen.
Medical records of 222 patients with neck nodes metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of supraglottic larynx, tonsil and base of tongue were analyzed. All cases were treated with definitive irradiation. 110 patients were treated with orthovoltage technique with total doses of 5000-6000 rads, 150-10 rads per fraction; 112 patients with Co-60 with total doses 6000-7000 rads, 180-230 rads per fraction. Local-regional control was achieved in 28% of cases. Failures in the neck nodes with primary tumor controlled, were recorded in 10% of patients. Failures in a primary tumor alone were observed in 26% of patients, in primary tumor and neck nodes in 36%. Radiocurability of primary tumor and involved neck nodes was similar. In cases with primary tumor controlled, the probability of eradication of neck nodes metastases is high, even in N3 stage patients. Residual neck nodes palpable 1 to 3 months after irradiation were unfavorable prognostic factor indicated 50% risk of neck recurrence. In patients with complete regression of primary and nodal disease, failure in neck nodes was recorded in 5% of cases. The role of surgery following irradiation in patients with cervical nodes metastases is discussed. (author)
Traditional business models that used to govern the operations of travel and tourism businesses defined in a rigid way their functional areas and the relationships among them. The advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has driven the transformation of these business models into novel destination marketing models. The Cyprus Tourism Organisation (CTO) recognising the need of establishing an explicit model for managing the process of destination marketing has developed an in...
Full Text Available There are many reasons contributing to the achievement of Malaysia for being rank as top 10 most visited destinations in the world for the last four years. Among the factors are structures, resources, strategy, policy and leadership. In order to identify how Malaysia manage to be at this rank, a study was carried out on destination branding of Malaysian tourism from destination marketers’ perspectives. The objectives are to identify tourism marketing messages that influence international tourists desire to visit Malaysia and to examine destination marketing agencies attitude towards building “Brand Malaysia” in tourism products. The subject of this research is the most recent promotion involving a new brand entitled “Malaysia Truly Asia” and examines the initiative within the framework of the country’s destination branding and destination image development strategies. An assessment of the part played by destination branding in Malaysian tourism industry at large forms the wider context for the study and conclusions of more general relevance are drawn from the particularities of the case. A quantitative research method is used to examine the attitude of destination marketers towards the awareness on marketing mix used in creating “Brand Malaysia” tourism branding. A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed to travel agencies based on purposive convenient sampling.
Carmen Emilia CHASOVSCHI
Full Text Available Only few steps have already been pointed towards bringing Romania at its proper place on the European tourism market. And big challenges are still there, outside, waiting to be settled. Tourism is indeed a very nice sector, but, if we all consider ourselves tourists, it doesn’t, necessary, mean that we all know tourism is done. The present paper offers an outside perspective of Romanian tourism; a perspective based on a research done among the German tour operators and reveals some strengths and weaknesses of Romania, as a tourism destination. These points are delivering an original view, through the eyes of foreign tour operators or tourists that visited the country or the destinations within.
Jørgensen, Mads Gustaf; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Thomsen, Jørn Bo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cancer-related lymphedema is a common complication following lymph node excision. Prevention of lymphedema is essential, as treatment options are limited. Known risk factors are firmly anchored to the cancer treatment itself; however potentially preventable factors...... such as seroma and surgical-site infection (SSI) have yet to be asserted. METHODS: All malignant melanoma patients treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) and/or complete lymph node dissection (CLND) in the axilla or groin between January 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively identified. Identified...
SULTANA, Seyama; HAQUE, Ahasanul; MOMEN, Abdul; YASMIN, Farzana
Abstract Background In this edge, medical tourism is not a new idea. Medical treatment is one of the essential demands of human beings and it requires high quality and intensive care. Beside western world, few developing countries are playing key roles as medical tourism destinations. India is one of the leading names among these countries. The purpose of the paper is to find the factors influencing the attractiveness of India as a health tourism destination. Methods The study has found the major contributing factors and their relative importance in the attractiveness of the health tourism destination that is India from consumers’ perspectives by conducting survey with an application of structural equation modelling approach. Results In Indian context, medical tourists consider service quality and cost mostly to select any medical destination. In addition they also give value to the destination competitiveness but tourist attitude is less important in comparison with other factors affecting their destination choice. Since the study has used structural equation modelling approach to test the hypothesis and figure out the relative importance of the factors, the fundamental indices such as Normed Chi square(less than 3), RMSEA (less than 0.08) and CFI (more than 0.90) values show the overall model fit of the proposed model. Conclusion In order to transform a country such as India as an attractive and competitive medical tourist destination in this time of globalization, a step should be taken to control cost ensuring the quality of services. PMID:25909055
Sultana, Seyama; Haque, Ahasanul; Momen, Abdul; Yasmin, Farzana
In this edge, medical tourism is not a new idea. Medical treatment is one of the essential demands of human beings and it requires high quality and intensive care. Beside western world, few developing countries are playing key roles as medical tourism destinations. India is one of the leading names among these countries. The purpose of the paper is to find the factors influencing the attractiveness of India as a health tourism destination. The study has found the major contributing factors and their relative importance in the attractiveness of the health tourism destination that is India from consumers' perspectives by conducting survey with an application of structural equation modelling approach. In Indian context, medical tourists consider service quality and cost mostly to select any medical destination. In addition they also give value to the destination competitiveness but tourist attitude is less important in comparison with other factors affecting their destination choice. Since the study has used structural equation modelling approach to test the hypothesis and figure out the relative importance of the factors, the fundamental indices such as Normed Chi square(less than 3), RMSEA (less than 0.08) and CFI (more than 0.90) values show the overall model fit of the proposed model. In order to transform a country such as India as an attractive and competitive medical tourist destination in this time of globalization, a step should be taken to control cost ensuring the quality of services.
Rovida, Costanza; Ryan, Cindy; Cinelli, Serena; Basketter, David; Dearman, Rebecca; Kimber, Ian
The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a widely accepted method for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Compared with other in vivo methods in guinea pig, the LLNA offers important advantages with respect to animal welfare, including a requirement for reduced animal numbers as well as reduced pain and trauma. In addition to hazard identification, the LLNA is used for determining the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens as a pivotal contribution to the risk assessment process. The LLNA is the only in vivo method that has been subjected to a formal validation process. The original LLNA protocol is based on measurement of the proliferative activity of draining lymph node cells (LNC), as determined by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine. Several variants to the original LLNA have been developed to eliminate the use of radioactive materials. One such alternative is considered here: the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method, which uses 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in place of radiolabeled thymidine to measure LNC proliferation in draining nodes. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
"While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits
Christian, Hayley E; Klinker, Charlotte D; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew W; Foster, Sarah A; Zubrick, Stephan R; Divitini, Mark; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie
Relationships between context-specific measures of the physical and social environment and children's independent mobility to neighborhood destination types were examined. Parents in RESIDE's fourth survey reported whether their child (8-15 years; n = 181) was allowed to travel without an adult to school, friend's house, park and local shop. Objective physical environment measures were matched to each of these destinations. Social environment measures included neighborhood perceptions and items specific to local independent mobility. Independent mobility to local destinations ranged from 30% to 48%. Independent mobility to a local park was less likely as the distance to the closest park (small and large size) increased and less likely with additional school grounds (P dependent upon the specific destination being visited and the impact of neighborhood features varies according to the destination examined. Findings highlight the importance of access to different types and sizes of urban green space for children's independent mobility to parks.
Guggenheim, James A.; Allen, Thomas J.; Plumb, Andrew; Zhang, Edward Z.; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Punwani, Shonit; Beard, Paul C.
Lymph nodes play a central role in metastatic cancer spread and are a key clinical assessment target. Abnormal node vascularization, morphology, and size may be indicative of disease but can be difficult to visualize with sufficient accuracy using existing clinical imaging modalities. To explore the potential utility of photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of lymph nodes, images of ex vivo samples were obtained at multiple wavelengths using a high-resolution three-dimensional photoacoustic scanner. These images showed that hemoglobin based contrast reveals nodal vasculature and lipid-based contrast reveals the exterior node size, shape, and boundary integrity. These two sources of complementary contrast may allow indirect observation of cancer, suggesting a future role for photoacoustic imaging as a tool for the clinical assessment of lymph nodes.
Full Text Available Studies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire developed to explain the relationship of brand awareness, brand image, brand association, and brand loyalty with Lahore Fort’s overall brand equity. We used various robust statistical techniques such as correlation, regression and confirmatory factor analysis (using PLS method to reach meaningful conclusions and found that brand image and brand associations positively contribute to brand loyalty. Furthermore, brand loyalty significantly contributes towards overall brand equity. Pragmatically, this study measures the customer based brand equity of the Lahore Fort, a destination brand. The results are useful as they suggest a few strategies that can help policy makers to enhance Lahore Fort’s brand performance.
Shi, Xunpeng; Padinjare Variam, Hari Malamakkavu
In the East Asian gas markets, issues like gas trading hubs, hub indexed pricing, and destination flexibility are being debated. This paper examines the impact of a change in East Asia's pricing benchmark and contract flexibility on the regional and global gas markets. The paper uses the Nexant World Gas Model, a linear program with global cost minimization as the objective. To our knowledge, this study on hub competition, price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvement in East Asia will be the first in the literature and have real policy relevance. The results show that both price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvements will create an overall benefit for the world and East Asia importers, but the impacts are different among exporters and importers. However, there is no evidence of competition among different benchmark hubs and no evidence that destination restrictions cause the “Asia Premium”. It implies that removal of destination clauses has higher priority than the change to hub indexation for Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei, but both should be treated equally in China. The study also suggests that East Asian importers should cooperate among themselves and with exporters to facilitate the hub creation and contract changes in East Asia. - Highlights: •Gas trading hubs in Japan and China are not mutually exclusive. •Both price benchmark changes and contract flexibility improvements are beneficial. •The “Asian Premium” is not caused by destination restriction. •Destination flexibility is much more important than hub indexation in East Asia except China. •Hub indexation is as important as destination flexibility in China due to pipeline imports.
Diebolder, Philipp; Keller, Armin; Haase, Stephanie; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Kiefer, Jonathan D; Karimi, Tamana; Weber, Tobias; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kehm, Roland; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Jäger, Dirk; Federspil, Philippe A; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kontermann, Roland E; Arndt, Michaela A E; Krauss, Jürgen
The development of efficient strategies for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies with unique functional properties that are exploitable for tailored therapeutic interventions remains a major challenge in the antibody technology field. Here, we present a methodology for recovering such antibodies from antigen-encountered human B cell repertoires. As the source for variable antibody genes, we cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG)-derived B cell repertoires from lymph nodes of 20 individuals undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Sequence analysis of unselected “LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries” (LYNDAL) revealed a naturally occurring distribution pattern of rearranged antibody sequences, representing all known variable gene families and most functional germline sequences. To demonstrate the feasibility for selecting antibodies with therapeutic potential from these repertoires, seven LYNDAL from donors with high serum titers against herpes simplex virus (HSV) were panned on recombinant glycoprotein B of HSV-1. Screening for specific binders delivered 34 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) with unique sequences. Sequence analysis revealed extensive somatic hypermutation of enriched clones as a result of affinity maturation. Binding of scFvs to common glycoprotein B variants from HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains was highly specific, and the majority of analyzed antibody fragments bound to the target antigen with nanomolar affinity. From eight scFvs with HSV-neutralizing capacity in vitro,the most potent antibody neutralized 50% HSV-2 at 4.5 nM as a dimeric (scFv)2. We anticipate our approach to be useful for recovering fully human antibodies with therapeutic potential.
Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relationship between destination competitiveness factors (such as the tourist’s image, service quality, satisfaction and behavioral intention. Little empirical research has explored these relationships from the heritage tourist’s perspective. A mixed method was used to achieve the study’s objectives and test the conceptual model. Twelve in-depth interviews and 400 questionnaire surveys (international and domestic were conducted using purposive technique sampling. A structural equation modeling (SEM technique was applied to identify, evaluate and develop the dimensions and test the relationship between these dimensions simultaneously. The final model showed that service quality has a significant relationship with satisfaction but an insignificant relationship with behavioral intention. In addition, this study provided new insights, determining that destination image and service quality factors influence destination competitiveness via the mediating of tourists’ satisfaction in a heritage tourism context. This shows the importance of destination image and service quality for measuring competitiveness. This present model will be useful as a guide for future research for measuring destination competitiveness in the heritage tourism context. Understanding destination competitiveness factors will help marketers predict future travel behavior and develop effective strategies in order to compete with other destinations. Keywords: destination image, satisfaction, service quality, behavioral intention and destination competitiveness ABSTRAK Penelitian ini berusaha memahami hubungan antara faktor daya saing destinasi (seperti citra destinasi, kualitas layanan, kepuasan dan niat perilaku. Beberapa penelitian serupa telah dilakukan dengan melihat dari perspektif wisatawan. Metode kualitatif dan kuantitatif (Mix method digunakan untuk menguji model konseptual. Dua belas narasumber dan 400 kuesioner (wisatawan
Roozendaal, GK; de Vries, JDH; van Poll, D; Jansen, L; Nieweg, OE; Kroon, BBR; Schraffordt Koops, H.
Background: Lymphoscintigraphy occasionally reveals hot spots outside lymph node basins in patients with melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate such abnormally located hot spots. Methods: Sentinel node biopsy was studied prospectively in 379 patients with clinically localized cutaneous
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a methodology to determine the competitive online positioning of lodging companies in different tourist destinations. The rise of the digital age has allowed many customers to share their opinions through specialized websites, providing a dynamic and constantly updated evaluation of the market. In this context, competitiveness is an essential factor in the economic sustainability of destinations. The competitive positioning of destinations is determined by the scale of variables used by Booking.com. The price and lodging category variables are also used, as well as three new variables derived from the initial scale: the quality average, value and added value. This methodology provides a tool to determine the level of competitiveness of the lodging offered in tourist destinations, based on which, actions can be taken to improve destinations’ positioning.
Bhatti, S.; Qureshi, I.A.; Memon, S.
Recent years have witnessed considerable growth in the development and deployment of clustering methods which are not only used to maintain network resources but also increases the reliability of the WSNs (Wireless Sensor Network) and the facts manifest by the wide range of clustering solutions. Node clustering by selecting key parameters to tackle the dynamic behaviour of resource constraint WSN is a challenging issue. This paper highlights the recent progress which has been carried out pertaining to the development of clustering solutions for the WSNs. The paper presents classification of node clustering methods and their comparison based on the objectives, clustering criteria and methodology. In addition, the potential open issues which need to be considered for future work are high lighted. Keywords: Clustering, Sensor Network, Static, Dynamic
Full Text Available Coastal tourism destinations are reinventing themselves, concentrating on product improvement and image enhancement. Reinventing sustainably is key and restaurants are an important factor. Research upon the processes of change in the industry seems to be fragmented and undefined in its conclusions. Knowledge is lacking on what specifically drives innovation in the hospitality industry. Since restaurants seem to be focusing more than ever on implementing green strategies, incorporating sustainability into restaurant practices is not an unexplored area. However, the how and why it is incorporated or not, can be different per restaurant. The objective of this study is to identify possibilities of change in restaurateur practices, which can lead to interventions that will foster sustainable destination development in Vrouwenpolder; a coastal destination within the Netherlands. For the identification of interventions that could advance the sustainability enacted in restaurateur practices, a qualitative research was conducted. Practices of restaurateurs in Vrouwenpolder are identified and compared to perceived-to-be ideal practices. Analysis of data collection draws on practice theory, and resulted into recommendations for advancing the sustainability enacted in restaurateur practices. It seems to be that primarily the meaning within a practice is decisive in whether sustainability is integrated or not.
This study was conducted to theoretically develop and empirically test a structural equation model of tourism destination competitiveness from the tourism stakeholders'perspective. The proposed hypotheses that attempted to identify the structural relationships among the five constructs in the model were examined through a series of analyses in LISREL: 1) perceived tourism development impacts, 2) environmental attitudes, 3) place attachment, 4) development preferences about destination attract...
Hafiz Hanafiah, Mohd; Hemdi, Mohamad Abdullah; Ahmad, Ismail
The main purpose of this paper is to identify the causes of ASEAN tourism performance. This paper empirically examines the role of tourism destination competitiveness on tourism performance among the ASEAN countries. This study employed the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) to assess tourism performance of the ASEAN countries. More specifically, this paper explores whether tourism's core resources, complementary resources, destination management, tourism prices and globalisation...
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between travel destination image and the tourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Using the evaluative congruity theory framework, this study focused on the role of destination images in tourism with regard to consumer satisfaction/ dissatisfaction (CS/D) from the stand point of: (1) the functional congruency between the tourist's expectations and his/her perceptions of specific utilitarian (functional) ...
Wang, Shibo; Zhao, Jinlou
The measure of node importance in complex networks is very important to the research of networks stability and robustness; it also can ensure the security of the whole network. Most researchers have used a single indicator to measure the networks node importance, so that the obtained measurement results only reflect certain aspects of the networks with a loss of information. Meanwhile, because of the difference of networks topology, the nodes' importance should be described by combining the character of the networks topology. Most of the existing evaluation algorithms cannot completely reflect the circumstances of complex networks, so this paper takes into account the degree of centrality, the relative closeness centrality, clustering coefficient, and topology potential and raises an integrated measuring method to measure the nodes' importance. This method can reflect nodes' internal and outside attributes and eliminate the influence of network structure on the node importance. The experiments of karate network and dolphin network show that networks topology structure integrated measure has smaller range of metrical result than a single indicator and more universal. Experiments show that attacking the North American power grid and the Internet network with the method has a faster convergence speed than other methods.
Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.
In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...
Hasbullah, Halabi; Nazir, Babar; Khan, Imran Ali
Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results. PMID:25152924
Full Text Available Profiling environmental parameter using a large number of spatially distributed wireless sensor network (WSN NODEs is an extensive illustration of advanced modern technologies, but high power requirement for WSN NODEs limits the widespread deployment of these technologies. Currently, WSN NODEs are extensively powered up using batteries, but the battery has limitation of lifetime, power density, and environmental concerns. To overcome this issue, energy harvester (EH is developed and presented in this paper. Solar-based EH has been identified as the most viable source of energy to be harvested for autonomous WSN NODEs. Besides, a novel chemical-based EH is reported as the potential secondary source for harvesting energy because of its uninterrupted availability. By integrating both solar-based EH and chemical-based EH, a hybrid energy harvester (HEH is developed to power up WSN NODEs. Experimental results from the real-time deployment shows that, besides supporting the daily operation of WSN NODE and Router, the developed HEH is capable of producing a surplus of 971 mA·hr equivalent energy to be stored inside the storage for NODE and 528.24 mA·hr equivalent energy for Router, which is significantly enough for perpetual operation of autonomous WSN NODEs used in environmental parameter profiling.
Full Text Available The primary objective of this article is to determine the degree of popularity of stag tourism destinations in Europe. Research was based on the search engine method, involving an analysis of the highest positioned offers of travel agencies in the most commonly used search engines in Europe (Google, Bing, Yahoo. The analysis divided the studied cities into four categories in terms of popularity. Conducting the said analysis is strongly justified, because academic publications have so far not provided studies which have determined the degree of popularity of stag destinations on a continental scale.
Li, Chengyue; Xu, Xiaochun; Basheer, Yusairah; He, Yusheng; Sattar, Husain A.; Brankov, Jovan G.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.
Sentinel lymph node status is a critical prognostic factor in breast cancer treatment and is essential to guide future adjuvant treatment. The estimation that 20-60% of micrometastases are missed by conventional pathology has created a demand for the development of more accurate approaches. Here, a paired-agent imaging approach is presented that employs a control imaging agent to allow rapid, quantitative mapping of microscopic populations of tumor cells in lymph nodes to guide pathology sectioning. To test the feasibility of this approach to identify micrometastases, healthy pig lymph nodes were stained with targeted and control imaging agent solution to evaluate the potential for the agents to diffuse into and out of intact nodes. Aby-029, an anti-EGFR affibody was labeled with IRDye 800CW (LICOR) as targeted agent and IRDye 700DX was hydrolyzed as a control agent. Lymph nodes were stained and rinsed by directly injecting the agents into the lymph nodes after immobilization in agarose gel. Subsequently, lymph nodes were frozen-sectioned and imaged under an 80-um resolution fluorescence imaging system (Pearl, LICOR) to confirm equivalence of spatial distribution of both agents in the entire node. The binding potentials were acquired by a pixel-by-pixel calculation and was found to be 0.02 +/- 0.06 along the lymph node in the absence of binding. The results demonstrate this approach's potential to enhance the sensitivity of lymph node pathology by detecting fewer than 1000 cell in a whole human lymph node.
China is one of the biggest countries in the world which has a population of nearly 1.4 million people. With help of a steady growth economy, the outbound tourism of China has dramatically increased. Finland as gateway for Chinese tourists to Europe has become a unique destination for them. However, Finland is still relatively unknown and mysterious for most of the Chinese tourists. The aims of this study were to examing how the destination image affects the decision making of mainland Chines...
Shirley, Lawrence A; Jones, Natalie B; Phay, John E
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy, and cervical nodal metastases are frequent at presentation. The most common site for nodal metastases from PTC is the central compartment of the ipsilateral neck in the paratracheal and pretracheal regions. The decision to resect these lymph nodes at the time of thyroidectomy often depends on if nodes with suspected malignancy can be identified preoperatively. If nodal spread to the central neck nodes is known, then the consensus is to remove all nodes in this area. However, there remains significant controversy regarding the utility of removing central neck lymph nodes for prophylactic reasons. Herein, we review the potential utility of central neck lymph node dissection as well as the risks of performing this procedure. As well, we review the potential of molecular testing to stratify patients who would most benefit from this procedure. We advocate a selective approach in which patients undergo clinical neck examination coupled with ultrasound to detect any concerning lymph nodes that warrant additional evaluation with either fine needle aspiration or excisional biopsy in the operating room. In lieu of clinical lymphadenopathy, we suggest the use of patient and disease characteristics as identified by multiple groups, such as the American Thyroid Association and European Society of Endocrine Surgeons, which include extremes of ages, large primary tumor size, and male gender, when deciding to perform central neck lymph node dissection. Patients should be educated on the potential long-terms risks versus the lack of known long-term benefits.
Lawrence A. Shirley
Full Text Available Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is the most common thyroid malignancy, and cervical nodal metastases are frequent at presentation. The most common site for nodal metastases from PTC is the central compartment of the ipsilateral neck in the paratracheal and pretracheal regions. The decision to resect these lymph nodes at the time of thyroidectomy often depends on if nodes with suspected malignancy can be identified preoperatively. If nodal spread to the central neck nodes is known, then the consensus is to remove all nodes in this area. However, there remains significant controversy regarding the utility of removing central neck lymph nodes for prophylactic reasons. Herein, we review the potential utility of central neck lymph node dissection as well as the risks of performing this procedure. As well, we review the potential of molecular testing to stratify patients who would most benefit from this procedure. We advocate a selective approach in which patients undergo clinical neck examination coupled with ultrasound to detect any concerning lymph nodes that warrant additional evaluation with either fine needle aspiration or excisional biopsy in the operating room. In lieu of clinical lymphadenopathy, we suggest the use of patient and disease characteristics as identified by multiple groups, such as the American Thyroid Association and European Society of Endocrine Surgeons, which include extremes of ages, large primary tumor size, and male gender, when deciding to perform central neck lymph node dissection. Patients should be educated on the potential long-terms risks versus the lack of known long-term benefits.
Van der Vegt, Wim
Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.
Gerrit Cornelis Langhout
Full Text Available Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR© multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes.
Yachin, Jonathan Moshe
In the contemporary tourism industry, the competitive game is between destinations. Tourism operations struggle to remain competitive on the international market and their success depends to a large extent on other complementary and competing tourism organizations at the destination. It is the sum of the total tourism offerings at the destination which determines its attractiveness. This research explores tourism collaboration process as a means of generating destination competitiveness. The ...
Christian M. Rogerson
Full Text Available Cities are growing tourism destinations in both developed and developing countries. For policymakers in many cities the promotion of tourism is a vital issue. The phenomenon of urban tourism has emerged as a significant research topic in tourism and urban studies. The South African experience has been one of the most well documented cases in urban tourism in the developing world. Most existing research is focussed on supply-side issues of the establishment of new tourism products in cities or of the impacts of growing urban tourism. This article examines urban tourism from a demand-side perspective and interrogates the performance of South Africa’s eight metropolitan areas as tourism destinations over the period 2001-2012.The analysis reveals that the metropolitan areas as a group are expanding in significance as tourism destinations. Divergent pathways or trajectories of development are apparent in terms of unpacking the performance of the eight different areas.
Full Text Available Smart card data is increasingly used to investigate passenger behavior and the demand characteristics of public transport. The destination estimation of public transport is one of the major concerns for the implementation of smart card data. In recent years, numerous studies concerning destination estimation have been carried out—most automatic fare collection (AFC systems only record boarding information but not passenger alighting information. This study provides a comprehensive review of the practice of using smart card data for destination estimation. The results show that the land use factor is not discussed in more than three quarters of papers and sensitivity analysis is not applied in two thirds of papers. In addition, the results are not validated in half the relevant studies. In the future, more research should be done to improve the current model, such as considering additional factors or making sensitivity analysis of parameters as well as validating the results with multi-source data and new methods.
Jamaludin, N. L.; Sam, D. L.; Sandal, G. M.; Adam, A. A.
What are the factors that predict international students? destination-loyalty intention? This is the main question this paper addresses, using an online survey among 396 (short-term, N?=?182) and (long-term, N?=?214) international students at a Norwegian university. Structural equation model-AMOS was conducted to examine relationships among personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intentions. The results showed that: (1) universalism was positively related to subjective ...
Straalman, K.; Kristoffersen, U.S.; Galatius, H.
The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures...... at our inpatient clinic. Data were analysed with backward stepwise multiple logistic regression with a cut-off point of p
Ellis, Mark; Wright, Richard; Townley, Matthew
In the 1990s, the immigrant population in the United States dispersed to non-traditional settlement locations (what have become known as “new immigrant destinations”). This paper examines whether the allure of new destinations persisted in the 2000s with a particular focus on the internal migration of the foreign born during the recent deep recessionary period and its aftermath. Three specific questions motivate the analysis. First, are immigrants, much like the US-born population, becoming less migratory within the country over time? Second, is immigrant dispersal from traditional gateways via internal migration continuing despite considerable economic contraction in many new destination metropolitan areas? Third, is immigration from aboard a substitute for what appears to be declining immigrant internal migration to new destinations? The findings reveal a close correlation between the declining internal migration propensity of the US-born and immigrants in the last two decades. We also observe parallels between the geographies of migration of native- and foreign-born populations with both groups moving to similar metropolitan areas in the 1990s. This redistributive association, however, weakened in the subsequent decade as new destination metropolitan areas lost their appeal for both groups, especially immigrants. There is no evidence to suggest that immigration from abroad is substituting for the decline in immigrant redistribution through internal migration to new destinations. Across destination types the relationship between immigration from abroad and the internal migration of the foreign born remained the same before, during, and after the Great Recession. PMID:24791036
Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak
The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Luo, Wei; Nguyen, Freddy T; Zysk, Adam M; Ralston, Tyler S; Brockenbrough, John; Marks, Daniel L; Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A
Optical diagnostic imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the clinical environment, allowing for improved screening and diagnosis while minimizing the number of invasive procedures. Diffuse optical tomography, for example, is capable of whole-breast imaging and is being developed as an alternative to traditional X-ray mammography. While this may eventually be a very effective screening method, other optical techniques are better suited for imaging on the cellular and molecular scale. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), for instance, is capable of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue morphology. In a manner analogous to ultrasound imaging except using optics, pulses of near-infrared light are sent into the tissue while coherence-gated reflections are measured interferometrically to form a cross-sectional image of tissue. In this paper we apply OCT techniques for the high-resolution three-dimensional visualization of lymph node morphology. We present the first reported OCT images showing detailed morphological structure and corresponding histological features of lymph nodes from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor model, as well as from a human lymph node containing late stage metastatic disease. The results illustrate the potential for OCT to visualize detailed lymph node structures on the scale of micrometastases and the potential for the detection of metastatic nodal disease intraoperatively.
Full Text Available Service quality initiatives are high priorities in many tourist destinations, with expenditure seen as long-term investment for future growth and profitability. My study’s goal is to explain the quality dimensions from the viewpoint of tourism destination. When we start to discuss about tourism quality supply, the main problem we have to consider is the structure of tourism supply as a complex of tangible and intangible elements. Analysis of the quality problem, their measuring and monitoring and marketing strategies based on quality, needs to be built on the specificity of tourist offer, regarding the level of goods and services. Because of this, the level of quality and customer satisfaction of quality is very hard to measure and to control. The first major feature of quality programs development is typically, to identify the key components or dimensions of quality from customer and employee research, i.e. their needs and expectations.
Lemieux, Aaron; Kedarisetty, Suraj; Raju, Sharat; Orosco, Ryan; Coffey, Charles
Even after a pathologically node-negative (pN0) neck dissection for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), patients may develop regional recurrence. In this study, we (1) hypothesize that an increased number of lymph nodes removed (lymph node yield) in patients with pN0 oral SCC predicts improved survival and (2) explore predictors of survival in these patients using a multivariable model. Case series with chart review. Administrative database analysis. The SEER database was queried for patients diagnosed with all-stage oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2009 who were determined to be pN0 after elective lymph node dissection. Demographic and treatment variables were extracted. The association of lymph node yield with 5-year all-cause survival was studied with multivariable survival analyses. A total of 4341 patients with pN0 oral SCC were included in this study. The 2 highest lymph node yield quartiles (representing >22 nodes removed) were found to be significant predictors of overall survival (22-35 nodes: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.854, P = .031; 36-98 nodes: HR = 0.827, P = .010). Each additional lymph node removed during neck dissection was associated with increased survival (HR = 0.995, P = .022). These data suggest that patients with oral SCC undergoing elective neck dissection may experience an overall survival benefit associated with greater lymph node yield. Mechanisms behind the demonstrated survival advantage are unknown. Larger nodal dissections may remove a greater burden of microscopic metastatic disease, diminishing the likelihood of recurrence. Lymph node yield may serve as an objective measure of the adequacy of lymphadenectomy. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van; Niamut, O.A.; Walraven, F.A.; Mekuria, R.N.
This paper introduces a novel network-based approach to inter-destination media synchronization. The approach meets the need for synchronization in advanced TV concepts like social TV and offers high scalability, unlike conventional end-point based approaches. The solution for interdestination media
Full Text Available This paper analyses different film genres and their role as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy. The general objective of the paper is to point to the significance of film for the tourist destination recognisability as well as its perception in the public eye. The specific objectives of the paper are directed at the analysis of individual roles that different film genres have in the tourist destination promotion strategy. The research methods employed in the paper entail film identification and its role in media communications, the identification both of different film genres and their specific features, then, the observation of their application in the tourist destination promotion strategy, and eventually, the identification of their significance in the process of raising the public's awareness of the destination itself as well as the creation of positive perception of the destination with the targeted audience. In this regard, the paper focuses on the following: feature films, documentary films, tourist-related report, promotional tourist films, messages conveyed through films to the targeted audience as well as the strategies and methods employed in the film as a promotional tool. One of the key findings of the paper is to highlight the significance of each film genre in the process of tourist destination promotion, whereas their combination represents an important segment of media strategies in the field of tourism, and is a prerequisite for the desired positioning in the contemporary tourism market.
Full Text Available Nowadays brand personality is admitted to be one of the essential parts of brand strategy. It has also become a popular aspect of destination branding due to the fact that destinations are constantly competing for visitors attention in various ways. The term of branding has been first applied to marketing of services or places since the 1990’s. Later on it was broadened and utilized by specialists in the field of tourism marketing. Tourism brand personality is a relatively new one and there are only few works devoted to brand personality of countries as tourism destinations. Keeping in mind the novelty of the research area, this study was planned as exploratory in nature. The stated goal of the research is: to identify the brand personality attributes ascribed to Portugal by the Russian-speaking market and compare the possible existing differences of attributes among the subgroups of the study (actual visitors and possible future visitors. The results of this research might be interesting to the local officials and to business representatives as it highlights the main attributes of Portugal brand personality from the Russian speaking people’s point of view.
Kiricuta, I.C. [St. Vincenz-Hospital, Limburg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Oncology
Background/purpose: It seems that there exists a specific lymph node center called sentinel node (SN) which appears to be the primary site of metastases. The sentinel node concept (SNC) is fundamentally based on the orderly progression of tumor cells within the lymphatic system. It is the most important new concept in surgical and radiation oncology. The purpose is to present the biological significance, the diagnostic and clinical basis of the sentinel node concept in breast cancer patients. Material and methods: Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe biopsy is necessary to show predictable lymph flow to the regional sentinel node, to multiple sentinel nodes or unpredictable lymph flow to extra-regional sentinel nodes and for performing sentinel node procedure. The standard protocol for the evaluation of the sentinel node metastases consists of extensive histopathological investigation including step Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections and immunohistochemistry. Results: A high rate of success of the identification of the sentinel node for breast cancer was reported. The presence or absence of metastasis in this node is a very accurate predictor of overall nodal status. The temptation to examine the sentinel node with the greatest possible degree of accuracy highlights one of the major problems related to sentinel node biopsy. The success of the sentinel node procedure depends primarily on the adequate functional capacity necessary for sufficient uptake to ensure the accurate identification. In negative sentinel-node patients a complete axillary lymph node dissection is avoidable. In sentinel-node positive patients and clinically negative patients a postoperative radiotherapy would permit an adequate tumor control. The last 2-procedures permit a low morbidity. In the actual TNM classification it was recently introduced a definition of a 'pN0' patient based on sentinel node biopsy. New target volumes are defined for adjuvant radiotherapy or
Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of the eight components of the marketing mix, as being product, price, distribution, promotion, person, partnership, program and package, upon choice of a destination.For this research purpose, data was collected by face-to-face interviews and survey from 260 foreign tourists visiting the region of Dalyan. First, the marketing mix components were classified according to their importance determined by the arithmetic averages. Then, multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether the marketing mix components had an effect on the destination choice. The analysis found that the variables of ‘product’ and ‘person’ had an effect on the Dalyan destination choice. This result shows that the ’product’ is an influencial factor, as expected, on the choice of the Dalyan destination, within the scope of ecotourism, visited by the tourists. In addition, ‘person’ is also important factor on the destination choice for the Dalyan region.
van der Waerden, P.J.H.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; de Bruin - Verhoeven, M.
In this paper the relationship between car drivers’ personal and trip characteristics and the maximum distance car drivers are willing to walk between a parking facility and the final destination(s) will be discussed. The willingness to walk is investigated in the context of four different trip
Background/purpose: It seems that there exists a specific lymph node center called sentinel node (SN) which appears to be the primary site of metastases. The sentinel node concept (SNC) is fundamentally based on the orderly progression of tumor cells within the lymphatic system. It is the most important new concept in surgical and radiation oncology. The purpose is to present the biological significance, the diagnostic and clinical basis of the sentinel node concept in breast cancer patients. Material and methods: Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe biopsy is necessary to show predictable lymph flow to the regional sentinel node, to multiple sentinel nodes or unpredictable lymph flow to extra-regional sentinel nodes and for performing sentinel node procedure. The standard protocol for the evaluation of the sentinel node metastases consists of extensive histopathological investigation including step Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections and immunohistochemistry. Results: A high rate of success of the identification of the sentinel node for breast cancer was reported. The presence or absence of metastasis in this node is a very accurate predictor of overall nodal status. The temptation to examine the sentinel node with the greatest possible degree of accuracy highlights one of the major problems related to sentinel node biopsy. The success of the sentinel node procedure depends primarily on the adequate functional capacity necessary for sufficient uptake to ensure the accurate identification. In negative sentinel-node patients a complete axillary lymph node dissection is avoidable. In sentinel-node positive patients and clinically negative patients a postoperative radiotherapy would permit an adequate tumor control. The last 2-procedures permit a low morbidity. In the actual TNM classification it was recently introduced a definition of a 'pN0' patient based on sentinel node biopsy. New target volumes are defined for adjuvant radiotherapy or lymphatic basins
Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein
The present investigation is a cross-sectional, multi-national, quantitative, and quasi-experimental comparison of tourists' risk perceptions regarding different destinations throughout the past decade. Over 10,000 tourists to Norway from 89 different countries filled in a questionnaire rating the perceived risk for various destinations. Data were collected during 2004, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015 and allow for a comparison of perceived risk across time, place and nationality. Results show that while absolute risk judgments for different destinations fluctuate somewhat over the years, relative risk judgments remain constant. Findings also reveal a "home-is-safer-then-abroad-bias" with tourists consistently perceiving their home country among the safest destinations. The current investigation is rare because it looks at more than one destination at a time. Insights gained from the present findings diverge from what would have been concluded from employing case studies, that is, looking at one destination at a time. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Setyo Ferry Wibowo
Full Text Available The purpose of this research are: 1 To find out the description of destination image, tourist satisfaction, and revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan, 2 test empirically the influence of destination image toward revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan, 3 test empirically the influence of tourist satisfaction toward revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan, 4 test empirically the influence of destination image toward revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan. The object of this research was 200 respondents who have ever visit to Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan at one time. The results of descriptive test explained that the destination image provided is good according to the tourist, so that the tourist is satisfied and want to revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan. The hypothesis test shows: 1 the influence of destination image toward revisit intention by -30%, 2 the influence of tourist satisfaction toward revisit intention by 118%, 3 the influence of destination image toward tourist satisfaction by 92%.
Alonso, O.; Lago, G.; Lopes de Amorim, M.C.; Juri, C.; Larre Borges, A.; Martinez, M.; De Boni, D.; Espasandin, J.; Priario, J.
Aim: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a highly accurate technique for detecting occult metastatic disease in the regional lymph nodes. Our group has reported that 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy is an imaging technique that can detect clinically undetectable metastases. This prospective study shows preliminary results on the comparison of both techniques for the detection of lymph node invasion. Material and Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients (15 women, 7 men; mean age, 55 years) with primary melanoma > 1.0 mm thick were enrolled (mean 2.6 mm). Patients underwent 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy of regional lymph nodes 1-2 weeks before surgery, acquiring 10-minute planar images with a LFOV gamma camera. A preoperative lymphoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-colloidal (Re) sulphide was performed the day before surgery, using a dose of 74-93 MBq. Radio guided SNB was performed with a hand-held gamma probe. Lymph nodes were examined histologically and immunostained for S-100 and HMB-45. Results: The sentinel node (SN) was identified in 21/22 patients. An average of 1.6 SN/lesion were harvested from melanomas located in the following regions: head and neck (n=3), trunk (n=6), extremities (n=12). All patients with negative SN (n=11) were also negative with MIBI. In 10 cases the SN demonstrated metastatic involvement, whereas 99m Tc-MIBI was positive in 8 of them (80%). In cases with positive SN/negative 99m Tc-MIBI, the pathology report revealed micro metastatic disease. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that 99m Tc-MIBI scanning has the potential of selecting a group of patients who might benefit from a selective complete lymphadenectomy
Gregorić, Marina; Skendrović, Ljiljana
Branding of tourism destination can’t be seen without cooperation between private and public sector, entrepreneurship and government. Lifelong learning is an important element of increased awareness about the market and advantages of tourism destination as well as its market value. Definition of brand which starts from the needs of consumers is one that should lead in contemporary market environment where customers and market determine the value of the product or services. To achieve successf...
To highlight the principles used in the design and development of a regional brand strategy we need to identify the disciplinary and the theoretical referential that would best fit the branding approach. This paper will address the main forms of branding: place branding, location branding and destination branding, as a specialized form of destination marketing. From the theoretical point of view, by identifying the fundamental and the management brand model, the regional tourism brand conc...
Mariani, M.M.; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.
This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...
Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Chongda; Ye, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zheng, Zhaoxu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Colorectal Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China); Zou, Shuangmei [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, ChaoYang District, Beijing (China)
To evaluate the value of the chemical shift effect (CSE) as well as other criteria for the prediction of lymph node status. Twenty-nine patients who underwent radical surgery of rectal cancers were studied with pre- and postoperative specimen MRI. Lymph nodes were harvested from transverse whole-mount specimens and compared with in vivo and ex vivo images to obtain a precise slice-for-section match. Preoperative MR characteristics including CSE, as well as other predictors, were evaluated by two readers independently between benign and metastatic nodes. A total of 255 benign and 35 metastatic nodes were obtained; 71.4% and 69.4% of benign nodes were detected with regular CSE for two readers, whereas 80.0% and 74.3% of metastatic nodes with absence of CSE. The CSE rendered areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.879 and 0.845 for predicting nodal status for two readers. The criteria of nodal location, border, signal intensity and minimum distance to the rectal wall were also useful but with AUCs (0.629-0.743) lower than those of CSE. CSE is a reliable predictor for differentiating benign from metastatic nodes. Additional criteria should be taken into account when it is difficult to determine the nodal status by using only a single predictor. (orig.)
Full Text Available Decomposition of a difference in life expectancies may identify ages at which the difference originates in mortality differences, or may identify age at which the difference results in different values of person-years lived (life table population. This study shows that the two approaches are orthogonally related to each other, and derives an origin-destination decomposition matrix in which summing in one direction produces Andreev's origin-decomposition results, while summing in the other direction produces destination-decomposition corresponding to directly-observed differences in nLx values.
Although there are two categories of tourism destination - recreation/attractions and hospitality, this study ... The first Property Management Systems (Fidelio and Hogatex) appear in the tourism market. ..... In most cases, foreigners are hired to manage and offer consultancy ..... Marketing concepts and strategies in tourism.
Tourasse, Christophe, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Radiology Department, Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, 55 avenue Jean Mermoz, 69008 Lyon (France); Denier, Jean Francois [Anatomopathology Department, Technipath, 41 allee des Cypres, 69760 Limonest (France); Awada, Azzam; Gratadour, Anne-Christel; Nessah-Bousquet, Karima [Gynaecological and Breast Surgery Department, Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, 69008 Lyon (France); Gay, Joeel [SuperSonic Imagine, Les Jardins de la Duranne - Bat. F, 510, rue Rene Descartes, 13857 Aix-en-Provence Cedex (France)
Objective: Breast cancer starts as a local tumor but can become metastatic and spread via the lymph nodes. When the pre-operative assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is negative patients generally undergo sentinel node biopsy (SNB), followed by a secondary surgical axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) if the SNB is positive. The extemporaneous anatomo-pathological analysis of the sentinel lymph node enables metastases to be detected and an ALND at the same time of the SNB. The goal of this study was to evaluate the added value of ShearWave Elastography (SWE), compared with the conventional pre-operative assessment, in the screening of sentinel lymph nodes with a high metastatic risk, which could then benefit from an extemporaneous anatomo-pathological analysis. Patients and methods: Women undergoing breast surgery with SNB were prospectively enrolled. Before surgery, they underwent ultrasound and elastography imaging of axillary lymph nodes using the SuperSonic Imagine device and its ShearWave Trade-Mark-Sign elastography mode (SWE Trade-Mark-Sign ). The results obtained were compared to the immunohistochemical results for the removed lymph nodes. Results: 65 patients were enrolled. From the 103 lymph nodes examined by elastography and the 185 lymph nodes removed we were able to pair 81; 70 were healthy and 11 were malignant. The stiffness measurements (mean and maximal values) were significantly different between the healthy and metastatic lymph nodes, (p < 0.05). The areas under the ROC curves were 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.55-0.95) for the mean and the maximal stiffness, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results show a correlation between the metastatic risk of lymph nodes and their increased mean stiffness. Elasticity variables and potential thresholds that seem to predict the metastatic status of axillary lymph nodes were identified. If confirmed by further larger studies, these results could be useful in
Full Text Available Jember Fashion Carnaval (JFC 2016 telah banyak diberitakan di media online selama bulan Agustus – September 2016. Karnaval tahunan ini memberikan implikasi pada upaya destination branding Kota Jember. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis isi pemberitaan JFC 2016 di media online selama bulan Agustus – September 2016. Fokus penelitian ini adalah pemaknaan teks/pesan pemberitaan JFC 2016 yang membentuk destination branding Kota Jember. Metode yang digunakan adalah content analysis dengan pendekatan kuantitatif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberitaan JFC 2016 merepresentasikan tahapan pembangunan destination branding Kota Jember dengan sumber informasi terbanyak dari birokrat (39%, konten berita terbesar berisi topik review JFC 2016 dan penyelenggaraan JFC 2016 masing-masing sebanyak (20%, kategori berita terbanyak bertema lifestyle (40%, dan didominasi tone berita positif (70%.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lymph node yield is recommended as a benchmark of quality care in colorectal cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of various factors upon lymph node yield and to identify independent factors associated with lymph node harvest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 162 patients with Stage I to Stage III colorectal cancers seen in one institution were reviewed. These patients underwent radical surgery as definitive therapy; high-risk patients then received adjuvant treatment. Pathologic and demographic data were recorded and analyzed. The subgroup analysis of lymph node yields was determined using a t-test and analysis of variants. Linear regression model and multivariable analysis were used to perform potential confounding and predicting variables. RESULTS: Five variables had significant association with lymph node yield after adjustment for other factors in a multiple linear regression model. These variables were: tumor size, surgical method, specimen length, and individual surgeon and pathologist. The model with these five significant variables interpreted 44.4% of the variation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients, tumor characteristics and surgical variables all influence the number of lymph nodes retrieved. Physicians are the main gatekeepers. Adequate training and optimized guidelines could greatly improve the quality of lymph node yields.
Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Owen, Neville; Cole, Rachel; Mavoa, Suzanne; Oka, Koichiro; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Takemi
Street layout is consistently associated with adults' travel behaviors, however factors influencing this association are unclear. We examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors: walking for transport (WT) and car use; and, the extent to which these relationships may be accounted for by availability of local destinations. A 24-h travel diary was completed in 2009 by 16,345 adult participants of the South-East Queensland Household Travel Survey, Australia. Three travel-behavior outcomes were derived: any home-based WT; over 30min of home-based WT; and, over 60min of car use. For street layout, a space syntax measure of street integration was calculated for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1, the smallest geographic unit in Australia). An objective measure of availability of destinations - Walk Score - was also derived for each SA1. Logistic regression examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors. Mediation analyses examined to what extent availability of destinations explained the associations. Street integration was significantly associated with travel behaviors. Each one-decile increment in street integration was associated with an 18% (95%CI: 1.15, 1.21) higher odds of any home-based WT; a 10% (95%CI: 1.06, 1.15) higher odds of over 30min of home-based WT; and a 5% (95%CI: 0.94, 0.96) lower odds of using a car over 60min. Local destinations partially mediated the effects of street layout on travel behaviors. Well-connected street layout contributes to active travel partially through availability of more local destinations. Urban design strategies need to address street layout and destinations to promote active travel among residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.
This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near
Mantel, Hendrik T J; Wiggers, Jim K; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M; Gouw, Annette S H; Porte, Robert J
Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of this study was to assess the effect on survival of immunohistochemically detected lymph node micrometastases in patients with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of 146 patients underwent curative-intent resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with regional lymphadenectomy at two university medical centers in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients (62 %) without lymph node metastases at routine histology were included. Micrometastases were identified by multiple sectioning of all lymph nodes and additional immunostaining with an antibody against cytokeratin 19 (K19). The association with overall survival was assessed in univariable and multivariable analysis. Median follow-up was 48 months. Micrometastases were identified in 16 (5 %) of 324 lymph nodes, corresponding to 11 (12 %) of 91 patients. There were no differences in clinical variables between K19 lymph node-positive and -negative patients. Five-year survival rates in patients with lymph node micrometastases were significantly lower compared to patients without micrometastases (27 vs. 54 %, P = 0.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed micrometastases as an independent prognostic factor for survival (adjusted Hazard ratio 2.4, P = 0.02). Lymph node micrometastases are associated with worse survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical detection of lymph node micrometastases leads to better staging of patients who were initially diagnosed with node-negative (pN0) hilar cholangiocarcinoma on routine histology.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify waste generated within the territories of tourist destinations in Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and to classify it for the use of effective waste management methods. The dynamics of municipal waste generation in tourist destinations in Carpathian region has been analyzed. The sources of waste generation in tourist activities have been identified and classified by the criterion of their further use. The methods of waste management within the tourist destinations in Carpathian region have been proposed. The problem of tourist destinations waste has been identified as one of the significant environmental aspects of tourism industry. Recommendations for implementation of the waste management methods can form the basis of waste management programs within the tourist destinations in the Carpathians. To achieve the goal and to solve the identified tasks a range of research methods have been used in the study: praximetric method (analysis of research experience and summarizing the information of printed sources on environmental aspects of the tourism industry and the problems of waste management within tourist destinations; comparative analysis has been used for identification of quantitative indicators and dynamics of municipal waste generation; specific search method has been used for identifying, selecting, theoretical analysis, classification of the waste generated in tourist destinations and calculation of their generated amount.
Full Text Available Several cities around the world are self-proclaimed "smart" by integrating, in varying degrees, new technologies in the different spheres of the city. Nevertheless, despite this effervescence around the smart city, the concept requires more conceptualization from the researchers. This is even more important when it comes time to distinguishing between smart city and smart destination. The relationship between these two concepts is blurred and the transition from the smart city to the smart destination is not automatic. This situation is explained by the fact that the intrinsic characteristics of their respective target populations, being the citizens and the tourists, are different. This article compares three Canadian cities in the province of Quebec with the aim of demonstrating that the realization of a smart destination project requires the adaptation of governance structure and the involvement of all the stakeholders and more particularly in tourism.
If you are an intermediate or advanced developer deploying your Node.js applications, then this book is for you. If you have already built a Node application or module and want to take your knowledge to the next level, this book will help you find your way.
Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Guanyu; Ma, Yan; Xue, Yingwei
The classification of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is still controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the relative merits of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis. In our study, the nodal status was classified according to the 5th edition of the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system, the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma (JCGC), the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes, and the size of the largest metastatic lymph node. Each staging system was scored as good (+2), fair (+1), or poor (0) with respect to the theoretical value (extent of the anatomical lymphatic tumor spread), convenience (simplicity), surgical applicability (extent of lymph node dissection), and prognostic value (ability to predict survival rate). In the multivariate analysis including the four staging systems and other potential prognostic factors, stepwise Cox regression revealed that the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes was the most independent prognostic factor. The TNM, ratio, and size systems were convenient because they had no consideration for the location of the tumor and lymph node. Although the JCGC system had advantages in theoretical value and surgical application, it was most optional due to the complexity of the system. Although all different staging systems are comparable, the metastatic lymph node ratio system is convenient, reproducible, and has the highest ability to predict survival.
Mohd Yusof Mohd Fadil
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight the branding efforts by Langkawi Island based on various slogans and taglines used from 1974 until present. Secondary sources such as government reports, destination marketing organization websites, brochures and previous studies were referred to identify those slogans. This paper argues that destination branding process is not as easy as most destination marketing thought. The process is complex and it may need involvement from various stakeholders such as local population and tourism operators. Based on the various slogans identified, this paper argues that too many slogans and taglines are used and thus they may create confusion among host population, tourism operators as well as the tourists in terms of what are the actual core values of the island. The paper concludes with a suggestion that an empirical research is needed to confirm whether all these slogans or brands used are endorsed and supported by the internal stakeholders (e.g. host community, tourism operators as well as in agreement with what as being perceived by the tourists.
Full Text Available The paper deals with problems concerning tourist destination quality and the impact of individual factors on the overall satisfaction of a customer – a visitor to a destination. The methodology is based on the evaluation of individual factors that were identified on the basis of previously conducted researches and that consider all attributes of a destination which visitors are able to evaluate on the basis of their experience and consequent satisfaction. The used data were obtained by a questionnaire surveys, the evaluation is qualitative, and the ten-degree Likert scale is used. The practical part of the paper will focus on creating a multidimensional regression model for overall customer satisfaction for evaluating individual quality factors. The objective of the paper is to identify factors that influence overall customer satisfaction the most; this will be done on the basis of the statistical importance of individual regression parameters. The analysis will be conducted for the data from the regions of Lednice-Valtice Area and Znojemsko and Podyjí; subsequently these two regions will be compared.
Neuts, B.; Romao, J.; van Leeuwen, E.S.; Nijkamp, P.
As a result of advances in ICT services, transportation and local development, among others, more destinations are competing to attract both national and international visitors. Globalization requires destinations to increase their competitiveness or risk losing out on tourist revenues. While the
Jakobsen, J. K.; Krarup, K. P.; Sommer, P.
INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow-up. In th......INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow...... died from complications. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first complete national study on sentinel node biopsy. Penile cancer sentinel node biopsy with a close follow-up is a reliable lymph node staging and has few complications in a national multicentre setting. Inguinal lymph node...
Pavković Vladimir; Filipović Vinka; Vlastelica-Bakić Tamara
This paper analyses different film genres and their role as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy. The general objective of the paper is to point to the significance of film for the tourist destination recognisability as well as its perception in the public eye. The specific objectives of the paper are directed at the analysis of individual roles that different film genres have in the tourist destination promotion strategy. The research methods emplo...
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify selected aspects of the management of information about prospective tourist destinations by young people (students from Canada, Poland, and Trinidad and Tobago. On the basis of a questionnaire study, the ranking of preferences of respondents (i.e., the main criteria of destination choice has been presented. Students were selected as respondents - as a “convenient sample” - in this privately funded study. A variety of aspects related to comfort (and convenience and attractiveness have been identified as most important to the choice of destination. These are also leading motives that may form a platform for advertising campaigns and suggestions for regional development. This examination has been done mainly with the use of analysis of averages, Spearman correlation coefficients, and various approaches to factor analysis. It turns out that despite very different characteristics of respondents from the three countries, both their preferences and motives for promotion of the destination are very similar. Conclusions can be helpful for travel agencies and those responsible for the development of tourism infrastructure, as well as for the organization of further studies on the subject. The combination of various statistical tools used when examining the subject and the finding - that is, the similarity of preferences between travelers - can be regarded as new value when examining the subject.
Deleersnyder, B.; Koll, O.
Purpose – This paper aims to study the consequences of listing national brands in discounters. Is the discount channel a promising outlet for manufacturer brands? Is it an effective means to attract new buyers? Which combination of brand and discount destination at which price is best suited for
López, Juan A; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A
This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications.
López, Juan A.; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A.
This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications. PMID:22412309
Brambini, Annalisa; Vang, Jan
-located places. Based on regional innovation systems and place branding research the paper develops policy measures adapted to the specific challenges a shadow destination faces. Empirically, the appropriateness of the policy measures is demonstrated through applying it to a paradigmatic shadow destination......Tourism has often been hyped as an engine of regional growth and development but often failed to deliver the expected results. This is especially the case in shadow destinations. The concept of a shadow destination refers to a region whose relative attractioness is significantly lower than co...
Full Text Available In a sector strongly dependent on information as is the case of tourism, the timely knowledge of consumer behaviour enables making well-considered decisions and less uncertainty. Nowadays, the act of searching on the Internet about a particular subject before decision-making is part of the individuals’ daily lives. The Google Trends tool provides real time aggregated data on the online individuals’ interest based on the carried out search queries on Google. The objective of this paper is to show that Google Trends can provide comparative information about the individuals’ interest in relation to Portugal tourism regional areas and in particular, on the tourist destination "Algarve", and also between its competing tourist destinations. The results show that the tool can contribute to the knowledge of the individuals’ interests in relation to regional tourist destinations, information considered of great interest for Destination Management Organizations.
Full Text Available Network-based detection of botnet Command and Control communication is a difficult task if the traffic has a relatively low volume and if popular protocols, such as HTTP, are used to resemble normal traffic. We present a new network-based detection approach that is capable of detecting this type of Command and Control traffic in an enterprise network by estimating the trustworthiness of the traffic destinations. If the destination identifier of a traffic flow origins directly from: human input, prior traffic from a trusted destination, or a defined set of legitimate applications, the destination is trusted and its associated traffic is classified as normal. Advantages of this approach are: the ability of zero day malicious traffic detection, low exposure to malware by passive host-external traffic monitoring, and the applicability for real-time filtering. Experimental evaluation demonstrates successful detection of diverse types of Command and Control Traffic.
medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...
Purpose of this research is to apply PESTEL analysis on two different destinations (Croatia and Qatar) in order to find our their specific attributes as well as to analyse weather we can learn from their advantages and disadvantages due to the fact that one is rich on natural attractions while other one is mostly characterised by humand made attractions. Design is done by using the core of PESTEL analysis where each destination is analysed according to political, economical, socio-cultural, t...
Full Text Available The joint choice of shopping destination and travel-to-shop mode in downtown area is described by making use of the cross-nested logit (CNL model structure that allows for potential interalternative correlation along the both choice dimensions. Meanwhile, the traditional multinomial logit (MNL model and nested logit (NL model are also formulated, respectively. This study uses the data collected in the downtown areas of Maryland-Washington, D.C. region, for shopping trips, considering household, individual, land use, and travel related characteristics. The results of the model reveal the significant influencing factors on joint choice travel behavior between shopping destination and travel mode. A comparison of the different models shows that the proposed CNL model structure offers significant improvements in capturing unobserved correlations between alternatives over MNL model and NL model. Moreover, a Monte Carlo simulation for a group of scenarios assuming that there is an increase in parking fees in downtown area is undertaken to examine the impact of a change in car travel cost on the joint choice of shopping destination and travel mode switching. The results are expected to give a better understanding on the shopping travel behavior.
A Longitudinal Comparison of Arm Morbidity in Stage I-II Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Followed by Completion Lymph Node Dissection, or Axillary Lymph Node Dissection
Kootstra, Jan J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Rietman, Johan S.; de Vries, Jakob; Baas, Peter C.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Hoekstra, Harald J.
Background. Long-term shoulder and arm function following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may surpass that following complete axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We objectively examined the morbidity and compared outcomes after SLNB, SLNB + CLND, and
A longitudinal comparison of arm morbidity in stage I-II breast cancer patients treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by completion lymph node dissection, or axillary lymph node dissection
Kootstra, Jan J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; de Vries, Jakob; Baas, Peter C.; Geertzen, Jan H.B.; Hoekstra, Harald J.
Background: Long-term shoulder and arm function following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may surpass that following complete axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We objectively examined the morbidity and compared outcomes after SLNB, SLNB + CLND, and
O'Brien, Jonathan S; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bozin, Mike; Cabarkapa, Sonja; Chen, Emily; Lawrentschuk, Nathan
In penile cancer, the optimal diagnostics and management of metastatic lymph nodes are not clear. Advances in minimally invasive staging, including dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, have widened the diagnostic repertoire of the urologist. We aimed to provide an objective update of the recent trends in the management of penile squamous cell carcinoma, and inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases. We systematically reviewed several medical databases, including the Web of Science® (with MEDLINE®), Embase® and Cochrane databases, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search terms used were penile cancer, lymph node, sentinel node, minimally invasive, surgery and outcomes, alone and in combination. Articles pertaining to the management of lymph nodes in penile cancer were reviewed, including original research, reviews and clinical guidelines published between 1980 and 2016. Accurate and minimally invasive lymph node staging is of the utmost importance in the surgical management of penile squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with clinically node negative disease, a growing body of evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy exposes the patient to minimal risk, and results in superior sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to alternate nodal staging techniques. In the presence of locoregional disease, improvements in inguinal or pelvic lymphadenectomy have reduced morbidity and improved oncologic outcomes. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy and surgery has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with advanced disease. Recent developments in lymph node management have occurred in penile cancer, such as minimally invasive lymph node diagnosis and intervention strategies. These advances have been met with a degree of controversy in the contemporary literature. Current data suggest that dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy provides excellent
Cerin, Ester; Lee, Ka-yiu; Barnett, Anthony; Sit, Cindy H P; Cheung, Man-chin; Chan, Wai-man; Johnston, Janice M
Walking for transport can contribute to the accrual of health-enhancing levels of physical activity in elders. Identifying destinations and environmental conditions that facilitate this type of walking has public health significance. However, most findings are limited to Western, low-density locations, while a larger proportion of the global population resides in ultra-dense Asian metropolises. We investigated relationships of within-neighborhood objectively-measured destination categories and environmental attributes with walking for transport in 484 elders from an ultra-dense metropolis (Hong Kong). We estimated relationships of diversity (number of different types) and prevalence of within-neighborhood destination categories (environmental audits of 400 m buffers surrounding residential addresses) with transport-related walking (interviewer-administered questionnaire) in 484 Chinese-speaking elders able to walk unassisted and living in 32 neighborhoods stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. We examined the moderating effects of safety and pedestrian infrastructure-related neighborhood attributes on destination-walking associations. Participants reported on average 569 and 254 min/week of overall and within-neighborhood walking for transport, respectively. The prevalence of public transit points and diversity of recreational destinations were positively related to overall walking for transport. The presence of a health clinic/service and place of worship, higher diversity in recreational destinations, and greater prevalence of non-food retails and services, food/grocery stores, and restaurants in the neighborhood were predictive of more within-neighborhood walking for transport. Neighborhood safety-related aspects moderated the relationship of overall walking for transport with the prevalence of public transit points, this being positive only in safe locations. Similar moderating effects of safety-related attributes were observed
Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to investigate the influence of formal education level on decision-making process when choosing a tourist destination based on multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The survey was conducted on the sample of 252 respondents from Bačka region (Vojvodina/Serbia. Also, this study strives to examine the influence of education level on decision-making process including all five phases of decision-making process: need awareness, information search, alternatives estimation, purchase and purchase evaluation, applied to the process of choosing coastal regions as tourist destinations. The study shows that education level is related to four out of five phases of decision-making process (only in case of need awareness there is no statistically significant difference. This is especially important for creation of a marketing platform with promotional activities adjusted to different market segments differentiated by education level. Moreover, the study discusses differences in behaviour of different educational groups while choosing travel destinations.
Iwai, Naomichi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka
Enhanced MR imagings were performed on thirty-one patients with lung cancer by intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). A spin-echo pulse sequence (SE 400/40) with 0.5-T MR system was used. The Gd-DTPA enhancement of lymph nodes was studied for 67 nodes (29 metastatic lymph nodes and 38 non-metastatic lymph nodes) on the hilar and mediastinal region. The mean signal intensity of metastatic lymph nodes was enhanced higher than that of non-metastatic lymph nodes (p<0.001). On the criterion of the signal intensity change (the cutoff point: 800 S.I) at 5 minutes after administration, the diagnostic rates on retrospective study showed a sensitivity of 79 %, a specificity of 84 % and an overall accuracy of 82%. These data show higher rates than those of the size criteria. This study suggests a significant potential for improved detection of lymph node metastasis of lung cancer with Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. (author)
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
This paper studies the destination information marketing as an aid to the Cross River Tourism bid. A questionnaire was designed to elicit responses from the stakeholders in the tourism industry. Out of 69 ... State were tourist guide books, internet and the Tourism Bureau. ... beauty are appreciated by all normal human.
Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
Does social trust influence safety and tourists’ destination choice? Our claim is that the roots of safety may take two forms: either formal institutions or informal institutions. Formal institutions concern how society can build up control mechanisms through the legal system, police authority...... and military. The problem is that high visibility of police and military in public spaces may give the tourist the impression of an unsafe and insecure destination. Instead, social trust through self-enforcements of social norms for behaviour may be important because the informal institutions guarantee...... the safety of tourists (and locals) without signalling a problem with safety. Building social trust may further enhance the feeling of safety and thereby attract even more tourists. Thus, our trust-safety theory may guide the active use of social trust by tourist officials and policy makers....
Full Text Available The research on consumer behavior and the consumption system is one of the crucial tasks for destination marketing. The information on consumers' needs, priorities in satisfying them, motives, their solvency and the degree of realized satisfaction represent the basis for the development of marketing strategies and value creation. It is of special importance to identify and clarify the factors that determine consumers' preferences in the process of different options evaluation and the choice of a tourist destination. Consumer behavior and the consumption system are determined by the influence of a large number of factors: geographical, economic, demographic, social, psychological, etc. Only through simultaneous interaction of these factors, the complex processes of translating stimuli in the minds of consumers into their certain reactions in the process of purchasing and using the products could be understood.
Zlatko Sehanovic; Giorgio Cadum; Igor Sehanovic
Every tourist destination should make and implement a destination’s marketing and sales strategy. A very important part of destination’s sales and marketing strategy is the e-marketing and sales strategy. The cooperation of specialized regional development agencies, regional tourist board, local (city and county) tourist boards, hoteliers, tourist agencies, conservators, entertainment and cultural program developers, private accommodation owners and others involved in creation of destination’...
are described, respectively. Defective and potentially healing conditions are dynamically monitored by a voltage sensor node and a temperature sensor node, both of which can judge the defective TEM and decide the related switching actions in a nearly independent way. The periodical wireless transmission from......To maximize the energy productivity, effective in-field detection and real-time control of defective thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are critical in constituting a thermoelectric generation system (TEGS). In this paper, autonomous and distributed sensor nodes are designed to implement the wireless...... a considerable power improvement is illustrated with the proposed measuring method and setup....
Wibowo, Setyo Ferry; Sazali, Adnan; Kresnamurti R. P., Agung
The purpose of this research are: 1) To find out the description of destination image, tourist satisfaction, and revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan, 2) test empirically the influence of destination image toward revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan, 3) test empirically the influence of tourist satisfaction toward revisit intention of Betawi cultural village Setu Babakan, 4) test empirically the influence of destination image toward revisit intention ...
van Valkenhoef, Gert; Dias, Sofia; Ades, A E; Welton, Nicky J
Network meta-analysis enables the simultaneous synthesis of a network of clinical trials comparing any number of treatments. Potential inconsistencies between estimates of relative treatment effects are an important concern, and several methods to detect inconsistency have been proposed. This paper is concerned with the node-splitting approach, which is particularly attractive because of its straightforward interpretation, contrasting estimates from both direct and indirect evidence. However, node-splitting analyses are labour-intensive because each comparison of interest requires a separate model. It would be advantageous if node-splitting models could be estimated automatically for all comparisons of interest. We present an unambiguous decision rule to choose which comparisons to split, and prove that it selects only comparisons in potentially inconsistent loops in the network, and that all potentially inconsistent loops in the network are investigated. Moreover, the decision rule circumvents problems with the parameterisation of multi-arm trials, ensuring that model generation is trivial in all cases. Thus, our methods eliminate most of the manual work involved in using the node-splitting approach, enabling the analyst to focus on interpreting the results. © 2015 The Authors Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The tourism industry only started to be considered as an economic activity in 1911 (Scutariu, 2009). The reasons why people have been travelling and are still travelling to certain places are for sport and leisure; culture; Visiting Friends and Relatives; business; health; religion; education (Barrow, 2008). These different reasons contribute to the branding of some destinations by visitors and potential visitors. On that basis, it is legitimate to wonder whether being branded as a dark touri...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an important technique in the management of patients with intermediate level melanoma, clinical operable breast cancer and some other cancers. The technique relies on lymphatic mapping to define the lymph drainage from a primary tumour with the premise that the lymph nodes, which directly drain from that area, will reflect the tumour status of the remainder of the node field. Current techniques use lymphoscintigraphy where a radioactive labelled particle and / or blue dye are injected intradermally or intraparenchymally to map the lymph drainage, often in conjunction with a radioactive gamma probe at surgery. In patients with melanoma the SLNB has improved the staging and prognostic information by more accurate determination of whether regional lymph nodes have metastatic spread. This has a major impact on patient management as those patients with negative nodes do not require regional lymph node dissection and have a significantly better prognosis. In our experience of over 3000 patients the combined sentinel node biopsy technique localised accurately 98% of sentinel lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy in patients with melanoma to locate the sentinel lymph nodes involves the intradermal injection of a radiocolloid around the melanoma site or the excision biopsy site. Injections of 5 -10 MBq in 0.05-0.1ml/inj are used and typically 4 injections are usually required. Following tracer injection dynamic imaging is performed to follow the lymphatic collecting vessels until they reach the draining sentinel nodes. An image should be acquired as the vessels reach the node field so that the sentinel nodes directly receiving the channels can be identified and distinguished from any second tier nodes which may sometimes be seen. Delayed scans are performed 2 hours later at which time all regions which can possible drain the primary melanoma site are examined with 5-10 minute static images. The surface location of all sentinel nodes is
Tourism is an important aspect of a country's domestic economy and helps in generating valuable employment and foreign exchange. Tourists get attracted to a particular destination because they are excited about the destination and because there are no safety concerns about the destination. Destination branding is a concept that encompasses the enhancement of the 'image' tourists have about a particular destination. This research explores the destination bra...
Deventer, M.O. van; Stokking, H.M.; Niamut, O.M.; Walraven, F.A.
nter-Destination Media Synchronization (IDMS) is een reeks van technologieën voor de synchronisatie van mediacontent op meerdere televisies. Sociale televisie is een belangrijke toepassing van IDMS. Sociale televisie stelt vrienden in staat om een televisieprogramma samen te bekijken vanaf
J. Carlos Monterrubio
Full Text Available Destination image has been recognised as an influential component of travel decision processes. Although organic sources of information play an important role in shaping destination image, researchers have often ignored the types of sources and the information they deliver. In particular, official websites where government travel advice is given, especially in relation to crime, have been widely excluded from scholarly research. This paper analyses the relationship between crime-related travel advice given by foreign governments and Mexico’s destination image. Qualitative content analysis of official websites from the US, Canada, the UK and Spain reveals that the travel advice given relates largely to the violence and insecurity that Mexico is currently experiencing. “No advisory in effect”, “Exercise caution” and “Defer non-essential travel” are messages commonly found in the governments’ travel advice about Mexico.
Full Text Available In the specific literature, success may be achieved by two important attributes: competitiveness and sustainability. Competitive advantage represents an essential criterion for surviving on the tourist market and defines the ability of one destination to use these resources effectively and in the long term. The paper work continue a study begun last year by the same authors about tourist perception of attractiveness of the two tourist SPA destinations (Buziaş and Băile Felix on a different market segment (18-35 years old people. This time, we undertake an analysis on SC Turism Felix SA in order to determine and underline the tourist competitiveness through sustainability and financial efficiency (tourism performance indicators evolution, market share, turnover, investment volume, financial returns and costs.
Chaitip, Prasert; Chaiboonsri, Chukiat; Kovacs, Sandor; Balogh, Peter
Structural equation model (LISREL 8) was applied to test the causal relationships between tourist travel motivations and tourist destination. A survey containing Likert scale questions was conducted to collect data from 100 tourists who had travelled to Greeceâ€™s tourist destination. With the help of factor analysis, four dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: travel cost satisfaction, tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management. Results indi...
Ekiz, Erdogan H.; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn
The recent discourse of tourism development among officials within the Government of India has included the state of Goa, mainly because it has consistently witnessed positive economic impacts from tourism. However, in view of competition from other destinations, Goan tourism planners will need to identify important attributes of Goa that will positively affect tourists' destination loyalty. This study examines the correlation between five attributes of Goa and tourists' loyalty to Goa. Famil...
Recently, tourism industry is becoming more and more popular for scholars. However, the analysis of the food tourism literature and the promotional material of various destinations indicate that the role of food in the marketing of destinations has until recently received very little attention locally and globally. Whereas, all indications shows that the local food holds much potential to enhance sustainability in tourism; contribute to the authenticity of the destination; strengthen the loc...
van Heijst, Tristan C. F.; Eschbach-Zandbergen, Debora; Hoekstra, Nienke; van Asselen, Bram; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; de Waard, Stephanie N.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Desirée van den Bongard, H. J. G.; Philippens, Marielle E. P.
Regional radiotherapy (RT) is increasingly used in breast cancer treatment. Conventionally, computed tomography (CT) is performed for RT planning. Lymph node (LN) target levels are delineated according to anatomical boundaries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable individual LN delineation. The purpose was to evaluate the applicability of MRI for LN detection in supine treatment position, before and after sentinel-node biopsy (SNB). Twenty-three female breast cancer patients (cTis-3N0M0) underwent 1.5 T MRI, before and after SNB, in addition to CT. Endurance for MRI was monitored. Axillary levels were delineated. LNs were identified and delineated on MRI from before and after SNB, and on CT, and compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. LN locations and LN-based volumes were related to axillary delineations and associated volumes. Although postoperative effects were visible, LN numbers on postoperative MRI (median 26 LNs) were highly reproducible compared to preoperative MRI when adding excised sentinel nodes, and higher than on CT (median 11, p < 0.001). LN-based volumes were considerably smaller than respective axillary levels. Supine MRI of LNs is feasible and reproducible before and after SNB. This may lead to more accurate RT target definition compared to CT, with potentially lower toxicity. With the MRI techniques described here, initiation of novel MRI-guided RT strategies aiming at individual LNs could be possible.
R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); H.M. Stokking (Hans); M.O. van Deventer (Oskar)
htmlabstractInter-destination media (play-out) synchronization for social TV has gained attention from research and industry in recent years.Applications include social TV and interactive game shows. To motivate further research of inter-destination synchronization technologies, pilot
The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...
Full Text Available Natural and protected environments with authentic widespread traditional construction have become one of the fundamental touristic resources. Traditional architecture is a very crucial part of collective cultural heritage. Although it is ample and widespread, only since recent times it has been given its economical value as well as it has been included in tourism. According to the context above, authors have come up with a hypothesis stating that with implying branding of traditional architectural heritage, a positive influence on enrichment of touristic offerings of certain destination will be achieved. The authors defend and fulfill their hypothesis by analyzing different research on the example of rural destinations in Istria.
Full Text Available To highlight the principles used in the design and development of a regional brand strategy we need to identify the disciplinary and the theoretical referential that would best fit the branding approach. This paper will address the main forms of branding: place branding, location branding and destination branding, as a specialized form of destination marketing. From the theoretical point of view, by identifying the fundamental and the management brand model, the regional tourism brand concept is regarded by positioning it in the category (the most general one of place branding.
Lund, Niels Frederik
The emergence of social media necessitates a fundamental rethink of marketing practises as brands are now co-created with social media users. Destination management organisations (DMOs) therefore need to develop new social media strategies. This thesis suggests that DMOs ought to strengthen their storytelling capabilities as it is an essential tool in increasing social media engagement. A conceptual framework is therefore developed drawing on four particular sociological concepts: storytellin...
Chen, Yu-Gene T.
A method includes receiving a message at a first wireless node. The first wireless node is associated with a first wired network, and the first wired network is associated with a first security layer. The method also includes transmitting the message over the first wired network when at least one destination of the message is located in the first security layer. The method further includes wirelessly transmitting the message for delivery to a second wireless node when at least one destination of the message is located in a second security layer. The second wireless node is associated with a second wired network, and the second wired network is associated with the second security layer. The first and second security layers may be associated with different security paradigms and/or different security domains. Also, the message could be associated with destinations in the first and second security layers.
Mekuria, R.N.; Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van
Inter-destination media (play-out) synchronization for social TV has gained attention from research and industry in recent years. Applications include social TV and interactive game shows. To motivate further research of inter-destination synchronization technologies, pilot measurements of play-out
Jeuring, Jelmer; Haartsen, Tialda
The importance of residents’ communication about their home region as tourist destination is increasingly acknowledged in the place branding process. However, the extent to which residents feel responsible for communicating Destination Images (DIs), and how these attributions affect word-of-mouth
Full Text Available Tourism development has an irreplaceable role in regional policy of almost all countries. This is due to its undeniable benefits for the local population with regards to the economic, social and environmental sphere. Tourist destinations compete for visitors at tourism market and subsequently get into a relatively sharp competitive struggle. The main goal of regional governments and destination management institutions is to succeed in this struggle by increasing the competitiveness of their destination. The quality of strategic planning and final strategies is a key factor of competitiveness. Even though the tourism sector is not the typical field where the benchmarking methods are widely used, such approaches could be successfully applied. The paper focuses on key phases of the benchmarking process which lies in the search for suitable referencing partners. The partners are consequently selected to meet general requirements to ensure the quality if strategies. Following from this, some specific characteristics are developed according to the SMART approach. The paper tests this procedure with an expert evaluation of eight selected regional tourism strategies of regions in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Great Britain. In this way it validates the selected criteria in the frame of the international environment. Hence, it makes it possible to find strengths and weaknesses of selected strategies and at the same time facilitates the discovery of suitable benchmarking partners.
Williams, Nigel; Inversini, Alessandro; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Ferdinand, Nicole
Research suggests that festivals can promote a destination via online word-of-mouth (eWOM) on socialmedia, even though the nature of this effect is not yet fully understood. Using a combination of Social Network Analysis and text analysis (qualitative and quantitative), this article examines eWOM at a tourism destination (Bournemouth) when a festival (Bournemouth Air Show 2013) is staged. The Communities of Interest of eWOM interactions on Twitter were captured and analysed to understand the ...
Williams, Nigel L.; Inversini, Alessandro; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Ferdinand, Nicole
Research suggests that festivals can promote a destination via online word-of-mouth (eWOM) on social media, even though the nature of this effect is not yet fully understood. Using a combination of Social Network Analysis and text analysis (qualitative and quantitative), this article examines eWOM at a tourism destination (Bournemouth) when a festival (Bournemouth Air Show 2013) is staged. The Communities of Interest of eWOM interactions on Twitter were captured and analysed to understand the...
Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Malter, Wolfram; Hamacher, Stefanie; Schmidt, Matthias; Krämer, Stefan; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena
Since the introduction of the sentinel node technique for breast cancer in the 1990s patient's morbidity was reduced. Tracer uptake is known to be dependent from lymph node integrity and activity of macrophages. The aim of this study was to assess whether radioactivity of the tracer can predict sentinel lymph node metastases. Furthermore, a potential association with Ki-67 index was examined. Non-invasive prediction of lymph node metastases could lead to a further decrease of morbidity. We retrospectively analyzed patients with primary breast cancer who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the University Hospital of Cologne between 2012 and 2013. Injection of radioactive tracer was done a day before surgery in the department of Nuclear Medicine. Clinical data and radioactivity of the sentinel node measured the day before and intraoperatively were abstracted from patient's files. Of 246 patients, 64 patients had at least one, five patients had two and one patient had three positive sentinel lymph nodes. Occurrence of sentinel lymph node metastases was not associated with preoperative tracer activity (p = 0,319), intraoperative tracer activity of first sentinel node (p = 0,086) or with loss of tracer activity until operation (p = 0,909). There was no correlation between preoperative Ki-67 index and occurrence of lymph node metastases (p = 0,403). In our cohort, there was no correlation between radioactivity and sentinel node metastases. Tracer uptake might not only be influenced by lymph node metastases and does not predict metastatic lymph node involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
El-Sherief, Ahmed H; Lau, Charles T; Obuchowski, Nancy A; Mehta, Atul C; Rice, Thomas W; Blackstone, Eugene H
Accurate and consistent regional lymph node classification is an important element in the staging and multidisciplinary management of lung cancer. Regional lymph node definition sets-lymph node maps-have been created to standardize regional lymph node classification. In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) introduced a lymph node map to supersede all preexisting lymph node maps. Our aim was to study if and how lung cancer specialists apply the IASLC lymph node map when classifying thoracic lymph nodes encountered on CT scans during lung cancer staging. From April 2013 through July 2013, invitations were distributed to all members of the Fleischner Society, Society of Thoracic Radiology, General Thoracic Surgical Club, and the American Association of Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology to participate in an anonymous online image-based and text-based 20-question survey regarding lymph node classification for lung cancer staging on CT imaging. Three hundred thirty-seven people responded (approximately 25% participation). Respondents consisted of self-reported thoracic radiologists (n = 158), thoracic surgeons (n = 102), and pulmonologists who perform endobronchial ultrasonography (n = 77). Half of the respondents (50%; 95% CI, 44%-55%) reported using the IASLC lymph node map in daily practice, with no significant differences between subspecialties. A disparity was observed between the IASLC definition sets and their interpretation and application on CT scans, in particular for lymph nodes near the thoracic inlet, anterior to the trachea, anterior to the tracheal bifurcation, near the ligamentum arteriosum, between the bronchus intermedius and esophagus, in the internal mammary space, and adjacent to the heart. Use of older lymph node maps and inconsistencies in interpretation and application of definitions in the IASLC lymph node map may potentially lead to misclassification of stage and suboptimal management of lung
OBJECTIVES: Considerable controversy exists regarding the merits of elective neck dissection in patients with early stage oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It is highly desirable to have a method of identifying those patients who would benefit from further treatment of the neck when they are clinically node-negative. The purpose of the present study was to examine the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in identifying occult neck disease in a cohort of patients with node-negative oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: We evaluated a total of 13 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer who were clinically and radiologically node-negative. RESULTS: A sentinel lymph node was found in all 13 patients, revealing metastatic disease in five patients, four of whom had one or more positive sentinel lymph nodes. There was one false negative result, in which the sentinel lymph node was negative for tumour whereas histological examination of the neck dissection specimen showed occult disease. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, we would recommend the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cases of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in order to aid the differentiation of those patients whose necks are harbouring occult disease and who require further treatment.
Chen, Yih-Fan; Wu, Wen-Jong; Chen, Chun-Kuang; Wen, Chih-Min; Jin, Ming-Hui; Gau, Chung-Yun; Chang, Chih-Chie; Lee, Chih-Kung
A newly developed smart sensor node that can monitor the safety of temporary structures such as scaffolds at construction sites is detailed in this paper. The design methodology and its trade-offs, as well as its influence on the optimization of sensor networks, is examined. The potential impact on civil engineering construction sites, environmental and natural disaster pre-warning issues, etc., all of which are foundations of smart sensor nodes and corresponding smart sensor networks, is also presented. To minimize the power requirements in order to achieve a true wireless system both in terms of signal and power, a sensor node was designed by adopting an 8051-based micro-controller, an ISM band RF transceiver, and an auto-balanced strain gage signal conditioner. With the built-in RF transceiver, all measurement data can be transmitted to a local control center for data integrity, security, central monitoring, and full-scale analysis. As a battery is the only well-established power source and there is a strong desire to eliminate the need to install bulky power lines, this system designed includes a battery-powered core with optimal power efficiency. To further extend the service life of the built-in power source, a power control algorithm has been embedded in the microcontroller of each sensor node. The entire system has been verified by experimental tests on full-scale scaffold monitoring. The results show that this system provides a practical method to monitor the structure safety in real time and possesses the potential of reducing maintenance costs significantly. The design of the sensor node, central control station, and the integration of several kinds of wireless communication protocol, all of which are successfully integrated to demonstrate the capabilities of this newly developed system, are detailed. Potential impact to the network topology is briefly examined as well.
Full Text Available With the exponential improvement of software technology during the past decade, many efforts have been made to design remote and personalized healthcare applications. Many of these applications are built on mobile devices connected to the cloud. Although appealing, however, prototyping and validating the feasibility of an application-level idea is yet challenging without a solid understanding of the cloud, mobile, and the interconnectivity infrastructure. In this paper, we provide a solution to this by proposing a framework called HealthNode, which is a general-purpose framework for developing healthcare applications on cloud platforms using Node.js. To fully exploit the potential of Node.js when developing cloud applications, we focus on the fact that the implementation process should be eased. HealthNode presents an explicit guideline while supporting necessary features to achieve quick and expandable cloud-based healthcare applications. A case study applying HealthNode to various real-world health applications suggests that HealthNode can express architectural structure effectively within an implementation and that the proposed platform can support system understanding and software evolution.
Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.
Background. Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The
Mantel, Hendrik T. J.; Wiggers, Jim K.; Verheij, Joanne; Doff, Jan J.; Sieders, Egbert; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Porte, Robert J.
Lymph node metastases on routine histology are a strong negative predictor for survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Additional immunohistochemistry can detect lymph node micrometastases in patients who are otherwise node negative, but the prognostic value is unsure. The objective of
Full Text Available This paper addresses the changing approaches to transport in urban tourism as seen through the move from functional sectoral accounts towards a perspective informed by the experience economy. By reviewing the traditional service offers, it is possible to unpack what lies within the service dominant logics that lead to co-creation of value and the realisation of quality tourism experiences. The paper then considers the adoption and adaptation of traditional forms of transport within the value proposition in urban tourism. Mobility in tourism is a strangely new focus of attention, strangely because without it there would be no tourism to speak of. However mobility requires a framework of civil and legal entitlements that allow people to move and a transport infrastructure that allows those rights to be realised in both working and leisure time situations. This article will address the construction of the tourism transport infrastructure by examining the ways in which the transportation elements in mobility have been re-thought within tourism. The first part of the paper will re-construct an account of transport and mobility which deals with it in terms of the functions and logistics of delivery, both between points of origin and destinations, and within destinations. These perspectives can be seen in the texts which shape the basic tourism curriculum (Cooper et al, 2008; Page, 2009 and explain how tourism and transport have developed over the years by integrating the opportunities provided by the new technologies – motorised vehicles (both cars and coaches, trains, ships and aeroplanes – to allow for the development of a range of destinations. Lumsdon and Page (2004 introduced a new approach to transport and tourism by distinguishing between transport for tourism and transport as tourism, which provides a linkage between the first and second parts of this article. The second part will develop an account of mobility in tourism that demonstrates
Full Text Available This paper addresses the changing approaches to transport in urban tourism as seen through the move from functional sectoral accounts towards a perspective informed by the experience economy. By reviewing the traditional service offers, it is possible to unpack what lies within the service dominant logics that lead to co-creation of value and the realisation of quality tourism experiences. The paper then considers the adoption and adaptation of traditional forms of transport within the value proposition in urban tourism. Mobility in tourism is a strangely new focus of attention, strangely because without it there would be no tourism to speak of. However mobility requires a framework of civil and legal entitlements that allow people to move and a transport infrastructure that allows those rights to be realised in both working and leisure time situations. This article will address the construction of the tourism transport infrastructure by examining the ways in which the transportation elements in mobility have been re-thought within tourism. The first part of the paper will re-construct an account of transport and mobility which deals with it in terms of the functions and logistics of delivery, both between points of origin and destinations, and within destinations. These perspectives can be seen in the texts which shape the basic tourism curriculum and explain how tourism and transport have developed over the years by integrating the opportunities provided by the new technologies – motorised vehicles (both cars and coaches, trains, ships and aeroplanes – to allow for the development of a range of destinations. Lumsdon and Page (2004 introduced a new approach to transport and tourism by distinguishing between transport for tourism and transport as tourism, which provides a linkage between the first and second parts of this article. The second part will develop an account of mobility in tourism that demonstrates how their uniqueness derives
Van Den Berg, N. S.; Kleinjan, G. I.; Valdés-Olmos, R. A.; Buckle, T.; Van Leeuwen, F. I.; Klop, W. M.; Horenblas, S.; Van Der Poel, H. G.
Conventional sentinel node (SN) mapping is performed by injection of a radiocolloid followed by lymphoscintigraphy to identify the number and location of the primary tumor draining lymph node(s), the so-called SN(s). Over the last decade research has focused on the introduction of new imaging agents that can further aid (surgical) SN identification. Different tracers for SN mapping, with varying sizes and isotopes have been reported, most of which have proven their value in a clinical setting. A major challenge lies in transferring this diagnostic information obtained at the nuclear medicine department to the operating theatre thereby providing the surgeon with (image) guidance. Conventionally, an intraoperative injection of vital blue dye or a fluorescence dye is given to allow intraoperative optical SN identification. However, for some indications, the radiotracer-based approach remains crucial. More recently, hybrid tracers, that contain both a radioactive and fluorescent label, were introduced to allow for direct integration of pre- and intraoperative guidance technologies. Their potential is especially high when they are used in combination with new surgical imaging modalities and navigation tools. Next to a description of the known tracers for SN mapping, this review discusses the application of hybrid tracers during SN biopsy and how the introduction of these new techniques can further aid in translation of nuclear medicine information into the operating theatre.
This paper summarises the wait calculation  of interstellar voyagers which finds the minimum time to destination given exponential growth in the rate of travel available to a civilisation. The minimum time obliges stellar system colonisers to consider departure times a significant risk factor in their voyages since a departure then to a destination will beat a departure made at any other time before or after. Generalised conclusions will be drawn about the significant impact that departures to interstellar destinations before, at, or after the minimum time will have on the economic potential of missions and on the inevitability of competition between them. There will be no international law operating in interstellar space and an ability to escape predatory actions en route, or at the destination, can only be done by precise calculations of departure times. Social and economic forces affecting the factors in the growth equation are discussed with reference to the probability of accelerating growth reaching the technological Singularity and strengthening the growth incentive trap. Islamic banking practices are discussed as a credible alternative to compounding interest bearing paper for funding the space economy in the long term and for supporting stakeholder investment in such long term mission development. The paper considers the essential free productivity of the Earth's biosphere and the capital accumulations made possible by land productivity are essential components to a viable long term space economy and that research into re-creating the costless productivity of the biosphere at a destination will determine both the mission's ultimate success and provide means of returns for stakeholders during the long build up. Conclusions of these arguments suggest that the Icarus project should ignore a robotic interstellar mission concept and develop a manned colonising mission from now.
Fay, R; Bland, J
A key aspect of ensuring optimum cluster reliability and productivity lies in keeping worker nodes in a healthy state. Testnodes is a lightweight node testing solution developed at Liverpool. While Nagios has been used locally for general monitoring of hosts and services, Testnodes is optimised to answer one question: is there any reason this node should not be accepting jobs? This tight focus enables Testnodes to inspect nodes frequently with minimal impact and provide a comprehensive and easily extended check with each inspection. On the server side, Testnodes, implemented in python, interoperates with the Torque batch server to control the nodes production status. Testnodes remotely and in parallel executes client-side test scripts and processes the return codes and output, adjusting the node's online/offline status accordingly to preserve the integrity of the overall batch system. Testnodes reports via log, email and Nagios, allowing a quick overview of node status to be reviewed and specific node issues to be identified and resolved quickly. This presentation will cover testnodes design and implementation, together with the results of its use in production at Liverpool, and future development plans.
Full Text Available We consider a source-destination pair that can only communicate through an untrusted intermediate relay node. The intermediate node is willing to employ a designated relaying scheme to facilitate reliable communication between the source and the destination. Yet, the information it relays needs to be kept secret from it. In this two-hop communication scenario, where the use of the untrusted relay node is essential, we find that a positive secrecy rate is achievable. The center piece of the achievability scheme is the help provided by either the destination node with transmission capability, or an external “good samaritan” node. In either case, the helper performs cooperative jamming that confuses the eavesdropping relay and disables it from being able to decipher what it is relaying. We next derive an upper bound on the secrecy rate for this system. We observe that the gap between the upper bound and the achievable rate vanishes as the power of the relay node goes to infinity. Overall, the paper presents a case for intentional interference, that is, cooperative jamming, as an enabler for secure communication.
Full Text Available There is direct correlation between building powerful destination brands and the degree to which tourists and locals share the brands values. The massive penetration of the active population by Generation Y has generated a major shift in tourism marketing, based on the profile of this cohort. The members of Generation Y are very different from previous generations. The so-called “digital natives” share high technological proficiency; they like to share their skills; they are disloyal consumers; and they are affected by trends. In order to connect with members of Generation Y and to actively involve them into the life of tourist destinations, viral, participative, interactive, networked and versatile marketing techniques should be employed. This article introduces the Intelligent Solution for Brand Culturalization (CUBIS Project, which is a collaborative research initiative that offers to Destination Management Organizations an innovative idea of how to connect the members of Generation Y with destination brands using information and communication technologies (ICT. The CUBIS Project aims to create emotional attachment with the brand values and supports the adoption of the brand by young locals and tourists. The CUBIS idea is flexible and highly adaptable to other destinations. The article uses exploratory qualitative research in the form of a case study.
Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi
Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)
Xiang Li; Hans Vogelsong
Destination image has long been a popular research topic in tourism studies. However, methods used to integrate image in real marketing practice and evaluating the market performance in a systematic way are still puzzling to practitioners. A destination image promotion model is proposed in this paper as an effort to solve the problem. The roles of some major factors...
Full Text Available Identification of important nodes in complex networks has attracted an increasing attention over the last decade. Various measures have been proposed to characterize the importance of nodes in complex networks, such as the degree, betweenness and PageRank. Different measures consider different aspects of complex networks. Although there are numerous results reported on undirected complex networks, few results have been reported on directed biological networks. Based on network motifs and principal component analysis (PCA, this paper aims at introducing a new measure to characterize node importance in directed biological networks. Investigations on five real-world biological networks indicate that the proposed method can robustly identify actually important nodes in different networks, such as finding command interneurons, global regulators and non-hub but evolutionary conserved actually important nodes in biological networks. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves for the five networks indicate remarkable prediction accuracy of the proposed measure. The proposed index provides an alternative complex network metric. Potential implications of the related investigations include identifying network control and regulation targets, biological networks modeling and analysis, as well as networked medicine.
Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter
We consider infrastructure-based mobile networks that are assisted by a single relay transmission where both the downstream destination and relay nodes are mobile. Selecting the optimal transmission path for a destination node requires up-to-date link quality estimates of all relevant links....... If the relay selection is based on link quality measurements, the number of links to update grows quadratically with the number of nodes, and measurements need to be updated frequently when nodes are mobile. In this paper, we consider a location-based relay selection scheme where link qualities are estimated...... from node positions; in the scenario of a node-based location system such as GPS, the location-based approach reduces signaling overhead, which in this case only grows linearly with the number of nodes. This paper studies these two relay selection approaches and investigates how they are affected...
contested phenomenon. This is especially true given its potential to serve as a powerful force for the inequitable delivery of health care services globally. It is recommended that empirical evidence and other data associated with medical tourism be subjected to clear and coherent definitions, including reports focused on the flows of medical tourists and surgery success rates. Additional primary research on the effects of medical tourism is needed if the industry is to develop in a manner that is beneficial to citizens of both departure and destination countries. PMID:21047433
highly significant and contested phenomenon. This is especially true given its potential to serve as a powerful force for the inequitable delivery of health care services globally. It is recommended that empirical evidence and other data associated with medical tourism be subjected to clear and coherent definitions, including reports focused on the flows of medical tourists and surgery success rates. Additional primary research on the effects of medical tourism is needed if the industry is to develop in a manner that is beneficial to citizens of both departure and destination countries.
Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Kingsbury, Paul
true given its potential to serve as a powerful force for the inequitable delivery of health care services globally. It is recommended that empirical evidence and other data associated with medical tourism be subjected to clear and coherent definitions, including reports focused on the flows of medical tourists and surgery success rates. Additional primary research on the effects of medical tourism is needed if the industry is to develop in a manner that is beneficial to citizens of both departure and destination countries.
Jelica J. MARKOVIĆ
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the dimensions of the lakeside tourist destinations quality through the cases of Lake Palić and Lake Srebrno (Serbia, by interviewing daily visitors and tourists and to determine which dimensions of quality have a crucial impact on the overall satisfaction of daily visitors and tourists. Various models have been developed to measure quality. In this paper, the quality is measured by the model that is appropriate for lakeside tourist destinations, developed by Ryan, Huimin, and Chon (2010. Five dimensions of quality were identified and named as: additional tourist infrastructure, lake water quality, natural environment, hospitality and cleanness of the place. The results showed that the measured quality model largely predicts overall satisfaction of daily visitors and tourists on the destination. The dimension lake water quality has the most effects on the overall satisfaction. Further research could use this research by adding some other quality dimensions into consideration (e.g. quality of service, situational conditions, destination management in examining the effect of destination’s quality on satisfaction of daily visitors and tourists. The research is important to managers of lakeside tourist destinations who tend to have highly satisfied guests and who work on promotion and improvement of destination quality.
Rizaldy Hafid Arigi, L.; Abdurahman Baizal, Z. K.; Herdiani, Anisa
Recommender System is software that is able to provide personalized recommendation suits users’ needs. Recommender System has been widely implemented in various domains, including tourism. One approach that can be done for more personalized recommendations is the use of contextual information. This paper proposes a context aware recommender based ontology system in the tourism domain. The system is capable of recommending tourist destinations by using user preferences of the categories of tourism and contextual information such as user locations, weather around tourist destinations and close time of destination. Based on the evaluation, the system has accuracy of of 0.94 (item recommendation precision evaluated by expert) and 0.58 (implicitly from system-end user interaction). Based on the evaluation of user satisfaction, the system provides a satisfaction level of more than 0.7 (scale 0 to 1) for speed factors for providing liked recommendations (PE), informative description of recommendations (INF) and user trust (TR).
Ha, Richard; Chang, Peter; Karcich, Jenika; Mutasa, Simukayi; Fardanesh, Reza; Wynn, Ralph T; Liu, Michael Z; Jambawalikar, Sachin
The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of convolutional neural network (CNN) in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis, using a breast MRI dataset. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective review of our database from 1/2013 to 6/2016 identified 275 axillary lymph nodes for this study. Biopsy-proven 133 metastatic axillary lymph nodes and 142 negative control lymph nodes were identified based on benign biopsies (100) and from healthy MRI screening patients (42) with at least 3 years of negative follow-up. For each breast MRI, axillary lymph node was identified on first T1 post contrast dynamic images and underwent 3D segmentation using an open source software platform 3D Slicer. A 32 × 32 patch was then extracted from the center slice of the segmented tumor data. A CNN was designed for lymph node prediction based on each of these cropped images. The CNN consisted of seven convolutional layers and max-pooling layers with 50% dropout applied in the linear layer. In addition, data augmentation and L2 regularization were performed to limit overfitting. Training was implemented using the Adam optimizer, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. Code for this study was written in Python using the TensorFlow module (1.0.0). Experiments and CNN training were done on a Linux workstation with NVIDIA GTX 1070 Pascal GPU. Two class axillary lymph node metastasis prediction models were evaluated. For each lymph node, a final softmax score threshold of 0.5 was used for classification. Based on this, CNN achieved a mean five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 84.3%. It is feasible for current deep CNN architectures to be trained to predict likelihood of axillary lymph node metastasis. Larger dataset will likely improve our prediction model and can potentially be a non-invasive alternative to core needle biopsy and even sentinel lymph node