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  1. Pattern of distant lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with distant organ metastasis: CT evaluation

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    Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the pattern of distant lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with distant organ metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 46 patients with pathologically proven colorectal carcinoma. The incidence of distant lymphadenopathy in colorectal carcinoma was 30.4%(14/46). The most commonly involved distant lymph node was the left paraortic lymph node below the renal hilum(9/25). The most common type of distant lymphadenopathy was solitary type(7/14) and all of these lymphadenopathies were noted in the left paraortic lymph node below the renal hilum. Six cases of left sided colorectal carcinoma showed left paraortic lymphadenopathy with solitary type. The incidence of distant organ metastasis was 17.4%(8/46) and markedly increased if distant lymphadenopathy was multiple and confluent, or confluent type(5/7). The incidence of distant lymphadenopathy in colorectal carcinoma was not high and the most common lymphadenopathy was the left paraortic lymph node with solitary type below the renal hilum. The possibility of distant organ metastasis was high if distant lymphadenopathy was multiple and confluent, or confluent type

  2. Combined Therapy for Distant Metastasis of Sacral Chordoma

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    Birol Özkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are known as rare primary malign tumours that have formed from primitive notochord remains. Sacral chordomas grow slowly but locally and aggressively. Chordomas are locally invasive and have low tendency to metastasis and have a poor prognosis in long-term follow-up. Metastasis may be seen in a rate of 5–40% of the chordomas. Metastasis of chordomas is common in liver, lung, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and brain. The treatment approaches, including surgery, have been discussed in the literature before. Susceptibility to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is controversial in these tumours. The success of surgical treatment affects survival directly. In this report, we will report a sacral chordoma case in which an intraperitoneal distant metastasis occurred and discuss the surgical approach.

  3. Distant Metastasis Risk Stratification for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

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    Kim, Kyubo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu, E-mail: ekchie93@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors predicting distant metastasis in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1995 and August 2006, 166 patients with EHBD cancer underwent resection with curative intent, followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. There were 120 males and 46 females, and median age was 61 years (range, 34-86). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose, 40 Gy; range, 34-56 Gy). A total of 157 patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and fluoropyrimidine-based maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 127 patients. Median follow-up duration was 29 months. Results: The treatment failed for 97 patients, and the major pattern of failure was distant metastasis (76 patients, 78.4%). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate was 49.4%. The most common site of distant failure was the liver (n = 36). On multivariate analysis, hilar tumor, tumor size {>=}2 cm, involved lymph node, and poorly differentiated tumor were associated with inferior distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0348, 0.0754, 0.0009, and 0.0078, respectively), whereas T stage was not (p = 0.8081). When patients were divided into four groups based on these risk factors, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors were 86.4%, 59.9%, 32.5%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Despite maintenance chemotherapy, distant metastasis was the major pattern of failure in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for EHBD cancer after resection with curative intent. Intensified chemotherapy is warranted to improve the treatment outcome, especially in those with multiple risk factors.

  4. Risk estimation of distant metastasis in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients using an RT-PCR based prognostic expression signature

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    Tutt, Andrew; Shu, Henry; Springall, Robert; Cane, Paul; McCallie, Blair; Kam-Morgan, Lauren; Anderson, Steve; Buerger, Horst; Gray, Joe; Bennington, James; Esserman, Laura; Wang, Alice; Hastie, Trevor; Broder, Samuel; Sninsky, John; Brandt, Burkhard; Waldman, Fred; Rowland, Charles; Gillett, Cheryl; Lau, Kit; Chew, Karen; Dai, Hongyue; Kwok, Shirley; Ryder, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative (N-) estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients with extensive follow-up times. 197 genes previously associated with metastasis and ER status were profiled from 142 untreated breast cancer subjects. A 'metastasis score' (MS) representing fourteen differentially expressed genes was developed and evaluated for its association with distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Categorical risk classification was established from the continuous MS and further evaluated on an independent set of 279 untreated subjects. A third set of 45 subjects was tested to determine the prognostic performance of the MS in tamoxifen-treated women. A 14-gene signature was found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with distant metastasis in a training set and subsequently in an independent validation set. In the validation set, the hazard ratios (HR) of the high risk compared to low risk groups were 4.02 (95% CI 1.91–8.44) for the endpoint of DMFS and 1.97 (95% CI 1.28 to 3.04) for overall survival after adjustment for age, tumor size and grade. The low and high MS risk groups had 10-year estimates (95% CI) of 96% (90–99%) and 72% (64–78%) respectively, for DMFS and 91% (84–95%) and 68% (61–75%), respectively for overall survival. Performance characteristics of the signature in the two sets were similar. Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was predictive for recurrent disease in the training set, but lost significance after adjustment for the expression signature. In a study of tamoxifen-treated patients, the HR for DMFS in high compared to low risk groups was 3.61 (95% CI 0.86–15.14). The 14-gene signature is significantly

  5. The value of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients with isolated ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis without distant metastases at diagnosis: a retrospective analysis of Chinese patients

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    Wu SG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available San-Gang Wu,1,* Jia-Yuan Sun,2,* Juan Zhou,3,* Feng-Yan Li,2 Qin Lin,1 Huan-Xin Lin,2 Zhen-Yu He2 1Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China; 2Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Xiamen Cancer Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognosis of ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (ISLM without evidence of distant metastases at diagnosis in Chinese women with breast cancer and to elucidate the clinical value of adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical data for 39 patients with ISLM from breast cancer without distant metastasis at diagnosis. Combined modality therapy, consisting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, was offered to the patients. Results: The patients in this study accounted for 1% of all breast cancer patients treated during the same time period. The median follow-up was 35 months. The 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS were 57.3%, 42.3%, 34.4%, and 46.2%, respectively. Twenty-three patients received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. However, there was no significant difference in the 3- and 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (P=0.693, ISLM-free recurrence (P=0.964, distant metastasis-free survival (P=0.964, DFS (P=0.234, and OS (P=0.329 rates between the groups of patients who received or did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy

  6. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

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    Mei-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05. According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05. Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05. Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05, but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA concentration (p > 0.05. Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05. Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05. It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

  7. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

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    McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ali, Nawal N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Margalit, Danielle N. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chan, Annie W., E-mail: awchan@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  8. The effectiveness of PET for the distinction of perirectal lymph node metastasis of rectal cancer

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    Hwang, Dae Yong; Choi, Chang Woon

    1999-12-01

    If the effectiveness for the distinction of perirectal lymph node metastasis is proved to be higher than the previous conventional detection methods, likewise CT and endorectal ultrasound, more precise and more specific information will be taken by this new modality. Preoperative biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma patients with or without distant metastasis were included for this study. For the effectiveness of PET for the distinction of perirectal lymph node metastasis, CT and endorectal ultrasound versus findings of perirectal lymph node status were compared with permanent pathology results. The findings of preoperative conventional methods showed that 8 patients had not preirectal lymph node metastasis and 6 patients and perirectal lymph node metastasis. The accuracy of conventional methods was 50 % compared with 37.5 % of that of PET in the case of 8 patients. In the case of 6 patients, accuracy was 100 % in the conventional methods and 66.7 % in PET study. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 60 % and 100 % in the conventional methods and 40 % and 75 % in PET study respectively. Therefore, PET is not effective for the distinction of L/N metastasis of rectal cancer comparing with conventional methods such as CT and ERUS preoperatively.

  9. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

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    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III–IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0–150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p 20 and ≤20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  10. Adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site with inguinal lymph node metastasis: report of a case.

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    Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenji; Hida, Koya; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site is extremely rare, and the significance of surgical resection for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes has not been established. An 82-year-old woman who had undergone abdominoperineal resection 27 years earlier was admitted to our hospital complaining of bleeding from a colostomy. Physical examination revealed that a tumor at the colostomy site directly invaded into the peristomal skin, and that a left inguinal lymph node was firm and swollen. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulation of (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose into both the colostomy tumor and the left swollen inguinal lymph node, while there was no evidence of metastasis to liver or lungs. She underwent open left hemicolectomy with wide local resection of the colostomy, and dissection of left inguinal lymph nodes. Histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma that directly invaded into the surrounding skin and metastasized to the left inguinal lymph node. The patient has been followed up for >5 years without any sign of recurrence. In general, inguinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancers is regarded as a systemic disease with a poor prognosis, and so systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but not surgical lymph node dissection, are recommended. Considering the lymphatic drainage route in the present case, inguinal lymph node metastasis does not represent a systemic disease but rather a sentinel nodal metastasis from adenocarcinoma at a colostomy site. Surgical dissection of metastatic inguinal lymph nodes should be considered to enable a favorable prognosis in the absence of distant metastasis to other organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Splenic hilar lymph node metastasis independently predicts poor survival for patients with gastric cancers in the upper and/or the middle third of the stomach.

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    Zhu, Guo-Lian; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Xu, Ying-Ying; Huang, Bao-Jun; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Zhi; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2012-06-15

    Effectiveness of splenectomy for advanced gastric cancers occupying the upper and/or the middle third of the stomach is still in debate. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the impact of splenectomy on patient survival by investigating the pathological characteristics and prognostic significance of splenic hilar lymph node metastasis. Clinicopathologic and prognostic data of 265 patients with gastric cancer in the upper and/or the middle third of the stomach who underwent the operation of en bloc resection of primary cancer and D2/D3 lymphadenectomy combined with splenectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate analysis revealed pT category, pN category, and distant lymph node metastasis independently correlated with the presence of splenic hilar lymph node metastasis. Prognoses of patients with positive splenic hilar lymph nodes were significantly poorer than that of patients with negative splenic hilar lymph nodes for the entire study population and for those who underwent R0 resection, but not for those who underwent R1-2 resection. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who underwent R0 resection with positive splenic hilar lymph nodes and those who underwent R1-2 resection. Splenic hilar lymph node metastasis was one of independent indicators predicting worse prognosis and the presence of distant metastasis after surgery. Subset analysis according to the TNM stage revealed there were significant differences in survival between patients with and without splenic hilar lymph node metastasis. Splenic hilar lymph node metastasis should be considered as one of incurable factors. Consequently, the efficiency of splenectomy aiming at prolonging survival for patients with high risk of splenic hilar lymph nodes metastasis should be questioned, although resection of invasive organs form gastric cancers has been recommended if R0 surgery could be achieved. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

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    Coumans, F.A.W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  13. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A. W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  14. Risk factors of distant metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with postoperative irradiation

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    Yokoyama, Takashi; Beppu, Michiko; Kawakami, Yousuke; Nogawa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Take; Hiura, Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of risk factors for recurrence in non-irradiated sites in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix who received postoperative irradiation. It also discusses clinical experience with such patients, particularly those with a poor prognosis, based on a review of the literature. The study was conducted at the National Shikoku Cancer Center in 62 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (mean age=50.5, range=30-66) who received 10 MeV postoperative irradiation with a Linac between 1981 and 1990. An analysis was performed in terms of sites and times of recurrence, risk factors for distant metastasis, and groups at high risk for distant metastasis. Based on the results of the study as well as the review of the literature, it was concluded that squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is sensitive to radiation therapy and that the clinical outcome of local treatment is satisfactory. However, systemic chemotherapy should be considered for patients who are suspected of having minute distant metastasis at the time of surgical operation, i.e., those with moderate to severe vascular space invasion, multiple lymph node metastasis, parametrium infiltration, and/or endometrial infiltration. (K.H.)

  15. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

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    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  16. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

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    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko

    1996-01-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  17. Lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma

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    Le, Q.-T.; Fu, Karen K.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Terris, David J.; Fee, Willard E.; Goffinet, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    ipsilateral level 1-2 nodal regions (11/13). Patients with nodal relapse had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis on both univariate (p = 0.02) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 4.5, p = 0.006). The 5-year actuarial risk of distant relapse was 29% for patients with neck control versus 81% for patients with neck failure. There was also a trend for decreased survival with nodal relapse. The 5-year actuarial survival was 37% for patients with neck control and 0% for patients with neck relapse. Conclusion: The overall incidence of lymph node involvement at diagnosis in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma was 9%. Following treatment, the 5-year risk of nodal relapse was 12%. SCC histology was associated with a high incidence of initial nodal involvement and nodal relapse. None of the patients presenting with SCC histology and N0 necks had nodal relapse after elective neck irradiation. Patients who had nodal relapse had a higher risk of distant metastasis and poorer survival. Therefore, our present policy is to consider elective neck irradiation in patients with T3-4 SCC of the maxillary sinus

  18. Lymph Node Metastasis after a Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Leg: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

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    S. D. Nelen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs represent 1 percent of all adult malignancies and sarcomas only rarely spread to the regional lymph nodes. Case Presentation. We present a case of a woman with a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and a sarcoma not therwise specified of the lower extremity. The patient had no distant metastasis during follow-up, but did develop a regional lymph nodemetastasis (RLNM in the groin. We reviewed the literature about RLNM in STSs. Discussion. Reviewing the literature we see that within specific histological types RLNM occurs as often as distant metastasis. Furthermore RLNM occurs in over 10% for specific histological types and in 24% of all patients with a soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremity. Except for radical lymphadenectomy with a 5-year survival rate of 46% there is no appropriate treatment. Conclusion. The risk for a RLNM in certain histological types and anatomical locations might transcend the risk for a distant lung metastasis.

  19. Lymphoscintigraphic diagnosis of the lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terui, Shoji; Kawai, Hideo; Hirashima, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kato, Hoichi; Iizuka, Norifumi

    1985-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled rhenium sulfur colloid was performed preoperatively in 30 patients with esopohageal cancer. It showed hot nodes in a total of 267 lymph nodes, 176 mediastinal nodes and 91 celiac artery nodes. Of these 267 nodes, 47 (18 %) were found to have metastasis, including 34 (19 %) mediastinal nodes and 13 (14 %) celiac artery nodes. On the other hand, the number of non-visualized lymph nodes (cold nodes) was 542. Of them, 78 (14 %) had metastasis; 46 (15 %) were mediastinal nodes and 32 (14 %) were celiac artery nodes. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Angiosarcoma of the Thyroid and Regional Lymph Node Metastasis

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    Lutfi Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid angiosarcomas are typically infiltrative and large tumors with very similar clinical findings of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid. Early hematogenous metastasis is very frequent, but regional lymph node metastasis is quite rare. We present a case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in a 68 years old man with regional lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy with right modified radical neck dissection was applied. Four out of 19 lymph nodes dissected were seen to contain metastasis. Metastatic tumor was composed of sarcomatous areas containing large numbers of blood filled clefts. There after the surgery PET-CT was performed and multiple metastatic involvements were reported. Thyroid angiosarcomas are completely different tumors from angiomatoid anaplastic carcinomas. Longer survival with these tumors is only possible with agressive surgery and in case of regional LN metastasis, neck dissection should be done.

  1. Expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer.

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    Mikami, Koji; Hirano, Yukiko; Futami, Kitaro; Maekawa, Takafumi

    2017-07-18

    Mixed-type early gastric cancer (differentiated and undifferentiated components) incurs a higher risk of lymph node metastasis than pure-type early gastric cancer (only differentiated or only undifferentiated components). Therefore, we investigated the expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer in order to establish the most appropriate treatment for mixed-type cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 279 consecutive patients with submucosal invasive gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 1996 and 2015. We classified the patients into the mixed-type and pure-type groups according to histologic examination and evaluated the expansion of lymph node metastasis. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 23.7% (66/279) in the total patients, 36.4% (36/99) in the mixed-type group, and 16.6% (30/180) in the pure-type group. The significant independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis were tumor size ≥2.0 cm (P = 0.014), mixed-type gastric cancer (P mixed-type group. The rates of no. 7 lymph node metastasis in the total patients and mixed-type group were 2.9% (8/279) and 5.1% (5/99), respectively; the rates of no. 8a lymph node metastasis were 1.4% (4/279) and 4.0% (4/99), respectively. Mixed histological type is an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Lymph node metastasis in mixed-type gastric cancer involves expansion to the no. 7 and no. 8a lymph nodes. Therefore, lymphadenectomy for mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer requires D1+ or D2 dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Metastatic lymph node in gastric cancer; Is it a real distant metastasis?

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    Noh Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, the TNM staging system is a widely accepted method for assessing the prognosis of the disease and planning therapeutic strategies for cancer. Of the TNM system, the extent of lymph node involvement is the most important independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer. The aim of our study is to evaluate the survival and prognosis of gastric cancer patients with LN#12 or #13 involvement only and to assess the impact of anatomic regions of primary gastric tumor on survival in this particular subset of patients. Methods Among data of 1,008 stage IV gastric cancer patients who received curative R0 gastrectomy, a total of 79 patients with LN#12 (n = 68 and/or #13 (n = 11 were identified. All patients performed gastrectomy with D2 or D3 lymph node dissection. Results In 79 patients with LN#12/13 involvement, the estimated one-, three- and five-year survival rate was 77.2%, 41.8% and 26.6% respectively. When we compared the patients with LN#12/13 involvement to those without involvement, there was no significant difference in OS (21.0 months vs. 25.0 months, respectively; P = 0.140. However, OS was significantly longer in patients with LN#12/13 involvement only than in those with M1 lymph node involvement (14.3 months; P = 0.001. There was a significant difference in survival according to anatomic locations of the primary tumor (lower to mid-body vs. high body or whole stomach: 26.5 vs. 9.2 months (P = 0.009. In Cox proportional hazard analysis, only N stage (p = 0.002 had significance to predict poor survival. Conclusion In this study we found that curatively resected gastric cancer patients with pathologic involvement of LN #12 and/or LN #13 had favorable survival outcome, especially those with primary tumor location of mid-body to antrum. Prospective analysis of survival in gastric cancer patients with L N#12 or #13 metastasis is warranted especially with regards to primary tumor location.

  3. Comparison of five systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Choi, G S; Whang, I; Suh, I S

    1997-09-01

    There are several systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Their relative merits are not clear. In this retrospective analysis, the nodal status was classified according to the Union Internacional Contra la Cancrum (UICC) and Japanese staging systems, the number and frequency of lymph node metastasis, and the level of involved nodes. Each staging system was scored as good (+1), fair (0) or poor (-1) with respect to prognostic value, theoretical value, convenience, reproducibility and surgical applicability. There were no differences between the five staging systems in predicting survival. The Japanese staging system was most arbitrary owing to the complexity of the system, although it had an advantage in surgical application. The same disadvantage was found in the UICC system and the level system. Determination of the number and frequency of involved nodes was convenient and reproducible, but the number of lymph nodes dissected must be considered when the number of positive nodes is used for staging. The classification of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes as N0 (no nodal metastasis), N1 (metastasis in 1-25 per cent of dissected nodes) and N2 (metastasis in more than 25 per cent of dissected nodes) would be a simple, convenient, reproducible staging system with an ability to predict surgical results.

  4. Clinicopathologic risk factors for right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q A; Ma, D K; Liu, K P; Wang, P; Xie, C M; Wu, Y H; Dai, W J; Jiang, H C

    2018-03-17

    To investigate risk factors associated with right paraesophageal lymph node (RPELN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to determine the indications for right lymph node dissection. Clinicopathologic data from 829 patients (104 men and 725 women) with PTC, operated on by the same thyroid surgery team at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from January 2013 to May 2017, were analyzed. Overall, 309 patients underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral lymph node dissection, 488 underwent right thyroid lobe and isthmic resection with right central compartment lymph node dissection, and 32 underwent near-total thyroidectomy (ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy with contralateral near-total lobectomy) with bilateral lymph node dissection. The overall rate of central compartment lymph node metastasis was 43.5% (361/829), with right central compartment lymph node and RPELN metastasis rates of 35.5% (294/829) and 19.1% (158/829), respectively. Tumor size, number, invasion, and location, lymph node metastasis, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, and right lateral compartment lymph node metastasis were associated with RPELN in the univariate analysis, whereas age and sex were not. Multivariate analysis identified tumors with a diameter ≥ 1 cm, multiple tumors, tumors located in the right lobe, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, and right lateral compartment lymph node metastasis as independent risk factors for RPELN metastasis. Lymph node dissection, including RPELN dissection, should be performed for patients with PTC with a tumor diameter ≥ 1 cm, multiple tumors, right-lobe tumors, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, or suspected lateral compartment lymph node metastasis.

  5. Prognostic value and staging classification of retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

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    Ling-Long Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT has revolutionized the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value and classification of TNM stage system for retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN metastasis in NPC in the IMRT era. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 749 patients with biopsy-proven, non-metastatic NPC. All patients received IMRT as the primary treatment. Chemotherapy was administered to 86.2% (424/492 of the patients with stage III or IV disease. RESULTS: The incidence of RLN metastasis was 64.2% (481/749. Significant differences were observed in the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS; 70.6% vs. 85.4%, P<0.001 and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; 79.2% vs. 90.1%, P<0.001 rates of patients with and without RLN metastasis. In multivariate analysis, RLN metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for disease failure and distant failure (P = 0.005 and P = 0.026, respectively, but not for locoregional recurrence. Necrotic RLN metastases have a negative effect on disease failure, distant failure and locoregional recurrence in NPC with RLN metastasis (P = 0.003, P = 0.018 and P = 0.005, respectively. Survival curves demonstrated a significant difference in DFS between patients with N0 disease and N1 disease with only RLN metastasis (P = 0.020, and marginally statistically significant differences in DMFS and DFS between N1 disease with only RLN metastasis and other N1 disease (P = 0.058 and P = 0.091, respectively. In N1 disease, no significant differences in DFS were observed between unilateral and bilateral RLN metastasis (P = 0.994. CONCLUSIONS: In the IMRT era, RLN metastasis remains an independent prognostic factor for DFS and DMFS in NPC. It is still reasonable for RLN metastasis to be classified in the N1 disease, regardless of laterality. However, there is a need to investigate the feasibility of classifying RLN

  6. [The related factors of head and neck mocosal melanoma with lymph node metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G F; Guo, W; Chen, X H; Huang, Z G

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To investigate the related factors of mucosal melanoma of head and neck with lymph node metastasis for early diagnosis and further treatments. Method: A retrospective analysis of 117 cases of head and neck mucosal malignant melanoma patients which received surgical treatment was performed. Eleven cases of patients with pathologically confirmed lymph node metastasis and 33 cases without lymph node metastasis (1∶3) were randomly selected to analyze. The related factors of lymph node metastasis of head and neck mucosal melanoma patients including age, gender, whether the existence of recurrence, bone invasion, lesion location were analyzed. The single factor and logistic regression analysis were performed, P difference was statistically significant. Result: The lymph node metastasis rate of head and neck mucosal melanoma was 9.40%(11/117), the single factor analysis showed that there were 3 factors to be associated with lymph node metastasis, which was recurrence ( P =0.0000), bone invasion ( P =0.001), primary position ( P =0.007). Recurrence ( P =0.021) was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis according to the Logistic regression analysis, and the impact of bone invasion ( P =0.487) and primary location ( P =0.367) remained to be further explored. Conclusion: The patients of head and neck mucosal melanoma with the presence of recurrent usually accompanied by a further progression of the disease, such as lymph node metastasis, so for recurrent patients should pay special attention to the situation of lymph node and choose the reasonable treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  7. Surgical resection of solitary distant metastasis from locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy: A ray of hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelakkot G Prameela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck malignancies have always been challenging for the clinician, both with regards to locoregional control and distant metastasis. Aggressive approaches translate to an acceptable locoregional control, but distant failures pose a dilemma. Newer, sophisticated, imaging modalities have helped in early diagnosis of solitary metastasis, and in turn have opened up an array of interventional procedures, which to some extent improve the disease-free survival and quality of life, as was seen in the present case of locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy who presented with solitary distant metastasis. Still, diligent care needs to be taken not to aggravate the scenario with these interventions.

  8. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Fulciniti, Franco; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Tommaselli, Antonio; Marone, Ugo; Di Cecilia, Maria Luisa; Pezzullo, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  9. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...

  10. Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3,* Ting Dai,1,2,* Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Xing-Hua Li,1,2 Tao Qin,1–3 Li-Bing Song,1,2 Xi Wang1,2,41State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC present a higher probability of distant metastasis and lack of effective targeted therapy. ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4 is an ETS (E-26 transcription factor and has been associated with tumor metastasis. However, the clinical and functional significance of ETV4 in TNBC still remains unclear. Methods: A human tumor metastasis polymerase chain reaction array was used to profile differential expression of tumor metastasis-related genes in TNBC tissue. Real-time reverse transcription and Western blot analyses were performed to verify ETV4 expression in TNBC cells and tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of ETV4 protein in 135 TNBC tissue samples for association between ETV4 protein expression and clinical outcomes. Results: A total total of eight upregulated (CCL7, KISS1, MET, MMP7, NR4A3, ETV4, TIMP3, and TSHR and three downregulated (ITGA7, SSTR, and MMP2 genes were identified between TNBC tissue and the luminal subtype of breast cancer tissue. ETV4 messenger ribonucleic acid was more than five-fold upregulated in TNBC tissue compared with the control tissue. ETV4 overexpression was found in 57.0% of 135 TNBC cases. Overexpression of ETV4 protein was associated with an advanced stage and a higher proportion of positive lymph node and lymphovascular invasion. Patients with an ETV4

  11. Multi-detector row CT in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shogo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic capability instead of clinical efficacy of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. MDCT was performed in 63 patients with breast cancer, and multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume rendering (VR) images were reconstructed for the evaluation of bilateral axillary lymph nodes. Two hundred sixty eight lymph nodes were depicted with MDCT, and correlation with pathological findings was performed. The short axis length of lymph node was measured on MPR image, and the shape of the nodes was analyzed with the pathological results statistically. The diagnostic criteria on size and shape of lymph node metastasis were discussed Dynamic study with contrast media was also performed, and the CT value ratios (CTVR) of the lymph nodes and breast tumors were calculated. No relevance of axillary lymph node metastasis was noted to the pathological types of breast cancer. The average short axis length of the ipsilateral axillary nodes was 8.9 mm±3.8 (SD) while that of the contralateral nodes was 4.9 mm±1.1 (SD) showing significant difference. More than 6.5 mm in short length of the lymph node was thought to be an effective criterion for positive metastasis, and its sensitivity was 96%. Soybean-shape lymph node was statistically common in metastasis, while non-metastatic nodes were commonly demonstrated as letter ''c'' shape or ring-like shape. Statistical relevance was obtained between the CTVR of axillary lymph nodes and that of breast tumors, suggesting clinical usefulness of dynamic study using contrast media in the evaluation of lymph node metastasis. With MPR and VR images using MDCT, more accurate morphological evaluation of axillary lymph nodes was possible. When soybean-shape node with more than 6.5 mm in short axis is depicted in the axillar region on MDCT metastasis should be the consideration. Comparison with the contralateral side as a control in coronal

  12. Plasma MMP1 and MMP8 expression in breast cancer: Protective role of MMP8 against lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaens Marie-Rose

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases have been found to associate with poor prognosis in various carcinomas. This study aimed at evaluating plasma levels of MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 as diagnostic and prognostic markers of breast cancer. Methods A total of 208 breast cancer patients, of which 21 with inflammatory breast cancer, and 42 healthy controls were included. Plasma MMP1, MMP8 and MMP13 levels were measured using ELISA and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics. Results Median plasma MMP1 levels were higher in controls than in breast cancer patients (3.45 vs. 2.01 ng/ml, while no difference was found for MMP8 (10.74 vs. 10.49 ng/ml. ROC analysis for MMP1 revealed an AUC of 0.67, sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 24% at a cut-off value of 4.24 ng/ml. Plasma MMP13 expression could not be detected. No correlation was found between MMP1 and MMP8 levels. We found a trend of lower MMP1 levels with increasing tumour size (p = 0.07; and higher MMP8 levels with premenopausal status (p = 0.06 and NPI (p = 0.04. The median plasma MMP1 (p = 0.02 and MMP8 (p = 0.007 levels in the non-inflammatory breast cancer patients were almost twice as high as those found in the inflammatory breast cancer patients. Intriguingly, plasma MMP8 levels were positively associated with lymph node involvement but showed a negative correlation with the risk of distant metastasis. Both controls and lymph node negative patients (pN0 had lower MMP8 levels than patients with moderate lymph node involvement (pN1, pN2 (p = 0.001; and showed a trend for higher MMP8 levels compared to patients with extensive lymph node involvement (pN3 and a strong predisposition to distant metastasis (p = 0.11. Based on the hypothesis that blood and tissue protein levels are in reverse association, these results suggest that MMP8 in the tumour may have a protective effect against lymph node metastasis. Conclusion In summary, we observed differences in MMP1

  13. Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm. (author)

  14. [Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Nakata, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2010-11-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm.

  15. Impact of splenic hilar lymph node metastasis on prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taeil; Kwon, In Gyu; Lee, Joong Ho; Choi, Youn Young; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Noh, Sung Hoon; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2017-10-13

    Impact of splenic hilar LN dissection during total gastrectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the impact on prognosis of splenic hilar lymph node(LN) metastasis compared to that of metastasis to other regional LN groups. Patients who underwent total gastrectomy with D2 LN dissection from 2000 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. The clinicopathologic characteristics and long-term results of patients with splenic hilar LN metastasis were compared to those of patients with only metastasis to other extraperigastric LNs (stations #8a, #9, #11, or #12a). To investigate the survival benefit of performing splenic hilar LN dissection, the estimated therapeutic index for the procedure was calculated by multiplying the incidence of metastases in the hilar region by the survival rates for individuals with nodal involvement in that region. Of 602 patients, 87(14.5%) had hilar LN metastasis. The 5-year overall and relapse-free survival rates for patients with hilar LN metastasis were 24.1% and 12.1%, respectively. These rates were similar to those for patients with metastasis to other extraperigastric LNs ( P > 0.05), with similar recurrence patterns. Overall survival in the hilar LN metastasis group was better than that for patients with distant metastasis( P hilar LN dissection was 3.5, which was similar to index values for LN dissection at other extraperigastric LNs. Dissection of splenic hilar LNs during total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer allows for a prognosis similar to that achieved with dissection of extraperigastric LNs.

  16. Long-term outcomes of patients with lymph node metastasis treated with radical prostatectomy without adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touijer, Karim A; Mazzola, Clarisse R; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) at radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with poor outcome, and optimal treatment remains undefined. An understanding of the natural history of node-positive prostate cancer (PCa) and identifying prognostic factors is needed. To assess outcomes for patients with LNM treated with RP and lymph node dissection (LND) alone. We analyzed data from a consecutive cohort of 369 men with LNM treated at a single institution from 1988 to 2010. RP and extended LND. Our primary aim was to model overall survival, PCa-specific survival, metastasis-free progression, and freedom from biochemical recurrence (BCR). We used univariate Cox proportional hazard regression models for survival outcomes. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for freedom from metastasis and freedom from BCR, with prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesical invasion, surgical margin status, and number of positive nodes as predictors. Sixty-four patients with LNM died, 37 from disease. Seventy patients developed metastasis, and 201 experienced BCR. The predicted 10-yr overall survival and cancer-specific survival were 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-69) and 72% (95% CI, 61-80), respectively. The 10-yr probability of freedom from distant metastasis and freedom from BCR were 65% (95% CI, 56-73) and 28% (95% CI, 21-36), respectively. Higher pathologic Gleason score (>7 compared with ≤ 7; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.23; 95% CI, 1.64-3.04; p < 0.0001) and three or more positive lymph nodes (HR: 2.61; 95% CI, 1.81-3.76; p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with increased risk of BCR on multivariable analysis. The retrospective nature and single-center source of data are study limitations. A considerable subset of men with LNM remained free of disease 10 yr after RP and extended LND alone. Patients with pathologic Gleason score <8 and low nodal metastatic burden represent a favorable group. Our data

  17. Postoperative Radiation Therapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Node-Positive Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junqiang; Pan, Jianji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Liu, Jian, E-mail: liujianfj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Oncology, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Li, Jiancheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Zhu, Kunshou [Department of Surgery, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Zheng, Xiongwei [Department of Pathology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Mingqiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Ming [School of Graduate, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China); Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy plus RT (CRT) for the postoperative treatment of node-positive thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC) and to determine the incidence and severity of toxic reactions. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed data from 304 patients who had undergone esophagectomy with 3-field lymph node dissection for TESCC and were determined by postoperative pathology to have lymph node metastasis without distant hematogenous metastasis. Of these patients, 164 underwent postoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin 80 mg/m{sup 2}, average days 1-3, plus paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1; 21-day cycle) plus RT (50 Gy), and 140 underwent postoperative RT alone. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for the CRT and RT groups were 47.4% and 38.6%, respectively (P=.030). The distant metastasis rate, the mixed (regional lymph node and distant) metastasis rate, and the overall recurrence rate were significantly lower in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). However, mild and severe early toxic reactions, including neutropenia, radiation esophagitis, and gastrointestinal reaction, were significantly more common in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). No significant differences in incidence of late toxic reactions were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Our results show that in node-positive TESCC patients, postoperative CRT is significantly more effective than RT alone at increasing the overall survival and decreasing the rates of distant metastasis, mixed metastasis, and overall recurrence. Severe early toxic reactions were more common with CRT than with RT alone, but patients could tolerate CRT.

  18. Feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion in predicting early distant metastasis in patients with stage T3 rectal cancer based on rectal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Jai Keun; Lee, Jei Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University Health system, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Bae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion (MVI) in predicting early distant metastasis developed within 1 year of diagnosis of T3 rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Sixty-five patients with T3 rectal cancer (early metastasis, n = 28; non-metastasis, n = 37) were enrolled in this study. Early distant metastases developed in 28 patients (liver, n = 15; lung, n = 9; both, n = 4). Logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors for early distant metastasis. In univariate analysis, tumour location, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), MRI-detected MVI, and mesorectal fat infiltration (MFI) (odds ratio [OR], 4.533, 9.583, 5.539, 27.046, and 5.539, respectively) were associated with early distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MVI (OR, 29.949; P < 0.002) and LVI (OR, 6.684; P = 0.033) were independent factors for early distant metastasis. Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of MVI (94.59 %, and 89.47 %, respectively) were significantly higher than those of LVI (64.86 %, and 61.76 %), but sensitivity and negative predictive value were not significantly different between MVI (60.71 %, and 76.09 %) and LVI (75.00 %, and 77.42 %). While sensitivity of MRI-detected MVI was equal to that of CEA in predicting early distant metastasis from T3 rectal cancer, specificity and PPV may be improved by assessing MVI. (orig.)

  19. Delphian node metastasis in head and neck cancers--oracle or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Shaha, Ashok R; Ferlito, Alfio; Thomas Robbins, K; Medina, Jesus E; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P; Suárez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P; Bradley, Patrick J; Werner, Jochen A

    2010-09-15

    Delphian node (DN) refers to the pre-laryngeal or pre-cricoid nodal tissue often identified during laryngeal or thyroid surgery. The original nomenclature is based on the assumption that metastasis to this node was predictive of aggressive disease and poor outcome for patients. In this article, we review the existing literature on the topic to determine the significance of DN metastasis in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal and thyroid cancers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  1. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo; Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nonomura, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  2. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Kazuo [Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamachi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka, 537-8511 (Japan); Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi [Department of Urology, Kawasaki Medical University, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-City, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Okuyama, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nonomura, Norio, E-mail: nono@uro.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  3. Annexin A7 suppresses lymph node metastasis of hepatocarcinoma cells in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yanling; Wang, Shaoqing; Chen, Wenjing; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Bo; Guan, Hongwei; Tang, Jianwu

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in China. This study investigated the effects of Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on the inhibition of HCC lymph node metastasis in a mouse model. The stable knockup and knockdown of Annexin A7-expressing HCC cells using Annexin A7 cDNA and shRNA vectors, respectively, were injected into a mouse footpad to establish primary and metastatic tumors in mice. On the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after HCC cells inoculation, the mice were sacrificed for inspection of primary and secondary tumors and immunohistochemistry of Annexin A7 expression. The lymph node metastasis rate of the F ANXA7-control group was 77%, and the lymph node metastasis rate of the F ANXA7-down group was 100% (p < 0.05). In contrast, the lymph node metastasis rate of the P ANXA7-up group was 0% and that of the P ANXA7-control group was 36% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that the subcellular localization of Annexin A7 protein in both primary and lymph node-metastasized tumors was mainly in the cytosol. In addition, the expression of the 47 kDa and 51 kDa isoforms of Annexin A7 protein changed during tumor progression. This study indicated that Annexin A7 expression was able to inhibit HCC lymph node metastasis, whereas knockdown of Annexin A7 expression significantly induced HCC metastasis to local lymph nodes

  4. Significance of prophylactic para-aortic lymph node irradiation in the postoperatic treatment of the cervical cancer. Relationship between prognosis and lymph node metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Arita, Shigehiro; Ishida, Osamu; Murano, Yoshihiko; Sumita, Mitsugu; Okumura, Masahiko; Nanbu, Hidekazu [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Between 1976 and 1989, 163 patients were treated by postoperative radiotherapy for cervical cancer stage Ib and IIb. Before irradiation for the whole pelvis, a total dose of 50 Gy was given in 5 weeks. Cumulative 5-year survival rates according to the number of pelvic lymph node metastasis were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} (one node involvement) in 10 patients, 60% for Ib L{sub 2} {up_arrow} (two or more involved) in 10, 73% for IIb L{sub 1} in 23, 78% for IIb L{sub 2} in 9, 47% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 18. The first recurrent sites of stage Ib were distant organ via lymphatic routes in 3 patients and hematogenous routes in 2. IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10 patients, hematogenous routes in 10, and regional recurrence in 6. After introduced para-aortic node irradiation, the pelvic plus para-aortic irradiation delivered 45 Gy in 5 weeks for two or more lymph nodes involvement. The cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} in 10 patients, 100% for Ib L{sub 2} in 7, 65% for Ib L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 9, 82% for IIb L{sub 1} in 17, 68% for IIb L{sub 2} in 27, and 48% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 23. The first recurrent sites for Ib with introduction of para-aortic node irradiation were distant organs via lymphatic routes in 1 patient and hematogenous routes in 2, and the sites for IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10, hematogenous 7, peritonitis carcinomatous 1, and in the pelvic field of 6. Late effects developed in 3 (19%) of Ib and 19 (29%) of IIb. Side effects increased with prophylactic para-aortic node irradiation. No significant difference was observed in survival rates between pelvic and pelvic plus para-aortic node irradiation group. (S.Y.).

  5. Association between lymph node size and metastasis in dogs with oral malignant melanoma: 100 cases (1987-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurel E; Packer, Rebecca A

    2003-05-01

    To determine the association between lymph node size and metastasis and to assess measurement of lymph node size as an accurate and reliable means of tumor staging in dogs with oral malignant melanoma. Retrospective study. 100 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanoma. Clinical records for dogs with oral malignant melanoma were reviewed. Data regarding size and results of cytologic or histologic examination of lymph nodes were evaluated. The association between lymph node size and metastasis was determined. Forty-seven (47%) dogs, of which 23 (49%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, had no cytologic or histologic evidence of metastasis. Of 53 (53%) dogs with cytologic or histologic evidence of mandibular lymph node metastasis, 37 (70%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, and 16 (30%) had mandibular lymph nodes of normal size. Overall, 16 of the 40 (40%) dogs with normal-sized lymph nodes had microscopic evidence of metastatic disease. Sensitivity and specificity of lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis were 70 and 51%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 62 and 60%, respectively. Although a significant relationship was identified between lymph node size and metastasis to the lymph node, this association did not appear strong enough to be clinically relevant. Results suggest that lymph node size alone is insufficient for accurate clinical staging of oral malignant melanoma in dogs; cytologic or histologic examination of regional lymph nodes should routinely be performed, regardless of size of those nodes.

  6. Comparison of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Guanyu; Ma, Yan; Xue, Yingwei

    2009-11-01

    The classification of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is still controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the relative merits of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis. In our study, the nodal status was classified according to the 5th edition of the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system, the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma (JCGC), the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes, and the size of the largest metastatic lymph node. Each staging system was scored as good (+2), fair (+1), or poor (0) with respect to the theoretical value (extent of the anatomical lymphatic tumor spread), convenience (simplicity), surgical applicability (extent of lymph node dissection), and prognostic value (ability to predict survival rate). In the multivariate analysis including the four staging systems and other potential prognostic factors, stepwise Cox regression revealed that the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes was the most independent prognostic factor. The TNM, ratio, and size systems were convenient because they had no consideration for the location of the tumor and lymph node. Although the JCGC system had advantages in theoretical value and surgical application, it was most optional due to the complexity of the system. Although all different staging systems are comparable, the metastatic lymph node ratio system is convenient, reproducible, and has the highest ability to predict survival.

  7. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  8. Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Inês Simões; Isabel Marcão; Mário Toscano; Luís Borges

    2018-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis thr...

  9. Efficacy and safety of 32P-nanocolloid for treatment of distant lymph node metastasis in VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shengxiang; Huang Gang; Liu Penan; Ma Yubo; Yan Weili; Wan Liangrong; Zhu Changqing

    2008-01-01

    Eradication of micrometastases present in lymph nodes of cancer patients improves their prognosis significantly. Radionuclide therapy possesses the potential to eliminate such metastases. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 32 P-nanocolloid therapy in the treatment of distant carcinoma cell metastases in lymph nodes of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits. The Method of this study was to obtain VX2 tumor micrometastases in right armpit lymph nodes of 12 male New Zealand white rabbits, VX2 tumors were implanted by hypodermal inoculation into the right anterior limb. Animals were randomly divided into therapy (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. 32 P-nanocolloid (0.5 mCi), 95% of which was >50 nm in diameter, was administered to the therapy group, and saline was administered to the control group. Injections were given once weekly for 4 weeks. 2-Deoxy-2[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography revealed that the number of involved lymph nodes and the maximum standardized uptake value decreased in the 32 P-nanocolloid therapy group as compared with the baseline or saline control group (P 32 P-nanocolloid. These findings support treatment with 32 P-nanocolloid as a safe and effective approach for eradication of lymph node micrometastases. (author)

  10. Omics-based profiling of carcinoma of the breast and matched regional lymph node metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Gromov, P.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is currently used as an important clinical indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood and the relationship between ALN metastasis and the primary tumor remains unclear. In an effor...

  11. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, R.E.; Field, L.A.; Kane, J.L.; Love, B.; Hooke, J.A.; Shriver, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n=41) and positive (n=35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser micro dissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis

  12. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Field, Lori A.; Love, Brad; Kane, Jennifer L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n = 41) and positive (n = 35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis. PMID:22295210

  13. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Ellsworth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (=41 and positive (=35 lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (1.5 revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis.

  14. Role of protease activated receptor-2 in lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, Israt; Fujimoto, Jiro; Alam, Syed Mahfuzul; Sato, Eriko; Tamaya, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) has been implicated in cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis in various tumors. Lymph node metastasis is an important patient prognostic factor for uterine cervical cancers. This prompted us to study the role of PAR-2 in lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers. Thirty patients underwent surgery for uterine cervical cancers. PAR-2 histoscores and mRNA levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Patient prognosis was analyzed with a 48-month survival rate. PAR-2 histoscores and mRNA levels significantly (P < 0.05) increased in 12 of 30 metastatic lymph node lesions from the corresponding primary tumor. The 48-month survival rate of the 12 patients with increased PAR-2 levels in metastatic lymph nodes was 42%, while the rate of the other 18 patients with no change in PAR-2 levels was 82%, regardless of histopathological type. PAR-2 might work on lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers, and is considered to be a novel prognostic indicator for uterine cervical cancers

  15. Accuracy of multidetector-row CT in diagnosing lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Takuro; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro [Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-08-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off value of lymph node size for diagnosing metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) after categorizing perigastric lymph nodes into three regions. The study included 90 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. The long-axis diameter (LAD) and short-axis diameter (SAD) of all visualized lymph nodes were measured with transverse MDCT images. The locations of lymph nodes were categorized into three regions: lesser curvature, greater curvature, and suprapancreatic. The diagnostic value of lymph node metastasis was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the curve was larger for SAD than LAD in all groups. The optimal cut-off values of SAD were determined as follows: overall, 9 mm; differentiated type, 9 mm; undifferentiated type, 8 mm; lesser curvature region, 7 mm; greater curvature region, 6 mm; and suprapancreatic region, 9 mm. The diagnostic accuracies for lymph node metastasis using individual cut-off values were 71.1 % based on histological type and 76.6 % based on region of lymph node location. The diagnostic accuracy of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer was improved by using individual cut-off values for each lymph node region. (orig.)

  16. Ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a rare gastrointestinal tumor. Additionally, cutaneous metastasis from such an internal malignancy is also uncommon. We reported the case of a 55-year-old man afflicted with ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. The patient did not undergo the standard Whipple procedure but received chemotherapy due to apparent left neck lymph node metastasis noted by initial PET/CT imaging. The skin metastasis presented as a left neck infiltrating purpuric lesion, which was confirmed by skin biopsy approximately one year after the patient's disease was first diagnosed. Thereafter, the patient received further chemotherapy pursuant to his course of medical management. Skin metastasis usually represents a poor patient prognosis. In these cases, treatment of cutaneous metastasis typically includes systemic chemotherapy and local management such as radiation therapy or tumor excision. And when choosing a chemotherapy regimen for the ampullary cancer, the histological subtypes (intestinal or pancreatobiliary should be comprehensively considered. In our review of the literature, the intestinal type seems to have less distant lymph node metastasis, advanced local invasion, as well as recurrence than pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.

  17. Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    recurrence group was 59.53 years. Most common oral sites included the lateral border of tongue and floor of mouth. Recurrence was associated with clinical N-stage disease. The surgical margins in this group was evaluated and found that 17 had non-cohesive invasion, 30 had dysplasia at margin, 21 had vascular invasion, 9 had nerve invasion and 3 had bony invasion. Severe dysplasia was present in 37 patients. Tumour clearance was achieved in only 8 patients. The mean depth of tumour invasion in the recurrence group was 7.6 mm. An interesting finding was that 5/11 patients who died of distant metastasis had their primary disease in the tongue. Nodal disease comparison showed that 8/10 patients who died of locoregional metastasis and 8/11 patients who died from distant metastasis had clinical nodal involvement. Comparing this to pathological nodal disease (pTNM) showed that 10/10 patients and 10/11 patients who died from locoregional and distant metastasis, respectively, had nodal disease. All patients who died from locoregional and distant metastasis were shown to have recurrence after the primary tumour resection. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity has a poor overall prognosis with a high tendency to recur at the primary site and extend to involve the cervical lymph nodes. Several clinicopathological parameters can be employed to assess outcome, recurrence and overall survival. PMID:20406474

  18. Unusual metachronous isolated inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parodo Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to describe an unusual case of metachronous isolated inguinal lymph nodes metastasis from sigmoid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man was referred to our department because of an obstructing sigmoid carcinoma. Colonoscopy showed the obstructing lesion at 30 cm from the anal verge and abdominal CT revealed a sigmoid lesion infiltrating the left lateral abdominal wall. The patient underwent a colonic resection extended to the abdominal wall. Histology showed an adenocarcinoma of the colon infiltrating the abdominal wall with iuxtacolic nodal involvement. Thirty three months after surgery abdominal CT and PET scan revealed a metastatic left inguinal lymph node involvement. The metastatic lymph node was found strictly adherent to the left iliac-femoral artery and encompassing the origin of the left inferior epigastric artery. Histology showed a metachronous nodal metastasis from colonic adenocarcinoma. Despite metastastic involvement of inguinal lymph node from rectal cancer is a rare but well known clinical entity, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inguinal metastasis from a carcinoma of the left colon. Literature review shows only three other similar reported cases: two cases of inguinal metastasis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the cecum and one case of axillary metastasis from left colonic carcinoma. A metastatic pathway through superficial abdominal wall lymphatic vessels could be possible through the route along the left inferior epigastric artery. The solitary inguinal nodal involvement from rectal carcinoma could have a more favorable prognosis. In the case of nodal metastasis to the body surface lymph nodes from colonic carcinoma, following the small number of such cases reported in the literature, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  19. Predictors of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node (Pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldweny, H.; Alkhaldy, Kh.; Alsaleh, N.; Abdulsamad, M.; Abbas, A.; Hamad, A.; Mounib, Sh.; Essam, T.; Kukawski, P.; Bobin, J.; Oteifa, M.; Amangoono, H.; Abulhoda, F.; Usmani, Sh.; Elbasmy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy [SLNB) procedure was found to be an accurate method of staging the axilla in patients with early stage breast cancer. The standard of care for breast cancer patients with positive SLN metastasis includes complete Axillary Lymph Node Dissection (ALND). Haw ever, in 40-70% of patients, the SLN the only involved axillary node. Factors predicting non SLW metastasis should be identified in order to define subgroups of patient with positive SLN in whom the axilla may be staged by SLNB done. Objective: To identify the factors predicting metastatic involvement of the non-SLNs in breast cancer patients having SLN metastases. Patients and Methods: Data were collected and analyzed from 80 patients with early stage invasive breast cancer (T1, T2, N0, M0) who underwent SLNB at the surgical Oncology Department, Kuwait Cancel control Center (KCCC) between November 2004 and February 2009. SLNB was perfomed using a combined technique (radioactive colloid, and blue dye) in the majority of cases in some cases, only one technique was used. Complete ALND was performed in the case of failure of SLN identification and in patients with positive SLN. Multiple variables (patient, tumor and of SLN identification and in patients with positive SLN. Multiple variables (patient, tumor, and SLN characteristics) with tested as possible predictors of non sentinel lymph node metastasis. Results: The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.6 years. The median tumor size was 2 cm. The SLN identification rate was 96.2% (77 out of 80 patients). The SLN was positive in 24 patients(31%), and half of these showed evidence of capsular invasion. The median number of SLNs removed was two. The median number positive SLNs was one. The incidence of non-SLN metatasis associated with positive SLN was 50% (12 out of 24 patients). lymphovascular invasion was found to be the only factor associated with non-SLN metastases. In addition, two trends were observed, though they did

  20. [Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Maria Inês; Marcão, Isabel; Toscano, Mário; Borges, Luís

    2018-03-29

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  1. A mathematical prediction model incorporating molecular subtype for risk of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in sentinel lymph node-positive breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis and nomogram development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xue; Chen, Li-Xuan; Zhao, Hong-Meng; Cao, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Bin

    2018-04-25

    Molecular subtype of breast cancer is associated with sentinel lymph node status. We sought to establish a mathematical prediction model that included breast cancer molecular subtype for risk of positive non-sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis and further validate the model in a separate validation cohort. We reviewed the clinicopathologic data of breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis who underwent axillary lymph node dissection between June 16, 2014 and November 16, 2017 at our hospital. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed and patients with pathologically proven sentinel lymph node metastasis underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Independent risks for non-sentinel lymph node metastasis were assessed in a training cohort by multivariate analysis and incorporated into a mathematical prediction model. The model was further validated in a separate validation cohort, and a nomogram was developed and evaluated for diagnostic performance in predicting the risk of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Moreover, we assessed the performance of five different models in predicting non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in training cohort. Totally, 495 cases were eligible for the study, including 291 patients in the training cohort and 204 in the validation cohort. Non-sentinel lymph node metastasis was observed in 33.3% (97/291) patients in the training cohort. The AUC of MSKCC, Tenon, MDA, Ljubljana, and Louisville models in training cohort were 0.7613, 0.7142, 0.7076, 0.7483, and 0.671, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that tumor size (OR = 1.439; 95% CI 1.025-2.021; P = 0.036), sentinel lymph node macro-metastasis versus micro-metastasis (OR = 5.063; 95% CI 1.111-23.074; P = 0.036), the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (OR = 2.583, 95% CI 1.714-3.892; P model based on the results of multivariate analysis was established to predict the risk of non

  2. The impact of postoperative supraclavicular radiotherapy on tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis in esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Pudong; Lu Jinchen; Mei Zeru; Zhu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic factors of tracheoesophageal groove lymph node (TEGLN) metastasis in postoperative esophageal carcinoma. Methods: From January 1996 to December 1997, 101 postoperative cervical and thoracic esophageal carcinoma patients proved absence from tracheoesophageal groove lymph node (TEGIAN) metastasis before and after operation by physical examination and computer tomography examination were entered into this study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment of supraclavicular region: no prophylactic radiotherapy (group A-, 30 patients); prophylactic radiotherapy with local dose < 45 Gy (Group B-, 71 patients); and prophylactic radiotherapy with local dose ≥45 Gy (Group C-, 19 patients). Radiotherapy was delivered by cobalt- 60 or 6 MV X-ray with the prescribed dose normalized to the point of tracheoesophageal groove, i. e, 5 cm in depth. The tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis after treatment was observed. Results: The incidence of tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis was 20% (6/30), 9.6% (5/71) and 0% (0/19) in groups A, B and C. Univariate analysis showed that there was significant difference of TEGLN metastasis between groups A and C only (P=0.039), but higher dose to supraclavicular region tended to lower the incidence of TEGLN metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that only prophylactic radiotherapy to the supraclavicular region was independent prognostic factor for TEGLN metastasis (P=0.037). Gender, primary tumor site and pathological stage had no significant impact on TEGLN metastasis. Conclusions: Postoperative prophylactic supraclavicular region irradiation can lower the incidence of tracheoesophageal groove lymph node metastasis in esophageal carcinoma. Radiotherapy dose should not be less than 45 Gy and should be routinely normalized to a point 5 cm deep in the tracheoesophageal groove. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of CT images on metastasis to cervical lymph node in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiki, Tomokazu; Wada, Takurou; Wakasa, Toru; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Honda, Yasutoshi; Kawai, Noriko; Kishi, Kanji

    1998-01-01

    There have been many reports about the usefulness of CT in diagnosing cervical lymph node metastasis from oral cancer. With relatively high diagnostic accuracy, various diagnostic criteria have been used. This study evaluated CT images of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oral cancer using these criteria. Eighty-nine cases of various oral cancers (132 lymph node groups) were evaluated regarding cervical lymph node metastasis. In patients with nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter, 58.1% were metastatic (metastatic/total=47/74), while 17.2% of patients with nodes measuring less than 1 cm in minimal axial diameter of lymph node were metastatic (10/58). As for other diagnostic criteria, in patients with spherical nodes, 38.7% (metastatic/total=29/75), in patients showing ring enhancement, 70.4% (19/27) and in patients with fusion, 75.0% (3/4) were metastatic. In addition, in patients with spherical nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter, 59.5% (22/37), in patients with nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter and showing ring enhancement, 78.3% (18/23), in patients with spherical nodes showing ring enhancement, 60.0% (9/15) and in patients with spherical nodes measuring over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter and showing ring enhancement, 64.3% (9/14) were metastatic. In case of disappearance of fat layer (1/1), cancer infiltration of the surrounding tissue was seen. In conclusion, over 1 cm in minimal axial diameter, spherical node and ring enhancement were found to be appropriate diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, CT is essential in diagnosing cervical lymph node metastasis from oral cancer. (author)

  4. Rule of lymph node metastasis and proper target of postoperative radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zefen; Zhou Zongmei; Lv Jima; Liang Jun; Ou Guangfei; Jin Jing; Song Yongwen; Zhang Shiping; Yin Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the rule of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal carcinoma, and to study the proper radiation target. Methods: From September 1986 to December 1997,549 patients with esophageal carcinoma who had undergone radical resection were divided into surgery alone group (S,275 patients) or surgery plus radiotherapy group(S + R,274 patients). Radiotherapy was begun 3 to 4 weeks after operation. The radiation target included both supra-clavicular areas and the entire mediastinum. The total dose was 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks for the supra-clavicular areas and 60 Gy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks for the entire mediastinum. Results: The 5-year overall survival of patients with lymph node metastasis in one anatomic site and two anatomic sites was 31.5% and 13.9% (P=0.013), respectively. For patients with > 2 positive nodes metastasis receiving surgery alone, the corresponding 5-year survival was 24.8% and 4.9% (P=0.046), respectively. The median number of dissected lymph nodes of the upper-, middle-and lower-segment esophageal carcinoma was 13, 17 and 20, respectively. The rate of metastatic lymph node in the para-esophagus region was the highest(61.5%-64.9%), which was not different among the different primary sites (P=0.922). The anastomotic stoma recurrence rate of the upper-segment esophageal carcinoma was higher than that of the middle- or lower-segment carcinomas (16.7%, 3.1%, and 7.7%, χ 2 =9.02,P<0.05). Conclusions: For the thoracic esophageal carcinoma, the number of anatomic sites of lymph node metastasis is an important factor affecting the survival. The lower rate of lymph node metastasis of the upper segment esophageal carcinoma may be corrected with the less lymph node dissected. The rate of lymph node metastasis in para-esophageal region is not related with the lesion segment. The anastomotic stoma is an important radiotherapy target for upper segment esophageal carcinoma. (authors)

  5. Gastric metastasis of triple negative invasive lobular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Caglayan Geredeli; Osman Dogru; Ethem Omeroglu; Farise Yilmaz; Faruk Cicekci

    2015-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis o...

  6. Lymph Node Failure Pattern and Treatment Results of Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Heui Kwan; Kim, Soo Geon

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the failure pattern of the celiac axis, gastric lymph node, and treatment outcome in the upper and mid-esophageal region of cancer patients treated by definitive radiotherapy, except when treating the celiac axis and gastric lymph node for treatment volume, retrospectively. Materials and Methods: The study constituted the evaluation 108 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer receiving radiotherapy or a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy at Chonbuk National University Hospital from January 1986 to December 2006. In total, 82 patients treated by planned radiotherapy, except when treating the celiac axis and gastric lymph node for treatment volume, were analysed retrospectively. The study population consisted of 78 men and 2 women (mean age of 63.2 years). In addition, 51 patients received radiotherapy alone, whereas 31 patients received a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The primary cancer sites were located in the upper portion (17 patients), and mid portion (65 patients), respectively. Further, the patients were in various clinical stages including T1N0-1M0 (7 patients), T2N0-1M0 (18 patients), T3N0-1M0 (44 patients) and T4N0-1M0 (13 patients). The mean follow up period was 15 months. Results: The various treatment outcomes included complete response (48 patients), partial response (31 patients) and no response (3 patients). The failure patterns of the lymph node were comprised of the regional lymph node (23 patients) and the distance lymph node which included celiac axis and gastric lymph node (13 patients). However, metastasis was not observed in the regional and distant lymph node in 10 patients, whereas 36 patients were not evaluated. Furthermore, of the 13 patients who developed celiac axis and gastric lymph node metastases, 3 were in stage T1N0-1M0 and 10 were in stage T2-4N0-1M0. A complete response appeared in 12 patients, whereas a partial response appeared in 1 patient. The mean survival time of the

  7. Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Simões

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  8. Treatment of lymphatic nodes metastasis in advanced cancer with interventional chemotherapy combined radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shian; Guo Weijian; Wu Guohua; Lin Qing; Jiang Mawei; Yao Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of treatment with interventional chemotherapy combined radiotherapy for lymphatic nodes metastasis in advanced cancer. Methods: Treated with interventional chemotherapy for 27 cases of lymphatic rode metastasis once a month with average 2-3 times totally. Simultaneously treated with linear accelerator radiotherapy with average dose of 40-50 Gy/20-25 times/4-5 weeks. Results: To evaluate the clinical effects after finished the whole treatment program two months later. CR + PR reached 77.8% (24/27). All patients showed tolerance to accept the treatment. Conclusion: Treatment for lymphatic node metastasis in advanced cancer with interventional chemotherapy combined radiation therapy seems to be a valuable way

  9. Validation of the 18-gene classifier as a prognostic biomarker of distant metastasis in breast cancer.

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    Skye Hung-Chun Cheng

    Full Text Available We validated an 18-gene classifier (GC initially developed to predict local/regional recurrence after mastectomy in estimating distant metastasis risk. The 18-gene scoring algorithm defines scores as: <21, low risk; ≥21, high risk. Six hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer and fresh frozen tumor tissues available were included. The primary outcome was the 5-year probability of freedom from distant metastasis (DMFP. Two external datasets were used to test the predictive accuracy of 18-GC. The 5-year rates of DMFP for patients classified as low-risk (n = 146, 21.7% and high-risk (n = 537, 78.6% were 96.2% (95% CI, 91.1%-98.8% and 80.9% (74.6%-81.9%, respectively (median follow-up interval, 71.8 months. The 5-year rates of DMFP of the low-risk group in stage I (n = 62, 35.6%, stage II (n = 66, 20.1%, and stage III (n = 18, 10.3% were 100%, 94.2% (78.5%-98.5%, and 90.9% (50.8%-98.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 18-GC is an independent prognostic factor of distant metastasis (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8-14.1; p = 0.0017 for scores of ≥21. External validation showed that the 5-year rate of DMFP in the low- and high-risk patients was 94.1% (82.9%-100% and 80.3% (70.7%-89.9%, p = 0.06 in a Singapore dataset, and 89.5% (81.9%-94.1% and 73.6% (67.2%-79.0%, p = 0.0039 in the GEO-GSE20685 dataset, respectively. In conclusion, 18-GC is a viable prognostic biomarker for breast cancer to estimate distant metastasis risk.

  10. [Prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. Outcome in a consecutive group of 59 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, M.A.; Reinhardt, S.; Brasso, K.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal management of prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis remains controversial. In this article, the outcome in a consecutive group of patients with newly diagnosed lymph node positive prostate cancer is presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 59 patients...... with histological verified lymph node positive disease but without osseous metastasis, outcome is described by time to biochemical progression, time to metastasis and survival. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Median pre-treatment PSA was 21 ng/ml. Endocrine treatment was initiated within median 2...... patients died during follow-up, 15 deaths were attributable to prostate cancer. Estimated median survival was 5.5 years. CONCLUSION: Despite early androgen deprivation therapy, patients with lymph node positive prostate cancer have a grave prognosis with a high risk of progression and disease...

  11. Prognostic factors for lymph node metastasis from advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the trunk and extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Andre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin of the trunk and extremities may present lymph node metastasis with difficult disease control and poor survival. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis and outcome. Patients/Methods Retrospective review of 57 patients with locally advanced SCC of the trunk and extremities was performed and several clinical variables including age, gender, ethnicity, previously injured skin (burns, scars, ulcers and others, patient origin (rural or urban, anatomic site and treatment were studied. Results Fifteen patients presented with previous skin lesions. Thirty-six were classified as T3 tumors and 21 as T4; 46 were N0, and 11, N1. Eleven N0 patients presented lymph node metastasis during follow up. Univariate analysis identified previous skin lesions (ulcers and scars as risk factor for lymph node metastasis (p = 0.047. Better survival was demonstrated for T3 (p = 0.018 classification. N0 patients who presented lymph node metastasis during follow up (submitted to lymphadenectomy had similar survival to patients without lymph node recurrence (p = 0.219. Conclusion Local advanced tumors are at risk of lymph node metastasis. Increased risk is associated to previous lesions at tumor site. T4 classification have worse prognosis. Lymph node recurrences in N0 patients, once treated, did not affect survival. For these patients, we propose close follow up and prompt treatment of lymph node metastasis. These results do not support indication for elective lymphadenectomy or sentinel node mapping. Further prospective studies must address this issue.

  12. Regional control of melanoma neck node metastasis after selective neck dissection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Hooft van Huysduynen, Thijs; Rasch, Coen R. N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on regional control of melanoma neck node metastasis. DESIGN: A single-institution retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary care cancer center. PATIENTS: The study included 64 patients with melanoma neck node metastasis who were treated with

  13. Histopathological studies of lymph node metastasis in patients preoperatively irradiated for gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, T [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-09-01

    Irradiated 197 cases of progressive gastric cancer were compared with non-irradiated 290 cases of progressive gastric cancer as controls. Irradiated cases showed decreases in the rate of metastasis by 13.1%, in the degree of metastasis by 9.1, and in remote metastasis beyond the range of the second lymph node group. Concerning the site of involvement, the cases whose involvement restricted to upper C, middle M, or lower A region showed a decrease in the metastatic rate. In complete extirpation of the regional lymph nodes, irradiated cases showed a decrease in the rate of metastasis into the first and second lymph node groups. In the type, I, II, and III according to Borrmann's classification, the metastatic rate decreased. Concerning the tissue type, the metastatic rate decreased in adenomatous carcinoma and remarkably decreased in simple carcinoma. As regards the size of tumors, the metastatic rate decreased in the tumors smaller than 6.0 cm in diameter and in those larger than 6.0 cm as well. Concerning the depth of the x-ray irradiation, s/sub 1/ and s/sub 2/ decreased the rate of metastasis. The metastatic rate and 5-year survival rate increased in n/sub 1/(+) by 4.5%, in n/sub 2/(+) by 8.4%, and in all the irradiated cases by 12.5%. The degree of x in lesions metastasized into the lymph node increased according to an increase in irradiated dose, although it tended to be slightly milder than that in main lesions. Metachromasia of cancerous lesions metastasized into the lymph node by pH 4.1 TBM staining was negative(-)-slightly positive(+-) in random interstice and strongly positive(+++) in the cancerous interstice.

  14. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-11-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Is there a requirement for axillary lymph node dissection following identification of micro-metastasis or isolated tumour cells at sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, D P

    2012-02-29

    INTRODUCTION: Recent decades have seen a significant shift towards conservative management of the axilla. Increasingly, immunohistochemical analysis of sentinel nodes leads to the detection of small tumour deposits, the significance of which remains uncertain. The aims of this study are to examine patients whose sentinel lymph nodes are positive for macro-metastasis, micro-metastasis or isolated tumour cells (ITCs) and to determine the rate of further nodal disease after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) between January 2007 and December 2010 in a tertiary referral breast unit was performed. Patients who underwent an axillary lymph node dissection for macro-metastasis, micro-metastasis or ITCs were identified. Demographics, histological data and the rate of further axillary disease were examined. RESULTS: In total, 664 breast cancer patients attended the symptomatic breast unit during the study period, 360 of whom underwent a SLNB. Seventy patients had a SLNB positive for macro-metastasis. All of these patients underwent ALND. A positive SLNB with either micro-metastasis or ITCs was identified in 58 patients. Only 41 of the 58 patients went on to have an ALND, due primarily to variations in surgeons\\' preferences. Nineteen patients with micro-metastasis underwent an ALND. Four patients had further axillary disease (21%). Twenty-two patients had ITCs identified, of whom only one had further disease (4.5%). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of tumour size, grade, lymphovascular invasion or oestrogen receptor status. CONCLUSION: ALND should be considered in patients with micro-metastasis at SLNB. It should rarely be employed in the setting of SLNB positive for ITCs.

  16. Relationship between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of lung cancer and lymph node metastasis on FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Kato, Satoshi; Okuwaki, Hideto; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Araki, Tsutomu; Sato, Yoko; Saito, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between standardized uptake value (SUV)max of primary lung cancers on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and lymph node metastasis. The subjects were a total of consecutive 66 patients with lung cancer who were examined by FDG-PET and subsequently underwent surgery between October 2004 and January 2008. There were 41 males and 25 females, ranging in age from 45 to 83 years with an average of 68 years. The pathological subtypes of the lung cancers consisted of 49 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 adenosquamous carcinomas, 1 large cell carcinoma, 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 pleomorphic carcinoma and 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We statistically compared the mean SUVmax of lung cancer between the groups with and without lymph node metastasis, the frequency of lymph node metastasis between higher and lower SUVmax of lung cancer groups that were classified by using the median SUVmax of lung cancer, and evaluated the relationship between the SUVmax of lung cancer and frequency of lymph node metastases, and correlations between the SUVmax of lung cancer and number of the metastatic lymph nodes and pathological n stages. The difference in the average of the SUVmax of lung cancer between the cases with and without lymph node metastases was statistically significant (p=0.00513). Lymph node metastasis was more frequently seen in the higher SUVmax of lung cancer group (17/33, 52%) than in the lower SUVmax of lung cancer group (7/33, 21%) with a statistically significant difference. There was no lymph node metastasis in lung cancers with an SUVmax of lung cancer less than 2.5, and lung cancers with an SUVmax of lung cancer more than 12 had a 70% frequency of lymph node metastasis. There were moderate correlations between SUVmax of lung cancer, and the number of the metastatic lymph nodes (γ=0.404, p=0.001) and pathological n stage (γ=0.411, p=0.001). The likelihood of lymph node

  17. CXCR4 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Kodama, Rieko; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Takamura, Yuuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is a common step in the progression of cancer. Recent evidence suggests that tumor production of CXCR4 promotes lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also increase metastatic ability in human cancers. Nitrite/nitrate levels and functional CXCR4 expression were assessed in K1 and B-CPAP papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 expression was also analyzed in primary human PTC. The relationship between nitrotyrosine levels, which are a biomarker for peroxynitrate formation from NO in vivo, CXCR4 expression, and lymph node status was also analyzed. Production of nitrite/nitrate and functional CXCR4 expression in both cell lines was increased by treatment with the NO donor DETA NONOate. The NOS inhibitor L-NAME eliminated this increase. Positive CXCR4 immunostaining was observed in 60.7% (34/56) of PTCs. CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with nitrotyrosine levels and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. Our data indicate that NO stimulates CXCR4 expression in vitro. Formation of the NO biomarker nitrotyrosine was also correlated with CXCR4 expression and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. NO may induce lymph node metastasis via CXCR4 induction in papillary thyroid carcinoma

  18. Correlation of Slug gene expression with lymph node metastasis and invasion molecule expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ming Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of Slug gene expression with lymph node metastasis and invasion molecule expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue. Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue surgical removed in Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between March 2015 and April 2017 was selected and divided into the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with neck lymph node metastasis and the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues without lymph node metastasis according to the condition of lymph node metastasis. The expression of Slug, epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules and invasion molecules in the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue were detected. Results: Slug, N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD147, OPN, GRP78, SDF-1 and CXCR4 protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with neck lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis while E-cadherin, P120ctn and ZO-1 protein expression were significantly lower than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis; N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD147, OPN, GRP78, SDF-1 and CXCR4 protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with high Slug expression were significantly higher than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with low Slug expression while E-cadherin, P120ctn and ZO-1 protein expression were significantly lower than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with low Slug expression. Conclusion: The highly expressed Slug in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue can promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of the cells to participate in the lymph node metastasis of tumor cells.

  19. Significance of glycolytic metabolism-related protein expression in colorectal cancer, lymph node and hepatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC

  20. Lymph node metastasis of carcinomas of transverse colon including flexures. Consideration of the extramesocolic lymph node stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrakis, Aristotelis; Weber, Klaus; Merkel, Susanne; Matzel, Klaus; Agaimy, Abbas; Gebbert, Carol; Hohenberger, Werner

    2014-10-01

    Complete mesocolic excision (CME) is nowadays state of the art in the treatment of colon cancer. In cases of carcinoma of transverse colon and of both flexures an extramesocolic lymph node metastasis can be found in the infrapancreatic lymph node region (ILR) and across the gastroepiploic arcade (GLR). These direct metastatic routes were not previously systematically considered. In order to validate our hypothesis of these direct metastatic pathways and to obtain evidence of our approach of including dissection of these areas as part of CME, we initiated a prospective study evaluating these lymph node regions during surgery. Forty-five consecutive patients with primary tumour manifestation in transverse colon and both flexures between May 2010 and January 2013 were prospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Mode of surgery, histopathology, morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Twenty-six patients had a carcinoma of transverse colon, 16 patients one of hepatic flexure and four patients one of splenic flexure. The median lymph node yield was 40. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in ILR was registered in five patients and in GLR in four patients. The mean lymph node ratio was 0.085. Postoperative complications occurred in nine patients, and postoperative mortality was 2 %. We were able to demonstrate this novel metastatic route of carcinomas of the transverse colon and of both flexures in ILR and GLR. These could be considered as regional lymph node regions and have to be included into surgery for cancer of the transverse colon including both flexures.

  1. Nomogram for prediction of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis in proven level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Xu, Zhen; Ai, Liping; Sun, Lisha; Liu, Caigang

    2017-09-22

    The current management of the axilla in level 1 node-positive breast cancer patients is axillary lymph node dissection regardless of the status of the level 2 axillary lymph nodes. The goal of this study was to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of level 2 axillary lymph node metastasis (L-2-ALNM) in patients with level 1 axillary node-positive breast cancer. We reviewed the records of 974 patients with pathology-confirmed level 1 node-positive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute. The patients were randomized 1:1 and divided into a modeling group and a validation group. Clinical and pathological features of the patients were assessed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A nomogram based on independent predictors for the L-2-ALNM identified by multivariate logistic regression was constructed. Independent predictors of L-2-ALNM by the multivariate logistic regression analysis included tumor size, Ki-67 status, histological grade, and number of positive level 1 axillary lymph nodes. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the modeling set and the validation set were 0.828 and 0.816, respectively. The false-negative rates of the L-2-ALNM nomogram were 1.82% and 7.41% for the predicted probability cut-off points of level 1 axillary lymph node metastasis. Patients with a low probability of L-2-ALNM could be spared level 2 axillary lymph node dissection, thereby reducing postoperative morbidity.

  2. Diagnostic ability of mediastinal and hilar lymph node metastasis of primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Len-Ming

    1985-01-01

    Preoperative thoracic CT scan and conventional radiologic procedures were performed in 68 primary lung cancer patients who underwent radical operation for intrathoracic lymph nodes. The subjects of this study consisted of 58 males and 10 females. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was noted in 28 patients, adenocarcinoma in 31, large cell cancer in 5 and small cell cancer in 4. According to the pTNM factor N classification, n0 was noted in 28 patients, n1 in 13 and n2 in 27. Plain and contrast enhancement CT scan were performed, using GE-made CT 9800, from apex to diaphragm with a 2-second scan time in supine position during full inspiration. As conventional radiologic procedures, posteroanterior and lateral plain roentgenography and posteroanterior and lateral tomography of the thoracic region including the hilum and mediastinum were performed on all patients, and 55 0 oblique tomography and PAG procedures were added, if necessary. Of 68 patients, 40 had metastatic lesions in the mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes, 37 in the ipsilateral hilar lymph nodes and 27 in the mediastinal lymph nodes. Of 37 patients with metastatic lesions in the ipsilateral hilar lymph nodes, 24 had such lesions in the mediastinal lymph nodes as well, and 13 only in the ipsilateral hilar lymph nodes. Three patients had mediastinal metastasis without ipsilateral hilar metastasis. In detecting mediastinal lymph node metastasis, CT showed a sensitivity of 78 %, a specificity of 73 % and an accuracy of 75 % while conventional radiologic procedures had a sensitivity of 41 %, a specificity of 78 %, and an accuracy of 63 %. In the hilum, CT also had a higher sensitivity (73 %, 62 % respectively) and lower specificity (71 %, 77 % respectively) comparing to conventional radiologic procedures. And CT had an accuracy of 72 % while conventional radiologic procedures showed 69 %. (J.P.N.)

  3. ABCB1 and ABCC2 and the risk of distant metastasis in Thai breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensorn I

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Insee Sensorn,1,* Chonlaphat Sukasem,2,* Ekaphop Sirachainan,3 Montri Chamnanphon,2 Ekawat Pasomsub,4 Narumol Trachu,5 Porntip Supavilai,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Sansanee Wongwaisayawan6 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 2Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 4Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 5Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, 6Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters have been extensively studied with regard to tamoxifen treatment outcomes. However, the results are inconclusive. Analysis of organ-specific metastasis may reveal the association of these pharmacogenetic factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, ABCB1, and ABCC2 polymorphisms on the risk of all distant and organ-specific metastases in Thai patients who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 73 patients with breast cancer who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. CYP3A5 (6986A>G, CYP2D6 (100C>T, ABCB1 (3435C>T, and ABCC2 (-24C>T were genotyped using allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. The impacts of prognostic clinical factors and genetic variants on disease-free survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results: In the univariate analysis, primary tumor size >5 cm was significantly associated with increased risk of distant metastasis (P=0

  4. Deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression and lymph node metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiqiang; Crowe, David L; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Anxun; Muzio, Lorenzo Lo; Kolokythas, Antonia; Sheng, Shihu; Rubini, Corrado; Ye, Hui; Shi, Fei; Yu, Tianwei

    2010-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a critical event in the progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The identification of biomarkers associated with the metastatic process would provide critical prognostic information to facilitate clinical decision making. Previous studies showed that deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression is a frequent event in TSCC and may be associated with enhanced cell invasion. The purpose of this study is to further evaluate whether the expression level of SOD2 is correlated with the metastatic status in TSCC patients. We first examined the SOD2 expression at mRNA level on 53 TSCC and 22 normal control samples based on pooled-analysis of existing microarray datasets. To confirm our observations, we examined the expression of SOD2 at protein level on an additional TSCC patient cohort (n = 100), as well as 31 premalignant dysplasias, 15 normal tongue mucosa, and 32 lymph node metastatic diseases by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The SOD2 mRNA level in primary TSCC tissue is reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the first TSCC patient cohort. The SOD2 protein level in primary TSCC tissue is also reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the second TSCC patient cohort. Deregulation of SOD2 expression is a common event in TSCC and appears to be associated with disease progression. Statistical analysis revealed that the reduced SOD2 expression in primary tumor tissue is associated with lymph node metastasis in both TSCC patient cohorts examined. Our study suggested that the deregulation of SOD2 in TSCC has potential predictive values for lymph node metastasis, and may serve as a therapeutic target for patients at risk of metastasis

  5. Support vector machine model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector computed tomography: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Long; Tang, Lei; Sun, Ying-Shi; Cao, Kun; Gao, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) of gastric cancer is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival. But several imaging techniques which are commonly used in stomach cannot satisfactorily assess the gastric cancer lymph node status. They can not achieve both high sensitivity and specificity. As a kind of machine-learning methods, Support Vector Machine has the potential to solve this complex issue. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 175 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent MDCT before surgery were included. We evaluated the tumor and lymph node indicators on CT images including serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor maximum diameter, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size and lymph nodes station, which reflected the biological behavior of gastric cancer. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the six image indicators with LNM. A SVM model was built with these indicators above as input index. The output index was that lymph node metastasis of the patient was positive or negative. It was confirmed by the surgery and histopathology. A standard machine-learning technique called k-fold cross-validation (5-fold in our study) was used to train and test SVM models. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of the SVM models in lymph node metastasis with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. And the radiologist classified the lymph node metastasis of patients by using maximum lymph node size on CT images as criterion. We compared the areas under ROC curves (AUC) of the radiologist and SVM models. In 175 cases, the cases of lymph node metastasis were 134 and 41 cases were not. The six image indicators all had statistically significant differences between the LNM negative and positive groups. The means of the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of SVM models with 5-fold cross-validation were 88.5%, 78.5% and 0.876, respectively. While the diagnostic power of the

  6. Contemporary management of patients with penile cancer and lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Andrew; Diorio, Gregory J; Pettaway, Curtis; Master, Viraj; Spiess, Philippe E

    2017-06-01

    Penile cancer is a rare disease that causes considerable physical and psychological patient morbidity, especially at advanced stages. Patients with low-stage nodal metastasis can achieve durable survival with surgery alone, but those with extensive locoregional metastasis have overall low survival. Contemporary management strategies for lymph node involvement in penile cancer aim to minimize the morbidity associated with traditional radical inguinal lymphadenectomy through appropriate risk stratification while optimizing oncological outcomes. Modified (or superficial) inguinal lymph node dissection and dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy are diagnostic modalities that have been recommended in patients with high-risk primary penile tumours and nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. In addition, advances in minimally invasive and robot-assisted lymphadenectomy techniques are being investigated in patients with penile cancer and might further decrease lymphadenectomy-related adverse effects. The management of patients with advanced disease has evolved to include multimodal treatment with systemic chemotherapy before surgical intervention and can include adjuvant chemotherapy after pelvic lymphadenectomy. The role of radiotherapy in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting remains largely unclear, owing to a lack of high-level evidence of possible benefits. New targeted therapies have shown efficacy in squamous cell carcinomas of other sites and might also prove effective in patients with penile cancer.

  7. Metastasis in the subcarinal lymph node with unknown primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, J.; Olsen, K. E.; Petersen, H.

    2011-01-01

    -differentiated squamous cell carcinoma but no primary tumor was visible on PET-computed tomography. Because of his previous lymphoma the patient was scheduled for mediastinoscopy where the diagnosis was confirmed. Subsequent gastroscopy was normal and a right-sided thoracotomy showed no evidence of cancer elsewhere, only...... an inoperable metastasis in a subcarinal lymph node which infiltrated the trachea, esophagus and aorta. Such isolated squamous cell carcinoma in a subcarinal lymph node without a primary tumor despite invasive work-up has not been reported before....

  8. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The diagnostic utility of ultrasonography, CT and PET/CT for the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis inpapillary thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Young Sang; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography (US), CT and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) in the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The study population consisted of 300 patients with pathologically diagnosed papillary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Preoperative US, CT, and PET/CT findings were compared with pathologic outcomes after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Sensitivity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 29.9%, CT 27.9%, PET/CT 18.8%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 56.3%, CT 66.2%, PET/CT 43.7%). Specificity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 80.6%, CT 77.7%, PET/CT 83.0%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 96.8%, CT 80.6%, PET/CT 95.2%). The combination of US and CT had higher specificity (77.3%) and higher sensitivity (33.1%) than US alone. PET/CT has no significant additional benefit over the combination of US and CT. In preoperative evaluations of neck lymph node metastasis, US and CT and PET/CT are more useful in lateral lymph node areas than in central lymph node areas. The combination of US and CT has higher sensitivity than US alone

  10. The diagnostic utility of ultrasonography, CT and PET/CT for the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis inpapillary thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Young Sang; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography (US), CT and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) in the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The study population consisted of 300 patients with pathologically diagnosed papillary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Preoperative US, CT, and PET/CT findings were compared with pathologic outcomes after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Sensitivity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 29.9%, CT 27.9%, PET/CT 18.8%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 56.3%, CT 66.2%, PET/CT 43.7%). Specificity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 80.6%, CT 77.7%, PET/CT 83.0%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 96.8%, CT 80.6%, PET/CT 95.2%). The combination of US and CT had higher specificity (77.3%) and higher sensitivity (33.1%) than US alone. PET/CT has no significant additional benefit over the combination of US and CT. In preoperative evaluations of neck lymph node metastasis, US and CT and PET/CT are more useful in lateral lymph node areas than in central lymph node areas. The combination of US and CT has higher sensitivity than US alone.

  11. Role of postoperative radiotherapy for celiac lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer: analysis on 63 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jing; Sun Yihong; Qin Xinyu; Zeng Mengsu; Wang Minhua; Zeng Zhaochong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy for celiac lymph node (LN) metastasis from gastric cancer in the past 6 years. Methods: Sixty-three patients with abdominal LN metastasis after curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics was colleeted including age, gender, status of primary tumor of stomach (size, location and grade), and the number of LN dissected and involved. Of the 63 patients, 36 received local external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as salvage therapy and were classified as the EBRT group. The irradiation target was local-regional LN. The radiation dose ranged from 40 to 60 Gy in daily 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions, 5 times weekly. The other 27 patients who received chemotherapy were classified as the non-EBRT group. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival rates, and the Cox regression model was used to identify the predictors of prognosis. Results: After EBRT, complete response and partial response were observed in 31% and 58% of patients, respectively. The clinical obstruction symptoms induced by LN pressure in 18 patients were completely relieved after EBRT. The median survival was 339 clays for the EBRT group and 136 days for the non- EBRT group, the survival rate at 1 and 2 years for patients treated with EBRT vs. without EBRT was 40% vs. 17% and 20% vs. 6%, respectively (P=0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that the level of relative risk (RR) in the EBRT group was reduced to 0.299 (P=0.002). The incidence of death resulting from LN-related complications was lower in the EBRT group. The main cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. The gastro-intestinal toxicities were the most common side effects during and after EBRT. The RTOG grade 0,1,2 and 3 toxicities were found in 7,17,11 and 1 patients, respectively. No hematologic and hepatic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Postoperative lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer is sensitive to external beam

  12. Micrometastatic cancer cells in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood: Clinical significance and biologic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Stanley P L; Tseng, William W

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis may be regarded as a progressive process from its inception in the primary tumor microenvironment to distant sites by way of the lymphovascular system. Although this type of tumor dissemination often occurs in an orderly fashion via the sentinel lymph node (SLN), acting as a possible gateway to the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood and ultimately to distant metastatic sites, this is not a general rule as tumor cells may enter the blood and spread to distant sites, bypassing the SLN. Methods of detecting micrometastatic cancer cells in the SLN, bone marrow, and peripheral blood of patients have been established. Patients with cancer cells in their SLN, bone marrow, or peripheral blood have worse clinical outcomes than patients with no evidence of spread to these compartments. The presence of these cells also has important biologic implications for disease progression and the clinician's understanding of the process of cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these micrometastatic cancer cells at each stage and site of metastasis is needed to design novel selective therapies for a more "personalized" treatment. © 2014 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  13. TNF-α -308 A allele is associated with an increased risk of distant metastasis in rectal cancer patients from Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, an important factor in systematic inflammation, is reportedly involved in several cancer types. The TNF-α -308 G>A (rs1800629 polymorphism in the promoter region influences TNF-α production. The association between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC is not fully understood, especially the connections between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and clinical features of CRC. In this study, TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism was genotyped in 1140 individuals with or without CRC from Southwestern China. In case-control studies, we found no association between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and CRC risk. Analysis of the correlations between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and clinical features of CRC revealed that TNF-α -308 A allele was associated with higher body mass index (BMI larger tumor size, and distant tumor metastasis in all CRC patients. Notably, rectal cancer (a subtype of CRC patients with TNF-α -308 A allele had a very high risk of distant tumor metastasis [odds ratio (OR = 4.481; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.072-9.693; P = 0.00025]. The association between TNF-α -308 A allele and distant tumor metastasis remained even significant after adjusting all clinical characteristics (OR = 7.099; 95% CI: 2.482-20.301; P = 0.000256 in rectal cancer patients. Our results suggested that TNF-α -308 A allele was significantly associated with distant tumor metastasis in rectal cancer patients.

  14. The clinical value of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bangkun; Yang Jisheng; Shen Dawei; Zuo Lei; Jiang Ling; Zhou Ya

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical value of 99m Tc-MIBI imaging for axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. Methods: 56 patients with breast cancer proven by pathology were imaged with 99m Tc-MIBI. Images were taken at 5, 30, 60 minutes. The axillary area of affected side was included in imaging field. Results: The primary foci in 55 cases were positive and one case was negative in uptake. Of the 56 cases, 35 had histologically proven axillary lymph node metastases. MIBI uptake was seen in 30 cases and negative in 5 cases. The sensitivity was 85.7% (30/35 cases). In 21 cases who had no metastasis, 3 cases showed false positive uptake and 18 cases were true negative, making the specificity 85.7%. In the case who had negative imaging for primary focus, which was non-palpable, had an enlarged axillary lymphatic node. Positive MIBI uptake of the node area was seen in this case. Conclusion: 99m Tc-MIBI imaging is valuable for the diagnosis of axillary nodal metastasis of breast cancer. Even though there is no palpable primary focus, if there is an enlarged axillary lymphatic node and positive MIBI uptake, metastasis should be considered

  15. The Association between Abnormal Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 Expression and Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated that the expression levels of MALAT-1 were higher in cancerous tissues than matched histologically normal tissues. And, to some extent, overexpression of MALAT-1 was inclined to lymph node metastasis. This meta-analysis collected all relevant articles and explored the association between MALAT-1 expression levels and lymph node metastasis. We searched PubMed, EmBase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and OVID to address the level of MALAT-1 expression in cancer cases and noncancerous controls (accessed February 2015. And 8 studies comprising 696 multiple cancer patients were included to assess this association. The odds ratio (OR and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to assess the strength of the association using Stata 12.0 version software. The results revealed there was a significant difference in the incidence of lymph node metastasis between high MALAT-1 expression group and low MALAT-1 expression group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.15–3.28, P=0.013 random-effects model. Subgroup analysis indicated that MALAT-1 high expression had an unfavorable impact on lymph node metastasis in Chinese patients (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.01–2.46. This study demonstrated that the incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients detected with high MALAT-1 expression was higher than that in patients with low MALAT-1 expression in China.

  16. Support vector machine model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector computed tomography: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymph node metastasis (LNM of gastric cancer is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival. But several imaging techniques which are commonly used in stomach cannot satisfactorily assess the gastric cancer lymph node status. They can not achieve both high sensitivity and specificity. As a kind of machine-learning methods, Support Vector Machine has the potential to solve this complex issue. Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 175 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent MDCT before surgery were included. We evaluated the tumor and lymph node indicators on CT images including serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor maximum diameter, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size and lymph nodes station, which reflected the biological behavior of gastric cancer. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the six image indicators with LNM. A SVM model was built with these indicators above as input index. The output index was that lymph node metastasis of the patient was positive or negative. It was confirmed by the surgery and histopathology. A standard machine-learning technique called k-fold cross-validation (5-fold in our study was used to train and test SVM models. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of the SVM models in lymph node metastasis with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. And the radiologist classified the lymph node metastasis of patients by using maximum lymph node size on CT images as criterion. We compared the areas under ROC curves (AUC of the radiologist and SVM models. Results In 175 cases, the cases of lymph node metastasis were 134 and 41 cases were not. The six image indicators all had statistically significant differences between the LNM negative and positive groups. The means of the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of SVM models with 5-fold cross-validation were 88.5%, 78.5% and 0

  17. Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes Metastasis five years after Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast is an uncommon and rare site for metastasis. Primary and secondary tumors of the breast need to be differentiated as management is different. We present a 67 year old female patient with two breast lumps and an axillary lymph node, 5 years after nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). Mammogram report ...

  18. Size of cervical lymph node and metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarungroongruangchai, Weerawut; Charoenpitakchai, Mongkol; Silpeeyodom, Tawatchai; Pruksapong, Chatchai; Burusapat, Chairat

    2014-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue and floor of mouth are the most common head and neck cancers. Regional metastasis of SCC is most likely found at the cervical lymph node. Size and characteristics of pathologically suspicious lymph nodes are related to the aggressiveness of the primary tumor: The objective of this study is to analyze the conrrelation between sizes of cervical node and metastasis in SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth. Retrospective review was conducted firom the patient's charts between January 2008 and December 2012. Clinical, histopathology and surgical records were reviewed. Cervical lymph nodes ofSCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth were reviewed and divided into four groups depending on their size (1-5 mm, 6-9 mm, 10-30 mm and more than 30 am,). A p-value oral cavity were recorded. Sixteen patients ofSCC of the oral tongue and 15patients of SCC of the floor of mouth underwent neck dissection (641 cervical nodes). Most ofthe patients were diagnosed with stage 3 (41.94%). Extracapsular extension was found in 72.15% of SCC of oral tongue and 73.33 % of SCC ofthe floor of mouth. Size of cervical lymph nodes less than 10 mm was found to be metastasis at 9.27% and 10.82% of SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth, respectively. Cervical node metastasis can be found in SCC of the oral tongue and floor ofmouth with clinlically negative node andsize of cervical node less than 10 mm. Here in, size of cervical node less than 10 mm was still important due to the chance for metastasis especially high grade tumors, advanced stage cancer and lymphovascular invasion.

  19. Rare metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Liu, Wenqiang; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jindong; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes hasn't been reported before. We want to share our experience about the treatment choice. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal nonkeratinizing carcinoma in August 2004. In March 2013 he underwent a thyroid carcinoma radical operation, and histological examination revealed metastasis to the thyroid gland from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. An 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy showed metastatic abdominal lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in April 2015. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and metastasis to the thyroid gland. The metastases to the abdominal lymph nodes received chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for metastasis to the abdominal lymph nodes, the patient is currently asymptomatic with stable disease and improved quality of life. The treatment choice for metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on the clinical disease extent, and surgery and/or chemo-radiation therapy must be drafted to the individual patient in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

  20. Isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-negative neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  2. Relationship between the inflammatory molecular profile of breast carcinomas and distant metastasis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Eiró

    Full Text Available Inflammatory conditions may promote tumor progression and aggressiveness. In previous reports, we found a group of breast cancer tumors characterized by metalloprotease-11 (MMP-11 expression by intratumoral mononuclear inflammatory cells (MICs, which was associated with distant metastasis development. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the relationship between MMP-11 expression by MICs, distant metastasis development, and a wide panel of inflammatory factors in breast carcinoma. In an initial approach, we analyzed 65 factors associated with tumor progression and inflammation, in a tumor population classified in good or bad prognosis, based on MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs. The most differentially expressed factors were then analyzed in a wider tumor population classified according to MMP-11 expression by MICs and also according to metastasis development. These analyses were carried out by Real-time PCR. The results showed that of the 65 starting factors analyzed, those related with MMP-11 expression by MICs were: IL-1, -5, -6, -8, -17, -18, MMP-1, TIMP-1, ADAM-8, -10, -15, -23, ADAMTS-1, -2, -15, Annexin A2, IFNβ, Claudin-3, CCL-3, MyD88, IRAK-4 and NFκB. Of them, factors more differentially expressed between both groups of tumors were IL-1, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, IFNβ and NFκB. Thereafter, we confirmed in the wider tumor population, that there is a higher expression of those factors in tumors infiltrated by MMP-11 positive MICs. Altogether these results indicate that tumors developing worse prognosis and identified by MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs, shows an up-regulation of inflammatory-related genes.

  3. Risk factors and the preoperative assessment of right para-oesophageal lymph node metastasis in right lobe papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, You; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ping; Dong, Wenwu; He, Liang; Sun, Wei; Liu, Jinhao

    2017-06-01

    Right para-oesophageal lymph nodes (RPELN) are included among the right central compartment lymph nodes (rCLN) and located behind right recurrent laryngeal nerve (rRLN). However, due to the likelihood of increasing postoperative complications, and the extremely difficulties of RPELN dissection, the decision to perform RPELN dissection remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors of RPELN metastasis and evaluate RPELN metastasis by preoperative examination. We reviewed the medical records of 163 consecutive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients (125 females and 38 males) who underwent right lobe plus isthmic resection (91 patients) or total thyroidectomy (72 patients) with right or bilateral central compartment lymph node dissection. The RPELN dissections were performed in all patients and were individually dissected and recorded intraoperatively. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasound and enhanced neck computed tomography (CT) routinely during preoperative examination. RPELN metastasis was detected in 20 patients (12.3%), among whom 6 (3.7%) had RPELN metastasis without rCLN metastasis. Total rCLN metastasis and lateral compartment lymph node metastasis were confirmed in 57 (35.0%) and 24 (14.7%) patients, respectively. The tumour diameter, number of metastatic rCLN and lateral compartment lymph nodes, RPELN visible on CT, and enhanced CT value of RPELN were confirmed significantly associated with RPELN metastasis by univariate analysis (P 1 cm) in the right lobe or suspected rCLN metastasis were recommended to undergo prophylactic RPELN dissection, particularly in those with a high enhanced CT value (>132) of RPELN or those with the copresence of lateral compartment lymph node metastasis. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PROSTATE CANCER TOPOGRAPHY AND PATTERNS OF LYMPH NODE METASTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yuji; Carlino, Lauren J.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Tickoo, Satish K.; Kaag, Matthew G.; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Eastham, James A.; Scher, Howard I.; Scardino, Peter T.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis is a well-recognized route of prostate cancer spread. However, the relationship between topography and pathologic features of primary prostatic cancers and patterns of pelvic LN metastasis has not been well studied. We reviewed original slides of radical prostatectomies and pelvic LN dissections from 125 patients with LN metastasis and recorded total # of LN excised / laterality of positive LN, as well as localization, staging parameters, lymphovascular invasion and tumor volume of primary tumors. LN Quantity and Distribution 14.6 (mean) and 13 (median) LN were resected. 76 (61%), 33 (26%) and 16 (13%) cases had 1, 2 and > 2 positive LN, while 58, 44 and 20 cases had LN metastasis on the right (R), left (L), and bilaterally. Pathologic Features 86% (108/125) and 37% (46/125) demonstrated extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion, while 64% showed lymphovascular invasion. Mean and median total tumor volume was 6.39 and 3.92 cc, with ≥ 50% and ≥ 90% Gleason patterns 4/5 in 105 (84%) and 73 (58%) cases, respectively. Correlation with Dominant Tumor Location Dominant lesions on RP: 50 R lobe, 44 L lobe, 31 bilateral. 15/50 (30%) R lobe and 18/44 (41%) L lobe dominant tumors had LN metastasis on the contralateral side. Only 4% (5/125) of cases were associated with anterior dominant tumors. 30–40% of LN metastases occur contralateral to the dominant tumor. LN metastasis is overwhelmingly associated with high grade, high stage and large volume disease. LN positivity is rarely associated with anterior dominant tumors. PMID:21107093

  5. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  6. Understanding patterns of invasion: a novel approach to assessment of podoplanin expression in the prediction of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankita; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant

    2018-03-01

    Cellular motility is considered to be central to the process of metastasis, and podoplanin expression can be explored as a prospective link, owing to its ability to modulate the actin cytoskeleton. We aimed to evaluate the tumoral expression of D2-40 (monoclonal antibody against podoplanin) in pathologically neck-node-negative/positive cases (pN0/N+) to characterise the pattern of invasion, potentially explaining the role of various patterns of invasion in causing tumour metastasis. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 60 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases of known nodal status were selected for immunohistochemical staining of tumour (invasive front) by D2-40 along with routine staining by haematoxylin and eosin. Various staining patterns were assessed and evaluated for D2-40 expression, and correlated with nodal status. Tumoral D2-40 expression correspondingly increased with nodal metastasis (P = 0.261). Furthermore, D2-40 staining was more efficient in detecting individual tumour cells, and also characterised the motility factor irrespective of the pattern of invasion (P = 0.001). The pattern of D2-40 staining did not show a significant association with tumour grade, indicating that motility is an overlooked, albeit important, component of the pattern of invasion in routine histological grading. D2-40 expression successfully identifies the motility profile of tumour, irrespective of the pattern of invasion. The presence of larger motile islands in the tumour cohort supports the concept of 'collective cell migration'. Podoplanin also aids evasion of immune responses by inducing platelet aggregation over tumour cells, thereby favouring distant metastasis. A multivariate model using immunohistochemical staining with D2-40 provides greater sensitivity for the prediction of lymph node metastasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Patterns of lymph node metastasis identified following bilateral mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy in 31 dogs with malignancies of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Owen T; Boston, Sarah E; Souza, Carlos H de M

    2017-09-01

    Variable pathways of lymphatic drainage have been described in the dog head and neck. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the patterns of lymph node metastasis in dogs with malignancies of the head following bilateral mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy. Thirty-one dogs were included. Median age at surgery was 10 years (range: 5 months to 14 years) and mean bodyweight was 21.4 ± 11.9 kg. Lymph node metastasis occurred in 14 dogs (45%), with spread to mandibular lymph nodes in 14 dogs and medial retropharyngeal metastasis in 11 dogs. Eight of 13 dogs (62%) with lymphatic metastasis and a lateralised lesion showed contralateral dissemination, while 12/13 (92%) showed ipsilateral metastasis. Of 13 dogs with oral malignant melanoma, four showed metastasis to all four lymph centres. Contralateral metastasis may occur in dogs with malignancies of the head and should be considered during staging and management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarah Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients.

  9. Significance of lymph node capsular invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Makoto; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Sano, Akihiko; Tanaka, Naritaka; Inose, Takanori; Sohda, Makoto; Nakajima, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Extranodal invasion (ENI) has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in several malignancies. However, previous studies have included perinodal fat tissue tumor deposits in their definitions of ENI. To investigate the precise nature of ENI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we excluded these tumor deposits from our definition of ENI and defined tumor cell invasion through the lymph node capsule and into the perinodal tissues as lymph node capsular invasion (LNCI). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the significance of LNCI in ESCC. We investigated the associations between LNCI and other clinicopathologic features in 139 surgically resected ESCC. We also investigated the prognostic significance of LNCI in ESCC. LNCI was detected in 35 (25.2%) of 139 patients. The overall survival rate of the ESCC patients with LNCI was significantly lower than that of the ESCC patients with lymph node metastasis who were negative for LNCI. The survival difference between the patients with 1–3 lymph node metastases without LNCI and those with no lymph node metastasis was not significant. LNCI was significantly associated with distant organ recurrence. LNCI was also found to be an independent predictor of overall survival in addition to the number of lymph node metastases. LNCI in ESCC patients is an indicator of distant organ recurrence and a worse prognosis. LNCI could be used as a candidate marker for designing more precise staging and therapeutic strategies for ESCC.

  10. Distant Metastases in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Min, E-mail: min.yao@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lu Minggen [School of Public Health, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Savvides, Panayiotis S. [Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rezaee, Rod; Zender, Chad A.; Lavertu, Pierre [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Buatti, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the pattern and risk factors for distant metastases in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after curative treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 284 HNSCC patients treated in a single institution with IMRT. Sites included were oropharynx (125), oral cavity (70), larynx (55), hypopharynx (17), and unknown primary (17). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution includes I (3), II (19), III (42), and IV (203). There were 224 males and 60 females with a median age of 57. One hundred eighty-six patients were treated with definitive IMRT and 98 postoperative IMRT. One hundred forty-nine patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 22.8 months (range, 0.07-77.3 months) and 29.5 months (4.23-77.3 months) for living patients. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 94.6%, 96.4%, 92.5%, 84.1%, and 68.95%, respectively. There were 45 patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was strongly associated with N stage (p = 0.046), T stage (p < 0.0001), and pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value of the lymph node (p = 0.006), but not associated with age, gender, disease sites, pretreatment standardized uptake value of the primary tumor, or locoregional control. The freedom from distant metastasis at 3 years was 98.1% for no factors, 88.6% for one factor, 68.3% for two factors, and 41.7% for three factors (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). Conclusion: With advanced radiation techniques and concurrent chemotherapy, the failure pattern has changed with more patients failing distantly. The majority of patients with distant metastases had no local or regional failures, indicating that these patients might have microscopic distant

  11. Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in the Mesentery of the Terminal Ileum in Patients With Right-sided Colon Tumors at Different Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Shin, Eun; Kim, Myung Jo; Son, Il Tae; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-06-01

    There are limited reports on peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer, and little is known about their clinical significance. This study aimed to examine the role of tumor location in the prevalence and clinical significance of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective study from a prospective cohort database. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with right-sided colon cancer treated with radical surgery in a hospital between May 2006 and September 2016 were included. The frequency of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in the study cohort and the role of tumor location and the clinical characteristics of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis were determined. We examined 752 cases with right-sided colon cancer including 82 cecal, 554 ascending colon, and 116 hepatic flexure cancer. Twenty patients (2.7%) had peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. The incidence of metastasis to peri-ileal lymph nodes was 7.3% (6/82) in patients with cecal cancer, 2.2% (12/554) in patients with ascending colon cancer, and 1.7% (2/116) in patients with hepatic flexure cancer. Three patients had stage III cancer and 17 had stage IV. All 3 patients with positive peri-ileal lymph nodes and stage III cancer had cecal tumors. In contrast, all patients with ascending colon or hepatic flexure cancer and positive peri-ileal lymph nodes had stage IV cancer. The results were limited by the retrospective design of the study and the small number of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. Peri-ileal lymph node metastasis was rare even in right-sided colon cancer and occurred mainly in stage IV. However, it occurred in some patients with locally advanced cecal cancer. These results suggest that optimal resection of the mesentery of the terminal ileum might have clinical benefit, especially in curative surgery for cecal cancer. See Video Abstract at http

  12. Lymphoscintigraphic Identification of Sentinel Nodes in Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, G.; Dindelegan, G.; Ciule, Larisa; Cosgarea, Rodica; Cobzac, Gh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The most important prognostic factor in malignant melanoma is the presence or absence of metastasis in lymph nodes. It has been demonstrated the orderly progression of different types of tumours. Sentinel lymph node identification is done lymphoscintigraphically, followed by surgical excision and morpho pathological exam. Material and methods: We studied 33 patients with malignant melanoma (age 26-84 years) divided in 2 subgroups: group A without gamma probe (18 patients) and group B with gamma probe (15 patients). The lymphoscintigraphy (LS) was performed with a totally dose of 20-30 MBq of 99mTc-nanocoloid (Amersham) injected peritumoral or pericicatriceal in 4-6 points in volume of 0,1-0,2 ml per point. Acquisition was performed dynamic for 10-15 min and static at 30-60 min p.i. on perpendicular projections. Patent blue dye was injected prior surgery. In group A has performed sentinel node excision (13 patients) or ELND (4), one patient has died before surgery. In group B sentinel nodes were surgically excised with gamma probe and ELND was performed in patients with positive lymph nodes. Histopathologically, sentinel nodes were stained with HE and in 6 cases with HMB45. Results: In group A we identified the sentinel nodes scintigraphically in all patients (median 1,83±-1,50 nodes, range 1-7). Surgically with PBD were identified 1,69±1,18 sentinel nodes, in 2 patients the SN lymphadenectomy was negative. All nodes excised were histopathologically negative, but in 4 patients loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis developed. In group B we identified scintigraphically 33 SNs (median 2,20±1,37 nodes, range 1-5) and 4 in transit nodes in 14 patients, 24 of them being blue dye positive (80%), in 1 patient LS was negative. With gamma probe surgeon excised 39 radioactive nodes and 1 SN blue dye positive only, 10 of them being histopathologically positive (25% node metastasis). No metastasis were identified after ELND in patients with positive SNs

  13. Occurrence and clinical features of brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Furutani, Kazuhisa; Boku, Narikazu; Nakasu, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma has been considered rare and survival following esophageal carcinoma with distant metastasis is poor. The purpose of this report was to clarify cumulative incidence and risk factors for brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, and to consider recommended treatments for brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma. We reviewed 391 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Median age was 65 years. Clinical stages were I, II, III, and IV in 32, 47, 150, and 162 patients, respectively. Brain imaging was performed usually when patients revealed neurological symptoms. The 3-year cumulative incidence of brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy was 6.6%. There were 4 patients with single metastasis and 8 with multiple metastases. Initial clinical stages were II, III, and IV in 1, 2, and 9 patients, respectively. Histology included squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and others in 2 patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated M factor, distant lymph node relapse, and recurrent lung and liver metastasis as significant risk factors of brain metastasis (P<0.05). Median survival time after diagnosis of brain metastasis was 2.1 months. Brain metastasis was not directly related to cause of mortality. The causes were extracranial tumor deterioration in 8 patients and infection in 4 patients. Brain metastasis may increase in the future with improving survival from esophageal carcinoma. However, considering the poor survival after diagnosis of brain metastasis, short-term palliative therapy for brain metastasis appears preferable to vigorous long-term therapy. (author)

  14. The correlation between pre-operative serum tumor markers and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer patients undergoing curative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangxuan; Li, Shixia; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Juntian

    2013-11-01

    There was few study concentrated on the correlation between the evaluated tumor markers and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and the lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer and assess the prognostic value of them in different N stage patients. We analyzed the correlation between serum level of CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and lymph node metastasis in 1501 gastric cancer patients. Lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was related with tumor location, Bormann type, tumor size, histological type, depth of invasion and TNM stage (p CEA were positively correlated with the metastatic lymph node counts and the N stage (p tumor markers were higher (p tumor markers, the positive rates of tumor markers combination were higher. The combination of CA724 + CA242 + CA199 + CEA had highest positive rate. The higher CEA level related to N1 stage patients while higher CA199 was related with poor prognosis for N1 stage patients. For N0 and N2 stage patients, evaluation of CA724 indicated poorer prognosis. For N1 and N2 stage gastric patients, the patients with increased CA242 inclined to have shorter survival time. The tumor makers CA724, CA242, CA199 and CEA were evaluated significantly in the gastric patients with later N stage. The combination of these four tumor markers maybe prefer diagnostic index of gastric cancer and its lymph node metastasis. These tumor markers can be a possible indicator of poorer prognosis in different N stage patients.

  15. Aberrant methylation of GCNT2 is tightly related to lymph node metastasis of primary CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazunori; Yamashita, Keishi; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Waraya, Mina; Katoh, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Nobukazu; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Ema, Akira; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    Glycoprotein expression profile is dramatically altered in human cancers; however, specific glycogenes have not been fully identified. A comprehensive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for glycogenes (CRPS-G) identified several outstanding glycogenes. GCNT2 was of particular interest after GCNT2 expression and epigenetics were rigorously investigated in primary colorectal cancer (CRC). The highlights of this work can be summarized as follows: (i) Expression of GCNT2 was remarkably suppressed. (ii) Silenced expression of GCNT2 was reactivated by combined demethylating agents. (iii) Promoter DNA methylation of GCNT2 was silenced in CRC cell lines and tissues. Hypomethylation of GCNT2 variant 2 is tightly associated with lymph node metastasis in primary CRC. (iv) GCNT2 methylation level in the normal tissues also showed a close association with that in the tumor tissues and reflected lymph node metastasis. We identified aberrant expression of GCNT2, which can be explained by promoter DNA hypermethylation. Hypomethylation of the GCNT2 variant 2 reflected lymph node metastasis of CRC in the tumor and normal tissues. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Left Upper Division Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: The Impact of Interlobar Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kuroda

    Full Text Available Left upper division segmentectomy is one of the major pulmonary procedures; however, it is sometimes difficult to completely dissect interlobar lymph nodes. We attempted to clarify the prognostic importance of hilar and mediastinal nodes, especially of interlobar lymph nodes, in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC located in the left upper division.We retrospectively studied patients with primary left upper lobe NSCLC undergoing surgical pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy with radical lymphadenectomy. The representative evaluation of therapeutic value from the lymph node dissection was determined using Sasako's method. This analysis was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the station and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with metastasis to the station.We enrolled 417 patients (237 men, 180 women. Tumors were located in the lingular lobe and at the upper division of left upper lobe in 69 and 348 patients, respectively. The pathological nodal statuses were pN0 in 263 patients, pN1 in 70 patients, and pN2 in 84 patients. Lymph nodes #11 and #7 were significantly correlated with differences in node involvement in patients with left upper lobe NSCLC. Among those with left upper division NSCLC, the 5-year overall survival in pN1 was 31.5% for #10, 39.3% for #11, and 50.4% for #12U. The involvement of node #11 was 1.89-fold higher in the anterior segment than that in the apicoposterior segment. The therapeutic index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection for #11 was 3.38, #4L was 1.93, and the aortopulmonary window was 4.86 in primary left upper division NSCLC.Interlobar node involvement is not rare in left upper division NSCLC, occurring in >20% cases. Furthermore, dissection of interlobar nodes was found to be beneficial in patients with left upper division NSCLC.

  17. Local recurrence and distant metastasis of supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor in an adult patient successfully treated with intensive induction chemotherapy and maintenance temozolomide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terheggen, F.; Troost, D.; Majoie, C. B.; Leenstra, S.; Richel, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNET) in adults are very rare. Extraneural metastasis are unusual and the optimal palliative chemotherapy regimen is not established. We present a 26-year-old patient with local recurrence and distant metastasis of supratentorial PNET successfully

  18. Gastric Metastasis of Triple Negative Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geredeli, Caglayan; Dogru, Osman; Omeroglu, Ethem; Yilmaz, Farise; Cicekci, Faruk

    2015-05-05

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis of an invasive lobular carcinoma. In this report, we present a case of gastric metastasis from triple-negative invasive lobular breast cancer. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis by distinguishing gastric metastasis from breast cancer in order to select the best initial treatment for systemic diseases of breast cancer. Considering our case, healthcare professionals should take into account that cases with invasive lobular breast cancer may experience unusual metastases.

  19. Late (> 5 years) regional lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), proven by p53 mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummer, J. Alain; Van Es, Robert J. J.; Hoekstra, J.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A late (>5 years) neck nodal metastasis of oral cancer, poses a problem to the clinician: is it a late metastasis or a metastasis of a (unknown) second primary tumour? Methods: A 50-year-old male was seen with a contralateral lymph node metastasis, 51/2 years after treatment of a pT2N1M0

  20. Diagnostic efficacy of the preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, Ga-67 scintigraphy and computed tomography for detection of lymph node metastasis in cases with ovarian or endometrial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozalp, S.; Yalcin, O.T.; Polay, S. [Osmangazi Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eskisehir (Turkey); Aslan, N.; Vardareli, E. [Osmangazi Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Eskisehir (Turkey); Adapinar, B. [Osmangazi Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-02-01

    Background: To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy (LS), Ga-67 scintigraphy (GS) and computed tomography (CT) for detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with endometrial or ovarian carcinoma. Methods: The results of preoperative LS, GS and CT used to detect lymph node metastasis were compared to the postoperative histopathological results of lymph node dissection materials of a total of 37 patients, including 16 patients with endometrial and 21 patients with ovarian carcinomas. The diagnostic efficacy of these methods for detecting lymph node metastasis were calculated. Results: When the results of all of the patients were taken into account, the preoperative LS, GS and CT were found to have sensitivities of 50%, 20% and 40% and specificities of 51.8%, 96.3%, and 92.6%, respectively, for detection of pelvic lymph node metastasis. The same methods had sensitivities of 27.3%, 27.3% and 72.7% and specificities of 88.5%, 88.5%, 84.6%, respectively, for detecting para-aortic lymph node metastasis in all patients. Conclusion: These data suggested that although LS, GS and CT had relatively high specificity, low sensitivity of these imaging methods precluded their routine preoperative use for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of ovarian or endometrial carcinoma. (au) 22 refs.

  1. Long-Term Results of Radiochemotherapy for Solitary Lymph Node Metastasis After Curative Resection of Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Keiichi; Ariga, Hisanori; Nemoto, Kenji; Narazaki, Kakutaro; Umezawa, Rei; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki; Miyata, Go; Onodera, Ko; Yamada, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of definitive radiochemotherapy for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative surgery of esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent definitive radiochemotherapy at Tohoku University Hospital between 2000 and 2009 for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative esophagectomy with lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer. Radiotherapy doses ranged from 60 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was platinum based in all patients. The endpoints of the present study were overall survival, cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, irradiated-field control, overall tumor response, and prognostic factors. Results: The median observation period for survivors was 70.0 months. The 5-year overall survival was 39.2% (median survival, 39.0 months). The 5-year cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, and irradiated-field control were 43.3%, 31.0% and 59.9%, respectively. Metastatic lesion, size of the metastatic lymph node, and performance status before radiochemotherapy were significantly correlated with prognosis. Complete response and partial response were observed in 22.9% and 57.1% of the patients, respectively. There was no Grade 3 or higher adverse effect based on theCommon Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) in the late phase. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, approximately 40% of patients with solitary lymph node metastasis after curative resection for esophageal cancer have a chance of long-term survival with definitive radiochemotherapy.

  2. Long-term outcomes after resection of para-aortic lymph node metastasis from left-sided colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Shiomi, Akio; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Yushi; Numata, Masakatsu; Furutani, Akinobu

    2017-07-01

    Para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and often not suitable for surgery. However, in selected patients, radical resection may bring about longer survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes of resection of left-sided colon or rectal cancer with simultaneous PALN metastasis. The study included 2122 patients with left-sided colon or rectal cancer (30 patients with and 2092 patients without PALN metastasis) who underwent resection with curative intent between 2002 and 2013. Clinicopathological characteristics, long-term outcomes of resection, and factors related to poor postoperative survival in patients with PALN metastasis were investigated. Of a total of 2122 total patients, 16 of 50 patients (32.0%) with lymph node metastasis at the root of the inferior mesenteric artery had PALN metastasis. The 5-year overall survival rates for 18 patients who underwent R0 resection and 12 patients who did not were 29.1 and 10.4%, respectively (p = 0.017). Factors associated with poor postoperative survival among patients who underwent R0 resection were presence of conversion therapy, lack of adjuvant chemotherapy, carcinoembryonic antigen >20 ng/mL, and lateral lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 14.8%. Although recurrence was frequent, R0 resection for left-sided colon or rectal cancer with PALN metastasis was associated with longer survival than R1/R2 resection. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival rate in the R0 group was relatively favorable for stage IV. Therefore, R0 resection may prolong survival compared with chemotherapy alone in selected patients.

  3. Clinicopathologic Predictive Factors of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ronghao; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Kun; Fan, Jinchuan; Li, Guojun; Song, Xicheng; Li, Chao

    Cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) has been proven to be a predictor for locoregional recurrence in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Clinicopathological features could be effective predictive factors for central and lateral LNM of DTC, and provide references to surgeons for cervical neck dissection. Retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data was performed on 420 patients who underwent initial surgery from 2010 to 2015. The incidence of central and lateral LNM was calculated. Of 420 patients, 247 (58.8%) exhibited central LNM, and 185 (44.1%) exhibited lateral LNM. There were 29 (6.9%) cases confirmed to have skip metastasis. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that tumour location, tumour size, multifocality, capsular invasion, affected lobes, and age were independent predictors of central LNM. Tumour location, capsular invasion, affected lobes, and tumour size were independent predictors of lateral LNM. Our findings suggest that tumour location, affected lobes, capsular invasion, age, tumour size and multifocality may be taken as predictive factors for cervical LNM of DTC. Meticulous perioperative evaluation of cervical LNM and prophylactic cervical lymph node dissection that aims to remove the occult lymph nodes may be an option for DTC with risk factors. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Daily concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy using new superselective intra-arterial infusion via superficial temporal artery for oral cancer. Cervical lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen oral cancer patients with cervical lymph node metastasis were treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal artery. Radiotherapy (total dose: 40 Gy/4 weeks) and superselective intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy using docetaxel (DOC) (total dose: 60 mg/m 2 , 15 mg/m 2 /week) and cisplatin (CDDP) (total dose: 100 mg/m 2 , 5 mg/m 2 /day) were performed, followed by surgery. The pathological effects of resected lymph node metastasis after surgery were grade III, IV (Oboshi-Shimosato classification) in level I, II. This method is a promising strategy for oral cancer with cervical lymph node metastasis. (author)

  5. Topographic distribution of inguinal lymph nodes metastasis: significance in determination of treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation of low pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.; Chin, Y.Y.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Chen, H.C.; Sun, L.M.; Fang, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the distribution of gross inguinal lymph node metastasis and, in particular, its correlation with major pelvic bony structures on a simulation film. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven cases of low pelvic tumors having gross inguinal lymph node metastasis that were treated with radiation therapy between November 1987 and December 1992 were segregated for study. The patient's nodes were palpated and marked with lead wire before the simulation film was taken. The geometric center of the usually round or elliptical node on the film was assumed to be the origin of the previously uninfested node. A total of 84 such labeled nodes was obtained from these 37 cases. These centers were transferred to and mapped collectively on a new simulation film showing major pelvic bony structures of left hemipelvis and upper femur. Results: Distribution of gross inguinal lymph nodes was found confined to the following area, as related to major pelvic bony structure: laterally, just abutting the tangential line that passes through lateral border of the femoral head; medially: 3 cm away from the body's midline axis; superiorly: 1 cm below the line that joins both upper borders of the femoral head; inferiorly: 2.5 cm below the low borders of ischial tuberosity. According to this rectangular boundary, three nodes were out of field, nine nodes near the border less than 1 cm margin. This area adequately covered 86% (72 of 84) of the studied nodes. Conclusion: Distribution study is important in determining the treatment margin. In general, an additional 1-2 cm beyond the area described above is the recommended treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation with high confidence level of coverage.

  6. The significance of extended lymphadenectomy for colorectal cancer with isolated synchronous extraregional lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Ogura

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Findings from our study suggest that extended lymphadenectomy for colorectal cancer with synchronous isolated extraregional lymph node metastasis might be effective in carefully selected patients.

  7. Development and validation of a gene expression-based signature to predict distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin-Ran; Li, Ying-Qin; Liang, Shao-Bo; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fang; Ge, Wen-Xiu; Tang, Ling-Long; Mao, Yan-Ping; He, Qing-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Wen, Xin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Sun, Ying; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zeng, Jing; Li, Li; Liu, Li-Zhi; Liu, Na; Ma, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Gene expression patterns can be used as prognostic biomarkers in various types of cancers. We aimed to identify a gene expression pattern for individual distant metastatic risk assessment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort analysis, we included 937 patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from three Chinese hospitals: the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China), the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University (Guilin, China), and the First People's Hospital of Foshan (Foshan, China). Using microarray analysis, we profiled mRNA gene expression between 24 paired locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumours from patients at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center with or without distant metastasis after radical treatment. Differentially expressed genes were examined using digital expression profiling in a training cohort (Guangzhou training cohort; n=410) to build a gene classifier using a penalised regression model. We validated the prognostic accuracy of this gene classifier in an internal validation cohort (Guangzhou internal validation cohort, n=204) and two external independent cohorts (Guilin cohort, n=165; Foshan cohort, n=158). The primary endpoint was distant metastasis-free survival. Secondary endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. We identified 137 differentially expressed genes between metastatic and non-metastatic locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues. A distant metastasis gene signature for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (DMGN) that consisted of 13 genes was generated to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups in the training cohort. Patients with high-risk scores in the training cohort had shorter distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 4·93, 95% CI 2·99-8·16; padvanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and might be able to predict which patients benefit

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy for small cell lung cancer with lymph node metastasis: a retrospective observational study with use of a national database in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Jo, Taisuke; Yasunaga, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Wakae; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Hiraishi, Yoshihisa; Mitani, Akihisa; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Nagase, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Background The optimal postoperative treatment strategy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unclear, especially in patients with lymph node metastasis. We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with SCLC and lymph node metastasis treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods We retrospectively collected data on patients with postoperative SCLC diagnosed with N1 and N2 lymph node metastasis from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan, be...

  9. The prognostic relevance of parapyloric lymph node metastasis in Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Man-Qiang; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of patients with Siewert type II/III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) with parapyloric lymph node (No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes, PLN) metastasis and to determine the need for PLN dissection for patients with type II/III AEG. A total of 1008 patients with type II/III AEG who underwent a transabdominal total gastrectomy were enrolled. The long-term surgical outcome of PLN-positive patients and the therapeutic value of PLN dissection were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of PLN metastasis between type II and III cancers (5.7% vs. 8.5%, P > 0.05). PLN metastasis was a significant prognostic factor for type II/III cancers (HR 1.63; P = 0.001). Among type II/III cancers, the 5-year survival of patients with PLN-positive cancers was much lower than that of patients with PLN-negative cancers (21.3% vs. 60.8%, P  0.05). In the analysis of the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection in each station for type II and III cancers after radical resection, lymph nodes with the lowest therapeutic value index after No. 12a were No. 5 and 6 lymph nodes. Patients with type II/III AEG with PLN metastasis have a poor prognosis, similar to patients with stage IV disease. PLN dissection offers marginal therapeutic value for patients with type II/III AEG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  10. Carcinoma of Gall bladder with distant metastasis to breast parenchyma. Report of a case and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, D.; Anamalai, M.; Velu, U.; Julka, P.K.; Nambirajan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in India. Gall bladder cancer with metastasis to the breast is very rare. Herein we intend to report a case of carcinoma gall bladder with breast metastasis and a short review of the literature. Methods: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of gall bladder carcinoma presenting with breast metastasis. Case report: A 38-year lady presented with complaints of right abdominal pain. Bilateral breast examination showed 2 2 cm palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed circumferential thickening of gall bladder with the loss of fat plane with the adjacent liver parenchyma. Biopsy from the breast lump was reported as metastatic adenocarcinoma compatible with primary in the gall bladder. Whole body PET-CT showed gall bladder mass with abdominal and pelvic nodes with metastasis to liver, left breast, C7 vertebral body and left supra-clavicular node. She was diagnosed to have disseminated carcinoma gall bladder with liver, breast and supraclavicular nodal metastasis. She received palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin and radiotherapy to C7 vertebra. After receiving 3 cycles of chemotherapy, chemotherapy was changed to the second line with single agent capecitabine. In spite of two lines of chemotherapy, she succumbed to disease progression and expired. Conclusion: There are limited examples of gall bladder adenocarcinoma with simultaneous metastasis to breast in the English literature. Our case showed an unusual dissemination of gall bladder cancer

  11. Predicted extracapsular invasion of hilar lymph node metastasis by fusion positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takashi; Hata, Yoshinobu; Otsuka, Hajime; Koezuka, Satoshi; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Tochigi, Nobumi; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Homma, Sakae; Iyoda, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Intraoperative detection of hilar lymph node metastasis, particularly with extracapsular invasion, may affect the surgical procedure in patients with lung cancer, as the preoperative estimation of hilar lymph node metastasis is unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fusion positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is able to predict extracapsular invasion of hilar lymph node metastasis. Between April, 2007 and April, 2013, 509 patients with primary lung cancer underwent surgical resection at our institution, among whom 28 patients exhibiting hilar lymph node metastasis (at stations 10 and 11) were enrolled in this study. A maximum lymph node standardized uptake value of >2.5 in PET scans was interpreted as positive. A total of 17 patients had positive preoperative PET/CT findings in their hilar lymph nodes, while the remaining 11 had negative findings. With regard to extracapsular nodal invasion, the PET/CT findings (P=0.0005) and the histological findings (squamous cell carcinoma, P=0.05) were found to be significant predictors in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the PET/CT findings were the only independent predictor (P=0.0004). The requirement for extensive pulmonary resection (sleeve lobectomy, bilobectomy or pneumonectomy) was significantly more frequent in the patient group with positive compared with the group with negative PET/CT findings (76 vs. 9%, respectively, P=0.01). Therefore, the PET/CT findings in the hilar lymph nodes were useful for the prediction of extracapsular invasion and, consequently, for the estimation of possible extensive pulmonary resection.

  12. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Left Upper Division Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: The Impact of Interlobar Lymph Node Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakao, Yukinori; Mun, Mingyon; Uehara, Hirofumi; Nakao, Masayuki; Matsuura, Yousuke; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Sakakura, Noriaki; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Background Left upper division segmentectomy is one of the major pulmonary procedures; however, it is sometimes difficult to completely dissect interlobar lymph nodes. We attempted to clarify the prognostic importance of hilar and mediastinal nodes, especially of interlobar lymph nodes, in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) located in the left upper division. Methods We retrospectively studied patients with primary left upper lobe NSCLC undergoing surgical pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy) with radical lymphadenectomy. The representative evaluation of therapeutic value from the lymph node dissection was determined using Sasako’s method. This analysis was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the station and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with metastasis to the station. Results We enrolled 417 patients (237 men, 180 women). Tumors were located in the lingular lobe and at the upper division of left upper lobe in 69 and 348 patients, respectively. The pathological nodal statuses were pN0 in 263 patients, pN1 in 70 patients, and pN2 in 84 patients. Lymph nodes #11 and #7 were significantly correlated with differences in node involvement in patients with left upper lobe NSCLC. Among those with left upper division NSCLC, the 5-year overall survival in pN1 was 31.5% for #10, 39.3% for #11, and 50.4% for #12U. The involvement of node #11 was 1.89-fold higher in the anterior segment than that in the apicoposterior segment. The therapeutic index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection for #11 was 3.38, #4L was 1.93, and the aortopulmonary window was 4.86 in primary left upper division NSCLC. Conclusions Interlobar node involvement is not rare in left upper division NSCLC, occurring in >20% cases. Furthermore, dissection of interlobar nodes was found to be beneficial in patients with left upper division NSCLC. PMID:26247881

  13. Elevated IGFIR expression regulating VEGF and VEGF-C predicts lymph node metastasis in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Hao, Li; Wang, Liang; Xiao, Yichuan; Ge, Hailiang; Zhu, Zhenya; Luo, Yunbao; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanyun

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGFIR) has been shown to regulate the tumor development. The objective of the current study is to determine the association of IGFIR with lymph node metastasis and to explore the related mechanism in human colorectal cancer in clinic. In a random series of 98 colorectal cancer patients, the expressions of IGFIR, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-C were investigated by immunohistochemistry, and the association of these expressions with lymph node metastasis was statistically analyzed. The expressions of VEGF and VEGF-C in colorectal cancer cells stimulated with IGF-I were also examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher rates of IGFIR (46%), VEGF (53%), and VEGF-C (46%) expression were found in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal and colorectal adenoma tissues. These expressions were significantly associated with clinicopathologic factors and lymph node status. We also found the concomitant high expressions of IGFIR/VEGF (P < 0.001) and IGFIR/VEGF-C (P = 0.001) had a stronger correlation with lymph node metastasis than did each alone or both low expressions. In addition, IGF-I could effectively induce the VEGF and VEGF-C mRNA expression and protein secretion in colorectal cancer cells expressing IGFIR molecules. Moreover, Patients who had strong staining for IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C showed significantly less favorable survival rates compared with patients who had low staining for these molecules (P < 0.001). The survival rates of patients who were both high expression of IGFIR/VEGF and IGFIR/VEGF-C also were significantly lower compared with patients who were negative or one of high expression of these molecules (P < 0.001). Together the findings indicated for the first time that simultaneous examination of the expressions of IGFIR, VEGF and VEGF-C will benefit the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in order to assay the

  14. The relationship between lymph node metastasis and some clinicopathologic variables in mucinous and non mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar T. Omer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Involvement of lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor in most cancers, including colorectal cancer in which lymph node status is the strongest pathologic predictor of patient outcome. This study aimed to find any relationship between lymph node metastasis and associated clinicopathologic variables in colorectal carcinoma. Methods: In this retrospective study, 136 cases of colorectal cancer were reviewed from Rizgary Teaching Hospital and some private labs in Erbil, Kurdistan region, Iraq during the period between August 2010 and December 2015. All cases were surgically treated with total colectomy or hemi colectomy. Results: A total of 136 cases of colorectal cancer were included in this study; 53% presented with one or more lymph node metastasis, 47% were between 40 and 60 years of age and 68% were male. There was no statistically significant relationship between lymph node status and any of the studied clinicopathologic variables. Conclusion: In colorectal adenocarcinoma, there was no statistically significant correlation between lymph node involvement and any of the studied clinicopathologic variables including tumor size, anatomic location, differentiation and histologic type, depth of invasion or patient gender and age.

  15. Neuropilin-2 expression in breast cancer: correlation with lymph node metastasis, poor prognosis, and regulation of CXCR4 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Kodama, Rieko; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Nakahara, Masaaki; Inagaki, Michiya; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Neuropilin-2 (Nrp2) is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), which is a well-known lymphangiogenic factor and plays an important role in lymph node metastasis of various human cancers, including breast cancer. Recently, Nrp2 was shown to play a role in cancer by promoting tumor cell metastasis. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) also promotes tumor metastasis. In the previous studies, we demonstrated that VEGF-C and cytoplasmic CXCR4 expressions were correlated with poorer patient prognosis (BMC Cancer 2008,8:340; Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005, 91:125–132). The relationship between Nrp2 expression and lymph node metastasis, VEGF-C expression, CXCR4 expression, and other established clinicopathological variables (these data were cited in our previous papers), including prognosis, was analyzed in human breast cancer. Effects of neutralizing anti-Nrp2 antibody on CXCR4 expression and chemotaxis were assessed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Nrp2 expression was observed in 53.1% (60 of 113) of the invasive breast carcinomas. Nrp2 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, VEGF-C expression, and cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression. Survival curves determined by the Kaplan-Meier method showed that Nrp2 expression was associated with reduced overall survival. In multivariate analysis, Nrp2 expression emerged as a significant independent predictor for overall survival. Neutralizing anti-Nrp2 antibody blocks cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression and CXCR4-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 cells. Nrp2 expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis, VEGF-C expression, and cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression. Nrp2 expression may serve as a significant prognostic factor for long-term survival in breast cancer. Our data also showed a role for Nrp2 in regulating cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in vitro

  16. Mediastinal lymph node dissection versus mediastinal lymph node sampling for early stage non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiongfeng; Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Qiao; Jiang, Jielin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the overall survival, local recurrence, distant metastasis, and complications of mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) versus mediastinal lymph node sampling (MLNS) in stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A systematic search of published literature was conducted using the main databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases) to identify relevant randomized controlled trials that compared MLND vs. MLNS in NSCLC patients. Methodological quality of included randomized controlled trials was assessed according to the criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions (Version 5.1.0). Meta-analysis was performed using The Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.3. The results of the meta-analysis were expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). We included results reported from six randomized controlled trials, with a total of 1,791 patients included in the primary meta-analysis. Compared to MLNS in NSCLC patients, there was no statistically significant difference in MLND on overall survival (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.08; P = 0.13). In addition, the results indicated that local recurrence rate (RR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28; P = 0.67), distant metastasis rate (RR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.04; P = 0.15), and total complications rate (RR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.79; P = 0.72) were similar, no significant difference found between the two groups. Results for overall survival, local recurrence rate, and distant metastasis rate were similar between MLND and MLNS in early stage NSCLC patients. There was no evidence that MLND increased complications compared with MLNS. Whether or not MLND is superior to MLNS for stage II-IIIA remains to be determined.

  17. Risk of lymph node metastasis associated with deeper invasion by early adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and cardia: study based on endoscopic resection specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Herrero, L.; Pouw, R. E.; van Vilsteren, F. G.; ten Kate, F. J.; Visser, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Weusten, B. L.; Bergman, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most risk estimations for lymph node metastasis in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and cardia (AEC) with invasion into the muscularis mucosae (m3) or submucosa are based on surgical series. This study aimed to correlate the lymph node metastasis rate with m3 and submucosal infiltration

  18. A fourteen-year review of radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma demonstrating the usefulness of the concept of lymph node density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi W. Cheng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We studied the long-term outcome of radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma and evaluated prognostic factors for disease specific survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was carried out for all cystectomies performed for transitional cell carcinoma between 1989 and 2002. Disease specific survival was correlated to patient, pathological and operative factors as well as to adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: Of the 133 cystectomies included, 100 were male and 33 were female patients. The median age was 69 years (range 43 to 86. The median follow up was 20 months (range 0 to 158. With univariate analysis, pT stage, N stage, lymph node density, carcinoma in-situ, surgical margin and post-operative radiotherapy to distant metastasis were predictive of disease specific survival. On the other hand, with multivariate analysis, only pT stage, lymph node density and post-operative radiotherapy to distant metastasis were predictive of disease specific survival. Within the group of node positive disease, lymph node density also predicted disease specific survival with both univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with lymph node density 20% or below showed better disease specific survival. CONCLUSIONS: pT stage and lymph node density were found to be the most important predictive factors for disease specific survival after cystectomy in the Asian population.

  19. Assessment of occult cervical lymph node metastasis in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakil, U.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of occult (node negative) cervical lymph node metastasis in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in Department of Radiology, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of the study was 06 months i.e. from 19th February 2011 to 19th August 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 141 cases, fulfilling the inclusion criteria, reporting to the radiology department, were included in the study after seeking written informed consent. All patients underwent contrast enhanced CT scan of the neck from base of skull to root of neck using Asteion Whole Body X-ray CT Scanner (Model TSX-021A). Images were evaluated for the presence or absence of cervical lymph node metastasis according to the cervical lymph node metastatic criteria at each level of the neck. Results: Of the 141 patients with clinically no head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, 45.4% were found to have lymph node metastases. Frequency of occult metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity was 47.6%, oropharynx 23.5%, larynx 33.3% and hypopharynx 78.6%. Conclusion: In clinically node negative neck, the risk of lymph node metastases is significantly high in patients of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in our population. All patients presenting with node negative neck should undergo CT scans for early detection of occult metastasis. (author)

  20. Combined staging at one stop using MR mammography. Evaluation of an extended protocol to screen for distant metastasis in primary breast cancer. Initial results and diagnostic accuracy in a prospective study

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    Dietzel, M.; Zoubi, R.; Burmeister, H.P.; Kaiser, W.A.; Baltzer, P.A.T. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Runnebaum, I.B. [University Hospital Jena (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Accurate staging of primary breast cancer is essential for the therapeutic approach. Modern whole-body MR scanners would allow local and distant staging during a single examination. Accordingly, we designed a dedicated protocol for this purpose and prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: 65 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent pre-therapeutic MRI (1.5 T). A bilateral breast protocol (axial: T1w/GRE dynamic contrast-enhanced, T2w/TSE; TA: 10 min) was extended to screen for distant metastasis at one stop without repositioning (coronal: T2w/HASTE, T1w/VIBE; FOV: thorax, abdomen and spine; TA: 90 sec; multichannel surface coils). The standard of reference was S3 guideline-compliant staging examinations. Global assessment regarding the presence of distant metastasis was performed independently by two experienced and blinded radiologists (five-level confidence score). Inter-rater agreement (weighted kappa) and observer scoring were analyzed (contingency tables). Results: The prevalence of synchronous metastases was 7.7 % (n = 5). The protocol enabled global assessment regarding the presence of distant metastasis with high accuracy (sensitivity: 100 %; specificity: 98.3 %) and inter-rater agreement (kappa: 0.92). Conclusion: Applying the extended MRI protocol, accurate screening for distant metastasis was possible in combination with a dedicated breast examination. (orig.)

  1. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Defining the incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, Emily Z; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Voss, Rachel K; Cormier, Janice N; Torres, Keila E; Hunt, Kelly K; Feig, Barry W; Roland, Christina L

    2018-01-01

    The incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis (LNM, N1) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is unclear. Recent studies have focused on extremity/trunk STS (ETSTS). We sought to define the subgroup of patients with LNM at sarcoma diagnosis across all disease sites and histologies. We identified and categorized 89,870 STS patients from the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012) by nodal stage. Pathologically confirmed LNM (pN1) were identified in 1404 patients; 1750 had clinically suspicious but not pathologically confirmed LNM (cN1). Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method. Of 3154 patients (3.5%) with pN1 or cN1 LNM at presentation, 1310 had synchronous distant metastasis (M1). LNM affected a small proportion of patients (5.8% head/neck, 5.3% intrathoracic, 5.1% intra-abdominal, 2.0% ETSTS). Angiosarcoma (6%), epithelioid (13%), clear cell (16%), and small cell sarcoma (19%) had the highest incidence of LNM, although liposarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma, and leiomyosarcoma accounted for the greatest number of LNM patients. For pN1M0 disease, median overall survival (OS) was 28.2 months, varying by histology. Among patients with pN1M0 STS, angiosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and fibrous histiocytoma were associated with worse median OS (19.4, 23.8, 27.1, and 29.3 months) compared to epithelioid sarcoma and liposarcoma (49.6 and 56.0 months, p < 0.001). Despite clinical suspicion, pathologic LN evaluation in STS is inconsistently performed. LNM occurs across anatomic disease sites and is unevenly distributed across histologies. Although M1 disease portends poor prognosis regardless of LN status, LNM predicts worse OS in a histology-dependent manner in M0 disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Cheong Soo

    2013-12-01

    To analyze sonographic findings suggesting central lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis. A total of 124 patients (101 female and 23 male; mean age, 47.5 years; range, 21-74 years) underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration in central lymph nodes from January 2008 to July 2011. Sonographic features of size, shape, margin, thickening of the cortex, cortical echogenicity, presence of a hilum, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity of enlarged lymph nodes were analyzed before fine-needle aspiration and classified into 2 categories (probably benign and suspicious). Sonographic findings were correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis according to the associated thyroiditis. Fifty-one lymph nodes (39.5%) were malignant, and 73 (60.5%) were benign. On univariate analysis, size, shape, margin, cortical thickening, cortical echogenicity, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity were significantly different between the benign and metastatic nodes (P thyroiditis-positive patients and 0.971 (95% CI, 0.938-1.000) in negative patients. Eccentric cortical thickening and cortical hyperechogenicity were the sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting metastasis was superior in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-negative patients than in positive patients.

  4. Cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in breast cancer: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Nakahara, Masaaki; Kodama, Rieko; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Lymph nodes constitute the first site of metastasis for most malignancies, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a major criterion for evaluating patient prognosis. The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been shown to play an important role in lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also contribute to induction of metastatic ability in human cancers. CXCR4 expression was analyzed in primary human breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up. The relationship between nitrotyrosine levels (a biomarker for peroxynitrate formation from NO in vivo) and lymph node status, CXCR4 immunoreactivity, and other established clinico-pathological parameters, as well as prognosis, was analyzed. Nitrite/nitrate levels and CXCR4 expressions were assessed in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 staining was predominantly cytoplasmic; this was observed in 50%(56/113) of the tumors. Cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with nitrotyrosine levels and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression emerged as a significant independent predictor for overall and disease-free survival. Cytoplasmic expression of functional CXCR4 in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells was increased by treatment with the NO donor DETA NONOate. This increase was abolished by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS. Our data showed a role for NO in stimulating cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in vitro. Formation of the biomarker nitrotyrosine was also correlated with CXCR4 expression and lymph node metastasis in vivo. In addition, cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression may serve as a significant prognostic factor for long-term survival in breast cancer

  5. Structural alterations in tumor-draining lymph nodes before papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Andrew M; Massoll, Nicole A; Jolly, Lee Ann; Stack, Brendan C; Bodenner, Donald L; Franco, Aime T

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and characterize the thyroid tumor-draining lymph nodes in genetically engineered mice harboring thyroid-specific expression of oncogenic Braf V600E with and without Pten insufficiency. After intratumoral injection of methylene blue, the lymphatic drainage of the thyroid gland was visualized in real time. The thyroid gland/tumor was resected en bloc with the respiratory system for histological analysis. Although mice harboring Braf V600E mutations were smaller in body size compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates, the size of their thyroid glands and deep cervical lymph nodes were significantly larger. Additionally, the tumor-draining lymph nodes showed increased and enlarged lymphatic sinuses that were distributed throughout the cortex and medulla. Tumor-reactive lymphadenopathy and histiocytosis, but no frank metastases, were observed in all mice harboring Braf V600E mutations. The tumor-draining lymph nodes undergo significant structural alterations in immunocompetent mice, and this may represent a primer for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) metastasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Thick tumor capsule is a valuable risk factor for distant metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbashi, Wataru; Sugitani, Iwao; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Toda, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Keiko; Sato, Yukiko

    2018-02-01

    While the biological behavior of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been studied in great detail using clinical experience, few studies have investigated pre- or intraoperative factors related to the risk of distant metastasis (DM) among patients with FTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of FTC with DM. This study retrospectively investigated 102 patients with FTC who underwent surgery between 1988 and 2013. We compared clinicopathological characteristics between FTC with and without DM. Univariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis (p=0.045), serum thyroglobulin (Tg) at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm), serum Tg at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml), and macroscopically widely invasive appearance as risk factors independently associated with development of DM. Patients with these risk factors should undergo total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival benefit of post-mastectomy radiotherapy in breast carcinoma patients with T1-2 tumor and 1-3 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraker, N.; Demir, D.; Bati, B.; Yilmaz, B.D.; Bati, Y.; Sobutay, E.; Caynak, Z.C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy in breast carcinoma patients with a tumor size of 5 cm or smaller (T1-2) and 1-3 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis (N1). We retrospectively reviewed the file records of 575 patients receiving radiotherapy (452 patients) and not receiving radiotherapy (123 patients). In the whole series, locoregional recurrence-free survival was significantly better in patients receiving radiotherapy compared with patients not receiving radiotherapy (P 0.25 and in T2N1 breast carcinoma patients with a lymph node ratio of >0.08. In patients with a lymph node ratio equal to or less than these ratios, post-mastectomy radiotherapy could be omitted to avoid radiotherapy-related risks. (author)

  8. Spinal metastasis of medulloblastoma in adults: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuro-ectodermal malignant tumor most commonly seen in childhood and rarely and uncommonly in adult age. Treatment consists of surgery followed by radiotherapy. In the case of a relapse there is no overall accepted treatment. Tumor metastasis can be seen along the neural axis, lymph nodes, soft tissues, bones and distant organs. Case Outline. In this paper we present a 45-year-old female patient with a thoraco-spinal extramedullary metastatic medulloblastoma and progressive neurological deterioration seen 11 months after the first operation and description of magnetic resonance and intraoperative finding. Conclusion. Although rare, the presence of metastasis is a poor prognostic factor. The treatment options for patients with metastases are limited and their prognosis continues to remain poor.

  9. Diagnostic performance of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography of breast cancer in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis. Comparison with ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Suzuki, Kayo; Hirokaga, Koichi; Takao, Shintaro; Sakuma, Toshiko; Hanioka, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in comparison with that of ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer. Fifty patients with invasive breast cancer were recruited. They had received no neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent PET/CT, ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT before mastectomy. The clinical stage was I in 34 patients, II in 15 patients, and III in one patient. The images of these modalities were interpreted in usual practice before surgery and the diagnostic reports were reviewed for analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each modality were obtained taking histopathological results of axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy as the reference standard. Axillary lymph node metastasis was confirmed in 15 of 50 patients by histopathological studies. PET/CT identified lymph node metastasis in three of these 15 patients. The overall sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET/CT in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis were 20, 97, 75, and 74%, and those of ultrasonography were 33, 94, 71, and 77% and those of contrast-enhanced CT were 27, 97, 80, and 76%, respectively. PET/CT showed poor sensitivity and high specificity in the detection of axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. Diagnostic performance of PET/CT was not superior to that of ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT. (author)

  10. Application of metabolomics in prediction of lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Won; Han, Kyunghwa; Lee, Jandee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Kwak, Jin Young

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find useful metabolites to predict lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) through a metabolomics approach and investigate the potential role of metabolites as a novel prognostic marker. Fifty-two consecutive patients (median age: 41.5 years, range 15-74 years) were enrolled who underwent total thyroidectomy and central LN dissection with or without lateral LN dissection in Severance Hospital between October 2013 and July 2015. The study specimens were provided by the Severance Hospital Gene Bank, and consisted of PTC from each patient. The specimens were prepared for proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Spectral data by 1H-NMR spectroscopy were acquired, processed, and analyzed. Patients were grouped in three ways, according to the presence of LN metastasis, central LN metastasis and lateral LN metastasis. Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to analyze categorical variables and continuous variables, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for univariate analysis of metabolites. Orthogonal projections to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used for multivariate analysis to discriminate metabolic differences between the two groups. Among 52 patients, 32 had central LN metastasis and 19 had lateral LN metastasis. No clinical or histopathological characteristic was significantly different for all comparisons. On univariate analysis, no metabolite showed significant difference for all comparisons. On multivariate analysis, OPLS-DA did not discriminate the presence and absence of LN metastasis. Lactate was found to be the most promising metabolite. No metabolite could discriminate the presence of LN metastasis. However, lactate was found to be the most promising metabolite for discrimination. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate significant metabolites which can indicate the presence of LN metastasis in patients with PTC.

  11. Late Lung Metastasis of a Primary Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma 10 Years after Initial Surgical Treatment: The First Clinical Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years.

  12. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes (≥4 vs. ≤3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of ≥11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth ≥11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  13. Reduced expression of ZDHHC2 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 2 (ZDHHC2, originally named as reduced expression associated with metastasis protein (REAM, has been proposed as a putative tumor/metastasis suppressor gene and is often aberrantly decreased in human cancers. However ZDHHC2 expression pattern and its clinical significance have not yet been investigated in gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR and immunostaining were performed to detect ZDHHC2 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma, and then the correlation between ZDHHC2 expression and clinicpathologic parameters, and patient survival was analyzed. Compared to the adjacent normal tissues, ZDHHC2 expression was significantly reduced in gastric tumor tissues as shown by qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Low expression of ZDHHC2 was observed in 44.7% (211/472 of gastric adenocarcinoma patients, and was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis (p<0.001 and histological grade (p<0.001. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that ZDHHC2 expression had a significant, independent predictive value for survival of gastric cancer patients (HR = 0.627, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that reduced ZDHHC2 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and independently predicts an unfavorable prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.

  14. Artificial neural networks as classification and diagnostic tools for lymph node-negative breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eswari J, Satya; Chandrakar, Neha [National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur (India)

    2016-04-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to develop a technique to classify lymph node negative breast cancer that is prone to distant metastases based on gene expression signatures. The neural network used is a multilayered feed forward network that employs back propagation algorithm. Once trained with DNA microarraybased gene expression profiles of genes that were predictive of distant metastasis recurrence of lymph node negative breast cancer, the ANNs became capable of correctly classifying all samples and recognizing the genes most appropriate to the classification. To test the ability of the trained ANN models in recognizing lymph node negative breast cancer, we analyzed additional idle samples that were not used beforehand for the training procedure and obtained the correctly classified result in the validation set. For more substantial result, bootstrapping of training and testing dataset was performed as external validation. This study illustrates the potential application of ANN for breast tumor diagnosis and the identification of candidate targets in patients for therapy.

  15. Breast Carcinoma with Oncotype DX Recurrence Score Lower Than 18: Rate of Distant Metastases in a Large Series with Clinical Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hannah Y; Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Patil, Sujata; Pareja, Fresia; Bowser, Zenica L; Dickler, Maura N.; Norton, Larry; Morrow, Monica; Hudis, Clifford A.; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds A 21-gene expression assay (Oncotype DX™ Recurrence Score (“RS”)) that utilizes RT-PCR is used clinically in early-stage estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast carcinoma (ER+/HER2− BC) to determine both prognosis with tamoxifen therapy and the utility of adding adjuvant chemotherapy. Use of the assay is associated with reductions in overall chemotherapy usage. This study examined the treatments and outcomes in patients with low recurrence scores. Methods We reviewed the institutional database to identify patients with node-negative, ER+/HER2− BC and the 21-gene recurrence score results treated at our center between September 2008 and August 2013. Results We identified 1406 consecutive patients with node-negative ER+/HER2− BC and low RS [RS 0–10: n=510; RS 11–17: n=896]. The median age at BC diagnosis was 56 years; 63 (4%) patients were younger than 40 years. Overall, 1361 (97%) of patients received endocrine therapy and 170 (12%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 46 months. Six patients (0.4%) developed distant metastases (one patient with RS = 5, and five with RS of 11–17). In the RS 11–17 cohort, the absolute rate of distant metastasis among patients <40 years old was 7.1% (3/42), versus 0.2% (2/854) among patients ≥40 years. Conclusions Our data document a 0.4% rate of distant metastasis within 5 years of BC diagnosis among patients with node-negative ER+/HER2− BC of RS<18. Patients younger than 40 years at BC diagnosis were observed to have a higher rate of distant metastases. Analysis of data from other studies is necessary to further validate this observation. PMID:27526056

  16. Status and prognosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with cardia cancer – A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Cecilie; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Achiam, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) has a poor prognosis and survival rates significantly decreases if lymph node metastasis is present. An extensive lymphadenectomy may increase chances of cure, but may also lead to further postoperative morbidity and mortality. The...

  17. Supraclavicular failure after breast-conserving therapy in patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes when prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation is omitted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Semba, Takatoshi

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of supraclavicular metastasis as the initial failure and the failure patterns in patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes (PALNs) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) without prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation were investigated. Between 1991 and 2002, a total of 48 women with four or more PALNs underwent BCT without prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation (33 patients with 4-9 PALNs; 15 patients with ≥10 PALNs). The median follow-up time was 50 months. Among the patients with 4-9 PALNs, 3% had isolated supraclavicular metastasis as the initial failure, and 30% had distant metastasis as the initial failure. Among patients with ≥10 PALNs, 7% had isolated supraclavicular metastasis as the initial failure, and 40% had distant metastasis as the initial failure. The 4-year isolated supraclavicular failure rates were 5% for all patients, 3% for patients with 4-9 PALNs, and 8% for patients with ≥10 PALNs. In patients who had undergone BCT and had had four or more PALNs, the major failure pattern was distant failure with or without locoregional failure; isolated supraclavicular failure as the initial failure comprised a less common failure pattern. Omission of prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation may be acceptable for this subset of patients. (author)

  18. Prognostic aspects of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in synchronous distant metastatic rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Qing; Song, Jia-Cheng; Li, Yan; Xu, Lu-Lu; Shi, Hai-Bin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Huang, Dong-Ya [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of General Surgery, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    To explore the correlations between DCE-MRI quantitative parameters and synchronous distant metastasis and the clinicopathological factors in rectal cancers. Sixty-three patients with rectal cancer (synchronous distant metastasis, n = 31; non-metastasis, n = 32) were enrolled in this study. Student's t test and ANOVA were used to compare DCE-MRI parameters (K{sup trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e}). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the reasonable threshold of DCE-MRI parameters to differentiate lesions with synchronous distant metastasis from those without metastasis. The K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, and V{sub e} value were significantly higher in the lesions with distant metastasis than in the lesions without distant metastasis (0.536 ± 0.242 vs. 0.299 ± 0.118 min{sup -1}, p < 0.001; 1.598 ± 0.477 vs. 1.341 ± 0.390 min{sup -1}, p = 0.022; and 0.324 ± 0.173 vs. 0.249 ± 0.091, p = 0.034; respectively). The K{sup trans} showed the highest AUCs of 0.788 (p < 0.001), with sensitivity of 61.29 % and specificity of 87.5 %, respectively. DCE-MRI parameters may represent a prognostic indicator for synchronous distant metastases in patients with rectal cancer. (orig.)

  19. The Clinical Value of Axillary Ultrasonogra- phy for Detection of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Cases with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Tahmasebi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The axillary lymph node stage is one of the single most important determinants in the prognosis of breast cancer patients. The disadvantages of the two previous methods used for evaluating axillary node metastasis, i.e., axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy, have directed researchers to investigate new techniques for this purpose. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of axillary ultrasonography in detecting axillary metastasis. Methods: This study was conducted during a 12-month period. The breast cancer cases included in this study were all clinically diagnosed as stages I and II, with no prior treatment to the axillary region by surgery and/or chemo-radiotherapy. Excluded from the study group were patients with palpable axillary lymph nodes, those who had major organ failure or concomitant malignancy. All included patients with non-palpable axillary lymph nodes underwent axillary ultrasound examination. An ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy was performed on patients with suspected metastasis. Results: There were 125 female patients with a mean age of 49.6 years included in this study. From these, 16 (12.8% cases had positive axillary sonographic findings. Pathologic evaluation of tissue specimens (taken by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in 10 (62.5% out of 16 patients were positive, and in the patient group of 6 (37.5% cases, studies were negative. Axillary ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 35.7%, specificity of 93.8%, positive predictive value of 62.5%, and negative predictive value of 83.5%. Conclusion: The axillary ultrasonogram is a reliable technique in the determination of axillary nodal metastatic involvement in breast cancer patients. By use of this method a significant amount of complications and costs related to the previous techniques can be avoided.

  20. The relationship between tumour size, nodal status and distant metastases: on the origins of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopik, Victoria; Narod, Steven A

    2018-04-24

    In patients with breast cancer, increasing tumour size at diagnosis is associated with an increased likelihood of axillary lymph node involvement and increased breast cancer-specific mortality. However, this relation is based on studies which combine all tumours smaller than 1.0 cm in a single category and all tumours larger than 5.0 cm in another category. This coarse classification may obscure a nuanced description of the effects of tumour size across the full range of possible sizes. We examined the relationship between primary tumour size, lymph node status and distant metastases in a cohort of 819,647 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer from 1990 to 2014 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries database. All patients in the cohort had a known primary tumour size between 1 and 150 mm in greatest dimension. Primary tumour size was examined as a continuous (1-150 mm) and categorical variable (15 size groups; 10-mm intervals). For each 1- or 10-mm size group, we determined the proportion of patients with positive lymph nodes at diagnosis, the proportion of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis and the actuarial cumulative risk of breast cancer-specific mortality at 15 years from diagnosis. Among 819,647 patients with invasive breast tumours between 1 and 150 mm in size, there was a non-linear correlation between increasing tumour size and the prevalence of lymph node metastases at diagnosis (% node-positive), the prevalence of distant metastases at diagnosis (% stage IV) and the 15-year rate of breast cancer-specific mortality across the entire size spectrum. For very small tumours (under 10 mm) and for very large tumours (larger than 60-90 mm) there was little correlation between tumour size and metastasis risk. The relationship between tumour size, lymph node status and distant metastases in patients with invasive breast cancer is not linear. This calls into question the conventional model that the

  1. Plasma soluble cluster of differentiation 147 levels are increased in breast cancer patients and associated with lymph node metastasis and chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Y H; Liu, Y J; Tang, L L; Wang, S M; Yan, G J; Liao, L Q

    2018-05-25

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) contributes to breast cancer invasion, metastasis, and multidrug resistance. Recent studies have shown that peripheral soluble CD147 (sCD147) is increased in hepatocellular tumour and multiple myeloma patients and correlated with disease severity. The primary aim of our study was to assess the level, as well as the biological and clinical significance of sCD147 in breast cancer. We tested plasma sCD147 levels in 308 breast cancer patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between February 2014 and February 2017. A subset of 165 cases of benign breast diseases was included as a control group at the same period. We analysed the clinical significance of plasma sCD147 with relevance to clinicopathological factors of breast cancer patients. Plasma sCD147 levels were significantly higher in patients with primary breast cancer than those with benign breast diseases (P=0.001), in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (T3-T4 tumour) than those in early breast cancer (T1-T2 tumour; P=0.001), in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without (P<0.001), and in patients with high recurrence risk than those with medium recurrence risk (P<0.001). Plasma sCD147 levels were also significantly higher in the chemotherapy-resistant group than in the chemotherapy-sensitive group (P=0.040). Plasma sCD147 was an independent predictor for lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients (P=0.001). This is the first study to demonstrate that plasma sCD147 levels are elevated in breast cancer patients. Soluble CD147 is also associated with tumour size, lymph node metastasis, high recurrent risk, and chemoresistance. Our findings support that plasma sCD147 is an independent predictive factor for lymph node metastasis.

  2. Standardised tumour, node and metastasis reporting of oncology CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormly, K. L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The oncology CT report is a vital piece of communication between the radiologist and the treating clinician and often determines patient management. The use of a standardised report that follows the tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) structure makes it easier for the radiologist to include all of the necessary information in an easy-to-read format. Presenting the results under the headings of primary tumour, lymph nodes, metastases, and other findings follows a similar pattern to that used by pathologists and also follows the thought process of the treating clinician. Standardised templates for TNM-based oncology CT reports were introduced into public and private institutions. An audit of 199 reports demonstrated a significant increase in the presence of measurements and conclusions in the template reports. While there was a non-significant increase in the use of correct Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours terminology for template reports, there was an improved attempt to describe the disease response. Saving measurements as a summary series on PACS also assists follow-up reporting

  3. Detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse using (18)F/(11)C-choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Cordula A; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Drendel, Vanessa; Vach, Werner; Wieser, Gesche; Krauss, Tobias; Jandausch, Anett; Hölz, Stefanie; Henne, Karl; Reske, Sven N; Grosu, Anca-L; Weber, Wolfgang A; Rischke, H Christian

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography for nodal relapse of prostate cancer according to topographical site and tumor infiltration size in lymph nodes. A total of 72 patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse after primary therapy underwent pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage lymph node dissection. Salvage was done after whole body positron emission tomography/computerized tomography with (11)C-choline or (18)F-fluoroethylcholine showed positron emission tomography positive lymph nodes but no other detectable metastasis. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in 160 dissected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal), 498 subregions (common, external and internal iliac, obturator, presacral, aortic bifurcation, aortal, vena caval and interaortocaval) and 2,122 lymph nodes. Lymph node metastasis was present in 32% of resected lymph nodes (681 of 2,122), resulting in 238 positive subregions and 111 positive regions. Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography was positive for 110 regions and 209 subregions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 91.9%, 83.7%, 92.7%, 82.0% and 89.4% (region based), 80.7%, 93.5%, 91.9%, 84.1% and 87.3% (subregion based), and 57.0%, 98.4%, 94.5%, 82.6% and 84.9% (lesion based), respectively. Of 393 positive lymph node metastases detected by this method 278 (70.7%) were in lymph nodes with a less than 10 mm short axis diameter. Imaging sensitivity was 13.3%, 57.4% and 82.8% for a tumor infiltration depth of 2 or greater to less than 3 mm, 5 or greater to less than 6 mm and 10 or greater to less than 11 mm, respectively. Lymph node metastasis site and the radiotracer ((11)C-choline/(18)F-fluoroethylcholine) had no substantial impact on diagnostic accuracy. Choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography detects affected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal) in patients with

  4. Study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-04-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate. Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymph node metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymph node metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.).

  5. Increased Rac1 activity and Pak1 overexpression are associated with lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis of upper urinary tract cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamai, Takao; Shirataki, Hiromichi; Nakanishi, Kimihiro; Furuya, Nobutaka; Kambara, Tsunehito; Abe, Hideyuki; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis are conventional pathological factors associated with an unfavorable prognosis of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UC-UUT), but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying LVI and nodal metastasis in this disease. Rac1 small GTPase (Rac1) is essential for tumor metastasis. Activated GTP-bound Rac1 (Rac1 activity) plays a key role in activating downstream effectors known as Pak (21-activated kinase), which are key regulators of cytoskeletal remolding, cell motility, and cell proliferation, and thus have a role in both carcinogenesis and tumor invasion. We analyzed Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein expression in matched sets of tumor tissue, non-tumor tissue, and metastatic lymph node tissue obtained from the surgical specimens of 108 Japanese patients with UC-UUT. Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein levels were higher in tumor tissue and metastatic lymph node tissue than in non-tumor tissue (both P < 0.0001). A high level of Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein expression in the primary tumor was related to poor differentiation (P < 0.05), muscle invasion (P < 0.01), LVI (P < 0.0001), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that an increase of Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein was associated with a shorter disease-free survival time (P < 0.01) and shorter overall survival (P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that high Rac1 activity, Pak1 protein expression and LVI were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall and disease-free survival times (P < 0.01) on univariate analysis, although only Pak1 and LVI had an influence (P < 0.05) according to multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that Rac1 activity and Pak1 are involved in LVI and lymph node metastasis of UC-UUT, and may be prognostic markers for this disease

  6. Carboplatin selective intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy on cervical lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma in the oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Hai; Sunakawa, Hajime; Arasaki, Akira; Arakaki, Keiichi; Nakasone, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Gosei; Gibo, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effect of carboplatin (CBDCA) selective intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy (SIACR) on cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral region, and determined the factors related to this effect. Twenty seven patients were enrolled with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region. They received CBDCA SIACR for cervical lymph node metastasis and underwent neck dissection. For all patients, 38 metastatic lymph nodes were diagnosed using a number of criteria. The short-axis diameters of lymph nodes were measured on CT images before and after SIACR. All metastatic lymph nodes were histologically classified into complete, good, or poor responses according to their histological features. Level I metastatic lymph nodes were classified as proximal or distal according to the position of the tip of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. In 9 of 27 patients, computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed to evaluate the vascularity and extent of the primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes. The reduction percentage of lymph node short-axis diameters was 0%-58.3% with a mean of 26%. Complete response nodes (36%±12%) showed a significant reduction in short-axis diameters compared with good (24%±15%) and poor (27%±11%) response nodes (P<0.05). In the proximal group, 0, 5 (63%) and 3 (37%) lymph nodes exhibited complete, good and poor responses. In the distal group, 4 (44%), 5 (56%) and 0 lymph nodes exhibited complete, good and poor responses. The difference between the proximal and distal groups' histological response was statistically significant (P<0.05). No lymph nodes identified by CTA exhibited a poor response. A correlation between reduction in short-axis diameters of lymph nodes and histological responses was demonstrated in which reduction rates increased with histological response. Findings indicated that histological response was greater

  7. The role of androgen deprivation therapy on biochemical failure and distant metastasis in intermediate-risk prostate cancer: effects of radiation dose escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Michelle S; Kuban, Deborah A; Du, Xianglin L; Lopez, David S; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on the risk of biochemical failure varies at different doses of radiation in patients treated with definitive external beam radiation for intermediate risk prostate cancer (IRPC). This study included 1218 IRPC patients treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy to the prostate and seminal vesicles from June 1987 to January 2009 at our institution. Patient, treatment, and tumor information was collected, including age, race, Gleason score, radiation dose, PSA, T-stage, and months on ADT. The median follow-up was 6 years. A total of 421(34.6%) patients received ADT, 211 (17.3%) patients experienced a biochemical failure, and 38 (3.1%) developed distant metastasis. On univariable analyses, higher PSA, earlier year of diagnosis, higher T-stage, lower doses of radiation, and the lack of ADT were associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. No difference in biochemical failure was seen among different racial groups or with the use of greater than 6 months of ADT compared with less than 6 months. On multivariate analysis, the use of ADT was associated with a lower risk of biochemical failure than no ADT (HR, 0.599; 95% CI, 0.367-0.978; P < 0.04) and lower risk of distant metastasis (HR, 0.114; 95% CI, 0.014-0.905; P = 0.04). ADT reduced the risk of biochemical failure and distant metastasis in both low- and high dose radiation groups among men with intermediate-risk PCa. Increasing the duration of ADT beyond 6 months did not reduce the risk of biochemical failures. Better understanding the benefit of ADT in the era of dose escalation will require a randomized clinical trial

  8. Tumor Budding Detection by Immunohistochemical Staining is Not Superior to Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining for Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in pT1 Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Nogami, Hitoshi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2016-05-01

    Tumor budding is recognized as an important risk factor for lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin has the potential to improve the objective diagnosis of tumor budding over detection based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. However, it remains unclear whether tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining is a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining in comparison with that detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted at Niigata University Medical & Dental Hospital. We enrolled 265 patients with pT1 colorectal cancer who underwent surgery with lymph node dissection. Tumor budding was evaluated by both hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining with the use of CAM5.2 antibody. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to determine the optimal cutoff values for tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin and CAM5.2 staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the significant factors for predicting lymph node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the cutoff values for tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin and CAM5.2 staining for predicting lymph node metastases were 5 and 8. On multivariate analysis, histopathological differentiation (OR, 6.21; 95% CI, 1.16-33.33; p = 0.03) and tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining (OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.64-14.66; p = 0.004) were significant predictors for lymph node metastasis; however, tumor budding detected by CAM5.2 staining was not a significant predictor. This study was limited by potential selection bias because surgically resected specimens were collected instead of endoscopically resected specimens. Tumor budding detected by

  9. Adjuvant chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy for small cell lung cancer with lymph node metastasis: a retrospective observational study with use of a national database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Jo, Taisuke; Yasunaga, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Wakae; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Hiraishi, Yoshihisa; Mitani, Akihisa; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Nagase, Takahide

    2017-09-02

    The optimal postoperative treatment strategy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unclear, especially in patients with lymph node metastasis. We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with SCLC and lymph node metastasis treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. We retrospectively collected data on patients with postoperative SCLC diagnosed with N1 and N2 lymph node metastasis from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan, between July 2010 and March 2015. We extracted data on patient age, sex, comorbidities, and TNM classification at lung surgery; operative procedures, chemotherapy drugs, and radiotherapy during hospitalization; and discharge status. Recurrence-free survival was compared between the chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy groups using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Median recurrence-free survival was 1146 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 885-1407) in the chemotherapy group (n = 489) and 873 days (95% CI, 464-1282) in the chemoradiotherapy group (n = 75). There was no significant difference between these after adjusting for patient backgrounds (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.91-1.84). There was no significant difference in recurrence-free survival between patients with SCLC and N1-2 lymph node metastasis treated with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to address this issue.

  10. Expression of COX-2, CD44v6 and CD147 and relationship with invasion and lymph node metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available To assess the expression of COX-2,CD44v6 and CD147 in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and the three biomarkers correlation with tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis of Chinese people. 101 cases of surgically excised primary tumor were included in this study, and 40 tissues of epithelium adjacent to carcinoma were used as controls. We characterized the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2, CD44v6, and CD147 in 141 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, and measured the mean optical density (OD of the positive area to identify the expression of the three bio-markers and relationship with tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. Our study demonstrates that the expression of the COX-2 and CD147 were significantly increased in carcinoma tissues compared to the epithelium adjacent to carcinoma. We also observed that the expression of COX-2, CD44v6, and CD147 were significantly associated with T classification, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage. There was strong significant correlation among the three biomarkers as well. Additionally, we indicated that recurrence and ≥ P50 level of COX-2 expression had an independent prognostic effect on prognosis. In conclusion, the three biomarkers play important roles in tumor invasion and lymph node metastases and might be valuable indicators of tumor metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastasis in Stage I Breast cancer patients

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    Makita Masujiro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A standard intra-operative procedure for assessing sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients has not yet been established. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-eight patients with stage I breast cancer who underwent sentinel node biopsy using both imprint cytology and frozen section were analyzed. Results Seventeen of the 138 patients had sentinel node involvement. Results of imprint cytology included nine false negative cases (sensitivity, 47.1%. In contrast, only two cases of false negatives were found on frozen section (sensitivity, 88.2%. There were two false positive cases identified by imprint cytology (specificity, 98.3%. On the other hand, frozen section had 100% specificity. Conclusion These findings suggest that frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative determination of sentinel lymph node metastasis in stage I breast cancer patients.

  12. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SPECIFIC FEATURES OF GATA3 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR EXPRESSION AND LYMPH NODE METASTASIS IN LUMINAL BREAST CANCER

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    S. V. Vtorushin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the study of the markers of cell differentiation, proliferative regulators, and molecules involved in the development of drug resistance mechanisms in breast cancer is extremely important. The transcription factor GATA3 plays an essential role in the differentiation and proliferative activity of luminal breast cancer cells, being a tumor suppressor. The GATA3 positive expression is most frequently observed in invasive carcinoma of no special type. High expression of GATA3 is associated with low-grade ER-positive cancer with a favorable prognosis. Low GATA3 expression is observed in patients with high-grade and hormone receptor-negative cancer. The study of GATA3 expression is necessary for understanding the development of drug resistance mechanisms and developing approaches to overcome them as well as for determining the response to hormone therapy. Aim. The present study was undertaken to study the expression characteristics of the transcription factor GATA3 in patients with luminal breast cancer and to evaluate their relationship with the parameters of lymphogenous metastasis. Material and methods. The study included 64 patients with stage T1–4N1–3M0 invasive breast cancer. The primary tumor tissue and all removed lymph nodes were morphologically examined. The diagnosis was established according to the WHO criteria (2012. Results. Low GATA3 expression was associated with a high risk of lymph node metastases, while high GATA3 expression was associated with the absence of lymph node metastases. Heterogeneous GATA3 expression was associated with high risk of lymph node metastasis, and as a consequence, with poor prognosis. Conclusion. The relationship between the expression of GATA3 protein and lymphogenic metastasis in patients with luminal breast cancer was found.

  13. Detection of distant metastasis and prognostic prediction of recurrent salivary gland carcinomas using 18 F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Roh, J-L; Kim, J S; Lee, J H; Choi, S-H; Nam, S Y; Kim, S Y

    2018-04-24

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and conventional contrast-enhanced CT for the re-staging of recurrent salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). This study included 58 consecutive patients who underwent recurrent SGCs after definitive treatment. The recurrences were evaluated by 18 F-FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT of the neck and chest. McNemar's test was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT with standard neck and chest CT imaging, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the prognostic value of PET/CT. Of 58 patients with recurrent SGCs, 17 (29%) had a local recurrence, 17 (29%) had a regional recurrence, and 38 (66%) had a distant metastasis, with these classifications showing overlap. The sensitivity and accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of distant metastases were significantly higher than those of CT (P 0.1). The 18 F-FDG PET/CT-positive findings at distant sites were predictors of poor progression-free and overall survival outcome (all P PET/CT is a more effective method than CT for detecting distant site recurrences of SGC. This may lead to prognostic prediction for recurrent SGCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined overexpression of cadherin 6, cadherin 11 and cluster of differentiation 44 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Zhao, Ji-Zhi; Lin, Run-Tai; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Yong-Ning; Yu, Li-Jiang; Shi, Tian-Yin; Wang, Mu; Liu, Man-Man; Liu, Yao-Ran; Zhang, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly invasive lesion that frequently metastasizes to the cervical lymph nodes and is associated with a poor prognosis. Several adhesion factors, including cadherin 6 (CDH6), cadherin 11 (CDH11) and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), have been reported to be involved in the invasion and metastasis of multiple types of cancer. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the expression of CDH6, CDH11 and CD44 in tumor tissues from patients with OSCC, and whether this was associated with the metastasis and survival of OSCC. The mRNA expression of the human tumor metastasis-related cytokines was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in OSCC tumors with or without lymph node metastasis (n=10/group). The expression of CDH6, CDH11 and CD44 in 101 OSCC and 10 normal oral mucosa samples was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The association between overall and disease-specific survival times of patients with OSCC and the expression of these three proteins was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. RT-qPCR results indicated that the mRNA expression of CDH6, CDH11 and CD44 was increased in OSCC patients with lymph node metastasis (2.93-, 2.01- and 1.92-fold; P<0.05). Overexpression of CDH6, CDH11 and CD44 was observed in 31/35 (89%), 25/35 (71%) and 31/35 (89%) patients, respectively. The number of OSCC patients with lymph node metastasis exhibiting CDH6, CDH11 and CD44 overexpression was significantly higher than the number of patients without lymph node metastasis exhibiting overexpression of these proteins (P=0.017, P=0.038 and P=0.007, respectively). OSCC patients with high co-expression of CDH6, CDH11 and CD44 exhibited lower disease-specific survival times (P=0.047; χ 2 =3.933) when compared with OSCC patients with low co-expression of these adhesion factors. CDH6, CDH11 and CD44 serve important roles in OSCC metastasis and the combined use

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent oral cancer and metastasis of cervical lymph node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: ora018@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Ariyoshi, Y.; Shimahara, M. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan); Miyatake, S.; Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Surgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan); Ono, K.; Suzuki, M. [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, A. [Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Life Sciences, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We treated 6 patients with recurrent oral cancer and metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes after conventional treatments in 5 and non-conventional in 1 using BNCT, and herein report our results. The clinical response in our patients ranged from CR to PD. In 5 cases, spontaneous pain decreased immediately after BNCT. Three of the 6 are alive at the time of writing and we found that BNCT contributed to QOL improvement in all.

  16. Prediction of axillary lymph node metastasis in primary breast cancer patients using a decision tree-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takada Masahiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to develop a new data-mining model to predict axillary lymph node (AxLN metastasis in primary breast cancer. To achieve this, we used a decision tree-based prediction method—the alternating decision tree (ADTree. Methods Clinical datasets for primary breast cancer patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy or AxLN dissection without prior treatment were collected from three institutes (institute A, n = 148; institute B, n = 143; institute C, n = 174 and were used for variable selection, model training and external validation, respectively. The models were evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis to discriminate node-positive patients from node-negative patients. Results The ADTree model selected 15 of 24 clinicopathological variables in the variable selection dataset. The resulting area under the ROC curve values were 0.770 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.689–0.850] for the model training dataset and 0.772 (95% CI: 0.689–0.856 for the validation dataset, demonstrating high accuracy and generalization ability of the model. The bootstrap value of the validation dataset was 0.768 (95% CI: 0.763–0.774. Conclusions Our prediction model showed high accuracy for predicting nodal metastasis in patients with breast cancer using commonly recorded clinical variables. Therefore, our model might help oncologists in the decision-making process for primary breast cancer patients before starting treatment.

  17. A study utility of gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) in the preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Harufumi

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of esophageal carcinoma. Gd-MRI was performed in 42 patients with esophageal carcinoma. The intensities of 50 lymph nodes in MR imaging were measured. No differences were observed in intensity between metastatic and non-metastatic nodes. However, intensity values did overlap. Thus, the author devised a new method allowing comparison of metastatic and non-metastatic nodes on Gd-MRI utilizing an enhancement ratio (ER). ER higher than 45% reflected metastatic nodes. (author)

  18. Primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst with parotid lymph node metastasis. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Shenoy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from odontogenic cyst lining is rare. The exact incidence of carcinoma arising in odontogenic cyst is unknown, but it is estimated to vary between 1 and 2/1000. The pathogenesis is unknown, but a long-standing inflammation and continuous intracystic pressure have been suggested as possible causative factors. Metastasis from these lesions is not common (< 20%, and most of the carcinomas are moderately to well differentiated. To qualify as a primary intraosseous carcinoma, there must be no initial connection with the oral mucosa, overlying skin, or antral or nasal mucosa. This paper presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst in the anterior mandible with metastasis to left parotid lymph nodes.

  19. Association between US features of primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min Sun; Shin, Sung Ui; Song, Sung Eun; Ryu, Han Suk; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Background Most patients with early-stage breast cancer have clinically negative lymph nodes (LNs). However, 15-20% of patients have axillary nodal metastasis based on the sentinel LN biopsy. Purpose To assess whether ultrasound (US) features of a primary tumor are associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 138 consecutive patients (median age = 51 years; age range = 27-78 years) who underwent breast surgery with axillary LN evaluation for clinically node-negative T1-T2 breast cancer. Three radiologists blinded to the axillary surgery results independently reviewed the US images. Tumor distance from the skin and distance from the nipple were determined based on the US report. Association between US features of a breast tumor and axillary LN metastasis was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for clinicopathologic variables. Results Of the 138 patients, 28 (20.3%) had nodal metastasis. At univariate analysis, tumor distance from the skin ( P = 0.019), tumor size on US ( P = 0.023), calcifications ( P = 0.036), architectural distortion ( P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion ( P = 0.049) were associated with axillary LN metastasis. At multivariate analysis, shorter skin-to-tumor distance (odds ratio [OR] = 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-16.19; P = 0.040) and masses with associated architectural distortion (OR = 3.80; 95% CI = 1.57-9.19; P = 0.003) were independent predictors of axillary LN metastasis. Conclusion US features of breast cancer can be promising factors associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinically node-negative early-stage breast cancer.

  20. Younger Age Is Associated with Poorer Survival in Patients with Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Colon without Distant Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In general, younger age is associated with better survival in patients with colon cancer. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of age on cancer-specific survival (CSS in patients with signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC of the colon, a particularly aggressive type of colon cancer. Methods. Information on patients with SRCC of the colon with no distant metastasis was extracted from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. An X-tile plot was used to determine the optimal cutoff age at diagnosis. Results. A total of 776 patients were included in data analysis. The X-tile program revealed an optimal cutoff at 35 years of age. A higher percentage of stage III disease and a higher percentage of N2 disease were observed in patients ≤ 35 years of age. The multivariate Cox proportional model demonstrated that patients ≤ 35 years of age were more likely to have a poorer survival outcome compared with patients aged >35 years (HR 1.411, 95% CI 1.032–1.929, and P=0.031. Conclusion. In contrast to the association of younger age with better survival in colon cancer patients, younger age (≤35 years is associated with poorer survival outcome in patients with SRCC of the colon without distant metastasis.

  1. A Bayesian network meta-analysis of whole brain radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xi; Liu, Wen-Jie; Li, Bing; Shen, Ze-Tian; Shen, Jun-Shu; Zhu, Xi-Xu

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS) in treatment of brain metastasis.A systematical retrieval in PubMed and Embase databases was performed for relative literatures on the effects of WBRT and SRS in treatment of brain metastasis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed by using the ADDIS software. The effect sizes included odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A random effects model was used for the pooled analysis for all the outcome measures, including 1-year distant control rate, 1-year local control rate, 1-year survival rate, and complication. The consistency was tested by using node-splitting analysis and inconsistency standard deviation. The convergence was estimated according to the Brooks-Gelman-Rubin method.A total of 12 literatures were included in this meta-analysis. WBRT + SRS showed higher 1-year distant control rate than SRS. WBRT + SRS was better for the 1-year local control rate than WBRT. SRS and WBRT + SRS had higher 1-year survival rate than the WBRT. In addition, there was no difference in complication among the three therapies.Comprehensively, WBRT + SRS might be the choice of treatment for brain metastasis.

  2. [Research on Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry in the Diagnosis of Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yue-kui; Yu, Li-wei; Zhang, Le; Fu, Jing; Leng, Hui; Yang, Xiao-jun; Ma, Jun-qiang; Li, Xiao-juan; Li, Xiu-juan; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Yuan-fu; Ling, Xiao-feng; Cao, Wen-lan

    2015-03-01

    To explore the feasibility of quick intraoperative in situ and noninvasive diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. FTIR spectra of surgically removed fresh lymph nodes were measured by FTIR via probe of attenuated total reflection (ATR). For each spectrum, 13 bands were indentified and assigned between 3 000 and 1 000 cm(-1). Peaks in the spectra were measured and relative intensity ratios were calculated and compared between the spectra of Metastatic lymph nodes (MLN) and Non-metastatic lymph nodes (NMLN). Standard statistic analysis was performed. 720 lymph nodes were measured in 38 gastric cancer patients. Results show that there were significant differences between the FTIR of 540 MLN and 180 NMLN. (1) For the band related to nucleic acid: The ratios of I1240/I1460 (p = 0.015) and I1080/I1460 (p = 0.034) increased in MLN, which shows that the relative quantity of nucleic acid was more in MLN than that in NMLN. (2) For the bands related to protein: The ratios of I1640 /I1460 (p = 0.001) and I146/I1460 (p = 0.027) increased in MLN, which shows that the relative quantity of protein was more in MLN. (3) For the bands related to lipid: The ratio of I2855/I460 and I1740/I1460 decreased in MLN FTIR spectrum, indicating the lower relative quantity of lipid in MLN. (4) For the bands related to carbohydrate: The ratio of I1160/I1460 (p = 0.023) decreased in MLN FTIR spectrum, indicating the lower relative quantity of carbohydrate in MLN. The results demonstrate that the FTIR spectroscopy technique maybe develop into a promising method for in situ and quick intraoperative differential diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

  3. A case of recurrent metastasis in the supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes and vertebrae following irradiation and paclitaxel plus bevacizumab administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Ohsako, Tomofumi; Tashima, Rumiko; Nakano, Masahiro; Fujisue, Mamiko

    2013-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection; 19 months after surgery, she developed local recurrence. Subsequently, she underwent mastectomy and received endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. At 47 years of age, she developed pleural metastasis, which directly invaded the vertebrae as well as the right supraclavicular and right axillary lymph nodes. In addition, liver metastasis was observed. To avoid acute transverse myelopathy, the patient received radiation therapy to the vertebrae and the right supraclavicular and right axillary lymph nodes followed by paclitaxel plus bevacizumab administration. After 2 courses of paclitaxel plus bevacizumab, we observed a remarkable shrinkage of the vertebral tumor, and skin necrosis was observed in the right supraclavicular and right axillary region; in contrast, the liver metastasis had increased in size. After discontinuation of the combination therapy, the patient died of blood loss from the axillary skin defect. This wound healing complication might have arisen because of the synergistic effects of paclitaxel plus bevacizumab and irradiation. (author)

  4. Predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in poorly differentiated early gastric cancer and their impact on the surgical strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Lu, Ping; Lu, Yang; Liu, Cai-Gang; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Shu-Bao; Chen, Jun-Qing

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To identify the predictive clinicopathological factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in poorly differentiated early gastric cancer (EGC) and to further expand the possibility of using endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for the treatment of poorly differentiated EGC. METHODS: Data were collected from 85 poorly-differentiated EGC patients who were surgically treated. Association between the clinicopathological factors and the presence of LNM was retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (OR = 5.814, 95% CI = 1.050 - 32.172, P = 0.044), depth of invasion (OR = 10.763, 95% CI = 1.259 - 92.026, P = 0.030) and lymphatic vessel involvement (OR = 61.697, 95% CI = 2.144 - 175.485, P = 0.007) were the significant and independent risk factors for LNM. The LNM rate was 5.4%, 42.9% and 50%, respectively, in poorly differentiated EGC patients with one, two and three of the risk factors, respectively. No LNM was found in 25 patients without the three risk factors. Forty-four lymph nodes were found to have metastasis, 29 (65.9%) and 15 (34.1%) of the lymph nodes involved were within N1 and beyond N1, respectively, in 12 patients with LNM. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic mucosal resection alone may be sufficient to treat poorly differentiated intramucosal EGC (≤ 2.0 cm in diameter) with no histologically-confirmed lymphatic vessel involvement. When lymphatic vessels are involved, lymph node dissection beyond limited (D1) dissection or D1+ lymph node dissection should be performed depending on the tumor location. PMID:18636670

  5. SU-D-207B-03: A PET-CT Radiomics Comparison to Predict Distant Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroller, T; Yip, S; Lee, S; Mak, R; Aerts, H [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Havard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kim, J [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Children’s hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Early prediction of distant metastasis may provide crucial information for adaptive therapy, subsequently improving patient survival. Radiomic features that extracted from PET and CT images have been used for assessing tumor phenotype and predicting clinical outcomes. This study investigates the values of radiomic features in predicting distant metastasis (DM) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 108 patients with stage II–III lung adenocarcinoma were included in this retrospective study. Twenty radiomic features were selected (10 from CT and 10 from PET). Conventional features (metabolic tumor volume, SUV, volume and diameter) were included for comparison. Concordance index (CI) was used to evaluate features prognostic value. Noether test was used to compute p-value to consider CI significance from random (CI = 0.5) and were adjusted for multiple testing using false rate discovery (FDR). Results: A total of 70 patients had DM (64.8%) with a median time to event of 8.8 months. The median delivered dose was 60 Gy (range 33–68 Gy). None of the conventional features from PET (CI ranged from 0.51 to 0.56) or CT (CI ranged from 0.57 to 0.58) were significant from random. Five radiomics features were significantly prognostic from random for DM (p-values < 0.05). Four were extracted from CT (CI = 0.61 to 0.63, p-value <0.01) and one from PET which was also the most prognostic (CI = 0.64, p-value <0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant association between radiomic features and DM for patients with locally advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, conventional (clinically utilized) metrics were not significantly associated with DM. Radiomics can potentially help classify patients at higher risk of DM, allowing clinicians to individualize treatment, such as intensification of chemotherapy) to reduce the risk of DM and improve survival. R.M. has consulting interests with Amgen.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF nm23 GENE EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 毛慧生; 傅西林; 方志沂; 冯玉梅; 范宇; 李树玲

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of nm23 gene and evaluate its prognostic value in breast cancer. Methods: nm23 expressions were detected in 101 breast cancer patients (group 1) by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to measure expressions of nm23 gene in another 68 patients with breast cancer (group 2). Results: nm23 gene expression in group 1 was inversely associated with distant metastasis and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). In 44 patients with negative lymph node, 9 cases progressed to distant metastasis, 7 of them (77.8%) showed low expression of nm23 gene (P<0.05). In 57 patients with positive lymph node, 24 our of 29 patients who had no distant metastasis (82.8%) expressed nm23 gene at high level (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there were 6 patients with distant metastasis in the group 2, all of thenm expressed nm23 gene mRNA at low level. Conclusion: The results showed that nm23 gene might play an independent role in predicting prognosis of breast cancer.

  7. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  8. Effectiveness of accelerated radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and borderline prognostic factors without distant metastasis: a retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Linh N.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Allen, Pamela; Schea, Randi A.; Milas, Luka

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The standard treatment for patients with unresectable or medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and good prognostic factors (e.g., weight loss [WL] ≤5% and Karnofsky performance status [KPS] ≥70) is induction chemotherapy followed by definitive radiotherapy to the primary site at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction with a total dose of 60-63 Gy to the target volume. Patients with poor prognostic factors usually receive radiotherapy alone, but the fractionation schedule and total dose have not been standardized. To attempt to optimize irradiation doses and schedule, we compared the effectiveness of accelerated radiotherapy (ACRT) alone to 45 Gy at 3 Gy per fraction with standard radiation therapy (STRT) of 60-66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction in regard to tumor response, local control, distant metastasis, toxicity, and survival. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients treated with radiation for NSCLC at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1990 and 1994 were identified. All 55 patients had node-positive, and no distant metastasis (N+, M0) of NSCLC. Two cohorts were identified. One cohort (26 patients) had borderline poor prognostic factors (KPS less than 70 but higher than 50, and/or WL of more than 5%) and was treated with radiotherapy alone to 45 Gy over 3 weeks at 3 Gy/fraction (ACRT). The second cohort (29 patients) had significantly better prognostic factors (KPS ≥70 and WL ≤5%) and was treated to 60-66 Gy over 6 to 6((1)/(2)) weeks at 2 Gy per fraction (STRT) during the same period. Results: In the first cohort treated by ACRT, the distribution of patients by AJCC stage was IIB 8%, IIIA 19%, and IIIB 73%. Sixty-two percent had KPS 5%. The maximum response rate as determined by chest X-ray was 60% among 45 of 55 patients who were evaluable for response: combined complete responses (20%) and partial responses (40%). Overall survival in these patients was 13% at 2 and 5 years, with a locoregional control rate of 42% and a

  9. Metachronous solitary splenic metastasis arising from early gastric cancer: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Kawanishi, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Kazune; Munekage, Eri; Munekage, Masaya; Sugase, Takahito; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Kumon, Tatsuya; Hiroi, Makoto; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-29

    The metastasis of malignant tumors to the spleen is rare, and only a small percentage of cases can be treated surgically, as splenic metastases generally occur in the context of multivisceral metastatic cancer at a terminal stage. We report a rare case of metachronous solitary splenic metastasis arising from early gastric cancer. A 75-year-old man was initially referred to our hospital for examination of gastric cancer, diagnosed at a medical check-up. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a slightly elevated lesion with a central irregular depression in the upper-third of the stomach. Biopsy specimens of the lesion showed a moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma, and abdominal computed tomography showed no evidence of distant metastases. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed, with histological confirmation of a moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma invading the submucosal layer. The patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy with regional lymph node dissection, resulting in no residual carcinoma and no lymph node metastasis. Computed tomography, 28 months later, showed a well-defined mass measuring 4.2 cm in diameter in the spleen, and the patient underwent a splenectomy, since there was no evidence of further metastatic lesions in any other organs. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma originating from the previous gastric cancer. The patient was alive 2 months after surgical resection of the splenic metastasis without any recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of a solitary splenic metastasis from early gastric cancer to be reported in the English literature. The present case suggests surgical resection may be the preferred treatment of choice for patients with a solitary splenic metastasis from gastric cancer.

  10. KIF26B, a novel oncogene, promotes proliferation and metastasis by activating the VEGF pathway in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Ma, R-R; Wang, X-J; Su, Z-X; Chen, X; Shi, D-B; Guo, X-Y; Liu, H-T; Gao, P

    2017-10-05

    Tumor metastasis is the main reason of cancer-related death for gastric cancer (GC) patients and gene expression microarray data indicate that kinesin family member 26B (KIF26B) is one of the most upregulated genes in metastatic GC samples. Specifically, KIF26B expression was upregulated in a stepwise manner from non-tumorous gastric mucosa, primary GC tissues without metastasis, via primary GC tissues with metastasis, to secondary lymph node metastatic (LNM) foci. Increased expression of KIF26B was correlated with tumor size, positive LNM or distant metastases and poor prognosis. KIF26B, negatively regulated by miR-372, promoted GC cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations confirmed that the main target of KIF26B was the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway, particularly by inhibition or overexpression of VEGFA, PXN, FAK, PIK3CA, BCL2 and CREB1. Thus, KIF26B, a novel oncogene regulated by miR-372, promotes proliferation and metastasis through the VEGF pathway in GC.

  11. Outcome Analysis of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer and Extracapsular Spread in Neck Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in neck lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in this patient group and tried to identify a subset of patients with a worse prognosis suitable for more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 255 OSCC patients with ECS in neck nodes and without evidence of distant metastasis. All participants were followed-up for at least 2 years or censored at last follow-up. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: Level IV/V lymph node metastases and tumor depth ≥12 mm were independent predictors of 5-year survival and identified three prognostic groups. In the low-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth <12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 60%, 66%, and 50%, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth ≥12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 39%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In the high-risk group (evidence of level IV/V metastases), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 14%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusions: Among OSCC patients with ECS, those with level IV/V metastases appear to have the worst prognosis followed by without level IV/V metastases and tumor depth ≥12 mm. An aggressive therapeutic approach may be suitable for intermediate- and high-risk patients.

  12. The usefulness of MRI and PET imaging for the detection of parametrial involvement and lymph node metastasis in patients with cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won; Park, Young-Je; Huh, Seung-Jae

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of parametrial involvement and lymph node metastasis in patients with cervical cancer. Thirty-six patients with cervical cancer were retrospectively enrolled. MRI and PET scans were performed for all patients within a week before radical surgery. The criterion for malignancy on MRI was >1 cm short axis diameter of the suspected lymph node. On PET, only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake was significantly higher than the background and, if this FDG uptake showed on at least two consecutive axial slices, then the lesion was considered as a malignancy. We compared the extent of tumor on the surgical findings with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, MRI and PET scans. The accuracy of FIGO and MRI staging was 67 and 84.4%, respectively. The accuracy for detecting pelvic lymph node metastasis was better for PET than for MRI (78 versus 67%, respectively). All FDG uptake lymph nodes were confirmed as metastatic lymph nodes by pathological evaluation; this included five lymph nodes <1 cm in diameter. MRI provides an improved evaluation of local tumor extension, but PET is more useful for the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes than MRI; however, PET still misses microscopic disease. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the usefulness of PET/computed tomography (CT) for the accuracy of the disease extension and the cost-effectiveness of MRI, PET or PET/CT in patients with cervical cancer. (author)

  13. MYC is a metastasis gene for non-small-cell lung cancer.

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    Ulf R Rapp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastasis is a process by which cancer cells learn to form satellite tumors in distant organs and represents the principle cause of death of patients with solid tumors. NSCLC is the most lethal human cancer due to its high rate of metastasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lack of a suitable animal model has so far hampered analysis of metastatic progression. We have examined c-MYC for its ability to induce metastasis in a C-RAF-driven mouse model for non-small-cell lung cancer. c-MYC alone induced frank tumor growth only after long latency at which time secondary mutations in K-Ras or LKB1 were detected reminiscent of human NSCLC. Combination with C-RAF led to immediate acceleration of tumor growth, conversion to papillary epithelial cells and angiogenic switch induction. Moreover, addition of c-MYC was sufficient to induce macrometastasis in liver and lymph nodes with short latency associated with lineage switch events. Thus we have generated the first conditional model for metastasis of NSCLC and identified a gene, c-MYC that is able to orchestrate all steps of this process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Potential markers for detection of metastasis were identified and validated for diagnosis of human biopsies. These markers may represent targets for future therapeutic intervention as they include genes such as Gata4 that are exclusively expressed during lung development.

  14. Linfonodo sentinela intramamário comprometido e axila livre: esvaziamento axilar ou conduta conservadora? Intramammary lymph node sentinel metastasis without metastasis in axilla: axillary lymph node dissection or conservative surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Aloisio da Costa Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela constitui tratamento padrão para pacientes portadoras de câncer de mama e axila clinicamente negativa. A presença do linfonodo sentinela (LS extra-axilar e intramamário (IM ocorre em até 2,6% dos casos, e na presença do LS IM metastático, a positividade axilar pode alcançar até 81%. Na associação do LS IM metastático ao LS axilar não metastático, não há conduta padronizada, visto um limitado número de casos descritos. Adicionamos dois casos à literatura, observando, em um deles, a presença de doença metastática axilar na linfadenectomia complementar. A utilização de nomograma demonstrou que o risco de doença metastática axilar era inferior a 10%, e a adição destes casos à literatura mostrou que, nesta situação, a taxa de doença metastática axilar é de 6,25%. Discutimos os prós e contras da linfadenectomia axilar complementar nesta situação.The sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard treatment for patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla lymph node. The presence of an extra-axillary and intra-axillary (IM sentinel lymph node (SLN occurs in up to 2.6% of cases. In the presence of a metastatic IM SLN, axillary positivity may occur in up to 81% of cases. Due to the limited number of cases reported, there is no standard treatment for the association of metastatic SLN IM and non-metastatic axillary SLN . We add here two cases to the literature, one of them with metastatic disease in the axilla. The use of a nomogram demonstrated that the risk of axillary metastasis was less than 10% and the addition of these cases to the literature showed that in this situation the rate of axillary metastasis is 6.25%. We discuss the pros and cons of further axillary dissection in this situation.

  15. STMN-1 is a potential marker of lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and silencing its expression can reverse malignant phenotype of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Javed; Wang, Zhou; Yu, Che; Li, Chen-Sheng; Shi, Yu-Long; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Distal esophageal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is still poor. Stathmin (STMN-1) is a ubiquitously expressed microtubule destabilizing phosphoprotein. It promotes the disassembly of microtubules and prevents assembly. STMN-1 can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation when mutated and not functioning properly. Recently, found to be overexpressed in many types of human cancers. However, its clinical significance remains elusive in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we reported for the first time that STMN-1 is highly overexpressed in adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and strongly associated with lymph node metastasis. STMN-1 expression in 63 cases of distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was analyzed by immunoblotting, while expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and western blotting. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi was employed to knock-down STMN-1 expression in Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. The relationship between STMN-1 expression and lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. STMN-1 was detected in 31 (49.21%) of the 63 cases. STMN-1 was highly overexpressed in specimens with lymph node metastasis pN (+), but its expression was almost undetected in pN (−) status. Multivarian regression analysis demonstrated that STMN-1 overexpression is an independent factor for lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. STMN-1 shRNA effectively reduced STMN-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells (P < 0.05), which significantly suppressed proliferation (P < 0.05), increased migration (P < 0.05) and invasion ability (P < 0.05) and G1 phase arrest (P < 0.05) which lead to induction of apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. To verify the in vitro data, we conducted in vivo tumor xenograft studies. Esophageal

  16. Evaluation of microvascular densityby CD34 in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and its relationship with cervical lymph node metastasis

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    Eshghyar N.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Angiogenesis plays a central role for development and progression of malignant tumors.It is considered as an important factor for predicting of malignant tumor's behavior such as metastasis to lymph nodes and other clinicopathologic factors. However , it is still a controversial factor especially in oral squamous cell carcinoma.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between angiogenesis and clinicopathologic parameters such as presence of metastatic cervical lymph node in the tongue squamous cell carcinoma. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were selected from the archive of cancer institute of Tehran University of Medical Science. Sections were prepared from paraffin blocks and immunohistochemically stained with antibody against CD34. Stained vessels were counted in 4 fields ,the most vascular areas at low magnification, in each areas of intratumoral ,peritumoral and nontumoral adjacent tissue in two groups with metastatic lymphnodes (N+ and without (N-. The average counts from the four most vascular areas were recorded as the mean microvascular density (MVD. Data were analyzed by 3wayANOVA and Independent T- test with p<0.05 as the level of significance. "nResults: High mean MVD-CD34 was significantly correlate with positive cervical lymph node metastasis in intra tumoral and peritumoral areas but there was no significant correlation between mean MVD-CD34 and age, gender, and differentiation of tumor. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, CD34 can help us to determine the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis and may also determine the outcome of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

  17. Accuracy of EUS for estimating the depth of tumor invasion and for diagnosing lymph node metastasis and recurrence in patients with m3 and sm esophageal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Miwako; Tada, Masahiro; Tanaka, Youichi; Arima, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    Esophagus-preserving therapy has been increasingly used to treat esophageal cancer invading the m 3 and sm, thereby avoiding radical surgery. However, many problems remain to be solved, including the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis and recurrence and the assessment of long-term outcomes. We studied 132 patients who had esophageal cancer with m 3 and sm invasion. Clinical course after esophagus-preserving therapy, and the accuracy and roles of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosing the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and recurrence were assessed. EUS can be used to examine the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal regions, without being affected by heat beats. Therefore, EUS can more clearly depict lymph nodes than CT or US. The accuracy of EUS was 86.4% for estimating the depth of tumor invasion and 82% for diagnosing lymph node metastasis. All cases of nodal recurrence were diagnosed by EUS. Among patients who received chemoradiotherapy, enlarged lymph nodes often appeared around 3 years after treatment, and recurrence was diagnosed slightly later than that in patients who underwent endoscopic mucosal resection. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy was sometimes performed to determine the treatment policy. Patients who receive chemoradiotherapy should undergo regular long-term follow-up by CT, US, and EUS. EUS is essential for the earlier detection of recurrence. (author)

  18. A case of recurrent gastric cancer with recurrent celiac lymph node metastasis successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy and CPT-11 plus CDDP therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takachi, Ko; Oshima, Satoshi; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Tsujimura, Naoto; Iijima, Shohei; Uemura, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is performed for the recurrence of gastric cancer in many cases. We report a case of recurrent lymph node metastasis successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy. A man in his 60s underwent total gastrectomy and D2 dissection in 2009. The pathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, T4a, int, INF, β, ly2, v2, LN no.2: 2/3, no.3: 1/4, no.7, 8, and 9: 3/4, stage IIIB. Although we administered S-1/UFT as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, a strong rash appeared and the patient ceased chemotherapy. Eight months later, the rash had disappeared. We started chemotherapy with paclitaxel (PAC). CT performed 1 year postoperatively showed celiac lymph node (no.9) metastasis. Chemoradiotherapy (RT+PAC) and additional CPT-11 (98 mg) and CDDP (49 mg) treatment were administered. The lymph node (no.9) was cicatrized after 8 cycles. Forty-two months after the end of treatment, the patient has had no recurrence. It is thought that chemoradiotherapy is an effective cure for local recurrence of gastric cancer. (author)

  19. Extended lymphodissection for resectable gastric cancer. The true incidence of regional lymph node metastasis and adequate extent of lymphodissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayramov, R.B.; Abdullayeva, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the true incidence of regional lymph node metastasis in resectable gastric cancer it was analyzed the results of pathohistologic analysis of lymph nodes taken by extended lymphodissection carried out by our surgical staff from January 2001 till December 2008. According to the received data it was supposed that dissection of 7,8,9,11 zones' lymph nodes in distal third gastric cancer; 7,9,10,11 zones' in middle third gastric cancer and 7,9,11 zones' proximal third gastric cancer is mandatory procedure. Enlargement of lymph nodes of indicated zones should stimulate dissection of lymph nodes on the antegrade lymph flow route, minimally such as 12, 13 zones' in distal third gastric cancer; 8,12,13 in middle third gastric cancer and 8,12,13,110 in proximal third gastric cancer. Dissection of 14,15, 16 zones' lymph nodes in gastric cancer of any localization and 10 zone's in distal and proximal third gastric cancer should only be performed in their obvious enlargement

  20. 18F-FDG PET for detecting recurrent head and neck cancer, local lymph node involvement and distant metastases. Comparison of qualitative visual and semiquantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Schmalenbach, M.; Theissen, P.; Dietlein, M.; Eschner, W.; Schicha, H.; Jungehuelsing, M.; Schroeder, U.; Stennert, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Assessment of the clinical value of 18 F-FDG-PET for detection of recurrent head and neck cancer, local lymph node involvement and distant metastases comparing a qualitative visual with a semiquantitative analysis (SUV values). Patients, methods: Retrospective evaluation of 73 18 F-FDG PET studies in 55 patients by use of a four-step qualitative visual grading system and calculation of standard uptake values in pathological lesions. Calculation of SUV values in normal regions for generating a map of physiological 18 F-FDG distribution. Correlation to histopathological findings and clinical follow-up. Results: 1. Qualitative visual analysis of 18 F-FDG PET studies: a) local recurrence sensitivity 79%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 95%, negative predictive value 85%, and diagnostic accuracy 89%; b) local metastatic lymph nodes 100%, 95%, 85%, 100%, 96%; c) distant metastases 100%, 98%, 86%, 100%, 98%, respectively. 2. Semiquantitative analysis had only little incremental, non-significant value in comparison to qualitative visual analysis for the detection of a local recurrence in two patients: a) local recurrence: sensitivity 83%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 88%, and diagnostic accuracy 93%; b) local metastatic lymph nodes or c) distant metastases did not change in comparison to qualitative visual analysis. Conclusion: 18 F-FDG PET is an effective tool for re-staging of patients with suspected recurrence after therapy for head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  1. Retrocrural Lymph Node Metastasis Disclosed by 18F-FDG PET/CT: A Predictor of Supra-diaphragmatic Spread in Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hyung Jun; Kim, Yong il; Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, June Key; Kang, Soon Beom; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Retrocrual lymph nodes (RCLNs) communicate with retroperitoneal and posterior mediastinal LNs. It is possible that, when RCLNs are involved, supra diaphragmatic extension will occur in abdomino pelvic cancers. The authors investigated performance of 18F FDG PET/CT to diagnose RCLN metastasis and whether RCLN metastases were associated with supra diaphragmatic lymphatic metastases of ovarian cancer. Sixty seven patients with stage IV ovarian cancer who had undergone 18F FDG PET/CT were included in this retrospective study. Diagnostic performance of 18F FDG PET/CT for RCLN metastasis was evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups by presence or absence of supra diaphragmatic LN metastasis. The prevalences of RCLN metastasis between the two groups were compared and the odds ratio was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of 18F FDG PET/CT for RCLN metastasis were 96.3 and 100%, respectively. Of the 67 study subjects, 27 patients had RCLN metastases (40.3%). Fifty patients had supra diaphragmatic LN metastases. 18F FDG PET/CT showed 26 RCLN metastases in patients with supra diaphragmatic LN metastases (54.5%), and only 1 in patients without supra diaphragmatic LN metastasis (5.9%), and the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P 18F FDG PET/CT to diagnose RCLN metastasis was excellent. RCLN metastasis revealed by 18F FDG PET/CT was strongly associated with supra diaphragmatic LN spread of ovarian cancer. Thus, RCLN metastasis could be used as a predictor of supra diaphragmatic lymphatic metastasis of ovarian cancer

  2. The Prognostic Significance of Metastasis to Lymph Nodes in Aortopulmonary Zone (Stations 5 and 6) in Completely Resected Left Upper Lobe Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Necati; Sayar, Adnan; Metin, Muzaffer; Büyükkale, Songül; Kök, Abdulaziz; Solak, Okan; Yurt, Sibel; Gürses, Atilla

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the prognostic effect of lymph nodes metastasis in aortopulmonary (AP) zone in resected non-small cell lung cancer of the left upper lobe (LUL). Between 1998 and 2010, 181 patients with LUL carcinoma underwent complete resection and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups according to N status: N0 (n = 68, 37.6%), N1 (n = 64, 35.3%), N2(5,6+) (only metastasized to stations 5 and/or 6, n = 36, 19.9%), and N2(7+) (only metastasized to stations 7, n = 13, 7.2%). N1 were divided according to single and multiple (N1(single) n = 49, N1(multiple) n = 15) or peripheral and hilar (N1(peripheral) n = 39, N1(hilar) n = 25). Overall 5-year survival rate was 55.1%. Five-year survivals were 76.1% for N0, 54.3% for N1, and 20.7% for N2. N1(peripheral) had a better survival than N1(hilar) (60.3 vs. 29.4%, p = 0.09). Five-year survival of N1(single) was 60.1%, whereas it was 36.6% for N1(multiple) (p = 0.02). Five-year survival rate was 24.6% for N2(5,6+). Skip metastasis for lymph nodes in AP zone (n = 13) was a factor of better prognosis as compared to nonskip metastasis (n = 23) (29.9 vs. 19.2%). There was no statistically significant difference between the N2(5,6+) and N1(hilar) (p = 0.772), although N1(peripheral) had a significantly better survival than N2(5,6+) (p = 0.02). AP zone metastases alone had a significantly worse survival than N1(single) (p = 0.008), whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the N1(multiple) and N2(5,6+) (p = 0.248). N2(7+) was not expected to survive 3 years after operation. They had a significantly worse prognosis than N2(5,6+) (p = 0.02). LUL tumors with metastasis in the AP zone lymph nodes, especially skip metastasis, were associated with a more favorable prognosis than other mediastinal lymph nodes. However, the therapy of choice for lung cancer with N2(5,6+) has not been clarified yet. Georg Thieme

  3. Pattern of distant recurrence according to the molecular subtypes in Korean women with breast cancer

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    Park Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant recurrence is one of the most important risk factors in overall survival, and distant recurrence is related to a complex biologic interaction of seed and soil factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the molecular subtypes and patterns of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer. Methods In an investigation of 313 women with breast cancer who underwent surgery from 1994 and 2000, the expressions of estrogen and progestrone receptor (ER/PR, and human epithelial receptor-2 (HER2 were evaluated. The subtypes were defined as luminal-A, luminal-HER2, HER2-enriched, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC according to ER, PR, and HER2 status. Results Bone was the most common site of distant recurrence. The incidence of first distant recurrence site was significantly different among the subtypes. Brain metastasis was more frequent in the luminal-HER2 and TNBC subtypes. In subgroup analysis, overall survival in patients with distant recurrence after 24 months after surgery was significantly different among the subtypes. Conclusions Organ-specific metastasis may depend on the molecular subtype of breast cancer. Tailored strategies against distant metastasis concerning the molecular subtypes in breast cancer may be considered.

  4. Retrocrural Lymph Node Metastasis Disclosed by (18)F-FDG PET/CT: A Predictor of Supra-diaphragmatic Spread in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Yong-Il; Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, June-Key; Kang, Soon-Beom; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-03-01

    Retrocrural lymph nodes (RCLNs) communicate with retroperitoneal and posterior mediastinal LNs. It is possible that, when RCLNs are involved, supra-diaphragmatic extension will occur in abdomino-pelvic cancers. The authors investigated performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT to diagnose RCLN metastasis and whether RCLN metastases were associated with supra-diaphragmatic lymphatic metastases of ovarian cancer. Sixty-seven patients with stage IV ovarian cancer who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT were included in this retrospective study. Diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for RCLN metastasis was evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups by presence or absence of supra-diaphragmatic LN metastasis. The prevalences of RCLN metastasis between the two groups were compared and the odds ratio was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for RCLN metastasis were 96.3 and 100%, respectively. Of the 67 study subjects, 27 patients had RCLN metastases (40.3%). Fifty patients had supra-diaphragmatic LN metastases. (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed 26 RCLN metastases in patients with supra-diaphragmatic LN metastases (54.5%), and only 1 in patients without supra-diaphragmatic LN metastasis (5.9%), and the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P supra-diaphragmatic LN metastasis was 17.3 (95% confidence interval = 2.1 to 140.9, P = 0.008). Performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT to diagnose RCLN metastasis was excellent. RCLN metastasis revealed by (18)F-FDG PET/CT was strongly associated with supra-diaphragmatic LN spread of ovarian cancer. Thus, RCLN metastasis could be used as a predictor of supra-diaphragmatic lymphatic metastasis of ovarian cancer.

  5. Correlation between tumor size and surveillance of lymph node metastasis for IB and IIA cervical cancer by magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Hyung; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Whan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of preoperative MRI based measurement of tumor size with regard to lymph node (LN) metastasis in early uterine cervical cancer. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with FIGO stage IB–IIA cervical cancer who underwent lymphadenectomy was performed. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in detecting LN metastasis and rate of LN recurrence in terms of tumor size (≤4 cm versus >4 cm) were analyzed. ROC curve analysis was used to determine LN size for differentiating LN metastasis in terms of tumor size. P 4 cm revealed higher diagnostic accuracy of MRI in detecting LN metastasis (85.4% versus 50.6%, P = 0.023) and rate of LN recurrence (20.0% versus 6.4%, P = 0.031) in than those with size with ≤4 cm, the differences were statistically significant. Discriminant analysis of LN size for the differentiation of metastasis from non-metastasis resulted in cut-off values (11.8 mm; size with >4 cm versus 8.3 mm; size with ≤4 cm) and diagnostic accuracy (84.0% of size with >4 cm versus 72.0% of size with ≤4 cm). Conclusion: MRI has limited sensitivity, but high specificity in predicting surveillance of LN metastasis in the preoperative early cervical cancer, especially useful tool for patients with tumor size with >4 cm.

  6. Case Report: Intramammary lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary, probably occult breast, undifferentiated carcinoma [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

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    Zacharoula Sidiropoulou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the clinical importance of intramammary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, even though it is not rare. In the present paper, the authors present an unusual, rare case of an intramammary lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary, probably occult breast cancer, and its management. The patient was submitted to various staging exams and surgical procedures and a definitive diagnosis was not established. From a multidisciplinary context, it was assumed that the patient had a breast triple negative primary with axillary involvement. This decision lead to adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy. Challenging cases like the one described here, should always be managed within the multidisciplinary team context and recorded in the institution’s database.

  7. Experimental studies of metastases of esophageal carcinoma to lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazumasa

    1977-01-01

    Marked progress has been made in surgery for esophageal carcinoma, however, when compared to results of surgery for other carcinomas of the digestive tract, much research remains to be done. The author transplanted VX2 carcinoma, a transplantable tumor of the rabbit, to the esophagus in attempt to determine the mode of metastases of esophageal carcinoma to lymph nodes and also to observe the effect of chemotherapy (Bleomycin) and radiotherapy (Betatron). Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes and then to the paratracheal lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the upper thoracic esophagus metastasized to the paratracheal lymph nodes and then to the cervical lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the mid-thoracic esophagus metastasized to the intrathoracic lymph nodes and then to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the abdominal esophagus metastasized to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes and then to the intrathoracic lymph nodes. Skipping metastasis was rarely observed. Carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus with metastases of lymph nodes in the cervical or abdominal portion was considerably advanced, therefore it is considered that cleaning of the intrathoracic lymph nodes and simultaneous chemotherapy are required when such cases are encountered clinically. Irradiation resulted in regression in the size of the tumor and metastases to lymph nodes and there was a decrease in metastases to the distant lymph nodes. Effects of irradiation were similar on tumors and lymph nodes with positive metastases located within the field of irradiation. Bleomycin medication resulted in regression in the size of tumor and metastases to lymph nodes. Effects of Bleomycin medication were similar on tumors and lymph nodes with positive metastases. (auth.)

  8. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.T.-C.; Chan, S.-C.; Yen, T.-C.; Liao, C.-T.; Lin, C.-Y.; Lin, K.-J.; Chen, I.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Y.-C.; Chen, T.-M.; Kang, C.-J.; Ng, S.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high rate of neck lymph node and/or distant metastasis. We evaluated the value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in staging NPC, especially in the detection of distant metastasis. Methods and materials: A total of 95 patients, including 85 with primary and 10 with recurrent, NPC were enrolled. Dual-phase FDG-PET was used, in addition to the conventional workup. Eighty-one patients without distant metastases underwent repeat studies 3-4 months after initial radical treatment. Results: Of 14 patients with distant metastases, all had lesions detected by FDG-PET, and the conventional workup detected the metastases in only 4. Two patients had false-positive MRI findings for neck node metastasis, but the FDG-PET findings were accurate. Four patients without distant metastases on their initial workup were found to have new lesions on FDG-PET 3-4 months after initial treatment. Patients with advanced node disease had a significantly greater incidence of distant metastases on FDG-PET, especially for N3 disease. Of the 95 patients, the FDG-PET results for distant metastasis were true positive in 14 patients, false positive in 8, and true negative in 73. None of our patients had a false-negative result. For a patient base, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for distant metastasis was 100% and 90.1% (95% confidence interval 81.5-95.6%), respectively, in this study. The accuracy was 91.6% (95% confidence interval 84.1-96.3%), the positive predictive value was 63.6 (95% confidence interval 40.7-82.8%), and the negative predictive value was 100%. Conclusion: FDG-PET stages N and M disease of NPC more accurately and sensitively than does the conventional workup. Patients with advanced node disease, particularly N3 disease, would benefit the most from FDG-PET

  9. Influence of low-dose daily cisplatin on the distant metastasis-free survival of patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, Branislav; Milicic, Biljana

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact of low dose daily cisplatin on distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in locally advanced head and neck cancer treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 70 fractions in 35 treatment days). In locally controlled tumors cisplatin led to better DMFS (p = 0.0272); Cisplatin may have acted independently of micrometastasis in locally advanced H and N cancer

  10. Renal malignant solitary fibrous tumor with single lymph node involvement: report of unusual metastasis and review of the literature

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    Mearini E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ettore Mearini,1 Giovanni Cochetti,1 Francesco Barillaro,1 Sonia Fatigoni,2 Fausto Roila2 1Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Division of Urological Andrological Surgery and Minimally Invasive Techniques, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy; 2Medical Oncology, S Maria Hospital, Terni, Italy Abstract: Solitary fibrous tumors are rare mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasms that are usually found in the pleura. The kidneys are an uncommon site and only few cases of renal solitary fibrous tumor exhibit malignant behavior metastasizing to the liver, lung, and bone through the hematogenous pathway. Purpose: To describe the first case of lymph node metastasis from renal solitary fibrous tumor in order to increase the knowledge about the malignant behavior of these tumors. Patients and methods: A 19-year-old female patient had intermittent hematuria for several months without flank pain or other symptoms. A chest and abdomen CT scan was performed and showed a multi-lobed bulky solid mass of 170 × 98 × 120 mm in the left kidney. One day before the surgery, the left renal artery was catheterized and the kidney embolization was performed using a Haemostatic Absorbable Gelatin Sponge and polyvinyl alcohol. We then performed a radical nephrectomy with hilar, para-aortic, and inter-aortocaval lymphadenectomy. Results: Estimated intraoperative blood loss was 200 mL and the operative time was 100 minutes. No postoperative complications occurred. The hospital stay was 7 days long. The histological examination was malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney. Cancerous tissue showed cellular atypia, with an increased mitotic index (up to 7 × 10 hpf. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive results for CD34, BCL2, partial expression of HBME1, and occasionally of synaptophysin. Histological evaluation confirmed the presence of metastasis in one hilar node. The patient did not receive any other therapy. At 30-month follow-up, the

  11. A case of leukoencephalopathy caused by radiation and chemotherapy for brain metastasis of breast cancer

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    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Sonoo, Hiroshi; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Ohkubo, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Hiratsuka, Junichi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A case of treatment-related leukoencephalopathy is presented. A patient with breast cancer metastasis to the brain, liver, bone and distant lymph nodes was treated with whole brain radiation and docetaxcel. Eleven months after radiation, magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-two months after radiation, the patient had gait disturbance, parkinsonism, dementia and urinary incontinence. From this experience, stereotactic radiosurgery such as cyber knife and gamma knife therapy, representing a new modality for delivering intense focal radiation, should be come preferred techniques for treating patients with brain metastases, to avoid the potential cognitive side effects of fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Multivariate analysis of potential risk factors for lymph node metastasis in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Marjolijn S.; Plaat, Boudewijn E. C.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Diercks, Gilles F. H.; Romeijn, Tonnis R.; Terra, Jorrit B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current knowledge about potential risk factors for lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HNcSCC) is primarily based on studies that lack adjustment for confounding variables. Objectives: We sought to identify independent risk

  13. Increased AAA-TOB3 correlates with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Bu, Lina; Li, Wei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Shengyu; Diao, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Guoan; Yang, Shuanying

    2017-07-24

    This study was to investigate the differential mitochondrial protein expressions in human lung adenocarcinoma and provide preliminary data for further exploration of the carcinogenic mechanism. Total proteins of A549 and 16HBE mitochondria were extracted through 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The differential mitochondria proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were further confirmed by Western blot, immunoelectron microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in A549 cells as well as lung adenocarcinoma tissues. A total of 41 differentially expressed protein spots were found in A549 mitochondria. Of them, 15 proteins were highly expressed and 26 proteins were lowly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 (by more than 1.5 times). Among the 15 more highly expressed proteins, AAA-TOB3 (by more than 3 times) was highly expressed in the mitochondria of A549 compared with the 16HBE, by LC-MS/MS identification. High electron density and clear circular colloidal gold-marked AAA-TOB3 particles were observed in the A549 cells via immunoelectron microscopy. Besides, AAA-TOB3 was confirmed to be elevated in lung adenocarcinoma by Western blot and IHC. Moreover, increased AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma (pAAA-TOB3 was highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, and the up-regulation of AAA-TOB3 correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced stage of lung adenocarcinoma, which suggested that it could serve as a potential molecular marker for lung adenocarcinoma.

  14. Prediction of melanoma metastasis by the Shields index based on lymphatic vessel density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma usually presents as an initial skin lesion without evidence of metastasis. A significant proportion of patients develop subsequent local, regional or distant metastasis, sometimes many years after the initial lesion was removed. The current most effective staging method to identify early regional metastasis is sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB, which is invasive, not without morbidity and, while improving staging, may not improve overall survival. Lymphatic density, Breslow's thickness and the presence or absence of lymphatic invasion combined has been proposed to be a prognostic index of metastasis, by Shields et al in a patient group. Methods Here we undertook a retrospective analysis of 102 malignant melanomas from patients with more than five years follow-up to evaluate the Shields' index and compare with existing indicators. Results The Shields' index accurately predicted outcome in 90% of patients with metastases and 84% without metastases. For these, the Shields index was more predictive than thickness or lymphatic density. Alternate lymphatic measurement (hot spot analysis was also effective when combined into the Shields index in a cohort of 24 patients. Conclusions These results show the Shields index, a non-invasive analysis based on immunohistochemistry of lymphatics surrounding primary lesions that can accurately predict outcome, is a simple, useful prognostic tool in malignant melanoma.

  15. Value of dual time point F-18 FDG-PET/CT imaging for the evaluation of prognosis and risk factors for recurrence in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Yoko, E-mail: pecampecam@yahoo.co.jp [PET Center, Kofu Neurosurgical Hospital, ZIP Code 400-0805, Sakaori 1-16-18, Kofu city, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Nambu, Atsushi, E-mail: nambu-a@gray.plala.or.jp [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, ZIP Code 409-3898, Yamanashi University Faculty of Medicine, Shimokato 1110, Chuo City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi, E-mail: honishi@yamanashi.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, ZIP Code 409-3898, Yamanashi University Faculty of Medicine, Shimokato 1110, Chuo City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Sawada, Eiichi, E-mail: e_sawaday_61674@ybb.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, ZIP Code 409-3898, Yamanashi University Faculty of Medicine, Shimokato 1110, Chuo City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Tominaga, Licht, E-mail: lichtt@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, ZIP Code 409-3898, Yamanashi University Faculty of Medicine, Shimokato 1110, Chuo City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Kuriyama, Kengo, E-mail: kuriyama@yamanashi.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, ZIP Code 409-3898, Yamanashi University Faculty of Medicine, Shimokato 1110, Chuo City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Komiyama, Takafumi, E-mail: takafumi-ymu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kofu Municipal Hospital, ZIP Code 400-0832, Masutsubo-cho 366, Kofu City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Marino, Kan, E-mail: marino-akrf@ych.pref.yamanashi.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi Prefectural Hospital, ZIP Code 400-8506, Fujimi 1-1-1, Kofu City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); Aoki, Shinichi, E-mail: aokis@yamanashi.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, ZIP Code 409-3898, Yamanashi University Faculty of Medicine, Shimokato 1110, Chuo City, Yamanashi Prefecture (Japan); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate prognostic and risk factors for recurrence after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), focusing on dual time point [18]F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Materials and methods: We prospectively evaluated 57 patients with stage I NSCLC (45 T1N0M0 and 12 T2N0M0) who had undergone pretreatment FDG-PET/CT and were subsequently treated with SBRT. All patients received a whole-body PET/CT scan at 60 min and a whole-lung at 120 min after the injection. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) and retention index (RI) of the lesions were calculated. Local recurrence, regional lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and the recurrence pattern were evaluated. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to evaluate prognostic factors or risk factors of recurrence. Results: During the median follow-up period of 27 months, local recurrence, regional lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were seen in 17 (30%), 12 (21%), and 17 (30%) of the 57 patients, respectively. The 3-year overall survival rate was 63.4%. SUV{sub max} did not affect any recurrence, DFS, OS, or CSS. RI significantly predicted higher distant metastasis (HR 47.546, p = 0.026). In contrast, RI tended to predict lower local recurrence (HR 0.175, p = 0.246) and regional lymph node metastasis (HR 0.109, p = 0.115). Conclusions: SUV{sub max} at staging FDG-PET does not predict any recurrence, DFS, OS or CSS. In contrast, higher RI predicts higher distant metastasis and tended to predict lower local or regional lymph node metastasis.

  16. Thermochemoradiation Therapy Using Superselective Intra-arterial Infusion via Superficial Temporal and Occipital Arteries for Oral Cancer With N3 Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsudo, Kenji; Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Oguri, Senri; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and histopathological effects of treatment with thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal and occipital arteries for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of advanced oral cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2005 and September 2010, 9 patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP). Treatment consisted of hyperthermia (2-8 sessions), superselective intra-arterial infusions (DOC, total 40-60 mg/m 2 ; CDDP, total 100-150 mg/m 2 ) and daily concurrent radiation therapy (total, 40-60 Gy) for 4-6 weeks. Results: Six of 9 patients underwent neck dissection 5-8 weeks after treatment. In four of these 6 patients, all metastatic lymph nodes, including those at N3, were grade 3 (non-viable tumor cells present) or grade 4 (no tumor cells present) tumors, as classified by the system by Shimosato et al (Shimosato et al Jpn J Clin Oncol 1971;1:19-35). In 2 of these 6 patients, the metastatic lymph nodes were grade 2b (destruction of tumor structures with a small amount of residual viable tumor cells). The other 3 patients did not undergo neck dissection due to distant metastasis after completion of thermochemoradiation therapy (n=2) and refusal (n=1). The patient who refused neck dissection underwent biopsy of the N3 lymph node and primary sites and showed grade 3 cancer. During follow-up, 5 patients were alive without disease, and 4 patients died due to pulmonary metastasis (n=3) and noncancer-related causes (n=1). Five-year survival and locoregional control rates were 51% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Thermochemoradiation therapy using intra-arterial infusion provided good histopathologic effects and locoregional control rates in patients with N3 metastatic lymph nodes. However, patients with N3 metastatic

  17. Thermochemoradiation Therapy Using Superselective Intra-arterial Infusion via Superficial Temporal and Occipital Arteries for Oral Cancer With N3 Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsudo, Kenji, E-mail: mitsudo@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Oguri, Senri [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Yamamoto, Noriyuki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Tohnai, Iwai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and histopathological effects of treatment with thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal and occipital arteries for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of advanced oral cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2005 and September 2010, 9 patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP). Treatment consisted of hyperthermia (2-8 sessions), superselective intra-arterial infusions (DOC, total 40-60 mg/m{sup 2}; CDDP, total 100-150 mg/m{sup 2}) and daily concurrent radiation therapy (total, 40-60 Gy) for 4-6 weeks. Results: Six of 9 patients underwent neck dissection 5-8 weeks after treatment. In four of these 6 patients, all metastatic lymph nodes, including those at N3, were grade 3 (non-viable tumor cells present) or grade 4 (no tumor cells present) tumors, as classified by the system by Shimosato et al (Shimosato et al Jpn J Clin Oncol 1971;1:19-35). In 2 of these 6 patients, the metastatic lymph nodes were grade 2b (destruction of tumor structures with a small amount of residual viable tumor cells). The other 3 patients did not undergo neck dissection due to distant metastasis after completion of thermochemoradiation therapy (n=2) and refusal (n=1). The patient who refused neck dissection underwent biopsy of the N3 lymph node and primary sites and showed grade 3 cancer. During follow-up, 5 patients were alive without disease, and 4 patients died due to pulmonary metastasis (n=3) and noncancer-related causes (n=1). Five-year survival and locoregional control rates were 51% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Thermochemoradiation therapy using intra-arterial infusion provided good histopathologic effects and locoregional control rates in patients with N3 metastatic lymph nodes. However, patients with N3

  18. Transforming Growth Factor β1 Could Influence Thyroid Nodule Elasticity and Also Improve Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wu, Qiong; Hu, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound elastography has been a very useful tool in predicting the risk of malignant thyroid tumor for several years. The objective of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between strain ratio (SR), collagen deposition and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression in different types of thyroid nodules and if TGF-β1 is related to cervical lymph node metastasis. 102 nodules from 81 patients who underwent thyroid resection surgery in our hospital were retrospectively studied. All of these patients had undergone ultrasound elastography scanning before surgery. Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to evaluate the ratio of expression of collagen deposition and TGF-β1. There was a significant difference between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in SR (8.913 ± 11.021 vs. 1.732 ± 0.727, p = 0.000), collagen content (0.371 ± 0.125 vs. 0.208 ± 0.057, p = 0.000) and TGF-β1 expression (0.336 ± 0.093 vs. 0.178 ± 0.071, p = 0.000). A cutoff of 2.99 for SR measurement was selected for the highest Youden index for predicting malignant thyroid nodules, which yielded 87.88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 83.72% negative predictive value and 92.15% accuracy. Expression of collagen and TGF-β1 was positively correlated with SR measurements (coefficient = 0.839 for collagen and 0.855 for TGF-β1, p = 0.000). Among 61 nodules with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the average SR for the metastasis group was higher than that for the non-metastasis group (10.955 ± 13.805 and 7.852 ± 7.931, respectively), but without statistical significance (p = 0.287). Collagen deposition was significantly higher in the metastasis group than in the non-metastasis group (0.421 ± 0.091 vs. 0.353 ± 0.118, p = 0.011). TGF-β1 expression was also significantly higher in the metastasis group than in the non-metastasis group (0.378 ± 0.0.69 vs. 0.328 ± 0.091, p = 0.016). To conclude, TGF-β1 may contribute to thyroid

  19. The efficacy of preoperative positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) for detection of lymph node metastasis in cervical and endometrial cancer: clinical and pathological factors influencing it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Irie, Haruko; Iida, Miho; Kisu, Iori; Masugi, Yohei; Tanaka, Kyoko; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Okuda, Shigeo; Murakami, Koji; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    We studied the diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in cervical and endometrial cancers with particular focus on lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with cervical cancer and 53 with endometrial cancer were imaged with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography before lymphadenectomy. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography using the final pathological diagnoses as the golden standard. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography. In cervical cancer, the results evaluated by cases were 33.3, 92.7, 55.6 and 83.6%, respectively. When evaluated by the area of lymph nodes, the results were 30.6, 98.9, 55.0 and 97.0%, respectively. As for endometrial cancer, the results evaluated by cases were 50.0, 93.9, 40.0 and 95.8%, and by area of lymph nodes, 45.0, 99.4, 64.3 and 98.5%, respectively. The limitation of the efficacy was found out by analyzing it by the region of the lymph node, the size of metastatic node, the historical type of tumor in cervical cancer and the prevalence of lymph node metastasis. The efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography regarding the detection of lymph node metastasis in cervical and endometrial cancer is not established and has limitations associated with the region of the lymph node, the size of metastasis lesion in lymph node and the pathological type of primary tumor. The indication for the imaging and the interpretation of the results requires consideration for each case by the pretest probability based on the information obtained preoperatively. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of stromal fibrocytes and myofibroblasts to envision the invasion and lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sowmya J; Rao, Jyothi Bellur Madhava; Rao, Pp Jagadish

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells work in close coordination with stromal elements from its stage of emergence to metastasis. The study was designed to assess the presence and distribution pattern of stromal fibrocytes and myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Possibility of using these stromal cells as a marker for invasion and lymphnode metastasis was evaluated. A total of 40 cases of OSCC consisting twenty cases of each lymph node positive (pN+) and lymph node negative (pN0) samples and ten normal oral mucosa (NOM) tissues were subjected to double immunostaining using CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies. Stained sections were evaluated semiquantitatively. CD34 fibrocytes were seen in 70% of NOM and none of OSCC samples. α-SMA myofibroblasts were seen in 80% of OSCC and none of NOM samples. A statistically significant difference was found in fibrocyte values ( P < 0.001) and myofibroblast values ( P < 0.001) between NOM and OSCC study samples. No statistical significance in myofibroblast values between pN0 and pN+ study groups; however, their distribution pattern appreciably varied. This study suggested that fibrocytes could be used as one of the markers for early invasion. Abrupt loss of fibrocytes at the transition zone toward carcinoma and statistical significance in their values supported this inference. Heterogeneity in the distribution pattern of myofibroblasts in tumor stroma indicates that this variability may predict the tumor behavior toward nodal metastasis rather than their mere presence or absence.

  1. Metachronous metastasis- and survival-analysis show prognostic importance of lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubert Tilman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphadenectomy is performed to assess patient prognosis and to prevent metastasizing. Recently, it was questioned whether lymph node metastases were capable of metastasizing and therefore, if lymphadenectomy was still adequate. We evaluated whether the nodal status impacts on the occurrence of distant metastases by analyzing a highly selected cohort of colon cancer patients. Methods 1,395 patients underwent surgery exclusively for colon cancer at the University of Lübeck between 01/1993 and 12/2008. The following exclusion criteria were applied: synchronous metastasis, R1-resection, prior/synchronous second carcinoma, age Results Five-year survival rates for TM + and TM- were 21% and 73%, respectively (p Conclusions Besides a higher T-category, a positive N-stage independently implies a higher probability to develop distant metastases and correlates with poor survival. Our data thus show a prognostic relevance of lymphadenectomy which should therefore be retained until conclusive studies suggest the unimportance of lmyphadenectomy.

  2. [Neck lymphatic metastasis, surgical methods and prognosis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L S; Zhou, F T; Han, C B; He, X P; Zhang, Z X

    2018-02-09

    Objective: To investigate the different pattern of neck lymph node metastasis, the choice of surgical methods and prognosis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A total of 157 patients with early oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the pattern of lymph node metastasis, to determine the best surgical procedure and to analyze the prognosis. Results: The occurrence of cervical lymph node metastasis rate was 31%(48/157). Neck lymphatic metastasis was significantly related to tumor size ( P= 0.026) and histology differentiation type ( P= 0.022). The rate of metastasis was highest in level Ⅱ [33% (16/48)]. In level Ⅳ, the incidence of lymph node metastasis was 5%(7/157), and there was no skip metastases. The possibility of level Ⅳ metastasis was higher, when level Ⅱ ( P= 0.000) or Ⅲ ( P= 0.000) involved. The differentiation tumor recurrence, neck lymphatic metastasis and adjuvant radiotherapy were prognostic factors ( Psquamous cell carcinoma, simultaneous glossectomy and neck dissection should be performed. Level Ⅳ metastasis rate is extremely low, so supraomohyoid neck dissection is sufficient for most of the time. The histology differentiation type, neck lymphatic metastasis and adjuvant radiotherapy are independent prognostic factors.

  3. Markers of breast cancer stromal fibroblasts in the primary tumour site associated with lymph node metastasis : a systematic review including our case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo Koike Folgueira, Maria Aparecida; Maistro, Simone; Hirata Katayama, Maria Lucia; Roela, Rosimeire Aparecida; Lopes Mundim, Fiorita Gonzales; Nanogaki, Suely; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Brentani, M. Mitzi

    2013-01-01

    CAFs (cancer-associated fibroblasts), the most abundant cell type in breast cancer stroma, produce a plethora of chemokines, growth factors and ECM (extracellular matrix) proteins, that may contribute to dissemination and metastasis. Axillary nodes are the first metastatic site in breast cancer;

  4. Histological pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul J; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa P; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian R; Billings, Steven D

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathological predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: (1) sheet-like (n=38, 59%); (2) non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); (3) sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); (4) perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%); and (5) rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21 (33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2-5 metastases (P=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. Three (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. Four (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (1 or 2 versus >2, PMerkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other clinicopathological features facilitates risk stratification of Merkel cell carcinoma patients who may have management implications.

  5. Prediction of occult lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the oropharynx using peritumoral Prospero homeobox protein 1 lymphatic nuclear quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermod, Maxime; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Petrova, Tatiana V; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Simon, Christian; Tolstonog, Genrich; Monnier, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The use of lymphatic vessel density as a predictor of occult lymph node metastasis (OLNM) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has never been reported. Staining of the specific lymphatic endothelial cells nuclear marker, PROX1, as an indicator of lymphatic vessel density was determined by counting the number of positive cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx with clinically negative necks. Correlation with histopathological data was established. Peritumoral PROX1 lymphatic nuclear count significantly correlated with the detection of OLNM in multivariate analysis (p oral cavity and the oropharynx allows accurate prediction of occult lymph node metastasis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1407-1415, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Proposed Lymph Node Staging System Using the International Consensus Guidelines for Lymph Node Levels Is Predictive for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients From Endemic Areas Treated With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

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    Li, Wen-Fei; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Li-Zhi [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Ai-Hua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To propose a lymph node (N) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) based on the International Consensus Guidelines for lymph node (LN) levels and MRI-determined nodal variables. Methods and Materials: The MRI scans and medical records of 749 NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic significance of nodal level, laterality, maximal axial diameter, extracapsular spread, necrosis, and Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) size criteria were analyzed. Results: Nodal level and laterality were the only independent prognostic factors for distant failure and disease failure in multivariate analysis. Compared with unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 1), retropharyngeal lymph node involvement alone had a similar prognostic value (HR 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.17; P=.17), whereas bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.06-2.58; P=.03) and levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement (HR 3.47; 95% CI 1.92-6.29; P<.01) both significantly increased the HR for distant failure. Thus we propose that the N category criteria could be revised as follows: N0, no regional LN metastasis; N1, retropharyngeal lymph node involvement, and/or unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N2, bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N3, levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement. Compared with the 7th edition of the UICC/AJCC criteria, the proposed N staging system provides a more satisfactory distinction between the HRs for regional failure, distant failure, and disease failure in each N category. Conclusions: The proposed N staging system defined by the International Consensus Guidelines and laterality is predictive and practical. However, because of no measurements of the maximal nodal diameter on MRI slices

  7. High infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3* Rong-Zhen Luo,1,2,4,* Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Cong Xue1–3 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 3Departments of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 4Departments of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is associated with poor prognosis and high probability of distant metastases. Tumor microenvironments play a pivotal role in tumor metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are one of the main cell components, and they are correlated with increasing metastatic risk. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic significance of the infiltration of TAMs in patients with TNBC. Materials and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation (CD68 (a marker for macrophages was performed on tissue microarrays of operable breast cancer among 287 patients with TNBC, and the number of infiltrating TAMs was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Results: We found that TNBC with a large number of infiltrating TAMs had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis, as well as lower rates of disease-free survival and overall survival than those with a smaller number of infiltrating TAMs. Multivariate analysis indicated that the number of infiltrating TAMs was a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (P=0.001 in all patients. Conclusion: Our results suggested that high infiltrating TAMs are a significantly unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with TNBC, and they could become a potentially useful prognostic marker for TNBC. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, tumor-associated macrophages, prognosis

  8. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

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    Siggelkow Wulf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766. Methods AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER, and HER2 were considered. Results Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P Conclusions AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors.

  9. Lymphatic Expression of CLEVER-1 in Breast Cancer and Its Relationship with Lymph Node Metastasis

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    Aula Ammar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanisms regulating breast cancer lymph node metastasis are unclear. Staining of CLEVER-1 (common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor-1 in human breast tumors was used, along with in vitro techniques, to assess involvement in the metastatic process. Methods: 148 sections of primary invasive breast cancers, with 10 yr follow-up, were stained with anti-CLEVER-1. Leukocyte infiltration was assessed, along with involvement of specific subpopulations by staining with CD83 (mature dendritic cells, mDC, CD209 (immature DC, iDC and CD68 (macrophage, M&phis;. in vitro expression of CLEVER-1 on lymphatic (LEC and blood endothelial cells (BEC was examined by flow cytometry. Results: in vitro results showed that although both endothelial cell types express CLEVER-1, surface expression was only evident on LEC. In tumour sections CLEVER-1 was expressed in blood vessels (BV, 61.4% of samples, lymphatic vessels (LV, 18.2% of samples and in M&phis;/DCs (82.4% of samples. However, only CLEVER-1 expression in LV was associated with LN metastasis (p = 0.027 and with M&phis; indices (p = 0.021. Although LV CLEVER-1 was associated with LN positivity there was no significant correlation with recurrence or overall survival, BV CLEVER-1 expression was, however, associated with increased risk of recurrence (p = 0.049. The density of inflammatory infiltrate correlated with CLEVER-1 expression in BV (p < 0.001 and LV (p = 0.004. Conclusions: The associations between CLEVER-1 expression on endothelial vessels and macrophage/leukocyte infiltration is suggestive of its regulation by inflammatory conditions in breast cancer, most likely by macrophage-associated cytokines. Its upregulation on LV, related surface expression, and association with LN metastasis suggest that it may be an important mediator of tumor cell metastasis to LN.

  10. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastasis with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with stage III breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Min Jung; Lee, Jong Jin; Kim, Hye Ok; Chae, Sun-Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seol Hoon [Ulsan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sei Hyun; Lee, Jong Won; Son, Byung Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gong, Gyung-Yub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The present study assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the detection of internal mammary node (IMN) metastasis in patients with clinical stage III breast cancer. Patients who were diagnosed with clinical stage III breast cancer and underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. The {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were prospectively reviewed by two board-certified nuclear medicine physicians in a blinded manner. The intensities of IMNs were graded into four categories (no activity and lower, similar, and higher activities than that of the mediastinal blood pool). IMNs were measured from the combined CT (largest diameter of the short axis). Histologic data of the IMNs were obtained by ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or surgical excision. The PPV was calculated for pathologically confirmed IMNs. Visual grade, maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}), and sizes were analyzed according to the pathology results. There were 249 clinical stage III breast cancer patients (age 48.0 ± 10.1 years, range 26-79 years) who had undergone initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. Excluding 33 cases of stage IV breast cancer, 62 of 216 patients had visible IMNs on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and histologic confirmation was obtained in 31 patients. There were 27 metastatic and four nonmetastatic nodes (PPV 87.1 %). Metastatic nodes mostly presented with visual grade 3 (83.9 %), and SUV{sub max} and size were 3.5 ± 4.3 and 5.6 ± 2.0 mm, respectively. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has a high PPV for IMN metastasis in clinical stage III breast cancer, indicating the possibility of metastasis in IMNs with FDG uptake similar to/lower than that of the blood pool or small-sized nodes. (orig.)

  11. Biomarker Identification for Prostate Cancer and Lymph Node Metastasis from Microarray Data and Protein Interaction Network Using Gene Prioritization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Arias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding a genetic disease-related gene is not a trivial task. Therefore, computational methods are needed to present clues to the biomedical community to explore genes that are more likely to be related to a specific disease as biomarker. We present biomarker identification problem using gene prioritization method called gene prioritization from microarray data based on shortest paths, extended with structural and biological properties and edge flux using voting scheme (GP-MIDAS-VXEF. The method is based on finding relevant interactions on protein interaction networks, then scoring the genes using shortest paths and topological analysis, integrating the results using a voting scheme and a biological boosting. We applied two experiments, one is prostate primary and normal samples and the other is prostate primary tumor with and without lymph nodes metastasis. We used 137 truly prostate cancer genes as benchmark. In the first experiment, GP-MIDAS-VXEF outperforms all the other state-of-the-art methods in the benchmark by retrieving the truest related genes from the candidate set in the top 50 scores found. We applied the same technique to infer the significant biomarkers in prostate cancer with lymph nodes metastasis which is not established well.

  12. The role of cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells: association with migration, invasion and prediction of distant metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Liang; Kuo, Kuang-Tai; Chou, Teh-Ying; Chen, Chien-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hao; Wei, Yau-Huei; Wang, Liang-Shun

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide, but useful biomarkers of lung cancer are still insufficient. The aim of this study is to identify some membrane-bound protein(s) associated with migration and invasion in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We classified four NSCLC cell lines into high and low migration/invasion groups by Transwell and Matrigel assays. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), we identified 10 membrane-associated proteins being significantly overexpressed in the high migration/invasion group. The expression of the target protein in the four NSCLC cell lines was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunostaining. RNA interference technique was applied to observe the influence of the target protein on migration and invasion. Gelatin zymography was also performed to evaluate the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Expression condition of the target protein on surgical specimens was further examined by immunohistochemical staining and the clinicopathologic data were analyzed. We identified a mitochondria-bound protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va (COX Va) because of its abundant presence found exclusively in tumorous areas. We also demonstrated that migration and invasion of NSCLC cells decreased substantially after knocking down COX Va by siRNA. Meanwhile, we found a positive correlation between COX Va expression, Bcl-2 expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical staining of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas in 250 consecutive patients revealed that strong COX Va expression was found in 54.8% (137/250) of patients and correlated positively with the status of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.032). Furthermore, strong COX Va expression was associated with the presence of distant metastasis (P = 0

  13. Efficacy and feasibility of the immunomagnetic separation based diagnosis for detecting sentinel lymph node metastasis from breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi XC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Cheng Zhi,1–3,* Min Zhang,1–3,* Ting-Ting Meng,1–3,* Xiao-Bei Zhang,1–3 Zhen-Dong Shi,1–3 Yan Liu,1–3 Jing-Jing Liu,1–3 Sheng Zhang,1–3 Jin Zhang1–3 1Third Department of Breast Cancer, People’s Republic of China Tianjin Breast Cancer Prevention, Treatment and Research Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A purpose of this study was to establish a novel molecular diagnostic model and provide new insight into the intraoperative evaluation of the sentinel lymph node (SLN metastasis in breast cancer. A total of 124 breast cancer patients who met the criteria of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB and underwent intraoperative biopsy were consecutively enrolled in this study. After the SLNs obtained from each patient were labeled, MOC-31 monoclonal antibody-mediated immunomagnetic separation (IMS and flow cytometry were used to determine the expressions of breast cancer metastasis-related markers, including Mucin 1 (MUC1, CD44v6, and HER2. Alternatively, conventional intraoperative hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining and cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (CK-IHC were performed to detect potential SLN metastasis. The sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative rate of the three intraoperative diagnostic methods were compared and analyzed. A total of 55 positive-SLNs were found in 38 breast cancer patients using IMS, yielding a sensitivity of 86.4% (38/44, specificity of 94.7% (36/38, accuracy of 93.5% (116/124, false-positive rate of 2.5% (2/80, false-negative rate of 13.6% (6/44, positive predictive value of 95.5% (42/44, and negative predictive value

  14. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung; Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201 Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131 I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201 Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131 I and 201 Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201 Tl and 131 I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201 Tl imaging was performed before the 131 I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201 Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201 Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131 I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201 Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201 Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131 I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131 I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201 Tl and 131 I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung

  15. Unusual metastasis of left colon cancer: considerations on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Adelmo; Moccia, Giancarlo; Malinconico, Francesca Antonella; Gilio, Francesco; Iside, Giovanni; Califano, Umberto G A; Foroni, Fabrizio; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Agresti, Massimo

    2009-04-01

    Usually, left colon cancer metastasis concerns liver, abdominal lymph nodes and lungs. Other localizations are quite rare occurrences. In spite of this, some uncommon metastasis sites are reported in literature, such as: peritoneum, ovaries, uterus, kidney testis, bones, thyroid, oral cavity and central nervous system. We report two cases of unusual localizations of left colon cancer metastasis localization, one into the retroperitoneal space and the other at the left axillary lynphnodes and between liver and pancreas. In the first reported case the diffusion pathway may have been the lymphatic mesocolic vessels, partially left in place from the previous surgery. In the second case the alleged metastatic lane may have been through the periumbilical lymph nodes to the parasternal lymph nodes and then to the internal mammary ones, finally reaching the axillary limph nodes.

  16. Study of metastatic lymph nodes in advanced gastric cancer with spiral computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yijuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of spiral computed tomography (SCT) in the diagnosis of lymph nodes metastases in gastric cancer. Methods: The characteristics of spiral computed tomography (SCT) of metastatic lymph nodes in 35 gastric cancer patients were analyzed and compared with operation and pathology. Results: A total amount of 379 lymph nodes (positive 173, negative 206) were detected by SCT and confirmed by pathology in metastasis-positive or metastasis-negative patients. The positive rate with diameter of lymph nodes ≥ 10 mm is 62.7%. The positive rate with ir- regular shape and uneven enhancement lymph nodes were 96.3% and 89.4%. If the attenuation values, more than or equal to 25 HU in plain scan or 70 HU in arterial phase or 80 HU in venous phase, were used as the threshold to detect the metastasis-positive lymph nodes, the positive rate were 55.7%, 56.3%, 67.8% respectively. Conclusion: SCT is valuable in judging the metastasis in gastric cancer. The reference of diameter ≥ 10mm, combining with the shape and the attenuation values can dramatically improve the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. (authors)

  17. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sokbom; Park, Jung-Yeol; Lim, Myung-Chul; Song, Yong-Joong; Park, Se-Hyun; Kim, Seok-Ki; Chung, Dae-Chul; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  18. Palatine Tonsillar Metastasis of Small-Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma from the Lung Detected by FDG-PET/CT After Tonsillectomy: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Bao, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zhao, Kui

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis from a malignant tumor to the palatine tonsils is rare, accounting for only 0.8% of all tonsillar tumors, with only 100 cases reported in the English-language literature. Various malignant lung carcinomas may metastasize to the tonsils. A few cases of tonsillar metastasis from neuroendocrine lung carcinoma have been reported. A 67-year-old female underwent a right tonsillectomy because of a sore throat and an enlarged right tonsil. The postoperative pathology showed right tonsillar small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC). Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) demonstrated metabolic activity in the lower lobe of the right lung. In addition, hypermetabolic foci were noted in the lymph nodes of the right neck and mediastinum. A needle biopsy of the pulmonary mass showed SCNC. The patient received chemotherapy and died of multiple distant metastases after 6 months. This is the first report using PET/CT to evaluate tonsillar metastasis from lung SCNC

  19. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κ w ) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κ w = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κ w = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κ w = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κ w = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κ w = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  20. Fine-needle aspirates CYFRA 21-1 is a useful tumor marker for detecting axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Yoon

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To assess whether the value of CYFRA21-1 in the aspirates of ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB can contribute to improving the performances of US-FNAB in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node (LN metastasis in breast cancer patients. METHODS: US-FNAB was performed in 156 axillary LNs in 152 breast cancer patients (mean age: 51.4 years, range: 17-92 years. Concentrations of CYFRA21-1 were measured from washouts of the syringe used during US-FNAB. Tumor marker concentrations, US-FNAB, intraoperative sentinel node biopsy (SNB, and surgical pathology results were reviewed and analyzed. For comparison, the values of CEA and CA15-3 were also measured from washouts. RESULTS: Among the 156 LNs, 75 (48.1% were benign, and 81 (51.9% were metastases. Mean concentrations of CYFRA21-1 were significantly higher in metastasis compared to benign LNs (P<0.001. US-FNAB combined to CYFRA21-1 showed significantly higher sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy compared to US-FNAB alone (all values P<0.05. All diagnostic indices of US-FNAB combined to CYFRA21-1 were significantly higher compared to US-FNAB combined with CEA or CA15-3 (all P<0.001. Of the 28 metastatic LNs which showed metastasis on SNB, CYFRA21-1 showed higher positive rate of 75.0% (CEA or CA15-3∶60.7%, P = 0.076. CONCLUSION: Measuring CYFRA 21-1 concentrations from US-FNAB aspirates improves sensitivity, NPV, and accuracy of US-FNAB alone, and may contribute to reducing up to 75.0% of unnecessary intraoperative SNB. Compared to CEA or CA15-3, CYFRA21-1 shows significantly higher performances when combined to US-FNAB in the preoperative diagnosis of LN metastasis in breast cancer patients.

  1. Features and prognostic impact of distant metastases in 45 dogs with de novo stage IV cutaneous mast cell tumours: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoni, S; Sabattini, S; Stefanello, D; Dentini, A; Ferrari, R; Dacasto, M; Giantin, M; Laganga, P; Amati, M; Tortorella, G; Marconato, L

    2018-03-01

    Distant metastases in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT) are rare and incurable. The aims of this prospective study were to clarify the clinico-pathological features of stage IV cMCTs and to identify possible prognostic factors for progression-free interval (PFI) and survival time (ST). Dogs were eligible for recruitment if they had a previously untreated, histologically confirmed cMCT and if they underwent complete staging demonstrating stage IV disease. Dogs were uniformly followed-up, whereas treatment was not standardized and included no therapy, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors or a combination of these. 45 dogs with stage IV cMCT were enrolled. All dogs had distant metastatic disease, and 41 (91.1%) dogs had also metastasis in the regional lymph node. Histopathological grade and mutational status greatly varied among dogs. Median ST was 110 days. Notably, PFI and ST were independent of well-known prognostic factors, including anatomic site, histological grade, and mutational status. Conversely, tumor diameter >3 cm, more than 2 metastatic sites, bone marrow infiltration, and lack of tumor control at the primary site were confirmed to be negative prognostic factors by multivariate analysis. Currently, there is no satisfactory treatment for stage IV cMCT. Asymptomatic dogs with tumor diameter <3 cm and a low tumor burden, without bone marrow infiltration may be candidates for multimodal treatment. Stage IV dogs without lymph node metastasis may enjoy a surprisingly prolonged survival. The achievement of local tumor control seems to predict a better outcome in dogs with stage IV cMCT. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affect breast cancer metastasis with a subcutaneous mouse tumor implantation model of breast cancer metastasis. HMLE -Twist1 cells expressing shRNAs...13 4 Introduction Distant metastases are responsible for the vast majority of breast cancer deaths. This process...to migrate and invade is therefore essential to the metastatic process. The initial steps of breast cancer metastasis, local invasion and

  3. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M; Subhan, A.; Aslam, A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Unit-I, Ward-3 of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from March 2005 to March 2010. Methodology: All patients above 12 years of age of either gender diagnosed on investigations as papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were included in the study. Ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), neck of solitary thyroid nodules (STN) and cervical lymph nodes were done. Total thyroidectomy and excision biopsy of cervical lymph nodes was performed, histopathological results were recorded and patients were managed accordingly. Results: A total of 55 patients had PTC and 25 had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eighteen patients of PTC with cervical lymphadenopathy were diagnosed after investigations as cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy (TCL) initially considered as metastasis from PTC; 5 patients had metastasis from PTC. Two patients proved to be of reactive hyperplasia which initially showed tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy on FNAC. So 80% patients of cervical lymphadenopathy with PTC were due to benign disease and 20% had metastasis in lymph node due to PTC. Conclusion: PTC with cervical lymphadenopathy due to co-existent tuberculosis is common. Metastasis from PTC in lymph nodes were less common than tuberculous lymphodenitis in this study. Tuberculosis should be considered before deciding for neck dissection in cases of PTC. (author)

  4. Clinical results of sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy for oral cancer. Relationship between SN localization and metastasis in tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Satoru; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Hino, Satoshi; Terakado, Nagaaki; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Attempts were made to detect micrometastasis in N0 neck of oral cancer patients using sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy (SNB). We previously described our approach to identify SN using a radioisotope ( 99m Tc-Tin colloid)-guided and dye-guided method. Micrometastases were detected by means of serial sections and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen mRNA. In this study, we evaluated the radiolocalization of SN and identification of metastatic lymph node in N0 oral cancer patients. The positive rate of metastatic lymph node in N0 oral cancer was 35% and the diagnostic sensitivity of SNB was 95%. The SNB detected subclinical metastases in 4 of 10 N0 patients with tongue cancer. Moreover, in 3 of these 4 cases, all metastatic lymph nodes consisted with SNs. Postoperative cervical metastasis was observed in a patient whose SNB was negative. While more experience is needed, we believe the SN concept for tongue cancer is established, and practical application in clinical settings is anticipated. (author)

  5. Up-to-date management of lymph node metastasis and the role of tailored lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2007-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM), together with parametrial infiltration and positive surgical margins, is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. The incidence of LNM increases with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, with rates being 12%-22% in stage Ib, 10%-27% in stage IIa, and 34%-43% in stage IIb. Radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy are widely used treatments for early-stage (Ib to IIa) cervical cancer, as well as for stage IIb disease, in some European and Asian countries. In several types of cancer, the therapeutic significance of systematic lymphadenectomy has been demonstrated by recent reports showing that a larger number of lymph nodes removed relates to better survival. In cervical cancer, a significant relationship between the number of lymph nodes removed and disease-free survival has been reported in node-positive patients. Preoperative evaluation of nodal status with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques is not sensitive enough to replace the histological examination of dissected nodes. The sentinel node procedure may be an alternative to systematic lymphadenectomy to reduce treatment-related morbidity, but more work on this is needed. Although the presence of LNM does not change FIGO staging, it will modulate postoperative therapy. Progression-free and overall survivals were significantly improved by the addition of chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy after radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy combined solely with radical hysterectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy may also provide a survival benefit. In conclusion, efforts to establish more tailored surgical strategies, by introducing advanced imaging technologies and molecular diagnostic procedures, are needed for cervical cancer. (author)

  6. Non-metastatic 2 (NME2)-mediated suppression of lung cancer metastasis involves transcriptional regulation of key cell adhesion factor vinculin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ram Krishna; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Singh, Ankita; Pal, Krishnendu; Hoeppner, Luke; Saha, Dhurjhoti; Purohit, Gunjan; Basundra, Richa; Kar, Anirban; Halder, Rashi; Kumar, Pankaj; Baral, Aradhita; Kumar, MJ Mahesh; Baldi, Alfonso; Vincenzi, Bruno; Lorenzon, Laura; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Kumar, Praveen; Shridhar, Viji; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis refers to spread of a tumor from site of its origin to distant organs and causes majority of cancer deaths. Although >30 metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that negatively regulate metastasis have been identified so far, two issues are poorly understood: first, which MSGs oppose metastasis in a tumor type, and second, which molecular function of MSG controls metastasis. Herein, integrative analyses of tumor-transcriptomes (n = 382), survival data (n = 530) and lymph node metastases (n = 100) in lung cancer patients identified non-metastatic 2 (NME2) as a key MSG from a pool of >30 metastasis suppressors. Subsequently, we generated a promoter-wide binding map for NME2 using chromatin immunoprecipitation with promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip), and transcriptome profiling. We discovered novel targets of NME2 which are involved in focal adhesion signaling. Importantly, we detected binding of NME2 in promoter of focal adhesion factor, vinculin. Reduced expression of NME2 led to enhanced transcription of vinculin. In comparison, NME1, a close homolog of NME2, did not bind to vinculin promoter nor regulate its expression. In line, enhanced metastasis of NME2-depleted lung cancer cells was found in zebrafish and nude mice tumor models. The metastatic potential of NME2-depleted cells was remarkably diminished upon selective RNA-i-mediated silencing of vinculin. Together, we demonstrate that reduced NME2 levels lead to transcriptional de-repression of vinculin and regulate lung cancer metastasis. PMID:25249619

  7. False Positive 18F-FDG Uptake in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes Detected with Positron Emission Tomography in Breast Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uğurluer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females. It is accepted that lymph node involvement with metastatic tumor and the presence of distant metastasis are the most important prognostic factors. Accurate staging is important in determining prognosis and appropriate treatment. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography detects malignancies using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG PET CT with high accuracy and they contribute to decisions regarding diagnosis, staging, recurrence, and treatment response. Here, we report a case of false positive metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes that were diagnosed by 18F-FDG PET CT in a 40-year-old breast cancer patient who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Right paratracheal, prevascular, aorticopulmonary, precarinal, subcarinal, hilar, and subhilar multiple conglomerated mediastinal lymph nodes were revealed in addition to left breast mass and axillary lymph nodes. Mediastinoscopy was performed with biopsy and pathology was reported as granulomatous lymphadenitis. In conclusion, any abnormal FDG accumulation in unusual lymph nodes must be evaluated carefully and confirmed histopathologically.

  8. Correlation between expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and cervical lymph node metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Chen, Mao-Huai; Wu, Ming-Yao; Wu, Xian-Ying

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and studied their relationship with cervical lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of EMMPRIN and MMP-2 in specimens from patients with chronic nasopharyngitis (CN), nonmetastastic NPC (NM-NPC), and lymph node-metastatic NPC (LNM-NPC). The rates of positive EMMPRIN expression in CN, NM-NPC, and LNM-NPC were 13.3%, 30.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. Significant differences were found between the rates in CN and LNM-NPC (p correlated (rs = 0.466; p <0.01). Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells may attain enhanced metastastic capability through the expression of MMP-2 induced by EMMPRIN.

  9. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-07-01

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  10. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases fromMeningioma: Report of Two Cases andTreatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Daneshbod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningioma is usually a benign central nervous system (CNS tumor. Metastasisis rare; however if it does occur the most metastatic sites are the liver and lungs. Here,two cases of CNS meningioma with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes are reported.The first case, a 48 year-old man developed cervical lymph node metastasis nine yearsafter primary tumor diagnosis. The second case, a 23 year-old woman with parietallobe meningioma, developed lymph node metastasis in the neck nine months afterthe diagnosis of meningioma

  11. Distant Metastases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Definite Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Hyung Sik; Moon, Sun Rock; Kim, Gwi Eon; Loh, John Juhn-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and thirty five patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were treated by radiation therapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University between August 1977 and July 1987. Of the 30 patients omitted: 8 had distant metastases at initial diagnosis or during radiotherapy; 18 patients refused or did not received a full course of radiation therapy, and four had not been confirmed histologically. The remaining 105 patients were analyzed to determine the incidence and patter of distant metastases. Diagnosis of distant metastases was made based on clinical signs and radiography, even though histologic confirmation was not made. Twenty-six patients developed distant metastases after definite irradiation of nasopharynx and neck, an incidence rate of 24.8%. The common sites of distant metastases were, in descending order, bone, lung, liver, and brain. There was a strong correlation between Ho's N stage and distant metastases rate. But sex, age, histologic subtype (squamous cell and undifferentiated cell), AJC T and N stage, treatment modalities (radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy) were not significant. Of those patients who developed distant metastases, 80.8% were discovered within 2 years of their radical radiotherapy. The prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients developing distant metastases was poor: median survival was nine months and 80% of those patients died within two years of the initial diagnosis of distant metastasis

  12. Evaluation of 18F-FDG PET/CT Parameters for Detection of Lymph Node Metastasis in Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jongtae; Kim, Soyoung; Wang, Jiyoung; Yun, Mijin; Cho, Arthur

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) parameters in the detection of regional lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with cutaneous melanoma. We evaluated patients with cutaneous melanoma who underwent FDG PET/CT for initial staging or recurrence evaluation. A total of 103 patients were enrolled, and 165 LNs were evaluated. LNs that were confirmed pathologically or by follow-up imaging were included in this study. PET parameters, including maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), total lesion glycolysis and tumour-to-liver ratio, were used to determine the presence of metastases, and the results were compared with CT-determined LN metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off values of the FDG PET parameters. A total of 93 LNs were malignant, and 84 LNs were smaller than 10 mm. In all 165 LNs, an SUVmax of >2.51 showed a sensitivity of 73.1%, a specificity of 88.9%, and an accuracy of 80.0% in detecting metastatic LNs. CT showed a higher specificity (87.3%) and lower accuracy (65.5%). For non-enlarged regional LNs (2.4 showed a high sensitivity (91%) and accuracy (89%) in detecting metastasis in LNs ≥1 cm, and LNs <1 cm with an SUVmax <1.4 were likely to be benign.

  13. Incidence and sites of distant metastases from head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlito, A; Shaha, A R; Silver, C E; Rinaldo, A; Mondin, V

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of distant metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is relatively small in comparison to other malignancies. Distant metastases adversely impact survival and may significantly affect treatment planning. The incidence of distant metastases is influenced by location of the primary tumor, initial T and N stage of the neoplasm, and the presence or absence of regional control above the clavicle. Patients with advanced nodal disease have a high incidence of distant metastases, particularly in the presence of jugular vein invasion or extensive soft tissue disease in the neck. Primary tumors of advanced T stages in the hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity are associated with the highest incidence of distant metastases. Pulmonary metastases are the most frequent in SCC, accounting for 66% of distant metastases. It may be difficult to distinguish pulmonary metastasis from a new primary tumor, particularly if solitary. Other metastatic sites include bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, mediastinum and bone marrow. An important question remains as to how intensely pre- and postoperative screening for distant metastases should be performed. Preoperative chest X-ray is warranted in all cases. If the primary tumor and nodal status place the patient at high risk for pulmonary metastasis, then preoperative computed tomography scan of the chest should be done. Screening for distant metastases at other sites is usually not indicated in SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract. Postoperatively, annual X-rays of the chest are usually sufficient, but in high-risk situations a chest X-ray performed every 3-6 months may be beneficial. Certain histologic types of primary tumor have greater or lesser propensity to metastasize distantly, and have a different natural history. Adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasizes frequently, even in the absence of extensive local or regional disease. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinomas also metastasize widely

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy from the vantage point of an oncologic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has greatly influenced the surgical management of clinically localized primary melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy have been used for the selective management of the draining regional lymph node basin of primary cutaneous melanoma. Oncologic surgeons have adopted this procedure to selectively identify occult nodal status in melanoma patients who are at a higher risk of regional metastasis. The current standard of treatment of tumor-positive sentinel lymph node metastasis is immediate completion lymphadenectomy, but considerable debate surrounds the utility of this procedure. This contribution reviews development, technical aspects, selective management of the lymph node basin, and sentinel lymph node biopsy techniques.

  15. Breast cancer lung metastasis: Molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  16. EVALUATION OF LYMPHATIC SPREAD, VISCERAL METASTASIS AND TUMORAL LOCAL INVASION IN ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustumi, Francisco; Kimura, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai; Takeda, Flavio Roberto; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Ribeiro-Junior, Ulysses; Cecconello, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Knowing esophageal tumors behavior in relationship to lymph node involvement, distant metastases and local tumor invasion is of paramount importance for the best esophageal tumors management. To describe lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and local tumor invasion in esophageal carcinoma, according to tumor topography and histology. A total of 444 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 105 adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into four groups: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the three esophageal segments: cervical, middle, and distal. They were compared based on their CT scans at the time of the diagnosis. Nodal metastasis showed great relationship with of primary tumor site. Lymph nodes of hepatogastric, perigastric and peripancreatic ligaments were mainly affected in distal tumors. Periaortic, interaortocaval and portocaval nodes were more commonly found in distal squamous carcinoma; subcarinal, paratracheal and subaortic nodes in middle; neck chains were more affected in cervical squamous carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma had a higher frequency of peritoneal involvement (11.8%) and liver (24.5%) than squamous cell carcinoma. Considering the local tumor invasion, the more cranial neoplasia, more common squamous invasion of airways, reaching 64.7% in the incidence of cervical tumors. Middle esophageal tumors invade more often aorta (27.6%) and distal esophageal tumors, the pericardium and the right atrium (10.4%). Esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in different topographies present peculiarities in lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and local tumor invasion. These differences must be taken into account in esophageal cancer patients' care. Conhecer o comportamento das neoplasias esofágicas em relação à disseminação linfonodal, distribuição de metástases e invasão local do tumor, pode auxiliar o manejo dos pacientes. Descrever o envolvimento linfonodal, disseminação metast

  17. Does shear wave ultrasound independently predict axillary lymph node metastasis in women with invasive breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Rauchhaus, Petra; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; Purdie, Colin A; Jordan, Lee B; Michie, Caroline O; Thompson, Alastair; Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) shows promise as an adjunct to greyscale ultrasound examination in assessing breast masses. In breast cancer, higher lesion stiffness on SWE has been shown to be associated with features of poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess whether lesion stiffness at SWE is an independent predictor of lymph node involvement. Patients with invasive breast cancer treated by primary surgery, who had undergone SWE examination were eligible. Data were retrospectively analysed from 396 consecutive patients. The mean stiffness values were obtained using the Aixplorer® ultrasound machine from SuperSonic Imagine Ltd. Measurements were taken from a region of interest positioned over the stiffest part of the abnormality. The average of the mean stiffness value obtained from each of two orthogonal image planes was used for analysis. Associations between lymph node involvement and mean lesion stiffness, invasive cancer size, histologic grade, tumour type, ER expression, HER-2 status and vascular invasion were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. At univariate analysis, invasive size, histologic grade, HER-2 status, vascular invasion, tumour type and mean stiffness were significantly associated with nodal involvement. Nodal involvement rates ranged from 7 % for tumours with mean stiffness 150 kPa. At multivariate analysis, invasive size, tumour type, vascular invasion, and mean stiffness maintained independent significance. Mean stiffness at SWE is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis and thus can confer prognostic information additional to that provided by conventional preoperative tumour assessment and staging.

  18. [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED uptake mimicking lymph node metastasis in coeliac ganglia: an important pitfall in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krohn, Thomas; Vogg, Andreas; Heinzel, Alexander; Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pufe, Thomas [RWTH University Aachen, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Aachen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Anatomy I, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-24

    To determine the frequency of seemingly pathological retroperitoneal uptake in the location of the coeliac ganglia in patients undergoing [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED PET/CT. The study included 85 men with prostate cancer referred for [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED PET/CT. The PET/CT scans were evaluated for the local finding in the prostate and the presence of lymph node metastases, distant metastases and coeliac ganglia. The corresponding standardized uptake values (SUV) were determined. SUVmax to background uptake (gluteal muscle SUVmean) ratios were calculated for the ganglia and lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the ganglia. In 76 of the 85 patients (89.4 %) at least one ganglion with tracer uptake was found. For the ganglia, SUVmax and SUVmax to background SUVmean ratios were 2.97 ± 0.88 and 7.98 ± 2.84 (range 1.57-6.38 and 2.83-30.6), respectively, and 82.8 % of all ganglia showed an uptake ratio of >5.0. For lymph node metastases, SUVmax and SUVmax to background SUVmean ratios were 8.5 ± 7.0 and 23.31 ± 22.23 (range 2.06-35.9 and 5.25-115.8), respectively. In 35 patients (41.2 %), no lymph node metastases were found but tracer uptake was seen in the ganglia. Immunohistochemistry confirmed strong PSMA expression in the ganglia. Coeliac ganglia show a relevant [{sup 68}Ga]PSMA-HBED uptake in most patients and may mimic lymph node metastases. (orig.)

  19. Hubungan BRAF V600E dan EGFR dengan Metastasis ke Kelenjar Getah Bening pada Adenokarsinoma Kolorektal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Ariyanni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenocarcinoma is an epithelial malignant tumor with glandular differentiation. Lymph node metastasis affects the prognosis and management of colorectal carcinoma patients. In this study, association of BRAF V600E and EGFR with metastasis of the lymph nodes was investigated. This was a cross sectional study with unpaired categorical analysis of colorectal adenocarcinoma obtained from archival paraffin blocks from consecutively selected samples. The blocks were stained by BRAF V600E and EGFR antibodies at the Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran/Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during the period of February to June 2014. There was no association between positive BRAF V600E immunoexpression and lymph node metastasis, p=0.269 (p>0.05, chi-square test. Similarly, there was no association between positive EGFR immunoexpression and lymph node metastasis, p=0.713 (p>0.05, chi-square test. Positive BRAF V600E immunoexpresion and positive EGFR immunoexpression also had no association with lymph node metastasis, p=0.427 (Fisher Exact test. BRAF and EGFR may play a role in the epithelial mesenchymal transition to increase cell migration and invasion. However, in colorectal adenocarcinoma, BRAF V600E and EGFR were not associated with lymph node metastasis. In conclusions, positive BRAF V600E immunoexpression and positive EGFR immunoexpression in colorectal adenocarcinoma should not be used as markers for the metastazing potentials of colorectal adenocarcinoma tumors.

  20. Abdominal lymph node metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed by computed tomography and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hironobu; Oi, Hiromichi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Microbial Diseases; Tanaka, Takeshi; Sai, Soomi; Hori, Shinichi

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 164 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were studied, and abdominal lymph node metastases were detected in 13 cases. Most of these lymph node metastases occured in periportal, peripancreatic and paraaortic lymph nodes. Ten instances of each these metastases were identified by CT. Six of the patients had metastases in all three sites. In 9 of 13 cases, lymph node metastases were demonstrated by angiography and various degrees of contrast material stain were seen. Lymph node metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is apt to be hypervascular. Most of hepatocellular carcinoma with lymph node metastasis showed infiltrative growth, and tumor thrombosis in the portal vein was commonly complicated.

  1. Numeric pathologic lymph node classification shows prognostic superiority to topographic pN classification in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kotaro; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Uemura, Yukari; Mitsui, Takashi; Yagi, Koichi; Nishida, Masato; Aikou, Susumu; Mori, Kazuhiko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2017-10-01

    The current eighth tumor node metastasis lymph node category pathologic lymph node staging system for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is based solely on the number of metastatic nodes and does not consider anatomic distribution. We aimed to assess the prognostic capability of the eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node staging system (numeric-based) compared with the 11th Japan Esophageal Society (topography-based) pathologic lymph node staging system in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 289 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy with extended lymph node dissection during the period from January 2006 through June 2016. We compared discrimination abilities for overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific survival between these 2 staging systems using C-statistics. The median number of dissected and metastatic nodes was 61 (25% to 75% quartile range, 45 to 79) and 1 (25% to 75% quartile range, 0 to 3), respectively. The eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node staging system had a greater ability to accurately determine overall survival (C-statistics: tumor node metastasis classification, 0.69, 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.76; Japan Esophageal Society classification; 0.65, 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.71; P = .014) and cancer-specific survival (C-statistics: tumor node metastasis classification, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.87; Japan Esophageal Society classification; 0.72, 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.80; P = .018). Rates of total recurrence rose as the eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node stage increased, while stratification of patients according to the topography-based node classification system was not feasible. Numeric nodal staging is an essential tool for stratifying the oncologic outcomes of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma even in the cohort in which adequate

  2. Sentinel lymph node identification with magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Joost Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Most solid malignancies have a tendency to spread through the lymphatic system to locoregional lymph nodes. Presence of metastasis is an important prognostic factor, and is used to determine the optimal treatment of the patient. The sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) receive direct lymphatic drainage from

  3. Superficial EWSR1-negative undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion: a new variant of Ewing-like tumors with locoregional lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isidro; Cruz, Julia; Lavernia, Javier; Rubio, Luis; Campos, Jorge; Barrios, María; Grison, Camille; Chene, Virginie; Pierron, Gaelle; Delattre, Olivier; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The present study describes a new case of EWSR1-negative undifferentiated sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion. This case is similar to tumors described as primitive undifferentiated round cell sarcomas that occur mainly in the trunk and display an aggressive behavior. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a tumor presenting locoregional lymph node metastasis. In view of previous studies that prove the existence of a particular variant of undifferentiated sarcoma with Ewing-like morphology and CIC/DUX-4 gene fusion, a search for this gene fusion in all undifferentiated round cell sarcomas should be considered if a conclusive diagnosis cannot be reached following other conventional studies. Although additional cases with more extensive follow-up studies are needed, we believe that EWSR1-negative undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion should be added to the list of new sarcoma variants with the possibility of lymph node metastasis.

  4. Unilateral cervical nodal metastasis is an independent prognostic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available To determine the prognostic significance of unilateral cervical lymph nodal metastasis (CLNM in patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and to identify significant prognostic factors in these patients.This retrospective study involved 395 patients with inoperable esophageal SCC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The patients were classified into three groups according to their cervical lymph node status: group A, no evidence of CLNM; group B, unilateral CLNM; group C, other distant metastases. Overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were calculated. Significant prognostic factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses.The 3-year OS rates in groups A, B and C were 46.7%, 33.5% and 8.3%, respectively (p<0.001, log-rank test. The corresponding PFS rates were 40.7%, 26.4% and 4.7% (p<0.001, log-rank test. Group B had a similar prognosis to that of group A and better 3-year OS (p = 0.009 and PFS (p = 0.006 rates than those of group C. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that T stage, chemotherapy regimen and cervical lymph node involvement were independent prognostic factors affecting OS and PFS.Compared to other distant metastases, unilateral CLNM is associated with longer OS in esophageal SCC and should be regarded as a regional disease. Sex, T stage, concurrent chemotherapy modality and cervical lymph node involvement are independent predictors of survival in esophageal SCC.

  5. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue base, its recurrence, and multiple lymph node metastases with imaging evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive and fast-growing malignant tumor. RMS predominantly arises in the head and neck of infancy and children. Metastasis is usually via the blood vessel. We report a case of a recurred RMS of the tongue base with the metastasis to multiple lymph nodes in a 37-year-old female. On the follow-up examination using advanced imaging modalities after surgical treatment of RMS, the lymph nodes should be carefully evaluated like in other malignancies, such as a carcinoma, showing frequent lymph node metastasis.

  6. Completion Dissection or Observation for Sentinel-Node Metastasis in Melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faries, M. B.; Thompson, J. F.; Cochran, A. J.; Andtbacka, R. H.; Mozzillo, N; Zager, Jonathan S.; Jahkola, T.; Bowles, T. L.; Testori, Alessandro; Beitsch, P. D.; Hoekstra, H. J.; Moncrieff, M.; Ingvar, C.; Wouters, M. W. J. M.; Sabel, M. S.; Levine, E. A.; Agnese, D.; Henderson, M.; Dummer, R; Rossi, C. R.; Neves, R. I.; Trocha, S. D.; Wright, Sara F.; Byrd, D. R.; Matter, M.; Hsueh, E.; MacKenzie-Ross, A.; Johnson, B. D.; Terheyden, P.; Berger, A. C.; Huston, T. L.; Wayne, J. D.; Smithers, B. Mark; Neuman, H. B.; Schneebaum, S.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Ariyan, C. E.; Desai, D. C.; Jacobs, L.; McMasters, K. M.; Gesierich, A.; Hersey, P.; Bines, S. D.; Kane, Michael J.; Barth, R. J.; McKinnon, J. G.; Farma, J. M.; Schultz, B. E.; Vidal-Sicart, S.; Hoefer, R. A.; Lewis, David J. M.; Scheri, R.; Kelley, M. C.; Nieweg, O. E.; Noyes, R. D.; Hoon, D. S. B.; Wang, H. -J.; Elashoff, D. A.; Elashoff, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is associated with increased melanoma-specific survival (i.e., survival until death from melanoma) among patients with node-positive intermediate-thickness melanomas (1.2 to 3.5 mm). The value of completion lymph-node dissection for patients with sentinel-node

  7. High-risk factors of parotid lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-zhi; Cao, Cai-neng; Luo, Jing-wei; Yi, Jun-lin; Huang, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Shi-ping; Wang, Kai; Qu, Yuan; Xiao, Jian-ping; Li, Su-yan; Gao, Li; Xu, Guo-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Although parotid-sparing IMRT decreased the dose distribution of parotid, parotid region recurrence has been reported. Prophylactic irradiation in parotid area would be necessary in patients with high risk of parotid lymph node metastasis (PLNM). This study was to detect the high-risk factors of PLNM in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This was a 1:2 case-control study. All patients in this study were newly diagnosed NPC with N2-3 classification from January 2005 to December 2012. Cases were 22 sides with ipsilateral PLNM. Controls were 44 patients who were randomly selected from N2-3 disease in database. 20/1096 (1.82 %) NPC patients were found PLNM. Sum of the longest diameter for multiple lymph nodes (SLD) in level II was larger in case group than that in control group (6.0 cm vs. 3.6 cm, p = 0.003). Level II lymph node necrosis, level Va/b involvement, and rare neck areas involvement were more common in case group (p = 0.016, p = 0.034, and p < 0.001, respectively). RPN, level III, and level IV metastases showed no significant difference between the two groups. Multivariate analysis in logistic regression showed that only SLD ≥5 cm in II area (OR = 4.11, p = 0.030) and rare neck areas involvement (OR = 3.95, p = 0.045) were associated with PLNM in NPC patients. PLNM was an uncommon event in NPC patients. SLD ≥5 cm in level II and involvement in rare-neck areas may be potentially high-risk factors for PLNM. Sparing parotid in IMRT was not recommended for NPC patients with high risks of PLNM

  8. Incidence and kinetics of distant metastases in patients with operable breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryj, M.; Maciejewski, B.; Withers, H.R.; Taylor, J.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the incidence and kinetics of distant metastases in operable breast cancer and to relate these estimates to various tumor and patient characteristics. The records of 309 consecutive patients with operable breast cancer in stage T 1-4 N 0-1 M 0 were reviewed, and the incidence of distant metastases (DM) and death due to DM were evaluated. 195 patients had positive axillary nodes with following distribution of the number of nodes: 45% had 1-2 node, 16% had 3-4 nodes, 14% and 25% had 5-7 and more nodes, respectively. All patients were treated with radical mastectomy with axillary nodes dissection (the only treatment in 39% of cases). In 198 cases radical mastectomy was combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy given pre- or postoperatively. Hormonal treatment was given in 27% of cases. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. Distant metastases were found in 150 cases (49%) and in 78 cases (25%) they develop early, during the first 18 months follow-up. Average rate of DM in N 0 cases was 25%. Number of involved nodes and extra-capsular invasion were found significant and independent prognostic factors. High risk (%)%) of DM and death due to DM correlate with age T 3 , more than 2 axillary nodes and or extra-capsular invasion. The linearity of the curves for freedom from DM and for freedom from death due to the DM suggest uniform distribution of progression rates with a median value for halving time for freedom from early DM of about 8 months, and of about 40 months for freedom from the DM occurring later than 18 months, being for whole group and average of 20 months. High incidence of DM is a significant cause of poor long-term survival. Early appearance (<18 month follow-up) of about half of the DM suggests that they are already present as subclinical micrometastases at the time of initial loco-regional treatment. The time of appearance of distant metastases is consistent with a wide range of metastatic cell burdens among patients

  9. [The validity of the sentinel node concept in gastrointestinal cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Y; Fujii, H; Mukai, M; Ando, N; Kubota, T; Ikeda, T; Ohgami, M; Watanabe, M; Otani, Y; Ozawa, S; Hasegawa, H; Furukawa, T; Nakahara, T; Kubo, A; Kumai, K; Kitajima, M

    2000-03-01

    Although the sentinel node concept has been validated and clinically applied to breast cancer and malignant melanoma, its clinical significance in other solid tumors has not been thoroughly investigated. With regard to gastrointestinal (GI) cancers in particular, our surgeons have been cautious because of the high frequency of skip metastasis and the complicated lymphatic system in the GI tract. We would like to emphasize that so-called skip metastasis has been defined according to anatomic classification of regional lymph nodes and that the lymphatic drainage route must be patient or lesion specific. To test the validity and feasibility of this concept in GI cancers, we have established a radio-guided intraoperative sentinel node navigation system using preoperative endoscopic submucosal injection of radioactive tracer followed by intra-operative gamma-probing. In 131 patients with GI cancers (esophagus: 22, stomach: 71, colorectum: 38), the detection rate of sentinel nades was 91% and overall diagnostic accuracy of lymph node metastasis by sentinel node status was 97%. Initial results suggest further investigation of this procedure as an accurate staging and a minimally invasive approach to early GI cancers.

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate lymphatic mapping combined with sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging procedure, and to evaluate the possible clinical implications of added oblique lymphoscintigraphy and/or tomography and test the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy. MATERIAL......: Eleven (28%) patients were upstaged. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was 97.5%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy significantly differentiated between patients with or without lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Lymphatic mapping revealed 124 hotspots and 144 hot lymph nodes were removed by sentinel...

  11. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Angela; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields

  12. Predicting biochemical recurrence-free survival for patients with positive pelvic lymph nodes at radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bodman, Christian; Godoy, Guilherme; Chade, Daher C; Cronin, Angel; Tafe, Laura J; Fine, Samson W; Laudone, Vincent; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated predictors of freedom from biochemical recurrence in patients with pelvic lymph node metastasis at radical prostatectomy. Of 207 patients with lymph node metastasis treated with radical prostatectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection 45 received adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and 162 did not. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Recurrence probability was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A median of 13 lymph nodes were removed. Of the patients 122 had 1, 44 had 2 and 41 had 3 or greater positive lymph nodes. Of patients without androgen deprivation therapy 103 had 1, 35 had 2 and 24 had 3 or greater positive lymph nodes while 69 experienced biochemical recurrence. Median time to recurrence in patients with 1, 2 and 3 or greater lymph nodes was 59, 13 and 3 months, respectively. Only specimen Gleason score and the number of positive lymph nodes were independent predictors of biochemical recurrence. Recurrence-free probability 2 years after prostatectomy in men without androgen deprivation with 1 positive lymph node and a prostatectomy Gleason score of 7 or less was 79% vs 29% in those with Gleason score 8 or greater and 2 or more positive lymph nodes. Prognosis in patients with lymph node metastasis depends on the number of positive lymph nodes and primary tumor Gleason grade. Of all patients with lymph node metastasis 80% had 1 or 2 positive nodes. A large subset of those patients had a favorable prognosis. Full bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection should be done in patients with intermediate and high risk cancer to identify those likely to benefit from metastatic node removal. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of Genetic Alterations in Breast Sentinel Lymph Node by Array-CGH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalli, Luciane R

    2005-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in the mammary gland to harbor malignant cells in breast tumors with metastasis, and SLN positivity is an indication for axillary lymph node dissection...

  14. Detection of Genetic Alterations in Breast Sentinel Lymph Node by Array-CGH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalli, Luciane R

    2006-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in the mammary gland to harbor malignant cells in breast tumors with metastasis, and SLN positivity is an indication for axillary lymph node dissection...

  15. Tumor suppressor genes are frequently methylated in lymph node metastases of breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Metastasis represents a major adverse step in the progression of breast carcinoma. Lymph node invasion is the most relevant prognostic factor; however little is known on the molecular events associated with lymph node metastasis process. This study is to investigate the status and role of methylation in lymph node metastatic tumors. Materials and methods Bisulfite pyrosequencing is used to screen 6 putative tumor suppressor genes (HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL, CDH13, RARβ2 and E-cadherin in 38 pairs of primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases. Results We found that HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, RASSF1A and RARβ2 were frequently methylated both in primary and metastatic tissues (range: 55.3%~89.5%. E-cadherin was not frequently methylated in either setting (range: 18.4%~23.7%. The methylation status of HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, and RARβ2 in lymph nodes metastasis were correlated with that in primary tumors. The Pearson correlation values ranged from 0.624 to 0.472 (p values HIN-1 methylation and hormone status in metastatic lymph nodes. Hypermethylation of HIN-1 in metastasis lymph nodes was significantly associated with expression of ER (odds ratio, 1.070; P = 0.024 and with PR (odds ratio, 1.046; P = 0.026. Conclusions This study suggests that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is extended from primary to metastatic tumors during tumor progression.

  16. Isolated metastasis of colon cancer to the scapula: is surgical resection warranted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesti Jill K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant metastases from colon cancer spread most frequently to the liver and the lung. Risk factors include positive lymph nodes and high grade tumors. Isolated metastases to the appendicular skeleton are very rare, particularly in the absence of identifiable risk factors. Case report The patient was a 55 year old male with no previous personal or family history of colon cancer. Routine screening revealed a sigmoid adenocarcinoma. He underwent resection with primary anastomosis and was found to have Stage IIA colon cancer. He declined chemotherapy as part of a clinical trial, and eight months later was found to have an isolated metastasis in his right scapula. This was treated medically, but grew to 12 × 15 cm. The patient underwent a curative forequarter amputation and is now more than four years from his original colon surgery. Discussion Stage IIA colon cancers are associated with a high five year survival rate, and chemotherapy is not automatically given. If metastases occur, they are likely to arise from local recurrence or follow lymphatic dissemination to the liver or lungs. Isolated skeletal metastases are quite rare and are usually confined to the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated scapular metastasis in a patient with node negative disease. The decision to treat the recurrence with radiation and chemotherapy did not reduce the tumor, and a forequarter amputation was eventually required. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of adequately analyzing the stage of colon cancer and offering appropriate treatment. Equally important is the early involvement of a surgeon in discussing the timing of the treatment for recurrence. Perhaps if the patient had received chemotherapy or earlier resection, he could have been spared the forequarter amputation. The physician must also be aware of the remote possibility of an unusual presentation of metastasis in order to pursue

  17. Diagnosis and Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Current Trends and Controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, Mark S.; Sinha, Uttam K.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine cutaneous malignancy with a predilection for regional and distant metastasis. This malignancy presents most commonly on the head and neck of elderly Caucasian males, with a higher prevalence in the immunosuppressed. A high index of suspicion must be maintained due to the often asymptomatic presentation. Lip tumors, scalp tumors, local invasion, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion are poor prognostic factors. Up to 8.7% of patients present with distant metastasis, and PET-CT is an accurate staging tool with a 90% sensitivity. Combined aggressive surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy affords the best regional control rates. The regional lymphatics must be addressed with either sentinel lymph node biopsy, surgery, or elective radiation due to the risk of occult metastasis. Addition of chemotherapy has no proven benefit in locoregional control

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Current Trends and Controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Mark S.; Sinha, Uttam K., E-mail: sinha@med.usc.edu [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Southern California, 1520 San Pablo St, Suite 4600, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine cutaneous malignancy with a predilection for regional and distant metastasis. This malignancy presents most commonly on the head and neck of elderly Caucasian males, with a higher prevalence in the immunosuppressed. A high index of suspicion must be maintained due to the often asymptomatic presentation. Lip tumors, scalp tumors, local invasion, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion are poor prognostic factors. Up to 8.7% of patients present with distant metastasis, and PET-CT is an accurate staging tool with a 90% sensitivity. Combined aggressive surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy affords the best regional control rates. The regional lymphatics must be addressed with either sentinel lymph node biopsy, surgery, or elective radiation due to the risk of occult metastasis. Addition of chemotherapy has no proven benefit in locoregional control.

  19. Pelvic and lumbar metastasis detected by bone scintigraphy in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Castillo Pallares, F.J.; Llorens Banon, L.; Romero de Avila y Avalos, C.; Garcia Garc'ia, T.; Azagra Ros, P.; Maruenda Paulino, J.I.; Ferrer Albiach, C.

    1999-01-01

    A case of a 43-year-old man suffering from pleural mesothelioma with distant bone metastasis is reported. The results of bone scintigraphy and NMR findings allowed the diagnosis. The current case describes a hematogenous metastasis to the pelvis and vertebral column from a malignant pleural mesothelioma that was detected initally by bone scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  20. Renal Metastasis from Primary Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, See Hyung; Kwon, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis of malignant tumors to the kidney is clinically rare and often discovered by autopsy. Primary lymphoma and lung cancer are known that can metastasize to the kidney. Other malignant tumor metastasis to the kidney is very unusual. Primary cervical cancer metastasis to adjacent pelvic organs and lymph nodes are well known followed by abdominal solid organs such as the liver and adrenal glands. However, reported primary cervical cancer metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare and mostly appeared as bilateral multiple renal masses. We report here on a rare case of unilateral single renal metastasis from primary cervical cancer after concur- rent chemoradiotherapy.

  1. Association of SDF-1 with Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patient at Sanglah Hospital, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristanto Yuli Yarso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: More than 24% breast cancer patients came to Sanglah Teaching Hospital with distant metastasis which cause 90% of cancer related death. Distant metastasis is complex process of interaction between tumor cells and its micro environment involving a chemoattractant cytokines which lead circulating tumor cells toward target organs. One of the most common cytokines involved in metastasis of multiple tumor is SDF-1, produces by target organ or tumor cells itselves. However, only few stucy ever evaluate the relationship between its concentrations in tumor tissue with metastasis. Method: A cross sectional analysis study was conducted involving clinical data and paraffin blocks from 46 patients. Samples were grouped into metastasis and non-metastasis group and level of tumor tissue SDF-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry method. Numerical conversion was done using modified “Mirisola” technique and statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 16 software. Results: The overall median expression of SDF-1 was 4.83 in which the median is 4.08±2.25 in non-metastatic group and 5.71±2.61 in metastatic group (p=0.012. In addition, parenchymal carcinoma cell had significantly higher expression of SDF-1 compared with microenvironmental cell both in metastatic group (carcinoma cell vs microenvironment; 4,57+1,91 vs 3,68 +2,06; p=0,004 and non-metastatic group (3,19 +2,29 vs 2,16+1,11; p=0.011. Finally, logistic regression analysis of SDF-1 expression also gave significant result that MBC had significantly higher expression of SDF-1 (p=0.039.  Conclusions: There was significant association between of SDF-1 expression and distant metastasis in breast cancer and majority of SDF was produced by cancer cells

  2. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  3. Lymphatics and cancer : VEGF-C and nitric oxide in lymphatic function, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatics are a primary route for cancer metastasis and lymph node metastasis is an important clinical prognostic factor. The process of lymphatic metastasis is, however, not well understood. This thesis examines the function of lymphatic vessels in relation to cancer progression and

  4. [Pay attention to the selective lateral pelvic lymph node dissection in mid-low rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenjian; Wang, Ziqiang

    2017-03-25

    Lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis is an important metastatic mode and a major cause of locoregional recurrence of mid-low rectal cancer. Recently, there is an East-West discrepancy in regard to the diagnosis, clinical significance, treatment and prognosis of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. In the West, lateral nodal involvement may represent systemic disease and preoperative chemoradiotherapy can sterilize clinically suspected lateral nodes. Thus, in many Western countries, the standard therapy for lower rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision with chemoradiotherapy, and pelvic sidewall dissection is rarely performed. In the East, and Japan in particular, however, there is a positive attitude in regard to lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LPND). They consider that lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis is as regional metastasis, and the clinically suspected lateral nodes can not be removed by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The selective LPND after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy may be found to be promising treatment for the improvement of therapeutic benefits in these patients. Therefore, the large-scale prospective studies are urgently required to improve selection criteria for LPND and neoadjuvant treatment to prevent overtreatment in the near future. Selective LPND after neoadjuvant treatment based on modern imaging techniques is expected to reduce locoregional recurrence and improve long-term survival in patients with mid-low rectal cancer.

  5. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yan [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China); Lv, Liyang [Department of Health, Jinan Military Area Command, Jinan 250022 (China); Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China); Cao, Lili, E-mail: cllly22@163.com [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis.

  6. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yan; Lv, Liyang; Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao; Cao, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis

  7. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases: a prognostic feature in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Binse, Ina; Koch, Andrea; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J. [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Dogan, Semih; Biersack, Hans-Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Biermann, Kim [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Confessional Hospital ' ' Barmherzige Brueder' ' , Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Trier (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Distant metastasis has a negative impact on survival in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The timing of this manifestation, however, is of unknown prognostic relevance. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the potential significance of discriminating synchronous versus metachronous distant metastases (SDM vs. MDM) for the outcome of patients with DTC. We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive cohort of n = 89 patients with distant metastases of DTC (43 with follicular, 46 with papillary DTC histology; mean age 52.6 ± 17.7 years) undergoing radioiodine treatment at our institution. All patients were treated with the same protocol consisting of ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT, 3.7 GBq) and one post-ablation treatment after 3 months (3.7-11.1 GBq). Further cycles of RIT were administered for recurrent, progressive or newly developed metastatic disease. We distinguished 2 types of distant metastases according to the time of manifestation: SDM (within ≤12 months after DTC diagnosis) and MDM (occurring >12 months after diagnosis). Tumor-related survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Uni- and multivariate analyses including the Cox proportional hazards model were performed with a significance level of p < 0.05. The mean follow-up period was 13.8 ± 1.2 years. SDM were present in 49 (55.1 %), MDM in 40 (44.9 %) patients. MDM were associated with shorter tumor-related survival (p = 0.002). 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 68.5 % and 34.8 % for MDM, and 84.3 % and 66.9 % for SDM, respectively. Within both age subgroups of <45 and ≥45 years, SDM were also linked with longer survival. No effect on tumor-related survival was found for the co-variables sex, lymph node metastases and histologic type. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases may add an important prognostic feature to risk stratification in DTC, as proven metachronous appearance is associated with impaired survival. (orig.)

  8. Screening and Establishment of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines 
with Organ-specific Metastasis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Cancer metastasis is not only the malignant marker and characteristics, but also the main cause of failure to cure and lose their life in the patients with lung cancer. Lung cancer metastasis has organ-specific characteristics. The most common sites of lung cancer metastasis are mediastinal lymph node, brain, bone, liver and adrenal gland. The aim of this study is to screen and establish lung cancer cell model with organ-specific metastasis potential with human high-metastatic large cell lung cancer cell line L9981 established by our laboratory previously, and to provide cell models for studying the mechanisms and signal regulation of organ-specific metastasis of lung cancer. Materials and methods The parent lung cancer cell line, L9981-Luc, was inoculated in the armpit of nude mice. The live animal imaging system, IVIS-200, was used to detect the lung cancer organ-specific metastasis every week. When the organ-specific metastasis were established, the nude mices bearing the lung cancer were sacrificed when they became moribund. Under sterile conditions, the organs (mediastinal lymph nodes, lung, spinal column and brain with lung cancer organ-specific metastasis were removed and the metastasized nodules were dissected free of connective tissue and blood clots, and rinsed twice with medium. The metastasized nodules were finely minced using sterile scalpel blades in medium, and the cells were seeded in tissue culture dishes. Then, the cells with organ-specific metastasis potential were reinoculated into the armpit of nude mice, respectively. This processes were repeated to establish the organ-specific metastatic sublines of L9981-Luc cell line more than 10 times. Finally, the organ-specific metastasis sublines of L9981-Luc were screened and established, which the four cell lines have the characteristics only metastasized to brian, lung, bone and mediastinal lymph node. Results A group of organ-specific metastasis cell

  9. Papillary carcinoma thyroid, metastasis to cheek: First ever reported case in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiffa Aiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC metastasis to distant organs is rare and mainly includes lung and bone. Metastasis affecting oral and maxillofacial region is extremely rare. We describe a case of PTC metastasis to cheek. The patient presented with a painless swelling of the left cheek with a history of total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma thyroid 5 years back. Cheek metastasis from papillary carcinoma thyroid is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of cheek metastasis from PTC. Common malignancies can metastasize to unusual sites and although infrequent, may be the presenting feature. The successful management of such cases may be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach.

  10. Prediction of risk of distant recurrence using the 21-gene recurrence score in node-negative and node-positive postmenopausal patients with breast cancer treated with anastrozole or tamoxifen: a TransATAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Mitch; Cuzick, Jack; Wale, Christopher; Forbes, John; Mallon, Elizabeth A; Salter, Janine; Quinn, Emma; Dunbier, Anita; Baum, Michael; Buzdar, Aman; Howell, Anthony; Bugarini, Roberto; Baehner, Frederick L; Shak, Steven

    2010-04-10

    PURPOSE To determine whether the Recurrence Score (RS) provided independent information on risk of distant recurrence (DR) in the tamoxifen and anastrozole arms of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) Trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS RNA was extracted from 1,372 tumor blocks from postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancer in the monotherapy arms of ATAC. Twenty-one genes were assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RS was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the value of adding RS to a model with clinical variables (age, tumor size, grade, and treatment) in node-negative (N0) and node-positive (N+) women. RESULTS Reportable scores were available from 1,231 evaluable patients (N0, n = 872; N+, n = 306; and node status unknown, n = 53); 72, 74, and six DRs occurred in N0, N+, and node status unknown patients, respectively. For both N0 and N+ patients, RS was significantly associated with time to DR in multivariate analyses (P or = 31) groups were 4%, 12%, and 25%, respectively, in N0 patients and 17%, 28%, and 49%, respectively, in N+ patients. The prognostic value of RS was similar in anastrozole- and tamoxifen-treated patients. CONCLUSION This study confirmed the performance of RS in postmenopausal HR+ patients treated with tamoxifen in a large contemporary population and demonstrated that RS is an independent predictor of DR in N0 and N+ hormone receptor-positive patients treated with anastrozole, adding value to estimates with standard clinicopathologic features.

  11. Selectins mediate small cell lung cancer systemic metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Heidemann

    Full Text Available Metastasis formation is the major reason for the extremely poor prognosis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC patients. The molecular interaction partners regulating metastasis formation in SCLC are largely unidentified, however, from other tumor entities it is known that tumor cells use the adhesion molecules of the leukocyte adhesion cascade to attach to the endothelium at the site of the future metastasis. Using the human OH-1 SCLC line as a model, we found that these cells expressed E- and P-selectin binding sites, which could be in part attributed to the selectin binding carbohydrate motif sialyl Lewis A. In addition, protein backbones known to carry these glycotopes in other cell lines including PSGL-1, CD44 and CEA could be detected in in vitro and in vivo grown OH1 SCLC cells. By intravital microscopy of murine mesenterial vasculature we could capture SCLC cells while rolling along vessel walls demonstrating that SCLC cells mimic leukocyte rolling behavior in terms of selectin and selectin ligand interaction in vivo indicating that this mechanism might indeed be important for SCLC cells to seed distant metastases. Accordingly, formation of spontaneous distant metastases was reduced by 50% when OH-1 cells were xenografted into E-/P-selectin-deficient mice compared with wild type mice (p = 0.0181. However, as metastasis formation was not completely abrogated in selectin deficient mice, we concluded that this adhesion cascade is redundant and that other molecules of this cascade mediate metastasis formation as well. Using several of these adhesion molecules as interaction partners presumably make SCLC cells so highly metastatic.

  12. Male occult breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis as the first manifestation: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruixin; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Yingjie; Jing, Hongbiao; Zhu, Youzhe

    2017-12-01

    Occult breast cancer (OBC) is extremely rare in males with neither symptoms in the breast nor abnormalities upon imaging examination. This current case report presents a young male patient who was diagnosed with male OBC first manifesting as axillary lymph node metastasis. The physical and imaging examination showed no primary lesions in either breasts or in other organs. The pathological results revealed infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the axillary lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), cytokeratin (CK)20 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), positive for CK7, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and suspicious positive for human epidermal receptor-2 (Her-2). On basis of IHC markers, particularly such as CK7, CK20 and GCDFP-15, and eliminating other malignancies, male OBC was identified in spite of negativity for hormone receptors. The patient underwent left axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) but not mastectomy. After the surgery, the patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is currently being followed up without any signs of recurrence. Carefully imaging examination and pathological analysis were particularly essential in the diagnosis of male OBC. The guidelines for managing male OBC default to those of female OBC and male breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic influence of clinical stage for distant failure in conservation treatment of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjan, N.A.; Murray, K.J.; Walker, A.P.; Derus, S.B.; Komaki, R.U.; Cox, J.D.; Wilson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    One-hundred twelve patients with clinical stage I-II mammary carcinoma treated with radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery from 1975 through 1985 were evaluated. Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 2-80 months). This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating patients on the basis of tumor and axillary node findings rather than by clinical stage alone. In the authors' series, all T1 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieved the same excellent local and distant control as node-negative T1 and T2 patients. Distant failure occurred in 70% of T2 N1 patients despite systemic chemotherapy given to the majority of patients. The significance of these data regarding future trials are discussed

  14. Oral melanoma with pulmonary metastasis in a Nigerian local dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanomas are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the canine oral cavity accounting for about 7% of all malignant tumours in the dog. Less frequently, metastasis via regional lymph nodes and to the lungs and other organs may occur. A case report of oral melanoma with pulmonary metastasis in a Nigerian local ...

  15. Fourth ventricular ependymoma with a distant intraventricular metastasis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Ambekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymoma is one of the uncommon tumors of the central nervous system (CNS in the adult age group. These tumors have a distinct propensity for metastasis, both within and outside the CNS. However, dissemination at the time of first presentation and retrograde dissemination of the tumor is rare. We report the case of a patient with fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma who presented with left lateral ventricular metastasis which was anatomically different from the primary tumor. We describe the clinic-pathological detail of the patient and discuss the probable pathophysiological basis for this rare presentation and its significance in management of the patient.

  16. Canine spirocercosis-associated extraskeletal osteosarcoma with central nervous system metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pazzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A five-year-old male Boerboel presented for examination, collapsed for an unknown period of time. On clinical examination, multifocal subcutaneous masses and enlarged prescapular lymph nodes as well as neurological deficits that suggested a multifocal neurological syndrome were found. Fine needle aspirates of the prescapular lymph nodes revealed cells suggestive of osteosarcoma. Radiographs showed foci of mineralisation within the soft tissue masses as well as diffuse pulmonary metastasis and a caudodorsal mediastinal mass believed to be a Spirocerca lupi nodule. Computed tomography imaging, necropsy and histopathology confirmed S. lupi oesophageal neoplastic transformation (extraskeletal osteosarcoma, believed to be the primary lesion, and the majority of secondary metastasis to the brain, spine, heart, multiple muscular groups and abdominal organs. This is the first known report of extraskeletal osteosarcoma metastasis to the brain and spinal cord in a dog.

  17. Tolerance and efficiency of radiation therapy treatment of the pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegemann, Nina-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance and efficiency of radiation therapy treatment of the pelvic lymph nodes were assessed in 122 patients with prostate cancer. With no severe observed late toxicity the incidence for lymph node metastases was between 3,0% (primarily irradiated patients without lymph node or distant metastases) and 100% (primarily irradiated patients with lymph node and distant metastases) after 3 years. As it seems, the following subgroups might possibly profit the most from a dose escalation in the pelvic lymph nodes: primarily irradiated patients with positive lymph nodes and postoperatively irradiated patients in adjuvant/additive situation, with a biochemical or a local/lymph node recurrence.

  18. Fatores de risco não habituais para metástase linfonodal no câncer do colo do útero Unusual risk factors for lymph node metastasis in cancer of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as variáveis associadas às metástases nos linfonodos pélvicos em pacientes com carcinoma do colo do útero nos estádios IB e IIA. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se 289 pacientes admitidas no Departamento de Ginecologia do Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Câncer A. C. Camargo com carcinoma invasor do colo do útero (IB e IIA no período de 1980 a 1999 e que foram submetidas à cirurgia radical. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir dos prontuários e da revisão de cortes histológicos dos colos de útero e dos linfonodos, sendo registrados dados sociodemográficos (idade ao diagnóstico, cor da pele, clínicos (estádio da doença, taxa de hemoglobina pré-operatória e índice de massa corpórea e histopatológicos (tipo histológico, grau histológico, índice mitótico, embolização em capilares linfáticos e/ou sangüíneos, invasão perineural, profundidade de invasão do tumor no estroma cervical, intensidade da reação inflamatória no colo do útero, necrose tumoral, tamanho do tumor, invasão dos ligamentos cervicais laterais e do corpo do útero e status linfonodal. A associação entre a presença de metástase linfonodal e as diversas variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de Qui-quadrado, pelo teste exato de Fisher e pela regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se metástase nos linfonodos pélvicos em 65 pacientes (22,5%. Foram identificados os seguintes fatores de risco para metástase linfonodal na análise multivariada: taxa de hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variables associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix at stages IB and IIA. METHODS: The study was carried out with 289 patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (IB and IIA who underwent radical surgery, admitted to the Gynecology Department of the Treatment and Research Center of the Hospital do Câncer A. C. Camargo, between 1980 and 1999. Data were

  19. Paraganglioma with intracranial metastasis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peihao; Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-10-01

    Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors of neural crest origin. They are mostly benign, however; malignant tumors with aggressive behavior and distant metastasis can also occur. Intracranial involvement is extremely rare and has been sporadically reported in the literature. Here we report a case who presented with progressive neurologic deficits due to multiple intracranial lesions found to be metastasis from an occult retroperitoneal malignant paraganglioma.

  20. Diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine PET/CT for primary colorectal cancer and its lymph node metastasis: comparison with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajo, Masatoyo [Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Nakajo, Masayuki; Jinguji, Megumi; Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Kajiya, Yoriko; Tani, Atushi [Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Nishimata, Nobuaki; Shimaoka, Shunji; Nihara, Tohru [Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Kagoshima (Japan); Aridome, Kuniaki [Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kagoshima (Japan); Tanaka, Sadao [Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Pathology, Kagoshima (Japan); Koriyama, Chihaya [Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To examine the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT in primary and metastatic lymph node colorectal cancer foci in comparison with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT. The study population comprised 28 patients with 30 newly diagnosed colorectal cancers who underwent surgical resection of the primary lesion and regional lymph nodes after both FLT and FDG PET/CT. The associations between SUVmax levels and pathological factors were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis test. Differences in diagnostic indexes for detecting nodal metastasis between the two tracers were estimated using the McNemar exact or {chi} {sup 2} test. All 30 primary cancers (43.0 {+-} 20.0 mm, range 14 - 85 mm) were visualized by both tracers, but none of the FLT SUVmax values exceeded the FDG SUVmax values in any of the primary cancers (6.6 {+-} 2.4 vs. 13.6 {+-} 5.8, p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting nodal metastasis were 41 % (15/37), 98.8 % (493/499) and 94.8 % (508/536) for FDG PET/CT, and 32 % (12/37), 98.8 % (493/499) and 94.2 % (505/536) for FLT PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity (p = 0.45), specificity (p = 0.68) and accuracy (p = 0.58) were not different between the tracers. Nodal uptake of FLT and FDG was discordant in 7 (19 %) of 37 metastatic nodes. There were ten concordant true-positive nodes of which six showed higher FDG SUVmax and four showed higher FLT SUVmax, but the difference between FDG and FLT SUVmax was not significant (5.56 {+-} 3.55 and 3.62 {+-} 1.45, respectively; p = 0.22). FLT has the same potential as FDG in PET/CT for the diagnosis of primary and nodal foci of colorectal cancer despite significantly lower FLT uptake in primary foci. (orig.)

  1. An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis: Perianal Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kilic

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. Although the most frequent sites of distant metastasis of lung cancers are the pleura, liver, adrenal glands, skeletal system and brain, perianal region has been rarely reported as a metastasis site. A male patient was admitted to our emergency room with a long standing perianal abscess. During abscess drainage, a mass was noticed at the base of the abscess pouch, and thus a biopsy was taken. Pathologically, it w...

  2. Predictive factors of occult neck metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fortes Bittar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: It is well established that cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The definition of parameters and classifications that could separate patients in groups of low, intermediate and high-risk is being attempted for several years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of occult cervical lymph node metastasis through the analysis of histopathological reports of surgical specimens obtained after oral squamous cell carcinoma resection and selective neck dissections of patients initially classified as N0. METHODS: This was a primary, retrospective, observational, case-control study. Histopathological reports were reviewed to determine if some findings were related to the occurrence of occult lymph node metastasis. The events analyzed were oral cavity subsites, pT-stage, muscular infiltration, desmoplasia, vascular emboli, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and compromised margins. RESULTS: Occult cervical metastasis accounted for 19.10 percent of the cases. Desmoplasia, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and pT4a stage are predictive factors of occult neck metastasis (p-value = 0.0488, 0.0326, 0.0395, 0.0488, respectively. CONCLUSION: The accurate definition of predictive factors of occult cervical metastasis may guide the selection of patients that should be referred to radiotherapy, avoiding the unnecessary exposure of low-risk patients to radiation and allowing a better regional control of the disease in those of moderate or high risk.

  3. Internal mammary lymph node recurrence: rare but characteristic metastasis site in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Gu, Yajia; Leaw, Shiangjiin; Wang, Zhonghua; Wang, Peihua; Hu, Xichun; Chen, Jiayi; Lu, Jingsong; Shao, Zhimin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the frequency of IMLN recurrence, its associated risk factors with disease-free interval (DFI) and its predicting factors on overall survival time. 133 cases of breast cancer IMLN recurrence were identified via the computerized CT reporting system between February 2003 and June 2008, during which chest CT for patients with breast cancer (n = 8867) were performed consecutively at Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Patients' charts were retrieved and patients' characteristics, disease characteristics, and treatments after recurrence were collected for analysis. The frequency was 1.5% (133/8867). IMLN recurrence was presented as the first metastatic site in 121 (91%) patients while 88 (66.2%) had other concurrent metastases. Typical chest CT images included swelling of the IMLN at the ipsilateral side with local lump and sternal erosion located mostly between the second and third intercostal space. The median disease-free interval (DFI) of IMLN recurrence was 38 months. The independent factors that could delay the IMLN recurrence were small tumor size (HR 0.5 95%CI: 0.4 - 0.8; p = 0.002), and positive ER/PR disease (HR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4 - 0.9; p = 0.006). The median survival time after IMLN recurrence was 42 months, with a 5-year survival rate of 30%. Univariate analysis showed four variables significantly influenced the survival time: DFI of IMLN recurrence (p = 0.001), no concurrent distant metastasis (p = 0.024), endocrine therapy for patients with positive ER/PR (p = 0.000), radiotherapy (p = 0.040). The independent factors that reduced the death risk were no concurrent distant metastases (HR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4 - 0.9; p = 0.031), endocrine therapy for patients with positive ER/PR status (HR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1 - 0.5; p = 0.001) and palliative radiotherapy (HR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1- 0.9; p = 0.026). The risk of IMLN recurrence is low and there are certain characteristics features on CT images. ER/PR status is both a risk factor for DFI

  4. Methylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barekati, Zeinab; Radpour, Ramin; Lu, Qing; Bitzer, Johannes; Zheng, Hong; Toniolo, Paolo; Lenner, Per; Zhong, Xiao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors caused by complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. The present study investigated the contribution of aberrant methylation profiles of cancer related genes, APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, GSTP1, P14 (ARF), P16 (CDKN2A), P21 (CDKN1A), PTEN, and TIMP3, in the matched axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison to the primary tumor tissue and the adjacent normal tissue from the same breast cancer patients to identify the potential of candidate genes methylation as metastatic markers. The quantitative methylation analysis was performed using the SEQUENOM’s EpiTYPER™ assay which relies on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The quantitative DNA methylation analysis of the candidate genes showed higher methylation proportion in the primary tumor tissue than that of the matched normal tissue and the differences were significant for the APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, P16, PTEN and TIMP3 promoter regions (P<0.05). Among those candidate methylated genes, APC, BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 displayed higher methylation proportion in the matched lymph node metastasis than that found in the normal tissue (P<0.05). The pathway analysis revealed that BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 have a role in prevention of neoplasm metastasis. The results of the present study showed methylation heterogeneity between primary tumors and metastatic lesion. The contribution of aberrant methylation alterations of BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 genes in lymph node metastasis might provide a further clue to establish useful biomarkers for screening metastasis

  5. Prognosis comparison of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy/intensity modulated radiation therapy for esophageal carcinoma with local regional lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxiang; Wang Jun; Wang Yi; Tian Dandan; Yang Jie; Zhu Shuchai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prognosis and related factor of esophageal carcinoma with locoregional lymph node metastasis (N 1 ) treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: From January 2001 to December 2008, 60 patients of esophageal carcinoma with local regional lymph node metastasis were treated with 3DCRT and 52 with IMRT. For all patients,dose of tumor was 56 - 70 Gy/28 - 35 fraction/5.6 - 7.0 weeks. Among them, 58 cases was treated with chemotherapy including cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil; 40 with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and 18 with sequential radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Results: After radiotherapy,the total efficiency rate was 98.2%, 96.7% in 3DCRT and 100% in IMRT (χ 2 =1.77, P =0.184). The follow-up rate was 99.1%. The number of patients completed follow-up were 68 and 53, respectively at 2-year and 3-year. The 1 and 3-year overall survival rates were 62.5%, 23.7%, respectively; the median survival time was 17 months. The 1 and 3-year survival rates and median were 52%, 19% and 12.4 months in 3DCRT and 75%, 40% and 17 months in IMRT, respectively (χ 2 =4.74, P =0.030). The 1 and 3-year free-recurrence survival rates were 64%, 45% in 3DCRT and 72%, 59% in IMRT (χ 2 =2.27, P =0.132), respectively. With univariate analysis, for female, ages ≤ 65, tumor located in cervical and upper-thoracic, >5 cm lesion length in barium esophagogram, ≤4 cm the largest diameter of lesion in CT scanning image, T 4 stage, or semiliquid or liquid diet before radiotherapy, survival rate were higher in IMRT than in 3DCRT group (χ 2 =4.63, 5.56, 7.19, 5.08, 4.43, 4.48, 8.25; P=0.031, 0.018, 0.007, 0.025, 0.035, 0.034, 0.004, respectively); but for male, ages > 65, tumor located in middle and lower-thoracic, ≤5 cm lesion length in barium esophagogram, >4 cm the largest diameter of lesion in CT scanning image, T 1-3 stage, or normal diet before radiotherapy, chemotherapy and dose of radiotherapy

  6. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and central neck lymph node metastasis in North American patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Sebastian M; Carson, Kathryn A; Pai, Sara I; Agrawal, Nishant; Richmon, Jeremy D; Prescott, Jason D; Dackiw, Alan; Zeiger, Martha A; Bishop, Justin A; Tufano, Ralph P

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have reported that concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with improved prognosis of the PTC, including decreased lymph node metastasis. We sought to assess the incidence of central nodal metastasis (CNM) in patients with PTC and concurrent CLT. We studied 495 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy with nodal excision for PTC. Pathology reports identified the presence of CLT and the extent of CNM. There were 226 patients (46%) with CLT and 220 (44%) with CNM. Patients with CLT were more often female (88% vs. 71%; P CLT was associated with a 39% decreased odds of CNM after adjusting for age, gender, tumor size, PTC histopathologic subtype, and presence of lymphovascular invasion (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.99; P = .046). Predicted probability modeling showed that all females with CLT and no suspicious nodal findings on ultrasonography had a 9-11% risk of CNM with pT1a tumors. Female patients of all ages with CLT and small PTCs have the least incidence of CNM. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A meta-analysis of lymph node metastasis rate for patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer and its implication in delineation of clinical target volume for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Zhang, J; Li, B; Wang, Z; Huang, W; Zhou, T; Wei, Y; Li, H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to pool the lymph node metastasis rate (LNMR) in patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer (TOC) and to determine which node level should be included when undergoing radiation therapy. Methods Qualified studies were identified on Medline, Embase, CBM and the Cochrane Library through to the end of April 2011. Pooled estimates of LNMR were obtained through a random-effect model. Possible effect modifiers which might lead to the statistical heterogeneity were identified through meta-regression, and further subgroup analyses of factors influencing LNMR were performed. Results 45 observational studies with a total of 18 415 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of LNMR in upper, middle and lower TOC were 30.7%, 16.8% and 11.0% cervical, 42.0%, 21.1% and 10.5% upper mediastinal, 12.9%, 28.1% and 19.6% middle mediastinal, 2.6%, 7.8% and 23.0% lower mediastinal, and 9%, 21.4% and 39.9% abdominal, respectively. Lymph node metastasis most frequently happened to paratracheal, paraoesophageal, perigastric 106recR and station 7. The most obvious difference (≥15%) of LNMR between two-field and three-field lymphatic dissection occurred in cervical, paratracheal, 106recR and 108. Conclusions Through the meta-analysis, more useful information was obtained about clinical target volume (CTV) delineation of TOC patients treated with radiotherapy. However, our study is predominantly a description of squamous carcinoma and the results may not be valid for adenocarcinoma. PMID:22700258

  9. The seventh tumour-node-metastasis staging system for lung cancer: Sequel or prequel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Janssens, Annelies

    2013-09-01

    Anatomical cancer extent is an important predictor of prognosis and determines treatment choices. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification developed by Pierre Denoix replaced in 1968 the Veterans Administration Lung cancer Group (VALG) classification, which was still in use for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Clifton Mountain suggested several improvements based on a database of mostly surgically treated United States (US) patients from a limited number of centres. This database was pivotal for a uniform reporting of lung cancer extent by the American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union against Cancer (IUCC), but it suffered increasingly from obsolete diagnostic and staging procedures and did not reflect new treatment modalities. Moreover, its findings were not externally validated in large Japanese and European databases, resulting in persisting controversies which could not be solved with the available database. The use of different mediastinal lymph-node maps in Japan, the (US) and Europe facilitated neither the exchange nor the comparison of treatment results. Peter Goldstraw, a United Kingdom (UK) thoracic surgeon, started the process of updating the sixth version in 1996 and brought it to a good end 10 years later. His goals were to improve the TNM system in lung cancer by addressing the ongoing controversies, to validate the modifications and additional descriptors, to validate the TNM for use in staging SCLC and carcinoid tumours, to propose a new uniform lymph-node map and to investigate the prognostic value of non-anatomical factors. A staging committee was formed within the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) - which supervised the collection of the retrospective data from >100,000 patients with lung cancer - treated throughout the world between 1990 and 2000, analyse them with the help of solid statistics and validate externally with the Surveillance

  10. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast metastasizing to the vulva: {sup 18}F FDG PET CT Demonstrating rare metastasis from a rare tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangembam, Bang Kim Chand Ra; Sharma, Punit; Singla, Su Has; Singhal, Abinav; Dhull, Varun Singh; Bal, Chand Rasek Har; Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2012-09-15

    Phyllodes tumors are extremely rare fibroepithelial neoplasms accounting for 0.3 to 0.5% of all female breast tumors with an incidence of 2.1 per 1 million women. They are classified histologically into benign, borderline and malignant varieties. The majority of them are benign, with only 25% being malignant. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. One characteristic is that although the malignant variety tends to metastasize and recur, the benign form has also been found to behave in a similar manner. Benign phyllodes tumor has a 21% risk of local recurrence, while that of the malignant variety ranges from 20 to 32%. In patients with malignant phyllodes tumor, the rate of distant metastases ranges from 25 to 40%. The most frequent sites of distant metastasis is uncommon as this tumor spreads by hematogeneous route. Other sites for distant metastasis have been reported sporadically, including the duodenum, pancreas, brain, nasal cavity, forearm, parotid, skin, oral cavity, skeletal muscle, mandible and maxilla. We present a rare case of recurrent malignant phyllodes tumor with metastasis to the vulva, which has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. A 49 year old female who had undergone lumpectomy and locoregional radiotherapy 1 year previously for malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast presented with difficulty in breathing and cervical lymphadenopathy. Chest X ray showed multiple pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastasis. She was referred for restaging with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET CT)FDG PET CT. Maximum intensity projection (MIP)PET images revealed multiple FDG avid enlarged cervical lymph nodes, bilateral pulmonary nodules along with left pleural effusion and extensive bone marrow metastases. The interesting finding was an intensely FDG avid (SUV{sup max}-21.4)subcutaneous soft tissue density lesion (measuring 2.0x2.2x2.0cm)in the vulva, which was later proved to be

  11. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Nodal Metastasis in Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Marc Gregory; Atun, Jenny Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV-) PTC. Lymph node examination, however, revealed TB lymphadenitis, and the patient was given standard antimycobacterial therapy. This is the first documented case in Southeast Asia, a high TB burden region. This is also the first report involving FV-PTC, which has features between those of conventional PTC and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The case suggests that, in endemic areas, TB should be a differential in the etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in PTC patients. In developed countries, this differential diagnosis is also valuable because of the increasing incidence of HIV and TB coinfection. Proper preoperative evaluation is important and needs to be highlighted in the formulation of local guidelines.

  12. Immunoreactivity of the 14F7 Mab Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Primary Lymphoid Tumors and Lymph Node Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Rancés; Blanco, Damián; Quintana, Yisel; Escobar, Xiomara; Rengifo, Charles E.; Osorio, Marta; Gutiérrez, Zailí; Lamadrid, Janet; Cedeño, Mercedes; Frómeta, Milagros; Carr, Adriana; Rengifo, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity of the 14F7 Mab, a highly specific IgG1 against N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside (NeuGcGM3) in normal tissues, lymphomas, lymph node metastasis, and other metastatic sites was assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the effect of chemical fixation on the 14F7 Mab staining using monolayers of P3X63Ag.653 cells was also evaluated. Moreover, the ability of 14F7 to bind NeuGcGM3 ganglioside inducing complement-independent cytotoxicity by a flow cytometry-based assay was measured. The 14F7 Mab was reactive in unfixed, 4% paraformaldehyde, 4% formaldehyde, and acetone fixed cells. Postfixation with acetone did not alter the localization of NeuGcGM3, while the staining with 14F7 Mab was significantly eliminated in both cells fixed and postfixed with methanol but only partially reduced with ethanol. The staining with 14F7 Mab was evidenced in the 89.2%, 89.4%, and 88.9% of lymphomas, lymph node metastasis, and other metastatic sites, respectively, but not in normal tissues. The treatment with 14F7 Mab affected both morphology and membrane integrity of P3X63Ag.653 cells. This cytotoxic activity was dose-dependent and ranged from 24.0 to 84.7% (10–1000 μg/mL) as compared to the negative control. Our data could support the possible use of NeuGcGM3 as target for both active and passive immunotherapy against malignancies expressing this molecule. PMID:24381785

  13. Development and external validation of nomograms to predict the risk of skeletal metastasis at the time of diagnosis and skeletal metastasis-free survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Xia, Liangping; Wang, Yan; He, Shasha; Chen, Haiyang; Liang, Shaobo; Peng, Peijian; Hong, Shaodong; Chen, Yong

    2017-09-06

    The skeletal system is the most common site of distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); various prognostic factors have been reported for skeletal metastasis, though most studies have focused on a single factor. We aimed to establish nomograms to effectively predict skeletal metastasis at initial diagnosis (SMAD) and skeletal metastasis-free survival (SMFS) in NPC. A total of 2685 patients with NPC who received bone scintigraphy (BS) and/or 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and 2496 patients without skeletal metastasis were retrospectively assessed to develop individual nomograms for SMAD and SMFS. The models were validated externally using separate cohorts of 1329 and 1231 patients treated at two other institutions. Five independent prognostic factors were included in each nomogram. The SMAD nomogram had a significantly higher c-index than the TNM staging system (training cohort, P = 0.005; validation cohort, P system (P skeletal metastasis, which may improve counseling and facilitate individualized management of patients with NPC.

  14. [A case of gastric cancer with N2 lymph node metastasis and pancreatic invasion effectively treated with docetax-el/S-1 as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Keita; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishibashi, Yuji; Ito, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer(cStage III B). Laparotomy showed N2 lymph node metastasis and pancreatic invasion. Radical resection appeared impossible and was thus not performed. Chemotherapy consisting of a combination of S-1(80mg/m 2, 2-week administration and 1-week rest), and docetaxel(40mg/m2day 1)was administered with the expectation of tumor downstaging. A partial response(PR)was obtained after five courses of this regimen in which the primary lesion and lymph node swelling remarkably improved. Total gastrectomy, splenectomy, partial colectomy, and D2 lymph node dissection were then performed. Pathological analysis revealed very few cancer cells in the primary lesion and that the lymph nodes had become scarred and fibrotic. The histological appearance was judged to be grade 2 and the final diagnosis was T1N0H0P0CY0M0, fStage I A, curability A. Currently, more than 6 years and 4 months after the operation, the patient is alive without any evidence of recurrence. Thus, docetaxel/S-1 combination therapy was an effective neoadjuvant chemotherapy for this case of advanced gastric cancer.

  15. Metastasis of breast cancer cells to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes resistance to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Takamitsu [Gunma Prefectural College of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, School of Radiological Technology, Gunma, Maebashi (Japan); Iwadate, Manabu [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Thyroid and Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Tachibana, Kazunoshin [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Breast Surgery, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Waguri, Satoshi [Fukushima Medical University, Department of Anatomy and Histology, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Takenoshita, Seiichi [Fukushima Medical University, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Fukushima Global Medical Science Center, School of Medicine, Fukushima (Japan); Hamada, Nobuyuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Tokyo, Komae (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Metastasis represents the leading cause of breast cancer deaths, necessitating strategies for its treatment. Although radiotherapy is employed for both primary and metastatic breast cancers, the difference in their ionizing radiation response remains incompletely understood. This study is the first to compare the radioresponse of a breast cancer cell line with its metastatic variants and report that such metastatic variants are more radioresistant. A luciferase expressing cell line was established from human basal-like breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 and underwent in vivo selections, whereby a cycle of inoculations into the left cardiac ventricle or the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice, isolation of metastases to the bone, lung and lymph nodes visualized with bioluminescence imaging, and expansion of obtained cells was repeated twice or three times. The established metastatic cell lines were assessed for cell proliferation, wound healing, invasion, clonogenic survival, and apoptosis. The established metastatic cell lines possessed an increased proliferative potential in vivo and were more chemotactic, invasive, and resistant to X-ray-induced clonogenic inactivation and apoptosis in vitro. Breast cancer metastasis to the bone, lung, and lymph nodes promotes radioresistance. (orig.) [German] Metastasierung ist die Hauptursache fuer den toedlichen Verlauf von Brustkrebserkrankungen. Darauf muessen spezifische Behandlungsstrategien ausgerichtet werden. Sowohl primaere als auch metastatische Brustkrebsarten koennen mit einer Strahlentherapie behandelt werden, allerdings sind die Unterschiede in der Reaktion auf ionisierende Strahlung bis heute nicht vollstaendig verstanden. In dieser Studie wird zum ersten Mal die Strahlenantwort einer Brustkrebszelllinie mit der ihrer metastatischen Varianten verglichen und die erhoehte Strahlenresistenz der metastatischen Varianten gezeigt. Eine Luciferase-exprimierende Zelllinie wurde aus humanen basaloiden Brustadenokarzinomen

  16. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

  17. FDG-PET-Detected Extracranial Metastasis in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Staging for Surgery or Radical Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macmanus, Michael P.; Hicks, Rodney; Fisher, Richard; Rischin, Danny; Michael, Michael; Wirth, Andrew; Ball, David L. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2003-03-01

    The prognostic significance of extracranial distant metastasis detected by positron emission tomography (PET) was investigated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Forty-two patients staged with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET-detected distant metastasis before planned surgery (n=7) or radical radiotherapy (RT)/chemoradiotherapy (n=35) for NSCLC were identified from a prospective database. The influence of metastasis number and other prognostic factors was investigated using Cox's regression analysis. Treatment after PET included surgery (n=2), radical RT (n =5), palliative RT (n=25), chemotherapy (n=8) or supportive care (n=2). All but 4 patients had died by the last follow-up. Median survival was 9 months overall, 12 months for 27 patients with single PET-detected metastasis and 5 months for 15 patients with >1 metastasis (p=0.009). It was found that the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.027) but not pre-PET stage, weight loss or metastasis site correlated with survival. PET-detected metastatic tumor burden appeared to influence survival and should be evaluated as a prognostic factor in NSCLC.

  18. Scintimammography with Technetium-99m-lipophilic cations in the diagnosis of breast cancer and lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, G.

    2003-01-01

    contribution from the contralateral breast, a lead shield was placed between the two mammary glands. A SPET with the patient in the supine position was also performed in 16 subjects. A quantitative analysis evaluating both breasts and lymph node was performed. All breast lesions were verified after surgery and/or fine needle aspiration. A ratio higher than 1.4 and 2.0 between the uptake and the normal tissue was considered positive for malignancy in the breast and the axilla respectively. Twenty-eight patients had breast cancer (size mean 4-38 mm) and 11 had one ore more metastatic lymph nodes in the axilla (micrometastases in 3 subjects). Our study revealed an increased uptake of radiotracer in 23 out of 28 patient with effective breast cancer; the smallest lesion observed was 7 mm nodule. The sensitivity of the method was 82% (96% considering lesions more than 12 mm). 1 false-positive result was observed in 18 patients with benign disease (9 proliferative fibrocystic dysplasia, 5 fibroadenoma, 2 fibrocystic dysplasia, 1 post-surgical fibrosis, 1 granulomatosis. At scintimammography, axillary uptake of 99mTc-TF was observed in 5 subjects with lymph node metastasis, with 6 false-negative cases. Three false-negative occurred: 1 in a patient without detection of neoplastic disease of breast and 2 in patient suffering of breast cancer but not axillary metastasis. The sensitivity in the axillary lymph nodes detection was 45% and the specificity 95%. The low rate sensitivity is affected by the number of patients with micro metastatic axillary disease. In our experience the following SPET acquisition did not modified the sensitivity of examination. On the other hand, Schillaci (EANM 2002) demonstrated SPET-TC was able to provide further information of clinical value in 40% of the studies. Scintimammography showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of palpable breast cancer. Specificity was clearly higher in comparison with other diagnostic imaging procedures. The

  19. Pancreatic Metastasis in a Child Suffering with Treated Stage 4 Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Young; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Ki Woong

    2008-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, and its metastasis to distant organs such as bone, bone marrow and liver is well documented. However, pancreatic metastasis of neuroblastoma has not yet been reported in the medical literature. We report here on a 4-year old boy who had a metastatic relapse in his pancreas, combined with pancreatitis, after remission of stage 4 neuroblastoma. In conclusion, we present here a very rare case of neuroblastoma that metastasized to the pancreas in a 4- year-old boy. Pancreatic metastasis should be taken into consideration for those patients who are found to have pancreatic nodules concurrent with neuroblastoma

  20. Histologic assessment of tumor budding in preoperative biopsies to predict nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Mai; Sano, Takaaki; Yokoo, Satoshi; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2016-04-01

    In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and the floor of the mouth (FOM), it is important to predict lymph node metastasis, including occult metastasis, before operating. The purpose of this study was for us to determine practical histopathologic parameters as predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in preoperative SCC biopsy specimens. We examined 91 cases of SCC for conventional histopathologic assessment and a new factor, tumor budding, and their relationship with lymph node metastasis. Significant factors via univariate analysis (p factoring into the decision as to whether neck dissection is indicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1582-E1590, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1994-01-01

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma

  2. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  3. Effectiveness of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with oropharyngeal and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant histological verification of singular ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis (pN1-state - A prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial using a comprehensive cohort design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern radiotherapy plays an important role in therapy of advanced head and neck carcinomas. However, no clinical studies have been published addressing the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with small tumor (pT1, pT2 and concomitant ipsilateral metastasis of a single lymph node (pN1, which would provide a basis for a general treatment recommendation. Methods/Design The present study is a non-blinded, prospective, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT. As the primary clinical endpoint, overall-survival in patients receiving postoperative radiation therapy vs. patients without adjuvant therapy following curative intended surgery is compared. The aim of the study is to enroll 560 adult males and females for 1:1 randomization to one of the two treatment arms (irradiation/no irradiation. Since patients with small tumor (T1/T2 but singular lymph node metastasis are rare and the amount of patients consenting to randomization is not predictable in advance, all patients rejecting randomization will be treated as preferred and enrolled in a prospective observational study (comprehensive cohort design after giving informed consent. This observational part of the trial will be performed with maximum consistency to the treatment and observation protocol of the RCT. Because the impact of patient preference for a certain treatment option is not calculable, parallel design of RCT and observational study may provide a maximum of evidence and efficacy for evaluation of treatment outcome. Secondary clinical endpoints are as follows: incidence and time to tumor relapse (locoregional relapse, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic spread, Quality of life as reported by EORTC (QLQ-C30 with H&N 35 module, and time from operation to orofacial rehabilitation. All tumors represent a homogeneous clinical state and therefore additional investigation of protein expression levels within resection specimen may serve

  4. Effectiveness of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with oropharyngeal and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant histological verification of singular ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis (pN1-state) - A prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial using a comprehensive cohort design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern radiotherapy plays an important role in therapy of advanced head and neck carcinomas. However, no clinical studies have been published addressing the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with small tumor (pT1, pT2) and concomitant ipsilateral metastasis of a single lymph node (pN1), which would provide a basis for a general treatment recommendation. Methods/Design The present study is a non-blinded, prospective, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT). As the primary clinical endpoint, overall-survival in patients receiving postoperative radiation therapy vs. patients without adjuvant therapy following curative intended surgery is compared. The aim of the study is to enroll 560 adult males and females for 1:1 randomization to one of the two treatment arms (irradiation/no irradiation). Since patients with small tumor (T1/T2) but singular lymph node metastasis are rare and the amount of patients consenting to randomization is not predictable in advance, all patients rejecting randomization will be treated as preferred and enrolled in a prospective observational study (comprehensive cohort design) after giving informed consent. This observational part of the trial will be performed with maximum consistency to the treatment and observation protocol of the RCT. Because the impact of patient preference for a certain treatment option is not calculable, parallel design of RCT and observational study may provide a maximum of evidence and efficacy for evaluation of treatment outcome. Secondary clinical endpoints are as follows: incidence and time to tumor relapse (locoregional relapse, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic spread), Quality of life as reported by EORTC (QLQ-C30 with H&N 35 module), and time from operation to orofacial rehabilitation. All tumors represent a homogeneous clinical state and therefore additional investigation of protein expression levels within resection specimen may serve for establishment of

  5. Effectiveness of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with oropharyngeal and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant histological verification of singular ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis (pN1-state)--a prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial using a comprehensive cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moergel, Maximilian; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Krummenauer, Frank; Reichert, Torsten E; Wagner, Wilfried; Wendt, Thomas G; Werner, Jochen A; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2009-12-23

    Modern radiotherapy plays an important role in therapy of advanced head and neck carcinomas. However, no clinical studies have been published addressing the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with small tumor (pT1, pT2) and concomitant ipsilateral metastasis of a single lymph node (pN1), which would provide a basis for a general treatment recommendation. The present study is a non-blinded, prospective, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT). As the primary clinical endpoint, overall-survival in patients receiving postoperative radiation therapy vs. patients without adjuvant therapy following curative intended surgery is compared. The aim of the study is to enroll 560 adult males and females for 1:1 randomization to one of the two treatment arms (irradiation/no irradiation). Since patients with small tumor (T1/T2) but singular lymph node metastasis are rare and the amount of patients consenting to randomization is not predictable in advance, all patients rejecting randomization will be treated as preferred and enrolled in a prospective observational study (comprehensive cohort design) after giving informed consent. This observational part of the trial will be performed with maximum consistency to the treatment and observation protocol of the RCT. Because the impact of patient preference for a certain treatment option is not calculable, parallel design of RCT and observational study may provide a maximum of evidence and efficacy for evaluation of treatment outcome. Secondary clinical endpoints are as follows: incidence and time to tumor relapse (locoregional relapse, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic spread), Quality of life as reported by EORTC (QLQ-C30 with H&N 35 module), and time from operation to orofacial rehabilitation. All tumors represent a homogeneous clinical state and therefore additional investigation of protein expression levels within resection specimen may serve for establishment of surrogate parameters of

  6. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma: A Short Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Partenzi, Antonietta; Filosa, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Several controversies are still ongoing about sentinel node biopsy in melanoma. It is basically a staging procedure for melanoma > 0.75 mm in thickness or for thinner melanoma in the presence of ulceration, high mitotic rate, and/or lymphovascular invasion. Complete lymph node dissection after a positive sentinel node can also allow a better locoregional disease control but seems not to prevent the development of distant metastases. The use of sentinel node biopsy in atypical Spitz tumors should be discouraged because of their peculiar biological properties. PMID:29719827

  7. Comparison of FDG PET and CT/MRI in the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer: a level-by-level based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, You Jung; Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Nam, S. Y.; Lee, W. W.; Ryu, J. S.; Yeo, J. S.; Moon, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    We compared diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET and CT/MRI for regional lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer according to the level of cervical lymph node. Thirty-two patients (M/F=27/5, 56±10yr) with head and neck cancer (glottic cancer; 16, tongue cancer; 9, others; 7) uncerwent FDG PET and CT/MRI (29/3) within 1 month before elective surgery with neck dissection (bilateral in 21, unilateral in 11). Whole body and additional regional neck images were acquired 1 hr after injection of FDG (555 MBq). PET images were visually interpreted according to the cervical lymph node level by 2 nuclear physicians independently without CT/MRI information. The findings of PET and CT/MRI were confirmed by the surgical pathology(153 levels of 43 neck dissections). There were 32 positive levels and 121 negative levels for metastatic lymph node lesions in pathology. The diagnostic sensitivity of PET [88%(28/32)] was significantly higher than that of CT/MRI [63%(20/32)] (p=0.021), whereas the specificity of PET [93%(113/121)] was similar to that of CT/MRI [92%(111/121)] (p>0.05). FDG PET was more sensitive than conventional CT/MRI in detecting metastatic lymph node of head and neck cancer

  8. Brain metastasis of breast cancer: clinical and radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jin Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Chung, Tae Sub

    2001-01-01

    To analyse the clinical and radiologic findings brain metastasis of breast cancer. Sixty-one of 1399 patients in whom breast cancer was diagnosed between 1983 and 1999 were affected by brain metastasis. Among these 1399, the stage of the breast cancer, in descending order of frequency, was IIA (n=508), I (n=366), IIB (n=247), IIIA (n=189), IIIB (n=45), 0 (n=33) and IV (n=11). The stage of the 61 brain metastases, similarly ordered, was IIB (12.5%), IIA (3.9%), IIIA (3.1%), IIIB (2.2%) and I (0.8%). In all confirmed breast cancers, the age distribution, in descending order of frequency, was 40-49years (n=610), 50-59 (n=301), 30-39 (n=291), 60-69 (n=124), 20-19 (n=41), 70-79 (n=28), and 80-89 (n=4). The age distribution of brain metastasis was 20-29 (14.6%), 30-39 (7.9%), 50-59 (4.6%). 40-49 (2.6%) and 60-69 (1.6%). Imaging findings were available for 35 of the 61 patients affected by brain metastasis, and symptoms from brain among the 35, analysis of the symptoms of this metastasis, the site of the first distant metastasis to an extracranial or cranial organ, the interval from the diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis, the interval from brain metastasis to death, and the difference in survival time between patients with initial and succeeding brain metastasis was undertaken. Brain CT findings were analysed in 29 cases and MRI findings in eight. The most common symptoms were headache and vomiting. Among the 35 brain metastasis patients for whom imaging findings were available, other systemic metastasis occurred in 22. Initial brain metastasis occurred in the remaining 13, and in seven of these there was also coincident organ metastasis, while six showed only brain metastasis, The most frequent intervals from the diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis were 1-2 years(8/35) and 2-3years(8/35). Twenty-six of 35 patients died within one year of brain metastasis. Patients in whom this occurred later survived for longer than those in whom it occurred

  9. MicroRNA classifier and nomogram for metastasis prediction in colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens-Beumer, I.J.; Derr, R.S.; Buermans, H.P.; Goeman, J.J.; Bohringer, S.; Morreau, H.; Nitsche, U.; Janssen, K.P.; Velde, C.J. van de; Kuppen, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colon cancer prognosis and treatment are currently based on a classification system still showing large heterogeneity in clinical outcome, especially in TNM stages II and III. Prognostic biomarkers for metastasis risk are warranted as development of distant recurrent disease mainly

  10. Axillary Lymph Node Evaluation Utilizing Convolutional Neural Networks Using MRI Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Richard; Chang, Peter; Karcich, Jenika; Mutasa, Simukayi; Fardanesh, Reza; Wynn, Ralph T; Liu, Michael Z; Jambawalikar, Sachin

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of convolutional neural network (CNN) in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis, using a breast MRI dataset. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective review of our database from 1/2013 to 6/2016 identified 275 axillary lymph nodes for this study. Biopsy-proven 133 metastatic axillary lymph nodes and 142 negative control lymph nodes were identified based on benign biopsies (100) and from healthy MRI screening patients (42) with at least 3 years of negative follow-up. For each breast MRI, axillary lymph node was identified on first T1 post contrast dynamic images and underwent 3D segmentation using an open source software platform 3D Slicer. A 32 × 32 patch was then extracted from the center slice of the segmented tumor data. A CNN was designed for lymph node prediction based on each of these cropped images. The CNN consisted of seven convolutional layers and max-pooling layers with 50% dropout applied in the linear layer. In addition, data augmentation and L2 regularization were performed to limit overfitting. Training was implemented using the Adam optimizer, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. Code for this study was written in Python using the TensorFlow module (1.0.0). Experiments and CNN training were done on a Linux workstation with NVIDIA GTX 1070 Pascal GPU. Two class axillary lymph node metastasis prediction models were evaluated. For each lymph node, a final softmax score threshold of 0.5 was used for classification. Based on this, CNN achieved a mean five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 84.3%. It is feasible for current deep CNN architectures to be trained to predict likelihood of axillary lymph node metastasis. Larger dataset will likely improve our prediction model and can potentially be a non-invasive alternative to core needle biopsy and even sentinel lymph node

  11. Abdominal Wall Metastasis from an Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hana; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Chung, Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Song Mi; Jung, Woo Hee [Dept. of Diagnostic Pathology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bones, lungs, and liver. However, the recurrence of distant soft-tissue metastasis except to the chest wall is extremely rare. Here, we describe our experience with a patient in whom invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast with metastasis to the abdominal wall presented as subcutaneous nodules without local recurrence.

  12. Abdominal Wall Metastasis from an Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hana; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Chung, Jin; Noh, Song Mi; Jung, Woo Hee

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bones, lungs, and liver. However, the recurrence of distant soft-tissue metastasis except to the chest wall is extremely rare. Here, we describe our experience with a patient in whom invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast with metastasis to the abdominal wall presented as subcutaneous nodules without local recurrence.

  13. Breastfeeding and Immunohistochemical Expression of ki-67, p53 and BCL2 in Infiltrating Lobular Breast Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Gonzalez-Sistal

    Full Text Available Invasive lobular breast carcinoma is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma. According to the American Cancer Society, more than 180,000 women in the United States find out they have invasive breast cancer each year. Personal history of breast cancer and certain changes in the breast are correlated with an increased breast cancer risk. The aim of this work was to analyze breastfeeding in patients with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, in relation with: 1 clinicopathological parameters, 2 hormonal receptors and 3 tissue-based tumor markers.The study included 80 women with ILC, 46 of which had breastfeed their children. Analyzed parameters were: age, tumor size, axillary lymph node (N, distant metastasis (M, histological grade (HG, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, androgen receptor (AR, Ki-67, p53 and BCL2.ILC of non-lactating women showed a larger (p = 0.009, lymph node involvement (p = 0.051 and distant metastasis (p = 0.060. They were also more proliferative tumors measured by Ki-67 (p = 0.053. Breastfeeding history did not influence the subsequent behavior of the tumor regardless of histological subtype.Lactation seems to influence the biological characteristics of ILC defining a subgroup with more tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and higher proliferation measured by ki-67 expression.

  14. Lymph node involvement in gastric cancer for different tumor sites and T stage: Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer (IRGGC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, Alberto; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco; Bernini, Marco; Minicozzi, AnnaMaria; Giacopuzzi, Simone; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Baiocchi, Luca Gian; de Manzoni, Giovanni

    2007-09-01

    The aim of lymphadenectomy is to clear all the metastatic nodes achieving a complete removal of the tumor; nevertheless, its role in gastric cancer has been very much debated. The frequency of node metastasis in each lymphatic station according to the International Gastric Cancer Association, was studied in 545 patients who underwent D2 or D3 lymphadenectomy from June 1988 to December 2002. Upper third early cancers have shown an involvement of N2 celiac nodes in 25%. In advanced cancers, there was a high frequency of metastasis in the right gastroepiploic (from 10% in T2 to 50% in T4) and in the paraaortic nodes (26% in T2, 32% in T3, 38 % in T4). N3 left paracardial nodes involvement was observed in an important share of middle third tumors (17% in T3, 36% in T4). Splenic hilum nodes metastasis were common in T3 and T4 cancers located in the upper (39%) and middle (17%) stomach. N2 nodal involvement was frequent in lower third advanced cancers. Metastasis in M left paracardial and short gastric nodes were observed in a small percentage of cases. Given the nodal diffusion in our gastric cancer patients, extended lymphadenectomy is still a rationale to obtain radical resection.

  15. A Risk Prediction Model Based on Lymph-Node Metastasis in Poorly Differentiated-Type Intramucosal Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeung Hui Pyo

    Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD for undifferentiated type early gastric cancer is regarded as an investigational treatment. Few studies have tried to identify the risk factors that predict lymph-node metastasis (LNM in intramucosal poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas (PDC. This study was designed to develop a risk scoring system (RSS for predicting LNM in intramucosal PDC.From January 2002 to July 2015, patients diagnosed with mucosa-confined PDC, among those who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymph node dissection were reviewed. A risk model based on independent predicting factors of LNM was developed, and its performance was internally validated using a split sample approach.Overall, LNM was observed in 5.2% (61 of 1169 patients. Four risk factors [Female sex, tumor size ≥ 3.2 cm, muscularis mucosa (M3 invasion, and lymphatic-vascular involvement] were significantly associated with LNM, which were incorporated into the RSS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting LNM after internal validation was 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.59-0.79]. A total score of 2 points corresponded to the optimal RSS threshold with a discrimination of 0.75 (95% CI 0.69-0.81. The LNM rates were 1.6% for low risk (<2 points and 8.9% for high-risk (≥2 points patients, with a negative predictive value of 98.6% (95% CI 0.98-1.00.A RSS could be useful in clinical practice to determine which patients with intramucosal PDC have low risk of LNM.

  16. Management of Liver Metastasis from Colo-Rectal Carcinoma with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worldwide, colo-rectal carcinoma is the second most common cancer with liver metastases as its major cause of mortality.This malignant condition is now seen more frequently in our environment typically at a late stage with distant metastasis especially to the liver. This study aims at highlighting the current use ...

  17. An opto-magneto-mechanical quantum interface between distant superconducting qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Keyu; Vanner, Michael R; Twamley, Jason

    2014-07-04

    A quantum internet, where widely separated quantum devices are coherently connected, is a fundamental vision for local and global quantum information networks and processing. Superconducting quantum devices can now perform sophisticated quantum engineering locally on chip and a detailed method to achieve coherent optical quantum interconnection between distant superconducting devices is a vital, but highly challenging, goal. We describe a concrete opto-magneto-mechanical system that can interconvert microwave-to-optical quantum information with high fidelity. In one such node we utilise the magnetic fields generated by the supercurrent of a flux qubit to coherently modulate a mechanical oscillator that is part of a high-Q optical cavity to achieve high fidelity microwave-to-optical quantum information exchange. We analyze the transfer between two spatially distant nodes connected by an optical fibre and using currently accessible parameters we predict that the fidelity of transfer could be as high as ~80%, even with significant loss.

  18. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Nodal Metastasis in Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gregory Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous (TB lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV- PTC. Lymph node examination, however, revealed TB lymphadenitis, and the patient was given standard antimycobacterial therapy. This is the first documented case in Southeast Asia, a high TB burden region. This is also the first report involving FV-PTC, which has features between those of conventional PTC and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The case suggests that, in endemic areas, TB should be a differential in the etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in PTC patients. In developed countries, this differential diagnosis is also valuable because of the increasing incidence of HIV and TB coinfection. Proper preoperative evaluation is important and needs to be highlighted in the formulation of local guidelines.

  19. Comparison of machine learning methods for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer from 18F-FDG PET/CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongkai; Zhou, Zongwei; Li, Yingci; Chen, Zhonghua; Lu, Peiou; Wang, Wenzhi; Liu, Wanyu; Yu, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare one state-of-the-art deep learning method and four classical machine learning methods for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from 18 F-FDG PET/CT images. Another objective was to compare the discriminative power of the recently popular PET/CT texture features with the widely used diagnostic features such as tumor size, CT value, SUV, image contrast, and intensity standard deviation. The four classical machine learning methods included random forests, support vector machines, adaptive boosting, and artificial neural network. The deep learning method was the convolutional neural networks (CNN). The five methods were evaluated using 1397 lymph nodes collected from PET/CT images of 168 patients, with corresponding pathology analysis results as gold standard. The comparison was conducted using 10 times 10-fold cross-validation based on the criterion of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy (ACC), and area under the ROC curve (AUC). For each classical method, different input features were compared to select the optimal feature set. Based on the optimal feature set, the classical methods were compared with CNN, as well as with human doctors from our institute. For the classical methods, the diagnostic features resulted in 81~85% ACC and 0.87~0.92 AUC, which were significantly higher than the results of texture features. CNN's sensitivity, specificity, ACC, and AUC were 84, 88, 86, and 0.91, respectively. There was no significant difference between the results of CNN and the best classical method. The sensitivity, specificity, and ACC of human doctors were 73, 90, and 82, respectively. All the five machine learning methods had higher sensitivities but lower specificities than human doctors. The present study shows that the performance of CNN is not significantly different from the best classical methods and human doctors for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of NSCLC from PET/CT images

  20. On the Significance of Fuzzification of the N and M in Cancer Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yones, Sara A; Moussa, Ahmed S; Hassan, Hesham; Alieldin, Nelly H

    2014-01-01

    The tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system has been regarded as one of the most widely used staging systems for solid cancer. The “T” is assigned a value according to the primary tumor size, whereas the “N” and “M” are dependent on the number of regional lymph nodes and the presence of distant metastasis, respectively. The current TNM model classifies stages into five crisp classes. This is unrealistic since the drastic modification in treatment that is based on a change in one class may be based on a slight shift around the class boundary. Moreover, the system considers any tumor that has distant metastasis as stage 4, disregarding the metastatic lesion concentration and size. We had handled the problem of T staging in previous studies using fuzzy logic. In this study, we focus on the fuzzification of N and M staging for more accurate and realistic modeling which may, in turn, lead to better treatment and medical decisions. PMID:25089089

  1. Thyrotoxicosis associated with distant metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, W.D.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In a man with metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, thyrotoxicosis developed after total thyroidectomy and was successfully treated with antithyroid medications. Treatment with radioactive iodine decreased the size of the distant metastasis and eventually diminished thyroid hormone production. Follicular carcinoma complicated by hyperthyroidism requires vigorous control of the hypermetabolic state. Treatment with radioactive iodine can effectively reduce metabolic complications and tumor bulk, and yields a remission rate as high as 33%

  2. Fibroblast-derived CXCL12 promotes breast cancer metastasis by facilitating tumor cell intravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Dinesh K; Nasser, Mohd W; Ouseph, Madhu M; Elbaz, Mohamad; Cuitiño, Maria C; Kladney, Raleigh D; Varikuti, Sanjay; Kaul, Kirti; Satoskar, Abhay R; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ostrowski, Michael C; Leone, Gustavo; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2018-05-03

    The chemokine CXCL12 has been shown to regulate breast tumor growth, however, its mechanism in initiating distant metastasis is not well understood. Here, we generated a novel conditional allele of Cxcl12 in mice and used a fibroblast-specific Cre transgene along with various mammary tumor models to evaluate CXCL12 function in the breast cancer metastasis. Ablation of CXCL12 in stromal fibroblasts of mice significantly delayed the time to tumor onset and inhibited distant metastasis in different mouse models. Elucidation of mechanisms using in vitro and in vivo model systems revealed that CXCL12 enhances tumor cell intravasation by increasing vascular permeability and expansion of a leaky tumor vasculature. Furthermore, our studies revealed CXCL12 enhances permeability by recruiting endothelial precursor cells and decreasing endothelial tight junction and adherence junction proteins. High expression of stromal CXCL12 in large cohort of breast cancer patients was directly correlated to blood vessel density and inversely correlated to recurrence and overall patient survival. In addition, our analysis revealed that stromal CXCL12 levels in combination with number of CD31+ blood vessels confers poorer patient survival compared to individual protein level. However, no correlation was observed between epithelial CXCL12 and patient survival or blood vessel density. Our findings describe the novel interactions between fibroblasts-derived CXCL12 and endothelial cells in facilitating tumor cell intrvasation, leading to distant metastasis. Overall, our studies indicate that cross-talk between fibroblast-derived CXCL12 and endothelial cells could be used as novel biomarker and strategy for developing tumor microenvironment based therapies against aggressive and metastatic breast cancer.

  3. Chromosomal instability drives metastasis through a cytosolic DNA response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Samuel F; Ngo, Bryan; Laughney, Ashley M; Cavallo, Julie-Ann; Murphy, Charles J; Ly, Peter; Shah, Pragya; Sriram, Roshan K; Watkins, Thomas B K; Taunk, Neil K; Duran, Mercedes; Pauli, Chantal; Shaw, Christine; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Genovese, Giulio; Venkatesan, Subramanian; Birkbak, Nicolai J; McGranahan, Nicholas; Lundquist, Mark; LaPlant, Quincey; Healey, John H; Elemento, Olivier; Chung, Christine H; Lee, Nancy Y; Imielenski, Marcin; Nanjangud, Gouri; Pe'er, Dana; Cleveland, Don W; Powell, Simon N; Lammerding, Jan; Swanton, Charles; Cantley, Lewis C

    2018-01-25

    Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer that results from ongoing errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although chromosomal instability is a major driver of tumour evolution, its role in metastasis has not been established. Here we show that chromosomal instability promotes metastasis by sustaining a tumour cell-autonomous response to cytosolic DNA. Errors in chromosome segregation create a preponderance of micronuclei whose rupture spills genomic DNA into the cytosol. This leads to the activation of the cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes) cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and downstream noncanonical NF-κB signalling. Genetic suppression of chromosomal instability markedly delays metastasis even in highly aneuploid tumour models, whereas continuous chromosome segregation errors promote cellular invasion and metastasis in a STING-dependent manner. By subverting lethal epithelial responses to cytosolic DNA, chromosomally unstable tumour cells co-opt chronic activation of innate immune pathways to spread to distant organs.

  4. High E6 Gene Expression Predicts for Distant Metastasis and Poor Survival in Patients With HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khwaja, Shariq S.; Baker, Callie; Haynes, Wesley; Spencer, Christopher R.; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Adkins, Douglas R. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Nussenbaum, Brian [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chernock, Rebecca D. [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Lewis, James S. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Wang, Xiaowei, E-mail: xwang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)–positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have a favorable prognosis. As a result, de-escalation clinical trials are under way. However, approximately 10% of patients will experience distant recurrence even with standard-of-care treatment. Here, we sought to identify novel biomarkers to better risk-stratify HPV-positive patients with OPSCC. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on HPV-positive OPSCC primary tumor specimens from patients with and without distant metastasis (DM). Results: RNA-seq analysis of 39 HPV-positive OPSCC specimens revealed that patients with DM had 2-fold higher E6 gene expression levels than did patients without DM (P=.029). This observation was confirmed in a validation cohort comprising 93 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. The mean normalized E6 expression level in the 17 recurring primary specimens was 13 ± 2 compared with 8 ± 1 in the remaining 76 nonrecurring primaries (P=.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established an E6 expression level of 7.3 as a cutoff for worse recurrence-free survival (RFS). Patients from this cohort with high E6 gene expression (E6-high) (n=51, 55%) had more cancer-related deaths (23% vs 2%, P<.001) and DM (26% vs 5%, P<.001) than did patients with low E6 gene expression (E6-low) (n=42, 45%). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that E6-high had worse RFS (95% vs 69%, P=.004) and cancer-specific survival (97% vs 79%, P=.007). E6-high maintained statistical significance in multivariate regression models balancing surgery, chemotherapy, nodal stage, and smoking status. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that tumors with high E6 expression were associated with P53, epidermal growth factor receptor, activating transcription factor-2, and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways. Conclusion: High E6 gene expression

  5. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the textural features of cervical cancer associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV_m_a_x), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV_m_a_x, the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG_m_e_a_n was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG_m_e_a_n_, respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology. (orig.)

  6. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography for the Textural Features of Cervical Cancer Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Histological Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV max , the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG mean was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG mean, respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology.

  7. [18]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for the textural features of cervical cancer associated with lymph node metastasis and histological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei-Chih [Asia University, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Taichung (China); Chen, Shang-Wen [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Liang, Ji-An [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Hsieh, Te-Chun; Yen, Kuo-Yang [China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); China Medical University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, Taichung (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Asia University, Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the lymph node (LN) status or histological types and textural features of cervical cancers on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging records of 170 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. Four groups of textural features were studied in addition to the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Moreover, we studied the associations between the indices and clinical parameters, including the LN status, clinical stage, and histology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the optimal predictive performance among the various textural indices. Quantitative differences were determined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors, among all the variables, for predicting LN metastasis. Among all the significant indices related to pelvic LN metastasis, homogeneity derived from the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was the sole independent predictor. By combining SUV{sub max}, the risk of pelvic LN metastasis can be scored accordingly. The TLG{sub mean} was the independent feature of positive para-aortic LNs. Quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology can be determined using short-zone emphasis (SZE) from the gray-level size zone matrix (GLSZM). This study revealed that in patients with cervical cancer, pelvic or para-aortic LN metastases can be predicted by using textural feature of homogeneity from the GLCM and TLG{sub mean,} respectively. SZE from the GLSZM is the sole feature associated with quantitative differences between squamous and nonsquamous histology. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of endoscopic ultrasonography and computed tomography in detecting mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes from bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masahiro; Murata, Takashi; Yoshida, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    We investigated and compared the ability of CT and endoscopic ultrasonography by radial scanning (EUS) to diagnose metasasis of lung cancer to the mediastinum and hilar lymph nodes in 27 patients undergoing resection of primary lung cancer and 6 autopsy cases. We also determined the relationship between the presence or absence of metastasis and the size of each lymph node based on the lymph node size measured at the time of resection and its histopathological findings, and we then set up a standard value that was the most accurate in evaluating the presence or absence of metastasis using a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. When lymph node sizes appearing as images were compared with their actual sizes measured on resected specimens before formalin fixation, the short axis measured by either method was found to generally agree with the actual values, while the long axis was slightly smaller than the actual values, although EUS gave more accurate values. When the ability to diagnose metastasis was compared between CT and EUS using the standard value obtained from the ROC curve (a more than 8 mm short axis was defined as positive for metastasis), there were no differences in the ability to delineate the entire area of the mediastinum, including hilar lymph nodes. With respect to individual sites, although there was some difficulty delineating some regions in the mediastinum (pretracheal lymph node) with EUS, more lymph nodes in the mediastinum that were delineated by EUS histopathologically had metastatic lesions than those delineated by CT. However, both methods often failed to delineate hilar lymph nodes, with no difference between the two methods. (author)

  9. Clinical value of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET /CT for the detection of primary and regional lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of18F-FDG and18F-FLT PET/CT for the detection of primary and regional lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer.Methods Thirty-seven patients with gastric cancer underwent preoperative18F-FLT and18F-FDG PET/CT within one week from March 2011 to April 2013.Postoperative histopathology confirmation was obtained in all patients.The PET/CT images were assessed visually and semi-quantitatively.Two-sample t andχ2tests were analyzed using SPSS overall diagnostic

  10. Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat; Beriwal, Sushil; Tang Gong; Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Soran, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

  11. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  12. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Hanyang Univ. Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang Univ. Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension.

  13. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol

    2012-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension

  14. A study of the area of paraaortic lymph nodes dissection in gastric cancer based on lymphatic flow of the stomach using radioactive isotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasagawa, Tsuyoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-04-01

    In gastric cancer patients, I subdivided paraaortic lymph nodes (No.16) into 4 zones. Using RI lymphography I analyzed the lymphatic flow from the cardiac and pyloric region to the No.16. Also, based on these results as well as studies of clinical lymph node metastasis, I elucidate the rational No.16 area in extended lymph node dissection. The lymphatic flows to the No.16 by RI lymphography showed the following routes. The route from the cardiac region was: (1) along the left gastric artery heading towards lymph node around the celiac artery and into the left/right No.16; (2) along the posterior gastric artery and splenic artery from lymph node around the splenic artery directly to the left No.16; (3) along the inferior phrenic artery from left cardiac lymph node and lymph node at the splenic hilus directly to the left upper No.16. The route from the pyloric region was: (1) along the common hepatic artery heading towards lymph node around the celiac artery to the left/right No.16; (2) from infrapyloric lymph node along the gastrocolic trunc flowing to lymph node at the root of the mesenterium and No.16. In upper gastric cancer, there was a high rate of metastasis to lymph node along the lesser curvature and right cardial lymph node, and lymph node along the left gastric artery and splenic artery. There were 3 cases in which metastasis was positive only to cardial lymph node and upper left No.16. In lower gastric cancer, there was a high rate of metastasis to infrapyloric lymph node, lymph node along the lesser curvature, lymph node along the left gastric artery and the common hepatic artery. In all cases which metastasized in group 4, the No.16 metastasis rate was significantly higher in the upper left No.16, being 84.8%. Given the above, the area of paraaortic lymph node dissection in extended lymph node dissection, irrespective of whether it is upper or lower gastric cancer, must be done in the 4 zones, and especially, the upper left No.16 is important. (author).

  15. Pulmonary metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Although thyroid cancer (TC) in its differentiated form is generally associated with a good prognosis and a near normal life expectancy, a subset of patients especially with distant metastatic disease may run an aggressive course leading to poor survival and early death. The clinical presentation and the manner in which the disease progresses differs with the site and type of the metastatic disease. The behaviour and course of skeletal metastasis has been described elsewhere. The biological behaviour and treatment of pulmonary metastatic disease is focussed on

  16. Mitochondrial markers predict recurrence, metastasis and tamoxifen-resistance in breast cancer patients: Early detection of treatment failure with companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgia, Federica; Fiorillo, Marco; Lisanti, Michael P

    2017-09-15

    Here, we used a data-mining and informatics approach to discover new biomarkers of resistance to hormonal therapy in breast cancer. More specifically, we investigated whether nuclear-encoded genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis can be used to predict tumor recurrence, distant metastasis and treatment failure in high-risk breast cancer patients. Overall, this strategy allowed us to directly provide in silico validation of the prognostic value of these mitochondrial components in large and clinically relevant patient populations, with >15 years of follow-up data. For this purpose, we employed a group of 145 ER(+) luminal A breast cancer patients, with lymph-node (LN) metastasis at diagnosis, that were treated with tamoxifen, but not any chemotherapy agents. Using this approach, we identified >60 new individual mitochondrial biomarkers that predicted treatment failure and tumor recurrence, with hazard-ratios (HR) of up to 4.17 ( p =2.2e-07). These include mitochondrial chaperones (HSPD1, HSPA9), membrane proteins (VDAC2, TOMM70A) and anti-oxidants (SOD2), as well as 18 different mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) and >20 distinct components of the OXPHOS complexes. In addition, we combined 4 mitochondrial proteins (HSPD1, UQCRB, MRPL15, COX17), to generate a compact mitochondrial gene signature, associated with a HR of 5.34 ( p =1e-09). This signature also successfully predicted distant metastasis and was effective in larger groups of ER(+) ( N =2,447), basal ( N =540) and HER2(+) ( N =193) breast cancers. It was also effective in all breast cancers ( N =3,180), if considered together as a single group. Based on this analysis, we conclude that mitochondrial biogenesis should be considered as a new therapeutic target for overcoming tumor recurrence, distant metastasis and treatment failure in patients with breast cancer. In summary, we identified individual mitochondrial biomarkers and 2 compact mitochondrial gene signatures that can be used to predict

  17. Clinical features and prognostic factors for survival in patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and comparison to the patients with the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Tae-Sik; Kim, Tae-Yong; Kim, Kyung-Won

    2007-01-01

    We performed this study to compare the clinicopathologic features and outcomes between the patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and the patients with the aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To evaluate the prognostic factors for survival of the patients with PDTC, we selected 49 patients with PDTC and 23 patients with the aggressive variants of PTC from three hospitals during the recent 15 years. The five-year survival rate and clinicopathologic features of the patients with PDTC were not different from those of the patients with the aggressive variants of PTC. Univariate analysis revealed the significant poor prognostic factors for survival of the patients with PDTC and the aggressive variants of PTC as follows: an age more than 45 years, a tumor size larger than 4 cm, the presence of tumor invasion to extrathyroidal tissue or the trachea, the presence of cervical lymph node invasion, the presence of distant metastasis, the absence of high-dose radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, and tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) stage II, III and IV. Distant metastasis and high-dose RAI therapy were independent significant predictors for survival of the patients with PDTC and the aggressive variants of PTC on multivariate analysis. However, distant metastasis was the only independent significant predictors for survival of the patients with PDTC excluding patients with the aggressive variants of PTC. (author)

  18. Core-needle biopsy of breast cancer is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases 5 to 15 years after diagnosis than FNA biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennerstam, Roland B; Franzén, Bo S H; Wiksell, Hans O T; Auer, Gert U

    2017-10-01

    The literature offers discordant results regarding whether diagnostic biopsy is associated with the dissemination of cancer cells, resulting in local and/or distant metastasis. The long-term outcomes of patients with breast cancer were compared between those who were diagnosed using either fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) or core-needle biopsy (CNB) during 2 decades: the 1970s and 1990s. In the 1970s, the only diagnostic needle biopsy method used for breast cancer in Sweden was FNAB. CNB was introduced 1989 and became established in Stockholm Gotland County in the early 1990s. The authors compared the clinical outcomes of patients diagnosed using FNAB from 1971 to 1976 (n = 354) versus those of patients diagnosed using CNB from 1991 to 1995 (n = 1729). Adjusting for differences in various treatment modalities, mammography screening, tumor size, DNA ploidy, and patient age between the 2 decades, 2 strictly matched samples representing FNAB (n = 181) and CNB (n = 203) were selected for a 15-year follow-up study. In a comparison of the rates of distant metastasis in the strictly matched patient groups from the FNAB and CNB cohorts, significantly higher rates of late-appearing (5-15 years after diagnosis) distant metastasis were observed among the patients who were diagnosed on CNB compared with those who were diagnosed on FNAB. No significant difference in local metastasis was observed between the 2 groups. At 5 to 15 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor, CNB-diagnosed patients had significantly higher rates of distant metastases than FNAB-diagnosed patients. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:748-56. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus after curative surgery: rates and patterns on imaging studies correlated with tumour location and pathological stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Lee, K.S.; Yim, Y.J.; Kim, T.S.; Shim, Y.M.; Kim, K.

    2005-01-01

    Many factors have been related to recurrence after resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. These include age, gender, location and local stage of tumours, cell differentiation, lymph node metastasis and vascular involvement. The recurrence rates of squamous cell carcinoma after curative surgery are high (34-79%). Tumour recurrence is categorized as locoregional or distant. Lymph node recurrence and haematogenous metastasis to solid organs (commonly to the lung) are the usual patterns of recurrence. Awareness of recurrence patterns, particularly on imaging studies, is essential for the diagnosis of recurrent tumours on follow-up examinations

  20. Split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, and cisplatin for distant metastases of oesophageal cancer stage IVb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwase H

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, together with cisplatin in patients with distant oesophageal cancer stage IVb metastasis. Methods: Forty-one patients with distant oesophageal cancer metastasis and performance status 0 or 1 received split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin. All 41 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy comprised two courses of 30-Gy radiotherapy over three weeks plus daily oral S-1 (70mg/m2/day for two weeks and a 24 h cisplatin infusion (70mg/m2 on Day 8, with a two week interval between the two courses. Results: The most frequent adverse events (AEs were grade 3 and 4 neutropenia (29.2%, thrombocytopenia (9.8%, and anaemia (7.3%. Non-haematological AEs were generally mild. AEs in the initial course of chemoradiotherapy remitted during the second interval week. Overall, the complete response rate was 22.0% and endoscopic complete response rate for primary lesion was 65.9%. Thirty-one patients (75.6% became asymptomatic and regained normal swallowing function. The overall median survival time was 12 months. Conclusion: This retrospective investigation showed that split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin had an encouraging safety profile together with good efficacy. Potentially, this regimen may become a standard for distant metastasis of oesophageal cancer stage IVb.

  1. Metastasis of Breast Carcinoma to Intercostal Muscle Detected by Breast MRI: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung Eun; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Jeong, Joon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer can metastasize to any organ; however, distant metastases are unusual at the time of diagnosis. Furthermore metastasis to skeletal muscle is an uncommon manifestation of malignancy. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman diagnosed with cancer of the left breast with metastases to the ipsilateral intercostal muscle. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of intercostal muscle metastasis from breast cancer in the English literature

  2. Prognostic value of lncRNAs in lung carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Zhu, Zhengqiu; Gao, Chao; Liu, Yun; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Ziquan; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-10-10

    Many different long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be abnormally expressed in lung carcinoma and may thus serve as prognostic biomarkers for this disease. We conducted this meta-analysis, which included a total of 30 studies identified via searches of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science and included 2912 patients from China (28), Germany (1), and Japan (1), to investigate the prognostic value of different lncRNAs in lung carcinoma. The results revealed that lncRNA transcription levels were significantly associated with overall survival in lung cancer patients (HR:1.46, 95% CI: 1.16-1.83, P = 0.000). However, lncRNA transcription levels were not associated with progression-free survival (PFS) (HR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.50-4.80, P = 0.449). Further analysis showed that high lncRNA transcription levels were significantly associated with tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (III/IV vs I/II: RR = 1.339, 95% CI: 1.046-1.716, P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (positive vs negative: RR = 1.442, 95% CI: 1.103-1.885, P = 0.007), and distant metastasis (yes vs no: RR = 3.187,95% CI: 1.393-7.294, P = 0.006). Taken together, the results of our present meta-analysis revealed that lncRNAs may be useful prognostic markers for lung carcinoma and may also have value as biomarkers for TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis.

  3. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Correlates with Colorectal Neoplasm Progression and Is a Prognostic Marker for Distant Metastasis in Non-Metastatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Shao, Hung-Jen; Wu, Jen-Chia; Lai-Ming, Jr.; Lu, Si-Hong; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Chiu, Yen-Chi; You, Jeng-Fu; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Chiang, Sum-Fu; Lin, Geng-Ping; Tang, Reiping; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proven as a prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC) patients. However, the currently available techniques for capturing and enumerating CTCs lack of required sensitivity to be applicable as a prognostic marker for non-metastatic patients as CTCs are even more rare. We have developed a microfluidic device utilizing antibody-conjugated non-fouling coating to eliminate nonspecific binding and to promote the multivalent binding of target cells. We then established the correlation of CTC counts and neoplasm progression through applying this platform to capture and enumerate CTCs in 2 mL of peripheral blood from healthy (n = 27), benign (n = 21), non-metastatic (n = 95), and m-CRC (n = 15) patients. The results showed that the CTC counts progressed from 0, 1, 5, to 36. Importantly, after 2-year follow-up on the non-metastatic CRC patients, we found that those who had ≥5 CTCs were 8 times more likely to develop distant metastasis within one year after curable surgery than those who had marker for the non-metastatic CRC patients who are at high risk of early recurrence.

  4. Accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for lymph node staging in non-small-cell lung cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-jun; DONG Jing-cheng; XU Chang-qing; ZUO Chuan-tao; LE Jing-jing; GUAN Yi-hui; ZHAO Jun; WU Jin-feng; DUAN Xiao-hong; CAO Yu-xue

    2009-01-01

    Background This retrospective study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of 2-(F18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography(18F-FDG-PET)/COmputed tomography(PET/CT)in the preoperative diagnosis of metastatic mediastinal and hilar lymph node in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods A total of 39 patients received preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT and the postoperative biopsy.We compared preoperative PET/CT scan results with corresponding intraoperative histopathalogic findings in 39 NSCLC patients.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive and negative predictive value of 18F-FDG PET/CT were assessed.Results Histopathologic examination confirmed metastasis in 57 out of the 208 excised lymph nodes;23 of the 57 nodes were mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT in the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients were 65%,96.8%,92%,78.5%and 90%,respectively.Conclusions PET/CT scan showed good accuracy in the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymph node metastasis in the patients with NSCLC.We recommend that PET/CT scanning be used as a first-line evaluation tool for tumor diagnosis,therapy evaluation and follow-up.

  5. Z-100, an immunomodulatory extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B, prevents spontaneous lymphatic metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Takayuki; Yoshinaga, Koji; Kobayashi, Nobuyoshi; Seto, Koichi; Orikawa, Yuki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Eta, Runa; Ohira, Yuta; Katsunuma, Kokichi; Hori, Yuko; Tanaka, Takao; Takei, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic metastasis is common in advanced-stage carcinoma and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, few effective treatments to inhibit it are available. Z-100 is an immunomodulatory extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Aoyama B that contains polysaccharides such as arabinomannan and mannan. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Z-100 on spontaneous lymphatic metastasis. C57BL/6N mice injected subcutaneously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells in the right hind footpad were administered Z-100 subcutaneously in the right inguinal region on a daily basis. On day twenty-one after the injection, the right inguinal lymph nodes were excised, and the extent of metastasis, the number of immune cells, and the amount of granzyme B protein in the lymph nodes were examined. We also investigated the combined effect of Z-100 and irradiation in this model. Results showed that Z-100 reduced number of animals with metastasis, with respective metastasis rates of 85.7%, 42.9%, 7.1% and 0.0% in saline, 0.1 mg/kg Z-100, 1 mg/kg Z-100 and 10 mg/kg Z-100 group. Further, mice that had been given Z-100 were found to have more immune cells and granzyme B protein in the lymph nodes than control mice. The combination of low dose Z-100 and irradiation also inhibited spontaneous lymph node metastases. These findings suggest that Z-100 may be beneficial in preventing lymphatic metastasis by enhancing the immune response.

  6. Mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tae Min [Dept. of Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Dong; Jeong, Ho Gui; Park, Won Se [Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Tumors metastasizing from distant regions to the oral and maxillofacial region are uncommon, comprising only 1%-2% of all malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. These cancers are difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. In this paper, we report a rare case of mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed at the primary site and discuss the radiographic findings observed in this case.

  7. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration 
in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Metastasis from Extrapulmonary Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan SUN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA has been widely applied in diagnosing mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. This study is further to evaluate value and safety of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. Methods Prospectively analysis of 41 patients suspected intrathoracic metastasis from previous diagnosed/concurrent extrapulmonary malignancies in Shanghai Chest Hospital, with radiologic findings showing mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargement or intrapulmonary lesion requiring EBUS-TBNA examination for pathological diagnosis. Results 41 candidate patients enrolled, and 67 mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes and 5 intrapulmonary lesions were aspirated. 14 intrathoracic metastasis, 10 primary lung cancer, 9 reactive lymphadenitis, 4 sarcoid-like reactions, and 1 tuberculosis was diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. Sensitivity and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis was 87.50% and 95.12%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed in 18 malignant tumors to obtain definite type or origin, twelve intrathoracic metastasis and 6 primary lung cancer were further confirmed. Conclusion EBUS-TBNA is a safe, effective method for the diagnosis of intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. IHC can provide additional evidence for distinguishing extrapulmonary malignancy from primary lung cancer.

  8. Zinc finger AN1-type containing 4 is a novel marker for predicting metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara-Shimomura, Miyako; Sasahira, Tomonori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Chie; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2018-05-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and has a high potential for locoregional invasion and nodal metastasis. Therefore, discovery of a useful molecular biomarker capable of predicting tumour progression and metastasis of OSCC is crucial. We have previously reported zinc finger AN1-type containing 4 (ZFAND4) as one of the most upregulated genes in recurrent OSCC using a cDNA microarray analysis. Although ZFAND4 has been shown to promote cell proliferation of gastric cancer, its expression and clinicopathological roles in OSCC remain unclear. In this study, we examined ZFAND4 expression by immunohistochemistry in 214 cases of OSCC. High cytoplasmic expression of ZFAND4 was observed in 45 out of 214 (21%) patients with OSCC. Expression levels of ZFAND4 were strongly associated with metastasis to the lymph nodes (p=0.0429) and distant organs (p=0.0068). Cases with high expression of ZFAND4 had a significantly unfavourable prognosis compared with patients with low expression of ZFAND4 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, ZFAND4 overexpression was an independent poor prognostic factor for OSCC as determined by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model (p<0.0001). These results suggest that ZFAND4 is a useful marker for predicting metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Denise L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs, although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC, boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART, and multivariate logistic regression (MLR informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93% patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%. 101 (35% of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171 and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171. When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77, AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of

  10. Utility of preoperative ferumoxtran-10 MRI to evaluate retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis in advanced cervical cancer: Results of ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atri, Mostafa; Zhang, Zheng; Marques, Helga; Gorelick, Jeremy; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Sohaib, Aslam; Koh, Dow-Mu; Raman, Steven; Gee, Michael; Choi, Haesun; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Chuang, Linus; Yu, Jian Qin; McCourt, Carolyn Kay; Gold, Michael

    2014-01-01

    •We evaluated the added value of a USPIO agent (Ferumoxtran-10) to MRI evaluation of LN metastasis in loco-regionally advanced cervical cancer in a multicenter trial.•There was no significant difference in the accuracy of f-10 MRI as compared to standard MRI to detect LN metastasis in advanced cervical cancer (P > 0.05).•F-10 MRI increased sensitivity of MRI to detect metastasis in small (<8 mm) LNs but at the expense of lower specificity.•Mean size of the largest metastatic focus in the LN on pathology was 13.7 mm in the abdomen and 18.8 mm in the pelvis (P = 0.018). We evaluated the added value of a USPIO agent (Ferumoxtran-10) to MRI evaluation of LN metastasis in loco-regionally advanced cervical cancer in a multicenter trial. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of f-10 MRI as compared to standard MRI to detect LN metastasis in advanced cervical cancer (P > 0.05). F-10 MRI increased sensitivity of MRI to detect metastasis in small (<8 mm) LNs but at the expense of lower specificity. Mean size of the largest metastatic focus in the LN on pathology was 13.7 mm in the abdomen and 18.8 mm in the pelvis (P = 0.018). To assess if ferumoxtran-10 (f-10) improves accuracy of MRI to detect lymph node (LN) metastasis in advanced cervical cancer. F-10 MRI component of an IRB approved HIPAA compliant ACRIN/GOG trial was analyzed. Patients underwent f-10 MRI followed by extra-peritoneal or laparoscopic pelvic and abdominal lymphadenectomy. F-10-sensitive sequences were T2* GRE sequences with TE of 12 and 21. Seven independent blinded readers reviewed f-10-insensitive sequences and all sequences in different sessions. Region correlations were performed between pathology and MRI for eight abdomen and pelvis regions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at participant level. Reference standard is based on pathology result of surgically removed LNs. Among 43 women enrolled in the trial between September 2007 and November 2009, 33 women (mean age 49

  11. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEIDLE, H. ULRICH; BIRZELE, FABIAN; KOLLMORGEN, GWEN; RÜGER, RÜDIGER

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell−cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes. PMID:28031234

  12. An Unusual Metastasis of a Transglottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Dafir Albeyatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each year around 2,200 people in the UK are diagnosed with laryngeal SCC (Office of National Statistics 2009. Compared to pharyngeal carcinoma, it is a highly curable disease with a survival rate of around 60% for all stages and all forms of treatment. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with a previously treated T4 N2c transglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, who developed an isolated swelling in the extensor compartment of his right forearm at 6 months after radical laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Fine needle aspiration of the forearm lesion revealed SCC consistent with a metastasis from the laryngeal primary. MRI revealed that the lesion was confined to the muscle. Initial staging CT showed no distant metastases or signs of advanced disease, including no evidence of axillary nodal involvement. Conclusion. This case is therefore unusual, as one of only 2 cases reported in the scientific literature of isolated distant muscular metastasis from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We conclude that any muscular swelling, in the setting of previous head and neck malignancy, should be treated with a high degree of suspicion for metastasis and investigated promptly.

  13. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and FDG positron emission tomography in the management of vulvar malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Gigin; Chen, Chao-Yu; Liu, Feng-Yuan; Yang, Lan-Yan; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Yi-Ting; Jung, Shih-Ming; Ng, Koon-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the value of CT or MRI (CT/MRI) and PET in the management of vulvar malignancies. Abdominal and pelvic CT/MRI and whole-body 18 F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET or PET/CT (collectively designated PET hereafter) were performed. Lesion status was determined by the pathological findings or clinical follow-up. The diagnostic efficacy was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The clinical impact of PET was determined on a per scan basis. Twenty-three patients were enrolled, and 38 PET examinations were performed. CT/MRI and PET studies were used for primary staging (n = 17), monitoring the response (n = 7) and restaging after recurrence (n = 14). In primary staging, there was no significant difference between CT/MRI and PET in detecting metastatic inguinal lymph nodes (ILN). CT/MRI was significantly more efficacious than PET in detecting pelvic lymph node (PLN) or distant metastasis (p = 0.007 by ROC per patient basis). PET findings resulted in two positive impacts and one negative impact for both primary staging and restaging. False-positive PLN or distant metastasis PET findings are not uncommon, and hence should be interpreted with caution. PET can be supportive when metastatic ILN/PLN or distant metastasis is suspected on CT/MRI. (orig.)

  14. Less aggressive disease in patients with primary squamous cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland and coexisting lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asik, Mehmet; Binnetoglu, Emine; Sen, Hacer; Gunes, Fahri; Muratli, Asli; Kankaya, Duygu; Uysal, Fatma; Sahin, Mustafa; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Infrequently, primary SCC of the thyroid gland is accompanied by other thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Recently, studies have demonstrated that differentiated thyroid cancer with coexisting HT has a better prognosis. However, the prognosis of patients with primary SCC of the thyroid gland and coexistent HT has not been clearly identified. We compared the clinical characteristics and disease stages of patients with primary SCC with and without lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). We reviewed reports of primary SCC of the thyroid gland published in the English literature. We identified 46 papers that included 17 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland with LT and 77 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland without LT. Lymph node metastasis and local invasion rates did not differ between these two groups. Distant metastases were absent in patients with LT, and were observed in 13 (16.9%) patients without LT. A greater proportion of patients without LT had advanced stage disease (stage IV A-B-C) than patients with LT (p thyroid gland and coexisting LT had lower tumour-node-metastasis stage and frequency of distant metastasis than those without LT. Lymphocytic infiltration in patients with SCC appears to limit tumour growth and distant metastases.

  15. Pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity blocks the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells but has no effect on breast cancer brain metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.

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    Kun Hyoe Rhoo

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis of breast cancer is an important clinical problem, with few therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. Recent data have implicated mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3 in controlling the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, as well as the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from the mammary fat pad to distant lymph nodes in a mouse xenograft model. We therefore set out to test whether MLK3 plays a role in brain metastasis of breast cancer cells. To address this question, we used a novel, brain penetrant, MLK3 inhibitor, URMC099. URMC099 efficiently inhibited the migration of breast cancer cells in an in vitro cell monolayer wounding assay, and an in vitro transwell migration assay, but had no effect on in vitro cell growth. We also tested the effect of URMC099 on tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer brain metastasis. This analysis showed that URMC099 had no effect on the either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases. We conclude that pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 by URMC099 can reduce the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, but that it has no effect on either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases, in a mouse xenograft model.

  16. SNPs in the coding region of the metastasis-inducing gene MACC1 and clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

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    Schmid Felicitas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the main cancers in the Western world. About 90% of the deaths arise from formation of distant metastasis. The expression of the newly identified gene metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 is a prognostic indicator for colon cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed for the first time the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of MACC1 for clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Additionally, we screened met proto-oncogene (Met, the transcriptional target gene of MACC1, for mutations. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of MACC1 in 154 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III and the crucial exons of Met in 60 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III. We analyzed the association of MACC1 polymorphisms with clinical data, including metachronous metastasis, UICC stages, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and patients’ survival (n = 154, stages I, II and III. Furthermore, we performed biological assays in order to evaluate the functional impact of MACC1 SNPs on the motility of colorectal cancer cells. Results We genotyped three MACC1 SNPs in the coding region. Thirteen % of the tumors had the genotype cg (rs4721888, L31V, 48% a ct genotype (rs975263, S515L and 84% a gc or cc genotype (rs3735615, R804T. We found no association of these SNPs with clinicopathological parameters or with patients’ survival, when analyzing the entire patients’ cohort. An increased risk for a shorter metastasis-free survival of patients with a ct genotype (rs975263 was observed in younger colon cancer patients with stage I or II (P = 0.041, n = 18. In cell culture, MACC1 SNPs did not affect MACC1-induced cell motility and proliferation. Conclusion In summary, the identification of coding MACC1 SNPs in primary colorectal tumors does not improve the prediction for metastasis formation or for patients’ survival compared to MACC1 expression analysis alone. The ct genotype (rs

  17. Uterine Adenocarcinoma with Pulmonary, Liver and Mesentery Metastasis in a Holstein Cow

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    George Stilwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and pathology features of a cow with uterine adenocarcinoma and multiple metastasis are described. Weight loss, inappetence, mild respiratory signs, and reduced milk yield were evident on clinical examination. Grossly deformed uterus, enlarged iliac lymph nodes, and rosary arranged nodules in the mesentery were felt by rectal palpation. Right side laparotomy revealed numerous small masses covering the omentum, and mesentery. Euthanasia was performed. Necropsy and histopathology exam revealed a uterine adenocarcinoma with multiple pulmonary, liver and mesentery metastasis. Uterine adenocarcinoma with metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cows showing weight loss and mild respiratory distress and palpation of numerous firm nodules in the mesentery should be suggestive of neoplasias' metastasis.

  18. GSI Quantitative Parameters: Preoperative Diagnosis of Metastasis Lymph Nodes in Lung Cancer

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    Fengfeng YANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Mediastinal involvement in lung cancer is an important prognostic factor affecting survival, and accurate staging of the mediastinum lymph node correctly identifies patients who can benefit the most from surgery. The aim of this study is to investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DEsCT imaging in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in lung cancer. Methods Forty-eight patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC underwent arterial (AP and portal venous (PP phase contrast-enhanced DEsCT imaging followed by surgical treatment. gemstone spectral imaging (GSI data images were reconstructed and transmitted to an offline workstation. GSI quantitative parameters, including lymph-node size, CT value, IC, water concentration, and spectral curve. Differences were tested for statistical significance using the two-sample t test. ROC analysis was performed to assess diagnostic performance. Results The mean short-axis diameter of metastatic LNs, slope of the spectral Hounsfield unit curve (λHU, normalized iodine concentration measured during, and both AP and PP were significantly higher in metastatic lymph node than that in benign lymph nodes. The best parameter for detecting metastatic lymph nodes was AP λHU when a threshold λHU of 2.75 was used; sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 88.2%, 88.4%, and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion Quantitative assessment with gemstone spectral imaging quantitative parameters showed higher accuracy than the qualitative assessment of conventional CT imaging features for the preoperative diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer.

  19. Prognostic significance of classified extramural tumor deposits and extracapsular lymph node invasion in T3–4 colorectal cancer: a retrospective single-center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tomoki; Semba, Shuho; Noda, Masafumi; Yoshimura, Mie; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Hamanaka, Michiko; Beppu, Naohito; Yano, Aya; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Extramural tumor deposits (TDs) and extracapsular lymph node involvement (ECLNI) are considered to be poor prognostic factors in patients with T3–4, N0–2, M0 colorectal cancer (CRC). Although TDs are known to have multiple origins and pleomorphic features, the prognostic significances of the different type of TDs have not yet been established. We performed a retrospective review of 385 consecutive patients with T3–4, N0–2, M0 CRC who received curative resection at our institution between 2006 and 2012. We classified the TDs into two groups: invasive-type TD (iTD), which is characterized by the presence of lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, or undefined cancer cell clusters and nodular-type TD (nTD), which is characterized by a smooth or irregular-shaped tumor nodule other than an iTD. ECLNI was defined as invasion of cancer cells into capsular collagen tissues or adipose tissues beyond the capsular collagen. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the prognostic significance of iTD, ND, and ECLNI for relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and sites of recurrence. In patients without lymph node (LN) metastasis, the incidences of iTD and nTD were both in the range of 2–3 %. Conversely, in patients with LN metastasis, the incidences of iTD, nTD, and ECLNI were 31, 22, and 34 %, respectively. iTD, nTD, and ECLNI were all significant independent adverse factors for RFS in rectal cancer, and were all associated with pT, pN, and LN ratio. iTD was a significant independent adverse prognostic factor for DSS in rectal cancer, metastasis to the liver in colorectal cancer, and distant LN metastasis in colon cancer. ECLNI was a significant independent prognostic factor for RFS in colon cancer. Classifying TDs and assessing ECLNI may help establish significant prognostic factors for patients with T3–4, N0–2, M0 CRC

  20. New insight into Ki67 expression at the invasive front in breast cancer.

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    Peng Gong

    Full Text Available To investigate the distribution of Ki67+ cells in breast cancer in relation to clinical-pathological parameters and prognosis.Ki67 expression status was detected in 1,086 breast cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry staining and examining the relationship between the Ki67+ cells' location. Subsequently, clinical-pathological parameters and prognosis were determined.In total, Ki67 protein expression was found in 781 (71.92% of the 1,086 breast cancer specimens. Among the 781 Ki67+ cases, 461 were defined as diffuse type and 320 were defined as borderline type. After universal correlation analysis, significant differences were observed in age, histological grade, metastatic nodes, postoperative distant metastasis, and molecular subtype between Ki67+ and Ki67- cases (P = 0.01, 0.001, 0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively. After subgroup analysis, the borderline cases were found to be characterized by a high distant metastasis rate compared to the diffuse cases as well as the Ki67- cases (P = 0.001. No differences were observed between diffuse type or Ki67- cases (P = 0.105. Multivariate analysis showed that age, tumor size, histological grade, lymph node metastasis, molecular subtype, and the Ki67 distribution pattern were observed to be related to postoperative distant metastasis (all P<0.05. Furthermore, borderline type was shown to attain a significantly more distant bone and liver metastasis and worse disease-specific survival than the other types (P = 0.001. In the Cox regression test, the Ki67 distribution pattern was detected as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.001.The distribution pattern of Ki67 may be a new independent prognostic factor for breast cancer.

  1. Interval to Biochemical Failure Highly Prognostic for Distant Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Pollack, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Few biochemical parameters have been related to mortality. The present study examined the clinical utility of the interval to biochemical failure (IBF) as a prognostic factor for distant metastasis (DM) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 211 T1c-T3Nx-N0M0 patients who had experienced BF among 1,174 men treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy alone. Biochemical failure was defined as a post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of at, or greater than, the PSA nadir plus 2 ng/mL. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify independent predictors of DM and PCSM on multivariate analysis. Results: An IBF of <18 months was independently predictive for DM (p = 0.008), as was a Gleason score of 7-10 (p = 0.0005), PSA nadir ≥2 ng/mL (p = 0.04), and decreasing radiation dose (p = 0.02) on multivariate analysis, including increasing pretreatment PSA level, PSA nadir ≥2.5 ng/mL, PSA doubling time of <3 months, and Stage T3 disease. An IBF of <18 months was the only predictor of PCSM (p = 0.0003) in the same model. The actuarial 5-year DM rate for an IBF of <18 vs. ≥18 months was 52% vs. 20% (p < 0.0001), and the actuarial PCSM rate was 36% vs. 6%, respectively (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The IBF is an important descriptor of the PSA kinetics after radiotherapy to identify men at high risk of clinical failure and death. A IBF of <18 months could aid in selecting men for early, aggressive salvage therapy or participation in a clinical trial

  2. [Application of central lymph node dissection to surgical operation for clinical stage n0 papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Shi, Jun-Yi; Sheng, Yuan; Ll, Li

    2008-03-01

    The treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) without cervical lymph node metastasis (cN0) is controversial. This study was to explore a suitable method to dissect cervical lymph nodes for stage cN0 PTC patients. Eighty-four stage cN0 PTC patients, diagnosed by B ultrasound or cervical MRI from 2005--2006, were randomly divided into two groups. Thyroidectomy and ipsilateral central lymph node dissection were performed in Group A, while only thyroidectomy was performed in Group B. Each group contained 42 patients. Both groups took thyroxin tablets after operation. An average of 3 lymph nodes were found in each case of Group A, and the lymph node metastasis rate was 47.62%. The occurrence rates of complications were not significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). Thyroidectomy plus ipsilateral central lymph node dissection is recommended for the treatment of stage cN0 PTC. It can also avoid damage of recurrent laryngeal nerve in re-dissection.

  3. The value of N staging with the positive lymph node ratio, and splenectomy, for remnant gastric cancer: A multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Yong; Kong, Seong-Ho; Ahn, Hye Seong; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Park, Do Joong; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for remnant gastric cancer (RGC) frequently fails to obtain the >15 lymph nodes necessary for tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging. We aimed to evaluate the utility of the recently developed tumor-ratio-metastasis (TRM) staging system. We also examined the pattern of lymph node metastasis and the role of prophylactic splenectomy in RGC. Between May 2003 and December 2012, data from 170 patients who underwent surgery for RGC were retrospectively analyzed. RGC arising after previous benign disease (n = 46) was associated with retrieval of more lymph nodes (27.3 vs 10.0; P splenectomy and non-splenectomy groups at each stage (P = 0.751, 0.723, 0.151, and 0.706 for stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively). The analyses did not identify a survival benefit from prophylactic splenectomy or show an improvement in staging with the TRM system for RGC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. MicroRNA-196a-5p is a potential prognostic marker of delayed lymph node metastasis in early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tessho; Nishihara, Kazuhide; Umikawa, Masato; Arasaki, Akira; Nakasone, Toshiyuki; Nimura, Fumikazu; Matayoshi, Akira; Takei, Kimiko; Nakachi, Saori; Kariya, Ken-Ichi; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are expected to serve as prognostic tools for cancer. However, many miRs have been reported as prognostic markers of recurrence or metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic markers in early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that miR-10a, 10b, 196a-5p, 196a-3p, and 196b were prognostic markers and we retrospectively performed miR expression analyses using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of surgical specimens. Total RNA was isolated from cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissue as control, and samples were collected by laser-capture microdissection. After cDNA synthesis, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Statistical analyses for patient clinicopathological characteristics, recurrence/metastasis, and survival rates were performed to discern their relationships with miR expression levels, and the 2−ΔΔCq method was used. miR-196a-5p levels were significantly upregulated in early-stage TSCC, particularly in the lymph node metastasis (LNM) group. The LNM-free survival rate in the low miR-196a-5p ΔΔCq value regulation group was found to be lower than that in the high ΔΔCq value regulation group (P=0.0079). Receiver operating characteristic analysis of ΔΔCq values revealed that miR-196a-5p had a P-value=0.0025, area under the curve=0.740, and a cut-off value=−0.875 for distinguishing LNM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine LNM-related miRs in early-stage TSCC as well as miRs and ‘delayed LNM’ in head and neck cancer. miR-196a-5p upregulation may predict delayed LNM. Our data serve as a foundation for future studies to evaluate miR levels and facilitate the prediction of delayed LNM during early-stage TSCC, which prevent metastasis when combined with close follow-up and aggressive adjuvant therapy or elective neck dissection. Moreover, our data will serve as a foundation

  5. Prospective study of tailoring whole-body dual-modality [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography with plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA for detecting distant metastasis in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma at initial staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lin-Quan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Fan, Wei; Liu, Huai; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Ling; Luo, Dong-Hua; Huang, Pei-Yu; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Xiao-Ping; Mo, Yun-Xian; Liu, Li-Zhi; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Li, Jian; Zou, Ru-Hai; Cao, Yun; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Qiu, Fang; Sun, Rui; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Hua, Yi-Jun; Lv, Xing; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Cao, Ka-Jia; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2013-08-10

    To evaluate which patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) obtained the greatest benefits from the detection of distant metastasis with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels. Consecutive patients with NPC were prospectively enrolled. PET/CT, conventional work-up (CWU), and quantification of plasma EBV DNA were performed before treatment. The accuracy of these strategies for distant metastases was assessed. The costs of the diagnostic strategies were compared. Eighty-six (14.8%) of the 583 eligible patients were found to have distant metastases; 71 patients (82.6%) by PET/CT and 31 patients (36.0%) by CWU. In the multivariable analysis, advanced N stage (odds ratio, 2.689; 95% CI, 1.894 to 3.818) and pretreatment EBV DNA level (odds ratio, 3.344; 95% CI, 1.825 to 6.126) were significant risk factors for distant metastases. PET/CT was not superior to CWU for detecting distant metastases in very low-risk patients (N0-1 with EBV DNA < 4,000 copies/mL; P = .062), but was superior for the low-risk patients (N0-1 with EBV DNA ≥ 4,000 copies/mL and N2-3 with EBV DNA < 4,000 copies/mL; P = .039) and intermediate-risk patients (N2-3 disease with EBV DNA ≥ 4,000 copies/mL; P < .001). The corresponding patient management changes based on PET/CT were 2.9%, 6.3%, and 16.5%, respectively. The costs per true-positive case detected by PET/CT among these groups were ¥324,138 (≈$47,458), ¥96,907 (≈$14,188), and ¥34,182 (≈$5,005), respectively. PET/CT detects more distant metastases than conventional staging in patients with NPC. The largest benefit in terms of cost and patient management was observed in the subgroup with N2-3 disease and EBV DNA ≥ 4,000 copies/mL.

  6. Pulmonary hilar lymph nodes in lung cancer: assessment with 3D-dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ichiro; Eguchi, Keisuke; Kohda, Ehiichi; Tanami, Yutaka; Mori, Toru; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We performed 3D-dynamic MRI on patients with primary lung cancer to identify its usefulness for detecting hilar adenopathy shown at surgery. Methods and materials: 30 consecutive patients with peripheral lung cancer underwent preoperative 3D-dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Two thoracic radiologists blinded to histopathologic findings reviewed those studies independently for hilar adenopathy visualization. The results were correlated with surgical and histopathologic findings. Interreader agreement for the detection of hilar adenopathy was assessed by means of the κ statistic. Results: Dynamic MRI demonstrated hilar adenopathy, with or without metastasis revealed at surgery, in all of 15 patients. Adenopathy without metastasis was shown in four patients. Dynamic MRI also revealed metastatic adenopathy in 11 of 12 patients with pathologically proven metastasis. There was only one case with lymph node metastasis that did not have adenopathy either on MRI or even at surgery. The diagnostic accuracy of dynamic MRI for adenopathy with or without metastases revealed at surgery were as follows; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; and negative predictive value, 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of dynamic MRI for hilar lymph nodes metastasis were as follows; sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 78%; positive predictive value, 73%; and negative predictive value, 93%. Interreader agreement was substantial (κ=0.73) for detection of hilar adenopathy. Conclusion: Hilar adenopathy on 3D-dynamic MRI correlated well with that of surgical finding on patients with primary lung cancer. It may have the potential to make an accurate preoperative evaluation of hilar lymph node metastasis from lung cancer

  7. High Intra- and Inter-Tumoral Heterogeneity of RAS Mutations in Colorectal Cancer

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    Marion Jeantet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of patients with wild type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer are non-responders to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR mAbs, possibly due to undetected tumoral subclones harboring RAS mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of RAS mutations in different areas of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes and distant metastasis. A retrospective cohort of 18 patients with a colorectal cancer (CRC was included in the study. Multiregion analysis was performed in 60 spatially separated tumor areas according to the pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM staging and KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations were tested using pyrosequencing. In primary tumors, intra-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation was found in 33% of cases. Inter-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes or distant metastasis was found in 36% of cases. Moreover, 28% of tumors had multiple RAS mutated subclones in the same tumor. A high proportion of CRCs presented intra- and/or inter-tumoral heterogeneity, which has relevant clinical implications for anti-EGFR mAbs prescription. These results suggest the need for multiple RAS testing in different parts of the same tumor and/or more sensitive techniques.

  8. Distant metastasis in p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a critical analysis of patterns and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, P; Thorstad, W T; Nussenbaum, B; Haughey, B H; Adkins, D R; Kallogjeri, D; Lewis, J S

    2014-01-01

    With good loco-regional control, disease failure in p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) mainly results from distant metastasis (DM). Our objective was to characterize the patterns and clinical outcomes of DM in p16-positive OPSCC and compare these to patients with p16-negative disease. Primary OPSCC patients who developed DM after completing surgical or non-surgical treatment were identified and p16 status was evaluated. Patterns of DM and post-DM progression-free (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were assessed. Forty-one of the 66 (62%) patients with DM were p16-positive. DM patterns were not statistically different by p16 status. However, p16-positive patients developed DM later in their course and had longer survival. All p16-negative patients either had progression or died within 24 months of DM detection whereas the 2-year post-DM PFS in the p16-positive group was 20% (95% CI: 8-32.5%, p=0.003). The 3-year post-DM disease-specific survival (DSS) estimate in the p16-positive patients was 16% (95% CI: 7-18%) while all p16-negative patients died within 34 months (p<0.001). p16-negativity, loco-regional disease, and no/palliative versus curative intent treatment were all associated with reduced post-DM DSS in multivariate analysis. The DM pattern did not differ remarkably between p16-positive and negative OPSCC patients in our practice. In p16-positive OPSCC with pulmonary oligometastatic disease, curative intent treatment and optimized locoregional control for the index primary prolonged survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Roles of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiao; Liu Juanjuan; Wang Yongsheng; Wang Lei; Yang Guoren; Zhou Zhengbo; Li Yongqing; Liu Yanbing; Li Taiyu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate roles of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. Five hundred and sixty-five consecutive breast cancer patients were prospectively randomized into groups with or without preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. In a group with lymphoscintigraphy, 238 patients had sentinel lymph nodes spotted in lymphoscintigram. The visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in lymphoscintigram was not associated with patients' age, primary tumor size and location, histopathologic type and time interval from injection of radiocolloid to lymphoscintigraphy. However, patients with axillary metastasis had a lower identification rate of sentinel lymph nodes by lymphoscintigraphy than those without metastasis (P=0.003). The identification rate of axillary sentinel lymph nodes was 99.3% in the group and the rate was similar whether there was sentinel lymph nodes spotted in axillary in lymphoscintigram or not (99.6% vs. 98.1%, P=0.327). The false-negative rate in this group was 4.2%. While in a group without lymphoscintigraphy, the identification rate and the false-negative rate were 99.6% and 4.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the identification rate of axillary sentinel lymph nodes (P=0.594) and in the false-negative rate (P=1.00). Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy could neither improve the identification rate nor reduce the false-negative rate of breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsy, and it is not necessary for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. (author)

  10. An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis: Perianal Abscess

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    Murat Kilic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. Although the most frequent sites of distant metastasis of lung cancers are the pleura, liver, adrenal glands, skeletal system and brain, perianal region has been rarely reported as a metastasis site. A male patient was admitted to our emergency room with a long standing perianal abscess. During abscess drainage, a mass was noticed at the base of the abscess pouch, and thus a biopsy was taken. Pathologically, it was reported as a metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma, therefore some radiological  investigations and endoscopic procedures were performed to determine the primary focus of cancer. A pulmonary mass was revealed in PET/CT, and was considered as primary tumor. Both primary and metastatic perianal tumors can be rarely presented as an abscess formation. In this situation, a biopsy should be performed from the lesion to avoid misdiagnosis.

  11. Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Richard; Christensen, Anders; Java, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraoperative analysis of sentinel lymph nodes would enhance the care of early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We determined the frequency and extent of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression in OSCC primary tumours and surrounding tissues to explore the feasibility of a "clinic......-ready" intraoperative diagnostic test (one step nucleic acid amplification-OSNA, sysmex). METHODS: Two cohorts were assembled: cohort 1, OSCC with stage and site that closely match cases suitable for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB); cohort 2, HNSCC with sufficient fresh tumour tissue available for the OSNA assay (>50......% of tumours. Discordance between different techniques indicated that OSNA was more sensitive than qRT-PCR or RNA-ISH, which in turn were more sensitive than IHC. OSNA results showed CK19 expression in 80% of primary cases, so if used for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis would lead to a false-negative result...

  12. Sentinel nodes identified by computed tomography-lymphography accurately stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomura, Kazuyoshi; Sumino, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Atsushi; Horinouchi, Takashi; Nakanishi, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy often results in the identification and removal of multiple nodes as sentinel nodes, although most of these nodes could be non-sentinel nodes. This study investigated whether computed tomography-lymphography (CT-LG) can distinguish sentinel nodes from non-sentinel nodes and whether sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG can accurately stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. This study included 184 patients with breast cancer and clinically negative nodes. Contrast agent was injected interstitially. The location of sentinel nodes was marked on the skin surface using a CT laser light navigator system. Lymph nodes located just under the marks were first removed as sentinel nodes. Then, all dyed nodes or all hot nodes were removed. The mean number of sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG was significantly lower than that of dyed and/or hot nodes removed (1.1 vs 1.8, p <0.0001). Twenty-three (12.5%) patients had ≥2 sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG removed, whereas 94 (51.1%) of patients had ≥2 dyed and/or hot nodes removed (p <0.0001). Pathological evaluation demonstrated that 47 (25.5%) of 184 patients had metastasis to at least one node. All 47 patients demonstrated metastases to at least one of the sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG. CT-LG can distinguish sentinel nodes from non-sentinel nodes, and sentinel nodes identified by CT-LG can accurately stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Successful identification of sentinel nodes using CT-LG may facilitate image-based diagnosis of metastasis, possibly leading to the omission of sentinel node biopsy

  13. Pelvic and lumbar metastasis detected by bone scintigraphy in malignant pleural mesothelioma

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    Ruiz Hernandez, G.; Castillo Pallares, F.J.; Llorens Banon, L.; Romero de Avila y Avalos, C. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei de Medicina Nuclear; Garcia Garc`ia, T.; Azagra Ros, P. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei d`Oncologia; Maruenda Paulino, J.I. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei Traumatologia; Ferrer Albiach, C. [Hospital Clinic Universitari de Valencia (Spain). Servei Radioterapia

    1999-05-01

    A case of a 43-year-old man suffering from pleural mesothelioma with distant bone metastasis is reported. The results of bone scintigraphy and NMR findings allowed the diagnosis. The current case describes a hematogenous metastasis to the pelvis and vertebral column from a malignant pleural mesothelioma that was detected initally by bone scintigraphy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fallbericht ueber einen 43jaehrigen Mann mit Pleural-Mesotheliom und Knochenmetastasen. Die Diagnose wurde durch Knochenszintigraphie und NMR gestellt. Der vorliegende Fall beschreibt die haematogene Metastasierung ins Becken und in die Wirbelsaeule, ausgehend von einem malignen Pleural-Mesotheliom, das urspruenglich durch Knochenszintigraphie diagnostiziert wurde. (orig.)

  14. Identification of Distant Metastatic Disease in Uterine Cervical and Endometrial Cancers with FDG PET/CT: Analysis from the ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233 Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Michael S; Atri, Mostafa; Bandos, Andriy I; Mannel, Robert S; Gold, Michael A; Lee, Susanna I

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess the accuracy of staging positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in detecting distant metastasis in patients with local-regionally advanced cervical and high-risk endometrial cancer in the clinical trial by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) and the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG) (ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233) and to compare central and institutional reader performance. Materials and Methods In this prospective multicenter trial, PET/CT and clinical data were reviewed for patients enrolled in ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233. Two central readers, blinded to site read and reference standard, reviewed PET/CT images for distant metastasis. Central review was then compared with institutional point-of-care interpretation. Reference standard was pathologic and imaging follow-up. Test performance for central and site reviews of PET/CT images was calculated and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. Generalized estimating equations and nonparametric bootstrap procedure for clustered data were used to assess statistical significance. Results There were 153 patients with cervical cancer and 203 patients with endometrial cancer enrolled at 28 sites. Overall prevalence of distant metastasis was 13.7% (21 of 153) for cervical cancer and 11.8% (24 of 203) for endometrial cancer. Central reader PET/CT interpretation demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value of 54.8%, 97.7%, 79.3%, and 93.1% for cervical cancer metastasis versus 64.6%, 98.6%, 86.1%, and 95.4% for endometrial cancer, respectively. By comparison, local institutional review demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and negative predictive value of 47.6%, 93.9%, 55.6%, and 91.9% for cervical cancer metastasis and 66.7%, 93.9%, 59.3%, and 95.5% for endometrial cancer, respectively. For central readers, the specificity and PPV of PET/CT detection of cervical and endometrial cancer metastases were all

  15. High NUCB2 expression level is associated with metastasis and may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Chen, Lina; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is mainly expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei and has a proven role in energy homeostasis. It has also been recently reported to have a key role in tumor progression. However, the clinical significance of NUCB2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. In the present study, the level of NUCB2 mRNA was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 34 paired fresh tissues from patients with CRC. RT-qPCR was followed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of NUCB2 protein in tissue microarrays of 251 samples to evaluate the clinical significance of NUCB2 in CRC. The RT-qPCR indicated an upregulation of NUCB2 mRNA in CRC tissues compared with normal tissues (P=0.027). IHC staining indicated a positive association between elevated NUCB2 expression and lymph node metastasis or tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Patients with CRC and lymph node metastasis demonstrated a higher expression of NUCB2 (49.5%, 50/101) compared with those without lymph node metastasis (36.7%, 55/150; P=0.043). Furthermore, NUCB2 expression was also higher in patients with CRC and TNM stage III-IV compared with those with TNM stage I-II (50.9% vs. 35.0%; P=0.011). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated no significant association between NUCB2 expression and disease-free survival of patients. Additionally, multivariate analysis did not identify the upregulation of NUCB2 as an independent prognostic predictor in patients with CRC (P=0.755). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that upregulation of NUCB2 is significantly associated with CRC metastasis, indicating that NUCB2 may be a cancer-associated oncogene associated with the aggressive progression of CRC.

  16. Cancer cell metastasis; perspectives from the focal adhesion

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    Lefteris C Zacharia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In almost all cancers, most patients die from metastatic disease and not from the actual primary tumor. That is why addressing the problem of metastasis is of utmost importance for the successful treatment and improved survival of cancer patients. Metastasis is a complex process that ultimately leads to cancer cells spreading from the tumor to distant sites of the body. During this process, cancer cells tend to lose contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM and neighboring cells within the primary tumor, and are thus able to invade surrounding tissues. Hence, ECM, and the ECM-associated adhesion proteins play a critical role in the metastatic process. This review will focus on recent literature regarding interesting and novel molecules at the cell-ECM adhesion sites, namely migfilin, mitogen-inducible gene-2 (Mig-2 and Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1, that are also critically involved in cancer cell metastasis, emphasizing on data from experiments performed in vitro in breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines as well as human breast cancer tissue samples.

  17. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis from uterine cervical cancer is rare, with an incidence of 0.5%, and usually occurs late in the course of the disease. We report a case of uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation. A 50-year-old woman with headache, vertigo, amnesia and loss of appetite was admitted for persistent vomiting. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a solitary right frontal cerebral lesion with ring enhancement and uterine cervical tumor. She was diagnosed with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma with parametrium invasion and no other distant affected organs were detected. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed and pathologically proved to be metastasis of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by cerebral radiation therapy, but multiple metastases to the liver and lung developed and the patient died 7 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomela, Johanna; Valta, Maija; Seppänen, Jani; Tarkkonen, Kati; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Härkönen, Pirkko

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig) and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p < 0.05) and inhibited metastasis to iliac and sacral lymph nodes. In addition, tumor volumes were smaller in the VEGFR3-Ig-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Transfection of PC-3 cells with the VEGF-C gene led to a high level of 29/31 kD VEGF-C expression in PC-3 cells. The size of orthotopic and subcutaneous PC-3/VEGF-C tumors was significantly greater than that of PC-3/mock tumors (both p < 0.001). Interestingly, while most orthotopic PC-3 and PC-3/mock tumors grown for 4 weeks metastasized to prostate-draining lymph nodes, orthotopic PC-3/VEGF-C tumors primarily metastasized to the lungs. PC-3/VEGF-C tumors showed highly angiogenic morphology with an increased density of blood capillaries compared with PC-3/mock tumors (p < 0.001). The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites

  20. Testicular Metastasis of Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

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    Ayumu Kusaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of secondary neoplasms of the testis during autopsies is approximately 2.5%. Although most secondary testicular metastases are due to prostate cancer, only a few patients with prostate cancer have clinically manifested testicular metastasis. We report the case of a prostate cancer patient with testicular metastasis who was diagnosed after the presence of a palpable mass in the right testis. A 56-year-old Japanese male presented to our hospital with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level of 137 ng/ml. He was diagnosed with stage IV (T3N1M1b prostate cancer and received androgen deprivation therapy, followed by various hormonal manipulations. His serum PSA level was undetectable for 1 year. No distant metastases were detected during imaging examinations. He received radiation therapy; however, his serum PSA level increased gradually. Four months later, he presented with right testicular swelling. Computed tomography revealed a heterogenous mass in the right testis and a right high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis showed that the right testis was infiltrated with metastatic adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 8. This is a rare case of right testicular metastasis in a patient with prostate cancer. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer can be aggressive and metastasize.

  1. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

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    Alper Nesip Manav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling.

  2. Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes

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    Yates, Lucy, E-mail: lucy.yates@gstt.nhs.uk [Guy' s, King' s, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna [Guy' s, King' s, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom); Crichton, Siobhan [Department of Statistics, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Gillett, Cheryl [Breast Pathology, Kings College London (United Kingdom); Cane, Paul [Department of Histopathology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor [Guy' s, King' s, St Thomas' Cancer Centre, Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant

  3. Treatment of cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary tumor, with a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planken, H.J.M. van der; Tiwari, R.M.; Karim, A.B.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The results of treatment at the Free University Hospital of 44 patients with cervical lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary tumor were reviewed in order to establish an optimal treatment policy and to look for prognostic parameters. These results were compared with results of other treatment policies known from the literature. Patients and Method: Thirty-three out of the 44 patients received a treatment with curative intent; 22 cases received a unilateral neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy, 7 were irradiated after an excisional biopsy and 4 received radical radiotherapy alone. Results: For the whole group 5- and 10-year overall survival was 50% and 44%, respectively, and for the group treated with curative intent 68% and 56%, respectively. Disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years after treatment for the whole group was 48% and 32%, respectively, and for the group treated with curative intent 63% and 37%, respectively. Conclusions: Multivariate analysis showed only treatment with intent and histology as significant independent prognostic factors for the whole group. For the patients treated with curative intent no significant influences of variables were found. (orig.) [de

  4. The Effect of the Isolated Aorticopulmonary Lymph Node on Survival in Lung Cancer

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    Serdar Ozkan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to investigate investigate the effects of aorticopulmonary LN metastasis and other N1 and N2 LN involvements on survival rates especially for left upper lobe tumors. Material and Method: 111 cases who underwent surgery due to NSCLC and were diagnosed with lymph node metastasis secondary to the postoperative pathological examination, were examined retrospectively. The cases on whom complete resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection were applied and who were diagnosed with postoperative mediastinal LN metastasis were examined with regard to the effects of some prognostic factors on survival. Results: 13 of the cases who were followed up for 21.41 months on average lost their lives. In the general survival analysis, it was found that isolated aorticopulmonary LN metastasis did not affect survival differently from other N2 diseases. Discussion: This paper claims that in cases with NSCLC located on the left upper lobe, isolated aorticopulmonary LN involvement does not have a negative effect on survival different from other N2 stations but further studies need for support this idea. Therefore, these cases should not be considered as inoperable and complete resection should be performed on the appropriate patients.

  5. Utility of preoperative ferumoxtran-10 MRI to evaluate retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis in advanced cervical cancer: Results of ACRIN 6671/GOG 0233.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atri, Mostafa; Zhang, Zheng; Marques, Helga; Gorelick, Jeremy; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Sohaib, Aslam; Koh, Dow-Mu; Raman, Steven; Gee, Michael; Choi, Haesun; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Chuang, Linus; Yu, Jian Qin Michael; McCourt, Carolyn Kay; Gold, Michael

    To assess if ferumoxtran-10 (f-10) improves accuracy of MRI to detect lymph node (LN) metastasis in advanced cervical cancer. F-10 MRI component of an IRB approved HIPAA compliant ACRIN/GOG trial was analyzed. Patients underwent f-10 MRI followed by extra-peritoneal or laparoscopic pelvic and abdominal lymphadenectomy. F-10-sensitive sequences were T2* GRE sequences with TE of 12 and 21. Seven independent blinded readers reviewed f-10-insensitive sequences and all sequences in different sessions. Region correlations were performed between pathology and MRI for eight abdomen and pelvis regions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at participant level. Reference standard is based on pathology result of surgically removed LNs. Among 43 women enrolled in the trial between September 2007 and November 2009, 33 women (mean age 49 ±11 years old) with advanced cervical cancer (12 IB2, 3 IIA, 15 IIB and 3 IIIB, 29 squamous cell carcinomas, 32 grade 2 or 3) were evaluable. Based on histopathology, LN metastasis was 39% in abdomen and 70% in pelvis. Sensitivity of all sequence review in pelvis, abdomen, and combined were 83%, 60%, and 86%, compared with 78%, 54%, and 80% for f-10 insensitive sequences ( P : 0.24, 0.44 and 0.14, respectively). Mean diameter of the largest positive focus on histopathology was 13.7 mm in abdomen and 18.8 mm in pelvis ( P = 0.018). Specificities of all sequence review in pelvis, abdomen, and combined were 48%, 75%, and 43%, compared with 75%, 83%, and 73% ( P : 0.003, 0.14, 0.002 respectively) for f-10 insensitive sequences. Addition of f-10 increased MRI sensitivity to detect LN metastasis in advanced cervical cancer. Increased sensitivity did not reach statistical significance and was at the expense of lower specificity.

  6. Clinical value and indication for the dissection of lymph nodes posterior to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ding-Cun; Xu, Xiao-Cheng; Ding, Jin-Wang; Zhang, Yu; Peng, You; Pan, Gang; Zhang, Wo

    2017-10-03

    Lymph nodes posterior to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve (LN-prRLN) are common sites of nodal recurrence after the resection of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the indication for LN-prRLN dissection remains debatable. We therefore studied the relationships between LN-prRLN metastasis and the clinicopathological characteristics in 306 patients with right or bilateral PTC who underwent LN-prRLN dissection. We found that LN-prRLN metastasis occurred in 16.67% of PTC and was associated with a number of the clinicopathological features. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the areas under the ROC curves for the prediction of LN-prRLN metastasis by the risk factors age right tumor size > 0.85 cm, lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) number > 1.5, metastatic lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) size > 0.45 cm, and lymph node number in the right cervical lateral compartment > 0.5 were 0.601, 0.815, 0.813, 0.725, and 0.743, respectively. In conclusion, the risk factors for LN-prRLN metastasis in patients suffering right thyroid lobe or bilateral PTC include age ≤ 35.5 years, right tumor size ≥ 0.85 cm, capsular invasion, metastatic lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) number ≥ 2, metastatic lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) size ≥ 0.45 cm, and metastatic lymph node number in the right cervical lateral compartment ≥ 1. In patients whose risk factors can be identified pre-operatively or intraoperatively, the dissection of LN-pr-RLN should be considered during right cervical central compartment dissection.

  7. Development of radiolabeled mannose-dextran conjugates for sentinel lymph node detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Early diagnosis of tumors and metastasis is the current cornerstone in public health policies directed towards the fights against cancer. In breast cancer and melanoma, the sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely used for diagnoses of metastasis. The minor impact in patient of this technique compared with total nodes dissection and the accurate definition of therapeutic strategies have powered its spreading. The aim of this work was the development of radiolabeled dextran-mannose conjugates for diagnosis using the stable technetium core [ 99m Tc(CO)3] + . Cysteine, a trident ligand, was attached to the conjugates backbone, as a chelate for 99m Tc labeling. Radiolabeling conditions established for all products considered in this study showed high radiochemical purities (> 90%) and specific activities (>59,9 MBq/nmol) as well and high stability obtained through in vitro tests. The lymphatic node uptake increased significantly (4-folds) when mannose units were added to the conjugates compared with those without this monosaccharide. The radiolabeled cysteine-mannose-dextran conjugate with 30 kDa ( 99m Tc - DCM2) showed the best performance at different injected activities among the studied tracers. Concentrations of this radio complex higher than 1 M demonstrated an improvement of lymph node uptakes. Comparisons of 99m Tc - DCM2 performance with commercial radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil market for lymph node detection showed its upper profile. (author)

  8. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggelkow, Wulf; Koelbl, Heinz; Gehrmann, Mathias; Marchan, Rosemarie; Cadenas, Cristina; Hengstler, Jan G; Schmidt, Marcus; Boehm, Daniel; Gebhard, Susanne; Battista, Marco; Sicking, Isabel; Lebrecht, Antje; Solbach, Christine; Hellwig, Birte; Rahnenführer, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA) are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766). AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER), and HER2 were considered. Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS) in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P < 0.001), Rotterdam (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.45– 2.63; P<0.001) and Transbig (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.14–2.04; P=0.005) cohorts. AURKA was also associated with MFS in the molecular subtype ER+/HER2- carcinomas (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.70–2.59; P<0.001), but not in ER-/HER2- nor in HER2+ carcinomas. In the multivariate Cox regression adjusted to age, grade and tumor size, AURKA showed independent prognostic significance in the ER+/HER2- subtype (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.24–2.42; P=0.001). Prognosis of patients in the highest quartile of AURKA expression was particularly poor. In addition, AURKA correlated with the proliferation metagene (R=0.880; P<0.001), showed a positive association with grade (P<0.001), tumor size (P<0.001) and HER2 (P<0.001), and was inversely associated with ER status (P<0.001). AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile) have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors

  9. Gastric cancer metastasis mimicking primary lung cancer - case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Ledesma, Jorge Alberto; Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Delle; Liu, Cristhian Bau; Reis Filho, Jorge Sergio; Oliveira Filho, Adilson Gil; Ferri, Mauricio Beller; Hossaka, Marco Aurelio

    2002-01-01

    Gastric cancer frequently presents intraperitoneal spread. Distant metastasis are rare. The authors describe a case of a 47-year-old white man, long-term cigarette smoker, who had a right upper lobe mass seen on plain films and computed tomography of the chest. A gastric adenocarcinoma was concomitantly diagnosed by endoscopic examination. A bronchoscopy guided biopsy showed that the lung mass was in fact a metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma. In this article, the imaging findings of gastric cancer and the patterns of dissemination to other organs are reviewed. (author)

  10. The Prognostic Value of Lymph Nodes Dissection Number on Survival of Patients with Lymph Node-Negative Gastric Cancer

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    Wu Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study was designed to explore the prognostic value of examined lymph node (LN number on survival of gastric cancer patients without LN metastasis. Methods. Between August 1995 and January 2011, 300 patients who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for LN-negative gastric cancer were reviewed. Patients were assigned to various groups according to LN dissection number or tumor invasion depth. Some clinical outcomes, such as overall survival, operation time, length of stay, and postoperative complications, were compared among all groups. Results. The overall survival time of LN-negative GC patients was 50.2±30.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that LN dissection number (P30. Besides, it was not correlated with operation time, transfusion volume, length of postoperative stay, or postoperative complication incidence (P>0.05. Conclusions. The number of examined lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor of survival for patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer. Sufficient dissection of lymph nodes is recommended during surgery for such population.

  11. Clinical Application of 18F-FDG PET in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Hwang, Hee Sung

    2008-01-01

    PET or PET/CT detects only less than 50% of early gastric cancer and 62-98% of advanced gastric cancer. Therefore, mass screening programs are recommended for all adults over the age of 40 for early detection and early treatment of gastric cancer through endoscopy or various radiological tests. The most important step after diagnosis of gastric cancer is accurate staging, which mainly evaluates tumor resectability to avoid unnecessary surgery. Important factors that affect tumor resectability are whether the tumor can be separated from adjacent organs or important blood vessels, the extent of lymph node metastasis, presence of peritoneal metastasis, or distant organ metastasis. To evaluate the extent of local tumor invasion, anatomical imaging that has superior spatial resolution is essential. There are a few studies on prognostic significance of FDG uptake with inconsistent results between them. In spite of lower sensitivity for lymph node staging, the specificity of CT and PET are very high, and the specificity for PET tends to be higher than that for CT. Limited data published so far show that PET seems less useful in the detection of lung and bone metastasis. In the evaluation of pleural or peritoneal metastasis, PET seems very specific but insensitive as well. When FDG uptake of primary tumor is low, distant metastasis also tends to show low FDG uptake reducing its detection on PET. There are only a few data available in the evaluation of recurrence detection and treatment response using FDG PET or PET/CT

  12. Disease-Specific Mortality of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients in Korea: A Multicenter Cohort Study

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    Min Ji Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLittle is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients and its risk factors in Korea.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.ResultsMean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97% and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%. Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9% occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%. Older age (≥45 years at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.ConclusionThe rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.

  13. Prognostic factors of a good response to initial therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

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    Fernanda Vaisman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic approaches in pediatric populations are based on adult data because there is a lack of appropriate data for children. Consequently, there are many controversies regarding the proper treatment of pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed before 20 years of age and to determine the factors associated with the response to the initial therapy. METHODS: Sixty-five patients, treated in two tertiary-care referral centers in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 2005 were evaluated. Information about clinical presentation and the response to initial treatment was analyzed and patients had their risk stratified in Tumor-Node- Metastasis; Age-Metastasis-Extracapsular-Size; distant Metastasis-Age-Completeness of primary tumor resection-local Invasion-Size and American-Thyroid-Association classification RESULTS: Patients ages ranged from 4 to 20 years (median 14. The mean follow-up was 12,6 years. Lymph node metastasis was found in 61.5% and indicated a poor response to initial therapy, with a significant impact on time for achieving disease free status (p = 0.014 for response to initial therapy and p<0,0001 for disease-free status in follow-up. Distant metastasis was a predictor of a poor response to initial therapy in these patients (p = 0.014. The risk stratification systems we analyzed were useful for high-risk patients because they had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value in determining the response to initial therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Metastases, both lymph nodal and distant, are important predictors of the persistence of disease after initial therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  14. Gangliocytic paraganglioma of duodenum metastatic to lymph nodes and liver and extending into the retropancreatic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, S M; Albrechtsen, N Wewer; Forster, J

    2013-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is a rare benign neuroendocrine tumour found most often in the duodenum. To our knowledge, only a dozen cases of possibly malignant duodenal GP with local lymph node metastasis and only one case with liver metastasis have previously been published. Herein, we report...... an unusual case of GP of the duodenum spreading to the retropancreatic space and metastatic to the liver and lymph nodes. Additionally, the present tumour secreted pancreatic polypeptide (PP) which was detected in the serum during the follow-up period. We suggest that serum PP could be a valuable marker...

  15. Development of Web tools to predict axillary lymph node metastasis and pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Takada, Masahiro; Toi, Masakazu

    2014-12-09

    Nomograms are a standard computational tool to predict the likelihood of an outcome using multiple available patient features. We have developed a more powerful data mining methodology, to predict axillary lymph node (AxLN) metastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in primary breast cancer patients. We developed websites to use these tools. The tools calculate the probability of AxLN metastasis (AxLN model) and pathological complete response to NAC (NAC model). As a calculation algorithm, we employed a decision tree-based prediction model known as the alternative decision tree (ADTree), which is an analog development of if-then type decision trees. An ensemble technique was used to combine multiple ADTree predictions, resulting in higher generalization abilities and robustness against missing values. The AxLN model was developed with training datasets (n=148) and test datasets (n=143), and validated using an independent cohort (n=174), yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.768. The NAC model was developed and validated with n=150 and n=173 datasets from a randomized controlled trial, yielding an AUC of 0.787. AxLN and NAC models require users to input up to 17 and 16 variables, respectively. These include pathological features, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and imaging findings. Each input variable has an option of "unknown," to facilitate prediction for cases with missing values. The websites developed facilitate the use of these tools, and serve as a database for accumulating new datasets.

  16. Merkel cell carcinoma with axillary metastasis