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Sample records for nodal metastasis presenting

  1. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  2. Hyoid bone chondrosarcoma with cervical nodal metastasis: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hyoid bone chondrosarcoma is a very rare condition. This study presents a case report of low-grade chondrosarcoma of hyoid bone with cervical nodal metastasis. The study also presents preoperative radiological investigations, pathological examination and the follow-up of the case. Case presentation: A 42 ...

  3. Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Occult Tonsil Cancer in Patients with Cervical Nodal Metastasis from an Unknown Primary Site at Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Hye Ok; Kim, Dae Yoon; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Cho, So Hyun; Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Sang Yoon; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To explore the added value of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values over magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the detection of occult palatine tonsil squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with cervical nodal metastasis from a cancer of an unknown primary site. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Differences in the bimodal histogram parameters of the ADC values were assessed among occult palatine tonsil SCC (n = 19), overt palatine tonsil SCC (n = 20), and normal palatine tonsils (n = 20). One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze differences among the three groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best differentiating parameters. The increased sensitivity of histogram analysis over MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of occult palatine tonsil SCC was evaluated as added value. Histogram analysis showed statistically significant differences in the mean, standard deviation, and 50th and 90th percentile ADC values among the three groups (P histogram analysis was 52.6% over MR imaging alone and 15.8% over combined conventional MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Adding ADC histogram analysis to conventional MR imaging can improve the detection sensitivity for occult palatine tonsil SCC in patients with a cervical nodal metastasis originating from a cancer of an unknown primary site. © RSNA, 2015.

  4. Present Status of GNF New Nodal Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, T.; Tamitani, M.; Moore, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents core simulator consolidation work done at Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF). The unified simulator needs to supercede the capabilities of past simulator packages from the original GNF partners: GE, Hitachi, and Toshiba. At the same time, an effort is being made to produce a simulation package that will be a state-of-the-art analysis tool when released, in terms of the physics solution methodology and functionality. The core simulator will be capable and qualified for (a) high-energy cycles in the U.S. markets, (b) mixed-oxide (MOX) introduction in Japan, and (c) high-power density plants in Europe, etc. The unification of the lattice physics code is also in progress based on a transport model with collision probability methods. The AETNA core simulator is built upon the PANAC11 software base. The goal is to essentially replace the 1.5-energy-group model with a higher-order multigroup nonlinear nodal solution capable of the required modeling fidelity, while keeping highly automated library generation as well as functionality. All required interfaces to PANAC11 will be preserved, which minimizes the impact on users and process automation. Preliminary results show statistical accuracy improvement over the 1.5-group model

  5. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Nodal Metastasis in Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Marc Gregory; Atun, Jenny Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV-) PTC. Lymph node examination, however, revealed TB lymphadenitis, and the patient was given standard antimycobacterial therapy. This is the first documented case in Southeast Asia, a high TB burden region. This is also the first report involving FV-PTC, which has features between those of conventional PTC and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The case suggests that, in endemic areas, TB should be a differential in the etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in PTC patients. In developed countries, this differential diagnosis is also valuable because of the increasing incidence of HIV and TB coinfection. Proper preoperative evaluation is important and needs to be highlighted in the formulation of local guidelines.

  6. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Nodal Metastasis in Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gregory Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous (TB lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV- PTC. Lymph node examination, however, revealed TB lymphadenitis, and the patient was given standard antimycobacterial therapy. This is the first documented case in Southeast Asia, a high TB burden region. This is also the first report involving FV-PTC, which has features between those of conventional PTC and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The case suggests that, in endemic areas, TB should be a differential in the etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in PTC patients. In developed countries, this differential diagnosis is also valuable because of the increasing incidence of HIV and TB coinfection. Proper preoperative evaluation is important and needs to be highlighted in the formulation of local guidelines.

  7. Hyoid bone chondrosarcoma with cervical nodal metastasis: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hisham Mostafa Abdel-Fattah

    2015-11-18

    Nov 18, 2015 ... Case presentation: A 42 years old female had a hard mass in the left submandibular region of the neck. ... material incorporating numerous islands of chondroid tissue ... Postoperative radiation does not have a specific role in.

  8. Colorectal cancer presenting as bone metastasis

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    M C Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the patients of colorectal cancer presenting with bone metastasis were of male sex and younger age. The factors that were associated with reduced survival were extraosseous and liver involvement.

  9. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as mandibular metastasis

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    Hassan Ahmadnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC has different manifestations, including uncommon metastasis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here we report a rare case of RCC presenting as metastasis to the mandible. A 57-year-old patient with mandibular swelling was referred to the dentist. After necessary evaluations, an incisional biopsy of mandible showed metastatic RCC. The patient was referred to the urologist. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy. Pathological examination showed clear renal cell carcinoma. Every abnormal bone lesion in the oral cavity should be evaluated carefully and the possibility of a malignant lesion should always be considered.

  10. Efficacy and prognostic analysis of chemoradiotherapy in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous carcinoma with cervical lymph nodal metastasis alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Xi, Mian; Zhao, Lei; Li, Qiao-Qiao; He, Li-Ru; Liu, Shi-Liang; Shen, Jing-Xian; Liu, Meng-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic factors of thoracic esophageal squamous carcinoma with cervical lymph nodal metastasis (CLNM) have not been specifically investigated. This study was performed to analyze the efficacy and prognostic factors of chemoradiotherapy for thoracic esophageal carcinoma with CLNM alone. From 2002 to 2011, 139 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer who underwent chemoradiotherapy at the Sun Yat-Sen University were retrospectively analyzed. Median radiation doses were 60 Gy (range: 50–68 Gy). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The 1- and 3-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.9%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year PFS rates were 51.9% and 20.1%, respectively. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that response to treatment, T stage, pathological grade, and laterality of cervical lymph nodal metastases were independent prognostic factors for thoracic esophageal carcinoma with CLNM. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is an important and hopeful treatment option for patients with esophageal cancer with CLNM alone. Our study has revealed that response to treatment, T stage, pathological grade and laterality of cervical lymph nodal metastases are significant prognostic factors for long-term survival

  11. Detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse using (18)F/(11)C-choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Cordula A; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Drendel, Vanessa; Vach, Werner; Wieser, Gesche; Krauss, Tobias; Jandausch, Anett; Hölz, Stefanie; Henne, Karl; Reske, Sven N; Grosu, Anca-L; Weber, Wolfgang A; Rischke, H Christian

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography for nodal relapse of prostate cancer according to topographical site and tumor infiltration size in lymph nodes. A total of 72 patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse after primary therapy underwent pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage lymph node dissection. Salvage was done after whole body positron emission tomography/computerized tomography with (11)C-choline or (18)F-fluoroethylcholine showed positron emission tomography positive lymph nodes but no other detectable metastasis. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in 160 dissected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal), 498 subregions (common, external and internal iliac, obturator, presacral, aortic bifurcation, aortal, vena caval and interaortocaval) and 2,122 lymph nodes. Lymph node metastasis was present in 32% of resected lymph nodes (681 of 2,122), resulting in 238 positive subregions and 111 positive regions. Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography was positive for 110 regions and 209 subregions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 91.9%, 83.7%, 92.7%, 82.0% and 89.4% (region based), 80.7%, 93.5%, 91.9%, 84.1% and 87.3% (subregion based), and 57.0%, 98.4%, 94.5%, 82.6% and 84.9% (lesion based), respectively. Of 393 positive lymph node metastases detected by this method 278 (70.7%) were in lymph nodes with a less than 10 mm short axis diameter. Imaging sensitivity was 13.3%, 57.4% and 82.8% for a tumor infiltration depth of 2 or greater to less than 3 mm, 5 or greater to less than 6 mm and 10 or greater to less than 11 mm, respectively. Lymph node metastasis site and the radiotracer ((11)C-choline/(18)F-fluoroethylcholine) had no substantial impact on diagnostic accuracy. Choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography detects affected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal) in patients with

  12. A simplified presentation of the multigroup analytic nodal method in 2-D Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The nodal diffusion algorithms used in many production reactor simulation codes are originating from a common ancestry developed in the 1970s, the analytic nodal method (ANM) of the QUANDRY code. However, this original presentation of the ANM is complex and makes difficult the calculation of the nodal coupling matrices. Moreover, QUANDRY is limited to two-energy groups and its generalization to more groups appears laborious. We are presenting a simplified implementation of the ANM requiring only limited programming work. This formulation is consistent with the initial QUANDRY implementation and is easily generalizable to arbitrary G-group problems. A Matlab script is provided to highlight the simplicity of our presentation. For the sake of clarity, our implementation is limited to G-group, 2-D Cartesian geometry

  13. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barai Sukanta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was considered. MRI of brain revealed a lesion in the cerebellum suggestive of medulloblastoma. Bone scan revealed multiple sites of skeletal metastases excluding the lumbar vertebrae. MRI of lumbar spine and hip revealed metastases to all lumbar vertebrae and both hips. Computed tomography-guided biopsy was obtained from the L3 vertebra, which revealed metastatic deposits from medulloblastoma. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology showed the presence of medulloblastoma cells. A final diagnosis of cerebellar medulloblastoma with skeletal metastases was made. He underwent craniotomy and histopathology confirmed medulloblastoma.

  14. Unilateral cervical nodal metastasis is an independent prognostic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available To determine the prognostic significance of unilateral cervical lymph nodal metastasis (CLNM in patients with inoperable thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and to identify significant prognostic factors in these patients.This retrospective study involved 395 patients with inoperable esophageal SCC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The patients were classified into three groups according to their cervical lymph node status: group A, no evidence of CLNM; group B, unilateral CLNM; group C, other distant metastases. Overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were calculated. Significant prognostic factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses.The 3-year OS rates in groups A, B and C were 46.7%, 33.5% and 8.3%, respectively (p<0.001, log-rank test. The corresponding PFS rates were 40.7%, 26.4% and 4.7% (p<0.001, log-rank test. Group B had a similar prognosis to that of group A and better 3-year OS (p = 0.009 and PFS (p = 0.006 rates than those of group C. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that T stage, chemotherapy regimen and cervical lymph node involvement were independent prognostic factors affecting OS and PFS.Compared to other distant metastases, unilateral CLNM is associated with longer OS in esophageal SCC and should be regarded as a regional disease. Sex, T stage, concurrent chemotherapy modality and cervical lymph node involvement are independent predictors of survival in esophageal SCC.

  15. A Case of Conjunctival Melanoma Presenting with Breast Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Canhoroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most breast masses arise from the breast. Metastasis to the breast is fairly uncommon, but can occur in breast skin and parenchyma. In particular, leukemia and lung cancers, and MM may metastasize to the breast. Breast metastasis might be the first symptom or may occur during the course of other malignancies. Our case presented with a fixed mass in the upper-medial quadrant of her left breast during regular follow-up visits. The mean time to breast metastasis in patients with MM is 62 months (13-178. In our case this time was 48 months. In a case series with 7 patients hematological malignancies (Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia were the leading cause of breast metastasis, whereas in only 1 case the cause was MM. In another case series of 15 MM patients with metastasis to the breast, the primary tumor was frequently localized to the upper extremities and trunk. In a report of 250 conjunctival MM cases the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with tumors >4 mm in vertical thickness. In another 45-case MM series tumors with a diameter >10 mm were associated with higher mortality rates. In our case the thickness of the tumor was 5 mm. In conclusion, histopathological evaluation should be mandatory in patients with known primary malignancies in order to differentiate new primary tumors, metastases, and benign tumors.

  16. PTK 7 is a transforming gene and prognostic marker for breast cancer and nodal metastasis involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gärtner

    Full Text Available Protein Tyrosin Kinase 7 (PTK7 is upregulated in several human cancers; however, its clinical implication in breast cancer (BC and lymph node (LN is still unclear. In order to investigate the function of PTK7 in mediating BC cell motility and invasivity, PTK7 expression in BC cell lines was determined. PTK7 signaling in highly invasive breast cancer cells was inhibited by a dominant-negative PTK7 mutant, an antibody against the extracellular domain of PTK7, and siRNA knockdown of PTK7. This resulted in decreased motility and invasivity of BC cells. We further examined PTK7 expression in BC and LN tissue of 128 BC patients by RT-PCR and its correlation with BC related genes like HER2, HER3, PAI1, MMP1, K19, and CD44. Expression profiling in BC cell lines and primary tumors showed association of PTK7 with ER/PR/HER2-negative (TNBC-triple negative BC cancer. Oncomine data analysis confirmed this observation and classified PTK7 in a cluster with genes associated with agressive behavior of primary BC. Furthermore PTK7 expression was significantly different with respect to tumor size (ANOVA, p = 0.033 in BC and nodal involvement (ANOVA, p = 0.007 in LN. PTK7 expression in metastatic LN was related to shorter DFS (Cox Regression, p = 0.041. Our observations confirmed the transforming potential of PTK7, as well as its involvement in motility and invasivity of BC cells. PTK7 is highly expressed in TNBC cell lines. It represents a novel prognostic marker for BC patients and has potential therapeutic significance.

  17. PTK 7 is a transforming gene and prognostic marker for breast cancer and nodal metastasis involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Silvia; Gunesch, Angela; Knyazeva, Tatiana; Wolf, Petra; Högel, Bernhard; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Ullrich, Axel; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ataseven, Beyhan

    2014-01-01

    Protein Tyrosin Kinase 7 (PTK7) is upregulated in several human cancers; however, its clinical implication in breast cancer (BC) and lymph node (LN) is still unclear. In order to investigate the function of PTK7 in mediating BC cell motility and invasivity, PTK7 expression in BC cell lines was determined. PTK7 signaling in highly invasive breast cancer cells was inhibited by a dominant-negative PTK7 mutant, an antibody against the extracellular domain of PTK7, and siRNA knockdown of PTK7. This resulted in decreased motility and invasivity of BC cells. We further examined PTK7 expression in BC and LN tissue of 128 BC patients by RT-PCR and its correlation with BC related genes like HER2, HER3, PAI1, MMP1, K19, and CD44. Expression profiling in BC cell lines and primary tumors showed association of PTK7 with ER/PR/HER2-negative (TNBC-triple negative BC) cancer. Oncomine data analysis confirmed this observation and classified PTK7 in a cluster with genes associated with agressive behavior of primary BC. Furthermore PTK7 expression was significantly different with respect to tumor size (ANOVA, p = 0.033) in BC and nodal involvement (ANOVA, p = 0.007) in LN. PTK7 expression in metastatic LN was related to shorter DFS (Cox Regression, p = 0.041). Our observations confirmed the transforming potential of PTK7, as well as its involvement in motility and invasivity of BC cells. PTK7 is highly expressed in TNBC cell lines. It represents a novel prognostic marker for BC patients and has potential therapeutic significance.

  18. An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis: Perianal Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. Although the most frequent sites of distant metastasis of lung cancers are the pleura, liver, adrenal glands, skeletal system and brain, perianal region has been rarely reported as a metastasis site. A male patient was admitted to our emergency room with a long standing perianal abscess. During abscess drainage, a mass was noticed at the base of the abscess pouch, and thus a biopsy was taken. Pathologically, it was reported as a metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma, therefore some radiological  investigations and endoscopic procedures were performed to determine the primary focus of cancer. A pulmonary mass was revealed in PET/CT, and was considered as primary tumor. Both primary and metastatic perianal tumors can be rarely presented as an abscess formation. In this situation, a biopsy should be performed from the lesion to avoid misdiagnosis.

  19. Adenocarcinoma of urethra presenting metastasis to eyes: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lages, Rafael Bandeira; Sousa, Rodrigo Beserra; Santos, Lina Gomes dos; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Tavares, Marilia Buenos Aires Cabral

    2010-01-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all female genitourinary tract cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this patient is the first reported case of primary urethral carcinoma presenting metastasis to eyes. The diagnosis of metastasis involving the choroids should be suspected in patient with history of carcinoma and a decreased visual acuity or any other visual symptom. Case presentation: A 43-year-old woman underwent a total hysterectomy, cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy due a primary adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra. Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and six cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin were performed. The patient made follow-up with no evidence of oncologic disease. However, nine months later, the patient reported visual alterations. Ophthalmoloscopic examination showed choroid lesions in both eyes that were compatible with metastatic choroids tumor and nuclear magnetic resonance suggested bilateral retinal metastasis and left meningioma parasagittal in parietal region. She was undergoing a new palliative chemotherapy, but the disease developed and there were metastasis to bone four months later. The patient died fourteen months after the surgery. (author)

  20. Adenocarcinoma of urethra presenting metastasis to eyes: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, Rafael Bandeira; Sousa, Rodrigo Beserra; Santos, Lina Gomes dos; Vieira, Sabas Carlos, E-mail: rafaelblages@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Tavares, Marilia Buenos Aires Cabral [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio; Valenca, Rodrigo Jose de Vasconcelos [Hospital Sao Marcos (HSM), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all female genitourinary tract cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this patient is the first reported case of primary urethral carcinoma presenting metastasis to eyes. The diagnosis of metastasis involving the choroids should be suspected in patient with history of carcinoma and a decreased visual acuity or any other visual symptom. Case presentation: A 43-year-old woman underwent a total hysterectomy, cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy due a primary adenocarcinoma of the proximal urethra. Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy and six cycles of chemotherapy using cisplatin were performed. The patient made follow-up with no evidence of oncologic disease. However, nine months later, the patient reported visual alterations. Ophthalmoloscopic examination showed choroid lesions in both eyes that were compatible with metastatic choroids tumor and nuclear magnetic resonance suggested bilateral retinal metastasis and left meningioma parasagittal in parietal region. She was undergoing a new palliative chemotherapy, but the disease developed and there were metastasis to bone four months later. The patient died fourteen months after the surgery. (author)

  1. A Web-based nomogram predicting para-aortic nodal metastasis in incompletely staged patients with endometrial cancer: a Korean Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sokbom; Lee, Jong-Min; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Jae-Weon; Cho, Chi-Heum; Kim, Seok-Mo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Park, Chan-Yong; Kim, Ki-Tae

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a Web-based nomogram for predicting the individualized risk of para-aortic nodal metastasis in incompletely staged patients with endometrial cancer. From 8 institutions, the medical records of 397 patients who underwent pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy as a surgical staging procedure were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate logistic regression model was created and internally validated by rigorous bootstrap resampling methods. Finally, the model was transformed into a user-friendly Web-based nomogram (http://http://www.kgog.org/nomogram/empa001.html). The rate of para-aortic nodal metastasis was 14.4% (57/397 patients). Using a stepwise variable selection, 4 variables including deep myometrial invasion, non-endometrioid subtype, lymphovascular space invasion, and log-transformed CA-125 levels were finally adopted. After 1000 repetitions of bootstrapping, all of these 4 variables retained a significant association with para-aortic nodal metastasis in the multivariate analysis-deep myometrial invasion (P = 0.001), non-endometrioid histologic subtype (P = 0.034), lymphovascular space invasion (P = 0.003), and log-transformed serum CA-125 levels (P = 0.004). The model showed good discrimination (C statistics = 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.92) and accurate calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.74). This nomogram showed good performance in predicting para-aortic metastasis in patients with endometrial cancer. The tool may be useful in determining the extent of lymphadenectomy after incomplete surgery.

  2. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Presenting as Hypervascular Adrenal Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Goroshi, Manjunath; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S.

    2018-01-01

    Hypervascular adrenal masses include pheochromocytoma, metastases caused by clear renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma. Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) causing hypervascular metastases is not described in the literature. Here, we describe the first case of ASPS presenting as hypervascular metastasis. Our case was a 23-year-old male incidentally detected right adrenal mass during the evaluation of pain in the abdomen. On computed tomography (CT), adrenal mass showed bright enhanceme...

  3. Amplification and protein overexpression of cyclin D1: Predictor of occult nodal metastasis in early oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlag, Rob; Boeve, Koos; Witjes, Max J H; Koole, Ronald; Peeters, Ton L M; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M; van Es, Robert J J

    2017-02-01

    Accurate nodal staging is pivotal for treatment planning in early (stage I-II) oral cancer. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack sensitivity to detect occult nodal metastases. Chromosomal region 11q13, including genes CCND1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and CTTN, is often amplified in oral cancer with nodal metastases. However, evidence in predicting occult nodal metastases is limited. In 158 patients with early tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinomas, both CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1, FADD, and cortactin protein expression were correlated with occult nodal metastases. CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression correlated with occult nodal metastases. Cyclin D1 expression was validated in an independent multicenter cohort, confirming the correlation with occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Cyclin D1 is a predictive biomarker for occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Prospective research on biopsy material should confirm these results before implementing its use in routine clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 326-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Early clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma (cT1): Utility of CT in regional nodal metastasis detection and can the clinical accuracy be improved?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L., E-mail: slbetancourt@mdanderson.org; Sabloff, Bradley, E-mail: bsabloff@mdanderson.org; Carter, Brett W., E-mail: bcarter2@mdanderson.org; Benveniste, Marcelo F., E-mail: mfbenveniste@mdanderson.org; Correa, Arlene M., E-mail: amcorrea@mdanderson.org; Maru, Dipen M., E-mail: dmaru@mdanderson.org; Ajani, Jaffer A., E-mail: jajani@mdanderson.org; Erasmus, Jeremy J., E-mail: jerasmus@mdanderson.org; Hofstetter, Wayne L., E-mail: whofstetter@mdanderson.org

    2017-03-15

    Introduction: Treatment of early esophageal cancer depends on the extent of the primary tumor and presence of regional lymph node metastasis.(RNM). Short axis diameter >10 mm is typically used to detect RNM. However, clinical determination of RNM is inaccurate and can result in inappropriate treatment. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a single linear measurement (short axis > 10 mm) of regional nodes on CT in predicting nodal metastasis, in patients with early esophageal cancer and whether using a mean diameter value (short axis + long axis/2) as well as nodal shape improves cN designation. Methods: CTs of 49 patients with cT1 adenocarcinoma treated with surgical resection alone were reviewed retrospectively. Regional nodes were considered positive for malignancy when round or ovoid and mean size >5 mm adjacent to the primary tumor and >7 mm when not adjacent. Results were compared with pN status after esophagectomy. Results: 18/49 patients had pN+ at resection. Using a single short axis diameter >10 mm on CT, nodal metastasis (cN) was positive in 7/49. Only 1 of these patients was pN+ at resection (sensitivity 5%, specificity 80%, accuracy 53%). Using mean size and morphologic criteria, cN was positive in 28/49. 11 of these patients were pN+ at resection (sensitivity 61%, specificity 45%, accuracy 51%). EUS with limited FNA of regional nodes resulted in 16/49 patients with pN+ being inappropriately designated as cN0. Conclusions: Evaluation of size, shape and location of regional lymph nodes on CT improves the sensitivity of cN determination compared with a short axis measurement alone in patients with cT1 esophageal cancer, although clinical utility is limited.

  5. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Presenting as Hypervascular Adrenal Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshi, Manjunath; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S.

    2018-01-01

    Hypervascular adrenal masses include pheochromocytoma, metastases caused by clear renal cell carcinoma/hepatocellular carcinoma. Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) causing hypervascular metastases is not described in the literature. Here, we describe the first case of ASPS presenting as hypervascular metastasis. Our case was a 23-year-old male incidentally detected right adrenal mass during the evaluation of pain in the abdomen. On computed tomography (CT), adrenal mass showed bright enhancement in early arterial phase (unenhanced Hounsfield unit [HU]-45.3; arterial phase HU-158.2). 18- flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT showed multiple lesions and was confirmed histologically to be due to ASPS. PMID:29398970

  6. Facilitation of nodal metastasis from a non-immunogenic murine carcinoma by previous whole-body irradiation of tumour recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, H.B.; Blake, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    Of 193 CBA mice kept under prolonged observation after excision of small intradermal transplants of a non-immunogenic tumour (CBA Carcinoma NT), 27 (14%) presented with local recurrence, 19 (10%) with regional lymphnodal metastasis (RNM) and 72 (37%), with pulmonary metastasis +- other systemic metastases. When mice were exposed to sublethal whole-body irradiation (WBI) before tumour transplantation, the incidence of RNM rose to approximately 80% and the latent period was reduced from approximately 60 days to approximately 40 days after tumour transplantation. This enhancement of RNM by WBI was undiminished when the interval between WBI and tumour transplantation was increased from 1 to 90 days. An explanation for this effect in terms of immunosuppression by the WBI is unlikely for the following reasons: the tumour was non-immunogenic by standard quantitative tests; the effect persisted long after the expected time for recovery of immune reactivity; and i.v. injection of normal marrow and lymphoid cells after WBI failed to reduce the effect. That the effect was systemic was proved by failure of local pre-irradiation of the tumour bed or regional node to enhance RNM. The effect was not observed when WBI was given 4 days after excision of tumours. These and other experiments failed to indicate the mechanism of the effect of WBI, but its long persistence suggests that it may relate to stored lethal radiation damage in migrating cells of slow turnover tissues. (author)

  7. Radiosensitive orbital metastasis as presentation of occult colonic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludmir, Ethan B; McCall, Shannon J; Czito, Brian G; Palta, Manisha

    2014-09-19

    An 82-year-old man presented with progressive right frontal headaches. The patient's history was significant for benign polyps on surveillance colonoscopy 2 years prior, without high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma. MRI revealed an enhancing lesion arising within the superomedial aspect of the right orbit. Lesion biopsy demonstrated histological appearance and immunophenotype suggestive of colonic adenocarcinoma. Staging positron emission tomography/CT showed visceral metastases and diffuse activity in the posterior rectosigmoid, consistent with metastatic colon cancer. Treatment of the orbital lesion with external beam radiotherapy to 30 Gy resulted in significant palliation of the patient's headaches. The patient expired 2 months following treatment completion due to disease progression. Orbital metastasis as the initial presentation of an occult colorectal primary lesion is exceedingly rare, and occurred in this patient despite surveillance colonoscopy. Radiotherapy remains an efficacious modality for treatment of orbital metastases. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Mandibular metastasis presenting as the initial maifestation of malignant pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi E-mail: asaumi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp; Hisatomi, Miki; Konouchi, Hironobu; Wakasa, Toru; Kishi, Kanji

    2002-10-01

    A case of 59-year-old male patient presenting with metastasis to the mandible from malignant pheochromocytoma is described. The conventional radiographs and CT images suggested that the lesion was malignant osteogenic tumors or metastatic tumors due to the existence of calcification and widesoread periosteal sunburst spiculation. On MRI, an expansive mass was clearly depicted and the signal intensities of the lesion were low to intermediate on T1 weighted image with intermediate to high signal intensity on T2 weighted image. A strong enhancement of the lesion was also observed on contrast enhanced T1 weighted image. On maximum intensity projection image in the arterial phase, the mass showed exceedingly early enhancement and excessively dislocated adjacent vessels. The diagnosis of a pheochromcytoma was difficult on the basis of these imagings. The final diagnosis was based on a biopsy of the mandible and I-131 Meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy (MIBG) scintigraphy. A primary lesion of the right adrenal showed low uptake due to wide centric necrosis and metastatic lesions of liver, lumber vertebrae, ribs and sacroiliac joint showed high uptake on the I-131 MIBG scintigraphy. The final diagnosis was nonfunctioning malignant pheochromocytoma due to the absence of elevation of catecholamine or its metabolite.

  9. An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis: Perianal Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kilic

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. Although the most frequent sites of distant metastasis of lung cancers are the pleura, liver, adrenal glands, skeletal system and brain, perianal region has been rarely reported as a metastasis site. A male patient was admitted to our emergency room with a long standing perianal abscess. During abscess drainage, a mass was noticed at the base of the abscess pouch, and thus a biopsy was taken. Pathologically, it w...

  10. Prostate-Derived Ets Transcription Factor Overexpression is Associated with Nodal Metastasis, Hormone Receptor Positivity in Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Turcotte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF has recently been associated with invasive breast cancer, but no expression profile has been defined in clinical specimens. We undertook a comprehensive PDEF transcriptional expression study of 86 breast cancer clinical specimens, several cell lines, normal tissues. PDEF expression profile was analyzed according to standard clinicopathologic parameters, compared with hormonal receptor, HER-2/neu status, to the expression of the new tumor biomarker Dikkopf-1 (DKK1. Wide ranging PDEF overexpression was observed in 74% of tested tumors, at higher levels than the average expression found in normal breasts. High PDEF expression was associated with hormone receptor positivity (P < .001, moderate to good differentiation (less than grade III, P = .01, dissemination to axillary lymph nodes (P = .002. PDEF was an independent risk factor for nodal involvement (multivariate analysis, odds ratio 1.250, P = .002. It was expressed in a different subgroup compared to DKK1-expressing tumors (P < .001. Our data imply that PDEF mRNA expression could be useful in breast cancer molecular staging. Further insights into PDEF functions at the protein level, possible links with hormone receptors biology, bear great potential for new therapeutic avenues.

  11. Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from colonic carcinoma presenting as Brown-Sequard syndrome: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaballo, Mohammed A

    2011-08-02

    Abstract Introduction Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis is very rare. The majority are discovered incidentally during autopsy. Most symptomatic patients present with rapidly progressive neurological deficits and require immediate examination. Few patients demonstrate features of Brown-Séquard syndrome. Radiotherapy is the gold-standard of therapy for Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. The overall prognosis is poor and the mortality rate is very high. We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of colorectal carcinoma presenting as Brown-Séquard syndrome. Case presentation We present the case of a 71-year-old Caucasian man with colonic adenocarcinoma who developed Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and showed features of Brown-Séquard syndrome, which is an uncommon presentation of Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. Conclusion This patient had an Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis, a rare form of metastatic disease, secondary to colonic carcinoma. The metastasis manifested clinically as Brown-Séquard syndrome, itself a very uncommon condition. This syndrome is rarely caused by intramedullary tumors. This unique case has particular interest in medicine, especially for the specialties of medical, surgical and radiation oncology. We hope that it will add more information to the literature about these entities.

  12. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pericardial metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Wen Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is prevalent in Taiwan and is characterized by a high frequency of nodal metastasis. The most common organs with distal metastases are the bones, lungs, and liver, with extremely rare cases to the pericardium. Herein, we report a rare case with NPC who presented with dyspnea and orthopnea. Serial studies, including pericardial biopsy, revealed NPC with pericardial metastasis and pericardial effusion. The tumor cells of both the original and metastatic tumors were positive for Epstein–Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This is the first histologically confirmed case of NPC with pericardial metastasis.

  13. KEK NODAL user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kikutani, Eiji; Koiso, Haruyo; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Oide, Katsunobu.

    1984-06-01

    NODAL is an interpreter language for accelerator control developed at CERN SPS and has been used successfully since 1974. At present NODAL or NODAL-like languages are used at DESY PETRA and CERN CPS. At KEK, we have also adopted NODAL for the control of TRISTAN, a 30 GeV x 30 GeV electron-positron colliding beam facility. The KEK version of NODAL has the following improvements on the SPS NODAL: (1) the fast execution speed due to the compiler-interpreter scheme, and (2) the full-screen editing facility. This manual explains how to use the KEK NODAL. It is based on the manual of the SPS NODAL, THE NODAL SYSTEM FOR THE SPS, by M.C. Crowley-Milling and G.C. Shering, CERN 78-07. We have made some additions and modifications to make the manual more appropriate for the KEK NODAL system, paying attention to retaining the good features of the original SPS NODAL manual. We acknowledge Professor M.C. Crowley-Milling, Dr G.C. Shering and CERN for their kind permission for this modification. (author)

  14. Pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Naito, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2015-11-06

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is extremely rare and is often detected incidentally by symptoms associated with endocrine dysfunction. Breast and lung cancer are the most common primary metastasizing to pituitary gland. Metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland is extremely rare, with only 10 cases having been previously reported. We present here the first case of pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia after having previously been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on low levels of pituitary hormones, she was diagnosed with panhypopituitarism caused by metastasis of the hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland. Magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin-labeling was effective in the differential diagnosis of the intrasellar tumor. The patient died despite hormone replacement therapy because of hypovolemic shock. Metastasis to the pituitary gland causes various non-specific symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose. The present case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging in identifying these metastases. Clinicians should consider the possibility of pituitary metastasis in patients with malignant tumors who demonstrate hypopituitarism.

  15. Pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Naito, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Kazuto; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is extremely rare and is often detected incidentally by symptoms associated with endocrine dysfunction. Breast and lung cancer are the most common primary metastasizing to pituitary gland. Metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland is extremely rare, with only 10 cases having been previously reported. We present here the first case of pituitary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with panhypopituitarism diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman who presented with the sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia after having previously been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. Based on low levels of pituitary hormones, she was diagnosed with panhypopituitarism caused by metastasis of the hepatocellular carcinoma to the pituitary gland. Magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin-labeling was effective in the differential diagnosis of the intrasellar tumor. The patient died despite hormone replacement therapy because of hypovolemic shock. Metastasis to the pituitary gland causes various non-specific symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose. The present case emphasizes the importance of diagnostic imaging in identifying these metastases. Clinicians should consider the possibility of pituitary metastasis in patients with malignant tumors who demonstrate hypopituitarism

  16. Ocular metastasis as initial presentation in breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients presented to their ophthalmologists with vision disturbances. On ocular examination, retinopathic lesions were observed. On subsequent examination, these lesions were diagnosed as metastases of breast cancer. Neither patient had a history of breast cancer. In patients with breast cancer and multiple ...

  17. Neck mass: An unusual presentation of prostate cancer metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate cancer is a disease of public health importance and it is most common among men between 60 to 70 years of age. Distant primaries involving supraclavicular nodes secondary to prostate cancer is very rare. This report is a case of an unusual presentation of prostate cancer manifesting as a huge neck ...

  18. Paratesticular adenocarcinoma. Unusual presentation of metastasis of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, J.; Seruga, B.

    2007-01-01

    Metastatic paratesticular adenocarcinoma from the pancreatic cancer is very rare. To our knowledge, there are less than 20 cases published in the literature. We experienced a case of paratesticular adenocarcinoma from the primary pancreatic cancer. A 42-year-old man was presented with locoregionally advanced carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas with intraoperatively found liver metastases and with a tumour in the right hemi-scrotum. Ultrasound of the scrotum revealed a paratesticular tumour. A fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) confirmed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and it was in concordance with the diagnosis of the primary tumour. The patient started treatment with chemotherapy with gemcitabine. Unfortunately, he progressed one month later and the treatment was discontinued. Outcome in the adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is dismal. The only possible treatment option for metastatic disease is systemic therapy but the results are disappointing, as in the present case. (author)

  19. Treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer with interstitial brachytherapy: maximum tumor thickness is prognostic of nodal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kanji; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fujita, Minoru; Akagi, Yukio; Ito, Katsuhide

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic importance of T classification and maximum tumor thickness (MTT) on the treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer treated with interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1981 and December 1993, 173 cases were eligible for this retrospective analysis. Of 173 patients, 75 were classified as Stage I and 98 as Stage II: maximum tumor length ranged from 6 to 40 mm. MTT, which ranged from 2 to 38 mm, was measured with ultrasonography and/or palpation. Brachytherapy was performed with iridium hairpins or radium needles following external irradiation in 66 patients, or exclusively in 107 patients. Results: The 5-year local recurrence rates were Stage I, 7%; Stage II, 22%; MTT < 8 mm, 8%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 28%. The 5-year regional recurrence rates were Stage I, 15%; Stage II, 29%; MTT < 8 mm, 18%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 31%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (5% and 6% vs. 16% and 24%). The 5-year regional recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy-only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (14% and 16% vs. 34% and 46%). There was no significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of Stage I and Stage II, MTT < 8 mm. However, there was a significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of MTT ≥ 8 mm (p < 0.005). Conclusions: For patients with Stage I and II oral tongue cancer, tumor thickness as well as T classification were prognostic for nodal metastasis and prognosis. Patients with MTT ≥ 8 mm are more likely to fail in the neck region. These findings suggest that MTT should be considered along with T stage in determining strategies for Stage I and II oral tongue cancer

  20. Histologic assessment of tumor budding in preoperative biopsies to predict nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and floor of the mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Mai; Sano, Takaaki; Yokoo, Satoshi; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2016-04-01

    In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and the floor of the mouth (FOM), it is important to predict lymph node metastasis, including occult metastasis, before operating. The purpose of this study was for us to determine practical histopathologic parameters as predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in preoperative SCC biopsy specimens. We examined 91 cases of SCC for conventional histopathologic assessment and a new factor, tumor budding, and their relationship with lymph node metastasis. Significant factors via univariate analysis (p factoring into the decision as to whether neck dissection is indicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1582-E1590, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey David M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid tumor metastasis to the epididymis is a rare occurrence and is mostly discovered incidentally at autopsy or after therapeutic orchidectomy for prostate cancer. Other primary carcinomas that have been demonstrated to metastasize to the paratesticular region include those originating in the stomach, kidney, ileum, and colon. Case presentation A 72-year-old gentleman presented with a firm and tender mass involving the right epididymis. On examination, he was jaundiced. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated an obstructive stricture of the extra-hepatic bile ducts, in keeping with a cholangiocarcinoma, through which a metal stent was endoscopically inserted for symptomatic relief. Subsequent right radical orchidectomy yielded a diffusely infiltrative adenocarcinoma obliterating the epididymis, extending into the rete testis, vas deferens and spermatic cord and showing widespread vascular and perineural invasion. Residual epididymal, rete, and testicular tubules showed no in situ neoplasia. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the features were in keeping with a metastasis from a primary cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusion Only two cases of bile duct carcinoma metastasising to the male genital tract have previously been reported in the literature, the testis being the main site of metastasis in both cases. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cholangiocarcinoma metastasising primarily to the epididymis, and presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis in the absence of disseminated disease. It serves to highlight the importance of performing a thorough examination of the male external genitalia both clinically, in the follow up of cancer patients, and at autopsy.

  2. Uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis from uterine cervical cancer is rare, with an incidence of 0.5%, and usually occurs late in the course of the disease. We report a case of uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation. A 50-year-old woman with headache, vertigo, amnesia and loss of appetite was admitted for persistent vomiting. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a solitary right frontal cerebral lesion with ring enhancement and uterine cervical tumor. She was diagnosed with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma with parametrium invasion and no other distant affected organs were detected. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed and pathologically proved to be metastasis of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by cerebral radiation therapy, but multiple metastases to the liver and lung developed and the patient died 7 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. A rare presentation of extra nodal rosai-dorfman disease (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Al-Ramzi

    2017-06-01

    It is a very rare condition that Rosai-Dorfman disease might shoe a temporoparietal area involvement can be seen from a review of all literature. The presentation of the disease, differential diagnosis and treatment were discussed.

  4. Thoracic Cavernoma with Intraosseous and Extradural Component Mimicking Metastasis: Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocaman Umit

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural cavernomas are quite rare lesions and only 5% of all cavernomas are located in the spine. The lesions are most commonly localized in the thoracic region. The differential diagnosis includes neurogenic tumors, lymphoma, schwannoma, meningioma, multiple myeloma, Ewing's sarcoma and metastasis. A 40- year-old male patient presented with paraplegia and MR images revealed an epidural soft tissue constricting the right posterolateral of the cord at the T6 level. Pathology showed cavernous hemangioma. A literature search revealed no other case that so closely mimicked metastasis by invading all components of the thoracic vertebra and also expanding to the epidural distance. We therefore present the case emphasizing these features.

  5. Excavated pulmonary nodules: an unusual clinical presentation of lung metastasis in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalya Issam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excavated pulmonary metastasis are rare. We present two cases of excavated pulmonary nodules proved to be metastases from osteosarcoma and gallblader lymphoma. Case presentation The first one is 39-year-old man in whom cholecystectomy made the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gallbladder. He presented in chest CT scan excavated nodules that had been biopsied and confirmed the diagnosis of non hodgkin lymphoma. He underwent 8 courses of chemotherapy CHOP 21 with complete remission. The second one is an 21 years old man who presented a right leg osteoblastic osteosarcoma with only excavated pulmonary nodules in extension assessment. He had 3 courses of polychemotherapy API (doxorubicin, platinum, and ifosfamide with partial response. Unfortunately, he died following a septic shock. Review of the literature shows that excavated pulmonary nodules as metastasis are rare but we should consider this diagnosis every time we are in front of a cancer. Chest computed tomography is the best diagnosis imaging that could make this diagnosis. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant bullous lesions is important because surgical excision affects survival in some malignancies. Conclusions Although pulmonary nodules are the most common cancer metastasis, a differential diagnosis of a concurrent primary malignancy should always be considered every time we have excavated lesions, even in patients with known malignant disease. Thorough chest evaluation is important, as multiple primary malignancies may occur concomitantly.

  6. Present status of reactor physics in the United States and Japan-II. 6. Present Status of GNF New Nodal Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, T.; Tamitani, M.; Moore, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents core simulator consolidation work done at Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF). The unified simulator needs to supersede the capabilities of past simulator packages from the original GNF partners: GE (Ref. 1), Hitachi (Ref. 2), and Toshiba (Ref. 3). At the same time, an effort is being made to produce a simulation package that will be a state-of-the-art analysis tool when released, in terms of the physics solution methodology and functionality. The core simulator will be capable and qualified for (a) high-energy cycles in the U.S. markets, (b) mixed-oxide (MOX) introduction in Japan, and (c) high-power density plants in Europe, etc. The unification of the lattice physics code is also in progress based on a transport model with collision probability methods. The AETNA core simulator is built upon the PANAC11 software base. The goal is to essentially replace the 1.5-energy group model with a higher-order multigroup nonlinear nodal solution capable of the required modeling fidelity, while keeping highly automated library generation as well as functionality. All required interfaces to PANAC11 will be preserved, which minimizes the impact on users and process automation. Preliminary results show statistical accuracy improvement over the 1.5- group model. The status of the GNF new nodal simulator is presented. It is built on a highly automated software base by combining the best technologies of GE, Hitachi, and Toshiba and will provide a BWR core analysis tool with high functionality and fidelity. (authors)

  7. Occipital condyle metastasis: an unusual clinical presentation in carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasricha, R.; Mohanty, P.P.; Madan, R.C.; Datta, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Metastases to the base of the skull and occipital condyle metastases are uncommon as a presenting feature of malignancy. Lung cancers are known for their metastatic potential to various sites, some of which could be the only presenting feature of the underlying malignancy. However, occipital condyle metastases are very rare and to the best of our knowledge, metastases to this site from carcinoma of the lung, as a presenting feature, have never been reported in the literature. The present case report describes the clinical, radiological and the therapeutic interventions that were undertaken in a patient presenting with lung cancer who had solely the features of occipital condyle metastasis

  8. Atypical mandibular metastasis as the first presentation of a colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, João Cunha; Rosa, Duarte; Rito, Miguel; Borges, Alexandra

    2018-06-04

    We describe a case of a 70-year-old man presenting with a mandibular metastasis as the first sign of a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum. After 6 months of a protracted toothache, the patient presented with a palpable mandibular mass and trismus, precluding adequate clinical evaluation. A CT scan was performed, and imaging findings suggested an aggressive primary jawbone tumour, most likely an osteosarcoma. However, biopsy and further patient's management proved to be a metastasis. Metastasis to the oral cavity account for only 1%-3% of all malignant oral tumours, and the mandible is the most frequent site. Clinical presentation can be quite variable, and most often a primary malignancy is already known. Jawbone metastases are a sign of disseminated malignant neoplasms, with poor prognosis and usually an indication for palliative therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Gastrointestinal Metastasis From Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathmapriya Balakrishnan MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present an unusual case of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma. Typical areas of metastasis include bone, gynecological organs, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and gastrointestinal (GI tract, in order of frequency. With regard to GI metastasis, extrahepatic represents a rare site. Case. Two years after being diagnosed with invasive lobular breast carcinoma, a 61-year-old female complained of 3 months of nonspecific abdominal pain and diarrhea. A colonoscopy revealed 5 tubular adenomatous polyps in the ascending and transverse colon. Contrast computed tomography (CT of the abdomen and pelvis was done 7 months after the colonoscopy to further evaluate persistent diarrhea. The CT results were consistent with infectious or inflammatory enterocolitis. Despite conservative management, symptoms failed to improve and a repeat diagnostic colonoscopy was obtained. Random colonic biopsies revealed metastatic high-grade adenocarcinoma of the colon. Discussion. Metastatic lobular breast carcinoma to the GI tract can distort initial interpretation of endoscopic evaluation with lesions mimicking inflammation. The interval between discovery of GI metastasis and diagnosis of lobular breast cancer can vary widely from synchronous to 30 years; however, progression is most often much sooner. Nonspecific symptoms and subtle appearance of metastatic lesions may confound the diagnosis. A high index of suspicion is needed for possible metastatic spread to the GI tract in patients with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma. Perhaps, patients with nonspecific GI symptoms should have an endoscopic examination with multiple random biopsies as invasive lobular carcinoma typically mimics macroscopic changes consistent with colitis.

  10. Brain Tuberculomas Mimicking Intracranial Metastasis in a Patient Presenting with Fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondal, M.; Hussain, T.; Mushtaq, S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tuberculosis is still prevalent in many developing countries, especially Asian countries. Tuberculomas should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of enhancing intra-axial lesions of the brain. Brain tuberculomas can present in many different clinical and radiological patterns clinically like headache, fits, cranial nerve palsies and very rarely as brain tuberculomas. We describe the case of a 48 years old male patient presenting with persistent headache and fits, referred for workup of brain metastasis or primary brain neoplasm. On further imaging, it turned out to be multiple tuberculomas of brain which resolved on anti-tuberculous treatment along with symptoms relief. (author)

  11. Synchronous Bone Metastasis From Multiple Myeloma and Prostate Adenocarcinoma as Initial Presentation of Coexistent Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andres Adrianzen Herrera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiographic appearance of bone metastases is usually determined by tumor histology and can be osteolytic, osteoblastic, or mixed. We present a patient with coexistent bone metastasis from multiple myeloma and prostate adenocarcinoma who exhibited synchronous bone involvement of both histologies within the same bone lesion, a rare phenomenon that has not been previously reported and led to atypical radiographic findings. The radiograph of a 71-year-old man with thigh swelling and pain demonstrated a lytic femoral lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI confirmed a destructive process, but showed coexistent metaphyseal sclerosis. Multiple myeloma was suspected by demonstration of monoclonal gammopathy and confirmed by computed tomography (CT-guided biopsy. Incidentally, CT demonstrated areas of sclerosis corresponding to T2 hypointensity on MRI. Further studies revealed osteoblastic spinal metastasis, prostate enhancement on CT and prostate-specific antigen (PSA level of 90 ng/mL, concerning for concomitant prostate neoplasm. After endoprosthetic reconstruction, pathology of the femur identified both plasma cell neoplasm and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. An association between prostate cancer and multiple myeloma is hypothesized due to tumor microenvironment similarities and possible common genetic variations, however, coexisting bone metastases have never been reported. This unusual finding explains the discrepant imaging features in our patient and is evidenced that certain clinical situations merit contemplation of atypical presentations of common malignancies even if this leads to additional testing.

  12. Lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Q.-T.; Fu, Karen K.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Terris, David J.; Fee, Willard E.; Goffinet, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    ipsilateral level 1-2 nodal regions (11/13). Patients with nodal relapse had a significantly higher risk of distant metastasis on both univariate (p = 0.02) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 4.5, p = 0.006). The 5-year actuarial risk of distant relapse was 29% for patients with neck control versus 81% for patients with neck failure. There was also a trend for decreased survival with nodal relapse. The 5-year actuarial survival was 37% for patients with neck control and 0% for patients with neck relapse. Conclusion: The overall incidence of lymph node involvement at diagnosis in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma was 9%. Following treatment, the 5-year risk of nodal relapse was 12%. SCC histology was associated with a high incidence of initial nodal involvement and nodal relapse. None of the patients presenting with SCC histology and N0 necks had nodal relapse after elective neck irradiation. Patients who had nodal relapse had a higher risk of distant metastasis and poorer survival. Therefore, our present policy is to consider elective neck irradiation in patients with T3-4 SCC of the maxillary sinus

  13. Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors <2 cm on preoperative imaging are associated with a low incidence of nodal metastasis and an excellent overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toste, Paul A; Kadera, Brian E; Tatishchev, Sergei F; Dawson, David W; Clerkin, Barbara M; Muthusamy, Raman; Watson, Rabindra; Tomlinson, James S; Hines, Oscar J; Reber, Howard A; Donahue, Timothy R

    2013-12-01

    The optimal surgical management of small nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PNETs) remains controversial. We sought to identify (1) clinicopathologic factors associated with survival in NF-PNETs and (2) preoperative tumor characteristics that can be used to determine which lesions require resection and lymph node (LN) harvest. The records of all 116 patients who underwent resection for NF-PNETs between 1989 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative factors, operative data, pathology, surgical morbidity, and survival were analyzed. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 83.9 and 72.8 %, respectively. Negative LNs (p = 0.005), G1 or G2 histology (p = 0.033), and age <60 years (p = 0.002) correlated with better survival on multivariate analysis. The 10-year survival rate was 86.6 % for LN-negative patients (n = 73) and 34.1 % for LN-positive patients (n = 32). Tumor size ≥2 cm on preoperative imaging predicted nodal positivity with a sensitivity of 93.8 %. Positive LNs were found in 38.5 % of tumors ≥2 cm compared to only 7.4 % of tumors <2 cm. LN status, a marker of systemic disease, was a highly significant predictor of survival in this series. Tumor size on preoperative imaging was predictive of nodal disease. Thus, it is reasonable to consider parenchyma-sparing resection or even close observation for NF-PNETs <2 cm.

  14. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in a case of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor presenting with liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Khare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH syndrome is an uncommon disorder and comprises about 15% of all patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS. Duodenal carcinoids are rare, indolent tumors usually associated with a benign progression. We hereby report a rare case of CS resulting from ectopic ACTH secretion from a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET presenting with liver metastasis. A 37-year-old female presented with abdominal discomfort and dyspepsia of 1-month duration. Ultrasound abdomen suggested a well-defined hypoechoic lesion in the left lobe of the liver, suggestive of neoplasia. On clinical examination, she had Cushingoid features and persistent hypokalemia. Midnight ACTH and cortisol levels were grossly elevated at 1027 pg/ml (n < 46 pg/ml and 87.56 μg/dl (n < 7.5 μg/ml, respectively. Both overnight and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test confirmed nonsuppressed cortisol levels - 86.04 and 84.42 μg/dl (n < 1.8 μg/ml, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed a structurally normal pituitary gland. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed hepatic lesion with bilateral adrenal enlargement. A diagnosis of ectopic ACTH-dependent CS was made. Intraoperatively, a duodenal lesion of 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm was identified alongside an 8 cm × 6 cm exophytic lesion in segment IV of the liver. Frozen section of the duodenal lesion was positive for NET. She underwent a Whipple's surgery, cholecystectomy, and left hepatic lobectomy. Postoperatively, she showed clinical and biochemical remission. Herewith, we report the third case of duodenal carcinoid tumor presenting as ectopic ACTH syndrome and the first with liver metastasis.

  15. Nodal in computerized control systems of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagarmanov, A.A.; Koval'tsov, V.I.; Korobov, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Brief description of the Nodal language programming structure is presented. Its possibilities as high-level programming language for accelerator control systems are considered. The status of the Nodal language in the HEPI is discussed. 3 refs

  16. Simultaneous meningioma and brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma – a rare presentation. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lariessy Campos Paiva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Brain metastases are the most common tumors of the central nervous system. Because of their high frequency, they may be associated with rare situations. Among these are tumor-to-tumor metastasis and an even a rarer situation called simultaneous brain tumors, which are more related to primary tumors of the reproductive and endocrine systems. CASE REPORT: A 56-year-old male patient with a history of renal cell carcinoma (which had previously been resected presented with a ventricular lesion (suggestive of metastatic origin and simultaneous olfactory groove lesion (probably a meningioma. First, only the ventricular lesion was dealt with, but after a year, the meningothelial lesion increased and an occipital lesion appeared. Therefore, both of these were resected in a single operation. All the procedures were performed by the same neurosurgeon. The patient evolved without neurological deficits during the postoperative period. After these two interventions, the patient remained well and was referred for adjuvant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first description of an association between these two tumors. Brain metastases may be associated with several lesions, and rare presentations such as simultaneity with meningioma should alert neurosurgeons to provide the best oncological treatment.

  17. CEA-producing urothelial cell carcinoma with metastasis presenting as a rectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Yang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of a 61-year-old male who presented with difficult defecation for 1 month. A circumferential submucosal rectal tumor was noted on a digital rectal examination and colonoscopy. Laboratory examination revealed high serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; 43.75 ng/mL and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9; 11,790 U/mL. In addition, tumor biopsies revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rectum with intact mucosa. The patient had history of advanced stage-T2 urothelial cell carcinoma of bladder, which had been downstaged to T0 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy 1 year prior. After investigating the initial bladder tumor specimens, a small portion of the tumor with high CEA expression comparable to the submucosal rectal tumor was found. The size of the tumor was reduced and the levels of the tumor markers decreased after administering FOLFIRI chemotherapy targeted at the adenocarcinoma. Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy may have a selective pressure to eliminate most urothelial cell carcinoma, physicians should be aware that it can lead to rectal metastasis via CEA-producing components.

  18. A vulvar mass as the first presentation in colorectal carcinoma: An unusual site of metastasis masquerading a primary cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yin Tang

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Secondary tumor in female genital tract is unusual and vulvar metastasis is the rarest kind. The clinical manifestation may be perplexing especially if a patient is presented with a nonspecific gynecological symptom such as abnormal vaginal discharge without any past history.

  19. Clinical features of patients with nodal marginal zone lymphoma compared to follicular lymphoma: similar presentation, but differences in prognostic factors and rate of transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, Michiel; van der Velden, Walter J F M; Diets, Illja J; Ector, Geneviève I C G; de Haan, Anton F J; Stevens, Wendy B C; Hebeda, Konnie M; Groenen, Patricia J T A; van Krieken, Han J M

    2016-07-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a rare type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This study assessed the clinical features of 56 patients with NMZL in comparison to 46 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Patients with NMZL and FL had a largely similar clinical presentation, but patients with FL had a higher disease stage at presentation, more frequent abdominal lymphadenopathy and bone marrow involvement, and showed more common transformation into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) during the course of disease. Overall survival and event-free survival were similar for patients with NMZL and FL, but factors associated with worse prognosis differed between the two groups. Transformation into DLBCL was associated with a significantly poorer outcome in both groups, but the phenotypes were different: DLBCL arising in FL was mainly of germinal center B-cell phenotype, whereas DLBCL arising in NMZL was mainly of non-germinal center B-cell phenotype.

  20. In vitro three-dimensional cancer metastasis modeling: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei-jing; Zhu Jiang-rui; Fan Qihui; Liu Li-yu; Yuan Wei; Qu Junle

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of most cancer deaths, as opposed to dysregulated cell growth of the primary tumor. Molecular mechanisms of metastasis have been studied for decades and the findings have evolved our understanding of the progression of malignancy. However, most of the molecular mechanisms fail to address the causes of cancer and its evolutionary origin, demonstrating an inability to find a solution for complete cure of cancer. After being a neglected area of tumor biology for quite some time, recently several studies have focused on the impact of the tumor microenvironment on cancer growth. The importance of the tumor microenvironment is gradually gaining attention, particularly from the perspective of biophysics. In vitro three-dimensional (3-D) metastatic models are an indispensable platform for investigating the tumor microenvironment, as they mimic the in vivo tumor tissue. In 3-D metastatic in vitro models, static factors such as the mechanical properties, biochemical factors, as well as dynamic factors such as cell–cell, cell–ECM interactions, and fluid shear stress can be studied quantitatively. With increasing focus on basic cancer research and drug development, the in vitro 3-D models offer unique advantages in fundamental and clinical biomedical studies. (topical review)

  1. Determination and delineation of nodal target volumes for head-and-neck cancer based on patterns of failure in patients receiving definitive and postoperative IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.S. Clifford; Wippold, Franz J.; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Tran, Binh N.; Dempsey, James F.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We present the guidelines for target volume determination and delineation of head-and-neck lymph nodes based on the analysis of the patterns of nodal failure in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Data pertaining to the natural course of nodal metastasis for each head-and-neck cancer subsite were reviewed. A system was established to provide guidance for nodal target volume determination and delineation. Following these guidelines, 126 patients (52 definitive, 74 postoperative) were treated between February 1997 and December 2000 with IMRT for head-and-neck cancer. The median follow-up was 26 months (range 12-55), and the patterns of nodal failure were analyzed. Results: These guidelines define the nodal target volume based on the location of the primary tumor and the probability of microscopic metastasis to the ipsilateral and contralateral (Level I-V) nodal regions. Following these guidelines, persistent or recurrent nodal disease was found in 6 (12%) of 52 patients receiving definitive IMRT, and 7 (9%) of 74 patients receiving postoperative IMRT had failure in the nodal region. Conclusion: On the basis of our clinical experience in implementing inverse-planning IMRT for head-and-neck cancer, we present guidelines using a simplified, but clinically relevant, method for nodal target volume determination and delineation. The intention was to provide a foundation that enables different institutions to exchange clinical experiences in head-and-neck IMRT. These guidelines will be subject to future refinement when the clinical experience in head-and-neck IMRT advances

  2. FDG PET/CT detects benign neurofibromas presenting as nodal masses: Imaging hallmarks of a diagnostic “red herring”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, Ameya D.; Purandare, Nilendu C.; Bal, Munita M.; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Multi-modality positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) depicts the enhancement pattern and metabolic intensity of lesions. Benign lesions with multiplicity, like neurofibromas often mimic similar appearing malignant neoplasms. We, report, a similar case where FDG PET/CT shows imaging hallmarks for diagnosing benign neurofibromas, in a patient with clinical presentation of lymphoma

  3. Nonpalpable testicular pure seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting with retroperitoneal metastasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Shoichiro; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Ando, Ryosuke; Nagai, Takashi; Okada, Atsushi; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-05-05

    Patients with a primary pure seminoma in the testis who have elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein are rare and should be treated as patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. However, nonpalpable testicular tumors in this condition have never been reported. We describe a case of nonpalpable pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. A 29-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital with right flank pain. Computed tomography showed a mass located between his aorta and inferior vena cava, but a testicular tumor was not detected. His serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein, and DUPAN-2 were high. Although no tumor or nodule was palpable in his testis, ultrasonography revealed multiple low echoic lesions in his right testicular parenchyma. He was diagnosed with right testicular cancer with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and underwent right high orchiectomy. A pathological examination revealed pure seminoma and no nonseminomatous components were found in the specimen. Three courses of induction systemic chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) normalized his serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 levels. Three additional courses of chemotherapy (etoposide and bleomycin) were performed, and treatment was completed with laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Pathology of the dissected specimen showed fibrous and necrotic tissue with no viable cells. He is alive without recurrence 54 months after orchiectomy. We report a case of pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. We recommend an ultrasound examination of bilateral testes when large retroperitoneal tumors are detected in young men, even if a mass is not palpable in the scrotum.

  4. KEK NODAL system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, S.; Abe, K.; Akiyama, A.; Katoh, T.; Kikutani, E.; Koiso, H.; Kurihara, N.; Oide, K.; Shinomoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The KEK NODAL system, which is based on the NODAL devised at the CERN SPS, works on an optical-fiber token ring network of twenty-four minicomputers (Hitachi HIDIC 80's) to control the TRISTAN accelerator complex, now being constructed at KEK. KEK NODAL retains main features of the original NODAL: the interpreting scheme, the multi-computer programming facility, and the data-module concept. In addition, it has the following characteristics: fast execution due to the compiler-interpreter method, a multicomputer file system, a full-screen editing facility, and a dynamic linkage scheme of data modules and NODAL functions. The structure of the KEK NODAL system under PMS, a real-time multitasking operating system of HIDIC 80, is described; the NODAL file system is also explained

  5. Skeletal Muscle Metastasis as an Initial Presentation of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir A. Tunio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC frequently metastasizes to the lungs and bones. However, metastasis to the skeletal muscles is an extremely rare manifestation of FTC. To date, only seven cases of FTC have been reported in the literature. Skeletal muscle metastases from FTC usually remain asymptomatic or manifest as swelling and are associated with dismal prognosis. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old Saudi woman presented with right buttock swelling since 8 months. Physical examination revealed right gluteal mass of size  cm and right thyroid lobe nodule. The rest of examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed  cm lobulated mass arising from the gluteus medius muscle, and tru-cut biopsy confirmed the metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid origin. The patient subsequently underwent palliative radiotherapy followed by total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. At the time of publication, the patient was alive with partial response in gluteal mass. Conclusion. Skeletal muscles metastases are a rare manifestation of FTC, and searching for the primary focus in a patient with skeletal muscle metastasis, thyroid cancer should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  6. The adjoint variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin-Kovitz, K.; Lewis, E.E.

    1993-01-01

    The widespread use of nodal methods for reactor core calculations in both diffusion and transport approximations has created a demand for the corresponding adjoint solutions as a prerequisite for performing perturbation calculations. With some computational methods, however, the solution of the adjoint problem presents a difficulty; the physical adjoint obtained by discretizing the adjoint equation is not the same as the mathematical adjoint obtained by taking the transpose of the coefficient matrix, which results from the discretization of the forward equation. This difficulty arises, in particular, when interface current nodal methods based on quasi-one-dimensional solution of the diffusion or transport equation are employed. The mathematical adjoint is needed to perform perturbation calculations. The utilization of existing nodal computational algorithms, however, requires the physical adjoint. As a result, similarity transforms or related techniques must be utilized to relate physical and mathematical adjoints. Thus far, such techniques have been developed only for diffusion theory

  7. Solitary Skull Metastasis as the First Presentation of a Metachronous Primary Lung Cancer in a Survivor from Pancreatic Cancer

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    Ali Altalhy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skull metastasis from lung cancer is relatively common, yet the first presentation for this malignant disease is a rare occurrence. We herein report a case of a 54-year-old female, who had a good outcome following Whipple procedure for periampullary adenocarcinoma five years before her current presentation. During a routine follow-up, she was found to have a slowly progressive painless right parietal swelling. The systemic screening workup revealed no abdominal disease, but a solitary pulmonary nodule was identified. The presence of these two lesions raised the diagnosis of metastases from a previously treated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent complete excision of the skull lesion and subsequent lung biopsy, both of which proved on histopathological examination to be consistent with a primary lung cancer. This case emphasizes the importance of imaging and histopathological correlation in the diagnosis of solitary skull metastases and their effect on the subsequent management.

  8. Diabetes insipidus as the first symptom caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J F Mao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Central diabetes insipidus (CDI, secondary to pituitary metastatic lesions, is uncommon; however, lung and breast cancer are the commonest malignancies to have metastases to the pituitary. Early management of systemic chemotherapy and pituitary irradiation might improve the prognosis of patients. Aims : To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of CDI caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients who had CDI as their first symptom before their lung cancers were diagnosed. Their clinical presentations, anterior pituitary gland function, sellar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, management, and prognosis were described. Settings and Design : This retrospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in a medical college hospital. Results : The patient′s mean age was 58.6±7.8 years. Diabetes insipidus was the main complaint when they were referred to our hospital. MRI revealed specific dumbbell-shaped masses in the sella turcica in five patients. In seven patients whose hormones were measured, the levels of hormones from adenohypophysis were abnormally low in six patients. The main treatments included surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and sellar irradiation. Although nine patients had poor prognoses, one patient has survived for more than 3 years, suggesting benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions : New-onset CDI might be the only symptom presented by the patients with pituitary metastasis (PM from lung cancer. Dumbbell-shaped sellar masses in MRI are prone to the diagnosis of PM. A thorough examination for primary cancer should be carried out in these aged and elderly patients.

  9. Hypophyseal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes Quesada, Miguel Angel; Yanes Quesada, Marelys; Lopez Arbolay, Omar; Lima Perez, Mayte; Hernandez Yero, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of hypophyseal gland are infrequent. Most are silent lesions discovered accidentally in necropsy. Appearance of symptomatic metastasis is however, exceptional. We describe here clinical and radiological findings in a female patient aged 69, presenting with a non-differential carcinoma of lung, diagnosed two years a half ago, starting with headache and visual disorders without hypopituitarism and insipidus diabetes. We made a nuclear magnetic resonance and diagnosis was a hypophyseal lesion operated on by trans-esphenoidal route, and Pathological Anatomy Service reports a metastasis of lung carcinoma. (Author)

  10. Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis: Unusual Presentation of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma - Diagnosed By FNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a rare neoplasm that usually arises from minor salivary glands. It is characteristically locally infiltrative, exhibiting perineural invasion, has a tendency for local recurrence and prolonged clinical course. A 60 year old male, chronic smoker presented with swelling of the left cervical lymph node since two months. Examination revealed a solitary firm, non tender, non mobile left cervical swelling measuring 2 x 1 cm. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC was done from the cervical lymph node. The diagnosis of metastatic deposits of ACC was given. Detail examination of the oral cavity revealed a small swelling at the floor of the mouth. Biopsy of the swelling confirmed ACC on histopathological examination. An unusual feature of adenoid cystic carcinoma is the low incidence of metastases to regional lymph nodes. The case is presented to highlight its unusual presentation and utility of FNAC in rapid diagnosis.

  11. Isolated cutaneous involvement in a child with nodal anaplastic large cell lymphoma

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    Vibhu Mendiratta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common childhood T-cell and B-cell neoplasm that originates primarily from lymphoid tissue. Cutaneous involvement can be in the form of a primary extranodal lymphoma, or secondary to metastasis from a non-cutaneous location. The latter is uncommon, and isolated cutaneous involvement is rarely reported. We report a case of isolated secondary cutaneous involvement from nodal anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CD30 + and ALK + in a 7-year-old boy who was on chemotherapy. This case is reported for its unusual clinical presentation as an acute febrile, generalized papulonodular eruption that mimicked deep fungal infection, with the absence of other foci of systemic metastasis.

  12. Radiotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma: is elective nodal irradiation warranted in the multimodality treatment approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, O Kyu; Lee, Sang-wook; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Sung Bae; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Chang Jin; Jo, Kyung Ja; Choi, Eun Kyung; Song, Si Yeol; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do

    2011-02-01

    The role of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in radiotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) has not been clearly defined. We analyzed treatment outcomes of patients with ENB and the frequency of cervical nodal failure in the absence of ENI. Between August 1996 and December 2007, we consulted with 19 patients with ENB regarding radiotherapy. Initial treatment consisted of surgery alone in 2 patients; surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in 4; surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy in 1; surgery, postoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in 3; and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy in 5. Five patients did not receive planned radiotherapy because of disease progression. Including 2 patients who received salvage radiotherapy, 14 patients were treated with radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation was performed in 4 patients with high-risk factors, including 3 with cervical lymph node metastasis at presentation. Fourteen patients were analyzable, with a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 7-64 months). The overall 3-year survival rate was 73.4%. Local failure occurred in 3 patients (21.4%), regional cervical failure in 3 (21.4%), and distant failure in 2 (14.3%). No cervical nodal failure occurred in patients treated with combined systemic chemotherapy regardless of ENI. Three cervical failures occurred in the 4 patients treated with ENI or neck dissection (75%), none of whom received systemic chemotherapy. ENI during radiotherapy for ENB seems to play a limited role in preventing cervical nodal failure. Omitting ENI may be an option if patients are treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiotherapy for Esthesioneuroblastoma: Is Elective Nodal Irradiation Warranted in the Multimodality Treatment Approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, O Kyu; Lee, Sang-wook; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Sung Bae; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Chang Jin; Jo, Kyung Ja; Choi, Eun Kyung; Song, Si Yeol; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The role of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in radiotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) has not been clearly defined. We analyzed treatment outcomes of patients with ENB and the frequency of cervical nodal failure in the absence of ENI. Methods and Materials: Between August 1996 and December 2007, we consulted with 19 patients with ENB regarding radiotherapy. Initial treatment consisted of surgery alone in 2 patients; surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in 4; surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy in 1; surgery, postoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in 3; and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy in 5. Five patients did not receive planned radiotherapy because of disease progression. Including 2 patients who received salvage radiotherapy, 14 patients were treated with radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation was performed in 4 patients with high-risk factors, including 3 with cervical lymph node metastasis at presentation. Results: Fourteen patients were analyzable, with a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 7-64 months). The overall 3-year survival rate was 73.4%. Local failure occurred in 3 patients (21.4%), regional cervical failure in 3 (21.4%), and distant failure in 2 (14.3%). No cervical nodal failure occurred in patients treated with combined systemic chemotherapy regardless of ENI. Three cervical failures occurred in the 4 patients treated with ENI or neck dissection (75%), none of whom received systemic chemotherapy. Conclusions: ENI during radiotherapy for ENB seems to play a limited role in preventing cervical nodal failure. Omitting ENI may be an option if patients are treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  14. Late (> 5 years) regional lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), proven by p53 mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummer, J. Alain; Van Es, Robert J. J.; Hoekstra, J.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A late (>5 years) neck nodal metastasis of oral cancer, poses a problem to the clinician: is it a late metastasis or a metastasis of a (unknown) second primary tumour? Methods: A 50-year-old male was seen with a contralateral lymph node metastasis, 51/2 years after treatment of a pT2N1M0

  15. Nodal-chain metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, QuanSheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A

    2016-10-06

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain-a chain of connected loops in momentum space-along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF 4 ), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF 4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  16. Rare presenting features of carcinoma of stomach – Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, breast metastasis, malignant pleural effusion, and dermatoses: A report of two cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv Pankaj Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer can have protean manifestations, usual symptoms mimicking those of peptic ulcer disease. Gastric adenocarcinomas have rarely been reported with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC and dermatoses as initial presenting features. It is also difficult to diagnose breast metastasis of gastric carcinoma due to its rarity. We report two such cases with rare initial presentation. Our first case was a 46-year-old male who presented with LMC. Our second case was a 24-year-old male whose initial complaints were shortness of breath, bilateral breast lumps, and skin discoloration. Both cases on further investigations were found to have primary tumors in the stomach.

  17. Experimental discovery of nodal chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qinghui; Liu, Rongjuan; Yan, Zhongbo; Liu, Boyuan; Chen, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Ling

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional Weyl and Dirac nodal points1 have attracted widespread interest across multiple disciplines and in many platforms but allow for few structural variations. In contrast, nodal lines2-4 can have numerous topological configurations in momentum space, forming nodal rings5-9, nodal chains10-15, nodal links16-20 and nodal knots21,22. However, nodal lines are much less explored because of the lack of an ideal experimental realization23-25. For example, in condensed-matter systems, nodal lines are often fragile to spin-orbit coupling, located away from the Fermi level, coexist with energy-degenerate trivial bands or have a degeneracy line that disperses strongly in energy. Here, overcoming all these difficulties, we theoretically predict and experimentally observe nodal chains in a metallic-mesh photonic crystal having frequency-isolated linear band-touching rings chained across the entire Brillouin zone. These nodal chains are protected by mirror symmetry and have a frequency variation of less than 1%. We use angle-resolved transmission measurements to probe the projected bulk dispersion and perform Fourier-transformed field scans to map out the dispersion of the drumhead surface state. Our results establish an ideal nodal-line material for further study of topological line degeneracies with non-trivial connectivity and consequent wave dynamics that are richer than those in Weyl and Dirac materials.

  18. Extension of the linear nodal method to large concrete building calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, R.L.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The implementation of the linear nodal method in the TORT code is described, and the results of a mesh refinement study to test the effectiveness of the linear nodal and weighted diamond difference methods available in TORT are presented

  19. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  20. Complex models of nodal nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    During the core simulations, nuclear data are required at various nodal thermal-hydraulic and fuel burnup conditions. The nodal data are also partially affected by thermal-hydraulic and fuel burnup conditions in surrounding nodes as these change the neutron energy spectrum in the node. Therefore, the nodal data are functions of many parameters (state variables), and the more state variables are considered by the nodal data models the more accurate and flexible the models get. The existing table and polynomial regression models, however, cannot reflect the data dependences on many state variables. As for the table models, the number of mesh points (and necessary lattice calculations) grows exponentially with the number of variables. As for the polynomial regression models, the number of possible multivariate polynomials exceeds the limits of existing selection algorithms that should identify a few dozens of the most important polynomials. Also, the standard scheme of lattice calculations is not convenient for modelling the data dependences on various burnup conditions since it performs only a single or few burnup calculations at fixed nominal conditions. We suggest a new efficient algorithm for selecting the most important multivariate polynomials for the polynomial regression models so that dependences on many state variables can be considered. We also present a new scheme for lattice calculations where a large number of burnup histories are accomplished at varied nodal conditions. The number of lattice calculations being performed and the number of polynomials being analysed are controlled and minimised while building the nodal data models of a required accuracy. (author)

  1. The SINTRAN III NODAL system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaali, T.B.

    1980-10-01

    NODAL is a high level programming language based on FOCAL and SNOBOL4, with some influence from BASIC. The language was developed to operate on the computer network controlling the SPS accelerator at CERN. NODAL is an interpretive language designed for interactive use. This is the most important aspect of the language, and is reflected in its structure. The interactive facilities make it possible to write, debug and modify programs much faster than with compiler based languages like FORTRAN and ALGOL. Apart from a few minor modifications, the basic part of the Oslo University NODAL system does not differ from the CERN version. However, the Oslo University implementation has been expanded with new functions which enable the user to execute many of the SINTRAN III monitor calls from the NODAL level. In particular the most important RT monitor calls have been implemented in this way, a property which renders possible the use of NODAL as a RT program administrator. (JIW)

  2. Carcinoma of Gall bladder with distant metastasis to breast parenchyma. Report of a case and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, D.; Anamalai, M.; Velu, U.; Julka, P.K.; Nambirajan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in India. Gall bladder cancer with metastasis to the breast is very rare. Herein we intend to report a case of carcinoma gall bladder with breast metastasis and a short review of the literature. Methods: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of gall bladder carcinoma presenting with breast metastasis. Case report: A 38-year lady presented with complaints of right abdominal pain. Bilateral breast examination showed 2 2 cm palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed circumferential thickening of gall bladder with the loss of fat plane with the adjacent liver parenchyma. Biopsy from the breast lump was reported as metastatic adenocarcinoma compatible with primary in the gall bladder. Whole body PET-CT showed gall bladder mass with abdominal and pelvic nodes with metastasis to liver, left breast, C7 vertebral body and left supra-clavicular node. She was diagnosed to have disseminated carcinoma gall bladder with liver, breast and supraclavicular nodal metastasis. She received palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin and radiotherapy to C7 vertebra. After receiving 3 cycles of chemotherapy, chemotherapy was changed to the second line with single agent capecitabine. In spite of two lines of chemotherapy, she succumbed to disease progression and expired. Conclusion: There are limited examples of gall bladder adenocarcinoma with simultaneous metastasis to breast in the English literature. Our case showed an unusual dissemination of gall bladder cancer

  3. A nodal method based on matrix-response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocamora Junior, F.D.; Menezes, A.

    1982-01-01

    A nodal method based in the matrix-response method, is presented, and its application to spatial gradient problems, such as those that exist in fast reactors, near the core - blanket interface, is investigated. (E.G.) [pt

  4. A Hennart nodal method for the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesaint, P.; Noceir, S.; Verwaerde, D.

    1995-01-01

    A modification of the Hennart nodal method for neutron diffusion problems is presented. The final system of equations obtained by this method is not positive definite. However, a flux elimination technique leads to a simple positive definite system, which can be solved by the traditional iterative methods. Calculations of a two-dimensional International Atomic Energy Agency benchmark problem are performed and compared with results of the original Hennart nodal method and some finite element methods. The high computational efficiency of this modified nodal method is clearly demonstrated

  5. Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Hirosawa, Tomoichiro; Ogawa, Shinpei; Noguchi, Eiichiro; Takemoto, Kaori; Shirotani, Noriyasu; Kameoka, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Five patients with brain metastasis from colorectal cancer treated at our institute between 2001 and 2005 were included in the study. Clinical findings and survival time were determined and an appropriate system for follow-up in such cases was considered. Brain metastasis was found after surgery for colorectal cancer in 4 cases. In addition, colorectal cancer was found after diagnosis of brain metastasis in 1 case. At the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, all patients had lung metastasis and 3 had liver metastasis. The mean periods between surgery for colorectal cancer and lung and brain metastases were 19.5 and 38.2 months, respectively. In all cases, brain metastasis was diagnosed by imaging after the appearance of neurological symptoms. Brain metastases were multiple in 1 case and focal in 4 cases. We performed gamma knife radiation therapy, and the symptoms disappeared or decreased in all cases. Mean survival time after brain metastasis was 3.0 months. Prognosis after brain metastasis is poor, but gamma knife radiation therapy contributed to patients' quality of life. (author)

  6. Tongue metastasis mimicking an abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavili, Ertuğrul; Oztürk, Mustafa; Yücel, Tuba; Yüce, Imdat; Cağli, Sedat

    2010-03-01

    Primary tumors metastasizing to the oral cavity are extremely rare. Lung is one of the most common primary sources of metastases to the tongue. Although the incidence of lung cancer is increasing, tongue metastasis as the initial presentation of the tumor remains uncommon. Due to the rarity of tongue metastasis, little is known about its imaging findings. Herein we report the magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings of a lingual metastasis, mimicking an abscess, from a primary lung cancer.

  7. Unusual Presentation of Postradiation Sarcoma With Subsequent Intestinal Metastasis Revealed by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tse-Hao; Chang, Cheng-Pei; Wu, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Wen-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Radiation-related sarcoma is a rare but serious complication for patients after receiving radiation therapy initially for their primary malignancy. However, it usually takes several years and needs enough in-field radiation dose to develop this sarcoma. We describe a 60-year-old man with right axillary sarcoma revealed by whole-body F-FDG PET/CT 1 year after chemoradiotherapy, which presented ultrashort latency period and did not match the consensus definition of radiation-related sarcoma. Besides, metastatic sarcoma to small intestine was accidentally noted in the F-FDG PET/CT image.

  8. NODAL interpreter for CP/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1982-11-01

    A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)

  9. Urethral metastasis from non-seminomatous germ cell tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffe Johnathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testes with acute urinary retention secondary to urethral metastasis. This presentation, and similar cases of urethral metastasis from this tumor, have not been reported previously. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man presented to hospital with a history of acute urinary retention. On examination he was found to have right testicular enlargement with raised β-human chorionic gonadotrophin, serum α-fetoprotein and lactate dehydrogenase levels. He underwent radical left inguinal orchidectomy and histology confirmed a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testes. Cystoscopy carried out due to urinary retention showed penile metastasis and the biopsy confirmed metastatic malignant undifferentiated teratoma. Staging computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis showed pulmonary, pelvic nodal, ischial and penile metastasis. The diagnosis of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group of poor prognosis metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor was made, following which he received four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy with curative intent. He had a complete marker and an excellent radiological response. He is currently under follow up. Conclusion The unusual presentation of lymphovascular spread in this case of nonseminomatous germ cell tumor highlights the need to include routine pelvic imaging in the assessment and follow up of testicular cancer.

  10. A proposal for combined MRI and PET/CT interpretation criteria for preoperative nodal staging in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoo Na; Yi, Chin A.; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Ho Yun; Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin; Kwon, O.Jung; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Byung-Tae; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Seon Woo; Han, Joungho; Shim, Young Mog

    2012-01-01

    To determine the positive reading criteria for malignant nodes when interpreting combined MRI and PET/CT images for preoperative nodal staging in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Forty-nine patients with biopsy-proven NSCLC underwent both PET/CT and thoracic MRI [diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)]. Each nodal station was evaluated for the presence of metastasis by applying either inclusive (positive if either one read positive) or exclusive (positive if both read positive) criteria in the combined interpretation of PET/CT and MRI. Nodal stage was confirmed pathologically. The combined diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT and MRI was determined on per-nodal station and per-patient bases and compared with that of PET/CT alone. In 49 patients, 39 (19%) of 206 nodal stations harboured malignant cells. Out of 206 nodal stations, 186 (90%) had concordant readings, while the rest (10%) had discordant readings. Inclusive criteria of combined PET/CT and MRI helped increase sensitivity for detecting nodal metastasis (69%) compared with PET/CT alone (46%; P = 0.003), while specificity was not significantly decreased. Inclusive criteria in combined MRI and PET/CT readings help improve significantly the sensitivity for detecting nodal metastasis compared with PET/CT alone and may decrease unnecessary open thoracotomy. (orig.)

  11. Temporal quadratic expansion nodal Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cong; Jing Xingqing; Xu Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is presented to efficiently solve the three-dimensional space-time reactor dynamics equation which overcomes the disadvantages of current methods. In the Temporal Quadratic Expansion Nodal Green's Function Method (TQE/NGFM), the Quadratic Expansion Method (QEM) is used for the temporal solution with the Nodal Green's Function Method (NGFM) employed for the spatial solution. Test calculational results using TQE/NGFM show that its time step size can be 5-20 times larger than that of the Fully Implicit Method (FIM) for similar precision. Additionally, the spatial mesh size with NGFM can be nearly 20 times larger than that using the finite difference method. So, TQE/NGFM is proved to be an efficient reactor dynamics analysis method

  12. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  13. Nodal methods in numerical reactor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.P.; Valle, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The present work describes the antecedents, developments and applications started in 1972 with Prof. Hennart who was invited to be part of the staff of the Nuclear Engineering Department at the School of Physics and Mathematics of the National Polytechnic Institute. Since that time and up to 1981, several master theses based on classical finite element methods were developed with applications in point kinetics and in the steady state as well as the time dependent multigroup diffusion equations. After this period the emphasis moved to nodal finite elements in 1, 2 and 3D cartesian geometries. All the thesis were devoted to the numerical solution of the neutron multigroup diffusion and transport equations, few of them including the time dependence, most of them related with steady state diffusion equations. The main contributions were as follows: high order nodal schemes for the primal and mixed forms of the diffusion equations, block-centered finite-differences methods, post-processing, composite nodal finite elements for hexagons, and weakly and strongly discontinuous schemes for the transport equation. Some of these are now being used by several researchers involved in nuclear fuel management. (Author)

  14. Nodal methods in numerical reactor calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennart, J P [UNAM, IIMAS, A.P. 20-726, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Valle, E del [National Polytechnic Institute, School of Physics and Mathematics, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The present work describes the antecedents, developments and applications started in 1972 with Prof. Hennart who was invited to be part of the staff of the Nuclear Engineering Department at the School of Physics and Mathematics of the National Polytechnic Institute. Since that time and up to 1981, several master theses based on classical finite element methods were developed with applications in point kinetics and in the steady state as well as the time dependent multigroup diffusion equations. After this period the emphasis moved to nodal finite elements in 1, 2 and 3D cartesian geometries. All the thesis were devoted to the numerical solution of the neutron multigroup diffusion and transport equations, few of them including the time dependence, most of them related with steady state diffusion equations. The main contributions were as follows: high order nodal schemes for the primal and mixed forms of the diffusion equations, block-centered finite-differences methods, post-processing, composite nodal finite elements for hexagons, and weakly and strongly discontinuous schemes for the transport equation. Some of these are now being used by several researchers involved in nuclear fuel management. (Author)

  15. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  16. A variational synthesis nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favorite, J.A.; Stacey, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent nodal approximation method for computing discrete ordinates neutron flux distributions has been developed from a variational functional for neutron transport theory. The advantage of the new nodal method formulation is that it is self-consistent in its definition of the homogenized nodal parameters, the construction of the global nodal equations, and the reconstruction of the detailed flux distribution. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by two-dimensional test problems

  17. Adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site with inguinal lymph node metastasis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenji; Hida, Koya; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site is extremely rare, and the significance of surgical resection for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes has not been established. An 82-year-old woman who had undergone abdominoperineal resection 27 years earlier was admitted to our hospital complaining of bleeding from a colostomy. Physical examination revealed that a tumor at the colostomy site directly invaded into the peristomal skin, and that a left inguinal lymph node was firm and swollen. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulation of (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose into both the colostomy tumor and the left swollen inguinal lymph node, while there was no evidence of metastasis to liver or lungs. She underwent open left hemicolectomy with wide local resection of the colostomy, and dissection of left inguinal lymph nodes. Histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma that directly invaded into the surrounding skin and metastasized to the left inguinal lymph node. The patient has been followed up for >5 years without any sign of recurrence. In general, inguinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancers is regarded as a systemic disease with a poor prognosis, and so systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but not surgical lymph node dissection, are recommended. Considering the lymphatic drainage route in the present case, inguinal lymph node metastasis does not represent a systemic disease but rather a sentinel nodal metastasis from adenocarcinoma at a colostomy site. Surgical dissection of metastatic inguinal lymph nodes should be considered to enable a favorable prognosis in the absence of distant metastasis to other organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mapping of nodal disease in locally advanced prostate cancer: Rethinking the clinical target volume for pelvic nodal irradiation based on vascular rather than bony anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Helen A.; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Zietman, Anthony L.; Wolfgang, John A.; Saksena, Mansi; Weissleder, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Toxicity from pelvic irradiation could be reduced if fields were limited to likely areas of nodal involvement rather than using the standard 'four-field box.' We employed a novel magnetic resonance lymphangiographic technique to highlight the likely sites of occult nodal metastasis from prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighteen prostate cancer patients with pathologically confirmed node-positive disease had a total of 69 pathologic nodes identifiable by lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced MRI and semiquantitative nodal analysis. Fourteen of these nodes were in the para-aortic region, and 55 were in the pelvis. The position of each of these malignant nodes was mapped to a common template based on its relation to skeletal or vascular anatomy. Results: Relative to skeletal anatomy, nodes covered a diffuse volume from the mid lumbar spine to the superior pubic ramus and along the sacrum and pelvic side walls. In contrast, the nodal metastases mapped much more tightly relative to the large pelvic vessels. A proposed pelvic clinical target volume to encompass the region at greatest risk of containing occult nodal metastases would include a 2.0-cm radial expansion volume around the distal common iliac and proximal external and internal iliac vessels that would encompass 94.5% of the pelvic nodes at risk as defined by our node-positive prostate cancer patient cohort. Conclusions: Nodal metastases from prostate cancer are largely localized along the major pelvic vasculature. Defining nodal radiation treatment portals based on vascular rather than bony anatomy may allow for a significant decrease in normal pelvic tissue irradiation and its associated toxicities

  19. NESTLE: A nodal kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Faure, F.-X.; Sarsour, H.N.; Engrand, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The NESTLE nodal kinetics code has been developed for utilization as a stand-alone code for steady-state and transient reactor neutronic analysis and for incorporation into system transient codes, such as TRAC and RELAP. The latter is desirable to increase the simulation fidelity over that obtained from currently employed zero- and one-dimensional neutronic models and now feasible due to advances in computer performance and efficiency of nodal methods. As a stand-alone code, requirements are that it operate on a range of computing platforms from memory-limited personal computers (PCs) to supercomputers with vector processors. This paper summarizes the features of NESTLE that reflect the utilization and requirements just noted

  20. Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with yellowish-brown, irregular, solid, elevated rashes over the pubis with a recent history off palliative colostomy for anorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinically, we suspected metastasis that was proved on biopsy. We report this case due to the rare presenting site (i.e., perineum of a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  1. Nodal lymphomas of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Caramella, E.; Manzino, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Modern imaging modalities have greatly contributed to current knowledge about intra-abdominal nodal lymphomas. Since both intra and retroperitoneal node involvement can be demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography, it seems legitimate to treat these two sites together in the same chapter, particularly since the older separation between intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal nodal disease was based to a large degree on the limitations of lymphography. Hodgkin's disease (HD) has benefited less from recent technological advances. The diversity in the incidence of nodal involvement between HD and NHL, the diagnostic capabilities of modern imaging techniques, and the histopathological features of lymphomatous non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin nodes, justify adoption of an investigatory approach which takes all of these factors into account. Details of this investigative strategy are discussed in this paper following a review of available imaging modalities. In current practice, the four main methods for the exploration of abdominal lymph nodes are lymphography, ultrasonography, CT, and radionuclide studies. The first three techniques are also utilized to guide biopsies for staging purposes and for the evaluation of response to treatment

  2. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  3. Nodal imaging in the neck: recent advances in US, CT and MR imaging of metastatic nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Sumi, Misa

    2007-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis in the neck in patients with head and neck cancer is an important prognostic determinant in staging cancers and in planning surgery and chemo- and radiotherapy for the cancer patients. Therefore, metastatic nodes should be effectively differentiated from benign lymphadenopathies and nodal lymphomas. Here, we review recent advances in the diagnostic imaging of metastatic nodes in the neck, with emphasis placed on the diagnostic performance of MR imaging, Doppler sonography, and CT. (orig.)

  4. Ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a rare gastrointestinal tumor. Additionally, cutaneous metastasis from such an internal malignancy is also uncommon. We reported the case of a 55-year-old man afflicted with ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. The patient did not undergo the standard Whipple procedure but received chemotherapy due to apparent left neck lymph node metastasis noted by initial PET/CT imaging. The skin metastasis presented as a left neck infiltrating purpuric lesion, which was confirmed by skin biopsy approximately one year after the patient's disease was first diagnosed. Thereafter, the patient received further chemotherapy pursuant to his course of medical management. Skin metastasis usually represents a poor patient prognosis. In these cases, treatment of cutaneous metastasis typically includes systemic chemotherapy and local management such as radiation therapy or tumor excision. And when choosing a chemotherapy regimen for the ampullary cancer, the histological subtypes (intestinal or pancreatobiliary should be comprehensively considered. In our review of the literature, the intestinal type seems to have less distant lymph node metastasis, advanced local invasion, as well as recurrence than pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.

  5. Nodal spectrum method for solving neutron diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.; Garcia, C. R.; Barros, R. C. de; Milian, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Presented here is a new numerical nodal method for solving static multidimensional neutron diffusion equation in rectangular geometry. Our method is based on a spectral analysis of the nodal diffusion equations. These equations are obtained by integrating the diffusion equation in X, Y directions and then considering flat approximations for the current. These flat approximations are the only approximations that are considered in this method, as a result the numerical solutions are completely free from truncation errors. We show numerical results to illustrate the methods accuracy for coarse mesh calculations

  6. Development and validation of a nodal code for core calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Pedro Mariano

    2004-01-01

    The code RHENO solves the multigroup three-dimensional diffusion equation using a nodal method of polynomial expansion.A comparative study has been made between this code and present internationals nodal diffusion codes, resulting that the RHENO is up to date.The RHENO has been integrated to a calculation line and has been extend to make burnup calculations.Two methods for pin power reconstruction were developed: modulation and imbedded. The modulation method has been implemented in a program, while the implementation of the imbedded method will be concluded shortly.The validation carried out (that includes experimental data of a MPR) show very good results and calculation efficiency

  7. Discontinuous nodal schemes applied to the bidimensional neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Valle G, E. Del; Hennart B, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper several strong discontinuous nodal schemes are described, starting from the one that has only two interpolation parameters per cell to the one having ten. Their application to the spatial discretization of the neutron transport equation in X-Y geometry is also described, giving, for each one of the nodal schemes, the approximation for the angular neutron flux that includes the set of interpolation parameters and the corresponding polynomial space. Numerical results were obtained for several test problems presenting here the problem with the highest degree of difficulty and their comparison with published results 1,2 . (Author)

  8. A comparison of Nodal methods in neutron diffusion calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavron, Barak [Israel Electric Company, Haifa (Israel) Nuclear Engineering Dept. Research and Development Div.

    1996-12-01

    The nuclear engineering department at IEC uses in the reactor analysis three neutron diffusion codes based on nodal methods. The codes, GNOMERl, ADMARC2 and NOXER3 solve the neutron diffusion equation to obtain flux and power distributions in the core. The resulting flux distributions are used for the furl cycle analysis and for fuel reload optimization. This work presents a comparison of the various nodal methods employed in the above codes. Nodal methods (also called Coarse-mesh methods) have been designed to solve problems that contain relatively coarse areas of homogeneous composition. In the nodal method parts of the equation that present the state in the homogeneous area are solved analytically while, according to various assumptions and continuity requirements, a general solution is sought out. Thus efficiency of the method for this kind of problems, is very high compared with the finite element and finite difference methods. On the other hand, using this method one can get only approximate information about the node vicinity (or coarse-mesh area, usually a feel assembly of a 20 cm size). These characteristics of the nodal method make it suitable for feel cycle analysis and reload optimization. This analysis requires many subsequent calculations of the flux and power distributions for the feel assemblies while there is no need for detailed distribution within the assembly. For obtaining detailed distribution within the assembly methods of power reconstruction may be applied. However homogenization of feel assembly properties, required for the nodal method, may cause difficulties when applied to fuel assemblies with many absorber rods, due to exciting strong neutron properties heterogeneity within the assembly. (author).

  9. Development of nodal interface conditions for a PN approximation nodal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiz, M.

    1993-01-01

    A relation was developed for approximating higher order odd-moments from lower order odd-moments at the nodal interfaces of a Legendre polynomial nodal model. Two sample problems were tested using different order P N expansions in adjacent nodes. The developed relation proved to be adequate and matched the nodal interface flux accurately. The development allows the use of different order expansions in adjacent nodes, and will be used in a hybrid diffusion-transport nodal model. (author)

  10. An Unusual Metastasis of a Transglottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Dafir Albeyatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each year around 2,200 people in the UK are diagnosed with laryngeal SCC (Office of National Statistics 2009. Compared to pharyngeal carcinoma, it is a highly curable disease with a survival rate of around 60% for all stages and all forms of treatment. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with a previously treated T4 N2c transglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, who developed an isolated swelling in the extensor compartment of his right forearm at 6 months after radical laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Fine needle aspiration of the forearm lesion revealed SCC consistent with a metastasis from the laryngeal primary. MRI revealed that the lesion was confined to the muscle. Initial staging CT showed no distant metastases or signs of advanced disease, including no evidence of axillary nodal involvement. Conclusion. This case is therefore unusual, as one of only 2 cases reported in the scientific literature of isolated distant muscular metastasis from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We conclude that any muscular swelling, in the setting of previous head and neck malignancy, should be treated with a high degree of suspicion for metastasis and investigated promptly.

  11. Extra-nodal extension is a significant prognostic factor in lymph node positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Aziz

    Full Text Available Presence of lymph node (LN metastasis is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer, whereas the importance of extra-nodal extension and other nodal tumor features have not yet been fully recognized. Here, we examined microscopic features of lymph node metastases and their prognostic value in a population-based cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 218, as part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program NBCSP (1996-2009. Sections were reviewed for the largest metastatic tumor diameter (TD-MET, nodal afferent and efferent vascular invasion (AVI and EVI, extra-nodal extension (ENE, number of ENE foci, as well as circumferential (CD-ENE and perpendicular (PD-ENE diameter of extra-nodal growth. Number of positive lymph nodes, EVI, and PD-ENE were significantly increased with larger primary tumor (PT diameter. Univariate survival analysis showed that several features of nodal metastases were associated with disease-free (DFS or breast cancer specific survival (BCSS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an independent prognostic value of PD-ENE (with 3 mm as cut-off value in predicting DFS and BCSS, along with number of positive nodes and histologic grade of the primary tumor (for DFS: P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively; for BCSS: P = 0.02, P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively. To conclude, the extent of ENE by its perpendicular diameter was independently prognostic and should be considered in line with nodal tumor burden in treatment decisions of node positive breast cancer.

  12. Real-time control of power systems using nodal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion management in electrical power systems via nodal prices. We develop a dynamic controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow constraints in

  13. A nodal method based on the response-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Menezes Filho, A. da; Rocamora Junior, F.D.

    1983-02-01

    A nodal approach based on the Response-Matrix method is presented with the purpose of investigating the possibility of mixing two different allocations in the same problem. It is found that the use of allocation of albedo combined with allocation of direct reflection produces good results for homogeneous fast reactor configurations. (Author) [pt

  14. Rules for Phase Shifts of Quantum Oscillations in Topological Nodal-Line Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cequn; Wang, C. M.; Wan, Bo; Wan, Xiangang; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Xie, X. C.

    2018-04-01

    Nodal-line semimetals are topological semimetals in which band touchings form nodal lines or rings. Around a loop that encloses a nodal line, an electron can accumulate a nontrivial π Berry phase, so the phase shift in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation may give a transport signature for the nodal-line semimetals. However, different experiments have reported contradictory phase shifts, in particular, in the WHM nodal-line semimetals (W =Zr /Hf , H =Si /Ge , M =S /Se /Te ). For a generic model of nodal-line semimetals, we present a systematic calculation for the SdH oscillation of resistivity under a magnetic field normal to the nodal-line plane. From the analytical result of the resistivity, we extract general rules to determine the phase shifts for arbitrary cases and apply them to ZrSiS and Cu3 PdN systems. Depending on the magnetic field directions, carrier types, and cross sections of the Fermi surface, the phase shift shows rich results, quite different from those for normal electrons and Weyl fermions. Our results may help explore transport signatures of topological nodal-line semimetals and can be generalized to other topological phases of matter.

  15. Nodal integral method for the neutron diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The nodal methodology is based on retaining a higher a higher degree of analyticity in the process of deriving the discrete-variable equations compared to conventional numerical methods. As a result, extensive numerical testing of nodal methods developed for a wide variety of partial differential equations and comparison of the results to conventional methods have established the superior accuracy of nodal methods on coarse meshes. Moreover, these tests have shown that nodal methods are more computationally efficient than finite difference and finite-element methods in the sense that they require shorter CPU times to achieve comparable accuracy in the solutions. However, nodal formalisms and the final discrete-variable equations they produce are, in general, more complicated than their conventional counterparts. This, together with anticipated difficulties in applying the transverse-averaging procedure in curvilinear coordinates, has limited the applications of nodal methods, so far, to Cartesian geometry, and with additional approximations to hexagonal geometry. In this paper the authors report recent progress in deriving and numerically implementing a nodal integral method (NIM) for solving the neutron diffusion equation in cylindrical r-z geometry. Also, presented are comparisons of numerical solutions to two test problems with those obtained by the Exterminator-2 code, which indicate the superior accuracy of the nodal integral method solutions on much coarser meshes

  16. The Nudo, Rollo, Melon codes and nodal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J.M.; Aragones, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Pena, J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of nodal calculation and checking results by the reference reactor experimental data. Nudo code description, adapting experimental data to nodal calculations. Rollo, Melon codes as improvement in the cycle life calculations of albedos, mixing parameters and nodal correlations. (author)

  17. Combined-modality therapy for patients with regional nodal metastases from melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballo, Matthew T.; Ross, Merrick I.; Cormier, Janice N.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Hwu, Patrick; Zagars, Gunar K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and patterns of failure for patients with nodal metastases from melanoma treated with combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 2003, 466 patients with nodal metastases from melanoma were managed with lymphadenectomy and radiation, with or without systemic therapy. Surgery was a therapeutic procedure for clinically apparent nodal disease in 434 patients (regionally advanced nodal disease). Adjuvant radiation was generally delivered with a hypofractionated regimen. Adjuvant systemic therapy was delivered to 154 patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 252 patients relapsed and 203 patients died of progressive disease. The actuarial 5-year disease-specific, disease-free, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 49%, 42%, and 44%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, increasing number of involved lymph nodes and primary ulceration were associated with an inferior 5-year actuarial disease-specific and distant metastasis-free survival. Also, the number of involved lymph nodes was associated with the development of brain metastases, whereas thickness was associated with lung metastases, and primary ulceration was associated with liver metastases. The actuarial 5-year regional (in-basin) control rate for all patients was 89%, and on multivariate analysis there were no patient or disease characteristics associated with inferior regional control. The risk of lymphedema was highest for those patients with groin lymph node metastases. Conclusions: Although regional nodal disease can be satisfactorily controlled with lymphadenectomy and radiation, the risk of distant metastases and melanoma death remains high. A management approach to these patients that accounts for the competing risks of distant metastases, regional failure, and long-term toxicity is needed

  18. Delphian node metastasis in head and neck cancers--oracle or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Shaha, Ashok R; Ferlito, Alfio; Thomas Robbins, K; Medina, Jesus E; Silver, Carl E; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P; Suárez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P; Bradley, Patrick J; Werner, Jochen A

    2010-09-15

    Delphian node (DN) refers to the pre-laryngeal or pre-cricoid nodal tissue often identified during laryngeal or thyroid surgery. The original nomenclature is based on the assumption that metastasis to this node was predictive of aggressive disease and poor outcome for patients. In this article, we review the existing literature on the topic to determine the significance of DN metastasis in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal and thyroid cancers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations

  20. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Su-zhi; Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan; Liu, Jia-ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy

  1. The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Eva; Jörnvall, Henrik; Blokzijl, Andries; Andersson, Olov; Chang, Chenbei; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Persico, M. Graziella; Ibáñez, Carlos F.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2001-01-01

    Nodal proteins have crucial roles in mesendoderm formation and left–right patterning during vertebrate development. The molecular mechanisms of signal transduction by Nodal and related ligands, however, are not fully understood. In this paper, we present biochemical and functional evidence that the orphan type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 acts as a receptor for mouse Nodal and Xenopus Nodal-related 1 (Xnr1). Receptor reconstitution experiments indicate that ALK7 collaborates with ActRIIB to confer responsiveness to Xnr1 and Nodal. Both receptors can independently bind Xnr1. In addition, Cripto, an extracellular protein genetically implicated in Nodal signaling, can independently interact with both Xnr1 and ALK7, and its expression greatly enhances the ability of ALK7 and ActRIIB to respond to Nodal ligands. The Activin receptor ALK4 is also able to mediate Nodal signaling but only in the presence of Cripto, with which it can also interact directly. A constitutively activated form of ALK7 mimics the mesendoderm-inducing activity of Xnr1 in Xenopus embryos, whereas a dominant-negative ALK7 specifically blocks the activities of Nodal and Xnr1 but has little effect on other related ligands. In contrast, a dominant-negative ALK4 blocks all mesoderm-inducing ligands tested, including Nodal, Xnr1, Xnr2, Xnr4, and Activin. In agreement with a role in Nodal signaling, ALK7 mRNA is localized to the ectodermal and organizer regions of Xenopus gastrula embryos and is expressed during early stages of mouse embryonic development. Therefore, our results indicate that both ALK4 and ALK7 can mediate signal transduction by Nodal proteins, although ALK7 appears to be a receptor more specifically dedicated to Nodal signaling. PMID:11485994

  2. Oral gingival metastasis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Aswath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity is a rare target for metastasis with an incidence of 1% among all oral cancers. In 24% of such cases, oral metastasis is the first indication of an undiagnosed primary. Metastatic oral malignancies have been reported in the mandible, tongue, and gingiva. Although gingival metastasis has been reported from lung, prostate, rectal carcinoma in men and carcinoma of breast, adrenal glands, and genitalia in females, gingival metastasis from carcinoma of the penis has not been reported. Herein, a case of metastatic gingival carcinoma that developed after extraction of teeth from primary carcinoma of the penis is presented. An extensive literature search revealed no such similar case reports.

  3. Gut metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammed S

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in women. Common sites of metastases include the liver, lung, bone, and the brain. Metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are rare with patients presenting with small-bowel perforation, intestinal obstruction, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Here we report a case of a Saudi female presenting with invasive lobular carcinoma and ileo-cecal junction metastasis.

  4. Gut metastasis from breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammad S.

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in women. Common sites of metastases include the liver, lung, bone and the brain. Metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are with patients presenting with small-bowel perforation, intestinal obstruction and gastrointestinal bleeding. Here we report a case of Saudi female presenting with invasive lobular carcinoma and i leo-junction metastasis. (author)

  5. Nodal pricing in a coupled electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a pricing model for an electricity market with a hybrid congestion management method, i.e. part of the system applies a nodal pricing scheme and the rest applies a zonal pricing scheme. The model clears the zonal and nodal pricing areas simultaneously. The nodal pricing area is affected by the changes in the zonal pricing area since it is directly connected to the zonal pricing area by commercial trading. The model is tested on a 13-node power system. Within the area t...

  6. Microenvironment Determinants of Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chenyu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis accounts for 90% of cancer-related mortality. Brain metastases generally present during the late stages in the natural history of cancer progression. Recent advances in cancer treatment and management have resulted in better control of systemic disease metastatic to organs other than the brain and improved patient survival. However, patients who experience recurrent disease manifest an increasing number of brain metastases, which are usually refractory to therapies. To meet the new challenges of controlling brain metastasis, the research community has been tackling the problem with novel experimental models and research tools, which have led to an improved understanding of brain metastasis. The time-tested "seed-and-soil" hypothesis of metastasis indicates that successful outgrowth of deadly metastatic tumors depends on permissible interactions between the metastatic cancer cells and the site-specific microenvironment in the host organs. Consistently, recent studies indicate that the brain, the major component of the central nervous system, has unique physiological features that can determine the outcome of metastatic tumor growth. The current review summarizes recent discoveries on these tumor-brain interactions, and the potential clinical implications these novel findings could have for the better treatment of patients with brain metastasis.

  7. A comparison of two nodal codes : Advanced nodal code (ANC) and analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.K.; Hah, C.J.; Lee, H.C.; Kim, Y.H.; Cho, N.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Modern nodal methods usually employs the transverse integration technique in order to reduce a multi-dimensional diffusion equation to one-dimensional diffusion equations. The use of the transverse integration technique requires two major approximations such as a transverse leakage approximation and a one-dimensional flux approximation. Both the transverse leakage and the one-dimensional flux are approximated by polynomials. ANC (Advanced Nodal Code) developed by Westinghouse employs a modern nodal expansion method for the flux calculation, the equivalence theory for the homogenization error reduction and a group theory for pin power recovery. Unlike the conventional modern nodal methods, AFEN (Analytic Function Expansion Nodal) method expands homogeneous flux distributions within a node into non-separable analytic basis functions, which eliminate two major approximations of the modern nodal methods. A comparison study of AFEN with ANC has been performed to see the applicability of AFEN to commercial PWR and different types of reactors such as MOX fueled reactor. The qualification comparison results demonstrate that AFEN methodology is accurate enough to apply for commercial PWR analysis. The results show that AFEN provides very accurate results (core multiplication factor and assembly power distribution) for cores that exhibit strong flux gradients as in a MOX loaded core. (author)

  8. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SINGULAR INVERSE NODAL PROBLEM BY USING CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIALS

    OpenAIRE

    NEAMATY, ABDOLALI; YILMAZ, EMRAH; AKBARPOOR, SHAHRBANOO; DABBAGHIAN, ABDOLHADI

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we consider Sturm-Liouville problem in two cases: the first case having no singularity and the second case having a singularity at zero. Then, we calculate the eigenvalues and the nodal points and present the uniqueness theorem for the solution of the inverse problem by using a dense subset of the nodal points in two given cases. Also, we use Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind for calculating the approximate solution of the inverse nodal problem in these cases. Finally, we...

  9. Using nodal expansion method in calculation of reactor core with square fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahzadeh, M. Y.; Boroushaki, M.

    2009-01-01

    A polynomial nodal method is developed to solve few-group neutron diffusion equations in cartesian geometry. In this article, the effective multiplication factor, group flux and power distribution based on the nodal polynomial expansion procedure is presented. In addition, by comparison of the results the superiority of nodal expansion method on finite-difference and finite-element are fully demonstrated. The comparison of the results obtained by these method with those of the well known benchmark problems have shown that they are in very good agreement.

  10. A variational nodal diffusion method of high accuracy; Varijaciona nodalna difuziona metoda visoke tachnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasevic, Dj; Altiparmarkov, D [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    A variational nodal diffusion method with accurate treatment of transverse leakage shape is developed and presented in this paper. Using Legendre expansion in transverse coordinates higher order quasi-one-dimensional nodal equations are formulated. Numerical solution has been carried out using analytical solutions in alternating directions assuming Legendre expansion of the RHS term. The method has been tested against 2D and 3D IAEA benchmark problem, as well as 2D CANDU benchmark problem. The results are highly accurate. The first order approximation yields to the same order of accuracy as the standard nodal methods with quadratic leakage approximation, while the second order reaches reference solution. (author)

  11. Maternal Nodal inversely affects NODAL and STOX1 expression in the fetal placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Krishna Thulluru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nodal, a secreted signaling protein from the TGFβ-super family plays a vital role during early embryonic development. Recently, it was found that maternal decidua-specific Nodal knockout mice show intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preterm birth. As the chromosomal location of NODAL is in the same linkage area as the susceptibility gene STOX1, associated with the familial form of early-onset, IUGR-complicated pre-eclampsia, their potential maternal-fetal interaction was investigated. Pre-eclamptic mothers with children who carried the STOX1 susceptibility allele themselves all carried the NODAL H165R SNP, which causes a 50% reduced activity. Surprisingly, in decidua Nodal knockout mice the fetal placenta showed up-regulation of STOX1 and NODAL expression. Conditioned media of human first trimester decidua and a human endometrial stromal cell line (T-HESC treated with siRNAs against NODAL or carrying the H165R SNP were also able to induce NODAL and STOX1 expression when added to SGHPL-5 first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells. Finally, a human TGFß-BMP-Signaling-Pathway PCR-Array on decidua and the T-HESC cell line with Nodal knockdown revealed upregulation of Activin-A, which was confirmed in conditioned media by ELISA. We show that maternal decidua Nodal knockdown gives upregulation of NODAL and STOX1 mRNA expression in fetal extravillous trophoblast cells, potentially via upregulation of Activin-A in the maternal decidua. As both Activin-A and Nodal have been implicated in pre-eclampsia, being increased in serum of pre-eclamptic women and upregulated in pre-eclamptic placentas respectively, this interaction at the maternal-fetal interface might play a substantial role in the development of pre-eclampsia.

  12. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  13. Quantum oscillations in nodal line systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Moessner, Roderich; Lim, Lih-King

    2018-04-01

    We study signatures of magnetic quantum oscillations in three-dimensional nodal line semimetals at zero temperature. The extended nature of the degenerate bands can result in a Fermi surface geometry with topological genus one, as well as a Fermi surface of electron and hole pockets encapsulating the nodal line. Moreover, the underlying two-band model to describe a nodal line is not unique, in that there are two classes of Hamiltonian with distinct band topology giving rise to the same Fermi-surface geometry. After identifying the extremal cyclotron orbits in various magnetic field directions, we study their concomitant Landau levels and resulting quantum oscillation signatures. By Landau-fan-diagram analyses, we extract the nontrivial π Berry phase signature for extremal orbits linking the nodal line.

  14. Sensitivity of SBLOCA analysis to model nodalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Ito, T.; Abramson, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The recent Semiscale test S-UT-8 indicates the possibility for primary liquid to hang up in the steam generators during a SBLOCA, permitting core uncovery prior to loop-seal clearance. In analysis of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accidents with RELAP5, it is found that resultant transient behavior is quite sensitive to the selection of nodalization for the steam generators. Although global parameters such as integrated mass loss, primary inventory and primary pressure are relatively insensitive to the nodalization, it is found that the predicted distribution of inventory around the primary is significantly affected by nodalization. More detailed nodalization predicts that more of the inventory tends to remain in the steam generators, resulting in less inventory in the reactor vessel and therefore causing earlier and more severe core uncovery

  15. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  16. The NODAL system for the SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.; Shering, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive description is given of the NODAL system used for computer control of the CERN Super-Proton Synchrotron. Details are given of NODAL, a high-level programming language based on FOCAL and SNOBOL4, designed for interactive use. It is shown how this interpretive language is used with a network of computers and how it can be extended by adding machine-code modules. The report updates and replaces an earlier one published in 1974. (Auth.)

  17. Nodal coupling by response matrix principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancona, A.; Becker, M.; Beg, M.D.; Harris, D.R.; Menezes, A.D.; VerPlanck, D.M.; Pilat, E.

    1977-01-01

    The response matrix approach has been used in viewing a reactor node in isolation and in characterizing the node by reflection and trans-emission factors. These are then used to generate invariant imbedding parameters, which in turn are used in a nodal reactor simulator code to compute core power distributions in two and three dimensions. Various nodal techniques are analyzed and converted into a single invariant imbedding formalism

  18. Magnonic triply-degenerate nodal points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    We generalize the concept of triply-degenerate nodal points to non-collinear antiferromagnets. Here, we introduce this concept to insulating quantum antiferromagnets on the decorated honeycomb lattice, with spin-1 bosonic quasiparticle excitations known as magnons. We demonstrate the existence of magnonic surface states with constant energy contours that form pairs of magnonic arcs connecting the surface projection of the magnonic triple nodal points. The quasiparticle excitations near the triple nodal points represent three-component bosons beyond that of magnonic Dirac, Weyl, and nodal-line cases. They can be regarded as a direct reflection of the intrinsic spin carried by magnons. Furthermore, we show that the magnonic triple nodal points can split into magnonic Weyl points, as the system transits from a non-collinear spin structure to a non-coplanar one with a non-zero scalar spin chirality. Our results not only apply to insulating antiferromagnets, but also provide a platform to seek for triple nodal points in metallic antiferromagnets.

  19. Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    recurrence group was 59.53 years. Most common oral sites included the lateral border of tongue and floor of mouth. Recurrence was associated with clinical N-stage disease. The surgical margins in this group was evaluated and found that 17 had non-cohesive invasion, 30 had dysplasia at margin, 21 had vascular invasion, 9 had nerve invasion and 3 had bony invasion. Severe dysplasia was present in 37 patients. Tumour clearance was achieved in only 8 patients. The mean depth of tumour invasion in the recurrence group was 7.6 mm. An interesting finding was that 5/11 patients who died of distant metastasis had their primary disease in the tongue. Nodal disease comparison showed that 8/10 patients who died of locoregional metastasis and 8/11 patients who died from distant metastasis had clinical nodal involvement. Comparing this to pathological nodal disease (pTNM) showed that 10/10 patients and 10/11 patients who died from locoregional and distant metastasis, respectively, had nodal disease. All patients who died from locoregional and distant metastasis were shown to have recurrence after the primary tumour resection. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity has a poor overall prognosis with a high tendency to recur at the primary site and extend to involve the cervical lymph nodes. Several clinicopathological parameters can be employed to assess outcome, recurrence and overall survival. PMID:20406474

  20. The variational nodal method: history and recent accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    The variational nodal method combines spherical harmonics expansions in angle with hybrid finite element techniques is space to obtain multigroup transport response matrix algorithms applicable to both deep penetration and reactor core physics problems. This survey briefly recounts the method's history and reviews its capabilities. The variational basis for the approach is presented and two methods for obtaining discretized equations in the form of response matrices are detailed. The first is that contained the widely used VARIANT code, while the second incorporates newly developed integral transport techniques into the variational nodal framework. The two approaches are combined with a finite sub element formulation to treat heterogeneous nodes. Applications are presented for both a deep penetration problem and to an OECD benchmark consisting of LWR MOX fuel assemblies. Ongoing work is discussed. (Author)

  1. Radiological signs of extra nodal abdominal involvements in lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, A.I.; Alegre, N.; Cervera, J.L.; Montero, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    To assess abdominal CT images in lymphoma patients for the study of extra nodal abdominal involvement. Ninety-two patients diagnosed as having lymphoma were studied retrospectively. All the patients underwent abdominopelvic CT with oral and intravenous contrast (except in one patient who was allergic). In every case, the diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy or radiological follow-up after treatment had been completed. Fifty-two patients (56.5%) presented infiltration of extra nodal organs. The organs most frequently involved were liver and spleen, followed by the gastrointestinal tract, the musculoskeletal system and the genitourinary tract. The findings in this study coincide with those reported elsewhere with the exception of the splenic involvement the incidence of which was lower in the present series. (Author) 17 refs

  2. On the nodal structure of atomic and molecular Wigner functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, J.P.; Schmider, H.

    1996-01-01

    In previous work on the phase-space representation of quantum mechanics, we have presented detailed pictures of the electronic one-particle reduced Wigner function for atoms and small molecules. In this communication, we focus upon the nodal structure of the function. On the basis of the simplest systems, we present an expression which relates the oscillatory decay of the Wigner function solely to the dot product of the position and momentum vector, if both arguments are large. We then demonstrate the regular behavior of nodal patterns for the larger systems. For the molecular systems, an argument analogous to the open-quotes bond-oscillatory principleclose quotes for momentum densities links the nuclear framework to an additional oscillatory term in momenta parallel to bonds. It is shown that these are visible in the Wigner function in terms of characteristic nodes

  3. Ischemic stroke associated with radio frequency ablation for nodal reentry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz M, Juan C; Duran R, Carlos E; Perafan B, Pablo; Pava M, Luis F

    2010-01-01

    Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia is the most common type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. In those patients in whom drug therapy is not effective or not desired, radio frequency ablation is an excellent therapeutic method. Although overall these procedures are fast and safe, several complications among which ischemic stroke stands out, have been reported. We present the case of a 41 year old female patient with repetitive episodes of tachycardia due to nodal reentry who was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Immediately after the procedure she presented focal neurologic deficit consistent with ischemic stroke in the right medial cerebral artery territory. Angiography with angioplastia and abxicimab was performed and then tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was locally infused, with appropriate clinical and angiographic outcome.

  4. Leptomeningeal metastasis mimicking Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Saurabh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of Leptomeningeal Metastasis varies widely. It can also present a condition very similar to Chronic Subdural Hematoma. One should have a low threshold for suspicion while diagnosing such conditions to avoid catastrophic events.

  5. Leptomeningeal metastasis mimicking Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    The presentation of Leptomeningeal Metastasis varies widely. It can also present a condition very similar to Chronic Subdural Hematoma. One should have a low threshold for suspicion while diagnosing such conditions to avoid catastrophic events.

  6. SPANDOM - source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Cho, Nam Zin

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new discrete ordinates nodal method for the two-dimensional transport equation. We solve the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in polynomials. The method is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with the TWOHEX code. The results indicate that the present method accurately predicts not only multiplication factor but also flux distribution

  7. HEXAN - a hexagonal nodal code for solving the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the theory of and provides a user's manual for the HEXAN program, which is a nodal program for the solution of the few-group diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry. Based upon symmetry considerations, the theory provides an analytical solution in a homogeneous node. WWER and HTGR test problem solutions are presented. The equivalence of the finite-difference scheme and the response matrix method is proven. The properties of a symmetric node's response matrix are investigated. (author)

  8. The Clinical Presentation, Survival Outcomes, and Management of Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Cardiac Metastasis Without Inferior Vena Cava Involvement: Results From a Pooled Clinical Trial Database and Systematic Review of Reported Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri Malone, Mariuxi A; Ares, Gustavo Ruiz; De Velasco, Guillermo; Brandão, Raphael; Lin, Xun; Norton, Craig; Simantov, Ronit; Moslehi, Javid; Krajewski, Katherine M; Choueiri, Toni K; McKay, Rana R

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are uncommon and there are limited data regarding the presentation and outcomes of this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with RCC with cardiac metastasis without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement. We conducted a pooled retrospective analysis of metastatic RCC patients treated in 4 clinical trials. Additionally, we conducted a systematic review of cases reported in the literature from 1973 to 2015. Patients with cardiac metastases from RCC without IVC involvement were included. Patient and disease characteristics were described. Additionally, treatments, response to therapy, and survival outcomes were summarized. Of 1765 metastatic RCC patients in the clinical trials database, 10 had cardiac metastases without IVC involvement. All patients received treatment with targeted therapy. There was 1 observed partial response (10%) and 6 patients showed stable disease (60%). The median progression-free survival was 6.9 months. The systematic review of reported clinical cases included 39 patients. In these patients, the most common cardiac site of involvement was the right ventricle (51%; n = 20). Patients were treated with medical (28%; n = 11) and/or surgical treatment (49%; n = 19) depending on whether disease was isolated (n = 13) or multifocal (n = 26). To our knowledge, this is the first series to report on the presentation and outcomes of patients with cardiac metastasis without IVC involvement in RCC. We highlight that although the frequency of patients with cardiac metastases without IVC involvement is low, these patients have a unique clinical presentation and warrant special multidisciplinary management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  10. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  11. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  12. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Danny R; Steeg, Patricia S; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W

    2000-01-01

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  13. Efficacy of elective nodal irradiation in skin squamous cell carcinoma of the face, ears, and scalp

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Justin; Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Werning, John; Mendenhall, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients at high risk for regional node metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin of the face, ear, or scalp, radiotherapy to the regional nodes is an alternative to parotid or neck surgery. Data on the efficacy of elective nodal radiotherapy in this setting are scarce such that there is no publication specifically addressing the subject. The purpose of our study is to fill this void in the skin cancer literature. Methods This is a single-institution study of out...

  14. The variational nodal method: some history and recent activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.; Smith, M.A.; Palmiotti, G.

    2005-01-01

    The variational nodal method combines spherical harmonics expansions in angle with hybrid finite element techniques in space to obtain multigroup transport response matrix algorithms applicable to a wide variety of reactor physics problems. This survey briefly recounts the method's history and reviews its capabilities. Two methods for obtaining discretized equations in the form of response matrices are compared. The first is that contained the widely used VARIANT code, while the second incorporates more recently developed integral transport techniques into the variational nodal framework. The two approaches are combined with a finite sub-element formulation to treat heterogeneous nodes. Results are presented for application to a deep penetration problem and to an OECD benchmark consisting of LWR Mox fuel assemblies. Ongoing work is discussed. (authors)

  15. Unusual metachronous isolated inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parodo Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to describe an unusual case of metachronous isolated inguinal lymph nodes metastasis from sigmoid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man was referred to our department because of an obstructing sigmoid carcinoma. Colonoscopy showed the obstructing lesion at 30 cm from the anal verge and abdominal CT revealed a sigmoid lesion infiltrating the left lateral abdominal wall. The patient underwent a colonic resection extended to the abdominal wall. Histology showed an adenocarcinoma of the colon infiltrating the abdominal wall with iuxtacolic nodal involvement. Thirty three months after surgery abdominal CT and PET scan revealed a metastatic left inguinal lymph node involvement. The metastatic lymph node was found strictly adherent to the left iliac-femoral artery and encompassing the origin of the left inferior epigastric artery. Histology showed a metachronous nodal metastasis from colonic adenocarcinoma. Despite metastastic involvement of inguinal lymph node from rectal cancer is a rare but well known clinical entity, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inguinal metastasis from a carcinoma of the left colon. Literature review shows only three other similar reported cases: two cases of inguinal metastasis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the cecum and one case of axillary metastasis from left colonic carcinoma. A metastatic pathway through superficial abdominal wall lymphatic vessels could be possible through the route along the left inferior epigastric artery. The solitary inguinal nodal involvement from rectal carcinoma could have a more favorable prognosis. In the case of nodal metastasis to the body surface lymph nodes from colonic carcinoma, following the small number of such cases reported in the literature, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  17. Application of the SPH method in nodal diffusion analyses of SFR cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Evgeny; Fridman, Emil [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Reactor Safety; Mikityuk, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The current study investigated the potential of the SPH method, applied to correct the few-group XS produced by Serpent, to further improve the accuracy of the nodal diffusion solutions. The procedure for the generation of SPH-corrected few-group XS is presented in the paper. The performance of the SPH method was tested on a large oxide SFR core from the OECD/NEA SFR benchmark. The reference SFR core was modeled with the DYN3D and PARCS nodal diffusion codes using the SPH-corrected few-group XS generated by Serpent. The nodal diffusion results obtained with and without SPH correction were compared to the reference full-core Serpent MC solution. It was demonstrated that the application of the SPH method improves the accuracy of the nodal diffusion solutions, particularly for the rodded core state.

  18. MicroRNA expression in nodal and extranodal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Højfeldt, Anne Dirks

    MicroRNA expression in nodal and extranodal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma   C. Mandrup1, A. Petersen1, A. D. Hoejfeldt1, H. F. Thomsen1, J. Madsen1, J. Dahlgaard1, P. Johansen2, A. Bukh1, K. Dybkaer1 and H. E Johnsen1. 1Department of Hematology, 2Pathological Institute, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus...... University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Introduction: The aim of this project was to analyse microRNA (miRNA) expression in nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Manifestation at diagnosis may be nodal and/or extranodal. At present, there are no known determinants for none...... of the manifestations, and no way to predict the potential progression from nodal to extranodal disease. miRNA are small regulatory RNA molecules with core function to repress/cleave sequence complementary mRNA targets. Abnormalities in miRNA genetics and expression are known to affect initiation and development...

  19. The impact of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in patients with melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, Lutz; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Hellriegel, Simin; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Schoen, Michael Peter [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Goettingen (Germany); Bardzik, Pawel; Meller, Johannes; Sahlmann, Carsten Oliver [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To retrospectively study the influence of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in 509 consecutive patients with melanomas. Bidirectional lymphatic drainage, the clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel, time to depiction of the first sentinel lymph node (SLN) and number of depicted and excised nodes were recorded. Nodal tumour load was classified as SLN-negative, SLN micrometastases or macrometastases. In the overall population, using multivariate regression analysis, a short SLN depiction time was significantly associated with the depiction of a greater number of radioactive nodes, a short distance between the primary tumour site and the nodal basin, younger age and lower nodal tumour burden. The proportion of patients with clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel depended on the nodal tumour load (46 % in SLN-negative patients, 57 % in SLN positive patients, and 69 % in patients with macrometastases; P = 0.009). Macrometastasis was significantly associated with delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a greater number of depicted hotspots. In patients with clinically nonsuspicious nodes, i.e. the classical target group for SLN biopsy, clear depiction of an afferent vessel was significantly associated with a higher number of SLNs during dynamic acquisition, SLN micrometastasis and a higher overall number of metastatic lymph nodes after SLN biopsy plus completion lymphadenectomy. The excision of more than two SLNs did not increase the metastasis detection rate. In patients with bidirectional or tridirectional lymphatic drainage, the SLN positivity rates for the first, second and third basin were 25.4 %, 11.7 % and 0.0 %, respectively (P = 0.002). In patients with clinically nonsuspicious lymph nodes, clear depiction of an afferent lymph vessel may be a sign of micrometastasis. Macrometastasis is associated with prominent afferent vessels, delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a higher number of depicted hotspots

  20. CT manifestation of peritoneal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soon Joo; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1989-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is frequent mode of dissemination of intraabdominal malignancies. Radiologic diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis has relied on indirect evidence on a barium UGI series and small bowel examination. With the advent of CT scanning, CT is capable of direct imaging of peritoneum. The sensitivity of CT in detecting peritoneal metastasis and CT manifestation of peritoneal metastatic lesions had reported occasionally, but rarely in Korea. So, authors illustrated the CT manifestation of peritoneal metastatic lesions in 32 cases of macroscopically proven cases in laparoscopy or laparotomy in Korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 4 years. The results are as follows. 1. Of total 32 cases, 18 cases were male and 14 cases were female. Age incidence was the most common in 6th decade. 2. The most common type of malignancy that cause peritoneal metastasis was the stomach cancer and next common type of malignancies were pancreas cancer in men and ovarian cancer in women. 3. Of total 32 cases of peritoneal metastasis which was confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy macroscopically, 23 cases (72%) were detected peritoneal thickening and/or omental pathology by CT, and the remaining 9 cases (28%) were not detected by CT. 4. Ascites was present in 19 cases (59%). 5. Parietal peritoneal thickening was present in 16 cases (50%) by CT and sheetlike pattern was the most common findings. The patterns of peritoneal thickening was relatively nonspecific and was not correlated with primary tumor type. 6. Tumor involvement of greater omentum by CT was present in 19 cases (59%). There were 7 cases of smudged appearance pattern, 6 cases of nodular pattern, 6 cases of omental cake pattern and no cystic mass pattern. The patterns of omental pathology was relatively nonspecific and was nor correlated with primary tumor type

  1. The analytic nodal method in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomasevic, Djordje I.

    2008-01-01

    Nodal diffusion methods have been used extensively in nuclear reactor calculations, specifically for their performance advantage, but also for their superior accuracy. More specifically, the Analytic Nodal Method (ANM), utilising the transverse integration principle, has been applied to numerous reactor problems with much success. In this work, a nodal diffusion method is developed for cylindrical geometry. Application of this method to three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry has never been satisfactorily addressed and we propose a solution which entails the use of conformal mapping. A set of 1D-equations with an adjusted, geometrically dependent, inhomogeneous source, is obtained. This work describes the development of the method and associated test code, as well as its application to realistic reactor problems. Numerical results are given for the PBMR-400 MW benchmark problem, as well as for a 'cylindrisized' version of the well-known 3D LWR IAEA benchmark. Results highlight the improved accuracy and performance over finite-difference core solutions and investigate the applicability of nodal methods to 3D PBMR type problems. Results indicate that cylindrical nodal methods definitely have a place within PBMR applications, yielding performance advantage factors of 10 and 20 for 2D and 3D calculations, respectively, and advantage factors of the order of 1000 in the case of the LWR problem

  2. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  3. CT simulation in nodal positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, E.; Schuck, A.; Moustakis, C.; Schaefer, U.; Micke, O.; Kronholz, H.L.; Willich, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: A variety of solutions are used to match tangential fields and opposed lymph node fields in irradiation of nodal positive breast cancer. The choice is depending on the technical equipment which is available and the clinical situation. The CT simulation of a non-monoisocentric technique was evaluated in terms of accuracy and reproducibility. Patients, Material and Methods: The field match parameters were adjusted virtually at CT simulation and were compared with parameters derived mathematically. The coordinate transfer from the CT simulator to the conventional simulator was analyzed in 25 consecutive patients. Results: The angles adjusted virtually for a geometrically exact coplanar field match corresponded with the angles calculated for each set-up. The mean isocenter displacement was 5.7 mm and the total uncertainty of the coordinate transfer was 6.7 mm (1 SD). Limitations in the patient set-up became obvious because of the steep arm abduction necessary to fit the 70 cm CT gantry aperture. Required modifications of the arm position and coordinate transfer errors led to a significant shift of the marked matchline of >1.0 cm in eight of 25 patients (32%). Conclusion: The virtual CT simulation allows a precise and graphic definition of the field match parameters. However, modifications of the virtual set-up basically due to technical limitations were required in a total of 32% of cases, so that a hybrid technique was adapted at present that combines virtual adjustment of the ideal field alignment parameters with conventional simulation. (orig.) [de

  4. Hybrid microscopic depletion model in nodal code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilodid, Y.; Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.; Fridman, E.; Kliem, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hybrid method of accounting for spectral history effects is proposed. • Local concentrations of over 1000 nuclides are calculated using micro depletion. • The new method is implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified. - Abstract: The paper presents a general hybrid method that combines the micro-depletion technique with correction of micro- and macro-diffusion parameters to account for the spectral history effects. The fuel in a core is subjected to time- and space-dependent operational conditions (e.g. coolant density), which cannot be predicted in advance. However, lattice codes assume some average conditions to generate cross sections (XS) for nodal diffusion codes such as DYN3D. Deviation of local operational history from average conditions leads to accumulation of errors in XS, which is referred as spectral history effects. Various methods to account for the spectral history effects, such as spectral index, burnup-averaged operational parameters and micro-depletion, were implemented in some nodal codes. Recently, an alternative method, which characterizes fuel depletion state by burnup and 239 Pu concentration (denoted as Pu-correction) was proposed, implemented in nodal code DYN3D and verified for a wide range of history effects. The method is computationally efficient, however, it has applicability limitations. The current study seeks to improve the accuracy and applicability range of Pu-correction method. The proposed hybrid method combines the micro-depletion method with a XS characterization technique similar to the Pu-correction method. The method was implemented in DYN3D and verified on multiple test cases. The results obtained with DYN3D were compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo code Serpent, which was also used to generate the XS. The observed differences are within the statistical uncertainties.

  5. Cavitary pulmonar metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, E.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Azevedo, C.M. de

    1984-01-01

    Seven cases of cavitary lung metastasis, four from head and neck neoplasma, two from uterine carcinoma and one from hepatoma are reported. The physiopathology and the most common sites of this kind of lesion are discussed. The rarity of the solitary excavated metastasis from hepatoma, not reported previously in the literature reviewed, is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  6. Nodal Structure of the Electronic Wigner Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmider, Hartmut; Dahl, Jens Peder

    1996-01-01

    On the example of several atomic and small molecular systems, the regular behavior of nodal patterns in the electronic one-particle reduced Wigner function is demonstrated. An expression found earlier relates the nodal pattern solely to the dot-product of the position and the momentum vector......, if both arguments are large. An argument analogous to the ``bond-oscillatory principle'' for momentum densities links the nuclear framework in a molecule to an additional oscillatory term in momenta parallel to bonds. It is shown that these are visible in the Wigner function in terms of characteristic...

  7. Cilia are required for asymmetric nodal induction in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisler, Matthias; Wetzel, Franziska; Mantino, Sabrina; Kremnyov, Stanislav; Thumberger, Thomas; Schweickert, Axel; Blum, Martin; Vick, Philipp

    2016-08-23

    Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Conservation of LRO and flow beyond the vertebrates has not been reported yet. Here we study sea urchin embryos, which use nodal to establish larval LR asymmetry as well. Cilia were found in the archenteron of embryos undergoing gastrulation. Expression of foxj1 and dnah9 suggested that archenteron cilia were motile. Cilia were polarized to the posterior pole of cells, a prerequisite of directed flow. High-speed videography revealed rotating cilia in the archenteron slightly before asymmetric nodal induction. Removal of cilia through brief high salt treatments resulted in aberrant patterns of nodal expression. Our data demonstrate that cilia - like in vertebrates - are required for asymmetric nodal induction in sea urchin embryos. Based on these results we argue that the anterior archenteron represents a bona fide LRO and propose that cilia-based symmetry breakage is a synapomorphy of the deuterostomes.

  8. Multiarea Transmission Cost Allocation in Large Power Systems Using the Nodal Pricing Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghayeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm for transmission cost allocation (TCA in a large power system based on nodal pricing approach using the multi-area scheme. The nodal pricing approach is introduced to allocate the transmission costs by the control of nodal prices in a single area network. As the number of equations is dependent on the number of buses and generators, this method will be very time consuming for large power systems. To solve this problem, the present paper proposes a new algorithm based on multi-area approach for regulating the nodal prices, so that the simulation time is greatly reduced and therefore the TCA problem with nodal pricing approach will be applicable for large power systems. In addition, in this method the transmission costs are allocated to users more equitable. Since the higher transmission costs in an area having a higher reliability are paid only by users of that area in contrast with the single area method, in which these costs are allocated to all users regardless of their locations. The proposed method is implemented on the IEEE 118 bus test system which comprises three areas. Results show that with application of multi-area approach, the simulation time is greatly reduced and the transmission costs are also allocated to users with less variation in new nodal prices with respect to the single area approach.

  9. Comparison of five systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Choi, G S; Whang, I; Suh, I S

    1997-09-01

    There are several systems for staging lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Their relative merits are not clear. In this retrospective analysis, the nodal status was classified according to the Union Internacional Contra la Cancrum (UICC) and Japanese staging systems, the number and frequency of lymph node metastasis, and the level of involved nodes. Each staging system was scored as good (+1), fair (0) or poor (-1) with respect to prognostic value, theoretical value, convenience, reproducibility and surgical applicability. There were no differences between the five staging systems in predicting survival. The Japanese staging system was most arbitrary owing to the complexity of the system, although it had an advantage in surgical application. The same disadvantage was found in the UICC system and the level system. Determination of the number and frequency of involved nodes was convenient and reproducible, but the number of lymph nodes dissected must be considered when the number of positive nodes is used for staging. The classification of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes as N0 (no nodal metastasis), N1 (metastasis in 1-25 per cent of dissected nodes) and N2 (metastasis in more than 25 per cent of dissected nodes) would be a simple, convenient, reproducible staging system with an ability to predict surgical results.

  10. The use of genetic programming in the analysis of quantitative gene expression profiles for identification of nodal status in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Anirban P; Almal, Arpit A; George, Ben; Fry, David W; Lenehan, Peter F; Pagliarulo, Vincenzo; Cote, Richard J; Datar, Ram H; Worzel, William P

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on bladder cancer have shown nodal involvement to be an independent indicator of prognosis and survival. This study aimed at developing an objective method for detection of nodal metastasis from molecular profiles of primary urothelial carcinoma tissues. The study included primary bladder tumor tissues from 60 patients across different stages and 5 control tissues of normal urothelium. The entire cohort was divided into training and validation sets comprised of node positive and node negative subjects. Quantitative expression profiling was performed for a panel of 70 genes using standardized competitive RT-PCR and the expression values of the training set samples were run through an iterative machine learning process called genetic programming that employed an N-fold cross validation technique to generate classifier rules of limited complexity. These were then used in a voting algorithm to classify the validation set samples into those associated with or without nodal metastasis. The generated classifier rules using 70 genes demonstrated 81% accuracy on the validation set when compared to the pathological nodal status. The rules showed a strong predilection for ICAM1, MAP2K6 and KDR resulting in gene expression motifs that cumulatively suggested a pattern ICAM1>MAP2K6>KDR for node positive cases. Additionally, the motifs showed CDK8 to be lower relative to ICAM1, and ANXA5 to be relatively high by itself in node positive tumors. Rules generated using only ICAM1, MAP2K6 and KDR were comparably robust, with a single representative rule producing an accuracy of 90% when used by itself on the validation set, suggesting a crucial role for these genes in nodal metastasis. Our study demonstrates the use of standardized quantitative gene expression values from primary bladder tumor tissues as inputs in a genetic programming system to generate classifier rules for determining the nodal status. Our method also suggests the involvement of ICAM1, MAP2K6, KDR

  11. Clinical investigation: Regional nodal failure patterns in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Katz, Angela; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Perkins, George H.; Jhingran, Anuja; Theriault, Richard; Singletary, Eva; Sahin, Aysegul; McNeese, Marsha D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe regional nodal failure patterns in patients who had undergone mastectomy with axillary dissection to define subgroups of patients who might benefit from supplemental regional nodal radiation to the axilla or supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex. Methods and Materials: The cohort consisted of 1031 patients treated with mastectomy (including a level I-II axillary dissection) and doxorubicin-based systemic therapy without radiation on five clinical trials at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patient records, including pathology reports, were retrospectively reviewed. All regional recurrences (with or without distant metastasis) were recorded. Median follow-up was 116 months (range, 6-262 months). Results: Twenty-one patients recurred within the low-mid axilla (10-year actuarial rate 3%). Of these, 16 were isolated regional failures (no chest wall failure). The risk of failure in the low-mid axilla was not significantly higher for patients with increasing numbers of involved nodes, increasing percentage of involved nodes, larger nodal size or gross extranodal extension. Only 3 of 100 patients with 20% involved axillary nodes, and the presence of gross extranodal extension (10-year actuarial rates 15%, 14%, and 19%, respectively, p 20% involved axillary nodes, or gross extranodal extension are at increased risk of failure in the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex and should receive radiation to undissected regions in addition to the chest wall

  12. Isospectral graphs with identical nodal counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oren, Idan; Band, Ram

    2012-01-01

    According to a recent conjecture, isospectral objects have different nodal count sequences (Gnutzmann et al 2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 8921–33). We study generalized Laplacians on discrete graphs, and use them to construct the first non-trivial counterexamples to this conjecture. In addition, these examples demonstrate a surprising connection between isospectral discrete and quantum graphs. (paper)

  13. Comparison of neutronic transport equation resolution nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamonsky, O.M.; Gho, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, some transport equation resolution nodal methods are comparatively studied: the constant-constant (CC), linear-nodal (LN) and the constant-quadratic (CQ). A nodal scheme equivalent to finite differences has been used for its programming, permitting its inclusion in existing codes. Some bidimensional problems have been solved, showing that linear-nodal (LN) are, in general, obtained with accuracy in CPU shorter times. (Author) [es

  14. Intra nodal reconstruction of the numerical solution generated by the spectro nodal constant for Sn problems of eigenvalues in two-dimensional rectangular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Welton Alves de

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation the spectral nodal method SD-SGF-CN, cf. spectral diamond - spectral Green's function - constant nodal, is used to determine the angular fluxes averaged along the edges of the homogenized nodes in heterogeneous domains. Using these results, we developed an algorithm for the reconstruction of the node-edge average angular fluxes within the nodes of the spatial grid set up on the domain, since more localized numerical solutions are not generated by coarse-mesh numerical methods. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the algorithm we offer. (author)

  15. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  16. Approximate Schur complement preconditioning of the lowest order nodal discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, J.D.; Ascher, U.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morel, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Particular classes of nodal methods and mixed hybrid finite element methods lead to equivalent, robust and accurate discretizations of 2nd order elliptic PDEs. However, widespread popularity of these discretizations has been hindered by the awkward linear systems which result. The present work exploits this awkwardness, which provides a natural partitioning of the linear system, by defining two optimal preconditioners based on approximate Schur complements. Central to the optimal performance of these preconditioners is their sparsity structure which is compatible with Dendy`s black box multigrid code.

  17. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy: an effective method of detecting axillary nodal metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary nodal status is an important prognostic predictor in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided core biopsy (Ax US-CB) at detecting axillary nodal metastases in patients with primary breast cancer, thereby determining how often sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided in node positive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Records of patients presenting to a breast unit between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who underwent axillary ultrasonography with or without preoperative core biopsy were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy were evaluated. RESULTS: Records of 718 patients were reviewed, with 445 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Forty-seven percent (n = 210\\/445) had nodal metastases, with 110 detected by Ax US-CB (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 70.1%). Axillary ultrasonography without biopsy had sensitivity and specificity of 54.3% and 97%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (sensitivity 60.8%, specificity 80%). Ultrasound-guided core biopsy detected more than half of all nodal metastases, sparing more than one-quarter of all breast cancer patients an unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography, when combined with core biopsy, is a valuable component of the management of patients with primary breast cancer. Its ability to definitively identify nodal metastases before surgical intervention can greatly facilitate a patient\\'s preoperative integrated treatment plan. In this regard, we believe our study adds considerably to the increasing data, which indicate the benefit of Ax US-CB in the preoperative detection of nodal metastases.

  18. Orbital Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the commonest malignancies in Nigeria, however metastasis to the orbit is a rare presentation. Objective: To present a rare case of orbital metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Case Report: A 25-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of pain, progressive swelling ...

  19. Pathology of nodal marginal zone lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, Stefano; Ponzoni, Maurilio

    Nodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas (NMZLs) are a rare group of lymphoid disorders part of the spectrum of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, which encompass splenic marginal one B-cell lymphoma (SMZL) and extra nodal marginal zone of B-cell lymphoma (EMZL), often of MALT-type. Two clinicopathological forms of NMZL are recognized: adult-type and pediatric-type, respectively. NMZLs show overlapping features with other types of MZ, but distinctive features as well. In this review, we will focus on the salient distinguishing features of NMZL mostly under morphological/immunophenotypical/molecular perspectives in views of the recent acquisitions and forthcoming updated 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum anomalies in nodal line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Topological semimetals are a new class of condensed matter systems with nontrivial electronic structure topology. Their unusual observable properties may often be understood in terms of quantum anomalies. In particular, Weyl and Dirac semimetals, which have point band-touching nodes, are characterized by the chiral anomaly, which leads to the Fermi arc surface states, anomalous Hall effect, negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, and planar Hall effect. In this paper, we explore analogous phenomena in nodal line semimetals. We demonstrate that such semimetals realize a three-dimensional analog of the parity anomaly, which is a known property of two-dimensional Dirac semimetals arising, for example, on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We relate one of the characteristic properties of nodal line semimetals, namely, the drumhead surface states, to this anomaly, and derive the field theory, which encodes the corresponding anomalous response.

  1. Acceleration of the FERM nodal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1985-01-01

    It was tested three acceleration methods trying to reduce the number of outer iterations in the FERM nodal program. The results obtained indicated that the Chebychev polynomial acceleration method with variable degree results in a economy of 50% in the computer time. Otherwise, the acceleration method by source asymptotic extrapolation or by zonal rebalance did not result in economy of the global computer time, however some acceleration had been verified in outer iterations. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Acceleration of the nodal program FERM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1985-01-01

    Acceleration of the nodal FERM was tried by three acceleration schemes. Results of the calculations showed the best acceleration with the Tchebyshev method where the savings in the computing time were of the order of 50%. Acceleration with the Assymptotic Source Extrapoltation Method and with the Coarse-Mesh Rebalancing Method did not result in any improvement on the global computational time, although a reduction in the number of outer iterations was observed. (Author) [pt

  3. Nodal method for fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shober, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, a nodal method applicable to fast reactor diffusion theory analysis has been developed. This method has been shown to be accurate and efficient in comparison to highly optimized finite difference techniques. The use of an analytic solution to the diffusion equation as a means of determining accurate coupling relationships between nodes has been shown to be highly accurate and efficient in specific two-group applications, as well as in the current multigroup method

  4. Exclusion of elective nodal irradiation is associated with minimal elective nodal failure in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox James D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy still exists regarding the long-term outcome of patients whose uninvolved lymph node stations are not prophylactically irradiated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy. To determine the frequency of elective nodal failure (ENF and in-field failure (IFF, we examined a large cohort of patients with NSCLC staged with positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT and treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT that excluded uninvolved lymph node stations. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution with definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CHT. All patients were treated with 3D-CRT, including nodal regions determined by CT or PET to be disease involved. Concurrent platinum-based CHT was administered for locally advanced disease. Patients were analyzed in follow-up for survival, local regional recurrence, and distant metastases (DM. Results The median follow-up time was 18 months (3 to 44 months among all patients and 27 months (6 to 44 months among survivors. The median overall survival, 2-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were 19 months, 38%, and 28%, respectively. The majority of patients died from DM, the overall rate of which was 36%. Of the 31 patients with local regional failure, 26 (22.6% had IFF, 5 (4.3% had ENF and 2 (1.7% had isolated ENF. For 88 patients with stage IIIA/B, the frequencies of IFF, any ENF, isolated ENF, and DM were 23 (26%, 3 (9%, 1 (1.1% and 36 (40.9%, respectively. The comparable rates for the 22 patients with early stage node-negative disease (stage IA/IB were 3 (13.6%, 1(4.5%, 0 (0%, and 5 (22.7%, respectively. Conclusion We observed only a 4.3% recurrence of any ENF and a 1.7% recurrence of isolated ENF in patients with NSCLC treated with definitive 3D-CRT without prophylactic irradiation of

  5. Exclusion of elective nodal irradiation is associated with minimal elective nodal failure in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulman, Erik P; Komaki, Ritsuko; Klopp, Ann H; Cox, James D; Chang, Joe Y

    2009-01-01

    Controversy still exists regarding the long-term outcome of patients whose uninvolved lymph node stations are not prophylactically irradiated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy. To determine the frequency of elective nodal failure (ENF) and in-field failure (IFF), we examined a large cohort of patients with NSCLC staged with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) that excluded uninvolved lymph node stations. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated at our institution with definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CHT). All patients were treated with 3D-CRT, including nodal regions determined by CT or PET to be disease involved. Concurrent platinum-based CHT was administered for locally advanced disease. Patients were analyzed in follow-up for survival, local regional recurrence, and distant metastases (DM). The median follow-up time was 18 months (3 to 44 months) among all patients and 27 months (6 to 44 months) among survivors. The median overall survival, 2-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival were 19 months, 38%, and 28%, respectively. The majority of patients died from DM, the overall rate of which was 36%. Of the 31 patients with local regional failure, 26 (22.6%) had IFF, 5 (4.3%) had ENF and 2 (1.7%) had isolated ENF. For 88 patients with stage IIIA/B, the frequencies of IFF, any ENF, isolated ENF, and DM were 23 (26%), 3 (9%), 1 (1.1%) and 36 (40.9%), respectively. The comparable rates for the 22 patients with early stage node-negative disease (stage IA/IB) were 3 (13.6%), 1(4.5%), 0 (0%), and 5 (22.7%), respectively. We observed only a 4.3% recurrence of any ENF and a 1.7% recurrence of isolated ENF in patients with NSCLC treated with definitive 3D-CRT without prophylactic irradiation of uninvolved lymph node stations. Thus

  6. Nodalization effects on RELAP5 results related to MTR research reactor transient scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the anal y sis of RELAP5 results obtained from the evaluation study of the total loss of flow transient with the deficiency of the heat removal system in a research reactor using two different nodalizations. It focuses on the effect of nodalization on the thermal-hydraulic evaluation of the re search reactor. The analysis of RELAP5 results has shown that nodalization has a big effect on the predicted scenario of the postulated transient. There fore, great care should be taken during the nodalization of the reactor, especially when the avail able experimental or measured data are insufficient for making a complete qualification of the nodalization. Our analysis also shows that the research reactor pool simulation has a great effect on the evaluation of natural circulation flow and on other thermal-hydraulic parameters during the loss of flow transient. For example, the on set time of core boiling changes from less than 2000 s to 15000 s, starting from the beginning of the transient. This occurs if the pool is simulated by two vertical volumes in stead of one vertical volume.

  7. On the non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate three CMFD schemes for computing the nodal mathematical adjoint. • The nodal mathematical adjoint is not unique and can be non-positive (nonphysical). • Adjoint and forward eigenmodes are compatible if produced by the same CMFD method. • In nodal applications the excited eigenmodes are purely mathematical entities. - Abstract: Computation of the neutron adjoint flux within the framework of modern nodal diffusion methods is often facilitated by reducing the nodal equation system for the forward flux into a simpler coarse-mesh finite-difference form and then transposing the resultant matrix equations. The solution to the transposed problem is known as the nodal mathematical adjoint. Since the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction of a given nodal formulation can be obtained in a number of ways, different nodal mathematical adjoint solutions can be computed. This non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint challenges the credibility of the reduction strategy and demands a verdict as to its suitability in practical applications. This is the matter under consideration in this paper. A selected number of coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction schemes are described and compared. Numerical calculations are utilised to illustrate the differences in the adjoint solutions as well as to appraise the impact on such common applications as the computation of core point kinetics parameters. Recommendations are made for the proper application of the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction approach to the nodal mathematical adjoint problem

  8. Impacts of Contingency Reserve on Nodal Price and Nodal Reliability Risk in Deregulated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    The deregulation of power systems allows customers to participate in power market operation. In deregulated power systems, nodal price and nodal reliability are adopted to represent locational operation cost and reliability performance. Since contingency reserve (CR) plays an important role...... in reliable operation, the CR commitment should be considered in operational reliability analysis. In this paper, a CR model based on customer reliability requirements has been formulated and integrated into power market settlement. A two-step market clearing process has been proposed to determine generation...

  9. cmpXLatt: Westinghouse automated testing tool for nodal cross section models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Petri Forslund; Rönnberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The procedure for evaluating the merits of different nodal cross section representation models is normally both cumbersome and time consuming, and includes many manual steps when preparing appropriate benchmark problems. Therefore, a computer tool called cmpXLatt has been developed at Westinghouse in order to facilitate the process of performing comparisons between nodal diffusion theory results and corresponding transport theory results on a single node basis. Due to the large number of state points that can be evaluated by cmpXLatt, a systematic and comprehensive way of performing verification and validation of nodal cross section models is provided. This paper presents the main features of cmpXLatt and demonstrates the benefits of using cmpXLatt in a real life application. (author)

  10. F18 FDG positron emission tomography revelation of primary testicular lymphoma with concurrent multiple extra nodal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamsy, Mohana; Dattatreya, P.S.; Parakh, Megha; Dayal, Monal; Prabhakar Rao, V.V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) a relatively rare disease of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas occurring with a lesser incidence of 1-2% has a propensity to occur at later ages above 50 years. PTL spreads to extra nodal sites due to deficiency of extra cellular adhesion molecules. We present detection of multiple sites of extra nodal involvement of PTL by F-18 positron emission tomography/computed tomography study aiding early detection of the dissemination thus aiding in staging and management. (author)

  11. An Interesting Case of Retropharyngeal Lymph Nodal Metastases in a Case of Iodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Vijayabhaskar, Ramakrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Metastases to cervical lymph node are fairly common in differentiated thyroid cancer. In iodine-refractory disease, the disease may persist in the thyroid bed, cervical lymph nodes, lungs, or the bones commonly. Retropharyngeal lymph nodal involvement in thyroid cancer is unusual and may even be the presenting complaint. We represent a case of iodine-refractory thyroid cancer with retropharyngeal lymph nodal involvement in addition to lung metastases.

  12. Lung Metastasis Mimicking Fingertip Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylemez, Salih; Demiroglu, Murat; Yayla, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Korhan; Alpan, Bugra; Ozger, Harzem

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis fingers (acral metastasis) are finding a poor prognosis. Past medical history should be questioned and metastasis from primary tumor should be kept in mind in patients with pain, swelling, and hyperemia in fingers. Successful surgical treatment on acral metastasis does not extend the life expectancy; however, it reduces the patient's pain during his terminal period, saves the functions of the limb, and increases life comfort. PMID:26236517

  13. Lung Metastasis Mimicking Fingertip Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis fingers (acral metastasis are finding a poor prognosis. Past medical history should be questioned and metastasis from primary tumor should be kept in mind in patients with pain, swelling, and hyperemia in fingers. Successful surgical treatment on acral metastasis does not extend the life expectancy; however, it reduces the patient’s pain during his terminal period, saves the functions of the limb, and increases life comfort.

  14. Spectral nodal method for one-speed X,Y-geometry Eigenvalue diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Dany S.; Lorenzo, Daniel M.; Hernandez, Carlos G.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2001-01-01

    Presented here is a new numerical nodal method for steady-state multidimensional neutron diffusion equation in rectangular geometry. Our method is based on a spectral analysis of the transverse-integrated nodal diffusion equations. These equations are obtained by integrating the diffusion equation in X and Y directions, and then considering flat approximations for the transverse leakage terms. These flat approximations are the only approximations that we consider in this method; as a result the numerical solutions are completely free from truncation errors in slab geometry. We show numerical results to illustrate the method's accuracy for coarse mesh calculations in a heterogeneous medium. (author)

  15. Exact boundary controllability of nodal profile for quasilinear hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien; Gu, Qilong

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the exact boundary controllability of nodal profile, a new kind of exact boundary controllability stimulated by some practical applications. This kind of controllability is useful in practice as it does not require any precisely given final state to be attained at a suitable time t=T by means of boundary controls, instead it requires the state to exactly fit any given demand (profile) on one or more nodes after a suitable time t=T by means of boundary controls. In this book we present a general discussion of this kind of controllability for general 1-D first order quasilinear hyperbolic systems and for general 1-D quasilinear wave equations on an interval as well as on a tree-like network using a modular-structure construtive method, suggested in LI Tatsien's monograph "Controllability and Observability for Quasilinear Hyperbolic Systems"(2010), and we establish a complete theory on the local exact boundary controllability of nodal profile for 1-D quasilinear hyp...

  16. Nodal Diffusion Burnable Poison Treatment for Prismatic Reactor Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ougouag, A.M.; Ferrer, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prismatic block version of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) considered as a candidate Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)design may use burnable poison pins in locations at some corners of the fuel blocks (i.e., assembly equivalent structures). The presence of any highly absorbing materials, such as these burnable poisons, within fuel blocks for hexagonal geometry, graphite-moderated High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) causes a local inter-block flux depression that most nodal diffusion-based method have failed to properly model or otherwise represent. The location of these burnable poisons near vertices results in an asymmetry in the morphology of the assemblies (or blocks). Hence the resulting inadequacy of traditional homogenization methods, as these 'spread' the actually local effect of the burnable poisons throughout the assembly. Furthermore, the actual effect of the burnable poison is primarily local with influence in its immediate vicinity, which happens to include a small region within the same assembly as well as similar regions in the adjacent assemblies. Traditional homogenization methods miss this artifact entirely. This paper presents a novel method for treating the local effect of the burnable poison explicitly in the context of a modern nodal method.

  17. Hereditary bone dysplasia with pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendse, Regan; Brink, Paul; Beighton, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A father and daughter both had multiple pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy. The father, aged 50 years, had at least 20 healed fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton, sustained by minor trauma over his 50-year lifespan, many of which had been surgically fixed prior to his first presentation to us. Fractures of the clavicles, thoracic cage and long bones of the arms and legs, had healed with malalignment and deformity. Healed fractures were complicated by ankylosis of the cervical vertebrae and both elbows. He also had osteoarthritis of the hands, with exuberant osteophytosis, and profound perceptive deafness. His general health was good, his intellect and facies were normal, and his sclerae were white. The daughter, aged 27 years, had sustained at least seven fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton following trivial injuries, in distribution similar to those of the father. She had also experienced painful swelling of the fingers, which preceded progressive development of nodal osteoarthropathy. Her hearing was normal. In both individuals, biochemical and immunological investigations yielded normal results. It was not possible for molecular studies to be undertaken. Pedigree data were consistent with autosomal dominant transmission, and this disorder appeared to be a previously undocumented heritable skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  18. Hereditary bone dysplasia with pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendse, Regan [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Division of Rheumatology, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Brink, Paul [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Beighton, Peter [University of Cape Town, Division of Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    A father and daughter both had multiple pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy. The father, aged 50 years, had at least 20 healed fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton, sustained by minor trauma over his 50-year lifespan, many of which had been surgically fixed prior to his first presentation to us. Fractures of the clavicles, thoracic cage and long bones of the arms and legs, had healed with malalignment and deformity. Healed fractures were complicated by ankylosis of the cervical vertebrae and both elbows. He also had osteoarthritis of the hands, with exuberant osteophytosis, and profound perceptive deafness. His general health was good, his intellect and facies were normal, and his sclerae were white. The daughter, aged 27 years, had sustained at least seven fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton following trivial injuries, in distribution similar to those of the father. She had also experienced painful swelling of the fingers, which preceded progressive development of nodal osteoarthropathy. Her hearing was normal. In both individuals, biochemical and immunological investigations yielded normal results. It was not possible for molecular studies to be undertaken. Pedigree data were consistent with autosomal dominant transmission, and this disorder appeared to be a previously undocumented heritable skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  19. Pulmonary metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Although thyroid cancer (TC) in its differentiated form is generally associated with a good prognosis and a near normal life expectancy, a subset of patients especially with distant metastatic disease may run an aggressive course leading to poor survival and early death. The clinical presentation and the manner in which the disease progresses differs with the site and type of the metastatic disease. The behaviour and course of skeletal metastasis has been described elsewhere. The biological behaviour and treatment of pulmonary metastatic disease is focussed on

  20. Endocannabinoids as Guardians of Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Tegeder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids including anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are involved in cancer pathophysiology in several ways, including tumor growth and progression, peritumoral inflammation, nausea and cancer pain. Recently we showed that the endocannabinoid profiles are deranged during cancer to an extent that this manifests in alterations of plasma endocannabinoids in cancer patients, which was mimicked by similar changes in rodent models of local and metastatic cancer. The present topical review summarizes the complexity of endocannabinoid signaling in the context of tumor growth and metastasis.

  1. Topological surface states in nodal superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Andreas P; Brydon, Philip M R

    2015-06-24

    Topological superconductors have become a subject of intense research due to their potential use for technical applications in device fabrication and quantum information. Besides fully gapped superconductors, unconventional superconductors with point or line nodes in their order parameter can also exhibit nontrivial topological characteristics. This article reviews recent progress in the theoretical understanding of nodal topological superconductors, with a focus on Weyl and noncentrosymmetric superconductors and their protected surface states. Using selected examples, we review the bulk topological properties of these systems, study different types of topological surface states, and examine their unusual properties. Furthermore, we survey some candidate materials for topological superconductivity and discuss different experimental signatures of topological surface states.

  2. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    by identifying the points p1 and p2. If m ≥ 2, let R1,...,Rm−1 be m − 1 copies of the projective line P1 and let xi,yi be two distinct points in Ri. Let R be the nodal curve which arises from the union. R0 ⊔ R1 ⊔···⊔ Rm−1 ⊔ Rm by identifying p1 ∈ R0 and p2 ∈ Rm with x1 ∈ R1 and ym−1 ∈ Rm−1 respectively and by identifying ...

  3. A transient, Hex-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatilla, Y.A.M.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    This document constitutes Volume 1 of the Final Report of a three-year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. The original motivation for the work was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor. Thus, part of the funding was by way of pass-through money from the Savannah River Laboratory. With this intent in mind, a three-dimensional (Hex-Z), general-energy-group transient, nodal code was created, programmed, and tested. In order to improve accuracy, correction terms, called open-quotes discontinuity factors,close quotes were incorporated into the nodal equations. Ideal values of these factors force the nodal equations to provide node-integrated reaction rates and leakage rates across nodal surfaces that match exactly those edited from a more exact reference calculation. Since the exact reference solution is needed to compute the ideal discontinuity factors, the fact that they result in exact nodal equations would be of little practical interest were it not that approximate discontinuity factors, found at a greatly reduced cost, often yield very accurate results. For example, for light-water reactors, discontinuity factors found from two-dimensional, fine-mesh, multigroup transport solutions for two-dimensional cuts of a fuel assembly provide very accurate predictions of three-dimensional, full-core power distributions. The present document (volume 1) deals primarily with the specification, programming and testing of the three-dimensional, Hex-Z computer program. The program solves both the static (eigenvalue) and transient, general-energy-group, nodal equations corrected by user-supplied discontinuity factors

  4. A geometrically exact beam element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstmayr, Johannes; Matikainen, Marko K.; Mikkola, Aki M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Reissner's classical nonlinear rod formulation, as implemented by Simo and Vu-Quoc by means of the large rotation vector approach, is implemented into the framework of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The implementation is accomplished in the planar case accounting for coupled axial, bending, and shear deformation. By employing the virtual work of elastic forces similarly to Simo and Vu-Quoc in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the numerical results of the formulation are identical to those of the large rotation vector formulation. It is noteworthy, however, that the material definition in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation can differ from the material definition used in Reissner's beam formulation. Based on an analytical eigenvalue analysis, it turns out that the high frequencies of cross section deformation modes in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are only slightly higher than frequencies of common shear modes, which are present in the classical large rotation vector formulation of Simo and Vu-Quoc, as well. Thus, previous claims that the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is inefficient or would lead to ill-conditioned finite element matrices, as compared to classical approaches, could be refuted. In the introduced beam element, locking is prevented by means of reduced integration of certain parts of the elastic forces. Several classical large deformation static and dynamic examples as well as an eigenvalue analysis document the equivalence of classical nonlinear rod theories and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for the case of appropriate material definitions. The results also agree highly with those computed in commercial finite element codes

  5. The Use of System Codes in Scaling Studies: Relevant Techniques for Qualifying NPP Nodalizations for Particular Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martinez-Quiroga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available System codes along with necessary nodalizations are valuable tools for thermal hydraulic safety analysis. Qualifying both codes and nodalizations is an essential step prior to their use in any significant study involving code calculations. Since most existing experimental data come from tests performed on the small scale, any qualification process must therefore address scale considerations. This paper describes the methodology developed at the Technical University of Catalonia in order to contribute to the qualification of Nuclear Power Plant nodalizations by means of scale disquisitions. The techniques that are presented include the so-called Kv-scaled calculation approach as well as the use of “hybrid nodalizations” and “scaled-up nodalizations.” These methods have revealed themselves to be very helpful in producing the required qualification and in promoting further improvements in nodalization. The paper explains both the concepts and the general guidelines of the method, while an accompanying paper will complete the presentation of the methodology as well as showing the results of the analysis of scaling discrepancies that appeared during the posttest simulations of PKL-LSTF counterpart tests performed on the PKL-III and ROSA-2 OECD/NEA Projects. Both articles together produce the complete description of the methodology that has been developed in the framework of the use of NPP nodalizations in the support to plant operation and control.

  6. Nodal involvement in Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma assessed by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoro Tess, J.D.; Balzarini, L.; Ceglia, E.; Petrillo, R.; Musumeci, R.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrates a good capability in distinguishing nodal involvement in hodgkin disease and nonhodgkin lymphoma both in the chest and in the retroperitoneal areas the initial presentation of the disease. However CT and lymphangiography demonstrated comparable or superior values of accuracy and sensitivity. (H.W.) 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  7. A nodal Grean's function method of reactor core fuel management code, NGCFM2D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongsheng; Yao Dong.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the mathematical model and program structure of the nodal Green's function method of reactor core fuel management code, NGCFM2D. Computing results of some reactor cores by NGCFM2D are analysed and compared with other codes

  8. An error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS N solution in a rectangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we report the mathematical analysis concerning error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS N solution in a rectangle. For such we present an efficient algorithm, called LTS N 2D-Diag solution for Cartesian geometry

  9. On the relationship between some nodal schemes and the finite element method in static diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedon-Magnaud, C.; Hennart, J.P.; Lautard, J.J.

    1983-03-01

    An unified formulation of non conforming finite elements with quadrature formula and simple nodal scheme is presented. The theoretical convergence is obtained for the previous scheme when the mesh is refined. Numerical tests are provided in order to bear out the theorical results

  10. [Parahisian atrial tachycardia or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowski, Michał; Jaworska-Wilczyńska, Maria; Urbanek, Piotr; Bodalski, Robert; Derejko, Paweł; Gajek, Jacek; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek

    2010-08-01

    We present a case of a 61 year-old woman with tachycardia originating close to the His bundle where radiofrequency (RF) ablation may bear potential risk of atrioventricular (AV) block. In this case report we discuss the possibility of a AV nodal reciprocating tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough. Patient was safely and effectively treated with RF catheter ablation.

  11. Robust doubly charged nodal lines and nodal surfaces in centrosymmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Sigrist, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Weyl points in three spatial dimensions are characterized by a Z -valued charge—the Chern number—which makes them stable against a wide range of perturbations. A set of Weyl points can mutually annihilate only if their net charge vanishes, a property we refer to as robustness. While nodal loops are usually not robust in this sense, it has recently been shown using homotopy arguments that in the centrosymmetric extension of the AI symmetry class they nevertheless develop a Z2 charge analogous to the Chern number. Nodal loops carrying a nontrivial value of this Z2 charge are robust, i.e., they can be gapped out only by a pairwise annihilation and not on their own. As this is an additional charge independent of the Berry π -phase flowing along the band degeneracy, such nodal loops are, in fact, doubly charged. In this manuscript, we generalize the homotopy discussion to the centrosymmetric extensions of all Atland-Zirnbauer classes. We develop a tailored mathematical framework dubbed the AZ +I classification and show that in three spatial dimensions such robust and multiply charged nodes appear in four of such centrosymmetric extensions, namely, AZ +I classes CI and AI lead to doubly charged nodal lines, while D and BDI support doubly charged nodal surfaces. We remark that no further crystalline symmetries apart from the spatial inversion are necessary for their stability. We provide a description of the corresponding topological charges, and develop simple tight-binding models of various semimetallic and superconducting phases that exhibit these nodes. We also indicate how the concept of robust and multiply charged nodes generalizes to other spatial dimensions.

  12. Vaginal metastasis of pancreatic cancer | Benhayoune | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal metastasis from pancreatic cancer is an extreme case and often indicates a poor prognosis. We present a case of pancreatic carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina that was discovered by vaginal bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma discovered of ...

  13. Radiotherapy of adult nodal non Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamen, G.; Thirion, P.

    1999-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been modified by the introduction of efficient chemotherapy and the development of different pathological classifications. The recommended treatment of early-stage aggressive lymphomas is primarily a combination chemotherapy. The interest of adjuvant radiotherapy remains unclear and has to be established through large prospective trials. If radiation therapy has to be delivered, the historical results of exclusive radiation therapy showed that involved-fields and a dose of 35-40 Gy (daily fraction of 1.8 Gy, 5 days a week) are the optimal schedule. The interest of radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced-stage aggressive lymphoma is yet to be proven. Further studies had to stratify localized stages according to the factors of the International Prognostic Index. For easy-stage low-grade lymphoma, radiotherapy remains the standard treatment. However, the appropriate technique to use is controversial. Involved-field irradiation at a dose of 35 Gy seems to be the optimal schedule, providing a 10 year disease-free survival rate of 50 % and no major toxicity. There is no standard indication of radiotherapy in the treatment advanced-stage low-grade lymphoma. For 'new' nodal lymphoma's types, the indication of radiotherapy cannot be established (mantle-zone lymphoma, marginal zone B-cell lymphoma) or must take into account the natural history (Burkitt's lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma) and the sensibility to others therapeutic methods. (authors)

  14. Error estimation for variational nodal calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Lewis, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive grid methods are widely employed in finite element solutions to both solid and fluid mechanics problems. Either the size of the element is reduced (h refinement) or the order of the trial function is increased (p refinement) locally to improve the accuracy of the solution without a commensurate increase in computational effort. Success of these methods requires effective local error estimates to determine those parts of the problem domain where the solution should be refined. Adaptive methods have recently been applied to the spatial variables of the discrete ordinates equations. As a first step in the development of adaptive methods that are compatible with the variational nodal method, the authors examine error estimates for use in conjunction with spatial variables. The variational nodal method lends itself well to p refinement because the space-angle trial functions are hierarchical. Here they examine an error estimator for use with spatial p refinement for the diffusion approximation. Eventually, angular refinement will also be considered using spherical harmonics approximations

  15. Nodal domains on isospectral quantum graphs: the resolution of isospectrality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Ram; Shapira, Talia; Smilansky, Uzy

    2006-01-01

    We present and discuss isospectral quantum graphs which are not isometric. These graphs are the analogues of the isospectral domains in R 2 which were introduced recently in Gordon et al (1992 Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 27 134-8), Chapman (1995 Am. Math. Mon. 102 124), Buser et al (1994 Int. Math. Res. Not. 9 391-400), Okada and Shudo (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 5911-22), Jakobson et al (2006 J. Comput. Appl. Math. 194 141-55) and Levitin et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 2073-82)) all based on Sunada's construction of isospectral domains (Sunada T 1985 Ann. Math. 121 196-86). After presenting some of the properties of these graphs, we discuss a few examples which support the conjecture that by counting the nodal domains of the corresponding eigenfunctions one can resolve the isospectral ambiguity

  16. Error Estimation and Accuracy Improvements in Nodal Transport Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamonsky, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of the solutions produced by the Discrete Ordinates neutron transport nodal methods is analyzed.The obtained new numerical methodologies increase the accuracy of the analyzed scheems and give a POSTERIORI error estimators. The accuracy improvement is obtained with new equations that make the numerical procedure free of truncation errors and proposing spatial reconstructions of the angular fluxes that are more accurate than those used until present. An a POSTERIORI error estimator is rigurously obtained for one dimensional systems that, in certain type of problems, allows to quantify the accuracy of the solutions. From comparisons with the one dimensional results, an a POSTERIORI error estimator is also obtained for multidimensional systems. LOCAL indicators, which quantify the spatial distribution of the errors, are obtained by the decomposition of the menctioned estimators. This makes the proposed methodology suitable to perform adaptive calculations. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the theoretical developements and to illustrate the ranges where the proposed approximations are valid

  17. Comparison of treatment outcomes between involved-field and elective nodal irradiation in limited-stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hak-Jae; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Heo, Dae-Seog; Kim, Young-Whan; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the usefulness of involved-field irradiation and the impact of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-based staging on treatment outcomes in limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Eighty patients who received definitive chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty patients were treated with involved-field irradiation, which means that the radiotherapy portal includes only clinically identifiable tumors. The other 30 patients were irradiated with a comprehensive portal, including uninvolved mediastinal and/or supraclavicular lymph nodes, so-called elective nodal irradiation. No significant difference was seen in clinical factors between the two groups. At a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 5-75 months), no significant differences were observed in 3 year overall survival (44.6 vs. 54.1%, P=0.220) and 3 year progression-free survival (24.4 vs. 42.8%, P=0.133) between the involved-field irradiation group and the elective nodal irradiation group, respectively. For patients who did not undergo positron emission tomography scans, 3 year overall survival (29.3 vs. 56.3%, P=0.022) and 3 year progression-free survival (11.0 vs. 50.0%, P=0.040) were significantly longer in the elective nodal irradiation group. Crude incidences of isolated nodal failure were 6.0% in the involved-field irradiation group and 0% in the elective nodal irradiation group, respectively. All isolated nodal failures were developed in patients who had not undergone positron emission tomography scans in their initial work-ups. If patients did not undergo positron emission tomography-based staging, the omission of elective nodal irradiation resulted in impaired survival outcomes and raised the risk of isolated nodal failure. Therefore, involved-field irradiation for limited-stage small cell lung cancer might be reasonable only with positron emission tomography scan implementation. (author)

  18. Final Report, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Project: An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.; Palmer, Todd S.; Smith, Kord S.; Clarno, Kevin; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-01-01

    OAK (B204) Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model'' The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations

  19. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over C C . Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over R R , with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism ...

  1. Impact of splenic hilar lymph node metastasis on prognosis in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taeil; Kwon, In Gyu; Lee, Joong Ho; Choi, Youn Young; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Noh, Sung Hoon; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2017-10-13

    Impact of splenic hilar LN dissection during total gastrectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the impact on prognosis of splenic hilar lymph node(LN) metastasis compared to that of metastasis to other regional LN groups. Patients who underwent total gastrectomy with D2 LN dissection from 2000 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. The clinicopathologic characteristics and long-term results of patients with splenic hilar LN metastasis were compared to those of patients with only metastasis to other extraperigastric LNs (stations #8a, #9, #11, or #12a). To investigate the survival benefit of performing splenic hilar LN dissection, the estimated therapeutic index for the procedure was calculated by multiplying the incidence of metastases in the hilar region by the survival rates for individuals with nodal involvement in that region. Of 602 patients, 87(14.5%) had hilar LN metastasis. The 5-year overall and relapse-free survival rates for patients with hilar LN metastasis were 24.1% and 12.1%, respectively. These rates were similar to those for patients with metastasis to other extraperigastric LNs ( P > 0.05), with similar recurrence patterns. Overall survival in the hilar LN metastasis group was better than that for patients with distant metastasis( P hilar LN dissection was 3.5, which was similar to index values for LN dissection at other extraperigastric LNs. Dissection of splenic hilar LNs during total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer allows for a prognosis similar to that achieved with dissection of extraperigastric LNs.

  2. Ureteral Metastasis from Prostatic Carcinoma with an Associated Ureteral Stone: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chu Liu

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral metastasis is rare, and only a few cases of ureteral metastasis from prostatic carcinoma have been reported. We present a case of ureteral metastasis from prostatic carcinoma that was also associated with a ureteral stone. To our knowledge, this is the second case with a ureteral stone at the site of the metastatic lesion.

  3. Computed tomography demonstration of a hypothalamic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with panhypopituitarism secondary to hypothalamic metastasis. A primary hypothalamic abnormality was suggested by computed tomographic (CT) demonstration of a small enhancing circular mass centered within the hypothalamus. Sellar radiographs and cerebral angiography were normal. (orig.)

  4. Computed tomography demonstration of a hypothalamic metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1983-05-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with panhypopituitarism secondary to hypothalamic metastasis. A primary hypothalamic abnormality was suggested by computed tomographic (CT) demonstration of a small enhancing circular mass centered within the hypothalamus. Sellar radiographs and cerebral angiography were normal.

  5. Defining the incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, Emily Z; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Voss, Rachel K; Cormier, Janice N; Torres, Keila E; Hunt, Kelly K; Feig, Barry W; Roland, Christina L

    2018-01-01

    The incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis (LNM, N1) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is unclear. Recent studies have focused on extremity/trunk STS (ETSTS). We sought to define the subgroup of patients with LNM at sarcoma diagnosis across all disease sites and histologies. We identified and categorized 89,870 STS patients from the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012) by nodal stage. Pathologically confirmed LNM (pN1) were identified in 1404 patients; 1750 had clinically suspicious but not pathologically confirmed LNM (cN1). Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method. Of 3154 patients (3.5%) with pN1 or cN1 LNM at presentation, 1310 had synchronous distant metastasis (M1). LNM affected a small proportion of patients (5.8% head/neck, 5.3% intrathoracic, 5.1% intra-abdominal, 2.0% ETSTS). Angiosarcoma (6%), epithelioid (13%), clear cell (16%), and small cell sarcoma (19%) had the highest incidence of LNM, although liposarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma, and leiomyosarcoma accounted for the greatest number of LNM patients. For pN1M0 disease, median overall survival (OS) was 28.2 months, varying by histology. Among patients with pN1M0 STS, angiosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and fibrous histiocytoma were associated with worse median OS (19.4, 23.8, 27.1, and 29.3 months) compared to epithelioid sarcoma and liposarcoma (49.6 and 56.0 months, p < 0.001). Despite clinical suspicion, pathologic LN evaluation in STS is inconsistently performed. LNM occurs across anatomic disease sites and is unevenly distributed across histologies. Although M1 disease portends poor prognosis regardless of LN status, LNM predicts worse OS in a histology-dependent manner in M0 disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. An integral nodal variational method for multigroup criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.; Tsoulfanidis, N.

    2003-01-01

    An integral formulation of the variational nodal method is presented and applied to a series of benchmark critically problems. The method combines an integral transport treatment of the even-parity flux within the spatial node with an odd-parity spherical harmonics expansion of the Lagrange multipliers at the node interfaces. The response matrices that result from this formulation are compatible with those in the VARIANT code at Argonne National Laboratory. Either homogeneous or heterogeneous nodes may be employed. In general, for calculations requiring higher-order angular approximations, the integral method yields solutions with comparable accuracy while requiring substantially less CPU time and memory than the standard spherical harmonics expansion using the same spatial approximations. (author)

  7. An Adaptive Approach to Variational Nodal Diffusion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Lewis, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    An adaptive grid method is presented for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in two dimensions. The primal hybrid finite elements employed in the variational nodal method are used to reduce the diffusion equation to a coupled set of elemental response matrices. An a posteriori error estimator is developed to indicate the magnitude of local errors stemming from the low-order elemental interface approximations. An iterative procedure is implemented in which p refinement is applied locally by increasing the polynomial order of the interface approximations. The automated algorithm utilizes the a posteriori estimator to achieve local error reductions until an acceptable level of accuracy is reached throughout the problem domain. Application to a series of X-Y benchmark problems indicates the reduction of computational effort achievable by replacing uniform with adaptive refinement of the spatial approximations

  8. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  9. Fourier-Accelerated Nodal Solvers (FANS) for homogenization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Matthias; Fritzen, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Fourier-based homogenization schemes are useful to analyze heterogeneous microstructures represented by 2D or 3D image data. These iterative schemes involve discrete periodic convolutions with global ansatz functions (mostly fundamental solutions). The convolutions are efficiently computed using the fast Fourier transform. FANS operates on nodal variables on regular grids and converges to finite element solutions. Compared to established Fourier-based methods, the number of convolutions is reduced by FANS. Additionally, fast iterations are possible by assembling the stiffness matrix. Due to the related memory requirement, the method is best suited for medium-sized problems. A comparative study involving established Fourier-based homogenization schemes is conducted for a thermal benchmark problem with a closed-form solution. Detailed technical and algorithmic descriptions are given for all methods considered in the comparison. Furthermore, many numerical examples focusing on convergence properties for both thermal and mechanical problems, including also plasticity, are presented.

  10. Ultrasound beam characteristics of a symmetric nodal origami based array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Origami-the ancient art of paper folding-is being explored in acoustics for effective focusing of sound. In this short communication, we present a numerical investigation of beam characteristics for an origami based ultrasound array. A spatial re-configuration of array elements is performed based upon the symmetric nodal origami. The effect of fold angle on the ultrasound beam is evaluated using frequency domain and transient finite element analysis. It was found that increase in the fold angle reduces near field length by 58% and also doubles the beam intensity as compared to the linear array. Transient analysis also indicated 80% reduction in the -6dB beam width, which can improve the lateral resolution of phased array. Such a spatially re-configurable array could potentially be used in the future to reduce the cost of electronics in the phased array instrumentation.

  11. Space-angle approximations in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E. E.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T.

    1999-01-01

    The variational nodal method is formulated such that the angular and spatial approximations maybe examined separately. Spherical harmonic, simplified spherical harmonic, and discrete ordinate approximations are coupled to the primal hybrid finite element treatment of the spatial variables. Within this framework, two classes of spatial trial functions are presented: (1) orthogonal polynomials for the treatment of homogeneous nodes and (2) bilinear finite subelement trial functions for the treatment of fuel assembly sized nodes in which fuel-pin cell cross sections are represented explicitly. Polynomial and subelement trial functions are applied to benchmark water-reactor problems containing MOX fuel using spherical harmonic and simplified spherical harmonic approximations. The resulting accuracy and computing costs are compared

  12. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  13. Static benchmarking of the NESTLE advanced nodal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Results from the NESTLE advanced nodal code are presented for multidimensional numerical benchmarks representing four different types of reactors, and predictions from NESTLE are compared with measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The numerical benchmarks include cases representative of PWRs, boiling water reactors (BWRs), CANDU heavy water reactors (HWRs), and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The measured PWR data include critical soluble boron concentrations and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity. The results demonstrate that NESTLE correctly solves the multigroup diffusion equations for both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries, that it reliably calculates k eff and reactivity coefficients for PWRs, and that--subsequent to the incorporation of additional thermal-hydraulic models--it will be able to perform accurate calculations for the corresponding parameters in BWRs, HWRs, and HTGRs as well

  14. A nodalization study of steam separator in real time simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horugshyang, Lein; Luh, R.T.J.; Zen-Yow, Wang

    1999-01-01

    The motive of this paper is to investigate the influence of steam separator nodalization on reactor thermohydraulics in terms of stability and level response. Three different nodalizations of steam separator are studied by using THEATRE and REMARK Code in a BWR simulator. The first nodalization is the traditional one with two nodes for steam separator. In this nodalization, the steam separation is modeled in the outer node, i.e., upper downcomer. Separated steam enters the Steen dome node and the liquid goes to the feedwater node. The second nodalization is similar to the first one with the steam separation modeled in the inner node. There is one additional junction connecting steam dome node and the inner node. The liquid fallback junction connects the inner node and feedwater node. The third nodalization is a combination of the former two with an integrated node for steam separator. Boundary conditions in this study are provided by a simplified feedwater and main steam driver. For comparison purpose, three tests including full power steady state initialisation, recirculation pumps runback and reactor scram are conducted. Major parameters such as reactor pressure, reactor level, void fractions, neutronic power and junction flows are recorded for analysis. Test results clearly show that the first nodalization is stable for steady state initialisation. However it has too responsive level performance in core flow reduction transients. The second nodalization is the closest representation of real plant structure, but not the performance. Test results show that an instability occurs in the separator region for both steady state initialisation and transients. This instability is caused by an unbalanced momentum in the dual loop configuration. The magnitude of the oscillation reduces as the power decreases. No superiority to the other nodalizations is shown in the test results. The third nodalization shows both stability and responsiveness in the tests. (author)

  15. Topological surface states in nodal superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, Andreas P; Brydon, Philip M R

    2015-01-01

    Topological superconductors have become a subject of intense research due to their potential use for technical applications in device fabrication and quantum information. Besides fully gapped superconductors, unconventional superconductors with point or line nodes in their order parameter can also exhibit nontrivial topological characteristics. This article reviews recent progress in the theoretical understanding of nodal topological superconductors, with a focus on Weyl and noncentrosymmetric superconductors and their protected surface states. Using selected examples, we review the bulk topological properties of these systems, study different types of topological surface states, and examine their unusual properties. Furthermore, we survey some candidate materials for topological superconductivity and discuss different experimental signatures of topological surface states. (topical review)

  16. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  17. An approach to model reactor core nodalization for deterministic safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz; Samsudin, Mohd Rafie; Mamat @ Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal; Roslan, Ridha; Sadri, Abd Aziz; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd

    2016-01-01

    Adopting good nodalization strategy is essential to produce an accurate and high quality input model for Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) using System Thermal-Hydraulic (SYS-TH) computer code. The purpose of such analysis is to demonstrate the compliance against regulatory requirements and to verify the behavior of the reactor during normal and accident conditions as it was originally designed. Numerous studies in the past have been devoted to the development of the nodalization strategy for small research reactor (e.g. 250kW) up to the bigger research reactor (e.g. 30MW). As such, this paper aims to discuss the state-of-arts thermal hydraulics channel to be employed in the nodalization for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor specifically for the reactor core. At present, the required thermal-hydraulic parameters for reactor core, such as core geometrical data (length, coolant flow area, hydraulic diameters, and axial power profile) and material properties (including the UZrH1.6, stainless steel clad, graphite reflector) have been collected, analyzed and consolidated in the Reference Database of RTP using standardized methodology, mainly derived from the available technical documentations. Based on the available information in the database, assumptions made on the nodalization approach and calculations performed will be discussed and presented. The development and identification of the thermal hydraulics channel for the reactor core will be implemented during the SYS-TH calculation using RELAP5-3D® computer code. This activity presented in this paper is part of the development of overall nodalization description for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor under the IAEA Norwegian Extra-Budgetary Programme (NOKEBP) mentoring project on Expertise Development through the Analysis of Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics for Malaysia, denoted as EARTH-M.

  18. An approach to model reactor core nodalization for deterministic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz, E-mail: mohdfaizs@tnb.com.my; Samsudin, Mohd Rafie, E-mail: rafies@tnb.com.my [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics & Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia); Mamat Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal, E-mail: m-rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Prototypes & Plant Development Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia); Roslan, Ridha, E-mail: ridha@aelb.gov.my; Sadri, Abd Aziz [Nuclear Installation Divisions, Atomic Energy Licensing Board (Malaysia); Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd [Reactor Technology Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Adopting good nodalization strategy is essential to produce an accurate and high quality input model for Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) using System Thermal-Hydraulic (SYS-TH) computer code. The purpose of such analysis is to demonstrate the compliance against regulatory requirements and to verify the behavior of the reactor during normal and accident conditions as it was originally designed. Numerous studies in the past have been devoted to the development of the nodalization strategy for small research reactor (e.g. 250kW) up to the bigger research reactor (e.g. 30MW). As such, this paper aims to discuss the state-of-arts thermal hydraulics channel to be employed in the nodalization for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor specifically for the reactor core. At present, the required thermal-hydraulic parameters for reactor core, such as core geometrical data (length, coolant flow area, hydraulic diameters, and axial power profile) and material properties (including the UZrH{sub 1.6}, stainless steel clad, graphite reflector) have been collected, analyzed and consolidated in the Reference Database of RTP using standardized methodology, mainly derived from the available technical documentations. Based on the available information in the database, assumptions made on the nodalization approach and calculations performed will be discussed and presented. The development and identification of the thermal hydraulics channel for the reactor core will be implemented during the SYS-TH calculation using RELAP5-3D{sup ®} computer code. This activity presented in this paper is part of the development of overall nodalization description for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor under the IAEA Norwegian Extra-Budgetary Programme (NOKEBP) mentoring project on Expertise Development through the Analysis of Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics for Malaysia, denoted as EARTH-M.

  19. An approach to model reactor core nodalization for deterministic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz; Samsudin, Mohd Rafie; Mamat Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal; Roslan, Ridha; Sadri, Abd Aziz; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd

    2016-01-01

    Adopting good nodalization strategy is essential to produce an accurate and high quality input model for Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) using System Thermal-Hydraulic (SYS-TH) computer code. The purpose of such analysis is to demonstrate the compliance against regulatory requirements and to verify the behavior of the reactor during normal and accident conditions as it was originally designed. Numerous studies in the past have been devoted to the development of the nodalization strategy for small research reactor (e.g. 250kW) up to the bigger research reactor (e.g. 30MW). As such, this paper aims to discuss the state-of-arts thermal hydraulics channel to be employed in the nodalization for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor specifically for the reactor core. At present, the required thermal-hydraulic parameters for reactor core, such as core geometrical data (length, coolant flow area, hydraulic diameters, and axial power profile) and material properties (including the UZrH 1.6 , stainless steel clad, graphite reflector) have been collected, analyzed and consolidated in the Reference Database of RTP using standardized methodology, mainly derived from the available technical documentations. Based on the available information in the database, assumptions made on the nodalization approach and calculations performed will be discussed and presented. The development and identification of the thermal hydraulics channel for the reactor core will be implemented during the SYS-TH calculation using RELAP5-3D ® computer code. This activity presented in this paper is part of the development of overall nodalization description for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor under the IAEA Norwegian Extra-Budgetary Programme (NOKEBP) mentoring project on Expertise Development through the Analysis of Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics for Malaysia, denoted as EARTH-M

  20. An unusual metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: Biceps brachii muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Sariaydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metastasis of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a rare occurrence, and the most effective treatment modality is currently unknown. In this case presentation, we report a patient with NSCLC who underwent palliative radiotherapy for biceps muscle metastasis of NSLCS. Our case was a 49-year-old woman who had lung adenocarcinoma with biceps muscle metastasis. She had been followed up for 2 years due to Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma from whom a biopsy was taken from a painful mass in right arm that was found to be compatible with metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. She had palliative radiotherapy for her painful mass and systemic chemotherapy was planned. After palliative radiotherapy, the pain originating from the metastatic mass in right biceps muscle alleviated. Palliative radiotherapy can be a valuable treatment option for cases with skeletal muscle metastasis.

  1. Gastric Metastasis of Triple Negative Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geredeli, Caglayan; Dogru, Osman; Omeroglu, Ethem; Yilmaz, Farise; Cicekci, Faruk

    2015-05-05

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis of an invasive lobular carcinoma. In this report, we present a case of gastric metastasis from triple-negative invasive lobular breast cancer. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis by distinguishing gastric metastasis from breast cancer in order to select the best initial treatment for systemic diseases of breast cancer. Considering our case, healthcare professionals should take into account that cases with invasive lobular breast cancer may experience unusual metastases.

  2. Angiosarcoma of the Thyroid and Regional Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid angiosarcomas are typically infiltrative and large tumors with very similar clinical findings of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid. Early hematogenous metastasis is very frequent, but regional lymph node metastasis is quite rare. We present a case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in a 68 years old man with regional lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy with right modified radical neck dissection was applied. Four out of 19 lymph nodes dissected were seen to contain metastasis. Metastatic tumor was composed of sarcomatous areas containing large numbers of blood filled clefts. There after the surgery PET-CT was performed and multiple metastatic involvements were reported. Thyroid angiosarcomas are completely different tumors from angiomatoid anaplastic carcinomas. Longer survival with these tumors is only possible with agressive surgery and in case of regional LN metastasis, neck dissection should be done.

  3. VARIANT: VARIational anisotropic nodal transport for multidimensional Cartesian and hexadgonal geometry calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Carrico, C.B.; Lewis, E.E.

    1995-10-01

    The theoretical basis, implementation information and numerical results are presented for VARIANT (VARIational Anisotropic Neutron Transport), a FORTRAN module of the DIF3D code system at Argonne National Laboratory. VARIANT employs the variational nodal method to solve multigroup steady-state neutron diffusion and transport problems. The variational nodal method is a hybrid finite element method that guarantees nodal balance and permits spatial refinement through the use of hierarchical complete polynomial trial functions. Angular variables are expanded with complete or simplified P 1 , P 3 or P 5 5 spherical harmonics approximations with full anisotropic scattering capability. Nodal response matrices are obtained, and the within-group equations are solved by red-black or four-color iteration, accelerated by a partitioned matrix algorithm. Fission source and upscatter iterations strategies follow those of DIF3D. Two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal geometries are implemented. Forward and adjoint eigenvalue, fixed source, gamma heating, and criticality (concentration) search problems may be performed

  4. Nodalization qualification process of the PSBVVER facility for the Cathare2 thermal-hydraulic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nevo, A.; Araneo, D.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.

    2004-01-01

    The present document deals with the nodalization qualification process of the PSB-VVER test facility for Cathare2 code. PSB-VVER facility is a 1/300 volume scale model of a VVER-1000, reactor installed at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre in 1998. The version V1.5b of the Cathare2 code has been used. In order to evaluate the nodalization performance, the qualifying procedure set up at the DIMNP of Pisa University (UNIPI) has been applied that foresees two qualification levels: a 'steady state' level and an 'on transient' level. After the steady state behavior check of the nodalization, it has been preformed the on transient qualification the PSB-VVER test 2. It is a 11% equivalent break in Upper Plenum with the actuation of one high pressure injection system, connected to the hot leg of the loop 4, and 4 passive systems (ECCS hydro-accumulators), connected to the outlet plenum and to the inlet chamber of the downcomer. The low-pressure injection system is not available in the test. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the first step of the nodalization qualification adopted for the PSB test analyses is achieved and the PSB facility input deck is available and ready to use. The quantitative accuracy of the performed calculation has been evaluated by using the FFT-BM tool developed at the University of Pisa.(author)

  5. Local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hideya; Suzuki, Gen; Aibe, Norihiro; Masui, Koji; Tatekawa, Kotoha; Sasaki, Naomi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Satoaki; Yamada, Kei

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer; however, the optimal treatment field remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively investigated 35 patients treated for a postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer with local field radiotherapy between December 2008 and March 2016. The median irradiation dose was 60 Gy (range: 50-67.5 Gy). Thirty-one (88.6%) patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range: 5-94 months). The 2-year overall survival was 55.7%, with a median survival time of 29.9 months. In the univariate analysis, the maximal diameter ≤20 mm (P = 0.0383), solitary lesion (P = 0.0352), and the complete remission after treatment (P = 0.00411) had a significantly better prognosis. A total of 27 of 35 patients (77.1%) had progressive disease (loco-regional failure [n = 9], distant metastasis [n = 7], and both loco-regional failure and distant metastasis [n = 11]). No patients had Grade 3 or greater mucositis. Local field radiotherapy is a considerable treatment option for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  7. A nodal expansion method using conformal mapping for hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.; Shatilla, Y.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hexagonal nodal methods adopting the same transverse integration process used for square nodal methods face the subtle theoretical problem that this process leads to highly singular nonphysical terms in the diffusion equation. Lawrence, in developing the DIF3D-N code, tried to approximate the singular terms with relatively simple polynomials. In the HEX-NOD code, Wagner ignored the singularities to simplify the diffusion equation and introduced compensating terms in the nodal equations to restore the nodal balance relation. More recently developed hexagonal nodal codes, such as HEXPE-DITE and the hexagonal version of PANTHER, used methods similar to Wagner's. It will be shown that for light water reactor applications, these two different approximations significantly degraded the accuracy of the respective method as compared to the established square nodal methods. Alternatively, the method of conformal mapping was suggested to map a hexagon to a rectangle, with the unique feature of leaving the diffusion operator invariant, thereby fundamentally resolving the problems associated with transverse integration. This method is now implemented in the Westinghouse hexagonal nodal code ANC-H. In this paper we report on the results of comparing the three methods for a variety of problems via benchmarking against the fine-mesh finite difference code

  8. Benchmarking with high-order nodal diffusion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasevic, D.; Larsen, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress in the solution of multidimensional neutron diffusion problems was made in the late 1970s with the introduction of nodal methods. Modern nodal reactor analysis codes provide significant improvements in both accuracy and computing speed over earlier codes based on fine-mesh finite difference methods. In the past, the performance of advanced nodal methods was determined by comparisons with fine-mesh finite difference codes. More recently, the excellent spatial convergence of nodal methods has permitted their use in establishing reference solutions for some important bench-mark problems. The recent development of the self-consistent high-order nodal diffusion method and its subsequent variational formulation has permitted the calculation of reference solutions with one node per assembly mesh size. In this paper, we compare results for four selected benchmark problems to those obtained by high-order response matrix methods and by two well-known state-of-the-art nodal methods (the open-quotes analyticalclose quotes and open-quotes nodal expansionclose quotes methods)

  9. Parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    The parotid gland is an uncommon site of metastasis from carcinomas arising outside the head and neck region. Involvement of the parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis or presentation is rare. The present case report is the first, to our knowledge, to describe the management and outcome of an elderly man whose first presentation of an asymptomatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was that of a rapidly growing fungating left parotid mass Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  10. Modifying nodal pricing method considering market participants optimality and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Soofiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a method for nodal pricing and market clearing mechanism considering reliability of the system. The effects of components reliability on electricity price, market participants’ profit and system social welfare is considered. This paper considers reliability both for evaluation of market participant’s optimality as well as for fair pricing and market clearing mechanism. To achieve fair pricing, nodal price has been obtained through a two stage optimization problem and to achieve fair market clearing mechanism, comprehensive criteria has been introduced for optimality evaluation of market participant. Social welfare of the system and system efficiency are increased under proposed modified nodal pricing method.

  11. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

  12. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  13. Unusual case of cavitary lung metastasis from squamous cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare case of cavitary lung metastasis of a uterine cervix cancer, ... A month later, the patient presented with gynecological bleeding and a pneumothorax. ... Pelvic examination and MRI showed a subsequent local cervix recurrence.

  14. Curative resection by splenectomy for solitary splenic metastasis from early gastric cancer: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Junichi; Kubo, Naoki; Ishizone, Satoshi; Karasawa, Fumitoshi; Nakayama, Ataru

    2017-06-20

    Solitary metastasis of a malignancy to the spleen is rare, particularly for gastric cancer. Only a few case reports have documented isolated splenic metastasis from early gastric cancer. We describe a case of splenic metastasis from early gastric cancer. A 60-year-old man underwent a distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer. It infiltrated the submucosa with pathological nodal involvement (pT1bN2M0, stage IIB). One year after the gastrectomy, an abdominal computed tomography scan showed a low-density lesion, 17 mm in diameter, at the upper pole of the spleen. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed focal accumulation of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose in the spleen without extrasplenic tumor dissemination or metastasis. We diagnosed splenic metastasis of gastric cancer, and performed a splenectomy. Histological examination confirmed moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (solid type) that was consistent with the features of the primary gastric cancer. The splenic tumor was pathologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as a metastasis from the gastric carcinoma. More than 18 months after the splenectomy, the patient has had no evidence of recurrent gastric cancer. When solitary metastasis to the spleen is suspected during the postoperative follow-up of a patient with gastric cancer, a splenectomy is a potentially effective treatment.

  15. Isolated penile metastasis from bladder carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuren, O.A. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Koriech, O. [Department of Oncology, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-10-01

    Metastases of the penis are uncommon, with only approximately 300 cases reported since 1870. In up to 70 % of patients, the primary tumour is located in the urogenital tract. Furthermore, isolated metastases of the penis are exceptionally rare. We report a case of solitary squamous cell metastasis of the penis presenting with painful swelling initially thought to be inflammatory in origin. The CT and MR imaging findings are presented with a short review of the literature. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  16. BEACON: An application of nodal methods for operational support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Nguyen, T.Q.

    1992-01-01

    A practical application of nodal methods is on-line plant operational support. However, to enable plant personnel to take full advantage of a nodal model to support plant operations, (a) a core nodal model must always be up to date with the current core history and conditions, (b) the nodal methods must be fast enough to allow numerous core calculations to be performed in minutes to support engineering decisions, and (c) the system must be easily accessible to engineering personnel at the reactor, their offices, or any other location considered appropriate. A core operational support package developed by Westinghouse called BEACON (best estimate analysis of core operations - nuclear) has been installed at several plants. Results from these plants and numerous in-core flux maps analyzed have demonstrated the accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the methodology

  17. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  18. Hybrid nodal loop metal: Unconventional magnetoresponse and material realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Yunhao; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yang, Hui Ying; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal loop is formed by a band crossing along a one-dimensional closed manifold, with each point on the loop a linear nodal point in the transverse dimensions, and can be classified as type I or type II depending on the band dispersion. Here, we propose a class of nodal loops composed of both type-I and type-II points, which are hence termed as hybrid nodal loops. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict the realization of such loops in the existing electride material Ca2As . For a hybrid loop, the Fermi surface consists of coexisting electron and hole pockets that touch at isolated points for an extended range of Fermi energies, without the need for fine-tuning. This leads to unconventional magnetic responses, including the zero-field magnetic breakdown and the momentum-space Klein tunneling observable in the magnetic quantum oscillations, as well as the peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance.

  19. Nodal prices determination with wind integration for radial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With competitive electricity market operation, open access to the transmission and distribution network is essential ... The results have been obtained for IEEE 33 ...... The value of intermittent wind DG under nodal prices and amp – mile tariffs.

  20. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  1. Extension of the analytic nodal method to four energy groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, D.K.; Nigg, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Analytic Nodal Method is one of several recently-developed coarse mesh numerical methods for efficiently and accurately solving the multidimensional static and transient neutron diffusion equations. This summary describes a mathematically rigorous extension of the Analytic Nodal Method to the frequently more physically realistic four-group case. A few general theoretical considerations are discussed, followed by some calculated results for a typical steady-state two-dimensional PWR quarter core application. 8 refs

  2. Bilinear nodal transport method in weighted diamond difference form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Nodal methods have been developed and implemented for the numerical solution of the discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. Numerical testing of these methods and comparison of their results to those obtained by conventional methods have established the high accuracy of nodal methods. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the linear-linear approximation is the most computationally efficient, practical nodal approximation. Indeed, this claim has been substantiated by comparing the accuracy in the solution, and the CPU time required to achieve convergence to that solution by several nodal approximations, as well as the diamond difference scheme. Two types of linear-linear nodal methods have been developed in the literature: analytic linear-linear (NLL) methods, in which the transverse-leakage terms are derived analytically, and approximate linear-linear (PLL) methods, in which these terms are approximated. In spite of their higher accuracy, NLL methods result in very complicated discrete-variable equations that exhibit a high degree of coupling, thus requiring special solution algorithms. On the other hand, the sacrificed accuracy in PLL methods is compensated for by the simple discrete-variable equations and diamond-difference-like solution algorithm. In this paper the authors outline the development of an NLL nodal method, the bilinear method, which can be written in a weighted diamond difference form with one spatial weight per dimension that is analytically derived rather than preassigned in an ad hoc fashion

  3. Uniqueness Theorem for the Inverse Aftereffect Problem and Representation the Nodal Points Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neamaty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a boundary value problem with aftereffect on a finite interval. Then, the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, eigenvalues, the nodal points and the associated nodal length are studied. We also calculate the numerical values of the nodal points and the nodal length. Finally, we prove the uniqueness theorem for the inverse aftereffect problem by applying any dense subset of the nodal points.

  4. Uniqueness Theorem for the Inverse Aftereffect Problem and Representation the Nodal Points Form

    OpenAIRE

    A. Neamaty; Sh. Akbarpoor; A. Dabbaghian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a boundary value problem with aftereffect on a finite interval. Then, the asymptotic behavior of the solutions, eigenvalues, the nodal points and the associated nodal length are studied. We also calculate the numerical values of the nodal points and the nodal length. Finally, we prove the uniqueness theorem for the inverse aftereffect problem by applying any dense subset of the nodal points.

  5. Two-energy group solution of the diffusion equation by the multidimensional nodal polynomial expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, R.D.M.; Vellozo, S.O.; Botelho, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The EPON computer code based in a Nodal Polynomial Expansion Method, wrote in Fortran IV, for steady-state, square geometry, one-dimensional or two-dimensional geometry and for one or two-energy group is presented. The neutron and power flux distributions for nuclear power plants were calculated, comparing with codes that use similar or different methodologies. The availability, economy and speed of the methodology is demonstrated. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Acceleration of nodal diffusion code by Chebychev polynomial extrapolation method; Ubrzanje spoljasnjih iteracija difuzionog nodalnog proracuna Chebisevijevom ekstrapolacionom metodom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmijarevic, I; Tomashevic, Dj [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    This paper presents Chebychev acceleration of outer iterations of a nodal diffusion code of high accuracy. Extrapolation parameters, unique for all moments are calculated using the node integrated distribution of fission source. Sample calculations are presented indicating the efficiency of method. (author)

  7. Numerical nodal simulation of the axial power distribution within nuclear reactors using a kinetics diffusion model. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C. de.

    1992-05-01

    Presented here is a new numerical nodal method for the simulation of the axial power distribution within nuclear reactors using the one-dimensional one speed kinetics diffusion model with one group of delayed neutron precursors. Our method is based on a spectral analysis of the nodal kinetics equations. These equations are obtained by integrating the original kinetics equations separately over a time step and over a spatial node, and then considering flat approximations for the forward difference terms. These flat approximations are the only approximations that are considered in the method. As a result, the spectral nodal method for space - time reactor kinetics generates numerical solutions for space independent problems or for time independent problems that are completely free from truncation errors. We show numerical results to illustrate the method's accuracy for coarse mesh calculations. (author)

  8. Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hirohi; Itai, Yuji; Niitsu, Mamoru [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe, Teruo [Department of Pathology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Satomi, Hisae; Otsuka, Fujio [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    We present a rare case of intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma. The lesion showed intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and mixed signal intensities containing high and low signals on T2-weighted images. The signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which is due to the paramagnetic effect of melanin, is a characteristic MR finding of this entity. (orig.)

  9. Colonic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: helical-CT demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Candamio, M.J.; Pombo, S.; Pombo, F.

    2000-01-01

    Clinically evident colonic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. In the present study a hypervascular sigmoid mass was demonstrated on arterial-phase helical CT using a water enema in a patient who had suffered left nephrectomy 8 years previously for RCC. The intense and early enhancement of the lesion suggested the possibility of a solitary colonic metastasis from RCC, a diagnosis which was pathologically confirmed. (orig.)

  10. Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Inês Simões; Isabel Marcão; Mário Toscano; Luís Borges

    2018-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis thr...

  11. An analytical discrete ordinates solution for a nodal model of a two-dimensional neutron transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, J. F. P.; Barichello, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)

  12. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Coexistent Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia and Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Pen Weng

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A healthy 15-year-old male patient presented with a 6-month history of recurrent attacks of palpitations. On multiple emergency room visits, a sustained wide QRS complex tachycardia with a right bundle branch block and northwest axis deviation was documented. The tachycardia was not terminated by intravenous adenosine, but was suppressed with intravenous verapamil. There was no evidence of structural heart disease, myocarditis, long QT syndrome, or electrolyte imbalance after a series of standard examinations. Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT was suspected. Electrophysiologic studies revealed 2 inducible tachycardias, which were shown to represent atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT and ILVT. Transformation from AVNRT to ILVT occurred spontaneously following atrial pacing. Successful ablation of ILVT and the slow atrioventricular nodal pathway resulted in cure of the double tachycardia.

  13. Building the nodal nuclear data dependences in a many-dimensional state-variable space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Abstract and Introduction are revised to reflect reviewers' comments. → Section is revised and simplified. → The third paragraph in Section is revised. → All typos are fixed. - Abstract: We present new methods for building the polynomial-regression based nodal nuclear data models. The data models can reflect dependences on a large number of state variables, and they can consider various history effects. Suitable multivariate polynomials that approximate the nodal data dependences are identified efficiently in an iterative manner. The history effects are analysed using a new sampling scheme for lattice calculations where the traditional base burnup and branch calculations are replaced by a large number of diverse burnup histories. The total number of lattice calculations is controlled so that the data models are built to a required accuracy.

  14. Experience of treating late cerebral lungcancer metastasis using photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ryabova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment outcomes for a patient with solitary brain metastasis after long-term relapse-free follow-up of invasive lung carcinoma were presented. Brain metastasis without other signs of disease progression was diagnosed 10 years after combined modality treatment for stage II lung cancer. Removal of intracerebral metastasis with intraoperative photodynamic therapy was performed. Histology microspecimens of the primary tumor and metastasis were similar. No signs of disease progression in the brain 9 months after surgery were found. This case demonstrates that it is important to increase cancer suspicion for patients with long-term relapse-free follow-up. The use of intraoperative photodynamic therapy with photoditazine as a sensitizer in the treatment of cerebral metastases results in a favorable anti-tumor effect, thus improving life quality of patients

  15. Retrospective analysis of outcome differences in preoperative concurrent chemoradiation with or without elective nodal irradiation for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Ming; Lee, Jang-Ming; Huang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Chia-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Yung-Chie; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and patterns of failure of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) undergoing preoperative concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) followed by radical surgery. We retrospectively studied 118 patients with AJCC Stage II to III esophageal SCC undergoing preoperative CCRT (median, 36 Gy), followed by radical esophagectomy. Of them, 73 patients (62%) had ENI and 45 patients (38%) had no ENI. Patients with ENI received radiotherapy to either supraclavicular (n = 54) or celiac (n = 19) lymphatics. Fifty-six patients (57%) received chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin. The 3-year progression-free survival, overall survival, and patterns of failure were analyzed. Distant nodal recurrence was classified into M1a and M1b regions. A separate analysis using matched cases was conducted. The median follow-up was 38 months. There were no differences in pathological complete response rate (p = 0.12), perioperative mortality rate (p = 0.48), or delayed Grade 3 or greater cardiopulmonary toxicities (p = 0.44), between the groups. More patients in the non-ENI group had M1a failure than in the ENI group, with 3-year rates of 11% and 3%, respectively (p = 0.05). However, the 3-year isolated distant nodal (M1a + M1b) failure rates were not different (ENI, 10%; non-ENI, 14%; p = 0.29). In multivariate analysis, pathological nodal status was the only independent prognostic factor associated with overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.78, p = 0.045). The 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 45% and 45%, respectively, in the ENI group, and 52% and 43%, respectively, in the non-ENI group (p = 0.31 and 0.89, respectively). Matched cases analysis did not show a statistical difference in outcomes between the groups. ENI reduced the M1a failure rate but was not associated with improved outcomes in patients undergoing preoperative CCRT for esophageal SCC. Pathological nodal metastasis predicted poor

  16. Retrospective Analysis of Outcome Differences in Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiation With or Without Elective Nodal Irradiation for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Ming [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jang-Ming; Huang, Pei-Ming [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chia-Chi; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Yu-Chieh [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yung-Chie [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason, E-mail: jasoncheng@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cancer Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Oncology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    SCC. Pathological nodal metastasis predicted poor outcome.

  17. Investigation on generalized Variational Nodal Methods for heterogeneous nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongping; Wu, Hongchun; Li, Yunzhao; Cao, Liangzhi; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed two heterogeneous nodal methods based on the Variational Nodal Method. • Four problems were solved to evaluate the two heterogeneous nodal methods. • The function expansion method is good at treating continuous-changing heterogeneity. • The finite sub-element method is good at treating discontinuous-changing heterogeneity. - Abstract: The Variational Nodal Method (VNM) is generalized for heterogeneous nodes and applied to four kinds of problems including Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) core problem with continuous cross section profile, Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) control rod cusping effect problem, PWR whole-core pin-by-pin problem, and heterogeneous PWR core problem without fuel-coolant homogenization in each pin cell. Two approaches have been investigated for the treatment of the nodal heterogeneity in this paper. To concentrate on spatial heterogeneity, diffusion approximation was adopted for the angular variable in neutron transport equation. To provide demonstrative numerical results, the codes in this paper were developed in slab geometry. The first method, named as function expansion (FE) method, expands nodal flux by orthogonal polynomials and the nodal cross sections are also expressed as spatial depended functions. The second path, named as finite sub-element (FS) method, takes advantage of the finite-element method by dividing each node into numbers of homogeneous sub-elements and expanding nodal flux into the combination of linear sub-element trial functions. Numerical tests have been carried out to evaluate the ability of the two nodal (coarse-mesh) heterogeneous VNMs by comparing with the fine-mesh homogeneous VNM. It has been demonstrated that both heterogeneous approaches can handle heterogeneous nodes. The FE method is good at continuous-changing heterogeneity as in the MSR core problem, while the FS method is good at discontinuous-changing heterogeneity such as the PWR pin-by-pin problem and heterogeneous PWR core

  18. Implications of inaccurate clinical nodal staging in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Johnson, Kirsten M; Boucher, Kenneth M; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2017-07-01

    Many patients with stage I-II pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not undergo resection. We hypothesized that (1) clinical staging underestimates nodal involvement, causing stage IIB to have a greater percent of resected patients and (2) this stage-shift causes discrepancies in observed survival. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) research database was used to evaluate cause-specific survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2004-2012. Survival was compared using the log-rank test. Single-center data on 105 patients who underwent resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma without neoadjuvant treatment were used to compare clinical and pathologic nodal staging. In SEER data, medium-term survival in stage IIB was superior to IB and IIA, with median cause-specific survival of 14, 9, and 11 months, respectively (P < .001). Seventy-two percent of stage IIB patients underwent resection vs 28% in IB and 36% in IIA (P < .001). In our institutional data, 12.4% of patients had clinical evidence of nodal involvement vs 69.5% by pathologic staging (P < .001). Among clinical stage IA-IIA patients, 71.6% had nodal involvement by pathologic staging. Both SEER and institutional data support substantial underestimation of nodal involvement by clinical staging. This finding has implications in decisions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and analysis of outcomes in the absence of pathologic staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nodal methods for problems in fluid mechanics and neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new high-accuracy, coarse-mesh, nodal integral approach is developed for the efficient numerical solution of linear partial differential equations. It is shown that various special cases of this general nodal integral approach correspond to several high efficiency nodal methods developed recently for the numerical solution of neutron diffusion and neutron transport problems. The new approach is extended to the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics; its extension to these equations leads to a new computational method, the nodal integral method which is implemented for the numerical solution of these equations. Application to several test problems demonstrates the superior computational efficiency of this new method over previously developed methods. The solutions obtained for several driven cavity problems are compared with the available experimental data and are shown to be in very good agreement with experiment. Additional comparisons also show that the coarse-mesh, nodal integral method results agree very well with the results of definitive ultra-fine-mesh, finite-difference calculations for the driven cavity problem up to fairly high Reynolds numbers

  20. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Hanyang Univ. Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang Univ. Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension.

  1. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol

    2012-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension

  2. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Field, Lori A.; Love, Brad; Kane, Jennifer L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n = 41) and positive (n = 35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis. PMID:22295210

  3. Thick tumor capsule is a valuable risk factor for distant metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbashi, Wataru; Sugitani, Iwao; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Toda, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Keiko; Sato, Yukiko

    2018-02-01

    While the biological behavior of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been studied in great detail using clinical experience, few studies have investigated pre- or intraoperative factors related to the risk of distant metastasis (DM) among patients with FTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of FTC with DM. This study retrospectively investigated 102 patients with FTC who underwent surgery between 1988 and 2013. We compared clinicopathological characteristics between FTC with and without DM. Univariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis (p=0.045), serum thyroglobulin (Tg) at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm), serum Tg at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml), and macroscopically widely invasive appearance as risk factors independently associated with development of DM. Patients with these risk factors should undergo total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, R.E.; Field, L.A.; Kane, J.L.; Love, B.; Hooke, J.A.; Shriver, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n=41) and positive (n=35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser micro dissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis

  5. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Ellsworth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (=41 and positive (=35 lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (1.5 revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis.

  6. Relevance of regional nodal management in multimodality esophageal cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.; Perez-Tamayo, C.; Takasugi, B.; Orringer, M.B.; Flint, A.; Lichter, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    A prospective study has been undertaken at the University of Michigan Hospital, where patients with distal esophageal carcinoma receive concurrent radiation therapy (3,750 cGy delivered in 15 fractions) and systemic chemotherapy (cisplatin, Velban, 5-FU), followed by blunt esophagectomy with exploration and lymph node sampling. Strict pathologic screening and handling of nodal tissue and esophagectomy specimens were analyzed. Eighteen patients with distal esophageal lesions ranging from 5 to 12 cm (average, 7 cm) detected on the initial barium swallow study have been seen to date. In three of these patients celiac axis involvement has been demonstrated on CT. All primary lesions were confirmed by biopsy. Five were found to be squamous cell carcinoma and thirteen were adenocarcinomas. One of 15 of the presently evaluable patients (5%) had microscopic involvement of a celiac node at surgery. Celiac, lesser curvature, and superior gastric nodes where all encompassed in the radiation therapy portals to the aforementioned dose. CT scan planning was done in all patients. This added volume was well tolerated by the patients without morbidity

  7. An analytical spatial reconstruction algorithm for the SD-SGF-CN hybrid nodal method for one-speed X,Y-geometry SN eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Welton Alves; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the X,Y-geometry SD-SGF-CN spectral nodal method, cf. spectral diamond-spectral Green's function-constant nodal, is used to determine the one-speed node-edge average angular fluxes in heterogeneous domains. This hybrid spectral nodal method uses the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equation for the multiplying regions and the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equation for the non-multiplying regions of the domain. Moreover, we consider constant approximations for the transverse-leakage terms in the transverse integrated S N nodal equations. We solve the SD-SGF-CN equations using the one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme, which uses the most recent estimates available for the node-entering fluxes to evaluate the node-exiting fluxes in the directions that constitute the incoming fluxes for the adjacent node. Using these results, we offer an algorithm for analytical reconstruction of the coarse-mesh nodal solution within each spatial node, as localized numerical solutions are not generated by usual accurate nodal methods. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the present algorithm. (author)

  8. An error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS {sub N} solution in a rectangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto [Faculty of Mathematics, PUCRS Av Ipiranga 6681, Building 15, Porto Alegre - RS 90619-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: eliete@pucrs.br; Pazos, Ruben Panta [Department of Mathematics, UNISC Av Independencia, 2293, room 1301, Santa Cruz do Sul - RS 96815-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: rpp@impa.br; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco [Graduate Program in Applied Mathematics, UFRGS Av Bento Goncalves 9500, Building 43-111, Porto Alegre - RS 91509-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br

    2005-07-15

    In this work, we report the mathematical analysis concerning error bound estimate and convergence of the Nodal-LTS {sub N} solution in a rectangle. For such we present an efficient algorithm, called LTS {sub N} 2D-Diag solution for Cartesian geometry.

  9. Rapid enhancement of nodal quasiparticle mass with heavily underdoping in Bi2212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Hiroaki; Arita, Masashi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Ishikado, Motoyuki; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi; Ino, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    We report substantial advance of our low-energy angle-resolved photoemission study of nodal quasiparticles in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The new data cover the samples from underdoped down to heavily underdoped levels. We also present the nodal Fermi velocities that determined by using an excitation-photon energy of hν = 7.0 eV over a wide doping range. The consistency between the results with hν = 8.1 and 7.0 eV allows us to rule out the effect of photoemission matrix elements. In comparison with the data previously reported, the nodal effective mass increases by a factor of ∼ 1.5 in going from optimally doped to heavily underdoped levels. We find a rapid enhancement of the nodal quasiparticle mass at low doping levels near the superconductor-to-insulator transition. The effective coupling spectrum, λ (ω) , is extracted directly from the energy derivatives of the quasiparticle dispersion and scattering rate, as a causal function of the mass enhancement factor. A steplike increase in Reλ (ω) around ∼ 65 meV is demonstrated clearly by the Kramers-Kronig transform of Imλ (ω) . To extract the low-energy renormalization effect, we calculated a simple model for the electron-boson interaction. This model reveals that the contribution of the renormalization at | ω | ≤ 15 meV to the quasiparticle mass is larger than that around 65 meV in underdoped samples.

  10. The role of elective nodal irradiation for esthesioneuroblastoma patients with clinically negative neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Fuller, Clifton David; Kim, Betty Y S; Tang, Chad; Gunn, G Brandon; Hanna, Ehab Y; Frank, Steven J; Su, Shirley Y; Diaz, Eduardo; Kupferman, Michael E; Beadle, Beth M; Morrison, William H; Skinner, Heath; Lai, Stephen Y; El-Naggar, Adel K; DeMonte, Franco; Rosenthal, David I; Garden, Adam S; Phan, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Although adjuvant radiation to the tumor bed has been reported to improve the clinic outcomes of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) patients, the role of elective neck irradiation (ENI) in clinically node-negative (N0) patients remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the effects of ENI on neck nodal relapse risk in ENB patients treated with radiation therapy as a component of multimodality treatment. Seventy-one N0 ENB patients irradiated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1970 and 2013 were identified. ENI was performed on 22 of these patients (31%). Survival analysis was performed with focus on comparative outcomes of those patients who did and did not receive ENI. The median follow-up time for our cohort is 80.8 months (range, 6-350 months). Among N0 patients, 13 (18.3%) developed neck nodal relapses, with a median time to progression of 62.5 months. None of these 13 patients received prophylactic neck irradiation. ENI was associated with significantly improved regional nodal control at 5 years (regional control rate of 100% for ENI vs 82%, P ENI developed isolated neck recurrences. All had further treatment for their neck disease, including neck dissection (n = 10), radiation (n = 10), or chemotherapy (n = 5). Six of these 11 patients (54.5%) demonstrated no evidence of further recurrence with a median follow-up of 55.5 months. ENI significantly reduces the risk of cervical nodal recurrence in ENB patients with clinically N0 neck, but this did not translate to a survival benefit. Multimodality treatment for isolated neck recurrence provides a reasonable salvage rate. The greatest benefit for ENI appeared to be among younger patients who presented with Kadish C disease. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of elective-nodal irradiation for esthesioneuroblastoma patients with clinically negative neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Mohamed, Abdallah Sherif; Fuller, Clifton David; Kim, Betty Y.S.; Tang, Chad; Gunn, G. Brandon; Hanna, Ehab Y.; Frank, Steven J.; Su, Shirley Y.; Diaz, Eduardo; Kupferman, Michael E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Morrison, William H.; Skinner, Heath; Lai, Stephen Y.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; DeMonte, Franco; Rosenthal, David I.; Garden, Adam S.; Phan, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although adjuvant radiation to the tumor bed has been reported to improve the clinic outcomes of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) patients, the role of elective neck irradiation (ENI) in clinically node negative (N0) patients remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the effects of ENI on neck nodal relapse risk in ENB patients treated with radiotherapy as a component of multi-modality treatment. Methods and Materials Seventy-one N0 ENB patients irradiated at XXXXXXXXX between 1970 and 2013 were identified. ENI was performed on 22 of these patients (31%). Survival analysis was performed with focus on comparative outcomes of those patients who did and did not receive ENI. Results The median follow up time for our cohort is 80.8 months (range 6 – 350 month). Among N0 patients, 13 (18.3%) developed neck nodal relapses, with a median time to progression of 62.5 months. None of these 13 patients received prophylactic neck irradiation. ENI was associated with significantly improved regional nodal control at 5-year (regional control rate of 100% for ENI vs 82%, p ENI developed isolated neck recurrences. All had further treatment for their neck disease, including neck dissection (n=10), radiation (n=10), or chemotherapy (n=5). Six of these 11 patients (54.5%) demonstrated no evidence of further recurrence with a median follow up of 55.5 month. Conclusion ENI significantly reduces the risk of cervical nodal recurrence in ENB patients with clinically N0 neck but this did not translate to a survival benefit. Multimodality treatment for isolated neck recurrence provides a reasonable salvage rate. The greatest benefit for ENI appeared to be among younger patients who presented with Kadish C disease. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26979544

  12. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozawa, Masakatsu; Nihei, Keiji; Ishikura, Satoshi; Minashi, Keiko; Yano, Tomonori; Muto, Manabu; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ogino, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    There are some reports indicating that prophylactic three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer can lead to improved survival. But the benefit of ENI in CRT for thoracic esophageal cancer remains controversial. The purpose of the present study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for thoracic esophageal cancer. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thoracic esophagus newly diagnosed between February 1999 and April 2001 in our institution was recruited from our database. Definitive chemoradiotherapy consisted of two cycles of cisplatin/5FU repeated every 5 weeks, with concurrent radiation therapy of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Up to 40 Gy radiation therapy was delivered to the cervical, periesophageal, mediastinal and perigastric lymph nodes as ENI. One hundred two patients were included in this analysis, and their characteristics were as follows: median age, 65 years; male/female, 85/17; T1/T2/T3/T4, 16/11/61/14; N0/N1, 48/54; M0/M1, 84/18. The median follow-up period for the surviving patients was 41 months. Sixty patients achieved complete response (CR). After achieving CR, only one (1.0%; 95% CI, 0-5.3%) patient experienced elective nodal failure without any other site of recurrence. In CRT for esophageal SCC, ENI is effective for preventing regional nodal failure. Further evaluation of whether ENI leads to an improved overall survival is needed.

  13. An analytical approach for a nodal scheme of two-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Cabrera, L.C.; Prolo Filho, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nodal equations for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem. → Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method. → Numerical results compared with the literature. - Abstract: In this work, a solution for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in cartesian geometry, is proposed, on the basis of nodal schemes. In this context, one-dimensional equations are generated by an integration process of the multidimensional problem. Here, the integration is performed for the whole domain such that no iterative procedure between nodes is needed. The ADO method is used to develop analytical discrete ordinates solution for the one-dimensional integrated equations, such that final solutions are analytical in terms of the spatial variables. The ADO approach along with a level symmetric quadrature scheme, lead to a significant order reduction of the associated eigenvalues problems. Relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown fluxes at the boundary are introduced as the usually needed, in nodal schemes, auxiliary equations. Numerical results are presented and compared with test problems.

  14. Analytic function expansion nodal method for nuclear reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hae Man

    1995-02-01

    In most advanced nodal methods the transverse integration is commonly used to reduce the multi-dimensional diffusion equation into equivalent one- dimensional diffusion equations when derving the nodal coupling equations. But the use of the transverse integration results in some limitations. The first limitation is that the transverse leakage term which appears in the transverse integration procedure must be appropriately approximated. The second limitation is that the one-dimensional flux shapes in each spatial direction resulted from the nodal calculation are not accurate enough to be directly used in reconstructing the pinwise flux distributions. Finally the transverse leakage defined for a non-rectangular node such as a hexagonal node or a triangular node is too complicated to be easily handled and may contain non-physical singular terms of step-function and delta-function types. In this thesis, the Analytic Function Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method and its two variations : the Polynomial Expansion Nodal (PEN) method and the hybrid of the AFEN and PEN methods, have been developed to overcome the limitations of the transverse integration procedure. All of the methods solve the multidimensional diffusion equation without the transverse integration. The AFEN method which we believe is the major contribution of this study to the reactor core analysis expands the homogeneous flux distributions within a node in non-separable analytic basis functions satisfying the neutron diffusion equations at any point of the node and expresses the coefficients of the flux expansion in terms of the nodal unknowns which comprise a node-average flux, node-interface fluxes, and corner-point fluxes. Then, the nodal coupling equations composed of the neutron balance equations, the interface current continuity equations, and the corner-point leakage balance equations are solved iteratively to determine all the nodal unknowns. Since the AFEN method does not use the transverse integration in

  15. On the Nodal Lines of Eisenstein Series on Schottky Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Dmitry; Naud, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    On convex co-compact hyperbolic surfaces {X=Γ backslash H2}, we investigate the behavior of nodal curves of real valued Eisenstein series {F_λ(z,ξ)}, where {λ} is the spectral parameter, {ξ} the direction at infinity. Eisenstein series are (non-{L^2}) eigenfunctions of the Laplacian {Δ_X} satisfying {Δ_X F_λ=(1/4+λ^2)F_λ}. As {λ} goes to infinity (the high energy limit), we show that, for generic {ξ}, the number of intersections of nodal lines with any compact segment of geodesic grows like {λ}, up to multiplicative constants. Applications to the number of nodal domains inside the convex core of the surface are then derived.

  16. A computational study of nodal-based tetrahedral element behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullerud, Arne S.

    2010-09-01

    This report explores the behavior of nodal-based tetrahedral elements on six sample problems, and compares their solution to that of a corresponding hexahedral mesh. The problems demonstrate that while certain aspects of the solution field for the nodal-based tetrahedrons provide good quality results, the pressure field tends to be of poor quality. Results appear to be strongly affected by the connectivity of the tetrahedral elements. Simulations that rely on the pressure field, such as those which use material models that are dependent on the pressure (e.g. equation-of-state models), can generate erroneous results. Remeshing can also be strongly affected by these issues. The nodal-based test elements as they currently stand need to be used with caution to ensure that their numerical deficiencies do not adversely affect critical values of interest.

  17. A theoretical study on a convergence problem of nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohong, Z.; Ziyong, L. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Chao, Y. A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of modern nodal methods is largely due to its use of the information from the analytical flux solution inside a homogeneous node. As a result, the nodal coupling coefficients depend explicitly or implicitly on the evolving Eigen-value of a problem during its solution iteration process. This poses an inherently non-linear matrix Eigen-value iteration problem. This paper points out analytically that, whenever the half wave length of an evolving node interior analytic solution becomes smaller than the size of that node, this non-linear iteration problem can become inherently unstable and theoretically can always be non-convergent or converge to higher order harmonics. This phenomenon is confirmed, demonstrated and analyzed via the simplest 1-D problem solved by the simplest analytic nodal method, the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD, [1]) method. (authors)

  18. Super-nodal methods for space-time kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertyurek, Ugur

    The purpose of this research has been to develop an advanced Super-Nodal method to reduce the run time of 3-D core neutronics models, such as in the NESTLE reactor core simulator and FORMOSA nuclear fuel management optimization codes. Computational performance of the neutronics model is increased by reducing the number of spatial nodes used in the core modeling. However, as the number of spatial nodes decreases, the error in the solution increases. The Super-Nodal method reduces the error associated with the use of coarse nodes in the analyses by providing a new set of cross sections and ADFs (Assembly Discontinuity Factors) for the new nodalization. These so called homogenization parameters are obtained by employing consistent collapsing technique. During this research a new type of singularity, namely "fundamental mode singularity", is addressed in the ANM (Analytical Nodal Method) solution. The "Coordinate Shifting" approach is developed as a method to address this singularity. Also, the "Buckling Shifting" approach is developed as an alternative and more accurate method to address the zero buckling singularity, which is a more common and well known singularity problem in the ANM solution. In the course of addressing the treatment of these singularities, an effort was made to provide better and more robust results from the Super-Nodal method by developing several new methods for determining the transverse leakage and collapsed diffusion coefficient, which generally are the two main approximations in the ANM methodology. Unfortunately, the proposed new transverse leakage and diffusion coefficient approximations failed to provide a consistent improvement to the current methodology. However, improvement in the Super-Nodal solution is achieved by updating the homogenization parameters at several time points during a transient. The update is achieved by employing a refinement technique similar to pin-power reconstruction. A simple error analysis based on the relative

  19. T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype of nodal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma (CTL): a clinicopathologic study of 39 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiichi; Asano, Naoko; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Satou, Akira; Takahashi, Emiko; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Among Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T/NK-cell lymphoma, there are only a few reports on the clinicopathologic features of patients with primary nodal presentation (nodal EBV cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma [CTL]). Here, we compared the clinicopathologic profiles of 39 patients with nodal EBV CTL with those of 27 cases of "extranasal" NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (ENKTL), especially addressing their T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype. Histologically, 22 of 39 nodal EBV CTL cases (56%) were unique in having centroblastoid appearance, which was contrasted with the lower incidence of this feature in ENKTL (15%, P=0.001). In contrast, pleomorphic appearance was more frequently seen in ENKTL than in nodal EBV CTL (67% vs. 23%, P=0.001). Thirty-three of 39 nodal EBV CTL cases (85%) were of T-cell lineage on the basis of TCR expression and/or TCRγ gene rearrangement; in detail, 18 cases (46%) were TCRβ positive (αβ T), 5 (13%) were TCRγ and/or δ positive (γδ T), and 10 (26%) were TCR-silent type with clonal TCRγ gene rearrangement but no expression of TCRβ, γ, or δ. These results were clearly contrasted by a lower incidence of T-cell lineage in ENKTL (7 cases, 26%, P<0.001). Notably, the survival time of the 5 nodal lymphoma patients with γδ T-cell phenotype was within 3 months, which was inferior to those of αβ T and TCR-silent types (P=0.003), and 3 of those with available clinical information were all found to be associated with autoimmune diseases. These data suggest that nodal EBV CTL is distinct from ENKTL.

  20. Remodeling of the methylation landscape in breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold

    Full Text Available The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.

  1. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  2. Nodal algorithm derived from a new variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Fernando V.

    1995-01-01

    As a by-product of the research being carried on by the author on methods of recovering pin power distribution of PWR cores, a nodal algorithm based on a modified variational principle for the two group diffusion equations has been obtained. The main feature of the new algorithm is the low dimensionality achieved by the reduction of the original diffusion equations to a system of algebraic Eigen equations involving the average sources only, instead of sources and interface group currents used in conventional nodal methods. The advantage of this procedure is discussed and results generated by the new algorithm and by a finite difference code are compared. (author). 2 refs, 7 tabs

  3. Nodal approximations in space and time for neutron kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.M.; Hennart, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A general formalism is described of the nodal type in time and space for the neutron kinetics equations. In space, several nodal methods are given of the Raviart-Thomas type (RT0 and RT1), of the Brezzi-Douglas-Marini type (BDM0 and BDM1) and of the Brezzi-Douglas-Fortin-Marini type (BDFM 1). In time, polynomial and analytical approximations are derived. In the analytical case, they are based on the inclusion of an exponential term in the basis function. They can be continuous or discontinuous in time, leading in particular to the well-known Crank-Nicolson, Backward Euler and θ schemes

  4. Regional Nodal Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Timothy J; Olivotto, Ivo A; Parulekar, Wendy R; Ackerman, Ida; Chua, Boon H; Nabid, Abdenour; Vallis, Katherine A; White, Julia R; Rousseau, Pierre; Fortin, Andre; Pierce, Lori J; Manchul, Lee; Chafe, Susan; Nolan, Maureen C; Craighead, Peter; Bowen, Julie; McCready, David R; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Gelmon, Karen; Murray, Yvonne; Chapman, Judy-Anne W; Chen, Bingshu E; Levine, Mark N

    2015-07-23

    Most women with breast cancer who undergo breast-conserving surgery receive whole-breast irradiation. We examined whether the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation improved outcomes. We randomly assigned women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy to undergo either whole-breast irradiation plus regional nodal irradiation (including internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes) (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast irradiation alone (control group). The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival, isolated locoregional disease-free survival, and distant disease-free survival. Between March 2000 and February 2007, a total of 1832 women were assigned to the nodal-irradiation group or the control group (916 women in each group). The median follow-up was 9.5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in survival, with a rate of 82.8% in the nodal-irradiation group and 81.8% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.13; P=0.38). The rates of disease-free survival were 82.0% in the nodal-irradiation group and 77.0% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients in the nodal-irradiation group had higher rates of grade 2 or greater acute pneumonitis (1.2% vs. 0.2%, P=0.01) and lymphedema (8.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.001). Among women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer, the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation did not improve overall survival but reduced the rate of breast-cancer recurrence. (Funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute and others; MA.20 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005957.).

  5. Frequency of brain metastasis in adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma of the lung: correlation with survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.; Stark, R.

    1983-01-01

    From January 1970 through December 1981, 469 patients with histologically or cytologically proven adenocarcinoma (AC) (349) and large cell carcinoma (LC) (120) of the lung were seen at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals. One quarter (126/469) of these patients had brain metastasis: 48 patients presented with brain metastasis and 78 patients subsequently developed brain metastasis. Brain was the dominant site of metastasis in 82 patients who received only cranial + thoracic irradiation; 37 patients (17 simultaneous, 20 metachronous) also required irradiation of other sites of metastasis. All 17 patients with LC, and 47/61 (77%) with AC who developed metachronous brain metastasis did so within one year. The cumulative probability of brain metastasis increased with survival to the levels predicted by autopsy studies. Therapeutic brain irradiation may result in long-term survival in patients with single organ brain metastasis. Since patients with AC and LC so frequently develop brain metastasis and the brain may be the only site of metastasis, prophylactic cranial irradiation may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from these diseases

  6. Reactive Astrocytes in Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wasilewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis, the secondary growth of malignant cells within the central nervous system (CNS, exceeds the incidence of primary brain tumors (i.e., gliomas by tenfold and are seemingly on the rise owing to the emergence of novel targeted therapies that are more effective in controlling extracranial disease relatively to intracranial lesions. Despite the fact that metastasis to the brain poses a unmet clinical problem, with afflicted patients carrying significant morbidity and a fatal prognosis, our knowledge as to how metastatic cells manage to adapt to the tissue environment of the CNS remains limited. Answering this question could pave the way for novel and more specific therapeutic modalities in brain metastasis by targeting the specific makeup of the brain metastatic niche. In regard to this, astrocytes have emerged as the major host cell type that cancer cells encounter and interact with during brain metastasis formation. Similarly to other CNS disorders, astrocytes become reactive and respond to the presence of cancer cells by changing their phenotype and significantly influencing the outcome of disseminated cancer cells within the CNS. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the contribution of reactive astrocytes in brain metastasis by focusing on the signaling pathways and types of interactions that play a crucial part in the communication with cancer cells and how these could be translated into innovative therapies.

  7. Accidente cerebrovascular isquémico asociado con ablación por radiofrecuencia de reentrada nodal Ischemic stroke associated with radio frequency ablation for nodal reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Díaz Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La taquicardia por reentrada nodal es la causa más común de taquicardia supraventricular paroxística; en aquellos pacientes en quienes el manejo farmacológico no es efectivo o deseado la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un excelente método terapéutico dada su alta tasa de curación. Aunque en términos generales dichos procedimientos son rápidos y seguros, se han descrito varias complicaciones entre las que sobresale el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 41 años con episodios de taquicardia por reentrada nodal a repetición, que fue llevada a ablación por radiofrecuencia. En el post-operatorio inmediato se evidenció déficit neurológico focal con isquemia en el territorio de la arteria cerebral media derecha, tras lo cual se realizó angiografía con intento de angioplastia y abxicimab y posteriormente infusión local de activador de plasminógeno tisular (rtPA con adecuado resultado clínico y angiográfico.Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia is the most common type of paroxismal supraventricular tachycardia. In those patients in whom drug therapy is not effective or not desired, radio frequency ablation is an excellent therapeutic method. Although overall these procedures are fast and safe, several complications among which ischemic stroke stands out, have been reported. We present the case of a 41 year old female patient with repetitive episodes of tachycardia due to nodal reentry who was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Immediately after the procedure she presented focal neurologic deficit consistent with ischemic stroke in the right medial cerebral artery territory. Angiography with angioplastia and abxicimab was performed and then tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA was locally infused, with appropriate clinical and angiographic outcome.

  8. The relationship between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and central neck lymph node metastasis in North American patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Sebastian M; Carson, Kathryn A; Pai, Sara I; Agrawal, Nishant; Richmon, Jeremy D; Prescott, Jason D; Dackiw, Alan; Zeiger, Martha A; Bishop, Justin A; Tufano, Ralph P

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have reported that concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with improved prognosis of the PTC, including decreased lymph node metastasis. We sought to assess the incidence of central nodal metastasis (CNM) in patients with PTC and concurrent CLT. We studied 495 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy with nodal excision for PTC. Pathology reports identified the presence of CLT and the extent of CNM. There were 226 patients (46%) with CLT and 220 (44%) with CNM. Patients with CLT were more often female (88% vs. 71%; P CLT was associated with a 39% decreased odds of CNM after adjusting for age, gender, tumor size, PTC histopathologic subtype, and presence of lymphovascular invasion (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.99; P = .046). Predicted probability modeling showed that all females with CLT and no suspicious nodal findings on ultrasonography had a 9-11% risk of CNM with pT1a tumors. Female patients of all ages with CLT and small PTCs have the least incidence of CNM. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intracardiac metastasis originated from chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurea, Nicola; Ragone, Gianluca; Coppola, Carmela; Caronna, Antonietta; Tocchetti, Carlo G; Agozzino, Lucio; Apice, Gaetano; Iaffaioli, Rosario V

    2017-05-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare. By comparison, metastatic involvement of the heart is over 20 times more common and has been reported in autopsy series in up to one in five patients dying of cancer. Cardiac metastasis of chondrosarcoma is absolutely not frequent. In the recent literature, a cardiac metastasis from chondrosarcoma has never been described. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a diagnosis of cardiac metastasis that originated from a left scapular chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma is a skeletal tumor with various grades of malignancy, rapidly evolving, and with a strong tendency to metastasize, with low responsiveness to chemotherapy. The onset of characteristic systemic symptoms in the late stage of the disease led to the diagnosis of a mass localized in the right atrium. Management and differential diagnosis of infective heart lesions were also very complex in a rapidly evolving life-threatening condition.

  10. Techniques and usefulness of para-aortic nodal irradiation in carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter the authors evaluate irradiation of para-aortic node metastasis in carcinoma of the cervix and the outcome of patients who have undergone such treatment. They also present an approach designed to minimize complications of investigation and treatment. The technical details of surgical procedure and preliminary analysis of these data have been published earlier

  11. Novel CT and scintigraphic findings of bone metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ogaili, Zeyad; Troedson, Russell

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and describe the computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging patterns of osseous metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC). CT and skeletal scintigraphy (SS) studies of 23 patients with diagnosis of ILC and osseous metastasis on their initial presentation were reviewed. Osseous metastases in 14 patients (60.8%) appear as uniform small sclerotic lesions (USSL) on CT scan. The SS in these patients were interpreted as negative for metastasis (either normal or with some equivocal findings not typical for metastasis). Osseous metastasis from ILC can have a characteristic imaging pattern on CT and SS. The pattern of USSL on CT scan with negative SS is highly suggestive of osseous metastasis from ILC. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. Novel CT and scintigraphic findings of bone metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ogaili, Zeyad; Troedson, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and describe the computed tomography and scintigraphic imaging patterns of osseous metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC). CT and skeletal scintigraphy (SS) studies of 23 patients with diagnosis of ILC and osseous metastasis on their initial presentation were reviewed.Osseous metastases in 14 patients (60.8%) appear as uniform small sclerotic lesions (USSL) on CT scan. The SS in these patients were interpreted as negative for metastasis (either normal or with some equivocal findings not typical for metastasis). Osseous metastasis from ILC can have a characteristic imaging pattern on CT and SS. The pattern of USSL on CT scan with negative SS is highly suggestive of osseous metastasis from ILC.

  13. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...

  14. Topological transport in Dirac nodal-line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, W. B.; Zhao, Y. X.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2018-04-01

    Topological nodal-line semimetals are characterized by one-dimensional Dirac nodal rings that are protected by the combined symmetry of inversion P and time-reversal T . The stability of these Dirac rings is guaranteed by a quantized ±π Berry phase and their low-energy physics is described by a one-parameter family of (2+1)-dimensional quantum field theories exhibiting the parity anomaly. Here we study the Berry-phase supported topological transport of P T -invariant nodal-line semimetals. We find that small inversion breaking allows for an electric-field-induced anomalous transverse current, whose universal component originates from the parity anomaly. Due to this Hall-like current, carriers at opposite sides of the Dirac nodal ring flow to opposite surfaces when an electric field is applied. To detect the topological currents, we propose a dumbbell device, which uses surface states to filter charges based on their momenta. Suggestions for experiments and device applications are discussed.

  15. Note on the nodal line of the p-Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel R. El Amrouss

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that the length of the nodal line of the eigenfunctions associated to the second eigenvalue of the problem $$ -Delta_p u = lambda ho (x |u|^{p-2}u quad hbox{in } Omega $$ with the Dirichlet conditions is not bounded uniformly with respect to the weight.

  16. CRY 1AB trangenic cowpea obtained by nodal electroporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electroporation-mediated genetic transformation was used to introduce Cry 1 Ab insecticidal gene into cowpea. Nodal buds were electroporated in planta with a plasmid carrying the Cry 1Ab and antibiotic resistance npt II genes driven by a 35S CaMV promoter. T1 seeds derived from electroporated branches were selected ...

  17. Nodal Control and Surgical Salvage after Primary Radiotherapy in 1,782 Patients with Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendelbo Johansen, Lars; Grau, Cai; Overgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultimate neck control after primary radiotherapy and surgical salvage in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer patients. Some 1,782 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy. At presentation 26% of the patients had metastatic lymph nodes. A total of 298 primary or secondary nodal recurrences were seen, 159 were treated, and 53 (∼18%) were controlled. Isolated N-recurrence was fatal in 2.7% (36/1,324) of the N0 patients. Univariate actuarial analysis of nodal control demonstrated that the region of origin, T-classification, T-size, N-classification, tumor stage, differentiation, hemoglobin, and radiation time were significant prognostic factors. In a Cox analysis the independent significant parameters were gender, region of origin, N-classification, and differentiation. The conclusions were that in patients with nodal recurrence a little over half were treated and of these a third of the nodal recurrences were controlled. Significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were gender, region of origin, N-classification, and tumor differentiation

  18. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service § 101.503 Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations. 10.6 GHz DEMS Nodal Stations may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations. 101.503 Section 101.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  19. Cutaneous metastasis of bilateral renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fariba; Alizadeh, Mansur; Noroozinia, Farahnaz; Moradi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant lethal tumour with high potential of metastasis. However, metastasis from RCC to the skin is much less common. It is virtually a sign of poor prognosis. We represent a 42 years old man with bilateral RCC of clear cell type followed by metastasis to the scalp one month later. In this case the relatively young age of the patient, bilaterality of RCC and occurance of skin metastasis in the absence of recurrent kidney tumour are interesting.

  20. Extra-nodal lymphoma. A survey of Japan lymphoma radiation therapy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, retrospectively, national-wide clinical data of patients with localized extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who were treated by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. The survey was carried out at 25 radiation oncology institutions in Japan in 1998. In 1999, according to the Revised European American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, central pathological review conducted at Aichi cancer center was carried out for the data from 7 radiation oncology institutions. The 5-year progression free survival rates (PFS) were calculated to identify prognostic factors. Survey: Data from 1, 141 patients with stage I and II NHL were recruited from 1988 through 1992. Of them, 787 patients, who were treated using definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for intermediate and high-grade lymphomas in Working Formulation, constituted the core of this study. Primary tumors arose mainly from extra-nodal organs (71%) in the head and neck (Waldeyer's ring: 41%, thyroid gland: 7%, nasal cavities: 5%, oral cavities: 4%, sinus: 3%, orbital structures: 3%, skin: 2% and etc.). The median age of 60 years for patients with extra-nodal NHL was higher than that of 56 years for patients with nodal NHL (p<0.01). Female were dominant in incidence of extra-nodal NHL arising from the thyroid gland, skin and gastrointestinal tract. The percentage of stage I to the extra-nodal NHL from orbit, sino-nasal presentation was higher than that of other NHLs. The percentage of stage II to the extra-nodal NHL from Waldeyer's ring and thyroid gland was higher than that of other NHLs. Central pathological review was carried out for pathological data from 79 patients (Waldeyer's ring: 45, thyroid gland: 19, sinonasal cavities: 15). Of these, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) composed 63% of all patients, mucosa associated lyumphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L): 16%, Natural Killer/T cell lymphoma (NK/T-L): 11%, and mantle cell lymphoma: 5% in REAL

  1. Survival benefit of adding docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma with nodal Stage N2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahira, Masahiro; Yokota, Tomoya; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Onozawa, Yusuke; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Kamijo, Tomoyuki; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Yasui, Hirofumi

    2017-08-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (CCRT-AC) has been established as the standard of care in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). The survival benefit of induction chemotherapy (ICT) for LA-NPC remains controversial. We analyzed the efficacy and feasibility of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) ICT followed by CCRT for LA-NPC with nodal Stage N2-3. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 LA-NPC patients with nodal Stage N2-3 receiving induction TPF followed by CCRT (TPF group; n = 12) or CCRT-AC (CCRT group; n = 16) between October 2006 and May 2016. The median follow-up periods were 36.4 (range 6.7-55.2) and 40.1 months (range 4.3-99.0) for the TPF and CCRT groups, respectively. One- and three-year overall survival for the TPF group vs. the CCRT group were 100% and 100% vs. 94% and 75%, respectively (P = 0.21). The cumulative one- and three-year incidences of locoregional recurrence or progression for the TPF group vs. the CCRT group were 10% and 21% vs. 16% and 32% (P = 0.49), and those of distant metastasis were 0% and 0% vs. 26% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.08). The common Grade 3-4 acute toxicities were neutropenia, anorexia, febrile neutropenia, and stomatitis in the TPF group. The Grade 3-4 late toxicities did not differ significantly between the two groups. This study suggests that induction TPF followed by CCRT might reduce distant metastasis, so this combination may be feasible for the treatment of LA-NPC with nodal Stage N2-3. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Metastasis genetics, epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    KISS1 is a member of a family of genes known as metastasis suppressors, defined by their ability to block metastasis without blocking primary tumor development and growth. KISS1 re-expression in multiple metastatic cell lines of diverse cellular origin suppresses metastasis; yet, still allows comple...

  3. Understanding patterns of invasion: a novel approach to assessment of podoplanin expression in the prediction of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankita; Boaz, Karen; Natarajan, Srikant

    2018-03-01

    Cellular motility is considered to be central to the process of metastasis, and podoplanin expression can be explored as a prospective link, owing to its ability to modulate the actin cytoskeleton. We aimed to evaluate the tumoral expression of D2-40 (monoclonal antibody against podoplanin) in pathologically neck-node-negative/positive cases (pN0/N+) to characterise the pattern of invasion, potentially explaining the role of various patterns of invasion in causing tumour metastasis. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 60 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases of known nodal status were selected for immunohistochemical staining of tumour (invasive front) by D2-40 along with routine staining by haematoxylin and eosin. Various staining patterns were assessed and evaluated for D2-40 expression, and correlated with nodal status. Tumoral D2-40 expression correspondingly increased with nodal metastasis (P = 0.261). Furthermore, D2-40 staining was more efficient in detecting individual tumour cells, and also characterised the motility factor irrespective of the pattern of invasion (P = 0.001). The pattern of D2-40 staining did not show a significant association with tumour grade, indicating that motility is an overlooked, albeit important, component of the pattern of invasion in routine histological grading. D2-40 expression successfully identifies the motility profile of tumour, irrespective of the pattern of invasion. The presence of larger motile islands in the tumour cohort supports the concept of 'collective cell migration'. Podoplanin also aids evasion of immune responses by inducing platelet aggregation over tumour cells, thereby favouring distant metastasis. A multivariate model using immunohistochemical staining with D2-40 provides greater sensitivity for the prediction of lymph node metastasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Association between US features of primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min Sun; Shin, Sung Ui; Song, Sung Eun; Ryu, Han Suk; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Background Most patients with early-stage breast cancer have clinically negative lymph nodes (LNs). However, 15-20% of patients have axillary nodal metastasis based on the sentinel LN biopsy. Purpose To assess whether ultrasound (US) features of a primary tumor are associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 138 consecutive patients (median age = 51 years; age range = 27-78 years) who underwent breast surgery with axillary LN evaluation for clinically node-negative T1-T2 breast cancer. Three radiologists blinded to the axillary surgery results independently reviewed the US images. Tumor distance from the skin and distance from the nipple were determined based on the US report. Association between US features of a breast tumor and axillary LN metastasis was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for clinicopathologic variables. Results Of the 138 patients, 28 (20.3%) had nodal metastasis. At univariate analysis, tumor distance from the skin ( P = 0.019), tumor size on US ( P = 0.023), calcifications ( P = 0.036), architectural distortion ( P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion ( P = 0.049) were associated with axillary LN metastasis. At multivariate analysis, shorter skin-to-tumor distance (odds ratio [OR] = 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-16.19; P = 0.040) and masses with associated architectural distortion (OR = 3.80; 95% CI = 1.57-9.19; P = 0.003) were independent predictors of axillary LN metastasis. Conclusion US features of breast cancer can be promising factors associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinically node-negative early-stage breast cancer.

  5. Pulmonary Metastasis from Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kitai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare clinical condition, where copious mucinous ascites accumulate in the peritoneal cavity due to dissemination of mucin-producing tumor. Because of this disseminating, yet nonmetastasizing, behavior, PMP attracts much interest from surgical oncologists in that aggressive locoregional therapy can give the opportunity of long survival and even cure. Although extra-abdominal metastasis is exceptionally rare, the lung is the most likely site in such a case. In this paper, the clinical findings and treatment of eleven cases with pulmonary metastasis from PMP were reviewed, including ten cases in the literature and one case which we experienced. The clinical features of PMP cases with pulmonary metastasis were similar to cases without pulmonary metastasis. The histological type was low-grade mucinous neoplasm in most cases. Pulmonary lesions were resected in seven cases in which abdominal lesions were controlled by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy or another therapeutic modality. Disease-free state was maintained in five cases at the end of the follow-up period. However, it should be noted that rapid progression after resection was seen in two cases, suggesting that biological features may have changed by surgical intervention.

  6. Nodal enhances the activity of FoxO3a and its synergistic interaction with Smads to regulate cyclin G2 transcription in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G; Peng, C

    2011-09-15

    Nodal, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, has been recently shown to suppress cell proliferation and to stimulate the expression of cyclin G2 (CCNG2) in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these events are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of CCNG2 by the Nodal signaling pathway. In ovarian cancer cells, overexpression of Nodal or its receptors, activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) or ALK4, resulted in an increase in the CCNG2 promoter activity. Several putative Forkhead box class O (FoxO)3a-binding sites are present in the human CCNG2 promoter and overexpression of FoxO3a enhanced the CCNG2 promoter activity. The functional FoxO3a-binding element (FBE) was mapped to a proximal region located between -398 and -380 bp (FBE1) through deletion and mutation analyses, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP) assay. Interestingly, mutation of the FBE1 not only abolished the effect of FoxO3a, but also blocked Nodal-induced CCNG2 transcription. Nodal stimulated FoxO3a mRNA and protein expression through the canonical Smad pathway and suppressed FoxO3a inactivation by inhibiting AKT activity. Silencing of FoxO3a using small interfering RNA significantly reduced the effect of Nodal on the CCNG2 promoter activity. On the other hand, overexpression of Smad2 and Smad3 enhanced the FoxO3a-induced CCNG2 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Smad4 blocked the activity of FoxO3a. Furthermore, IP assays revealed that FoxO3a formed complexes with Smad proteins and that Nodal enhanced the binding of FoxO3a to the CCNG2 promoter. Finally, silencing of FoxO3a reversed the inhibitory effect of Nodal on cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that Nodal signaling promotes CCNG2 transcription by upregulating FoxO3a expression, inhibiting FoxO3a phosphorylation and enhancing its synergistic interaction with Smads. These results also suggest

  7. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastasis: Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, L.; Germain, I.; Cornu, P.; Boisserie, G.; Dormont, D.; Hardiman, C.; Tep, B.; Faillot, T.; Duffau, H.; Simon, J.M.; Dendale, R.; Delattre, J.Y.; Poisson, M.; Marsault, C.; Philippon, J.; Fohanno, D.; Baillet, F.; Mazeron, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the influence of clinical and technical factors on local control and survival after radiosurgery for brain metastasis. From january 1994 to December 1996, 42 patients presenting with 71 metastases underwent radiosurgery for brain metastasis. The median age was 56 years and the median Karnofsky index 80. Primary sites included: lung (20 patients), kidney (seven), breast (five), colon (two), melanoma (three), osteosarcoma (one) and it was unknown for three patients. Seventeen patients had extracranial metastasis. Twenty-four patients were treated at recurrence which occurred after whole brain irradiation (12 patients), surgical excision (four) or after both treatments (eight). Thirty-six sessions of radiosurgery have been realized for one metastasis and 13 for two, three or four lesions. The median metastasis diameter was 21 mm and the median volume 1.7 cm 3 . The median peripheral dose to the lesion was 14 Gy, and the median dose at the isocenter 20 Gy. Sixty-five metastasis were evaluable for response analysis. The overall local control rate was 82% and the 1-year actuarial rate was 72%. In univariate analysis, theoretical radioresistance (P = 0.001), diameter less than 3 cm (P = 0.039) and initial treatment with radiosurgery (P 0.041) were significantly associated with increased local control. Only the first two factors remained significant in multivariate analysis. No prognostic factor of overall survival was identified. The median survival was 12 months. Six patients had a symptomatic oedema (RTOG grade 2), only one of which requiring a surgical excision. In conclusion, 14 Gy delivered at the periphery of metastasis seems to be a sufficient dose to control most brain metastases, with a minimal toxicity. Better results were obtained for lesions initially treated with radiosurgery, theoretically radioresistant and with a diameter less than 3 cm. (authors)

  8. Development of one-energy group, two-dimensional, frequency dependent detector adjoint function based on the nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khericha, Soli T.

    2000-01-01

    One-energy group, two-dimensional computer code was developed to calculate the response of a detector to a vibrating absorber in a reactor core. A concept of local/global components, based on the frequency dependent detector adjoint function, and a nodalization technique were utilized. The frequency dependent detector adjoint functions presented by complex equations were expanded into real and imaginary parts. In the nodalization technique, the flux is expanded into polynomials about the center point of each node. The phase angle and the magnitude of the one-energy group detector adjoint function were calculated for a detector located in the center of a 200x200 cm reactor using a two-dimensional nodalization technique, the computer code EXTERMINATOR, and the analytical solution. The purpose of this research was to investigate the applicability of a polynomial nodal model technique to the calculations of the real and the imaginary parts of the detector adjoint function for one-energy group two-dimensional polynomial nodal model technique. From the results as discussed earlier, it is concluded that the nodal model technique can be used to calculate the detector adjoint function and the phase angle. Using the computer code developed for nodal model technique, the magnitude of one energy group frequency dependent detector adjoint function and the phase angle were calculated for the detector located in the center of a 200x200 cm homogenous reactor. The real part of the detector adjoint function was compared with the results obtained from the EXTERMINATOR computer code as well as the analytical solution based on a double sine series expansion using the classical Green's Function solution. The values were found to be less than 1% greater at 20 cm away from the source region and about 3% greater closer to the source compared to the values obtained from the analytical solution and the EXTERMINATOR code. The currents at the node interface matched within 1% of the average

  9. [Vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, D; Delotte, J; Bongain, A; François, E; Bereder, J-M; Bernard, J-L

    2014-09-01

    Secondary localization to vagina had a severe prognosis, suggesting a disseminated metatastic disease. We report the case of prevalent vaginal metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. A 65 years old patient has consulted for vaginal mass. After delayed diagnosis, she presented with disseminated metastatic disease with peritoneal carcinomatosis. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the following treatment consisted of complete cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and vaginal adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence occurred after one year. Vaginal metastasis of colon cancer are rare. The dark prognosis might justify a systematic gynecological examination of women presenting colorectal neoplasy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. On the extension of the analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES to sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, R.; Herrero, J.J.; Garcia-Herranz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of the Collaborative Project for a European Sodium Fast Reactor, the reactor physics group at UPM is working on the extension of its in-house multi-scale advanced deterministic code COBAYA3 to Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). COBAYA3 is a 3D multigroup neutron kinetics diffusion code that can be used either as a pin-by-pin code or as a stand-alone nodal code by using the analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES. It is coupled with thermal-hydraulics codes such as COBRA-TF and FLICA, allowing transient analysis of LWR at both fine-mesh and coarse-mesh scales. In order to enable also 3D pin-by-pin and nodal coupled NK-TH simulations of SFR, different developments are in progress. This paper presents the first steps towards the application of COBAYA3 to this type of reactors. ANDES solver, already extended to triangular-Z geometry, has been applied to fast reactor steady-state calculations. The required cross section libraries were generated with ERANOS code for several configurations. Here some of the limitations encountered when attempting to apply the Analytical Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD) method - implemented inside ANDES - to fast reactor calculations are discussed and the sensitivity of the method to the energy-group structure is studied. In order to reinforce some of the conclusions obtained two calculations are presented. The first one involves a 3D mini-core model in 33 groups, where the ANDES solver presents several issues. And secondly, a benchmark from the NEA for a small 3D FBR in hexagonal-Z geometry in 4 energy groups is used to verify the good convergence of the code in a few-energy-group structure. (author)

  11. Contribution of dynamic contrast MR imaging to the differentiation between dural metastasis and meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, S.; Grand, S.; Le Bas, J.F.; Remy, C.; Pasquier, B.; Benabid, A.L.; Bracard, S.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the perfusion-sensitive characteristics of cerebral dural metastases and compare them with the data on meningiomas. Twenty-two patients presenting with dural tumor underwent conventional and dynamic susceptibility-contrast MR imaging: breast carcinoma metastases, two patients; colorectal carcinoma metastasis, one patient; lung carcinoma metastasis, one patient; Merkel carcinoma metastasis, one patient; lymphoma, one patient; meningiomas, 16 patients. The imaging characteristics were analyzed using conventional MR imaging. The cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps were obtained for each patient and the relative CBV (rCBV) in different areas was calculated using the ratio between the CBV in the pathological area (CBVp) and in the contralateral white matter (CBVn). The differentiation between a meningioma and a dural metastasis can be difficult using conventional MR imaging. The rCBVs of lung carcinoma metastasis (1 case: 1.26), lymphoma (1 case: 1.29), breast carcinoma metastasis (2 cases: 1.50,1.56) and rectal carcinoma metastasis (1 case: 3.34) were significantly lower than that of meningiomas (16 cases: mean rCBV = 8.97±4.34, range 4-18). Merkel carcinoma metastasis (1 case: 7.56) showed an elevated rCBV, not different from that of meningiomas. Dural metastases are sometimes indistinguishable from meningiomas using conventional MR imaging. rCBV mapping can provide additional information by demonstrating a low rCBV which may suggest the diagnosis of metastasis. (orig.)

  12. The correction of pebble bed reactor nodal cross sections for the effects of leakage and depletion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathanael Harrison

    An accurate and computationally fast method to generate nodal cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) was presented. In this method, named Spectral History Correction (SHC), a set of fine group microscopic cross section libraries, pre-computed at specified depletion and moderation states, was coupled with the nodal nuclide densities and group bucklings to compute the new fine group spectrum for each node. The relevant fine group cross-section library was then recollapsed to the local broad group cross-section structure with this new fine group spectrum. This library set was tracked in terms of fuel isotopic densities. Fine group modulation factors (to correct the homogeneous flux for heterogeneous effects) and fission spectra were also stored with the cross section library. As the PBR simulation converges to a steady state fuel cycle, the initial nodal cross section library becomes inaccurate due to the burnup of the fuel and the neutron leakage into and out of the node. Because of the recirculation of discharged fuel pebbles with fresh fuel pebbles, a node can consist of a collection of pebbles at various burnup stages. To account for the nodal burnup, the microscopic cross sections were combined with nodal averaged atom densities to approximate the fine group macroscopic cross-sections for that node. These constructed, homogeneous macroscopic cross sections within the node were used to calculate a numerical solution for the fine group spectrum with B1 theory. This new fine spectrum was used to collapse the pre-computed microscopic cross section library to the broad group structure employed by the fuel cycle code. This SHC technique was developed and practically implemented as a subroutine within the PBR fuel cycle code PEBBED. The SHC subroutine was called to recalculate the broad group cross sections during the code convergence. The result was a fast method that compared favorably to the benchmark scheme of cross section calculation with the lattice

  13. Implications of improved diagnostic imaging of small nodal metastases in head and neck cancer: Radiotherapy target volume transformation and dose de-escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Sven; Vogel, Wouter V; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P; Dijkema, Tim; Terhaard, Chris H J; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2018-05-03

    Diagnostic imaging continues to evolve, and now has unprecedented accuracy for detecting small nodal metastasis. This influences the tumor load in elective target volumes and subsequently has consequences for the radiotherapy dose required to control disease in these volumes. Small metastases that used to remain subclinical and were included in elective volumes, will nowadays be detected and included in high-dose volumes. Consequentially, high-dose volumes will more often contain low-volume disease. These target volume transformations lead to changes in the tumor burden in elective and "gross" tumor volumes with implications for the radiotherapy dose prescribed to these volumes. For head and neck tumors, nodal staging has evolved from mere palpation to combinations of high-resolution imaging modalities. A traditional nodal gross tumor volume in the neck typically had a minimum diameter of 10-15 mm, while nowadays much smaller tumor deposits are detected in lymph nodes. However, the current dose levels for elective nodal irradiation were empirically determined in the 1950s, and have not changed since. In this report the radiobiological consequences of target volume transformation caused by modern imaging of the neck are evaluated, and theoretically derived reductions of dose in radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are proposed. The concept of target volume transformation and subsequent strategies for dose adaptation applies to many other tumor types as well. Awareness of this concept may result in new strategies for target definition and selection of dose levels with the aim to provide optimal tumor control with less toxicity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation of elvated tumor markers and hepatic and nodal metastases on CT in postgastrectomy patients for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Jin; Park, Won Kyu; Seong, Ki Ho; Cho, Hyun Chul; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan; Song, Sun Kyo

    1997-01-01

    The evaluation of tumor recurrence or metastasis in postgastrectomy cancer patients usually depends on a serum tumor marker test or radiologic study, but in both cases, accuracy is difficult to determine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between abdominal CT and serum tumor markers. In 337cases involving 226 patients who had undergone curative surgery for gastric cancer, we compared serum tumor markers and CT for the evaluation of metastasis. Amoong these 337 cases, CEA level was measured in 317, CA 19-9 level in 166,and both of these in 146. The cutoff level for serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 were 10ng/ml and 33U/ml, respectively. CEA level was elevated in 59 of 317 cases(18.6%) and that of CA 19-9 in 58 of 166(34.9%). Slightly higher overall senstivity and specificity was observed for CEA than for CA19-9 (72.9% vs 67.2%, 83.3% vs 70.4%, respectively). Among the total of 337 cases, liver or lymph node metastases were detected in 91 cases (27.0%) on CT. Negative predictive value was significantly higher in CEA than in CA19-9 (93.1% vs 80%, respectively)(p<0.01), but positive predictive value was lower (50% vs 54.9%, respectively). On CT scan, there was a significant relationship between serum tumor marker level and hepatic and nodal metastasis ; specificity and positivity of serum tumor markers were both higher than senstivity and negativity. Follow-up CT less useful when tumor markers levels are not elevated, but when these are elevated in postgastrectomy cancer patients, meticulous radiologic evaluation is necessary for the early detection of residual or recurrent tumors

  15. Dural metastasis from prostatic adenocarcinoma mimicking meningioma: Report of a case with unilateral loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokgoz, Ozlem; Voyvoda, Nuray; Tokgoz, Husnu

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of PCa (prostatic adenocarcinoma) with transdural metastasis which radiologically simulated a meningioma. During the course of the disease, the patient complained of progressive unilateral loss of vision as the first presentation of intracranial, extra-axial metastasis

  16. Paraganglioma with intracranial metastasis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peihao; Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-10-01

    Paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors of neural crest origin. They are mostly benign, however; malignant tumors with aggressive behavior and distant metastasis can also occur. Intracranial involvement is extremely rare and has been sporadically reported in the literature. Here we report a case who presented with progressive neurologic deficits due to multiple intracranial lesions found to be metastasis from an occult retroperitoneal malignant paraganglioma.

  17. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1994-01-01

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma

  18. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. A new semiquantitative method for evaluation of metastasis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volarevic, A; Ljujic, B; Volarevic, V; Milovanovic, M; Kanjevac, T; Lukic, A; Arsenijevic, N

    2012-01-01

    Although recent technical advancements are directed toward developing novel assays and methods for detection of micro and macro metastasis, there are still no reports of reliable, simple to use imaging software that could be used for the detection and quantification of metastasis in tissue sections. We herein report a new semiquantitative method for evaluation of metastasis progression in a well established 4T1 orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. The new semiquantitative method presented here was implemented by using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2012 program, a computer-aided design program used primarily for preparing technical drawings in 2 dimensions. By using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2012 software- aided graphical evaluation we managed to detect each metastatic lesion and we precisely calculated the average percentage of lung and liver tissue parenchyma with metastasis in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The data were highly specific and relevant to descriptive histological analysis, confirming reliability and accuracy of the AutoCAD 2012 software as new method for quantification of metastatic lesions. The new semiquantitative method using AutoCAD 2012 software provides a novel approach for the estimation of metastatic progression in histological tissue sections.

  20. Unusual presentation of primary extra osseous osteosarcoma: As breast abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N J Nawarathna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary extra osseous osteogenic sarcoma is one of the rarest forms of malignant tumor of the breast. It can arise as a result of osseous metaplasia of a preexisting neoplasm or from a none-phylloides sarcoma of a previously normal breast. Due to its rarity, natural history and optimal treatment methods remain unclear. A 60-year-old patient presented to the surgical casualty with large breast abscess. Abscess wall histology revealed an osteosarcoma of the breast. Left total mastectomy with axillary clearance was performed. Histology and subsequent imunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of osteogenic sarcoma without lymph nodal metastasis. The patient was referred to the oncologist for further management. Rare types of breast tumors can be presented as breast abscess. Incision and drainage together with wall biopsy help to exclude associated sinister pathologies. Diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the breast was made using histological and immunohistochemical findings once the possible primary from the sternum and ribs were excluded. Treatment is as for sarcomas affecting other locations and should comprise a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Nodal methods with non linear feedback for the three dimensional resolution of the diffusion's multigroup equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Nodal methods applied in order to calculate the power distribution in a nuclear reactor core are presented. These methods have received special attention, because they yield accurate results in short computing times. Present nodal schemes contain several unknowns per node and per group. In the methods presented here, non linear feedback of the coupling coefficients has been applied to reduce this number to only one unknown per node and per group. The resulting algorithm is a 7- points formula, and the iterative process has proved stable in the response matrix scheme. The intranodal flux shape is determined by partial integration of the diffusion equations over two of the coordinates, leading to a set of three coupled one-dimensional equations. These can be solved by using a polynomial approximation or by integration (analytic solution). The tranverse net leakage is responsible for the coupling between the spatial directions, and two alternative methods are presented to evaluate its shape: direct parabolic approximation and local model expansion. Numerical results, which include the IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem illustrate the efficiency of the developed methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. New procedure for criticality search using coarse mesh nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wanderson F.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    The coarse mesh nodal methods have as their primary goal to calculate the neutron flux inside the reactor core. Many computer systems use a specific form of calculation, which is called nodal method. In classical computing systems that use the criticality search is made after the complete convergence of the iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the calculation of criticality, condition which will be over very iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. Thus, the processing time for calculating the neutron flux was reduced by half compared with the procedure developed by the Nuclear Engineering Program of COPPE/UFRJ (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ). (author)

  3. New procedure for criticality search using coarse mesh nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wanderson F.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: wneto@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Aquilino@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The coarse mesh nodal methods have as their primary goal to calculate the neutron flux inside the reactor core. Many computer systems use a specific form of calculation, which is called nodal method. In classical computing systems that use the criticality search is made after the complete convergence of the iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the calculation of criticality, condition which will be over very iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. Thus, the processing time for calculating the neutron flux was reduced by half compared with the procedure developed by the Nuclear Engineering Program of COPPE/UFRJ (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ). (author)

  4. An alternative solver for the nodal expansion method equations - 106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho da Silva, F.; Carlos Marques Alvim, A.; Senra Martinez, A.

    2010-01-01

    An automated procedure for nuclear reactor core design is accomplished by using a quick and accurate 3D nodal code, aiming at solving the diffusion equation, which describes the spatial neutron distribution in the reactor. This paper deals with an alternative solver for nodal expansion method (NEM), with only two inner iterations (mesh sweeps) per outer iteration, thus having the potential to reduce the time required to calculate the power distribution in nuclear reactors, but with accuracy similar to the ones found in conventional NEM. The proposed solver was implemented into a computational system which, besides solving the diffusion equation, also solves the burnup equations governing the gradual changes in material compositions of the core due to fuel depletion. Results confirm the effectiveness of the method for practical purposes. (authors)

  5. Topological and trivial magnetic oscillations in nodal loop semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszlány, László; Dóra, Balázs; Cserti, József; Cortijo, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Nodal loop semimetals are close descendants of Weyl semimetals and possess a topologically dressed band structure. We argue by combining the conventional theory of magnetic oscillation with topological arguments that nodal loop semimetals host coexisting topological and trivial magnetic oscillations. These originate from mapping the topological properties of the extremal Fermi surface cross sections onto the physics of two dimensional semi-Dirac systems, stemming from merging two massless Dirac cones. By tuning the chemical potential and the direction of magnetic field, a sharp transition is identified from purely trivial oscillations, arising from the Landau levels of a normal two dimensional (2D) electron gas, to a phase where oscillations of topological and trivial origin coexist, originating from 2D massless Dirac and semi-Dirac points, respectively. These could in principle be directly identified in current experiments.

  6. RELAP 4/MOD 6 boiling water nodalization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneck, G.; Pfau, H.

    1985-09-01

    The risk of nuclear steam supply systems is dominated by the core melt accidents. The first step to a realistic assessment of these sequences is the successful prediction of a loss of coolant event in a test loop. One of the codes for that is RELAP 4/MOD 6 and one of the important options in this code is the nodalization. The base of this work is the test LOCA No. 1 FIX II in Studsvik (Sweden) which also served as the OECD International Standard Problem 15. This report discusses the influence of different nodalizations, of different distributions of pressure, water and structural heat as well as of different bubble rise options, break flow coefficients, and heat transfer time steps. The most important result is that a simple RELAP 4/MOD6 model with less than 10 volumes is able to predict an experiment as LOCA No. 1 in FIX II successfully using only a fraction of the usual computing time. (Author)

  7. A nodal model for the simulation of a PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pinto, R. de.

    1981-06-01

    A computer program FORTRAN language was developed to simulate the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic transient behaviour of a PWR reactor core. The reator power is calculated using a point kinectics model with six groups of delayed neutron precursors. The fission product decay heat was considered assuming three effective decay heat groups. A nodal model was employed for the treatment of heat transfer in the fuel rod, with integration of the heat equation by the lumped parameter technique. Axial conduction was neglected. A single-channel nodal model was developed for the thermo-hydrodynamic simulation using mass and energy conservation equations for the control volumes. The effect of the axial pressure variation was neglected. The computer program was tested, with good results, through the simulation of the transient behaviour of postulated accidents in a typical PWR. (Author) [pt

  8. Error Estimation and Accuracy Improvements in Nodal Transport Methods; Estimacion de Errores y Aumento de la Precision en Metodos Nodales de Transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamonsky, O M [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    The accuracy of the solutions produced by the Discrete Ordinates neutron transport nodal methods is analyzed.The obtained new numerical methodologies increase the accuracy of the analyzed scheems and give a POSTERIORI error estimators. The accuracy improvement is obtained with new equations that make the numerical procedure free of truncation errors and proposing spatial reconstructions of the angular fluxes that are more accurate than those used until present. An a POSTERIORI error estimator is rigurously obtained for one dimensional systems that, in certain type of problems, allows to quantify the accuracy of the solutions. From comparisons with the one dimensional results, an a POSTERIORI error estimator is also obtained for multidimensional systems. LOCAL indicators, which quantify the spatial distribution of the errors, are obtained by the decomposition of the menctioned estimators. This makes the proposed methodology suitable to perform adaptive calculations. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the theoretical developements and to illustrate the ranges where the proposed approximations are valid.

  9. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarah Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients.

  10. Ostomy metastasis after pull endoscopic gastrostomy: a unique favorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Adriana, Carla; Fróis-Borges, Miguel; Meira, Tânia; Oliveira, Gabriel; Santos, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients tend to develop dysphagia. In order to preserve the nutritional support, many undergo endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). In HNC patients, ostomy metastasis is considered a rare complication of PEG, but there are no reports of successful treatment of these metastatic cancers. We report the case of a 65 years old pharyngeal/laryngeal cancer patient who underwent a PEG before the neck surgery. He was considered to be cured, resumed oral intake and the PEG tube was removed. Ten months after, he returned with a metastasis at the ostomy site. A block resection of the stomach and abdominal wall was performed. Two years after the abdominal surgery, he is free of disease. Although usually considered a rare complication of the endoscopic gastrostomy, ostomy metastasis may be more frequent than usually considered and the present case report demonstrates that these patients may have a favourable outcome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...

  12. A rare case of ileal metastasis from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, L; David, L; Orban, C; Herlea, V; Toma, L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman, with a history of radiation-treated and surgically- resected cervical cancer, who was admitted to our clinic for intermittent sub occlusive symptoms. CT scan revealed a liver nodule and intestinal obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected liver metastasis and resolution of intestinal obstruction.Intraoperatively an ileal tumour was found to be the cause of the obstruction. Anatomo-pathological findings were consistent with an ileal metastasis from the cervical cancer.The liver nodule was only an area of focal steatosis. Celsius.

  13. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.

  14. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  15. Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Simões

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  16. [Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Maria Inês; Marcão, Isabel; Toscano, Mário; Borges, Luís

    2018-03-29

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  17. NOMAD: a nodal microscopic analysis method for nuclear fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, H.L.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recently developed assembly homogenization techniques made possible very efficient global burnup calculations based on modern nodal methods. There are two possible ways of modeling the global depletion process: macroscopic and microscopic depletion models. Using a microscopic global depletion approach NOMAD (NOdal Microscopic Analysis Method for Nuclear Fuel Depletion), a multigroup, two- and three-dimensional, multicycle depletion code was devised. The code uses the ILLICO nodal diffusion model. The formalism of the ILLICO methodology is extended to treat changes in the macroscopic cross sections during a depletion cycle without recomputing the coupling coefficients. This results in a computationally very efficient method. The code was tested against a well-known depletion benchmark problem. In this problem a two-dimensional pressurized water reactor is depleted through two cycles. Both cycles were run with 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 nodes per assembly. It is obvious that the one node per assembly solution gives unacceptable results while the 2 x 2 solution gives relative power errors consistently below 2%

  18. Applications of a systematic homogenization theory for nodal diffusion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-bin; Dorning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors recently have developed a self-consistent and systematic lattice cell and fuel bundle homogenization theory based on a multiple spatial scales asymptotic expansion of the transport equation in the ratio of the mean free path to the reactor characteristics dimension for use with nodal diffusion methods. The mathematical development leads naturally to self-consistent analytical expressions for homogenized diffusion coefficients and cross sections and flux discontinuity factors to be used in nodal diffusion calculations. The expressions for the homogenized nuclear parameters that follow from the systematic homogenization theory (SHT) are different from those for the traditional flux and volume-weighted (FVW) parameters. The calculations summarized here show that the systematic homogenization theory developed recently for nodal diffusion methods yields accurate values for k eff and assembly powers even when compared with the results of a fine mesh transport calculation. Thus, it provides a practical alternative to equivalence theory and GET (Ref. 3) and to simplified equivalence theory, which requires auxiliary fine-mesh calculations for assemblies embedded in a typical environment to determine the discontinuity factors and the equivalent diffusion coefficient for a homogenized assembly

  19. Flow-based market coupling. Stepping stone towards nodal pricing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Welle, A.J.

    2012-07-01

    For achieving one internal energy market for electricity by 2014, market coupling is deployed to integrate national markets into regional markets and ultimately one European electricity market. The extent to which markets can be coupled depends on the available transmission capacities between countries. Since interconnections are congested from time to time, congestion management methods are deployed to divide the scarce available transmission capacities over market participants. For further optimization of the use of available transmission capacities while maintaining current security of supply levels, flow-based market coupling (FBMC) will be implemented in the CWE region by 2013. Although this is an important step forward, important hurdles for efficient congestion management remain. Hence, flow based market coupling is compared to nodal pricing, which is often considered as the most optimal solution from theoretical perspective. In the context of decarbonised power systems it is concluded that advantages of nodal pricing are likely to exceed its disadvantages, warranting further development of FBMC in the direction of nodal pricing.

  20. Advances in Spectral Nodal Methods applied to SN Nuclear Reactor Global calculations in Cartesian Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C.; Filho, H.A.; Oliveira, F.B.S.; Silva, F.C. da

    2004-01-01

    Presented here are the advances in spectral nodal methods for discrete ordinates (SN) eigenvalue problems in Cartesian geometry. These coarse-mesh methods are based on three ingredients: (i) the use of the standard discretized spatial balance SN equations; (ii) the use of the non-standard spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations in the multiplying regions of the domain, e.g. fuel assemblies; and (iii) the use of the non-standard spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations in the non-multiplying regions of the domain, e.g., the reflector. In slab-geometry the hybrid SD-SGF method generates numerical results that are completely free of spatial truncation errors. In X,Y-geometry, we obtain a system of two 'slab-geometry' SN equations for the node-edge average angular fluxes by transverse-integrating the X,Y-geometry SN equations separately in the y- and then in the x-directions within an arbitrary node of the spatial grid set up on the domain. In this paper, we approximate the transverse leakage terms by constants. These are the only approximations considered in the SD-SGF-constant nodal method, as the source terms, that include scattering and eventually fission events, are treated exactly. Moreover, we describe in this paper the progress of the approximate SN albedo boundary conditions for substituting the non-multiplying regions around the nuclear reactor core. We show numerical results to typical model problems to illustrate the accuracy of spectral nodal methods for coarse-mesh SN criticality calculations. (Author)

  1. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Masakatsu; Nihei, Keiji; Ishikura, Satoshi; Minashi, Keiko; Yano, Tomonori; Muto, Manabu; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ogino, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: There are some reports indicating that prophylactic three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer can lead to improved survival. But the benefit of ENI in CRT for thoracic esophageal cancer remains controversial. The purpose of the present study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for thoracic esophageal cancer. Materials and methods: Patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thoracic esophagus newly diagnosed between February 1999 and April 2001 in our institution was recruited from our database. Definitive chemoradiotherapy consisted of two cycles of cisplatin/5FU repeated every 5 weeks, with concurrent radiation therapy of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Up to 40 Gy radiation therapy was delivered to the cervical, periesophageal, mediastinal and perigastric lymph nodes as ENI. Results: One hundred two patients were included in this analysis, and their characteristics were as follows: median age, 65 years; male/female, 85/17; T1/T2/T3/T4, 16/11/61/14; N0/N1, 48/54; M0/M1, 84/18. The median follow-up period for the surviving patients was 41 months. Sixty patients achieved complete response (CR). After achieving CR, only one (1.0%; 95% CI, 0-5.3%) patient experienced elective nodal failure without any other site of recurrence. Conclusion: In CRT for esophageal SCC, ENI is effective for preventing regional nodal failure. Further evaluation of whether ENI leads to an improved overall survival is needed.

  2. Papillary carcinoma thyroid, metastasis to cheek: First ever reported case in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiffa Aiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC metastasis to distant organs is rare and mainly includes lung and bone. Metastasis affecting oral and maxillofacial region is extremely rare. We describe a case of PTC metastasis to cheek. The patient presented with a painless swelling of the left cheek with a history of total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma thyroid 5 years back. Cheek metastasis from papillary carcinoma thyroid is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of cheek metastasis from PTC. Common malignancies can metastasize to unusual sites and although infrequent, may be the presenting feature. The successful management of such cases may be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach.

  3. Patterns of practice of regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) NOdal Radiotherapy (NORA) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Kaidar-Person, O.; Poortmans, P.; Ozsahin, M.; Valli, M.-C.; Russell, N.; Kunkler, I.; Hermans, J.; Kuten, A.; van Tienhoven, G.; Westenberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients based on sentinel lymph node (SLN) status without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an area of uncertainty. It influences the decision-making for regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of the NORA (NOdal RAdiotherapy) survey was to examine

  4. Downregulation of NEDD9 by apigenin suppresses migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jin; Van Wie, Peter G.; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Kim, Donghern [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: Zhuo.Zhang@uky.edu [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid which possesses multiple anti-cancer properties such as anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein of the Cas family which has been shown to correlate with cancer metastasis and progression. The present study investigates the role of NEDD9 in apigenin-inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 and SW480 cells. The results show that knockdown of NEDD9 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis and that overexpression of NEDD9 promoted cell migration and invasion of DLD1 cells and SW4890 cells. Apigenin treatment attenuated NEDD9 expression at protein level, resulting in reduced phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt, leading to inhibition on cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of both DLD1 and SW480 cells. The present study has demonstrated that apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt cascade in colorectal cancer cells. NEDD9 may function as a biomarker for evaluation of cancer aggressiveness and for selection of therapeutic drugs against cancer progression. - Highlights: • Apigenin inhibits migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. • Apigenin downregulates NEDD9. • Apigenin decreases phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt. • Apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt.

  5. Downregulation of NEDD9 by apigenin suppresses migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jin; Van Wie, Peter G.; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid which possesses multiple anti-cancer properties such as anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein of the Cas family which has been shown to correlate with cancer metastasis and progression. The present study investigates the role of NEDD9 in apigenin-inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 and SW480 cells. The results show that knockdown of NEDD9 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis and that overexpression of NEDD9 promoted cell migration and invasion of DLD1 cells and SW4890 cells. Apigenin treatment attenuated NEDD9 expression at protein level, resulting in reduced phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt, leading to inhibition on cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of both DLD1 and SW480 cells. The present study has demonstrated that apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt cascade in colorectal cancer cells. NEDD9 may function as a biomarker for evaluation of cancer aggressiveness and for selection of therapeutic drugs against cancer progression. - Highlights: • Apigenin inhibits migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. • Apigenin downregulates NEDD9. • Apigenin decreases phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt. • Apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt.

  6. Intracranial metastasis from primary transitional cell carcinoma of female urethra: case report & review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jung, Shin; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kim, In-Young

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the female urethra is a rare urological malignancy, and intracranial metastasis of this cancer has not yet been reported in the literature. This review is intended to present a case of multiple intracranial metastasis in a female patient with a remote history of primary urethral TCC. A 49-year-old woman, presented with a prolapsed mass in urethral orifice that was diagnosed as primary urethral TCC with distant lung and multiple bone metastases. The patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy under various regimens. A year later, the patient developed headache and vomiting which as was found to be due to multiple intracranial metastasis. The patient underwent surgical resection of the largest lesion located on the cerebellum, and consecutively gamma knife radiosurgery was performed for other small-sized lesions. Pathological examination of the resected mass revealed a metastatic carcinoma from a known urethral TCC. Serial work-up of systemic metastasis revealed concomitant aggravation of lung, spleen, and liver metastasis. The patient died of lung complication 2 months after the diagnosis of brain metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cerebral metastasis from primary urethral TCC, with pathological confirmation. As shown in intracranial metastasis of other urinary tract carcinoma, this case occurred in the setting of uncontrolled systemic disease and led to dismal prognosis in spite of aggressive interventional modalities

  7. Comparison of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Guanyu; Ma, Yan; Xue, Yingwei

    2009-11-01

    The classification of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is still controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the relative merits of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis. In our study, the nodal status was classified according to the 5th edition of the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system, the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma (JCGC), the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes, and the size of the largest metastatic lymph node. Each staging system was scored as good (+2), fair (+1), or poor (0) with respect to the theoretical value (extent of the anatomical lymphatic tumor spread), convenience (simplicity), surgical applicability (extent of lymph node dissection), and prognostic value (ability to predict survival rate). In the multivariate analysis including the four staging systems and other potential prognostic factors, stepwise Cox regression revealed that the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes was the most independent prognostic factor. The TNM, ratio, and size systems were convenient because they had no consideration for the location of the tumor and lymph node. Although the JCGC system had advantages in theoretical value and surgical application, it was most optional due to the complexity of the system. Although all different staging systems are comparable, the metastatic lymph node ratio system is convenient, reproducible, and has the highest ability to predict survival.

  8. MRI, CT and TRUS imaging of seminal vesicle metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, P.; Blomqvist, L.; Norming, U.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of a testicular germ-cell metastasis in the seminal vesicle. Diagnostic imaging with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT, and MRI was performed. This case emphasizes the role of MRI in the evaluation of patients with pathology in the pelvic region. (orig.)

  9. Sparganosis of the Breast that Mimicked Metastasis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Woon; Hwang, Mi Soo

    2011-01-01

    Sparganosis of the breast is a rare parasitic infection of humans. If the breast is involved, then this condition presents as soft tissue masses that mimic breast cancer. We report here on the radiologic feature of sparganosis in a patient with gastric cancer and this mimicked metastasis. We also briefly review the relevant literature

  10. Cardiac metastasis from carcinoid tumour: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Thomson, D.; Bellamy, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    A case of myocardial metastasis from a gastrointestinal carcinoid is presented. The colon was the primary site. The patient did not manifest symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and had no echocardiographic or MRI evidence of carcinoid valvular heart disease. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Malignant Giant Cell Tumour of Bone with Axillary Metastasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-06

    Jun 6, 2002 ... SUMMARY. Giant Cell Tumour of bone is a typically benign and solitary tumour. However, multiple lesions have been described and 5-10% of lesions may be malignant. We present a case of a malignant giant cell tumour of the distal radius with metastasis to the ipsilateral axilla (an uncommon location).

  12. Peritoneal carcinomatosis, an unusual and only site of metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated peritoneal metastases of lung adenocarcinoma are very rare, even exceptional, occurring most often in the context of a multi-metastatic disease. This report presents a rare clinical case of isolated peritoneal metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. We report a 56-year-old male who was monitored for lung ...

  13. Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes Metastasis five years after Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast is an uncommon and rare site for metastasis. Primary and secondary tumors of the breast need to be differentiated as management is different. We present a 67 year old female patient with two breast lumps and an axillary lymph node, 5 years after nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). Mammogram report ...

  14. Synchronous resection of colorectal liver metastasis- a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report of a young patient of. Carcinoma sigmoid colon with multiple liver metastases who was managed with synchronous resection of colorectal liver metastasis. The patient had an ulceroproliferative growth in the sigmoid colon 18 cm from the anal verge with multiple bilobar liver metastases. The CEA

  15. Retrobulbar Metastasis Of Prostate Cancer: A Case Report | Oranusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of retrobulbar metastasis of prostate cancer in a 58years old man without lower urinary tract symptoms is reported. He presented with a two months history of protrusion of the right eye, diplopia and pain in the eye. Digital rectal examination revealed a mildly enlarged prostate that was hard in consistency and nodular ...

  16. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisei Sako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.

  17. Study of flow over object problems by a nodal discontinuous Galerkin-lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Shen, Meng; Liu, Chen

    2018-04-01

    The flow over object problems are studied by a nodal discontinuous Galerkin-lattice Boltzmann method (NDG-LBM) in this work. Different from the standard lattice Boltzmann method, the current method applies the nodal discontinuous Galerkin method into the streaming process in LBM to solve the resultant pure convection equation, in which the spatial discretization is completed on unstructured grids and the low-storage explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used for time marching. The present method then overcomes the disadvantage of standard LBM for depending on the uniform meshes. Moreover, the collision process in the LBM is completed by using the multiple-relaxation-time scheme. After the validation of the NDG-LBM by simulating the lid-driven cavity flow, the simulations of flows over a fixed circular cylinder, a stationary airfoil and rotating-stationary cylinders are performed. Good agreement of present results with previous results is achieved, which indicates that the current NDG-LBM is accurate and effective for flow over object problems.

  18. Spinal drop metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.D.; Rafto, S.E.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Packer, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Identifying subarachnoid metastatic disease (SAMD) in patients with primary central nervous system tumors is important in determining subsequent therapy. Myelography with CT follow-up has been the gold standard for this evaluation. It is an invasive procedure often performed with general anesthesia in children. Now that gadolinium MR imaging has become available, a comparison of these techniques has been initiated to determine their relative effectiveness in demonstrating SAMD in children. Ten children (seven male, aged 2-19 years) with primitive neuroectoderm tumor (n = 5), ependymoma (n = 2), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 1), diffuse low-grade astrocytoma (n = 1), and rhabdoid/teratoid tumors (n = 1) underwent simultaneous myelography/CT and gadolinium MR imaging. Results are presented

  19. Modelling horizontal steam generator with ATHLET. Verification of different nodalization schemes and implementation of verified constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliaev, J.; Trunov, N.; Tschekin, I. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Luther, W. [GRS Garching (Germany); Spolitak, S. [RNC-KI (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Currently the ATHLET code is widely applied for modelling of several Power Plants of WWER type with horizontal steam generators. A main drawback of all these applications is the insufficient verification of the models for the steam generator. This paper presents the nodalization schemes for the secondary side of the steam generator, the results of stationary calculations, and preliminary comparisons to experimental data. The consideration of circulation in the water inventory of the secondary side is proved to be necessary. (orig.). 3 refs.

  20. Modelling horizontal steam generator with ATHLET. Verification of different nodalization schemes and implementation of verified constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliaev, J; Trunov, N; Tschekin, I [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Luther, W [GRS Garching (Germany); Spolitak, S [RNC-KI (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Currently the ATHLET code is widely applied for modelling of several Power Plants of WWER type with horizontal steam generators. A main drawback of all these applications is the insufficient verification of the models for the steam generator. This paper presents the nodalization schemes for the secondary side of the steam generator, the results of stationary calculations, and preliminary comparisons to experimental data. The consideration of circulation in the water inventory of the secondary side is proved to be necessary. (orig.). 3 refs.

  1. Acute Abdomen: A Rare Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, E.; Gilbert, O.; Dequanter, D.

    2009-01-01

    Surgical emergencies caused by bowel metastases from carcinoma of the lung are very rare. We describe two cases of symptomatic gastrointestinal metastatic small cell carcinoma: the first one concerns a 69-year-old man with an acute abdomen and the second is a 72-year-old man complaining of a gastric ulcer symptoms. We also discuss the current management and the prognosis of these patients.

  2. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma with ovarian metastasis - an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, Silviu Horia; Matei, Emil; Stănescu, CodruŢ Silvian; Lupescu, Ioana Gabriela; Boroş, Mirela; Herlea, Vlad; Luca, Niculina Ioana; DorobanŢu, Bogdan Mihail

    2017-01-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) has been considered a distinct clinical entity vs. hepatocellular carcinoma, with respect to its epidemiology, etiology, and prognosis. We describe the unusual case of a 23-year-old female patient with FLC and ovarian (Krukenberg) and peritoneal metastases, clinically mimicking an ovarian carcinoma. Multiple recurrences occurred despite initial R0 resection and chemotherapy, requiring surgical treatment. The patient survived five years and died from generalized disease. The particularities of our case are discussed by comparison with the other two similar cases and other date from the literature. To our knowledge, the ovarian involvement encountered in our case is the third case published in literature, being explained by the superficial location of the liver tumor.

  3. Nodal distances for rooted phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    Dissimilarity measures for (possibly weighted) phylogenetic trees based on the comparison of their vectors of path lengths between pairs of taxa, have been present in the systematics literature since the early seventies. For rooted phylogenetic trees, however, these vectors can only separate non-weighted binary trees, and therefore these dissimilarity measures are metrics only on this class of rooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we overcome this problem, by splitting in a suitable way each path length between two taxa into two lengths. We prove that the resulting splitted path lengths matrices single out arbitrary rooted phylogenetic trees with nested taxa and arcs weighted in the set of positive real numbers. This allows the definition of metrics on this general class of rooted phylogenetic trees by comparing these matrices through metrics in spaces M(n)(R) of real-valued n x n matrices. We conclude this paper by establishing some basic facts about the metrics for non-weighted phylogenetic trees defined in this way using L(p) metrics on M(n)(R), with p [epsilon] R(>0).

  4. CT diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xueying; Chen Xiaoqi; Qi Le; Huang Feng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT findings and diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis. Methods: The CT findings of 17 cases with surgical- pathologically proved peritoneal metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Results The CT findings of peritoneal metastasis included: (1)ascites (12 cases ); (2)the aternation of parietal peritoneum including broad band thickening (7 cases), nodular sign (2 cases), and massive thickening (1 cases); (3) the involved omentum and mesenterium: 'smut' appearances (7 cases), nodular sign (2 cases), 'omental cake' (5 cases); (4) the invlovement of mesenteric vessels; (5) single-or multi-cystic lesions within peritoneum (1 case) . Conclusion: CT scan is the first choice for metastasis of peritoneum. (authors)

  5. Conceptual Design of an Online Estimation System for Stigmergic Collaboration and Nodal Intelligence on Distributed DC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOORSAMY, W.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary level control of stand-alone distributed energy systems requires accurate online state information for effective coordination of its components. State estimation is possible through several techniques depending on the system's architecture and control philosophy. A conceptual design of an online state estimation system to provide nodal autonomy on DC systems is presented. The proposed estimation system uses local measurements - at each node - to obtain an aggregation of the system's state required for nodal self-control without the need for external communication with other nodes or a central controller. The recursive least-squares technique is used in conjunction with stigmergic collaboration to implement the state estimation system. Numerical results are obtained using a Matlab/Simulink model and experimentally validated in a laboratory setting. Results indicate that the proposed system provides accurate estimation and fast updating during both quasi-static and transient states.

  6. Exactly solvable spin-1 Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain with the second-neighbor interaction between nodal spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, V V; Ananikian, N S; Strečka, J

    2016-01-01

    The spin-1 Ising–Heisenberg diamond chain with the second-neighbor interaction between nodal spins is rigorously solved using the transfer-matrix method. In particular, exact results for the ground state, magnetization process and specific heat are presented and discussed. It is shown that further-neighbor interaction between nodal spins gives rise to three novel ground states with a translationally broken symmetry, but at the same time, does not increases the total number of intermediate plateaus in a zero-temperature magnetization curve compared with the simplified model without this interaction term. The zero-field specific heat displays interesting thermal dependencies with a single- or double-peak structure. (paper)

  7. Radiotherapy studies and extra-nodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, progress and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L

    2012-01-01

    Extra-nodal lymphomas may arise in any organ, and different histological subtypes occur in distinct patterns. Prognosis and treatment depend not only on the histological subtype and disease extent, but also on the particular involved extra-nodal organ. The clinical course and response to treatment...... for the more common extra-nodal organs, e.g. stomach, Waldeyer's ring, skin and brain, are fairly well known and show significant variation. A few randomised trials have been carried out testing the role of radiotherapy in these lymphomas. However, for most extra-nodal lymphomas, randomised trials have...... not been carried out, and treatment decisions are made on small patient series and extrapolations from nodal lymphomas. Hopefully, wide international collaboration will make controlled clinical trials possible in the less common extra-nodal lymphomas. Modern highly conformal radiotherapy allows better...

  8. Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTSN-DiagExp method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)

  9. Five-point form of the nodal diffusion method and comparison with finite-difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal Methods have been derived, implemented and numerically tested for several problems in physics and engineering. In the field of nuclear engineering, many nodal formalisms have been used for the neutron diffusion equation, all yielding results which were far more computationally efficient than conventional Finite Difference (FD) and Finite Element (FE) methods. However, not much effort has been devoted to theoretically comparing nodal and FD methods in order to explain the very high accuracy of the former. In this summary we outline the derivation of a simple five-point form for the lowest order nodal method and compare it to the traditional five-point, edge-centered FD scheme. The effect of the observed differences on the accuracy of the respective methods is established by considering a simple test problem. It must be emphasized that the nodal five-point scheme derived here is mathematically equivalent to previously derived lowest order nodal methods. 7 refs., 1 tab

  10. A Nodal-independent and tissue-intrinsic mechanism controls heart-looping chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Emily S.; Verhoeven, Manon; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Tessadori, Federico; Smith, Kelly; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2013-11-01

    Breaking left-right symmetry in bilateria is a major event during embryo development that is required for asymmetric organ position, directional organ looping and lateralized organ function in the adult. Asymmetric expression of Nodal-related genes is hypothesized to be the driving force behind regulation of organ laterality. Here we identify a Nodal-independent mechanism that drives asymmetric heart looping in zebrafish embryos. In a unique mutant defective for the Nodal-related southpaw gene, preferential dextral looping in the heart is maintained, whereas gut and brain asymmetries are randomized. As genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nodal signalling does not abolish heart asymmetry, a yet undiscovered mechanism controls heart chirality. This mechanism is tissue intrinsic, as explanted hearts maintain ex vivo retain chiral looping behaviour and require actin polymerization and myosin II activity. We find that Nodal signalling regulates actin gene expression, supporting a model in which Nodal signalling amplifies this tissue-intrinsic mechanism of heart looping.

  11. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: The multifaceted role of Nodal signaling during mammalian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C B; Dufort, D

    2011-03-01

    Nodal, a secreted signaling protein in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, has established roles in vertebrate development. However, components of the Nodal signaling pathway are also expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and have been implicated in many processes of mammalian reproduction. Emerging evidence indicates that Nodal and its extracellular inhibitor Lefty are expressed in the uterus and complex interactions between the two proteins mediate menstruation, decidualization and embryo implantation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that Nodal from both fetal and maternal sources may regulate trophoblast cell fate and facilitate placentation as both embryonic and uterine-specific Nodal knockout mouse strains exhibit disrupted placenta morphology. Here we review the established and prospective roles of Nodal signaling in facilitating successful pregnancy, including recent evidence supporting a potential link to parturition and preterm birth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The ADO-nodal method for solving two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Picoloto, C.B.; Cunha, R.D. da

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron transport. • Analytical Discrete Ordinates (ADO) nodal method. • Heterogeneous media fixed source problems. • Local solutions. - Abstract: In this work, recent results on the solution of fixed-source two-dimensional transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, are reported. Homogeneous and heterogeneous media problems are considered in order to incorporate the idea of arbitrary number of domain division into regions (nodes) when applying the ADO method, which is a method of analytical features, to those problems. The ADO-nodal formulation is developed, for each node, following previous work devoted to heterogeneous media problem. Here, however, the numerical procedure is extended to higher number of domain divisions. Such extension leads, in some cases, to the use of an iterative method for solving the general linear system which defines the arbitrary constants of the general solution. In addition to solve alternative heterogeneous media configurations than reported in previous works, the present approach allows comparisons with results provided by other metodologies generated with refined meshes. Numerical results indicate the ADO solution may achieve a prescribed accuracy using coarser meshes than other schemes.

  13. Three- and four-noded planar elements using absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshevskiy, Alexander; Dmitrochenko, Oleg; Kim, Changwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates two new types of planar finite elements containing three and four nodes. These elements are the reduced forms of the spatial plate elements employing the absolute nodal coordinate approach. Elements of the first type use translations of nodes and global slopes as nodal coordinates and have 18 and 24 degrees of freedom. The slopes facilitate the prevention of the shear locking effect in bending problems. Furthermore, the slopes accurately describe the deformed shape of the elements. Triangular and quadrilateral elements of the second type use translational degrees of freedom only and, therefore, can be utilized successfully in problems without bending. These simple elements with 6 and 8 degrees of freedom are identical to the elements used in conventional formulation of the finite element method from the kinematical point of view. Similarly to the famous problem called “flying spaghetti” which is used often as a benchmark for beam elements, a kind of “flying lasagna” is simulated for the planar elements. Numerical results of simulations are presented.

  14. The lunar nodal tide and the distance to tne Moon during the Precambrian era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C. G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of life on Earth occurred under physical and chemical conditions distinctly different from those of the present day. The broad goal of this research program is to characterize these conditions. One aspect involves the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system, the distance of the Moon from the Earth, and the length of the day. These have evolved during the course of Earth history as a result of the dissipation of tidal energy. As the moon has receded the amplitude of oceanic tides has decreased while the increasing length of the day should have influenced climate and the circulation of atmosphere and ocean. A 23.3 year periodicity preserved in a 2500 million year old banded iron-formation was interpreted as reflecting the climatic influence of the lunar nodal tide. The corresponding lunar distance would then have been approx. 52 Earth radii. The influence of the lunar nodal tide is also apparent in rocks with an age of 680 million years B.P. The derived value for lunar distance 2500 million years ago is the only datum on the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system during the Precambrian era of Earth history. The implied development of Precambrian tidal friction is in accord with more recent paleontological evidence as well as the long term stability of the lunar orbit.

  15. An iterative algorithm for solving the multidimensional neutron diffusion nodal method equations on parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, B.L.; Azmy, Y.Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the one-group, steady-state neutron diffusion equation in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry is solved using the nodal integral method. The discrete variable equations comprise loosely coupled sets of equations representing the nodal balance of neutrons, as well as neutron current continuity along rows or columns of computational cells. An iterative algorithm that is more suitable for solving large problems concurrently is derived based on the decomposition of the spatial domain and is accelerated using successive overrelaxation. This algorithm is very well suited for parallel computers, especially since the spatial domain decomposition occurs naturally, so that the number of iterations required for convergence does not depend on the number of processors participating in the calculation. Implementation of the authors' algorithm on the Intel iPSC/2 hypercube and Sequent Balance 8000 parallel computer is presented, and measured speedup and efficiency for test problems are reported. The results suggest that the efficiency of the hypercube quickly deteriorates when many processors are used, while the Sequent Balance retains very high efficiency for a comparable number of participating processors. This leads to the conjecture that message-passing parallel computers are not as well suited for this algorithm as shared-memory machines

  16. Development of a New core/reflector model for coarse-mesh nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosbekyan, Leonid; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young Jin; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Chang, Moon Hee.

    1997-10-01

    This work presents two approaches for reflector simulation in coarse-mesh nodal methods. The first approach is called Interface Matrix Technique (IMT), which simulates the baffle as a banishingly thin layer having the property of reflection and transmission. We applied this technique within the frame of AFEN (Analytic Function Expansion Nodal) method, and developed the AFEN-IM (Interface Matrix) method. AFEN-IM method shows 1.24% and 0.42 % in maximum and RMS (Root Mean Square) assemblywise power error for ZION-1 benchmark problem. The second approach is L-shaped reflector homogenization method. This method is based on the integral response conservation along the L-shaped core-reflector interface. The reference reflector response is calculated from 2-dimensional spectral calculation and the response of the homogenized reflector is derived from the one-node 2-dimensional AFEN problem solution. This method shows 5 times better accuracy than the 1-dimensional homogenization technique in the assemblywise power. Also, the concept of shroud/reflector homogenization for hexagonal core have been developed. The 1-dimensional spectral calculation was used for the determination of 2 group cross sections. The essence of homogenization concept consists in the calculation of equivalent shroud width, which preserve albedo for the fast neutrons in 2-dimensional reflector. This method shows a relative error less than 0.42% in assemblywise power and a difference of 9x10 -5 in multiplication factor for full-core model. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 28 figs

  17. Two-dimensional semi-analytic nodal method for multigroup pin power reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung Gyou, Baek; Han Gyu, Joo; Un Chul, Lee

    2007-01-01

    A pin power reconstruction method applicable to multigroup problems involving square fuel assemblies is presented. The method is based on a two-dimensional semi-analytic nodal solution which consists of eight exponential terms and 13 polynomial terms. The 13 polynomial terms represent the particular solution obtained under the condition of a 2-dimensional 13 term source expansion. In order to achieve better approximation of the source distribution, the least square fitting method is employed. The 8 exponential terms represent a part of the analytically obtained homogeneous solution and the 8 coefficients are determined by imposing constraints on the 4 surface average currents and 4 corner point fluxes. The surface average currents determined from a transverse-integrated nodal solution are used directly whereas the corner point fluxes are determined during the course of the reconstruction by employing an iterative scheme that would realize the corner point balance condition. The outgoing current based corner point flux determination scheme is newly introduced. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated with the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  18. NODAL3 Sensitivity Analysis for NEACRP 3D LWR Core Transient Benchmark (PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surian Pinem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of sensitivity analysis of the multidimension, multigroup neutron diffusion NODAL3 code for the NEACRP 3D LWR core transient benchmarks (PWR. The code input parameters covered in the sensitivity analysis are the radial and axial node sizes (the number of radial node per fuel assembly and the number of axial layers, heat conduction node size in the fuel pellet and cladding, and the maximum time step. The output parameters considered in this analysis followed the above-mentioned core transient benchmarks, that is, power peak, time of power peak, power, averaged Doppler temperature, maximum fuel centerline temperature, and coolant outlet temperature at the end of simulation (5 s. The sensitivity analysis results showed that the radial node size and maximum time step give a significant effect on the transient parameters, especially the time of power peak, for the HZP and HFP conditions. The number of ring divisions for fuel pellet and cladding gives negligible effect on the transient solutions. For productive work of the PWR transient analysis, based on the present sensitivity analysis results, we recommend NODAL3 users to use 2×2 radial nodes per assembly, 1×18 axial layers per assembly, the maximum time step of 10 ms, and 9 and 1 ring divisions for fuel pellet and cladding, respectively.

  19. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  20. Dissecting and Targeting Latent Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Option in Brain Metastasis Manuel Valiente,1 Anna C. Obenauf,1 Xin Jin,1 Qing Chen,1 Xiang H.-F. Zhang,1,8 Derek J. Lee,1 Jamie E. Chaft,2 Mark G. Kris,2...of poor response to tamoxifen therapy in recurrent breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 751–756. Francia, G., Cruz -Munoz, W., Man, S., Xu, P... Manuel Valiente1, Xin Jin1†, Ekrem Emrah Er1, Ruzeen Patwa1, Ke Xu3 and Joan Massagué1 1 Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, 2 Department of

  1. Solution of the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck transport equation using exponential nodal schemes; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte de Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck usando esquemas nodales exponenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega J, R.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: roj@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2003-07-01

    There are carried out charge and energy calculations deposited due to the interaction of electrons with a plate of a certain material, solving numerically the electron transport equation for the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck approach of first order in plate geometry with a computer program denominated TEOD-NodExp (Transport of Electrons in Discreet Ordinates, Nodal Exponentials), using the proposed method by the Dr. J. E. Morel to carry out the discretization of the variable energy and several spatial discretization schemes, denominated exponentials nodal. It is used the Fokker-Planck equation since it represents an approach of the Boltzmann transport equation that is been worth whenever it is predominant the dispersion of small angles, that is to say, resulting dispersion in small dispersion angles and small losses of energy in the transport of charged particles. Such electrons could be those that they face with a braking plate in a device of thermonuclear fusion. In the present work its are considered electrons of 1 MeV that impact isotropically on an aluminum plate. They were considered three different thickness of plate that its were designated as problems 1, 2 and 3. In the calculations it was used the discrete ordinate method S{sub 4} with expansions of the dispersion cross sections until P{sub 3} order. They were considered 25 energy groups of uniform size between the minimum energy of 0.1 MeV and the maximum of 1.0 MeV; the one spatial intervals number it was considered variable and it was assigned the values of 10, 20 and 30. (Author)

  2. Testicular Metastasis of Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Kusaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of secondary neoplasms of the testis during autopsies is approximately 2.5%. Although most secondary testicular metastases are due to prostate cancer, only a few patients with prostate cancer have clinically manifested testicular metastasis. We report the case of a prostate cancer patient with testicular metastasis who was diagnosed after the presence of a palpable mass in the right testis. A 56-year-old Japanese male presented to our hospital with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level of 137 ng/ml. He was diagnosed with stage IV (T3N1M1b prostate cancer and received androgen deprivation therapy, followed by various hormonal manipulations. His serum PSA level was undetectable for 1 year. No distant metastases were detected during imaging examinations. He received radiation therapy; however, his serum PSA level increased gradually. Four months later, he presented with right testicular swelling. Computed tomography revealed a heterogenous mass in the right testis and a right high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis showed that the right testis was infiltrated with metastatic adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 8. This is a rare case of right testicular metastasis in a patient with prostate cancer. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer can be aggressive and metastasize.

  3. The clinical value of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bangkun; Yang Jisheng; Shen Dawei; Zuo Lei; Jiang Ling; Zhou Ya

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical value of 99m Tc-MIBI imaging for axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. Methods: 56 patients with breast cancer proven by pathology were imaged with 99m Tc-MIBI. Images were taken at 5, 30, 60 minutes. The axillary area of affected side was included in imaging field. Results: The primary foci in 55 cases were positive and one case was negative in uptake. Of the 56 cases, 35 had histologically proven axillary lymph node metastases. MIBI uptake was seen in 30 cases and negative in 5 cases. The sensitivity was 85.7% (30/35 cases). In 21 cases who had no metastasis, 3 cases showed false positive uptake and 18 cases were true negative, making the specificity 85.7%. In the case who had negative imaging for primary focus, which was non-palpable, had an enlarged axillary lymphatic node. Positive MIBI uptake of the node area was seen in this case. Conclusion: 99m Tc-MIBI imaging is valuable for the diagnosis of axillary nodal metastasis of breast cancer. Even though there is no palpable primary focus, if there is an enlarged axillary lymphatic node and positive MIBI uptake, metastasis should be considered

  4. Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Care Surgical Treatment Laparoscopic Surgery Vaccine Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Clinical Trials Pain Management Nutrition and Exercise Holistic Care Pathology Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Islet Cell ...

  5. Mechanism of polyuria and natriuresis in atrioventricular nodal tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa-Anson, R; Williams, M; Marshall, J; Mitsuoka, T; Lightman, S; Sutton, R

    1984-01-01

    A woman with tachycardia associated with polyuria was investigated. Electrophysiological analysis showed that the tachycardia was an atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia. Programmed stimulation was then used to provoke and sustain the tachycardia for 40 minutes. Polyuria, with an appreciable increase in free water clearance, was observed. This was associated with reduction in plasma and urinary arginine vasopressin concentrations. Appreciable natriuresis also developed. These results support the hypothesis that the polyuria with increased free water clearance and the natriuresis occurring during sustained tachycardia in man are due to inhibition of secretion of vasopressin and the release of natriuretic factor. PMID:6434116

  6. Evaluation of the use of nodal methods for MTR neutronic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsma, F.; Mueller, E.Z.

    1997-08-01

    Although modern nodal methods are used extensively in the nuclear power industry, their use for research reactor analysis has been very limited. The suitability of nodal methods for material testing reactor analysis is investigated with the emphasis on the modelling of the core region (fuel assemblies). The nodal approach`s performance is compared with that of the traditional finite-difference fine mesh approach. The advantages of using nodal methods coupled with integrated cross section generation systems are highlighted, especially with respect to data preparation, simplicity of use and the possibility of performing a great variety of reactor calculations subject to strict time limitations such as are required for the RERTR program.

  7. Nodal line optimization and its application to violin top plate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yonggyun; Jang, In Gwun; Kim, In Kyum; Kwak, Byung Man

    2010-10-01

    In the literature, most problems of structural vibration have been formulated to adjust a specific natural frequency: for example, to maximize the first natural frequency. In musical instruments like a violin; however, mode shapes are equally important because they are related to sound quality in the way that natural frequencies are related to the octave. The shapes of nodal lines, which represent the natural mode shapes, are generally known to have a unique feature for good violins. Among the few studies on mode shape optimization, one typical study addresses the optimization of nodal point location for reducing vibration in a one-dimensional beam structure. However, nodal line optimization, which is required in violin plate design, has not yet been considered. In this paper, the central idea of controlling the shape of the nodal lines is proposed and then applied to violin top plate design. Finite element model for a violin top plate was constructed using shell elements. Then, optimization was performed to minimize the square sum of the displacement of selected nodes located along the target nodal lines by varying the thicknesses of the top plate. We conducted nodal line optimization for the second and the fifth modes together at the same time, and the results showed that the nodal lines obtained match well with the target nodal lines. The information on plate thickness distribution from nodal line optimization would be valuable for tailored trimming of a violin top plate for the given performances.

  8. Time-dependent patterning of the mesoderm and endoderm by Nodal signals in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougan Scott T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate body plan is generated during gastrulation with the formation of the three germ layers. Members of the Nodal-related subclass of the TGF-β superfamily induce and pattern the mesoderm and endoderm in all vertebrates. In zebrafish, two nodal-related genes, called squint and cyclops, are required in a dosage-dependent manner for the formation of all derivatives of the mesoderm and endoderm. These genes are expressed dynamically during the blastula stages and may have different roles at different times. This question has been difficult to address because conditions that alter the timing of nodal-related gene expression also change Nodal levels. We utilized a pharmacological approach to conditionally inactivate the ALK 4, 5 and 7 receptors during the blastula stages without disturbing earlier signaling activity. This permitted us to directly examine when Nodal signals specify cell types independently of dosage effects. Results We show that two drugs, SB-431542 and SB-505124, completely block the response to Nodal signals when added to embryos after the mid-blastula transition. By blocking Nodal receptor activity at later stages, we demonstrate that Nodal signaling is required from the mid-to-late blastula period to specify sequentially, the somites, notochord, blood, Kupffer's vesicle, hatching gland, heart, and endoderm. Blocking Nodal signaling at late times prevents specification of cell types derived from the embryo margin, but not those from more animal regions. This suggests a linkage between cell fate and length of exposure to Nodal signals. Confirming this, cells exposed to a uniform Nodal dose adopt progressively more marginal fates with increasing lengths of exposure. Finally, cell fate specification is delayed in squint mutants and accelerated when Nodal levels are elevated. Conclusion We conclude that (1 Nodal signals are most active during the mid-to-late blastula stages, when nodal-related gene

  9. Surgical resection of solitary distant metastasis from locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy: A ray of hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelakkot G Prameela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck malignancies have always been challenging for the clinician, both with regards to locoregional control and distant metastasis. Aggressive approaches translate to an acceptable locoregional control, but distant failures pose a dilemma. Newer, sophisticated, imaging modalities have helped in early diagnosis of solitary metastasis, and in turn have opened up an array of interventional procedures, which to some extent improve the disease-free survival and quality of life, as was seen in the present case of locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy who presented with solitary distant metastasis. Still, diligent care needs to be taken not to aggravate the scenario with these interventions.

  10. Metastasis in nasal cavity as first symptom of a renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestard Hartman, Isel de la Caridad; Fe Soca, Andres Manuel de la; Ramirez Salinas, Yanilia de las Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The renal carcinoma of clear cells is the most frequent histological type. Metastasis is present in approximately 25-30 % of the patients in the diagnosis. The peculiar tendency of this carcinoma to make metastasis in not very usual areas, makes of this oncological process a primary tumour to keep in mind in the differential diagnosis of metastases as the first neoplasia manifestation. A not very frequent case is presented, with tumour in the left nasal cavity and recurrent epistaxis, secondary to metastasis of renal carcinoma as first symptom

  11. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  12. Pinworm infection masquerading as colorectal liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K J; Hubscher, S; Mangat, K; Sutcliffe, R; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E. vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur.

  13. Oncoprotein metastasis and its suppression revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulescu Razvan T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The past two decades have witnessed an increasing appreciation of the role of the tumor microenvironment, of genetic and epigenetic alterations in normal cells adjacent to tumors and of the migration of normal cells with aberrant intrinsic properties in cancer pathophysiology. Aside from these insights, a novel concept termed "oncoprotein metastasis" (OPM has recently been advanced and proposed to reflect protein-based neoplastic phenomena that might occur even before any modifications relating to the morphology, location or (epigenetic outfit of cells during the malignant process. Here, evidence is presented that supports the OPM perception and thus should contribute not only to further rethink the definition of a normal cell, but also the treatment of cancer disease in the years to come.

  14. Is there a requirement for axillary lymph node dissection following identification of micro-metastasis or isolated tumour cells at sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Joyce, D P

    2012-02-29

    INTRODUCTION: Recent decades have seen a significant shift towards conservative management of the axilla. Increasingly, immunohistochemical analysis of sentinel nodes leads to the detection of small tumour deposits, the significance of which remains uncertain. The aims of this study are to examine patients whose sentinel lymph nodes are positive for macro-metastasis, micro-metastasis or isolated tumour cells (ITCs) and to determine the rate of further nodal disease after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) between January 2007 and December 2010 in a tertiary referral breast unit was performed. Patients who underwent an axillary lymph node dissection for macro-metastasis, micro-metastasis or ITCs were identified. Demographics, histological data and the rate of further axillary disease were examined. RESULTS: In total, 664 breast cancer patients attended the symptomatic breast unit during the study period, 360 of whom underwent a SLNB. Seventy patients had a SLNB positive for macro-metastasis. All of these patients underwent ALND. A positive SLNB with either micro-metastasis or ITCs was identified in 58 patients. Only 41 of the 58 patients went on to have an ALND, due primarily to variations in surgeons\\' preferences. Nineteen patients with micro-metastasis underwent an ALND. Four patients had further axillary disease (21%). Twenty-two patients had ITCs identified, of whom only one had further disease (4.5%). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of tumour size, grade, lymphovascular invasion or oestrogen receptor status. CONCLUSION: ALND should be considered in patients with micro-metastasis at SLNB. It should rarely be employed in the setting of SLNB positive for ITCs.

  15. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  16. Qualification of a full plant nodalization for the prediction of the core exit temperature through a scaling methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu; Martínez-Quiroga, V., E-mail: victor.martinez.quiroga@upc.edu; Reventós, F., E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Core exit temperature is used in PWRs as an indication of core heat up. • Qualification of full scale nuclear reactors by means of a scaling methodology. • Scaling of RELAP5 calculations to full scale power plants. - Abstract: System codes and their necessary power plant nodalizations are an essential step in thermal hydraulic safety analysis. In order to assess the safety of a particular power plant, in addition to the validation and verification of the code, the nodalization of the system needs to be qualified. Since most existing experimental data come from scaled-down facilities, any qualification process must therefore address scale considerations. The Group of Thermal Hydraulic Studies at Technical University of Catalonia has developed a scaling-up methodology (SCUP) for the qualification of full-scale nodalizations through a systematic procedure based on the extrapolation of post-test simulations of Integral Test Facility experiments. In the present work, the SCUP methodology will be employed to qualify the nodalization of the AscóNPP, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), for the reproduction of an important safety phenomenon which is the effectiveness of the Core Exit Temperature (CET) as an Accident Management (AM) indicator. Given the difficulties in placing measurements in the core region, CET measurements are used as a criterion for the initiation of safety operational procedures during accidental conditions in PWR. However, the CET response has some limitation in detecting inadequate core cooling simply because the measurement is not taken in the position where the cladding exposure occurs. In order to apply the SCUP methodology, the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 3, an SBLOCA in the hot leg, has been selected as a starting point. This experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF), a facility operated by the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and was focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of AM actions triggered by

  17. Microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ: Clinical presentation, imaging features, pathologic findings, and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Cristina C. [Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Mercado, Cecilia L. [Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine (United States)], E-mail: Cecilia.mercado@nyumc.org; Cangiarella, Joan F. [Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Moy, Linda; Toth, Hildegard K. [Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine (United States); Guth, Amber A. [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical features, imaging characteristics, pathologic findings and outcome of microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM). Materials and methods: The records of 21 women diagnosed with microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM) from November 1993 to September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical presentation, imaging and histopathologic features, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Results: The 21 lesions all occurred in women with a mean age of 56 years (range, 27-79 years). Clinical findings were present in ten (48%): 10 with palpable masses, four with associated nipple discharge. Mean lesion size was 21 mm (range, 9-65 mm). The lesion size in 62% was 15 mm or smaller. Mammographic findings were calcifications only in nine (43%) and an associated or other finding in nine (43%) [mass (n = 7), asymmetry (n = 1), architectural distortion (n = 1)]. Three lesions were mammographically occult. Sonographic findings available in 11 lesions showed a solid hypoechoic mass in 10 cases (eight irregular in shape, one round, one oval). One lesion was not seen on sonography. On histopathologic examination, all lesions were diagnosed as DCISM, with a focus of invasive carcinoma less than or equal to 1 mm in diameter within an area of DCIS. Sixteen (76%) lesions were high nuclear grade, four (19%) were intermediate and one was low grade (5%). Sixteen (76%) had the presence of necrosis. Positivity for ER and PR was noted in 75% and 38%. Nodal metastasis was present in one case with axillary lymph node dissection. Mean follow-up time for 16 women was 36 months without evidence of local or systemic recurrence. One patient developed a second primary in the contralateral breast 3 years later. Conclusion: The clinical presentation and radiologic appearance of a mass are commonly encountered in DCISM lesions (48% and 57%, respectively), irrespective of lesion size, mimicking findings seen in invasive carcinoma

  18. Microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ: Clinical presentation, imaging features, pathologic findings, and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Cristina C.; Mercado, Cecilia L.; Cangiarella, Joan F.; Moy, Linda; Toth, Hildegard K.; Guth, Amber A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical features, imaging characteristics, pathologic findings and outcome of microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM). Materials and methods: The records of 21 women diagnosed with microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCISM) from November 1993 to September 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical presentation, imaging and histopathologic features, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Results: The 21 lesions all occurred in women with a mean age of 56 years (range, 27-79 years). Clinical findings were present in ten (48%): 10 with palpable masses, four with associated nipple discharge. Mean lesion size was 21 mm (range, 9-65 mm). The lesion size in 62% was 15 mm or smaller. Mammographic findings were calcifications only in nine (43%) and an associated or other finding in nine (43%) [mass (n = 7), asymmetry (n = 1), architectural distortion (n = 1)]. Three lesions were mammographically occult. Sonographic findings available in 11 lesions showed a solid hypoechoic mass in 10 cases (eight irregular in shape, one round, one oval). One lesion was not seen on sonography. On histopathologic examination, all lesions were diagnosed as DCISM, with a focus of invasive carcinoma less than or equal to 1 mm in diameter within an area of DCIS. Sixteen (76%) lesions were high nuclear grade, four (19%) were intermediate and one was low grade (5%). Sixteen (76%) had the presence of necrosis. Positivity for ER and PR was noted in 75% and 38%. Nodal metastasis was present in one case with axillary lymph node dissection. Mean follow-up time for 16 women was 36 months without evidence of local or systemic recurrence. One patient developed a second primary in the contralateral breast 3 years later. Conclusion: The clinical presentation and radiologic appearance of a mass are commonly encountered in DCISM lesions (48% and 57%, respectively), irrespective of lesion size, mimicking findings seen in invasive carcinoma

  19. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins

  20. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling YAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study clinicopathological features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC.  Methods One case of MANEC with brain metastasis was reported focusing on the following aspects: clinical manifestations, histopathological features and immunophenotypes, and the relevant literatures were reviewed.  Results A 35-year-old male presented headache and vomiting, and his head CT scan showed a lesion located in the right temporal lobe. The tumor was detected after separating the cerebral cortex during the surgery. The tumor diameter was 3 cm. The tumor was soft and rubbery with ill-defined margins, and rich in blood supply. Under optical microscopy, the tumor was consisted of small round cells of the same size, with focal tumor cells arranged around blood vessels in a pseudorosette manner or papillary manner with brisk mitotic activity. The boundary between tumor and brain tissue was ill-defined. By using immunohistochemical staining, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn and CD56, and negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, pan cytokeratin (PCK, CD3, CD20, vimentin (Vim, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, S-100 protein (S-100, neurofilament (NF, nestin (Nes, CK5/6, CK8/18 and CD99. Ki-67 labeling index was about 62%. Sigmoidoscopy was performed later in another hospital and showed a mass in the patient's colon. The colon tumor was biphasic in appearance, and was consisted of two distinct components: isomorphic small round cells and low-middle differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. The small round tumor cells were diffusely positive for Syn and CD56, and negative for PCK. The adenocarcinoma cells showed opposite results.  Conclusions MANEC is a rare tumor, which is defined in 2010 by WHO Classification of Digestive, and to the best of our knowledge, MANEC of the colon with brain metastasis has never been described

  1. Características morfológicas y posibles implicaciones clínicas de las arterias nodales Morphological characteristics and potential clinical implications of nodal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Ballesteros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La expresión morfológica de las arterias nodales es relevante en el diagnóstico y manejo de eventos clínicos y en abordajes quirúrgicos del corazón. Se estudiaron 88 arterias nodales de corazones obtenidos como material de autopsia. Las arterias coronarias se inyectaron con resina poliéster pigmentada de color rojo. Se registraron las formas de presentación de las arterias nodales y sus características morfométricas. La arteria del nodo sinoatrial se originó de la coronaria derecha en 52 casos (59,1%, de la circunfleja en 33 corazones (37,35% y de ambas en 3 (3,4%. Su calibre proximal fue de 1,31 mm (± 0,3, correspondiente a las arterias originadas de la coronaria derecha de 1,25 mm (± 0,3 mientras que las que se originaron de la arteria circunfleja obtuvieron un calibre de 1,42 mm (± 0,3, siendo esta diferencia significativa (p= 0,01. Se originó con mayor frecuencia en el tercio anteromedial, tanto de la coronaria derecha como de la circunfleja (54,6% y 61,2% respectivamente. En su segmento final cruzó por delante de la desembocadura de la vena cava superior en la mayoría de los casos (44%, mientras que en 22 corazones (24,5% cursó alrededor de la cava. Se observó arteria en forma de «S» en 14 casos (15,9% del total de la muestra y 42,4% de las originadas de la arteria circunfleja. La arteria del nodo atrioventricular se originó del segmento en «U» invertida de la coronaria derecha, al nivel de la cruz cardiaca, en 81 corazones (92%, y presentó un calibre proximal de 1,06 mm (± 0,22. Con relación al calibre y al origen se evidencian hallazgos que coinciden con estudios previos. Se destaca la alta prevalencia de la arteria en forma de «S» y de la trayectoria de la arteria sinoatrial alrededor de la vena cava superior.The morphological expression of nodal arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of cardiac clinical events and surgical approaches. 88 nodal arteries of hearts obtained from autopsies were

  2. Presence of skin metastasis related to an epidermoid carcinoma of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danta Fundora, Debora; Collado Otero, Juan Carlos; Vazquez Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Paredes Lopez, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Appearance of spreading skin metastases in colorectal cancer and of anal canal is infrequent. The aim of present paper was to show an interesting case of skin metastasis related to an advanced carcinoma of anal canal infiltrating rectum

  3. Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-07-31

    In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX 3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L  ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM  magnon edge modes.

  4. Investigation of the roles of exosomes in colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Ding, Xiaoling; Nan, Lijuan; Wang, Yiting; Wang, Jing; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jihong; Zhu, Wei; Ni, Bing; Dong, Suzhen; Yu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    The leading cause of death among cancer patients is tumor metastasis. Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging as mediators of metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that exosomes play a pivotal role in the metastatic progression of colorectal cancer. First, a nude mouse model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis was established and characterized. Then, we demonstrated that exosomes from a highly liver metastatic colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) could significantly increase the metastatic tumor burden and distribution in the mouse liver of Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells, which ordinarily exhibit poor liver metastatic potential. We further investigated the mechanisms by which HT-29-derived-exosomes influence the liver metastasis of colorectal cancer and found that mice treated with HT-29-derived exosomes had a relatively higher level of CXCR4 in the metastatic microenvironment, indicating that exosomes may promote colorectal cancer metastasis by recruiting CXCR4-expressing stromal cells to develop a permissive metastatic microenvironment. Finally, the migration of Caco-2 cells was significantly increased following treatment with HT-29-derived exosomes in vitro, further supporting a role for exosomes in modulating colorectal tumor-derived liver metastasis. The data from the present study may facilitate further translational medicine research into the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  5. Separation of the effects of astigmatic figure error from misalignments using Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P; Rakich, Andrew; Thompson, Kevin P

    2010-08-02

    We present the nodal aberration field response of Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes to a combination of optical component misalignments and astigmatic figure error on the primary mirror. It is shown that both astigmatic figure error and secondary mirror misalignments lead to binodal astigmatism, but that each type has unique, characteristic locations for the astigmatic nodes. Specifically, the characteristic node locations in the presence of astigmatic figure error (at the pupil) in an otherwise aligned telescope exhibit symmetry with respect to the field center, i.e. the midpoint between the astigmatic nodes remains at the field center. For the case of secondary mirror misalignments, one of the astigmatic nodes remains nearly at the field center (in a coma compensated state) as presented in Optics Express 18, 5282-5288 (2010), while the second astigmatic node moves away from the field center. This distinction leads directly to alignment methods that preserve the dynamic range of the active wavefront compensation component.

  6. Pellet by pellet neutron flux calculations coupled with nodal expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldo, Dall'Osso

    2003-01-01

    We present a technique whose aim is to replace 2-dimensional pin by pin de-homogenization, currently done in core reactor calculations with the nodal expansion method (NEM), by a 3-dimensional finite difference diffusion calculation. This fine calculation is performed as a zoom in each node taking as boundary conditions the results of the NEM calculations. The size of fine mesh is of the order of a fuel pellet. The coupling between fine and NEM calculations is realised by an albedo like boundary condition. Some examples are presented showing fine neutron flux shape near control rods or assembly grids. Other fine flux behaviour as the thermal flux rise in the fuel near the reflector is emphasised. In general the results show the interest of the method in conditions where the separability of radial and axial directions is not granted. (author)

  7. A stabilised nodal spectral element method for fully nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, C.; Bigoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively......We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al. (1998) [5], although...... the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global L2 projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions...

  8. Humeral Metastasis from Cervical Cancer: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Chhabra; KanikaTaneja; Megha Ralli; Sunita Singh; Aditi Arora; Sohrab Arora; Pansi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Long bone metastasis in cervical cancer is a rare presentation generally seen in the lumbar column or ribs. The reported rates of bone metastases are between 15%-29%. It is associated with poor prognosis. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging are useful techniques for diagnosis. In this case report, a 32-year old female with a previous history of cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IIIA presented with severe pain and swelling in her right humerus. X-ray and magnetic resonance imag...

  9. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Su Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. (orig.)

  10. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Su Jeong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Breast Cancer Clinic, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Breast Cancer Clinic, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. (orig.)

  11. Effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with small oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant ipsilateral singular cervical lymph node metastasis (pN1). A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergel, Maximilian; Meurer, Philipp; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Wendt, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    The positive effect of radiation therapy for patients with advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been substantially verified. The present work investigated whether a meta-analysis of current data is able to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with small OSCC (pT1, pT2) and a single ipsilateral lymph node metastasis (pN1). The meta-analysis comprises randomized and non-randomized studies. High-risk tumors were excluded and defined by size ≥ pT3/pT4, lymph node involvement ≥ pN2, or presence of additional histological risk factors, e.g., involved positive resection margins, extra nodal spread of the disease, or lymphangiosis carcinomatosa. The primary outcome analyzed mortality between the different treatment arms. Only one prospective randomized clinical trial and six retrospective observational studies were adequate for evaluation. Descriptive analysis revealed a marginally higher mortality in the irradiation group (44% vs. 34%). In contrast, a forest plot presentation of two of seven studies with and without events in the control and therapy arms presented an advantage for the irradiation group with the limitation of large heterogeneity and a lack of statistical significance. Present data are poor and exhibit limited internal and external validity; thus, direct comparison was not possible with the eligible studies. Therefore, a meta-analysis of present data may not serve as the basis for a general treatment recommendation but underlines the need of prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials. (orig.)

  12. Does shear wave ultrasound independently predict axillary lymph node metastasis in women with invasive breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew; Rauchhaus, Petra; Whelehan, Patsy; Thomson, Kim; Purdie, Colin A; Jordan, Lee B; Michie, Caroline O; Thompson, Alastair; Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE) shows promise as an adjunct to greyscale ultrasound examination in assessing breast masses. In breast cancer, higher lesion stiffness on SWE has been shown to be associated with features of poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess whether lesion stiffness at SWE is an independent predictor of lymph node involvement. Patients with invasive breast cancer treated by primary surgery, who had undergone SWE examination were eligible. Data were retrospectively analysed from 396 consecutive patients. The mean stiffness values were obtained using the Aixplorer® ultrasound machine from SuperSonic Imagine Ltd. Measurements were taken from a region of interest positioned over the stiffest part of the abnormality. The average of the mean stiffness value obtained from each of two orthogonal image planes was used for analysis. Associations between lymph node involvement and mean lesion stiffness, invasive cancer size, histologic grade, tumour type, ER expression, HER-2 status and vascular invasion were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. At univariate analysis, invasive size, histologic grade, HER-2 status, vascular invasion, tumour type and mean stiffness were significantly associated with nodal involvement. Nodal involvement rates ranged from 7 % for tumours with mean stiffness 150 kPa. At multivariate analysis, invasive size, tumour type, vascular invasion, and mean stiffness maintained independent significance. Mean stiffness at SWE is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis and thus can confer prognostic information additional to that provided by conventional preoperative tumour assessment and staging.

  13. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Martin, Sarah E. [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen [Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Lin, Julian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Tsung, Andrew J. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Illinois Neurological Institute, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Velpula, Kiran K., E-mail: velpula@uic.edu [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  14. Metástasis hipofisaria Hypophyseal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mayoría son lesiones silentes descubiertas accidentalmente en las autopsia. La aparición de metástasis sintomáticas es, en cambio, excepcional. DESARROLLO: se describen aquí los hallazgos clínicos y radiológicos de una paciente femenina de 69 años, con un carcinoma indiferenciado del pulmón, diagnosticado hace 2 años y medio, que comenzó con cefalea y trastornos visuales sin hipopituitarismo ni diabetes insípida. Se le realizó resonancia magnética nuclear y se le diagnosticó una lesión hipofisaria, que fue operada por vía tranesfenoidal, y se informó por anatomía patológica una metástasis del carcinoma del pulmón. CONCLUSIONES: la paciente se encuentra en estos momentos recibiendo quimioterapia, radioterapia y anticuerpo monoclonal con evolución favorable.INTRODUCTION: metastatic tumors of hypophyseal gland are infrequent. Most are silent lesions discovered accidentally in necropsy. Appearance of symptomatic metastasis is however, exceptional. DEVELOPMENT: we describe here clinical and radiological findings in a female patient aged 69, presenting with a non-differential carcinoma of lung, diagnosed two years a half ago, starting with headache and visual disorders without hypopituitarism and insipidus diabetes. We made a nuclear magnetic resonance and diagnosis was a hypophyseal lesion operated on by trans-esphenoidal route, and Pathological Anatomy Service reports a metastasis of lung carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: patient receives chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and monoclonal antibody with a favorable evolution.

  15. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R.; Martin, Sarah E.; Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen; Lin, Julian; Tsung, Andrew J.; Velpula, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  16. Whistle from Afar: A Case of Endotracheal Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitoti Chattopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal metastasis is a rare situation, usually associated with malignancies of breast and gastrointestinal tract, specially colon. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid commonly disseminates through lymphatic channels and tracheal involvement through vascular route is rarely reported. Here, we report a case of tracheal metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid. The patient responded to external beam radiation therapy with cobalt 60 beams in a dose of 44 Gy followed by a 16 Gy boost. The patient is under followup and is presently asymptomatic. This paper adds to the repertoire of evidence in treatment of endotracheal metastasis.

  17. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  18. Isolated Late Metastasis of a Renal Cell Cancer Treated by Radical Distal Pancreatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Barras

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 53–year-old man underwent right nephrectomy for a locally advanced renal cell carcinoma with concomitant resection of a solitary metastasis in the right lung. Ten years later, he presented with haematochezia caused by a tumour in the tail of pancreas, invading the transverse colon and the greater curvature of the stomach. The tumour was radically resected, and histological examination revealed a solitary metastasis of the previous renal cell carcinoma. This case illustrates a rare indication for pancreatic resection because of pancreatic metastasis.

  19. Occult Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast Detected by Stomach Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, So Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang CHA general Hospital, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gastric metastasis from primary breast cancer is a rare phenomenon that is more prevalent in the invasive lobular type of breast cancer. We describe a very rare case of occult invasive lobular cancer of the breast detected by the initial presentation of gastric metastasis in a patient without a history of breast cancer. A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) which showed increased FDG uptake in the stomach, abdominal mesentery and the right breast, and played pivotal roles in the detection of occult primary breast cancer and a diagnosis of gastric metastasis as an ancillary method for obtaining histological results and immunohistochemical stains.

  20. Pancreatic Metastasis in a Child Suffering with Treated Stage 4 Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Young; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Ki Woong

    2008-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, and its metastasis to distant organs such as bone, bone marrow and liver is well documented. However, pancreatic metastasis of neuroblastoma has not yet been reported in the medical literature. We report here on a 4-year old boy who had a metastatic relapse in his pancreas, combined with pancreatitis, after remission of stage 4 neuroblastoma. In conclusion, we present here a very rare case of neuroblastoma that metastasized to the pancreas in a 4- year-old boy. Pancreatic metastasis should be taken into consideration for those patients who are found to have pancreatic nodules concurrent with neuroblastoma

  1. Simultaneous thigh muscle metastasis from lung cancer and Escherichia coli gas producing myonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Gonzalo E.; Coursey, Courtney A.; Martinez, Salutario; Dodd, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 41-year-old man with known large cell lung cancer who had undergone left pneumonectomy 7 months prior and who presented with a large intramuscular mass involving the posterior left thigh and upper calf. This thigh mass was ultimately surgically explored, and specimens yielded both Escherichia coli organisms and cells reflecting a skeletal muscle metastasis from the patient's known lung cancer. The patient was also found to have a rectal metastasis from his lung cancer. Intramuscular abscesses produced by gastrointestinal tract flora are a well-known presentation of colon cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the simultaneous occurrence of a skeletal muscle metastasis and an E. coli abscess in the same anatomic location. We believe the patient's rectal metastasis may have been the intermediate step in this process. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous thigh muscle metastasis from lung cancer and Escherichia coli gas producing myonecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Gonzalo E. [Hospital Italiano, Department of Radiology, Cordoba (Argentina); Coursey, Courtney A.; Martinez, Salutario [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Dodd, Leslie [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    We present the case of a 41-year-old man with known large cell lung cancer who had undergone left pneumonectomy 7 months prior and who presented with a large intramuscular mass involving the posterior left thigh and upper calf. This thigh mass was ultimately surgically explored, and specimens yielded both Escherichia coli organisms and cells reflecting a skeletal muscle metastasis from the patient's known lung cancer. The patient was also found to have a rectal metastasis from his lung cancer. Intramuscular abscesses produced by gastrointestinal tract flora are a well-known presentation of colon cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of the simultaneous occurrence of a skeletal muscle metastasis and an E. coli abscess in the same anatomic location. We believe the patient's rectal metastasis may have been the intermediate step in this process. (orig.)

  3. Small cell lung cancer with metastasis to the thyroid in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgu, Eylem Sercan; Gen, Ramazan; Ilvan, Ahmet; Ozge, Cengiz; Polat, Ayşe; Vayisoglu, Yusuf

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer is rarely observed in clinical practice. The primary cancers which metastasize to the thyroid gland are mostly renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Transient destructive thyrotoxicosis is caused by massive metastasis of extrathyroid tumors. We herein present a case report of a patient with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. A 66-year-old man complained of swelling around the right side of the neck, dyspnea, progressive weight loss, and palpitation starting since 3 months before his admission. The patient was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. The case report presented here illustrates the challenge of making a definitive and adequate diagnosis, particularly if the patient presents with 2 potential causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid scintigraphy is an important tool for differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.

  4. Apropos of a case of cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal cancer with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeeta Trehan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma is a rare occurrence. A 55-year-old male patient with supraglottic cancer was treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Eighteen months later, he presented with ulceroproliferative growth on dorsum of the right hand. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Further investigations revealed underlying bone destruction with lung metastasis. In view of poor general condition and widespread dissemination of disease, palliative radiotherapy was delivered to the hand of the patient. He achieved satisfactory palliation in form of pain relief, control of bleeding, and discharge. The present report serves to emphasize the importance of properly diagnosing metastatic spread to unusual sites. Such metastasis is rare and is associated with a poor prognosis. Treatment is usually aimed at providing pain relief in these patients with limited life expectancy. Hence, we present a case of extensive cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma with review of the literature.

  5. Drug Development for Metastasis Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontebasso, Yari; Dubinett, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is responsible for 90% of death from solid tumors. However, only a minority of metastasis-specific targets has been exploited therapeutically, and effective prevention and suppression of metastatic disease is still an elusive goal. In this review, we will first summarize the current state of knowledge about the molecular features of the disease, with particular focus on steps and targets potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We will then discuss the reasons underlying the paucity of metastatic drugs in the current oncological arsenal and potential ways to overcome this therapeutic gap. We reason that the discovery of novel promising targets, an increased understanding of the molecular features of the disease, the effect of disruptive technologies, and a shift in the current preclinical and clinical settings have the potential to create more successful drug development endeavors.

  6. Stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Daisne, J.F.; Thillays, F.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is now well implanted in the radiotherapy treatment tools of brain metastasis. The dose can be delivered in one or multiple sessions. Results seem equivalent. CT scan and MRI imaging are required to delineate and calculate dosimetry. Doses are variable according to the size of the metastases, localization, pathology or equipment. Stabilization or reduction of tumour size is the rules after stereotactic treatment. Impact in terms of overall survival is more difficult to apprehend because of the general context of the disease. Many questions remain unresolved, such as the usefulness of whole brain irradiation, adaptation of the treatment schedule to tumour pathophysiology, role of stereotactic treatment after surgery of metastases, etc. (authors)

  7. Assessment of Effect on LBLOCA PCT for Change in Upper Head Nodalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Huh, Byung Gil; Yoo, Seung Hun; Bang, Youngseok; Seul, Kwangwon; Cho, Daehyung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis of LBLOCA for original and modified nodalizations was performed, and the effect on LBLOCA PCT for change in upper head nodalization was assessed. In this study, the best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis of LBLOCA for original and modified nodalizations was performed, and the effect on LBLOCA PCT for change in upper head nodalization was assessed. It is confirmed that modification of upper head nodalization influences PCT behavior, especially in the reflood phase. In conclusions, the modification of nodalization to reflect design characteristic of upper head temperature should be done to predict PCT behavior accurately in LBLOCA analysis. In the best estimate (BE) method with the uncertainty evaluation, the system nodalization is determined by the comparative studies of the experimental data. Up to now, it was assumed that the temperature of the upper dome in OPR-1000 was close to that of the cold leg. However, it was found that the temperature of the upper head/dome might be a little lower than or similar to that of the hot leg through the evaluation of the detailed design data. Since the higher upper head temperature affects blowdown quenching and peak cladding temperature in the reflood phase, the nodalization for upper head should be modified

  8. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. I - Simula-3 Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J M; Ahnert, C; Gomez Santamaria, J; Rodriguez Olabarria, I

    1985-07-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the SIMULA-3 code, which is part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. SIMULA-3 is the main module of the system, it uses a modified nodal theory, with interface leakages equivalent to the diffusion theory. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. I - Simula-3 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-01-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the SIMULA-3 code, which is part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. SIMULA-3 is the main module of the system, it uses a modified nodal theory, with interface leakages equivalent to the diffusion theory. (Author) 4 refs

  10. A practical implementation of the higher-order transverse-integrated nodal diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomašević, Djordje I.; Moraal, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A practical higher-order nodal method is developed for diffusion calculations. • The method resolves the issue of the transverse leakage approximation. • The method achieves much superior accuracy as compared to standard nodal methods. • The calculational cost is only about 50% greater than standard nodal methods. • The method is packaged in a module for connection to existing nodal codes. - Abstract: Transverse-integrated nodal diffusion methods currently represent the standard in full core neutronic simulation. The primary shortcoming of this approach is the utilization of the quadratic transverse leakage approximation. This approach, although proven to work well for typical LWR problems, is not consistent with the formulation of nodal methods and can cause accuracy and convergence problems. In this work, an improved, consistent quadratic leakage approximation is formulated, which derives from the class of higher-order nodal methods developed some years ago. Further, a number of iteration schemes are developed around this consistent quadratic leakage approximation which yields accurate node average results in much improved calculational times. The most promising of these iteration schemes results from utilizing the consistent leakage approximation as a correction method to the standard quadratic leakage approximation. Numerical results are demonstrated on a set of benchmark problems and further applied to a realistic reactor problem, particularly the SAFARI-1 reactor, operating at Necsa, South Africa. The final optimal solution strategy is packaged into a standalone module which may simply be coupled to existing nodal diffusion codes

  11. Trends in port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Richardson, David; Chesney, Tyler R; Englesakis, Marina; Govindarajan, Anand; Cleary, Sean P; Swallow, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    The risk of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic removal of incidental gallbladder cancer was previously estimated to be 14-30%. The present study was designed to determine the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer in the modern era (2000-2014) versus the historic era (1991-1999). We also investigated the site of port-site metastasis. Using PRISMA, a systematic review was conducted to identify papers that addressed the development of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer. Studies that described cancer-specific outcomes in ≥5 patients were included. A validated quality appraisal tool was used, and a weighted estimate of the incidence of port-site metastasis was calculated. Based on data extracted from 27 papers that met inclusion criteria, the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased from 18.6% prior to 2000 (95% confidence interval 15.3-21.9%, n = 7) to 10.3% since then (95% confidence interval 7.9-12.7%, n = 20) (P extraction site is at significantly higher risk than nonextraction sites. The incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased but remains high relative to other primary tumors. Any preoperative finding that raises the suspicion of gallbladder cancer should prompt further investigation and referral to a hepato-pancreato-biliary specialist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [A case of transverse colon cancer without a recurrence lesion after five years from resection of hepatic metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami, Katsunori; Nakamura, Masahiro; Takasaki, Jun; Watayou, Yoshihisa; Amagasa, Hidetoshi; Ganno, Hideaki; Kurokawa, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Akira; Nagahama, Takeshi; Ando, Masayuki; Tei, Shikofumi; Okada, Youichi; Arai, Kuniyoshi

    2011-11-01

    The treatment of hepatic metastasis of colon cancer was in progress by new biochemical agents. Generally, a resection was the first alternative treatment against hepatic metastasis of colon cancer, but new antitumor agents were more effective than conventional antitumor agents. Disappearance of metastasis for colon cancer treated with only antitumor agents was commenced to report. We were experienced a case of transverse colon cancer without a recurrence lesion after five years from the resection of hepatic metastasis. A case was a 77-year-old man. He was operated against transverse colon cancer in February 2003. Pathological stage was ss, n0, Stage II. In April 2004, serum CEA was increased. CT examination was not detected a hepatic metastasis but ultrasound examination and MRI detected the metastasis at S7 lesion in the liver. In July 2004, he was admitted to S-1 and PSK until October 2004. In December 2004, the lesion of hepatic metastasis was reduced and serum CEA was decreased. But in September 2005, the metastatic lesion was re-grown. A resection for hepatic metastasis was executed in November 2005. After the resection for hepatic metastasis, he was admitted to UFT/ UZEL from January 2006 to October 2006. Present time( June 2011), the lesion of recurrence was not detected by several examinations (CT, MRI, Ultrasound etc).

  13. The CT diagnose of pleural metastasis tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liqun; Han Kaibin; Pan Heng; Huang Xiaoru; Zhou Bingcao; Huang Yuehua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the CT characteristic of pleural metastasis tumour,enhance the diagnostic level of pleural metastasis tumour. Methods: Review 30 cases which have been performed CT scan in our hospital during March 2002 to June 2003, which have been approved to pleural metastasis tumour by pathology and clinic. Make use of GE Hispeed.zx/i spiral CT,10mm thickness,10mm increment, l.5 pitch, some of them use 10mm or high resolution mode. All cases have been performed normal scan, 25 cases with contrast scan. Results: The CT representation of pleural metastasis tumour are encapsulated pleural effusion with irregular pleural thickening(56.6%), nodular pleural thickening(46.6%), pleural masses (13.3%), pneumothorax (3.3%), etc. Encapsulated pleural effusion and nodular pleural thickening are 76.6%, use contrast mode to scan pleural pathological changes enhance upon middle level, CT value increment > 20HU, there are 66.6% cases with other chest metastasis symptom, 73.3% primary lesion are pulmonary cancer, and 20% no primary lesion are found. Conclusion: Combine primary lesion history and other chest metastasis symptom, Spiral CT examination can differentiate most of pleural metastasis tumour, but it is difficult to differentiate the cases between with a little pleural effusion or light band pleural thickening and reactive alteration. (authors)

  14. Multidetector-row computed tomography for the preoperative evaluation of axillary nodal status in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Yutaka; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Shiraiwa, Misaki; Ishihara, Setsuko

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of multidetector-row computed tomography (MD-CT) for detecting axillary lymph nodal status (ALNS) in patients with breast cancer. We reviewed 42 patients with breast cancer. A metastatic lymph node on MD-CT was defined as oval or round, with more than 5 mm on the short axis. We evaluated ALNS preoperatively by both palpation and MD-CT findings and performed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). For establishing the ALNS, MD-CT showed a sensitivity of 76.9%, a specificity of 96.6%, and an accuracy of 90.5%. On the basis of the MD-CT findings, misdiagnosis was made in 4 of the 42 patients, only one of which was false positive. On the other hand, one patient with a histologically negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) result had metastasis only in a non-SLN. Preoperative MD-CT showed a positive node in this patient. Multidetector-row computed tomography assists in identifying women who require ALND without SLNB, with sufficient positive predictive value. False-negative detection by SLNB could be avoided with careful interpretation of the axillary lymph nodes shown by MD-CT. (author)

  15. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  16. A spectral nodal method for discrete ordinates problems in x,y geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C. de; Larsen, E.W.

    1991-06-01

    A new nodal method is proposed for the solution of S N problems in x- y-geometry. This method uses the Spectral Green's Function (SGF) scheme for solving the one-dimensional transverse-integrated nodal transport equations with no spatial truncation error. Thus, the only approximations in the x, y-geometry nodal method occur in the transverse leakage terms, as in diffusion theory. We approximate these leakage terms using a flat or constant approximation, and we refer to the resulting method as the SGF-Constant Nodal (SGF-CN) method. We show in numerical calculations that the SGF-CN method is much more accurate than other well-known transport nodal methods for coarse-mesh deep-penetration S N problems, even though the transverse leakage terms are approximated rather simply. (author)

  17. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam Mani, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  18. Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... functions of arbitrary order in space on each element of an unstructured computational domain. A fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in time. Methods for introducing artificial damping to control mild nonlinear instabilities are also discussed. The accuracy...... and convergence of the model with both h (grid size) and p (order) refinement are verified for the linearized equations, and calculations are provided for two nonlinear test cases in one horizontal dimension: harmonic generation over a submerged bar; and reflection of a steep solitary wave from a vertical wall...

  19. Application of the HGPT methodology of reactor operation problems with a nodal mixed method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudron, A.M.; Bruna, G.B.; Gandini, A.; Lautard, J.J.; Monti, S.; Pizzigati, G.

    1998-01-01

    The heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT), to first and higher order, applied to the neutron field of a reactor system, is discussed in relation to quasistatic problems. This methodology is of particular interest in reactor operation. In this application it may allow an on-line appraisal of the main physical responses of the reactor system when subject to alterations relevant to normal system exploitation, e.g. control rod movement, and/or soluble boron concentration changes to be introduced, for instance, for compensating power level variations following electrical network demands. In this paper, after describing the main features of the theory, its implementation into the diffusion, 3D mixed dual nodal code MINOS of the SAPHYR system is presented. The results from a small scale investigation performed on a simplified PWR system corroborate the validity of the methodology proposed

  20. Average arterial input function for quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of neck nodal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla-Dave, Amita; Lee, Nancy; Stambuk, Hilda; Wang, Ya; Huang, Wei; Thaler, Howard T; Patel, Snehal G; Shah, Jatin P; Koutcher, Jason A

    2009-01-01

    The present study determines the feasibility of generating an average arterial input function (Avg-AIF) from a limited population of patients with neck nodal metastases to be used for pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data in clinical trials of larger populations. Twenty patients (mean age 50 years [range 27–77 years]) with neck nodal metastases underwent pretreatment DCE-MRI studies with a temporal resolution of 3.75 to 7.5 sec on a 1.5T clinical MRI scanner. Eleven individual AIFs (Ind-AIFs) met the criteria of expected enhancement pattern and were used to generate Avg-AIF. Tofts model was used to calculate pharmacokinetic DCE-MRI parameters. Bland-Altman plots and paired Student t-tests were used to describe significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from individual and average AIFs. Ind-AIFs obtained from eleven patients were used to calculate the Avg-AIF. No overall significant difference (bias) was observed for the transfer constant (K trans ) measured with Ind-AIFs compared to Avg-AIF (p = 0.20 for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis and p = 0.18 for histogram median analysis). Similarly, no overall significant difference was observed for interstitial fluid space volume fraction (v e ) measured with Ind-AIFs compared to Avg-AIF (p = 0.48 for ROI analysis and p = 0.93 for histogram median analysis). However, the Bland-Altman plot suggests that as K trans increases, the Ind-AIF estimates tend to become proportionally higher than the Avg-AIF estimates. We found no statistically significant overall bias in K trans or v e estimates derived from Avg-AIF, generated from a limited population, as compared with Ind-AIFs. However, further study is needed to determine whether calibration is needed across the range of K trans . The Avg-AIF obtained from a limited population may be used for pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data in larger population studies with neck nodal metastases. Further validation of

  1. Histopathological Parameters predicting Occult Nodal Metastases in Tongue Carcinoma Cases: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tina Elizabeth; Malathi, N; Rajan, Sharada T; Augustine, Dominic; Manish, N; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-established fact that in squamous cell carcinoma cases, the presence of lymph node metastases decreased the 5-year survival rate by 50% and also caused the recurrence of the primary tumor with development of distant metastases. Till date, the predictive factors for occult cervical lymph nodes metastases in cases of tongue squamous cell carcinoma remain inconclusive. Therefore, it is imperative to identify patients who are at the greatest risk for occult cervical metastases. This study was thus performed with the aim to identify various histopathologic parameters of the primary tumor that predict occult nodal metastases. The clinicopathologic features of 56 cases of lateral tongue squamous cell carcinoma with cT1NoMo/cT2NoMo as the stage and without prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy were considered. The surgical excision of primary tumor was followed by elective neck dissection. The glossectomy specimen along with the neck nodes were fixed in formalin and 5 urn thick sections were obtained. The hematoxylin & eosin stained sections were then subjected to microscopic examination. The primary tumor characteristics that were analyzed include tumor grade, invading front, depth of tumor, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion and inflammatory response. The nodes were examined for possible metastases using hematoxylin & eosin followed by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. A total of 12 cases were found with positive occult nodal metastases. On performing univariate analysis, the histopathologic parameters that were found to be statistically significant were lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004) and perineural invasion (p = 0.003) along with a cut-off depth of infiltration more than 5 mm (p = 0.01). Histopathologic assessment of the primary tumor specimen therefore continues to provide information that is central to guide clinical management, particularly in cases of occult nodal metastases. Clinical significance The study highlights the importance of

  2. On-line application of the PANTHER advanced nodal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, P.K.; Knight, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last few years, Nuclear Electric has developed an integrated core performance code package for both light water reactors (LWRs) and advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) that can perform a comprehensive range of calculations for fuel cycle design, safety analysis, and on-line operational support for such plants. The package consists of the following codes: WIMS for lattice physics, PANTHER whole reactor nodal flux and AGR thermal hydraulics, VIPRE for LWR thermal hydraulics, and ENIGMA for fuel performance. These codes are integrated within a UNIX-based interactive system called the Reactor Physics Workbench (RPW), which provides an interactive graphic user interface and quality assurance records/data management. The RPW can also control calculational sequences and data flows. The package has been designed to run both off-line and on-line accessing plant data through the RPW

  3. INTERMITTENT ANTIARYTHMIC THERAPY OF ARIOVENTICULAR NODAL REENTRY TACHYCARDIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Djindjic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recent advances in pharmacology and clinical cardiology regarding farmacodynamics of antiarrhythmic drugs and their efficiency in patients with refractory paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, chronic prophylactic therapy was the only treatment option for patients refusing catheter ablation. Another treatment option, also known by eponym “pill in pocket” have been shown to be equally useful and efficacious.The aim of our study was prospective examination of children with refractory atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT who were withdrawn from chronic antiarrhythmic prophylactic therapy and started with intermittent oral beta blocker treatment (propranolol at dosage 1 mg/kg - max 80 mg.Twelve children (8 boys and 4 girls with AVNRT were included in the study. Four children did not have arrhythmia during first six months after withdrawal and 7 were successfully treated without complication.Intermittent antiarrhythmic therapy in children with AVNRT could be very efficacious and useful treatment option which significantly improves their quality of life.

  4. CAISO flicks switch on nodal scheme and lights stay on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    In 2000-01, two years after introducing a competitive wholesale power auction in California - with a separate day-ahead zonal market operated by the California Power Exchange and a zonal market for ancillary services and balancing energy operated by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) - the California market collapsed from exorbitant prices, flagrant gaming, and abuse of market power. Nine years later, CAISO introduced a nodal pricing auction for the wholesale market in April, replacing the zonal scheme, which was among many causes of the original market's demise. With nearly 3,000 nodes on the network, high prices in one region do not affect prices everywhere on the system. After investing some $200 million to upgrade the software, countless delays, and 18 months of market simulation and testing, the new auction was introduced and nothing unusual happened.

  5. ANDREA: Advanced nodal diffusion code for reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belac, J.; Josek, R.; Klecka, L.; Stary, V.; Vocka, R.

    2005-01-01

    A new macro code is being developed at NRI which will allow coupling of the advanced thermal-hydraulics model with neutronics calculations as well as efficient use in core loading pattern optimization process. This paper describes the current stage of the macro code development. The core simulator is based on the nodal expansion method, Helios lattice code is used for few group libraries preparation. Standard features such as pin wise power reconstruction and feedback iterations on critical control rod position, boron concentration and reactor power are implemented. A special attention is paid to the system and code modularity in order to enable flexible and easy implementation of new features in future. Precision of the methods used in the macro code has been verified on available benchmarks. Testing against Temelin PWR operational data is under way (Authors)

  6. Comparison of PANTHER nodal solutions in hexagonal-z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.; Hutt, P.; Lewis, I.

    1995-01-01

    The reactor physics code PANTHER has been extended to hexagonal geometries. Steady-state, depletion, and transient calculations with feedback can all be performed. Two hexagonal nodal flux solutions have been developed. In the first method, transverse integration is performed exactly as in the rectangular case. The resulting transverse integrated equation has singular terms, which are simply ignored. The second approach applies a conformal mapping that transforms the hexagon onto a rectangle. Pin power reconstruction has also been developed with both methods. For a benchmark VVER-1000 reactor depletion problem, both methods give accurate results for standard depletion calculations. In the more extreme situation with all rods inserted, the simpler method breaks down. However, the accuracy of the conformal solution was found to be excellent in all cases studied

  7. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na’ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  8. Functions and Epigenetic Regulation of Wwox in Bone Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma: Comparison with Primary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms influence molecular patterns important for the bone-metastatic process, and here we highlight the role of WW-domain containing oxidoreductase (Wwox. The tumor-suppressor Wwox lacks in almost all cancer types; the variable expression in osteosarcomas is related to lung-metastasis formation, and exogenous Wwox destabilizes HIF-1α (subunit of Hypoxia inducible Factor-1, HIF-1 affecting aerobic glycolysis. Our recent studies show critical functions of Wwox present in 1833-osteotropic clone, in the corresponding xenograft model, and in human bone metastasis from breast carcinoma. In hypoxic-bone metastatic cells, Wwox enhances HIF-1α stabilization, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation. Consistently, in bone-metastasis specimens Wwox localizes in cytosolic/perinuclear area, while TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif and HIF-1α co-localize in nuclei, playing specific regulatory mechanisms: TAZ is a co-factor of HIF-1, and Wwox regulates HIF-1 activity by controlling HIF-1α. In vitro, DNA methylation affects Wwox-protein synthesis; hypoxia decreases Wwox-protein level; hepatocyte growth factor (HGF phosphorylates Wwox driving its nuclear shuttle, and counteracting a Twist program important for the epithelial phenotype and metastasis colonization. In agreement, in 1833-xenograft mice under DNA-methyltransferase blockade with decitabine, Wwox increases in nuclei/cytosol counteracting bone metastasis with prolongation of the survival. However, Wwox seems relevant for the autophagic process which sustains metastasis, enhancing more Beclin-1 than p62 protein levels, and p62 accumulates under decitabine consistent with adaptability of metastasis to therapy. In conclusion, Wwox methylation as a bone-metastasis therapeutic target would depend on autophagy conditions, and epigenetic mechanisms regulating Wwox may influence the phenotype of bone metastasis.

  9. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. [Cranial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; González-Schaffinni, M A; Farías-García, R; Rey-Laborde, R

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid follicular carcinoma is able to produce metastatic lesions before the vanishing of the primary lesion. We present a case of a woman with a lytic, solitary, asymptomatic parietal bone lesion of 2 years of evolution. Autopsy revealed a thyroid gland with two small cystic areas and renal metastasis. Thyroid carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of lytic bone lesions with long evolution in patients 60 years of age or older.

  11. Choroid metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Color doppler ultrasound study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganado, T.; Torre, S. de la; Contreras, E.; Hernandez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most common causes of intraocular metastases are breast and lung cancers, although many other neoplasms can metastasize to the eye. Most of the metastases are located in the posterior pole and the choroid is more often involved than the retina. We present a case of a choroidal metastasis from a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, associated with a massive subretinal hemorrhage. Findings with color Doppler ultrasound are emphasized. (Author) 9 refs

  12. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with S-1 in patients with stage III-IV oral squamous cell carcinoma: A retrospective analysis of nodal classification based on the neck node level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Ryuji; Semba, Akiko; Kawahara, Kenta; Matsuyama, Keiya; Hiraki, Akimitsu; Nagata, Masashi; Toya, Ryo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Oya, Natsuo; Nakayama, Hideki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the treatment outcomes of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, for advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The study population consisted of 47 patients with clinical stage III or IV oral SCC, who underwent CCRT with S-1. Pretreatment variables, including patient age, clinical stage, T classification, midline involvement of the primary tumor and nodal status, were analyzed as predictors of survival. In addition to the N classification (node-positive, multiple and contralateral), the prognostic impact of the level of nodal involvement was assessed. Nodal involvement was mainly observed at levels Ib and II; involvement at levels Ia and III-V was considered to be anterior and inferior extension, respectively, and was recorded as extensive nodal involvement (ENI). The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 37 and 27%, respectively. A finding of ENI was a significant factor for OS [hazard ratio (HR)=2.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-4.55; P=0.038] and PFS (HR=2.65; 95% CI: 1.32-5.33; P=0.005); the 3-year OS and PFS rates in patients with vs. those without ENI were 23 vs. 50% and 9 vs. 43%, respectively. The other variables were not significant. Therefore, CCRT with S-1 may be an alternative treatment for advanced oral SCC; favorable outcomes are expected in patients without ENI.

  13. Proinflammatory Adhesion Molecules Facilitate Polychlorinated Biphenyl–Mediated Enhancement of Brain Metastasis Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Eszter; Chen, Lei; András, Ibolya E.; Wrobel, Jagoda; Zhang, Bei; Pu, Hong; Park, Minseon; Eum, Sung Yong; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that cause vascular inflammation and facilitate the development of brain metastases. The crucial event in metastasis formation is adhesion of blood-borne tumor cells to the vascular endothelium, followed by their transcapillary migration. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms of PCB118-induced brain metastasis formation at the blood-brain barrier level with the focus on tumor cell adhesion to the brain endotheli...

  14. Abdominal Wall Metastasis from an Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hana; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Chung, Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Song Mi; Jung, Woo Hee [Dept. of Diagnostic Pathology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bones, lungs, and liver. However, the recurrence of distant soft-tissue metastasis except to the chest wall is extremely rare. Here, we describe our experience with a patient in whom invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast with metastasis to the abdominal wall presented as subcutaneous nodules without local recurrence.

  15. Abdominal Wall Metastasis from an Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hana; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Chung, Jin; Noh, Song Mi; Jung, Woo Hee

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the bones, lungs, and liver. However, the recurrence of distant soft-tissue metastasis except to the chest wall is extremely rare. Here, we describe our experience with a patient in whom invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast with metastasis to the abdominal wall presented as subcutaneous nodules without local recurrence.

  16. Skin metastasis from conventional giant cell tumor of bone: conceptual significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, W.; Barrett, T.; Frassica, F.; McCarthy, E.

    2002-01-01

    A conventional giant cell tumor of the proximal femur recurred twice locally and developed pulmonary nodules. The lung lesions were felt to be an example of ''benign'' metastases. Eight months after the initial presentation, the patient developed a single skin nodule on the contralateral leg. Histologic features of the skin nodule showed conventional giant cell tumor identical to the bone lesion. This nodule is a manifestation of arterial metastasis typical of any malignant tumor and seemingly contradicts the concept of ''benign '' metastasis. (orig.)

  17. A rare case of thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Michael E

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with only two previous cases in the literature. We report a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the thyroid. We review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of this rare occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a synchronous 6-month history of thyroid swelling, presented with epigastric pain and signs of obstructive jaundice. He was investigated by abdominal computerised tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm was made. His thyroid neoplasm was investigated at another tertiary centre and thought to be a papillary neoplasm. He underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy and recovered well post-operatively. Eight weeks later he had a total thyroidectomy. Histology confirmed that the thyroid mass was both morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to the pancreatic neoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient with suspected neoplastic history presents with a thyroid nodule. We outline the crucial role that immunohistochemistry plays in detecting and classifying primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. The detection of a solitary thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma may indicate a poor prognosis, and it is debatable whether resection of the primary should be undertaken when it presents with a solitary metastasis.

  18. Development of an Analytic Nodal Diffusion Solver in Multi-groups for 3D Reactor Cores with Rectangular or Hexagonal Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Juan Andres; Aragones, Jose Maria; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    More accurate modelling of physical phenomena involved in present and future nuclear reactors requires a multi-scale and multi-physics approach. This challenge can be accomplished by the coupling of best-estimate core-physics, thermal-hydraulics and multi-physics solvers. In order to make viable that coupling, the current trends in reactor simulations are along the development of a new generation of tools based on user-friendly, modular, easily linkable, faster and more accurate codes to be integrated in common platforms. These premises are in the origin of the NURESIM Integrated Project within the 6. European Framework Program, which is envisaged to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for nuclear reactors simulations. In the frame of this project and to reach the above-mentioned goals, a 3-D multigroup nodal solver for neutron diffusion calculations called ANDES (Analytic Nodal Diffusion Equation Solver) has been developed and tested in-depth in this Thesis. ANDES solves the steady-state and time-dependent neutron diffusion equation in three-dimensions and any number of energy groups, utilizing the Analytic Coarse-Mesh Finite-Difference (ACMFD) scheme to yield the nodal coupling equations. It can be applied to both Cartesian and triangular-Z geometries, so that simulations of LWR as well as VVER, HTR and fast reactors can be performed. The solver has been implemented in a fully encapsulated way, enabling it as a module to be readily integrated in other codes and platforms. In fact, it can be used either as a stand-alone nodal code or as a solver to accelerate the convergence of whole core pin-by-pin code systems. Verification of performance has shown that ANDES is a code with high order definition for whole core realistic nodal simulations. In this paper, the methodology developed and involved in ANDES is presented. (authors)

  19. Contemporary management of patients with penile cancer and lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Andrew; Diorio, Gregory J; Pettaway, Curtis; Master, Viraj; Spiess, Philippe E

    2017-06-01

    Penile cancer is a rare disease that causes considerable physical and psychological patient morbidity, especially at advanced stages. Patients with low-stage nodal metastasis can achieve durable survival with surgery alone, but those with extensive locoregional metastasis have overall low survival. Contemporary management strategies for lymph node involvement in penile cancer aim to minimize the morbidity associated with traditional radical inguinal lymphadenectomy through appropriate risk stratification while optimizing oncological outcomes. Modified (or superficial) inguinal lymph node dissection and dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy are diagnostic modalities that have been recommended in patients with high-risk primary penile tumours and nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. In addition, advances in minimally invasive and robot-assisted lymphadenectomy techniques are being investigated in patients with penile cancer and might further decrease lymphadenectomy-related adverse effects. The management of patients with advanced disease has evolved to include multimodal treatment with systemic chemotherapy before surgical intervention and can include adjuvant chemotherapy after pelvic lymphadenectomy. The role of radiotherapy in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting remains largely unclear, owing to a lack of high-level evidence of possible benefits. New targeted therapies have shown efficacy in squamous cell carcinomas of other sites and might also prove effective in patients with penile cancer.

  20. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  1. A posteriori error estimator and AMR for discrete ordinates nodal transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duo, Jose I.; Azmy, Yousry Y.; Zikatanov, Ludmil T.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of high fidelity transport solvers, optimization of the use of available computational resources and access to a tool for assessing quality of the solution are key to the success of large-scale nuclear systems' simulation. In this regard, error control provides the analyst with a confidence level in the numerical solution and enables for optimization of resources through Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). In this paper, we derive an a posteriori error estimator based on the nodal solution of the Arbitrarily High Order Transport Method of the Nodal type (AHOT-N). Furthermore, by making assumptions on the regularity of the solution, we represent the error estimator as a function of computable volume and element-edges residuals. The global L 2 error norm is proved to be bound by the estimator. To lighten the computational load, we present a numerical approximation to the aforementioned residuals and split the global norm error estimator into local error indicators. These indicators are used to drive an AMR strategy for the spatial discretization. However, the indicators based on forward solution residuals alone do not bound the cell-wise error. The estimator and AMR strategy are tested in two problems featuring strong heterogeneity and highly transport streaming regime with strong flux gradients. The results show that the error estimator indeed bounds the global error norms and that the error indicator follows the cell-error's spatial distribution pattern closely. The AMR strategy proves beneficial to optimize resources, primarily by reducing the number of unknowns solved for to achieve prescribed solution accuracy in global L 2 error norm. Likewise, AMR achieves higher accuracy compared to uniform refinement when resolving sharp flux gradients, for the same number of unknowns

  2. A two-dimensional, semi-analytic expansion method for nodal calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmtag, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    Most modern nodal methods used today are based upon the transverse integration procedure in which the multi-dimensional flux shape is integrated over the transverse directions in order to produce a set of coupled one-dimensional flux shapes. The one-dimensional flux shapes are then solved either analytically or by representing the flux shape by a finite polynomial expansion. While these methods have been verified for most light-water reactor applications, they have been found to have difficulty predicting the large thermal flux gradients near the interfaces of highly-enriched MOX fuel assemblies. A new method is presented here in which the neutron flux is represented by a non-seperable, two-dimensional, semi-analytic flux expansion. The main features of this method are (1) the leakage terms from the node are modeled explicitly and therefore, the transverse integration procedure is not used, (2) the corner point flux values for each node are directly edited from the solution method, and a corner-point interpolation is not needed in the flux reconstruction, (3) the thermal flux expansion contains hyperbolic terms representing analytic solutions to the thermal flux diffusion equation, and (4) the thermal flux expansion contains a thermal to fast flux ratio term which reduces the number of polynomial expansion functions needed to represent the thermal flux. This new nodal method has been incorporated into the computer code COLOR2G and has been used to solve a two-dimensional, two-group colorset problem containing uranium and highly-enriched MOX fuel assemblies. The results from this calculation are compared to the results found using a code based on the traditional transverse integration procedure

  3. Solution of the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck transport equation using exponential nodal schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega J, R.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    There are carried out charge and energy calculations deposited due to the interaction of electrons with a plate of a certain material, solving numerically the electron transport equation for the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck approach of first order in plate geometry with a computer program denominated TEOD-NodExp (Transport of Electrons in Discreet Ordinates, Nodal Exponentials), using the proposed method by the Dr. J. E. Morel to carry out the discretization of the variable energy and several spatial discretization schemes, denominated exponentials nodal. It is used the Fokker-Planck equation since it represents an approach of the Boltzmann transport equation that is been worth whenever it is predominant the dispersion of small angles, that is to say, resulting dispersion in small dispersion angles and small losses of energy in the transport of charged particles. Such electrons could be those that they face with a braking plate in a device of thermonuclear fusion. In the present work its are considered electrons of 1 MeV that impact isotropically on an aluminum plate. They were considered three different thickness of plate that its were designated as problems 1, 2 and 3. In the calculations it was used the discrete ordinate method S 4 with expansions of the dispersion cross sections until P 3 order. They were considered 25 energy groups of uniform size between the minimum energy of 0.1 MeV and the maximum of 1.0 MeV; the one spatial intervals number it was considered variable and it was assigned the values of 10, 20 and 30. (Author)

  4. The value of nodal information in predicting lung cancer relapse using 4DPET/4DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Heyse, E-mail: heyse.li@mail.utoronto.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Becker, Nathan; Raman, Srinivas [Radiation Oncology, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Radiation Oncology, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: There is evidence that computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging metrics are prognostic and predictive in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment outcomes. However, few studies have explored the use of standardized uptake value (SUV)-based image features of nodal regions as predictive features. The authors investigated and compared the use of tumor and node image features extracted from the radiotherapy target volumes to predict relapse in a cohort of NSCLC patients undergoing chemoradiation treatment. Methods: A prospective cohort of 25 patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent 4DPET/4DCT imaging for radiation planning. Thirty-seven image features were derived from the CT-defined volumes and SUVs of the PET image from both the tumor and nodal target regions. The machine learning methods of logistic regression and repeated stratified five-fold cross-validation (CV) were used to predict local and overall relapses in 2 yr. The authors used well-known feature selection methods (Spearman’s rank correlation, recursive feature elimination) within each fold of CV. Classifiers were ranked on their Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC) after CV. Area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity values are also presented. Results: For predicting local relapse, the best classifier found had a mean MCC of 0.07 and was composed of eight tumor features. For predicting overall relapse, the best classifier found had a mean MCC of 0.29 and was composed of a single feature: the volume greater than 0.5 times the maximum SUV (N). Conclusions: The best classifier for predicting local relapse had only tumor features. In contrast, the best classifier for predicting overall relapse included a node feature. Overall, the methods showed that nodes add value in predicting overall relapse but not local relapse.

  5. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potent...

  6. FGFR-1 amplification in metastatic lymph-nodal and haematogenous lobular breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunello Eleonora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lobular breast carcinoma usually shows poor responsiveness to chemotherapies and often lacks targeted therapies. Since FGFR1 expression has been shown to play pivotal roles in primary breast cancer tumorigenesis, we sought to analyze the status of FGFR1 gene in a metastatic setting of lobular breast carcinoma, since promising FGFR1 inhibitors has been recently developed. Methods Fifteen tissue metastases from lobular breast carcinomas with matched primary infiltrative lobular breast carcinoma were recruited. Eleven cases showed loco-regional lymph-nodal and four haematogenous metastases. FGFR-1 gene (8p12 amplification was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis. Her-2/neu and topoisomerase-IIα gene status was assessed. E-cadherin and Hercept Test were also performed. We distinguished amplification (>6 or cluster of signals versus gains (3–6 signals of the locus specific FGFR-1 gene. Results Three (20% primary lobular breast carcinomas showed >6 or cluster of FGFR1 signals (amplification, six cases (40% had a mean of three (range 3–6 chromogenic signals (gains whereas in 6 (40% was not observed any abnormality. Three of 15 metastasis (20% were amplified, 2/15 (13,4% did not. The ten remaining cases (66,6% showed three chromogenic signals. The three cases with FGFR-1 amplification matched with those primary breast carcinomas showing FGFR-1 amplification. The six cases showing FGFR-1 gains in the primary tumour again showed FGFR-1 gains in the metastases. Four cases showed gains of FGFR-1 gene signals in the metastases and not in the primary tumours. Her-2/neu gene amplification was not observed in all cases but one (6% case. Topoisomerase-IIα was not amplified in all cases. Conclusions 1 a subset of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma harbors FGFR-1 gene amplification or gains of chromogenic signals; 2 a minor heterogeneity has been observed after matching primary and metastatic carcinomas; 3 in the

  7. A simple nodal force distribution method in refined finite element meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    In finite element analyses, mesh refinement is frequently performed to obtain accurate stress or strain values or to accurately define the geometry. After mesh refinement, equivalent nodal forces should be calculated at the nodes in the refined mesh. If field variables and material properties are available at the integration points in each element, then the accurate equivalent nodal forces can be calculated using an adequate numerical integration. However, in certain circumstances, equivalent nodal forces cannot be calculated because field variable data are not available. In this study, a very simple nodal force distribution method was proposed. Nodal forces of the original finite element mesh are distributed to the nodes of refined meshes to satisfy the equilibrium conditions. The effect of element size should also be considered in determining the magnitude of the distributing nodal forces. A program was developed based on the proposed method, and several example problems were solved to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. From the results, accurate stress field can be recognized to be obtained from refined meshes using the proposed nodal force distribution method. In example problems, the difference between the obtained maximum stress and target stress value was less than 6 % in models with 8-node hexahedral elements and less than 1 % in models with 20-node hexahedral elements or 10-node tetrahedral elements.

  8. A polygonal nodal SP3 method for whole core Pin-by-Pin neutronics calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yunzhao; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi, E-mail: xjtulyz@gmail.com, E-mail: hongchun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: caolz@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi (China)

    2011-07-01

    In this polygonal nodal-SP3 method, neutron transport equation is transformed by employing an isotropic SP3 method into two coupled equations that are both in the same mathematic form with the diffusion equation, and then a polygonal nodal method is proposed to solve the two coupled equations. In the polygonal nodal method, adjacent nodes are coupled through partial currents, and a nodal response matrix between incoming and outgoing currents is obtained by expanding detailed nodal flux distribution into a sum of exponential functions. This method avoids the transverse integral technique, which is widely used in regular nodal method and can not be used in triangular geometry because of the mathematical singularity. It is demonstrated by the numerical results of the test problems that the k{sub eff} and power distribution agree well with other codes, the triangular nodal-SP3 method appears faster, and that whole core pin-by-pin transport calculation with fine meshes is feasible after parallelization and acceleration. (author)

  9. Nodal price volatility reduction and reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, L.; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng

    2008-01-01

    With the development of restructured power systems, the conventional 'same for all customers' electricity price is getting replaced by nodal prices. Electricity prices will fluctuate with time and nodes. In restructured power systems, electricity demands will interact mutually with prices. Customers may shift some of their electricity consumption from time slots of high electricity prices to those of low electricity prices if there is a commensurate price incentive. The demand side load shift will influence nodal prices in return. This interaction between demand and price can be depicted using demand-price elasticity. This paper proposes an evaluation technique incorporating the impact of the demand-price elasticity on nodal prices, system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. In this technique, demand and price correlations are represented using the demand-price elasticity matrix which consists of self/cross-elasticity coefficients. Nodal prices are determined using optimal power flow (OPF). The OPF and customer damage functions (CDFs) are combined in the proposed reliability evaluation technique to assess the reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is simulated to illustrate the developed techniques. The simulation results show that demand-price elasticity reduces the nodal price volatility and improves both the system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. Demand-price elasticity can therefore be utilized as a possible efficient tool to reduce price volatility and to enhance the reliability of restructured power systems. (author)

  10. Type-I and type-II topological nodal superconductors with s -wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beibing; Yang, Xiaosen; Xu, Ning; Gong, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Topological nodal superconductors with protected gapless points in momentum space are generally realized based on unconventional pairings. In this work we propose a minimal model to realize these topological nodal phases with only s -wave interaction. In our model the linear and quadratic spin-orbit couplings along the two orthogonal directions introduce anisotropic effective unconventional pairings in momentum space. This model may support different nodal superconducting phases characterized by either an integer winding number in BDI class or a Z2 index in D class at the particle-hole invariant axes. In the vicinity of the nodal points the effective Hamiltonian can be described by either type-I or type-II Dirac equations, and the Lifshitz transition from type-I nodal phases to type-II nodal phases can be driven by external in-plane magnetic fields. We show that these nodal phases are robust against weak impurities, which only slightly renormalizes the momentum-independent parameters in the impurity-averaged Hamiltonian, thus these phases are possible to be realized in experiments with real semi-Dirac materials. The smoking-gun evidences to verify these phases based on scanning tunneling spectroscopy method are also briefly discussed.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Liver Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the gold standard in liver metastasis detection and treatment response assessment. The most sensitive magnetic resonance sequences are diffusion-weighted images and hepatobiliary phase images after Gd-EOB-DTPA. Peripheral ring enhancement, diffusion restriction, and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images are hallmarks of liver metastases. In patients with normal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings and high clinical suspicion of metastasis, MRI should be performed for diagnosis of unseen metastasis. In melanoma, colon cancer, and neuroendocrine tumor metastases, MRI allows confident diagnosis of treatment-related changes in liver and enables differential diagnosis from primary liver tumors. Focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules in patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, hypersteatosis, and focal fat can mimic metastasis. In cancer patients with fatty liver, MRI should be preferred to CT. Although the first-line imaging for metastases is CT, MRI can be used as a problem-solving method. MRI may be used as the first-line method in patients who would undergo curative surgery or metastatectomy. Current limitation of MRI is low sensitivity for metastasis smaller than 3mm. MRI fingerprinting, glucoCEST MRI, and PET-MRI may allow simpler and more sensitive diagnosis of liver metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Choroidal metastasis of a minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Blanco, R R; Roberts Martínez-Aguirre, I; Pontón Méndez, P; Zarzosa Martín, M E; Pérez-Salvador García, E

    2018-03-21

    A 61-year-old man with a lower lip minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, suffered from a unilateral progressive visual acuity loss due to choroidal metastasis. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare primary tumour with significant metastatic potential. Our patient presented with a unilateral choroidal metastasis. According to the current literature, 8 cases of choroidal metastasis of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma have been reported. This is the second case reported of choroidal metastasis with origin in a minor salivary gland, and the first one with origin in the minor salivary glands of the lower lip. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Mun, Jeong-Geon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-08-27

    Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis.

  14. Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the heart: unusual patterns in three cases with antemortem diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M H; Ko, Y L; Kuan, P; Lien, W P; Chen, D S

    1992-04-01

    Unusual patterns of cardiac metastasis were noted in three cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): one patient was noted to have a large right ventricular (RV) tumor mass with intracavitary growth and myocardial invasion; the second had massive pulmonary and left atrial (LA) metastasis; and the third patient had a right atrial tumor mass with concomitant RV and LA involvement. Tumor implantation to the RV without right atrial involvement and extensive myocardial invasion is unusual in HCC. The LA involvement is probably related to tumor growth from the pulmonary veins following massive metastasis to the lung, direct invasion of the atrial septum or tumor implantation via a subclinical right-to-left shunt through the patent foramen ovale. To the best of our knowledge, such unusual intracavitary metastases in HCC have not been reported previously. Cardiac metastasis, without local gross recurrence, may be one of the presentations after lobectomy in patients with HCC.

  15. Clinicopathological and Molecular Histochemical Review of Skull Base Metastasis from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Akira; Murakami, Mineko; Hoya, Katsumi; Yamada, Shoko M.; Miyamoto, Shinya; Yamada, So; Son, Jae-Hyun; Nishido, Hajime; Ide, Fuyuaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugaya, Mutsumi; Hirohata, Toshio; Mizutani, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Ishii, Yudo; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ishida, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma

  16. Thyroid Gland Metastasis from Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: An Extremely Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suleyman Utku; Besli, Dilara; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Genc, Volkan

    The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a metastatic disease, although it is richly supplied with blood. The metastases may originate from various primary sites, mainly kidney, lung, head and neck, and breast. Thyroid metastasis from cervical carcinomas is extremely rare; and only a few cases have been previously reported in the literature. In patient with thyroid nodules and an oncological history, the possibility of thyroid metastasis should be seriously considered. Despite the rarity of the metastasis of cervical carcinoma to the thyroid, it is difficult to say appropriate treatment approach for these lesions. When managing such patients, decision-making should balance the possibility of gaining long-term survival against estimation of the aggressiveness of the disease and its possible complications. Here, a case of thyroid metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with cervical mass and difficulty in swallowing and its treatment is reported.

  17. Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Han Han

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arctigenin (ARC has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis.

  18. A Case of Patella Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ji; Choi, Woo Hee; Chung, Yong An; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Kang, Chang Suk

    2009-01-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of progressive left knee pain for two months. He had a history of total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection due to papillary thyroid carcinoma three months ago. MRI images revealed a solid mass in the left patella. A solid mass demonstrated low signal on T1 weighed image, and high signal on T2 weighed image. And whole body bone scan showed focal photon defect in same lesion of left patella. The histologic result of left knee lesion was adenocarcinoma, consistent with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although patellar metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, when knee pain and radiologic abnormality are noted, differential diagnosis of metastasis is necessary

  19. Spinal metastasis of medulloblastoma in adults: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuro-ectodermal malignant tumor most commonly seen in childhood and rarely and uncommonly in adult age. Treatment consists of surgery followed by radiotherapy. In the case of a relapse there is no overall accepted treatment. Tumor metastasis can be seen along the neural axis, lymph nodes, soft tissues, bones and distant organs. Case Outline. In this paper we present a 45-year-old female patient with a thoraco-spinal extramedullary metastatic medulloblastoma and progressive neurological deterioration seen 11 months after the first operation and description of magnetic resonance and intraoperative finding. Conclusion. Although rare, the presence of metastasis is a poor prognostic factor. The treatment options for patients with metastases are limited and their prognosis continues to remain poor.

  20. EVALUATION OF LYMPHATIC SPREAD, VISCERAL METASTASIS AND TUMORAL LOCAL INVASION IN ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustumi, Francisco; Kimura, Cintia Mayumi Sakurai; Takeda, Flavio Roberto; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Ribeiro-Junior, Ulysses; Cecconello, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Knowing esophageal tumors behavior in relationship to lymph node involvement, distant metastases and local tumor invasion is of paramount importance for the best esophageal tumors management. To describe lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and local tumor invasion in esophageal carcinoma, according to tumor topography and histology. A total of 444 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 105 adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into four groups: adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the three esophageal segments: cervical, middle, and distal. They were compared based on their CT scans at the time of the diagnosis. Nodal metastasis showed great relationship with of primary tumor site. Lymph nodes of hepatogastric, perigastric and peripancreatic ligaments were mainly affected in distal tumors. Periaortic, interaortocaval and portocaval nodes were more commonly found in distal squamous carcinoma; subcarinal, paratracheal and subaortic nodes in middle; neck chains were more affected in cervical squamous carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma had a higher frequency of peritoneal involvement (11.8%) and liver (24.5%) than squamous cell carcinoma. Considering the local tumor invasion, the more cranial neoplasia, more common squamous invasion of airways, reaching 64.7% in the incidence of cervical tumors. Middle esophageal tumors invade more often aorta (27.6%) and distal esophageal tumors, the pericardium and the right atrium (10.4%). Esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in different topographies present peculiarities in lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and local tumor invasion. These differences must be taken into account in esophageal cancer patients' care. Conhecer o comportamento das neoplasias esofágicas em relação à disseminação linfonodal, distribuição de metástases e invasão local do tumor, pode auxiliar o manejo dos pacientes. Descrever o envolvimento linfonodal, disseminação metast