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Sample records for nocturnal malic acid

  1. 21 CFR 582.1069 - Malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malic acid. 582.1069 Section 582.1069 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1069 Malic acid. (a) Product. Malic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid. L...

  3. Microbial Production of Malic Acid from Biofuel-Related Coproducts and Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. West

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dicarboxylic acid malic acid synthesized as part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle can be produced in excess by certain microorganisms. Although malic acid is produced industrially to a lesser extent than citric acid, malic acid has industrial applications in foods and pharmaceuticals as an acidulant among other uses. Only recently has the production of this organic acid from coproducts of industrial bioprocessing been investigated. It has been shown that malic acid can be synthesized by microbes from coproducts generated during biofuel production. More specifically, malic acid has been shown to be synthesized by species of the fungus Aspergillus on thin stillage, a coproduct from corn-based ethanol production, and on crude glycerol, a coproduct from biodiesel production. In addition, the fungus Ustilago trichophora has also been shown to produce malic acid from crude glycerol. With respect to bacteria, a strain of the thermophilic actinobacterium Thermobifida fusca has been shown to produce malic acid from cellulose and treated lignocellulosic biomass. An alternate method of producing malic acid is to use agricultural biomass converted to syngas or biooil as a substrate for fungal bioconversion. Production of poly(β-l-malic acid by strains of Aureobasidium pullulans from agricultural biomass has been reported where the polymalic acid is subsequently hydrolyzed to malic acid. This review examines applications of malic acid, metabolic pathways that synthesize malic acid and microbial malic acid production from biofuel-related coproducts, lignocellulosic biomass and poly(β-l-malic acid.

  4. Effect of Eu(III) on the degradation of malic acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankawa, T.; Ozaki, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Francis, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The transuranic elements, such as Am(III) and Cm(III), are highly toxic because they emit high-energy α particles and have long half-lives. To estimate their long-term environmental behavior, we need to elucidate degradation of actinide-organic complexes by microorganisms. We studied the biodegradation of Eu(III)-malic acid complexes by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Malic acid is ubiquitous in the environment and is one of the microbial metabolites that is part of the tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Europium(III) is a good analogue for Am(III) and Cm(III). To investigate the effect of Eu(III) on the degradation of malic acid by P. fluorescens, we compared the degradation behavior of Eu(III)-malic acid complexes to that of Fe(III) and Al(III)-malic acid complexes. In the medium containing 1 mM malic acid and 0-0.5 mM Fe(III), malic acid was degraded completely. In the medium containing 1 mM malic acid and 0.05-0.5 mM Al(III), malic acid was degraded until the concentration of malic acid became equal to that of Al(III), indicating that Al(III)-malic acid complex with 1: 1 molar ratio was recalcitrant to biodegradation. In the medium containing 1 mM malic acid and 0.05-0.5 mM Eu(III), degradation of malic acid was not observed. The effect of metals on degradation of malic acid was in the order of Fe(III) < Al(III) < Eu(III). The stability constants of 1:1 Fe(III)-, Al(III)-, and Eu(III)-malic acid complexes are 7.1, 4.6, and 4.9, respectively. These results indicate that degradability of malic acid does not depend on the stability constants of metal-malic acid complexes. We found that 10 mM malic acid was degraded in the presence of 0.05 and 0.1 mM Eu(III) but 1 mM malic acid was not degraded in the presence of 0.05 and 0.1 mM Eu(III). The degradation rate of malic acid increased with a decreasing ratio of Eu(III) to malic acid. (authors)

  5. Malic acid production from thin stillage by Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Aspergillus strains to utilize thin stillage to produce malic acid was compared. The highest malic acid was produced by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 at 17 g l(-1). Biomass production from thin stillage was similar with all strains but ATCC 10577 was the highest at 19 g l(-1). The highest malic acid yield (0.8 g g(-1)) was with A. niger ATCC 9142 and ATCC 10577 on the stillage. Thus, thin stillage has the potential to act as a substrate for the commercial production of food-grade malic acid by the A. niger strains. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  6. Differences in acidity of apples are probably mainly caused by a malic acid transporter gene on LG16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Beekwilder, J.; Schaart, J.G.; Mumm, R.; Soriano, J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Acidity has profound effects on the taste of apples (Malus × domestica). Malic acid is the predominant organic acid in apples. Differences in malic acid content are caused by differences in accumulation of malic acid in the vacuole. This accumulation may be caused by a gene that is responsible for

  7. Malic acid production by chemically induced Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant from crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, J; Bharathiraja, B; Baskar, G; Jayamuthunagai, J; Barathkumar, S; Anna Shiny, R

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, crude glycerol derived from transesterification process was utilized to produce the commercially-valuable malic acid. A combined resistant on methanol and malic acid strain of Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant was generated in solid medium containing methanol (1-5%) and malic acid (40-80 g/L) by the adaptation process for 22 weeks. The ability of induced Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant to utilize crude glycerol and pure glycerol to produce malic acid was studied. The yield of malic acid was increased with 4.45 folds compared with that of parent strain from crude glycerol. The highest concentration of malic acid from crude glycerol by using beneficial mutant was found to be 77.38 ± 0.51 g/L after 192 h at 25 °C. This present study specified that crude glycerol by-product from biodiesel production could be used for producing high amount of malic acid without any pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cardioprotective Effects of Citric Acid and L-Malic Acid on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xilan; Liu, Jianxun; Dong, Wei; Li, Peng; Li, Lei; Lin, Chengren; Zheng, Yongqiu; Hou, Jincai; Li, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids in Chinese herbs, the long-neglected components, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet aggregation activities; thus they may have potentially protective effect on ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the protective effects of two organic acids, that is, citric acid and L-malic acid, which are the main components of Fructus Choerospondiatis, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanisms. In in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, we found that treatments with citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced myocardial infarct size, serum levels of TNF-α, and platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments revealed that both citric acid and L-malic acid significantly reduced LDH release, decreased apoptotic rate, downregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3, and upregulated the expression of phosphorylated Akt in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. These results suggest that both citric acid and L-malic acid have protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury; the underlying mechanism may be related to their anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet aggregation and direct cardiomyocyte protective effects. These results also demonstrate that organic acids, besides flavonoids, may also be the major active ingredient of Fructus Choerospondiatis responsible for its cardioprotective effects and should be attached great importance in the therapy of ischemic heart disease. PMID:23737849

  9. Physiological characterization of the high malic acid-producing Aspergillus oryzae strain 2103a-68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Remmers, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Malic acid is a C4 dicarboxylic acid that is currently mainly used in the food and beverages industry as an acidulant. Because of the versatility of the group of C4 dicarboxylic acids, the chemical industry has a growing interest in this chemical compound. As malic acid will be considered as a bulk...

  10. Growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed in malic acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2013-11-01

    The growth behavior of anodic porous alumina formed on aluminum by anodizing in malic acid solutions was investigated. High-purity aluminum plates were electropolished in CH3COOH/HClO4 solutions and then anodized in 0.5 M malic acid solutions at 293 K and constant cell voltages of 200-350 V. The anodic porous alumina grew on the aluminum substrate at voltages of 200-250 V, and a black, burned oxide film was formed at higher voltages. The nanopores of the anodic oxide were only formed at grain boundaries of the aluminum substrate during the initial stage of anodizing, and then the growth region extended to the entire aluminum surface as the anodizing time increased. The anodic porous alumina with several defects was formed by anodizing in malic acid solution at 250 V, and oxide cells were approximately 300-800 nm in diameter.

  11. Gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions. [prebiotic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Graff, R. L.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of malic acid in aqueous solutions was studied under initially oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions in an attempt to determine the possible interconversion of malic acid into other carboxylic acids, specifically those associated with Krebs cycle. The effect of dose on product formation of the system was investigated. Gas-liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry was used as the principal means of identification of the nonvolatile products. Thin layer chromatography and direct probe mass spectroscopy were also employed. The findings show that a variety of carboxylic acids are formed, with malonic and succinic acids in greatest abundance. These products have all been identified as being formed in the gamma-irradiation of acetic acid, suggesting a common intermediary. Since these molecules fit into a metabolic cycle, it is strongly suggestive that prebiotic pathways provided the basis for biological systems.

  12. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VIII. The Role of Malic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, James A.; Benson, Andrew A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1950-01-25

    Malonate has been found to inhibit the formation of malic acid during short periods of photosynthesis with radioactive carbon dioxide. This result, together with studies which show the photosynthetic cycle to be operating normally at the same time, indicates that malic acid is not an intermediate in photosynthesis but is probably closely related to some intermediate of the cycle. Absence of labeled succinic and fumaric acids in these experiments, in addition to the failure of malonate to inhibit photosynthesis, precludes the participation of these acids as intermediates in photosynthesis.

  13. Effectiveness of malic acid 1% in patients with xerostomia induced by antihypertensive drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, Javier; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Cabrera-Ayala, Maribel; Maté-Sánchez de-Val, José E.; Calvo-Guirado, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Assessing the clinical effectiveness of a topical sialogogue on spray (malic acid, 1%) in the treatment of xerostomia induced by antihypertensive drugs. Study Design: This research has been carried out through a randomized double-blind clinical trial. 45 patients suffering from hypertensive drugs-induced xerostomia were divided into 2 groups: the first group (25 patients) received a topical sialogogue on spray (malic acid, 1%) whereas the second group (20 patients) received a placebo. Both of them were administered on demand for 2 weeks. Dry Mouth Questionnaire (DMQ) was used in order to evaluate xerostomia levels before and after product/placebo application. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates, before and after application, were measured. All the statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS software v17.0. Different DMQ scores at the earliest and final stage of the trial were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U test, whereas Student’s T-test was used to analyse salivary flows. Critical p-value was established at p0.05) after placebo application. After two weeks of treatment with malic acid, unstimulated salivary flow increased from 0.17 to 0.242 mL/min whereas the stimulated one increased from 0.66 to 0.92 mL/min (p0.05). Conclusions: Malic acid 1% spray improved antihypertensive-induced xerostomia and stimulated the production of saliva. Key words:Xerostomia, hyposialia, malic acid, antihypertensive drugs. PMID:22926481

  14. SMALL SCALE PREPARATION OF C14 LABELED SUCCINIC, MALIC, FUMARICAND TARTARIC ACIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, E.C.; Bassham, J.A.; Calvin, M.; Tolbert, B.M.

    1951-06-12

    The directions for preparing the following acids from labeled acetic acid on a 1 to 20 millimole scale is presented: Succinic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid and tartaric acid. Two methods for preparing the succinic acid are detailed.

  15. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  16. Convergent synthesis of degradable dendrons based on L-malic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Ulrich; Riber, Ulla; Boas, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    New degradable polyester dendrons based on the cellular tricarboxylic acid cycle component L-malic acid were synthesized up to the third generation by convergent synthesis. The dendron wedges could be introduced in a stepwise, highly regioselective fashion. HMBC-NMR revealed that the C1-carbonyl...

  17. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of pre-harvest foliar application of citric acid and malic acid on chlorophyll content and post-harvest vase life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh eDarandeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preharvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier and confirmed here on lilium. In this research citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15 percent v/v and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15 percent v/v were used together two times during growth period of lilium plants in a randomized factorial design with three replications. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid had increased vase life from 13.1 to 14 days (α=0.05. The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 8.6 gr to 2.9 gr in 0.15% citric acid per cut flower. Malic acid while having no effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. In mean comparison of factor-levels, the effect of citric acid on vase-life extension was more prominent increasing it from 11.8 to 14.3 days in treatment with 0.15% citric acid and without malic acid compared to control treatment.

  19. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic engineering of Ustilago trichophora TZ1 for improved malic acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiemo Zambanini

    2017-06-01

    These results open up a wide range of possibilities for further optimization, especially combinatorial metabolic engineering to increase the flux from pyruvate to malic acid and to reduce by-product formation.

  1. Spectra investigation on surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiyao; Yan, Manqing; Bi, Hong

    2014-01-24

    The surface characteristics of graphene oxide nanosheets (GO) treated respectively with tartaric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid, have been investigated by mainly using optical spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the electrochemical property of the products has also been studied. The data revealed that oxygen-containing groups such as OH, COOH and CO on the GO surface have been almost removed and thus reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGN) were obtained. Interestingly, the number of sp(2) domains of RGN increases as treated by tartaric acid acidacid whereas the steric hindrance (SH) decreases and the ionization constant (IC) differs among these three acids. Furthermore, the specific capacitances (Cs) of GO have been greatly promoted from 2.4 F g(-1) to 100.8, 112.4, and 147 F g(-1) after treated with tartaric, malic and oxalic acids, respectively. This finding agrees well with the spectra result of the tendency of surface conjugated degree alteration. We claim that the difference in both SH and IC among these acids is the main reason for the diverse surface characteristics as well as the improved Cs of the RGN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Foliar Sprays of Citric Acid and Malic Acid Modify Growth, Flowering, and Root to Shoot Ratio of Gazania (Gazania rigens L.: A Comparative Analysis by ANOVA and Structural Equations Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Talebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar application of two levels of citric acid and malic acid (100 or 300 mg L−1 was investigated on flower stem height, plant height, flower performance and yield indices (fresh yield, dry yield and root to shoot ratio of Gazania. Distilled water was applied as control treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that while the experimental treatments had no significant effect on fresh weight and the flower count, the plant dry weight was significantly increased by 300 mg L−1 malic acid. Citric acid at 100 and 300 mg L−1 and 300 mg L−1 malic acid increased the root fresh weight significantly. Both the plant height and peduncle length were significantly increased in all applied levels of citric acid and malic acid. The display time of flowers on the plant increased in all treatments compared to control treatment. The root to shoot ratio was increased significantly in 300 mg L−1 citric acid compared to all other treatments. These findings confirm earlier reports that citric acid and malic acid as environmentally sound chemicals are effective on various aspects of growth and development of crops. Structural equations modeling is used in parallel to ANOVA to conclude the factor effects and the possible path of effects.

  3. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  4. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C.

    1991-01-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-[U- 14 C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification

  5. Effect of malic acid doping on the structural and superconducting properties of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, N.; Sudesh; Stuti Rani; Varma, G.D.

    2010-01-01

    The samples have been prepared via standard solid state reaction route with nominal compositions MgB 2 + x wt% malic acid (x = 0, 5 and 10) by sintering at two different temperatures: 800 and 850 deg C in argon atmosphere. Improvement in upper critical fields (H c2 ) and irreversibility field (H irr ) of doped samples as compared to undoped samples have been observed. At 10 K, critical current densities (J c ) of the 5 and 10 wt% malic acid doped MgB 2 samples sintered at 850 deg C have higher values as compared to undoped sample sintered at the same temperature in the fields greater than 3 T. However, J c values of 5 wt% malic acid doped sample are higher than 10 wt% doped sample in the entire applied field region (0 - 7 T). In case of the samples sintered at 800 deg C improvement in J c values of 5 wt% doped sample have been found in entire field region as compared to undoped sample. On the other hand we see deterioration in J c values of 10 wt% doped samples sintered at 800 deg C as compared to undoped samples sintered at same temperature. The correlations between structural and superconducting properties will be described and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Isolation of a high malic and low acetic acid-producing sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain screened from respiratory inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Shingo; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Oba, Takahiro; Kusumoto, Kenichi; Kadokura, Toshimori; Nakazato, Atsumi; Nakayama, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We isolated 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant sake yeast strains by UV mutagenesis. Among the DNP-resistant mutants, we focused on strains exhibiting high malic acid and low acetic acid production. The improved organic acid composition is unlikely to be under the control of enzyme activities related to malic and acetic acid synthesis pathways. Instead, low mitochondrial activity was observed in DNP-resistant mutants, indicating that the excess pyruvic acid generated during glycolysis is not metabolized in the mitochondria but converted to malic acid in the cytosol. In addition, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the DNP-resistant strains was higher than that of the parental strain K901. These results suggest that the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio together with the low mitochondrial activity alter the organic acid composition because malic acid synthesis requires NADH, while acetic acid uses NAD(+). Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed complexes formed by rare earths with nitrilotriacetic and malic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samir Abu Ali; Dobrynina, N.A.; Martynenko, L.I.; Borisova, L.I.

    1980-01-01

    The composition of the mixed ligand and homogeneous complexes, forming in the Ln 3+ system-nitrilotriacetic acid (H 3 X)-malic acid (H 2 Mal) is determined and stability constants are calculated according to the data of the spectrography and pH-metry with the help of the mathematical statistics. The LnHMal 2+ , LnX 0 , LnX 2 - 3 and LnXMal 2- complexes are found in the solutions with the LnCl 3 : H 3 X : H 2 Mal= 1 : 1 : 1 and 1 : 1 : 2 composition

  8. Effect of acclimation medium on cell viability, membrane integrity and ability to consume malic acid in synthetic wine by oenological Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, B M; Tymczyszyn, E E; Gómez-Zavaglia, A; Semorile, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of acclimation on the viability, membrane integrity and the ability to consume malic acid of three oenological strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Cultures in the stationary phase were inoculated in an acclimation medium (Accl.) containing 0, 6 or 10% v/v ethanol and incubated 48 h at 28°C. After incubation, cells were harvested by centrifugation and inoculated in a synthetic wine, containing 14% v/v ethanol and pH 3.5 at 28°C. Viability and membrane integrity were determined by flow cytometry (FC) using carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and propidium iodide. Bacterial growth and malic acid consumption were monitored in a synthetic wine during 15 days. In nonacclimated strains, the damage of bacterial membranes produced a dramatic decrease in microbial viability in synthetic wine. In contrast, survival of strains previously acclimated in Accl. with 6 and 10% v/v ethanol was noticeable higher. Therefore, acclimation with ethanol increased the cultivability in synthetic wine and consequently, the consumption of l-malic acid after 15 days of growth. Acclimation of oenological strains in media containing ethanol prior to wine inoculation significantly decreases the membrane damage and improves viability in the harsh wine conditions. The role of membrane integrity is crucial to warrant the degradation of l-malic acid. The efficiency of multiparametric FC in monitoring viability and membrane damage along with the malic acid consumption has a strong impact on winemaking because it represents a useful tool for a quick and highly reliable evaluation of oenological parameters. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, H 2 was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31 o C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121 o C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater effluent from dark hydrogen

  10. Sleep disorders and the prevalence of asymptomatic nocturnal acid and non-acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Christine; Marzio, Dina Halegoua-De; Shah, Paurush; Denuna-Rivera, Susie; Doghramji, Karl; Cohen, Sidney; Dimarino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal acid reflux is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic sleep arousals, leading to fragmented sleep. The frequency and influence of acid reflux in patients with various forms of insomnia has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify nocturnal acid and nonacid reflux in patients with primary sleep disorders as previously diagnosed by polysomnography. THIRTY ONE SUBJECTS WERE STUDIED: (A) 9 subjects with a polysomnographically diagnosed sleep disorder (1 with restless legs syndrome, 4 with narcolepsy, 4 with periodic limb movement disorder); (B) 12 subjects with primary insomnia (PI) and unrevealing polysomnography; and (C) 10 controls without disturbed sleep. All subjects underwent a physical examination and 24 h transnasal pH and impedance monitoring to detect acid and non-acid reflux. The 21 subjects with fragmented sleep due to a primary sleep disorder had significantly more recumbent acid exposure (>1.2% of time) as compared with control subjects (33% versus 0%). When fragmented sleep subjects were divided into two groups, 17% of PI subjects and 55% of subjects with a diagnosed sleep disorder had significant recumbent acid exposure (P=0.009). Likewise, the median recumbent nonacid events were increased in the sleep disordered group (P=0.011). This study indicates that patients with primary sleep disorders have prominent nocturnal acid reflux without symptoms of daytime acid reflux. Acid reflux is most prominent in patients with polysomnographic findings of disturbed sleep as compared to patients with PI; while non acid reflux is increased minimally in these patients.

  11. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C. [Bioengineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: nuri.azbar@ege.edu.tr

    2009-07-01

    In this study, H{sub 2} was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31{sup o}C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD{sub fed}). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H{sub 2} / g COD{sub fed}). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater

  12. Improved synthesis with high yield and increased molecular weight of poly(alpha,beta-malic acid) by direct polycondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(alpha-hydroxy acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing high molecular weight poly(malic acid) (HMW--PMA) as a biodegradable and bioabsorbable water-soluble polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of l-malic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalysts. The molecular weight of synthesized alpha,beta-PMA is dependent on both the reaction temperature and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain alpha,beta-PMA by direct polycondensation using tin(II) chloride as a catalyst was thus determined to be 110 degrees C for 45 h with a molecular weight of 5300. The method for alpha,beta-PMA synthesis established here will facilitate production of alpha,beta-PMA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

  13. Production of poly(malic acid) from sugarcane juice in fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans: Kinetics and process economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peilian; Cheng, Chi; Lin, Meng; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) is a biodegradable polymer with many potential biomedical applications. PMA can be readily hydrolyzed to malic acid (MA), which is widely used as an acidulant in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMA production from sucrose and sugarcane juice by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 was studied in shake-flasks and bioreactors, confirming that sugarcane juice can be used as an economical substrate without any pretreatment or nutrients supplementation. A high PMA titer of 116.3g/L and yield of 0.41g/g were achieved in fed-batch fermentation. A high productivity of 0.66g/L·h was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with cell recycle. These results compared favorably with those obtained from glucose and other biomass feedstocks. A process economic analysis showed that PMA could be produced from sugarcane juice at a cost of $1.33/kg, offering a cost-competitive bio-based PMA for industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved detection of sugar addition to maple syrup using malic acid as internal standard and in 13C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Patrice; Paquin, Réal

    2007-01-24

    Stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta13C IRMS) was used to detect maple syrup adulteration by exogenous sugar addition (beet and cane sugar). Malic acid present in maple syrup is proposed as an isotopic internal standard to improve actual adulteration detection levels. A lead precipitation method has been modified to isolate quantitatively malic acid from maple syrup using preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The stable carbon isotopic ratio of malic acid isolated from this procedure shows an excellent accuracy and repeatability of 0.01 and 0.1 per thousand respectively, confirming that the modified lead precipitation method is an isotopic fractionation-free process. A new approach is proposed to detect adulteration based on the correlation existing between the delta13Cmalic acid and the delta13Csugars-delta13Cmalic acid (r = 0.704). This technique has been tested on a set of 56 authentic maple syrup samples. Additionally, authentic samples were spiked with exogeneous sugars. The mean theoretical detection level was statistically lowered using this technique in comparison with the usual two-standard deviation approach, especially when maple syrup is adulterated with beet sugar : 24 +/- 12% of adulteration detection versus 48 +/- 20% (t-test, p = 7.3 x 10-15). The method was also applied to published data for pineapple juices and honey with the same improvement.

  15. [Characterization of a malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingtong; Chen, Haiqin; Song, Yuanda; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yongquan; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-04

    We aimed at characterizing a malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides. me1 gene encoding malic enzyme isoform V was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. High-purity recombinant protein BLME1 was obtained by affinity chromatography using. Ni-NTA column and characterized subsequently. The optimum conditions were pH at 8.0 and temperature at 33 degrees C. Under optimum conditions, BLME1 activity achieved 92.8 U/mg. The K(m) for L-malate and NADP+ were 0.74960 ± 0.06120 mmol/L and 0.22070 ± 0.01810 mmol/L, the V(max) for L-malate and NADP+ were 72.820 ± 1.077 U/mg and 86.110 ± 1.665 U/mg, respectively. In addition, ions played important roles in BLME1 activity; several ions such as Mn2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+ could activate BLME1, whereas Ca2+, Cu2+ could be used as inhibitors. Additionally, the metabolic intermediates such as oxaloacetic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid inhibited the activity of BLME1, whereas succinic acid activated it. A malic enzyme isoform V from Mucor circinelloides was characterized, providing the references for further studies on this enzyme.

  16. Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Vanaudenaerde, Bart A; Verleden, Geert M; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E; Sifrim, Daniel; Dupont, Lieven J

    2009-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics may promote aspiration of bile acids into the lungs and may feature as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying lung transplantation (LTx) patients at risk for aspiration. Twenty-four stable LTx recipients were studied 1 year after transplantation. All patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory impedance-pH recording for the detection of acid (pH acidic (pH 4 to 7) reflux. On the same day, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and then analyzed for the presence of bile acids (Bioquant enzymatic assay). Increased GER was detected in 13 patients, of whom 9 had increased acid reflux and 4 had exclusively increased weakly acidic reflux. Sixteen patients had detectable bile acids in the BALF (0.6 [0.4 to 1.5] micromol/liter). The 24-hour esophageal volume exposure was significantly increased in patients with bile acids compared to patients without bile acids in the BALF. Acid exposure and the number of reflux events (total, acid and weakly acidic) were unrelated to the presence of bile acids in the BALF. However, both nocturnal volume exposure and the number of nocturnal weakly acidic reflux events were significantly higher in patients with bile acids in the BALF. Weakly acidic reflux events, especially during the night, are associated with the aspiration of bile acids in LTx recipients and may therefore feature as a potential risk factor for the development of BOS.

  17. Early dinner reduces nocturnal gastric acidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Duroux, P; Bauerfeind, P; Emde, C; Koelz, H R; Blum, A L

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether eating food at different times has differential effects on intragastric pH. Experiments were done in 23 healthy volunteers (12 men). Intragastric acidity was monitored by ambulatory 22 hour pH-metry. Composition of meals was standardised: breakfast and lunch at 7 am and 12 noon respectively, and dinner at 6 or 9 pm, in random order. The time of going to bed and getting up was also standardised. With early dinner nocturnal pH was higher, than with late dinner (pH me...

  18. Decarboxylation of Malate in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi (Role of NAD-Malic Enzyme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. M.; Lindsay, J. G.; Wilkins, M. B.; Nimmo, H. G.

    1995-01-01

    The role of NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) fedtschenkoi was investigated using preparations of intact and solubilized mitochondria from fully expanded leaves. Intact, coupled mitochondria isolated during the day or night did not differ in their ability to take up [14C]malic acid from the surrounding medium or to respire using malate or succinate as substrate. However, intact mitochondria isolated from plants during the day decarboxylated added malate to pyruvate significantly faster than mitochondria isolated from plants at night. NAD-ME activity in solubilized mitochondrial extracts showed hysteretic kinetics and was stimulated by a number of activators, including acetyl-coenzyme A, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and sulfate ions. In the absence of these effectors, reaction progress curves were nonlinear, with a pronounced acceleration phase. The lag period before a steady-state rate was reached in assays of mitochondrial extracts decreased during the photoperiod and increased slowly during the period of darkness. However, these changes in the kinetic properties of the enzyme could not account for the changes in the rate of decarboxylation of malate by intact mitochondria. Gel-filtration experiments showed that mitochondrial extracts contained three forms of NAD-ME with different molecular weights. The relative proportions of the three forms varied somewhat throughout the light/dark cycle, but this did not account for the changes in the kinetics behavior of the enzyme during the diurnal cycle. PMID:12228671

  19. /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the complexation of uranyl ion with malic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, M T [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Lab. de Fisica e Engenharia Nucleares; Gil, V M.S. [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Chemistry; Xavier, A V [Departamento de Quimica e Biotecnia, FCT, UNL, (Portugal)

    1982-04-15

    A full pH range /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nmr study was performed of the complexation of UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with malic acid, for variable concentrations and molar ratios. Spectral evidence for the existence of at least five complexes was found, and their stoichiometry and dependence on pH were investigated. Information on the bound ligand molecules was also obtained.

  20. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Revisited by Impedance-pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Tack, Jan; Sifrim, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Impedance-pH monitoring allows detailed characterization of gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal activity associated with reflux. We assessed the characteristics of nocturnal reflux and esophageal activity preceding and following reflux. Methods Impedance-pH tracings from 11 healthy subjects and 76 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease off acid-suppressive therapy were analyzed. Characteristics of nocturnal supine reflux, time distribution and esophageal activity seen on impedance at 2 minute intervals preceding and following reflux were described. Results Patients had more nocturnal reflux events than healthy subjects (8 [4-12] vs 2 [1-5], P = 0.002), with lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux (57% [35-78] vs 80% [60-100], P = 0.044). Nocturnal reflux was mainly liquid (80%) and reached the proximal esophagus more often in patients (6% vs 0%, P = 0.047). Acid reflux predominated in the first 2 hours (66%) and weakly acidic reflux in the last 3 hours (70%) of the night. Most nocturnal reflux was preceded by aboral flows and cleared by short lasting volume clearance. In patients, prolonged chemical clearance was associated with less esophageal activity. Conclusions Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux is as common as acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and predominates later in the night. Impedance-pH can predict prolonged chemical clearance after nocturnal acid reflux. PMID:21602991

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of a topical sialogogue spray containing malic acid 1% in elderly people with xerostomia: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Cabrera-Ayala, Maribel; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Ramírez-Fernández, María Piedad; González-Jaranay, Maximino; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a topical sialogogue spray containing 1% malic acid for elderly people affected by xerostomia. This research took the form of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Forty-one individuals (mean age: 78.7 years) with xerostomia were divided into two groups: for the first 'intervention group' (21 subjects) a topical sialogogue spray (1% malic acid) was applied, while for the second 'control group' (20 subjects), a placebo spray was applied; for both groups, the sprays were applied on demand during 2 weeks. The Xerostomia Inventory (XI) was used to evaluate xerostomia levels before and after product/placebo application. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates, before and after spray application, were measured. XI scores decreased significantly (clinically meaningful) from 36.4 ± 7.3 points to 29.1 ± 7.1 (p xerostomia in an elderly population and increased unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Sustainable recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries using DL-malic acid: Leaching and kinetics aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Conghao; Xu, Liping; Chen, Xiangping; Qiu, Tianyun; Zhou, Tao

    2018-02-01

    An eco-friendly and benign process has been investigated for the dissolution of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn from the cathode materials of spent LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 batteries, using DL-malic acid as the leaching agent in this study. The leaching efficiencies of Li, Co, Ni, and Mn can reach about 98.9%, 94.3%, 95.1%, and 96.4%, respectively, under the leaching conditions of DL-malic acid concentration of 1.2 M, hydrogen peroxide content of 1.5 vol.%, solid-to-liquid ratio of 40 g l -1 , leaching temperature of 80°C, and leaching time of 30 min. In addition, the leaching kinetic was investigated based on the shrinking model and the results reveal that the leaching reaction is controlled by chemical reactions within 10 min with activation energies (Ea) of 21.3 kJ·mol -1 , 30.4 kJ·mol -1 , 27.9 kJ·mol -1 , and 26.2 kJ·mol -1 for Li, Co, Ni, and Mn, respectively. Diffusion process becomes the controlled step with a prolonged leaching time from 15 to 30 min, and the activation energies (Ea) are 20.2 kJ·mol -1 , 28.9 kJ·mol -1 , 26.3 kJ·mol -1 , and 25.0 kJ·mol -1 for Li, Co, Ni, and Mn, respectively. This hydrometallurgical route was found to be effective and environmentally friendly for leaching metals from spent lithium batteries.

  4. Synthesis, Structure and Investigation of Germanium(IV and Copper(II Complexes with Malic Acid and 1,10ʹ-phenanthroline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Seifullina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two crystalline compounds of germanium(IV with malic acid (HMal and 1,10ʹ-phenanthroline (phen - [Ge(HMal2(phen]•pheh•2H2O (I and [CuCl(phen2][Ge(OH(HMal2] (II were synthesized for the first time and characterized by elemental analysis, IR-spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. There was elucidated from single-crystal X-ray diffraction that two different forms of Germanium are implemented: Ge4+ (I and hydrolyzed GeOH3+ (II to form distorted octahedron and pyramid respectively.

  5. Automatic Vetting for Malice in Android Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Android Apps from Play Store Infected with Brain Test Malware. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/google- removes -13- android -apps-play-store-infected- brain-test...AUTOMATIC VETTING FOR MALICE IN ANDROID PLATFORMS IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY MAY 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED...COVERED (From - To) DEC 2013 - DEC 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Automatic Vetting for Malice in Android Platforms 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-2

  6. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Luminescence Properties of a New Calcium(II Coordination Polymer Based on L-Malic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Senthil Raja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new calcium coordination polymer [Ca(HL-MA]n (H3L-MA = L-malic acid has been solvothermally synthesized. The structure of the newly synthesized complex has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and further characterized by elemental analysis, reflectance UV-Vis & IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The single crystal structure analysis showed that the complex forms three-dimensional framework. The new Ca(II complex has displayed very high thermal stability which was inferred from TGA and PXRD results. As far as the optical property of the new complex is concerned, the complex emitted its own characteristic sensitized luminescence.

  7. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  8. Association Between Nocturnal Acid Reflux and Sleep Disturbance in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Sheng; Lei, Wei-Yi; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether there is a direct association between subjective sleep quality and esophageal acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We enrolled patients with classic reflux symptoms for endoscopy and ambulatory pH monitoring. The severity of esophageal mucosal injury was assessed by upper endoscopy. Distal esophageal acid exposure was determined by ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring. Sleep disturbance was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In total, 103 patients (53 patients without sleep dysfunction and 50 patients with sleep dysfunction) were studied. Erosive esophagitis was found more in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (45% versus 31%, P = 0.04). Abnormal esophageal pH was found more in patients with dysfunction (22%) than in patients without sleep dysfunction (5.7%, P = 0.03). Recumbent acid contact time (%) was greater in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (3.7 ± 2.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.04). Sleep quality score positively correlated with acid contact time (r = 0.32, P = 0.02), prolonged reflux events (r = 0.45, P = 0.008) and longer reflux event (r = 0.28, P = 0.03) during recumbent period. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease along with sleep dysfunction are characterized with greater nocturnal acid reflux and more erosive esophagitis. Our study suggests that increased nocturnal acid reflux may play a role in inducing sleep disturbance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinação simultânea dos ácidos orgânicos tartárico, málico, ascórbico e cítrico em polpas de acerola, açaí e caju e avaliação da estabilidade em sucos de caju Simulataneous determination of tartaric, malic, ascorbic and citric acids in acerola, açai and cashew pulps, and stability evaluation in cashew juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Scherer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was determining the main organic acids in pulp and juices, as well as evaluating their stability, after opening the package, by liquid chromatography in a C18 column with isocratic elution and UV detection. In açaí pulp tartaric, malic and citric acids were found. Cashew samples presented all of the organic acids evaluated, besides high concentrations of ascorbic and malic acids. Acerola pulp had the highest ascorbic acid concentration. A small decrease in organic acid content during storage was observed. Malic and citric acids seem to be more stable than tartaric and ascorbic acids.

  10. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help slow the breakdown of red blood cells. Blood transfusions may be needed. Supplemental iron and folic acid ... is no known way to prevent this disorder. Alternative Names PNH Images Blood cells References Brodsky RA. Proxymal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In: ...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline forsterite coated poly(L-lactide-co-β-malic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, M; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Chauhan, N P S; Jalali, N; Asgari, S; Caicedoa, J C; Hamlekhan, A; Urbanska, A M

    2015-05-01

    In this research, after synthesizing poly(L-lactide-co-β-malic acid) (PLMA) copolymer, hybrid particles of ice and nanocrystalline forsterite (NF) as coating carriers were used to prepare NF-coated PLMA scaffolds. The porous NF-coated scaffolds were directly fabricated by a combined technique using porogen leaching and freeze-drying methods. The obtained results indicate that the scaffolds were structurally porous with NF particles on their surfaces. When compared to the uncoated scaffolds, the NF coating improved both mechanical properties as well as enhanced bioactivity of the scaffolds. In addition, in vitro biological response of the rat bone marrow stromal cells indicated that NF significantly increased the biocompatibility of NF-coated scaffolds compared with PLMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preharvest treatments with malic, oxalic, and acetylsalicylic acids affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill and parsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Nowicka, Paulina; Martínez-Tomé, Juan; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-07-01

    The effects of a preharvest treatment with malic (MA), oxalic (OA), or acetylsalicylic (ASA) acid at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3mM) on the bioactivity and antioxidant capacity of coriander, dill, and parsley were investigated. The antioxidant capacity of the herbs extracts was assayed by spectrophotometric methods by using three different analytical methods: ORAC, FRAP, and ABTS; the effects of treatments were very positive in coriander, produced intermediate results in dill, and no effects were found in parsley plants. Polyphenol compounds were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. Thirty phenolic compounds were identified in these three herbs. The major compounds were (i) coriander: dimethoxycinnamoyl hexoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, (ii) dill: neochlorogenic acid and quercetin glucuronide, and (iii) parsley: apigenin-7-apiosylglucoside (apiin) and isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside. The application of these three organic acids favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in coriander plants, but had no significant positive effects on dill and parsley. The treatments leading to the best results in all three plants were the application of MA or OA at 1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Basicity and ionization constants of some molybdenum(6) complex acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Coordination of the Mo(6) ions of the malic, trioxyglutaric, glucaric and mucic acids changes their acidity. Complex Mo(6) acids are stronger then corresponding oxyacids. It was demonstrated that complexes of Mo(6) with malic, trioxyglutaric, glutaric, mucic acids and mannitol were behaving as polybasic acids during titration. Sequential ionization constants of the complex acids were determined

  14. Production of poly(β-l-malic acid) by Aureobasidium pullulans HA-4D under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Li, Rongqing; He, Aiyong; Xu, Jiaxing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiangqian; Xu, Jiming

    2017-11-01

    Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) production by Aureobasidium pullulans HA-4D was carried out through solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial residues. Maximum PMA production (75.4mg/g substrate) was obtained from a mixed substrate of sweet potato residue and wheat bran (1:1, w/w) supplemented with NaNO 3 (0.8%, w/w) and CaCO 3 (2%, w/w), with an initial moisture content of 70% and inoculum size of 13% (v/w) for 8days. Repeated-batch SSF was successfully conducted for 5 cycles with a high productivity. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the yeast-like cells of A. pullulans HA-4D could grow well on the solid substrate surface. Moreover, the cost analysis showed that the unit price of PMA in SSF was much lower than that of SmF. This is the first report on PMA production via SSF, and this study provided a new method to produce PMA from inexpensive agro-industrial residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver... marrow) leukemia. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  16. [Simultaneous determination of five alkaloids in Niuhuang Shangqing Tablets by micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry using laurel acyl malic acid ester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengdi; Su, Di; Fan, Xiaosu; Yu, Jianhua; Xu, Yuanjin

    2012-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometric method based on laurel acyl malic acid ester (LMAE) for the separation and determination of coptisine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, phellodendrine and ligustrazine in Niuhuang Shangqing Tablets was established. The baseline separation of the five compounds was attained within 18 min by an uncoated capillary (88 cm x 50 microm) on the operating voltage of 25 kV using 7.5 mmol/L LMAE-15 mmol/L ammonia-50 mmol/L ammonium acetate mixture (pH = 7.0) containing 12.5% (v/v) acetonitrile as the electrophoretic medium and 50% 2-propanol aqueous solution (containing 3 mmol/L acetic acid) as the sheath liquid. The peak area of each component to its concentration showed a good linear relationship. The relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas of the five components were less than 5% and the recoveries were between 96.0% and 105%. The developed method is simple, rapid, accurate and is suitable for the routine analysis of the five alkaloid components in Niuhuang Shangqing Tablets.

  17. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17 degrees C nights, 23 degrees C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4 per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in (13)C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0 per thousand at 27 degrees C/33 degrees C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process

  18. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  19. Effect of indomethacin on desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria and nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Rittig, Søren; Bower, Wendy F; Djurhuus, Jens C

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the acute effect of indomethacin on renal water and solute handling in children with coexisting monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria, and in healthy controls. A total of 23 subjects were recruited, consisting of 12 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria with partial or no response to desmopressin, and 11 age matched controls. Children completed a 48-hour inpatient study protocol consisting of fractional urine collections and blood samples. Sodium and water intake were standardized. During the second night a dose of 50 mg indomethacin was administered orally before bedtime. Diuresis, urine osmolalities, clearances and fractional excretions were calculated for sodium, potassium, urea, osmoles and solute-free water. Renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured in plasma. Prostaglandin E(2) was measured in urine. Indomethacin markedly decreased the nocturnal sodium, urea and osmotic excretion in children with enuresis and controls. The overall effect on nocturnal urine output was inconsistent in the group with enuresis. Subjects in whom nocturnal diuresis was decreased following administration of indomethacin remained dry. Prostaglandin inhibition leads to antidiuresis, reducing the amount of sodium, urea and osmotic excretion in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria. The sodium regulating hormones do not seem to mediate these processes. The overall effect in desmopressin nonresponders with nocturnal polyuria is variable. The extent to which indomethacin can be applied in the treatment of enuresis needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of an Amperometric Biosensor Platform for the Combined Determination of L-Malic, Fumaric, and L-Aspartic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhlen, Désirée L; Pilas, Johanna; Schöning, Michael J; Selmer, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Three amperometric biosensors have been developed for the detection of L-malic acid, fumaric acid, and L -aspartic acid, all based on the combination of a malate-specific dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and diaphorase (DIA, EC 1.8.1.4). The stepwise expansion of the malate platform with the enzymes fumarate hydratase (FH, EC 4.2.1.2) and aspartate ammonia-lyase (ASPA, EC 4.3.1.1) resulted in multi-enzyme reaction cascades and, thus, augmentation of the substrate spectrum of the sensors. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in presence of the cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and the redox mediator hexacyanoferrate (III) (HCFIII). The amperometric detection is mediated by oxidation of hexacyanoferrate (II) (HCFII) at an applied potential of + 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For each biosensor, optimum working conditions were defined by adjustment of cofactor concentrations, buffer pH, and immobilization procedure. Under these improved conditions, amperometric responses were linear up to 3.0 mM for L-malate and fumarate, respectively, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.7 μA mM -1 (L-malate biosensor) and 0.4 μA mM -1 (fumarate biosensor). The L-aspartate detection system displayed a linear range of 1.0-10.0 mM with a sensitivity of 0.09 μA mM -1 . The sensor characteristics suggest that the developed platform provides a promising method for the detection and differentiation of the three substrates.

  1. The use of lactic acid-producing, malic acid-producing, or malic acid-degrading yeast strains for acidity adjustment in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yun; Li, Ying-Ying; Li, Hua

    2014-03-01

    In an era of economic globalization, the competition among wine businesses is likely to get tougher. Biotechnological innovation permeates the entire world and intensifies the severity of the competition of the wine industry. Moreover, modern consumers preferred individualized, tailored, and healthy and top quality wine products. Consequently, these two facts induce large gaps between wine production and wine consumption. Market-orientated yeast strains are presently being selected or developed for enhancing the core competitiveness of wine enterprises. Reasonable biological acidity is critical to warrant a high-quality wine. Many wild-type acidity adjustment yeast strains have been selected all over the world. Moreover, mutation breeding, metabolic engineering, genetic engineering, and protoplast fusion methods are used to construct new acidity adjustment yeast strains to meet the demands of the market. In this paper, strategies and concepts for strain selection or improvement methods were discussed, and many examples based upon selected studies involving acidity adjustment yeast strains were reviewed. Furthermore, the development of acidity adjustment yeast strains with minimized resource inputs, improved fermentation, and enological capabilities for an environmentally friendly production of healthy, top quality wine is presented.

  2. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  3. Laser-induced photochemical reaction of aqueous maleic acid solutions containing H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yuichi; Kawanishi, Shunichi; Suzuki, Nobutake

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxy acid such as glycolic, tartaric and malic acids was directly produced by XeF-laser irradiation of the N 2 -saturated maleic acid aqueous solution containing H 2 O 2 . The selectivities of these products at the maximum of tartaric acid were 71, 4, and 2% at H 2 O 2 feeding rate of 3.2 ml h -1 , respectively. On the other hand, the irradiation of maleates such as dipotassium, calcium, and disodium greatly enhanced the selectivities of tartaric acid formation to 19%, and of malic acid formation to 13%, respectively, for dipotassium maleate. It may be considered from these results that the stability of the hydroxylated intermediate radical plays an important role for the efficient formations of tartaric and malic acids. (author)

  4. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler

    Full Text Available Malic enzymes (ME catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields.

  5. Biological roles of crop NADP-malic enzymes and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    刘增辉

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to produce pyruvate, CO2 and .... causes dryness of soil and atmosphere, which can limit the plant ... closing through regulate the degradation of malic in day. In addition, there ...

  6. Sustainable carbon sources for microbial organic acid production with filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörsam, Stefan; Fesseler, Jana; Gorte, Olga; Hahn, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The organic acid producer Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar are able to convert several alternative carbon sources to malic and fumaric acid. Thus, carbohydrate hydrolysates from lignocellulose separation are likely suitable as substrate for organic acid production with these fungi. Before lignocellulose hydrolysate fractions were tested as substrates, experiments with several mono- and disaccharides, possibly present in pretreated biomass, were conducted for their suitability for malic acid production with A. oryzae. This includes levoglucosan, glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, ribose, and cellobiose as well as cheap and easy available sugars, e.g., fructose and maltose. A. oryzae is able to convert every sugar investigated to malate, albeit with different yields. Based on the promising results from the pure sugar conversion experiments, fractions of the organosolv process from beechwood ( Fagus sylvatica ) and Miscanthus giganteus were further analyzed as carbon source for cultivation and fermentation with A. oryzae for malic acid and R. delemar for fumaric acid production. The highest malic acid concentration of 37.9 ± 2.6 g/L could be reached using beechwood cellulose fraction as carbon source in bioreactor fermentation with A. oryzae and 16.2 ± 0.2 g/L fumaric acid with R. delemar . We showed in this study that the range of convertible sugars for A. oryzae is even higher than known before. We approved the suitability of fiber/cellulose hydrolysate obtained from the organosolv process as carbon source for A. oryzae in shake flasks as well as in a small-scale bioreactor. The more challenging hemicellulose fraction of F. sylvatica was also positively evaluated for malic acid production with A. oryzae .

  7. Role of citric acid in the after-cooking darkening of γ-irradiated potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Adam, S.; Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    With the aim of exploring the reasons for radiation-induced after-cooking darkening of potato tubers, organic acids from a naturally darkening (Irmgard) and a nondarkening cultivar (Hansa) were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and quantified by gas--liquid chromatography of the trimethylsilyl derivatives. Citric, malic, and pyroglutamic acids were the main components, citric acid forming 70 to 80% of the total acids. Major differences in citric and malic acid content were observed between the darkening and nondarkening cultivars. A significant decrease in citric acid content accompanied by increases in malic and pyroglutamic acids were noted in irradiated tubers during storage. The induction of after-cooking darkening in irradiated potatoes is attributed to decreased citric acid levels and enhanced polyphenols in the tuber tissues, both changes favoring the formation of iron--phenolic complexes responsible for the discoloration

  8. Quelques observations sur la formation d'acide acétique par les bactéries lactiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lafon-Lafourcade

    1980-09-01

    The formation of volatile acidity during lactic acid fermentation of sugars is specifically linked to the physiological state of bacteria populations. It is low during the cellular multiplication, phase during which malic and citric acids are eventually decomposed. The presence of malic acid in wine tends to limit the formation of acetic acid. In addition, these microorganisms appear to be extremely sensitive to the medium's composition (activating effect of glycerol.

  9. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  10. Current management of nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Wm Lane M

    2008-07-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is an especially common problem with the potential to have an appreciable negative impact on the emotional health of a child. Our understanding of the pathogenesis continues to improve. A disorder of sleep arousal, a low nocturnal bladder capacity, and nocturnal polyuria are the three factors that interrelate to cause nocturnal enuresis. Constipation is a very common and often unrecognized factor that appreciably affects bladder function. Successful treatment involves interventions that simultaneously improve these factors. Self-esteem improves with any form of therapy and dryness is possible for the majority of children.

  11. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  12. Relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and total antioxidants in peripheral blood with insomnia after stroke: study protocol for a prospective non-randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Fang Li; Tong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been shown to regulate sleep. The nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants may relate to insomnia in stroke patients. In this prospective single-center non-randomized controlled clinical trial performed in the China Rehabilitation Research Center, we analyzed the relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke. Patients during rehabilitation of stroke were recruited and assigned to the insomnia group or non-insomnia group. Simultaneously, persons without stroke or insomnia served as normal controls. Each group contained 25 cases. The primary outcome was nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants in peripheral blood. The secondary outcomes were Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (Chinese version), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke was analyzed and showed that they were lower in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. The severity of stroke was higher in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the nocturnal concentrations of melatonin and GABA were associated with insomnia after stroke. This trial was regis-tered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03202121.

  13. Nocturnal and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure Is Associated with Renal Structure Damage and Function in Patients with IgAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lirong; Zhang, Huhai; Yang, Jurong; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Kailong; Huo, Bengang; Dai, Huanzi; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Jie; Tan, Wei; He, Yani

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) is closely related to target organ damage in hypertension. However, the association between abnormal circadian rhythm of BP and renal injury is not clear. We investigated whether renal injury is associated with nocturnal BP and circadian rhythm of BP in Chinese IgAN patients. Clinic and 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring data were obtained from 330 Chinese IgAN patients with mean 24 h BP circadian BP, and 27% had nocturnal hypertension with a nondipping pattern. Compared with nocturnal normotensive patients, patients with nocturnal hypertension had significantly higher levels of blood cystatin C, blood uric acid, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and significantly a higher mean renal tissue injury score. The nondipping hypertensive group had significantly higher nocturnal diastolic and systolic BP, blood uric acid, and glomerulosclerosis rates, whereas eGFR was lower. In nondipping hypertensive patients, urinary sodium excretion and renal tissue injury scores were significantly higher than dipping patients. Nocturnal hypertension and abnormal circadian BP correlated with renal tissue injury, renal interstitial fibrosis, and aortic arch atherosclerosis. Abnormal circadian rhythm of BP and nocturnal hypertension are common clinical manifestations in Chinese IgAN patients with normal mean 24 h BP. Abnormal circadian BP and nocturnal hypertension may accelerate IgAN progression by inducing renal dysfunction and histopathological damage. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The drying method affects the organic acid content of alfalfa forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pezzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malic acid (the main organic acid contained in alfalfa; Callaway et al., 1997 is an important metabolite for ruminal microbial population since it improves the uptake of lactic acid by Selenomonas ruminantium (Evans and Martin, 1997 and Megasphaera elsdenii (Rossi and Piva, 1999. Several studies have shown the effect of adding malic acid to the diet of steers and dairy cows on ruminal fermentation (Martin et al., 1999; Martin et al., 2000 and animal performances (Krummrey et al., 1979; Stallcup, 1979; Kung et al., 1982. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of drying method.......

  15. Nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles attract the generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Cabezas-Guerrero, Milton F.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants ( Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer ( Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar ( Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey. Additionally, we examined whether the earwig preferred odors emitted from short- or long-term damaged maize. We first determined the earwig diel foraging rhythm and confirmed that D. luteipes is a nocturnal predator. Olfactometer assays showed that during the day, although the earwigs were walking actively, they did not discriminate the volatiles of undamaged maize plants from those of herbivore damaged maize plants. In contrast, at night, earwigs preferred volatiles emitted by maize plants attacked by D. saccharalis or S. frugiperda over undamaged plants and short- over long-term damaged maize. Our GC-MS analysis revealed that short-term damaged nocturnal plant volatile blends were comprised mainly of fatty acid derivatives (i.e., green leaf volatiles), while the long-term damaged plant volatile blend contained mostly terpenoids. We also observed distinct volatile blend composition emitted by maize damaged by the different caterpillars. Our results showed that D. luteipes innately uses nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey. Moreover, the attraction of the earwig to short-term damaged plants is likely mediated by fatty acid derivatives.

  16. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, Nancy Wieland; Black, Clanton C.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15°C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15°C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO2 accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves. PMID:16666775

  17. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves : Implications for the Role of Pyrophosphate:6-Phosphofructokinase in Glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, N W; Black, C C

    1989-05-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15 degrees C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15 degrees C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO(2) accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves.

  18. Comparative Effects of an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB)/Diuretic vs. ARB/Calcium-Channel Blocker Combination on Uncontrolled Nocturnal Hypertension Evaluated by Information and Communication Technology-Based Nocturnal Home Blood Pressure Monitoring - The NOCTURNE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hajime; Uchiyama, Kazuaki; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Tetsuro; Kanda, Kiyomi; Hasegawa, Shinji; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2017-06-23

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events. The NOCTURNE study, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) using our recently developed information and communication technology (ICT) nocturnal home BP monitoring (HBPM) device, was performed to compare the nocturnal HBP-lowering effects of differential ARB-based combination therapies in 411 Japanese patients with nocturnal hypertension (HT).Methods and Results:Patients with nocturnal BP ≥120/70 mmHg at baseline even under ARB therapy (100 mg irbesartan daily) were enrolled. The ARB/CCB combination therapy (irbesartan 100 mg+amlodipine 5 mg) achieved a significantly greater reduction in nocturnal home systolic BP (primary endpoint) than the ARB/diuretic combination (daily irbesartan 100 mg+trichlormethiazide 1 mg) (-14.4 vs. -10.5 mmHg, P<0.0001), independently of urinary sodium excretion and/or nocturnal BP dipping status. However, the change in nocturnal home systolic BP was comparable among the post-hoc subgroups with higher salt sensitivity (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and elderly patients). This is the first RCT demonstrating the feasibility of clinical assessment of nocturnal BP by ICT-nocturnal HBPM. The ARB/CCB combination was shown to be superior to ARB/diuretic in patients with uncontrolled nocturnal HT independently of sodium intake, despite the similar impact of the 2 combinations in patients with higher salt sensitivity.

  19. Effect of propylthiouracil on 125I-L-triiodothyronine binding to the nuclei and on malic enzyme activity in rat liver cytosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of propylthiouracil (PTU), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) on the malic enzyme activity of rat liver cytosol and on the binding of 125 I-L-triiodothyronine to the nuclear fraction were examined. A significant decrease in in vitro binding of 125 I-T 3 to the liver nuclei was found in rats fed PTU for 12 h, 24 h and 120 h. The hepatic malic enzyme activity was unchanged after 12 h, but markedly decreased after 24 h and 120 h of PTU treatment. In 120 h PTU fed animals the effect of T 3 on the malic enzyme activity was five times higher in comparison with an equimolar dose of T 4 . Finally, the effect of T 4 on the malic enzyme activity was observed which might result from the intrinsic activity of T 4 under the conditions of a decreased T 4 to T 3 conversion due to the PTU feeding. The obtained results show that there is a certain correlation between the nuclear T 3 binding and the cytosol malic enzyme activity which is presumably induced directly through the m-RNA synthesis stimulated by thyroid hormones. (author)

  20. Biochemical studies on the effect of fluoride on higher plants. I. Metabolism of carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids. [Glycine max var. Hawkeye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S F; Miller, G W

    1963-01-01

    Metabolic processes associated with free sugars, organic acids and amino acids in higher plants subjected to fluoride fumigation were studied quantitatively. Fluoride-fumigated leaves contained more reducing sugars and less sucrose than the normal leaves. This result suggested inhibition of sucrose synthesis by fluoride. Necrotic leaves contained increased total concentrations of organic acids, which were mostly attributable to malic acid, malonic acid and citric acid. The greater increase in malic acid relative to that of citric acid was the reverse of results observed in chlorotic tissue. Necrotic leaves contained enhanced amounts of free amino acids. The greatest increase occurred in the concentration of asparagine and might be related to the increased respiratory rate of necrotic leaves. Pipecolic acid accumulated in large quantities in nicrotic tissue and was not detected in normal leaves. The accumulation of organic acids and amino acids in leaves during fluoride fumigation was evidenced by a lowered respiratory quotient.

  1. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E [Kozponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones.

  2. Nocturnal Polyuria: Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, Ruud; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective study in which participants completed a bladder diary, collected urine and provided a blood sample. With an age dependent nocturnal polyuria index greater than 20% to 33% as the referent 4 definitions of nocturnal polyuria were compared, including 1) nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33%, 2) nocturnal urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and 3) greater than 10 ml/kg, and 4) nocturia index greater than 1.5. In 112 male and female participants significant differences in baseline characteristics and bladder diary parameters were found according to definition. Diuresis rate, free water clearance and sodium clearance had similar 24-hour courses in the subgroups with and without polyuria by each definition. The range varied more in the subgroup with vs without polyuria, especially at night for diuresis rate and free water clearance. At night the latter decreased in the polyuria subgroup based on each definition (p polyuria subgroups was found only for urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and polyuria index greater than 20% to 33%. For each definition sodium clearance remained high in the polyuria subgroup, which differed significantly from the no polyuria subgroups (p polyuria by definition. The renal function profile indicating the pathophysiological mechanism of nocturnal polyuria did not seem to be influenced by definition but free water clearance and sodium clearance cutoff sensitivity differed substantially. These results must be confirmed in a larger homogeneous sample. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Fanrong; Chen Song; Miao Ying; Wu Feibo; Zhang Guoping

    2008-01-01

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  4. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid after cold and acid habituation in apple juice or trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric acid or organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1998-08-01

    Extreme acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has raised doubts about the safety of acidic foods. This study examined whether prior storage in acidic and/or cold conditions enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Three E. coli O157:H7 strains were stored in trypticase soy broth (TSB; acidified with HCl, malic acid, citric acid, or lactic acid) or pH 3.5 and 6.5 (nonacidic control) apple juice at 4 and 21 degrees C for acids, suggesting that juice constituents other than organic acids protect E. coli O157:H7. Refrigeration combined with low pH best protected cells in apple juice and acidified TSB, but, compared to the nonacidic control, only acidified TSB enhanced subsequent survival in pH 2.5 SGF. Equal survival in SGF occurred after storage in pH 3.5 or 6.5 apple juice at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature alone in apple juice enhanced acid tolerance. Two strains stored at 4 degrees C in TSB containing malic or citric acid subsequently survived better in SGF than cells stored in nonacidified TSB but poorer than cells stored in the presence of HCl. These differences reflect the higher pKa of these organic acids. However, subsequent survival of these strains in SGF was poorer after refrigerated storage in apple juice than in TSB containing citric or malic acids. Cells stored in lactic acid were most likely to be completely eliminated upon transfer to SGF. Differences in survival in storage media or SGF related to strain, storage conditions, or acidifier were consistent and often statistically significant (P acidic beverages may not be affected by the type of acidifier used, the subsequent survival in SGF of this pathogen may be critically dependent on this factor.

  5. Are polyamines involved in the induction and regulation of the Crassulacean acid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, C; Villanueva, V R; Queiroz, O

    1980-10-01

    Leaves of plants with Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) were analyzed for variation in the content of polyamines in connection with the metabolism of malic acid in the dark and in the light, and with the induction of full-CAM activity. Under conditions (long days) resulting in extremely low CAM activity, young leaves of K. blossfeldiana have very low content in the polyamine-precursor arginine and in putrescine. The content in these two substances was increased dramatically by full-CAM induction with short days. During the course of the night/day cycle two peaks of putrescine content were observed in leaves of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tom Thumb performing full-CAM operation: a large increase occurs toward the end of the day and the first half of the night, and its kinetics corresponds to the increase in the rate of malic acid synthesis; another peak, very sharp, appears during the first hours of the day, concomitant with the time of release of malic acid from the vacuole into the cytoplasm. In the case of Bryophyllum daigremontianum Berger similar variations were observed for the content in spermidine. These results support the hypothesis that polyamines could be involved in countering the tendency toward acidification of the cytoplasm at those moments of CAM operation at which the local concentration of malic acid is increased (i.e., during active synthesis in the dark and during the efflux from the vacuole in the light).

  6. Nocturnal Polyuria : Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, JLHR; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective

  7. Triggering Apoptotic Death of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes by Malic Acid: Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress- and Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Hsiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malic acid (MA has been commonly used in cosmetic products, but the safety reports in skin are sparse. To investigate the biological effects of MA in human skin keratinocytes, we investigated the potential cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of MA in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT. The data showed that MA induced apoptosis based on the observations of DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, and sub-G1 phase in HaCaT cells and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs. Flow cytometric assays also showed that MA increased the production of mitochondrial superoxide (mito-SOX but decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analysis of bioenergetics function with the XF 24 analyzer Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR was significantly decreased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR was increased in MA-treated keratinocytes. The occurrence of apoptosis was proved by the increased expressions of FasL, Fas, Bax, Bid, caspases-3, -8, -9, cytochrome c, and the declined expressions of Bcl-2, PARP. MA also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress associated protein expression such as GRP78, GADD153, and ATF6α. We demonstrated that MA had anti-proliferative effect in HaCaT cell through the inhibition of cell cycle progression at G0/G1, and the induction of programmed cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent pathways.

  8. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones. (F.J.)

  9. The regulation and catalytic mechanism of the NADP-malic enzyme from tobacco leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERONIKA DOUBNEROVÁ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-photosynthetic NADP-malic enzyme EC 1.1.1.40 (NADP-ME, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate and NADP+ to produce pyruvate and NADPH, respectively, and which could be involved in plant defense responses, was isolated from Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves. The mechanism of the enzyme reaction was studied by the initial rate method and was found to be an ordered sequential one. Regulation possibilities of purified cytosolic NADP-ME by cell metabolites were tested. Intermediates of the citric acid cycle (a-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, metabolites of glycolysis (pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate, glucose-6-phosphate, compounds connected with lipogenesis (coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA, palmitoyl-CoA and some amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, aspartate did not significantly affect the NADP-ME activity from tobacco leaves. In contrast, macroergic compounds (GTP, ATP and ADP were strong inhibitors of NADP-ME; the type of inhibition and the inhibition constants were determined in the presence of the most effective cofactors (Mn2+ or Mg2+, required by NADP-ME. Predominantly non-competitive type of inhibitions of NADP-ME with respect to NADP+ and mixed type to L-malate were found.

  10. Composition and content analysis of sugars and organic acids for 45 grape cultivars from northeast region of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaozhu, G.N.; Jia, Z.; Zhihu, R.; Zuhui, Z.; Quan, G.; Hongyan, G.; Xiuwu, G.

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars and acids of grape cultivars from northeast region of China was carried out for quality evaluation and variety improvement of grape. Analysis of major sugars and organic acids for 45 grape berries was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that glucose and fructose were the major sugars, beside that, some grape cultivars also contained sucrose. The quantity of glucose and fructose was almost equal in most of grape berries. A significant positive correlation existed between them, glucose content ranged from 53.24 mg/ml to 124.18mg/ml and fructose content ranged from 48.39 mg/ml to118.84 mg/ml. Tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid were organic acids and tartaric acid was the main constituent in most grape berries and its concentration was higher than the other organic acids. However, in some grape cultivars, malic acid and citric acid were two highest organic acids while oxalic acid content was the lowest and even in some cultivars it could not be detected. Tartaric acid ranged from 1.28mg/ml to 6.82 mg/ml, malic acid ranged from 0.09mg/ml to 3.95 mg/ml, citric acid ranged from 0.08mg/ml to 4.43 mg/ml, oxalic acid ranged from mg/ml to 0.370 mg/ml. Thirty-four grape cultivars out of 45 cultivars accounted more than 50% tartic acid of the total organic acid contents. However, in cultivars Bixiang Wuhe and Shennong Jinhuanghou citric acid was the main organic acid. Malic acid and citric acid were significantly positively related with total acid. In 43 grape cultivars, the soluble sugars were glucose and fructose. Besides glucose and fructose, sucrose was also observed in cultivars of LN33 and Cayuga white. (author)

  11. A nocturnal decline of salivary pH associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Kurai, Jun; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Igishi, Tadashi; Okazaki, Ryota; Tohda, Yuji; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Salivary pH is associated with esophageal acid reflux and neutralization of esophageal acid. In this study, we assessed the association between nocturnal decline of salivary pH and airway hyperresponsiveness. Salivary pH was serially assessed in 9 patients with mild asthma (7 men and 2 women; mean age 33.3 years; mean %predicted FEV(1.0) 89.4%) and 10 healthy volunteers (6 men and 4 women; mean age 31.2 years) using a pH indicator tape. The buffering capacity of saliva was defined as the median effective dose (ED(50)) for acidification of saliva with 0.01 N HCl, and airway responsiveness was defined as the dose of methacholine producing a 35% fall in Grs (PD(35)-Grs). There was a significant correlation between the values obtained from the pH indicator tape and those obtained from the electrometric pH meter. Using the indicator tape for sequential monitoring, we observed a nocturnal fall (ΔpH) in salivary pH in all subjects. A significant correlation was found between airway hyperresponsiveness (PD(35)-Grs) and either ΔpH or ED(50) in mildly asthmatic patients. Vagal reflux dysfunction might contribute to nocturnal salivary pH as well as to airway hyperresponsiveness in mild asthmatics.

  12. Nocturnal Hypertension and Attenuated Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping is Common in Pediatric Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Fallon; Swartz, Sarah J.; Wenderfer, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but reports of prevalence vary between 20-70% in published reports of adult and pediatric patients. For both children and adults with SLE, the clinical diagnosis and management of hypertension has traditionally been based on guidelines developed for the general population. In clinical trials, the criteria used for defining participants with hypertension are mostly undefined. As a first step towards formally assessing the blood pressure (BP) patterns of children diagnosed with SLE, 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring data was analyzed on clinic patients who presented with prehypertension or stage I hypertension. In this pediatric SLE cohort (n=10), 20% met daytime criteria for a diagnosis of hypertension. Patterns of BP elevation varied widely with white coat, masked, isolated systolic, and diastolic nocturnal hypertension all identified. Nocturnal hypertension was detected in 60% and attenuated nocturnal BP dipping in 90% of both hypertensive and normotensive SLE patients. In SLE patients, the median nighttime systolic and diastolic loads were 25% and 15.5% compared with median daily loads of 12.5% and 11.5%. Daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP load and nocturnal dipping was compared to a control population consisting of 85 non-SLE patients under 21 years old with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension presenting to hypertension clinic. Median systolic BP dipped 5.3 mmHg in SLE patients compared to 11.9 mmHg in non-lupus ( p-value = 0.001). Median diastolic BP dipped 12.9 mmHg versus 18.5 mmHg in non-lupus ( p-value = 0.003). Patterns of BP dysregulation in pediatric SLE merit further exploration. Children with or without SLE displaying prehypertensive or stage 1 casual BP measurements had similar rates of hypertension by ambulatory BP monitoring. However, regardless of BP diagnosis, and independent of kidney involvement, there was an increased proportion with attenuated

  13. Efficient aspartic acid production by a psychrophile-based simple biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Takahisa; Hamada, Mai; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Kato, Junichi

    2015-10-01

    We previously constructed a Psychrophile-based Simple bioCatalyst (PSCat) reaction system, in which psychrophilic metabolic enzymes are inactivated by heat treatment, and used it here to study the conversion of aspartic acid from fumaric acid mediated by the activity of aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspartase). In Escherichia coli, the biosynthesis of aspartic acid competes with that of L-malic acid produced from fumaric acid by fumarase. In this study, E. coli aspartase was expressed in psychrophilic Shewanella livingstonensis Ac10 heat treated at 50 °C for 15 min. The resultant PSCat could convert fumaric acid to aspartic acid without the formation of L-malic acid because of heat inactivation of psychrophilic fumarase activity. Furthermore, alginate-immobilized PSCat produced high yields of aspartic acid and could be re-used nine times. The results of our study suggest that PSCat can be applied in biotechnological production as a new approach to increase the yield of target compounds.

  14. Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Hamad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of longkong fruits (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., collected from Narathiwat province, was dried and extracted by steam distillation to obtain the essential oil in 0.48% yield. The GC-MS data showed oleic acid (14.80%, α-copaene (11.15%, germacrene-D (9.16%, δ- cadinene (6.74%, τ -muurolol (6.34%, (+ spathulenol (5.72% and palmitic acid (5.49% as the major constituents. Organic acids were also extracted from dried pulp with methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus to give the crude extract in 36.26% yield. Four organic acids: glycolic, maleic, malic and citric acids were determined by HPLC. Maleic acid (1.23% was the major acid and the others were citric (0.22%, malic (0.15% and glycolic acids (0.14%.

  15. The regulation and catalytic mechanism of the NADP-malic enzyme from tobacco leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová, V.; Potůčková, L.; Müller, Karel; Ryšlavá, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, 8-9 (2009), s. 893-906 ISSN 0352-5139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NADP-malic enzyme * macroergic compounds * Nicotiana tabacum L. Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.820, year: 2009

  16. Growth and consumption of L-malic acid in wine-like medium by acclimated and non-acclimated cultures of Patagonian Oenococcus oeni strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Brizuela, Natalia; La Hens, Danay Valdés; Tymczyszyn, Elizabeth; Semorile, Liliana

    2016-09-01

    Five Oenococcus oeni strains, selected from spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF) of Patagonic Pinot noir wine, were assessed for their use as MLF starter cultures. After the individual evaluation of tolerance to some stress conditions, usually found in wine (pH, ethanol, SO2, and lysozyme), the behavior of the strains was analyzed in MLO broth with 14 % ethanol and pH 3.5 in order to test for the synergistic effect of high ethanol level and low pH and, finally, in a wine-like medium. Although the five strains were able to grow in MLO broth under low pH and/or high ethanol, they must be acclimated to grow in a wine-like medium. Additionally, glycosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, showing differences among the strains. The potential of the strains to ferment citrate was tested and two of the five strains showed the ability to metabolize this substrate. We did not detect the presence of genes encoding histidine, tyrosine descarboxylase, and putrescine carbamoyltransferase. All the strains tested exhibited good growth capacity and ability to consume L-malic acid in a wine-like medium after cell acclimation, and each of them showed a particular enzyme profile, which might confer different organoleptic properties to the wine.

  17. Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in sequential fermentations: Effect on phenolic acids of fermented Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaar, P P; Jolly, N P; Paulsen, V; Du Plessis, H W; Van Der Rijst, M

    2017-09-18

    Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) is an evergreen tree indigenous to Southern Africa. The fruit contains high concentrations of l-malic acid, ascorbic acid, and phenolic acids. Kei-apple juice was sequentially inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. A reference fermentation using only S. cerevisiae was included. The fermentation was monitored by recording mass loss. At the end of fermentation, twelve untrained judges conducted free choice aroma profiling on the fruit wines. The Kei-apple juice and wines were analysed for total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, alcohol, l-malic acid, and phenolic acids. Total titratable acidity was ca. 70% lower in Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae than in Kei-apple juice. Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae showed substantially lower concentrations of l-malic acid than Kei-apple wines produced with S. cerevisiae only. Wines produced with S. cerevisiae only proved higher in phenolic acid concentrations than wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid measured in the Kei-apple wines, followed by protocatechuic acid. Judges described the Kei-apple wines produced with S. pombe+S. cerevisiae as having noticeable off-odours, while wines produced with S. cerevisiae were described as fresh and fruity. Kei-apple wines (S. pombe+S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae) were of comparable vegetative and organic character. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced Kei-apple wine with increased caffeic, chlorogenic, protocatechuic, and sinapic acids, whereas S. pombe+S. cerevisiae produced Kei-apple wines with increased ferulic, and p-coumaric acids and low l-malic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic pathways regulated by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid in association with improved drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are known to play roles in regulating plant stress responses. This study was conducted to determine metabolites and associated pathways regulated by ABA, SA and GABA that could contribute to drought tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants were foliar sprayed with ABA (5 μM), GABA (0.5 mM) and SA (10 μM) or water (untreated control) prior to 25 days drought stress in controlled growth chambers. Application of ABA, GABA or SA had similar positive effects on alleviating drought damages, as manifested by the maintenance of lower electrolyte leakage and greater relative water content in leaves of treated plants relative to the untreated control. Metabolic profiling showed that ABA, GABA and SA induced differential metabolic changes under drought stress. ABA mainly promoted the accumulation of organic acids associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and malic acid). SA strongly stimulated the accumulation of amino acids (proline, serine, threonine and alanine) and carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose and cellobiose). GABA enhanced the accumulation of amino acids (GABA, glycine, valine, proline, 5-oxoproline, serine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, malonic acid and ribonic acid). The enhanced drought tolerance could be mainly due to the enhanced respiration metabolism by ABA, amino acids and carbohydrates involved in osmotic adjustment (OA) and energy metabolism by SA, and amino acid metabolism related to OA and stress-defense secondary metabolism by GABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  20. Effects of organic acids, amino acids and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin in an aqueous model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Cheorun; Chung, Jinwoo; Kim, Soohyun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Dongho

    2008-01-01

    The effects of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin by gamma irradiation in an aqueous model system were investigated. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm, was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin remained in apple juice. In the aqueous model system, the radio-degradation of patulin was partially inhibited by the addition of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol. The proportions of remaining patulin after irradiation with the dose of 1.0 kGy in the 1% solution of malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, and ethanol were 31.4%, 2.3%, 31.2%, 6.1%, 50.8%, and 12.5%, respectively. During 30 days of storage, the remaining patulin was reduced gradually in the solution of ascorbic acid and malic acid compared to being stable in other samples. The amino acids, serine, threonine, and histidine, inhibited the radio-degradation of patulin. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependent

  1. Aspartic acid in the hippocampus: a biomarker for postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Huang, Dong; Tong, Jianbin; Liao, Qin; Hu, Zhonghua; Ouyang, Wen

    2014-01-15

    This study established an aged rat model of cognitive dysfunction using anesthesia with 2% isoflurane and 80% oxygen for 2 hours. Twenty-four hours later, Y-maze test results showed that isoflurane significantly impaired cognitive function in aged rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that isoflurane also significantly increased the levels of N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide, aspartic acid, malic acid and arabinonic acid in the hippocampus of isoflurane-treated rats. Moreover, aspartic acid, N,N-diethylacetamide, n-ethylacetamide and malic acid concentration was positively correlated with the degree of cognitive dysfunction in the isoflurane-treated rats. It is evident that hippocampal metabolite changes are involved in the formation of cognitive dysfunction after isoflurane anesthesia. To further verify these results, this study cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, which were then treated with aspartic acid (100 μmol/L). Results suggested that aspartic acid concentration in the hippocampus may be a biomarker for predicting the occurrence and disease progress of cognitive dysfunction.

  2. Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lisukov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, life‑threatening clonal hematological disorder caused by an acquired mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glucan (PIG-A gene. PNH is characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, thrombophilia and other severe clinical syndromes. Until recently, the treatment of PNH has been symptomatic with blood transfusions, anticoagulation and supplementation with folic acid or iron. The only potentially curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this has severe complications with high mortality rates. A new targeted treatment strategy is the inhibition of the terminal complement cascade with anti‑C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab. Eculizumab has shown significant efficacy in controlling of intravascular hemolysis resulting in improving quality of life and survival.

  3. Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lisukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, life‑threatening clonal hematological disorder caused by an acquired mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glucan (PIG-A gene. PNH is characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, thrombophilia and other severe clinical syndromes. Until recently, the treatment of PNH has been symptomatic with blood transfusions, anticoagulation and supplementation with folic acid or iron. The only potentially curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this has severe complications with high mortality rates. A new targeted treatment strategy is the inhibition of the terminal complement cascade with anti‑C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab. Eculizumab has shown significant efficacy in controlling of intravascular hemolysis resulting in improving quality of life and survival.

  4. The effects of adenotonsillotomy on nocturnal enuresis in snoring children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kostrzewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem in the paediatric population. A number of reports indicate that there is a relationship between sleep-disordered breathing in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and nocturnal enuresis. Restoration of nasopharyngeal patency may eliminate nocturnal enuresis. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of nocturnal enuresis in children snoring due to nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy as well as to assess the effects of restored upper respiratory patency by means of adenectomy and tonsillectomy on the resolution of nocturnal enuresis in children. Material and methods: The study included 50 children with sleep-disordered breathing qualified for adenectomy, tonsillotomy or adenotonsillotomy (median age 7 years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children (median age 8 years. Children in the study group were assessed prior to surgical procedure as well as 3 and 6 months after surgery. The presence of sleep-disordered breathing and nocturnal enuresis was determined based on author’s questionnaire completed by parents. Results: The incidence of nocturnal enuresis in children with nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy was 18% (M:F 17%:19%; p > 0.05. Nocturnal enuresis was still reported in 6% of children 3 months after tonsillotomy. The disorder resolved in all girls and 97% of boys 6 months after procedure. Conclusions: Sleep-disordered breathing in children with nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy is associated with nocturnal enuresis. Restoration of nasopharyngeal patency in these patients eliminates nocturnal enuresis. Tonsillar hypertrophy causing obstructive breathing should be included in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis.

  5. Analysis of nocturia with 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration: concept for effective treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Yukihiro; Nakao, Masahiro; Honjo, Hisashi; Ukimura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2011-03-01

    • To determine the relationship between the number of nocturia and 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration as well as to assess the significance of these factors with respect to eliminating nocturnal voidings in individual patients with nocturia. • Among 532 participants who completed a 3-day bladder diary between April 2005 and December 2006, the diaries of 450 participants without 24-h polyuria were analyzed. • Clinical variables such as the number of daytime and night-time voids, 24-h urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, daytime and night-time maximum voided volumes (MVV), night/day MVV ratio, sleep duration and proportion of night/day urine production rates were obtained from each diary. • Participants were classified into eight groups according to values of three factors: nocturnal MVV, proportion of night/day urine production rates and length of sleep duration. • Each group was divided into three subgroups: non-nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is zero), mild nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is one) and severe nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is two or more). • The data from non-nocturics with three normal factors were regarded as the normal control and compared with the variables of the other subgroups using Dunnett's method. • Variables that form the basis of classifying participants into eight groups and corresponding to abnormal factors of each group were statistically significant in all the subgroups of each group. • Furthermore, a significantly increased 24-h urine volume was found in severe nocturics of the group with three normal factors. • A significantly decreased 24-h urine volume was found in non-nocturics of groups with nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity and both long sleep duration and nocturnal polyuria. • A significantly increased nocturnal MVV and night/day MVV ratio were shown in non-nocturics and mild nocturics of the groups

  6. Nocturnal bees are attracted by widespread floral scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Airton Torres; Maia, Artur Campos Dalia; Ojima, Poliana Yumi; dos Santos, Adauto A; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2012-03-01

    Flower localization in darkness is a challenging task for nocturnal pollinators. Floral scents often play a crucial role in guiding them towards their hosts. Using common volatile compounds of floral scents, we trapped female nocturnal Megalopta-bees (Halictidae), thus uncovering olfactory cues involved in their search for floral resources. Applying a new sampling method hereby described, we offer novel perspectives on the investigation of nocturnal bees.

  7. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochen Stutz

    2005-05-24

    Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude

  8. Pathophysiology of nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms in older patients with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Petrovic, Mirko; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-01

    To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output. The median age (n = 95) was 74 years (69-79), 87% were women and 73% had nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms (nocturnal urinary incontinence or nocturia ≥2). Participants with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms had a significantly higher nocturnal urine output (809 mL vs 650 mL; P = 0.001) and no significant difference in maximum voided volume (350 mL vs 437 mL; P = 0.079) compared with participants without nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants (nocturnal polyuria index >33% [n = 56], nocturnal polyuria index >40% [n = 42], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index >1.87 [n = 51]) showed higher night-time diuresis rates, free water and sodium clearance compared with during the daytime. Controls (nocturnal polyuria index ≤33% [n = 26], nocturnal polyuria index ≤40% [n = 40], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index ≤1.87 [n = 44]) had no circadian rhythm in their diuresis rate or sodium clearance, but more nocturnal free water clearance compared with during the daytime. The majority of older adults with urinary incontinence present nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. An increased nocturnal sodium diuresis seems to be the only mechanism differentiating patients with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms from controls. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. A system dynamics model integrating physiology and biochemical regulation predicts extent of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard

    2013-12-01

    A system dynamics (SD) approach was taken to model crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression from measured biochemical and physiological constants. SD emphasizes state-dependent feedback interaction to describe the emergent properties of a complex system. These mechanisms maintain biological systems with homeostatic limits on a temporal basis. Previous empirical studies on CAM have correlated biological constants (e.g. enzyme kinetic parameters) with expression over the CAM diel cycle. The SD model integrates these constants within the architecture of the CAM 'system'. This allowed quantitative causal connections to be established between biological inputs and the four distinct phases of CAM delineated by gas exchange and malic acid accumulation traits. Regulation at flow junctions (e.g. stomatal and mesophyll conductance, and malic acid transport across the tonoplast) that are subject to feedback control (e.g. stomatal aperture, malic acid inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and enzyme kinetics) was simulated. Simulated expression for the leaf-succulent Kalanchoë daigremontiana and more succulent tissues of Agave tequilana showed strong correlation with measured gas exchange and malic acid accumulation (R(2)  = 0.912 and 0.937, respectively, for K. daigremontiana and R(2)  = 0.928 and 0.942, respectively, for A. tequilana). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantitatively identify determinants of diel CO2 uptake. The transition in CAM expression from low to high volume/area tissues (elimination of phase II-IV carbon-uptake signatures) was achieved largely by the manipulation three input parameters. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Overexpression of malic enzyme (ME) of Mucor circinelloides improved lipid accumulation in engineered Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Sun, Hanxiao; Mo, Xuemei; Li, Xiuying; Xu, Bo; Tian, Peng

    2013-06-01

    The oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis has been known to be a potential feedstock for lipid production. In the present study, we investigated the enhancement of expression of malic enzyme (ME; NADP(+) dependent; EC 1.1.1.40) from Mucor circinelloides as a strategy to improve lipid content inside the yeast cells. The 26S rDNA and 5.8S rDNA gene fragments isolated from Rhodotorula glutinis were used for homologous integration of ME gene into R. glutinis chromosome under the control of the constitutively highly expressed gene phosphoglycerate kinase 1 to achieve stable expression. We demonstrated that by increasing the expression of the foreign ME gene in R. glutinis, we successfully improved the lipid content by more than twofold. At the end of lipid accumulation phrase (96 h) in the transformants, activity of ME was increased by twofold and lipid content of the yeast cells was increased from 18.74 % of the biomass to 39.35 %. Simultaneously, there were no significant differences in fatty acid profiles between the wild-type strain and the recombinant strain. Over 94 % of total fatty acids were C16:0, C18:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2. Our results indicated that heterologous expression of NADP(+)-dependent ME involved in fatty acid biosynthesis indeed increased the lipid accumulation in the oleaginous yeast R. glutinis.

  11. Effect of curd freezing and packaging methods on the organic acid contents of goat cheeses during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Balkir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of freezing and packaging methods on organic acid content of goat cheese during 12 weeks of storage were determined. Goat cheese milk curds were divided into two batches; one of the batches was directly processed in to goat cheese while the other was frozen at -18 °C and stored for six months and processed into cheese after being thawed. Cheese samples were packed in three parts and stored at 4 °C refrigerated control sample and at -18 °C for six months frozen experimental samples. Cheese samples were packed in three different packaging methods: aerobic, vacuum or modified atmosphere. Citric, malic, fumaric, acetic, lactic, pyruvic and propionic acids were analyzed using HPLC method after 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week of storage period. Lactic acid was the main organic acids while pyruvic acid had the lowest content in all cheese samples. Citric and fumaric acid levels of frozen samples increased during storage whereas malic, acetic, pyruvic and propionic acid amounts were decreased compared to the beginning of storage. Packaging methods and freezing process also effected lactic acid levels statistically (p<0.05. Fumaric, acetic and lactic acid concentration of refrigerated samples were increased but citric, malic and propionic acids decreased during storage. Pyruvic acid level did not change significantly. It was determined that organic acid concentrations were effected by freezing process, storage time and packaging methods significantly (p<0.05.

  12. Continuous high and low temperature induced a decrease of photosynthetic activity and changes in the diurnal fluctuations of organic acids in Opuntia streptacantha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Zarely Ojeda-Pérez

    Full Text Available Opuntia plants grow naturally in areas where temperatures are extreme and highly variable in the day during the entire year. These plants survive through different adaptations to respond to adverse environmental conditions. Despite this capability, it is unknown how CAM photosynthetic activity and growth in Opuntia plantlets is affected by constant heat or cold. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the short-term effect of high (40°C and low (4°C continuous temperatures on the photosynthetic efficiency, the organic acid content (malic acid and the relative growth rate (RGR in seven-month-old Opuntia streptacantha plantlets during 5, 10, and 15 days. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis allowed us to determine that high temperatures negatively impact the photosynthetic efficiency of O. streptacantha plantlets, which exhibited the lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm = 52%, Fv/F0 = 85%, operational quantum yield of PS (ΦPSII = 65% and relative electron transport rate (rETR = 65%, as well as highest values of basal fluorescence (F0 = 226% during 15 days of treatment. Similarly, low temperatures decreased Fv/Fm (16%, Fv/F0 (50%, ΦPSII and rETR (16%. High temperatures also decreased nocturnal acidification in approximately 34-50%, whereas low temperatures increased it by 30-36%. Additionally, both continuous temperatures affected drastically diurnal consumption of malic acid, which was related to a significant RGR inhibition, where the specific photosynthetic structure area component was the most affected. Our results allowed determining that, despite the high tolerance to extreme temperatures described for Opuntia plants, young individuals of O. streptacantha suffered photosynthetic impairment that led to the inhibition of their growth. Thus, the main findings reported in this study can help to predict the potential impact of climatic change on the establishment and survival of succulent

  13. Nocturnal Eating: Association with Binge Eating, Obesity, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Harvey, Kate; DeBar, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical correlates of nocturnal eating, a core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome. Method Data from 285 women who had participated in a two-stage screening for binge eating were utilized. Women (n = 41) who reported one or more nocturnal eating episodes in the past 28 days on the Eating Disorder Examination and women who did not report nocturnal eating (n =244) were compared on eating disorder symptomatology, Body Mass Index (BMI), and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Results Nocturnal eaters were significantly more likely to report binge eating and differed significantly from non-nocturnal eaters (with responses indicating greater disturbance) on weight and shape concern, eating concern, self-esteem, depression, and functional impairment, but not on BMI or dietary restraint. Group differences remained significant in analyses adjusting for binge eating. Conclusions This study confirms the association between nocturnal eating and binge eating previously found in treatment seeking samples yet also suggests that the elevated eating disorder symptoms and decreased psychosocial adjustment observed in nocturnal eaters is not simply a function of binge eating. PMID:19708071

  14. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Determination of organic acids evolution during apple cider fermentation using an improved HPLC analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, F.; Ji, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient method for analyzing ten organic acids in food, namely citric, pyruvic, malic, lactic, succinic, formic, acetic, adipic, propionic and butyric acids, using HPLC was developed. Boric acid was added into the mobile phase to separate lactic and succinic acids, and a post-column buffer

  16. A nocturnal decline of salivary pH associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Kurai, Jun; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Igishi, Tadashi; Okazaki, Ryota; Tohda, Yuji; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Salivary pH is associated with esophageal acid reflux and neutralization ofesophageal acid. In this study, we assessed the association between nocturnal decline ofsalivary pH and airway hyperresponsiveness. Salivary pH was serially assessed in 9 patientswith mild asthma (7 men and 2 women ;mean age 33.3 years ;mean %predictedFEV1.0 89.4%) and 10 healthy volunteers (6 men and 4 women ; mean age 31.2 years) usinga pH indicator tape. The buffering capacity of saliva was defined as the median eff...

  17. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on photo-degradation of phenanthrene catalyzed by Fe(III)-smectite under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Chen, Hongxia; Nulaji, Gulimire; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-11-01

    The photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is potentially an important process for its transformation and fate on contaminated soil surfaces. In this study, phenanthrene is employed as a model to explore PAH photodegradation with the assistance of Fe(III)-smectite under visible-light while focusing on roles played by five low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), i.e., malic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid. Our results show that oxalic acid is most effective in promoting the photodegradation of phenanthrene, while only a slight increase in the rate of phenanthrene photodegradation is observed in the presence of malic acid. Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments confirm the formation of CO2(-) radicals in the presence of malic and oxalic acid, which provides strong evidence for generating OH and subsequent photoreaction pathways. The presence of EDTA or nitrilotriacetic acid significantly inhibits both Fe(II) formation and phenanthrene photodegradation because these organic anions tend to chelate with Fe(III), leading to decreases in the electron-accepting potential of Fe(III)-smectite and a weakened interaction between phenanthrene and Fe(III)-smectite. These observations provide valuable insights into the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and demonstrate the potential for using some LMWOAs as additives for the remediation of contaminated soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Fujii, Akihito; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2003-11-01

    To examine the relationship between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux. Controlled descriptive study and double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' home. Ten patients with bruxism and 10 normal subjects were matched for height, weight, age, and sex. They did not have symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Medication with a proton pump inhibitor (ie, a gastric-acid-inhibiting drug). The bruxism group showed a significantly higher frequency of nocturnal rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes (mean +/- SD: 6.7 +/- 2.2 times per hour) and a higher frequency and percentage of time of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 4.0 and 5.0 (0.5 +/- 0.9 and 3.6 +/- 1.6 times per hour and 1.3% +/- 2.5% and 7.4% +/- 12.6%, respectively) than the control group (RMMA episodes: 2.4 +/- 0.9 times per hour; gastroesophageal reflux episodes: 0.0 +/- 0.0 and 0.1 +/- 0.3 times per hour and 0.0% +/- 0.0% and 0.0% +/- 0.0%, respectively). In the bruxism group, 100% of the gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 3.0 and 4.0 included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst, the duration of which was approximately 0.5 to 1.0 seconds, probably representing swallowing of saliva. The majority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 also included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst in the control and bruxism groups (100% +/- 0.0% vs 70.7% +/- 16.5%), again probably due to swallowing of saliva. The remaining minority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 contained only an electromyographic burst (swallowing of saliva). The frequency of RMMA episodes after the release of the medication from the proton pump inhibitor, which increased the gastric and esophageal pH, was significantly lower than that after administration of the placebo in the control

  19. Iatrogenic nocturnal eneuresis- an overlooked side effect of anti histamines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Italiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal enuresis is a common disorder in childhood, but its pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Iatrogenic nocturnal enuresis has been described following treatment with several psychotropic medications. Herein, we describe a 6-year-old child who experienced nocturnal enuresis during treatment with the antihistamine cetirizine. Drug rechallenge was positive. Several neurotransmitters are implicated in the pathogenesis of nocturnal enuresis, including noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. Antihistamine treatment may provoke functional imbalance of these pathways resulting in incontinence.

  20. The determination of vitamin C, organic acids, phenolic compounds concentration of Red and Golden delicious apple grown in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Falahi

    2013-08-01

    Results: Ascorbic acid concentrations in Red and Golden delicious apples were 9.49 and 9.09 mg and 9.29 mg in total per 100 grams. Malic acid concentrations in Red and Golden delicious apples were 0.26 and 0.27 and citric acid concentrations in Red and Golden delicious apples were 0.28 mg per 100 grams in both cultivars. Acidity of Red delicious was 4 and Golden delicious was about 3.7. The acidity of Red delicious was higher than the Golden one. α-farensene was the most phenolic compound in both cultivars. Conclusion: Finally, apple cultivars grown in Lorestan have 3 times more ascorbic acid than the amount which mentioned in Iranian Food Consumption Table. There were no significant relation about malic and citric acid in both cultivars.

  1. A thermostable Salmonella phage endolysin, Lys68, with broad bactericidal properties against gram-negative pathogens in presence of weak acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resistance rates are increasing among several problematic Gram-negative pathogens, a fact that has encouraged the development of new antimicrobial agents. This paper characterizes a Salmonella phage endolysin (Lys68 and demonstrates its potential antimicrobial effectiveness when combined with organic acids towards Gram-negative pathogens. Biochemical characterization reveals that Lys68 is more active at pH 7.0, maintaining 76.7% of its activity when stored at 4°C for two months. Thermostability tests showed that Lys68 is only completely inactivated upon exposure to 100°C for 30 min, and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated the ability to refold into its original conformation upon thermal denaturation. It was shown that Lys68 is able to lyse a wide panel of Gram-negative bacteria (13 different species in combination with the outer membrane permeabilizers EDTA, citric and malic acid. While the EDTA/Lys68 combination only inactivated Pseudomonas strains, the use of citric or malic acid broadened Lys68 antibacterial effect to other Gram-negative pathogens (lytic activity against 9 and 11 species, respectively. Particularly against Salmonella Typhimurium LT2, the combinatory effect of malic or citric acid with Lys68 led to approximately 3 to 5 log reductions in bacterial load/CFUs after 2 hours, respectively, and was also able to reduce stationary-phase cells and bacterial biofilms by approximately 1 log. The broad killing capacity of malic/citric acid-Lys68 is explained by the destabilization and major disruptions of the cell outer membrane integrity due to the acidity caused by the organic acids and a relatively high muralytic activity of Lys68 at low pH. Lys68 demonstrates good (thermostability properties that combined with different outer membrane permeabilizers, could become useful to combat Gram-negative pathogens in agricultural, food and medical industry.

  2. Uncovering co-expression gene network modules regulating fruit acidity in diverse apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-16

    Acidity is a major contributor to fruit quality. Several organic acids are present in apple fruit, but malic acid is predominant and determines fruit acidity. The trait is largely controlled by the Malic acid (Ma) locus, underpinning which Ma1 that putatively encodes a vacuolar aluminum-activated malate transporter1 (ALMT1)-like protein is a strong candidate gene. We hypothesize that fruit acidity is governed by a gene network in which Ma1 is key member. The goal of this study is to identify the gene network and the potential mechanisms through which the network operates. Guided by Ma1, we analyzed the transcriptomes of mature fruit of contrasting acidity from six apple accessions of genotype Ma_ (MaMa or Mama) and four of mama using RNA-seq and identified 1301 fruit acidity associated genes, among which 18 were most significant acidity genes (MSAGs). Network inferring using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed five co-expression gene network modules of significant (P acidity. Overall, this study provides important insight into the Ma1-mediated gene network controlling acidity in mature apple fruit of diverse genetic background.

  3. The activity and isoforms of NADP-malic enzyme in Nicotiana benthamiana plants under biotic stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová, V.; Jirásková, A.; Janošková, M.; Müller, Karel; Baťková, Petra; Synková, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi; Ryšlavá, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2007), s. 281-289 ISSN 0231-5882 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NADP * malic enzyme isoforms * Nicotiana benthamiana Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.286, year: 2007 http://www.gpb.sav.sk/2007-4.htm

  4. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for mixed nocturia with nocturnal polyuria and decreased nocturnal bladder capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jeong Gu; Park, Choal Hee; Paick, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Han, Deok Hyun; Park, Won Hee; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥ 18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥ 2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4 ± 44.1 to 220.3 ± 90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.

  5. Microencapsulated acids associated with essential oils and acid salts for piglets in the nursery phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Callegari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial blends of organic and inorganic acids combined with essential oils for piglets in the nursery phase. The formulations were administered as microcapsules or as acid salts. Ninety-six, Pen Ar Lan, barrow and female piglets, weaned at a body weight of 600 kg ± 12 kg and age of 23 days were subjected to four treatments. The animals were distributed in randomized blocks of three animals per pen and 8 replicates per treatment. The treatments consisted of four different diets: control (free of organic acids; acid and essential oil blends (fumaric acid 10,5%, malic acid 8.0%, essential oils; in microencapsulated form; microencapsulated acid blend (phosphoric acid 10%, citric acid 10%, malic acid 10%, fumaric acid 20%; in microencapsulated form; and acid salt blend (formic acid 40.5%, phosphoric acid 13.6%, propionic acid 4.9% and salts (23.2% calcium and 4.4% phosphorus available. The performance parameters, digestive transit time, weights of organs of the digestive tract, bacterial count of feces (Lactobacillus, E coli and Salmonella ssp and Clostridium, pH of the stomach and duodenal content did not differ between treatment groups (P > 005. All treatments containing organic acids exhibited positive effects on diarrhea control (P < 005. The cecal contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA were higher in piglets fed diets containing acids than in animals that received the control diet (P < 005, and blends containing essential oils improved the jejunum villus height compared with the control group. The use of diets containing acids improved diarrhea control and VFA production in the cecum, and specifically the diets containing microencapsulated acid blends required the lowest doses to be effective.

  6. Nocturnal enuresis in india: Are we diagnosing and managing correctly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem affecting school-aged children worldwide. Although it has significant impact on child's psychology, it is always under-recognized in India and considered as a condition which will outgrow with advancing age. Nocturnal enuresis classified as primary or secondary and monosymptomatic or nonmonosymptomatic. Factors that cause enuresis include genetic factors, bladder dysfunction, psychological factors, and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, leading to nocturnal polyuria. Diagnosis consists of detailed medical history, clinical examination, frequency-volume charts, and appropriate investigations. The frequency-volume chart or voiding diary helps in establishing diagnosis and tailoring therapy. The first step in treating nocturnal enuresis is to counsel the parents and the affected child about the condition and reassure them that it can be cured. One of the effective strategies to manage enuresis is alarm therapy, but currently, it is not easily available in India. Desmopressin has been used in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis for close to 50 years. It provides an effective and safe option for the management of nocturnal enuresis. This review covers the diagnosis and management of nocturnal enuresis and introduces the concept of “bedwetting clinics” in India, which should help clinicians in the thorough investigation of bedwetting cases.

  7. Circadian Rhythm of Glomerular Filtration and Solute Handling Related to Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossche, L; Raes, A; Hoebeke, P; De Bruyne, P; Vande Walle, J

    2016-01-01

    Although nocturnal polyuria in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis can largely be explained by the decreased nocturnal vasopressin secretion hypothesis, other circadian rhythms in the kidney also seem to have a role. We recently documented an absent day/night rhythm in a subgroup of desmopressin refractory cases. We explore the importance of abnormal circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration and tubular (sodium, potassium) parameters in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis. In this retrospective study of a tertiary enuresis population we collected data subsequent to a standardized screening (International Children's Continence Society questionnaire), 14-day diary for nocturnal enuresis and diuresis, and 24-hour concentration profile. The study population consisted of 139 children with nocturnal enuresis who were 5 years or older. Children with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were used as controls. There was a maintained circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium, osmotic excretion and diuresis rate in children with monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and there was no difference between the 2 groups. Secondary analysis revealed that in patients with nocturnal polyuria (with monosymptomatic or nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis) circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium and osmotic excretion, and diuresis rate was diminished in contrast to those without nocturnal polyuria (p Circadian rhythm of the kidney does not differ between patients with nonmonosymptomatic and monosymptomatic enuresis. However, the subgroup with enuresis and nocturnal polyuria has a diminished circadian rhythm of nocturnal diuresis, sodium excretion and glomerular filtration in contrast to children without nocturnal polyuria. This observation cannot be explained by the vasopressin theory alone. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nocturnal polyuria is related to absent circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guchtenaere, A; Vande Walle, C; Van Sintjan, P; Raes, A; Donckerwolcke, R; Van Laecke, E; Hoebeke, P; Vande Walle, J

    2007-12-01

    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is frequently associated with nocturnal polyuria and low urinary osmolality during the night. Initial studies found decreased vasopressin levels associated with low urinary osmolality overnight. Together with the documented desmopressin response, this was suggestive of a primary role for vasopressin in the pathogenesis of enuresis in the absence of bladder dysfunction. Recent studies no longer confirm this primary role of vasopressin. Other pathogenetic factors such as disordered renal sodium handling, hypercalciuria, increased prostaglandins and/or osmotic excretion might have a role. So far, little attention has been given to abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate. We evaluated the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and diuresis in children with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. We evaluated 15 children (9 boys) 9 to 14 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria resistant to desmopressin treatment. The control group consisted of 25 children (12 boys) 9 to 16 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Compared to the control population, children with nocturnal polyuria lost their circadian rhythm not only for diuresis and sodium excretion but also for glomerular filtration rate. Patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria lack a normal circadian rhythm for diuresis and sodium excretion, and the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate is absent. This absence of circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and/or sodium handling cannot be explained by a primary role of vasopressin, but rather by a disorder in circadian rhythm of renal glomerular and/or tubular functions.

  9. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I; Kamilar, Jason M; Kirk, E Christopher

    2012-12-22

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal 'bottleneck' in the early evolution of crown mammals.

  10. Contents of carboxylic acids and two phenolics and antioxidant activity of dried portuguese wild edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Barbara; Rangel, Joana; Valentão, Patrícia; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2006-11-01

    The organic acids and phenolics compositions of nine wild edible mushrooms species (Suillus bellini, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Suillus luteus, and Suillus granulatus) were determined by HPLC-UV and HPLC-DAD, respectively. The antioxidant potential of these species was also assessed by using the DPPH* scavenging assay. The results showed that all of the species presented a profile composed of at least five organic acids: oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, and fumaric acids. In a general way, the pair of malic plus quinic acids were the major compounds. Only very small amounts of two phenolic compounds were found in some of the analyzed species: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (in A. rubescens, R. cyanoxantha, and T. equestre) and quercetin (in S. luteus and S. granulatus). All of the species exhibited a concentration-dependent scavenging ability against DPPH*. T. rutilans revealed the highest antioxidant capacity.

  11. Effects of moderate and heavy endurance exercise on nocturnal HRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, E; Vesterinen, V; Rusko, H; Nummela, A

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on nocturnal autonomic modulation. Nocturnal R-R intervals were collected after a rest day, after a moderate endurance exercise and after a marathon run in ten healthy, physically active men. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed as a continuous four-hour period starting 30 min after going to bed for sleep. In relation to average nocturnal heart rate after rest day, increases to 109+/-6% and 130+/-11% of baseline were found after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Standard deviation of R-R intervals decreased to 90+/-9% and 64+/-10%, root-mean-square of differences between adjacent R-R intervals to 87+/-10% and 55+/-16%, and high frequency power to 77+/-19% and 34+/-19% of baseline after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Also nocturnal low frequency power decreased to 56+/-26% of baseline after the marathon. Changes in nocturnal heart rate and HRV suggest prolonged dose-response effects on autonomic modulation after exercises, which may give useful information on the extent of exercise-induced nocturnal autonomic modulation and disturbance to the homeostasis.

  12. Genes Encoding Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter II and their Association with Fruit Acidity in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiquan Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT was previously reported as a candidate for the locus controlling acidity in apple ( × Borkh.. In this study, we found that apple genes can be divided into three families and the gene belongs to the family. Duplication of genes in apple is related to the polyploid origin of the apple genome. Divergence in expression has occurred between the gene and its homologs in the family and only the gene is significantly associated with malic acid content. The locus consists of two alleles, and . resides in the tonoplast and its ectopic expression in yeast was found to increase the influx of malic acid into yeast cells significantly, suggesting it may function as a vacuolar malate channel. In contrast, encodes a truncated protein because of a single nucleotide substitution of G with A in the last exon. As this truncated protein resides within the cell membrane, it is deemed to be nonfunctional as a vacuolar malate channel. The frequency of the genotype is very low in apple cultivars but is high in wild relatives, which suggests that apple domestication may be accompanied by selection for the gene. In addition, variations in the malic acid content of mature fruits were also observed between accessions with the same genotype in the locus. This suggests that the gene is not the only genetic determinant of fruit acidity in apple.

  13. Vertical profiles of nitrous acid in the nocturnal urban atmosphere of Houston, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Wong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous acid (HONO often plays an important role in tropospheric photochemistry as a major precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH in early morning hours and potentially during the day. However, the processes leading to formation of HONO and its vertical distribution at night, which can have a considerable impact on daytime ozone formation, are currently poorly characterized by observations and models. Long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS measurements of HONO during the 2006 TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP, near downtown Houston, TX, show nocturnal vertical profiles of HONO, with mixing ratios of up to 2.2 ppb near the surface and below 100 ppt aloft. Three nighttime periods of HONO, NO2 and O3 observations during TRAMP were used to perform model simulations of vertical mixing ratio profiles. By adjusting vertical mixing and NOx emissions the modeled NO2 and O3 mixing ratios showed very good agreement with the observations.

    Using a simple conversion of NO2 to HONO on the ground, direct HONO emissions, as well as HONO loss at the ground and on aerosol, the observed HONO profiles were reproduced by the model for 1–2 and 7–8 September in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL. The unobserved increase of HONO to NO2 ratio (HONO/NO2 with altitude that was simulated by the initial model runs was found to be due to HONO uptake being too small on aerosol and too large on the ground. Refined model runs, with adjusted HONO uptake coefficients, showed much better agreement of HONO and HONO/NO2 for two typical nights, except during morning rush hour, when other HONO formation pathways are most likely active. One of the nights analyzed showed an increase of HONO mixing ratios together with decreasing NO2 mixing ratios that the model was unable to reproduce, most likely due to the impact of

  14. Nocturnal vision and landmark orientation in a tropical halictid bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Gislén, Anna; Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi; Wcislo, William T

    2004-08-10

    Some bees and wasps have evolved nocturnal behavior, presumably to exploit night-flowering plants or avoid predators. Like their day-active relatives, they have apposition compound eyes, a design usually found in diurnal insects. The insensitive optics of apposition eyes are not well suited for nocturnal vision. How well then do nocturnal bees and wasps see? What optical and neural adaptations have they evolved for nocturnal vision? We studied female tropical nocturnal sweat bees (Megalopta genalis) and discovered that they are able to learn landmarks around their nest entrance prior to nocturnal foraging trips and to use them to locate the nest upon return. The morphology and optics of the eye, and the physiological properties of the photoreceptors, have evolved to give Megalopta's eyes almost 30 times greater sensitivity to light than the eyes of diurnal worker honeybees, but this alone does not explain their nocturnal visual behavior. This implies that sensitivity is improved by a strategy of photon summation in time and in space, the latter of which requires the presence of specialized cells that laterally connect ommatidia into groups. First-order interneurons, with significantly wider lateral branching than those found in diurnal bees, have been identified in the first optic ganglion (the lamina ganglionaris) of Megalopta's optic lobe. We believe that these cells have the potential to mediate spatial summation. Despite the scarcity of photons, Megalopta is able to visually orient to landmarks at night in a dark forest understory, an ability permitted by unusually sensitive apposition eyes and neural photon summation.

  15. Selection of organic acid leaching reagent for recovery of zinc and manganese from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Amiliana, R. A.; Wulandari, P. T.; Ramadhan, I. T.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries are often used in electronic equipment that requires small quantities of power. The waste from these batteries contains valuable metals, such as zinc and manganese, that are needed in many industries and can pollute the environment if not treated properly. This paper concerns the recovery of zinc and manganese metals from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method and using organic acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. Three different organic acids, namely citric acid, malic acid and aspartic acid, were used as leaching reagents and compared with sulfuric acid as non-organic acid reagents that often used for leaching. The presence of hydrogen peroxide as manganese reducers was investigated for both organic and non-organic leaching reagents. The result showed that citric acid can recover 64.37% Zinc and 51.32% Manganese, while malic acid and aspartic acid could recover less than these. Hydrogen peroxide gave the significant effect for leaching manganese with non-organic acid, but not with organic acid.

  16. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  17. Temporal Relationships Between Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in Healthy Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Karen P; Hall, Martica H; Lee, Laisze; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Many adolescents do not achieve the recommended 9 hr of sleep per night and report daytime napping, perhaps because it makes up for short nocturnal sleep. This article tests temporal relationships between daytime naps and nighttime sleep as measured by actigraphy and diary among 236 healthy high school students during one school week. Mixed model analyses adjusted for age, race, and gender demonstrated that shorter actigraphy-assessed nocturnal sleep duration predicted longer napping (measured by actigraphy and diary) the next day. Napping (by actigraphy and diary) predicted shorter nocturnal sleep duration and worse sleep efficiency that night measured by actigraphy. Diary-reported napping also predicted poorer self-reported sleep quality that night. Frequent napping may interfere with nocturnal sleep during adolescence.

  18. Differences in ocular parameters between diurnal and nocturnal raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Horowitz, Igal; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Lublin, Avishai; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    To establish and compare normal ocular parameters between and within diurnal and nocturnal raptor groups. Eighty-eight ophthalmically normal raptors of six nocturnal and 11 diurnal species were studied. Tear production was measured using Schirmer tear test (STT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and applanation tonometry was conducted. Ultrasonographic measurements of axial length (AL), mediolateral axis (ML), vitreous body (VB), and pecten length (PL) were recorded, and conjunctival cultures were obtained. A weak correlation (R = 0.312, P = 0.006) was found between PRTT and STT. Tear production was significantly lower in nocturnal species (P raptors were positive for mycology or bacteriology, either on culture or PCR. The most common infectious agent isolated was Staphylococcus spp. Phenol red thread test and STT are both valid methods to measure tear production; however, a separate baseline must be determined for each species using these methods, as the results of one method cannot be extrapolated to the other. Due to significant differences observed within diurnal and nocturnal species, it appears that a more intricate division should be used when comparing these parameters for raptors, and the classification of diurnal or nocturnal holds little significance in the baseline of these data. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Nocturnal Hypertension: Neglected Issue in Comprehensive Hypertension Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Kristanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The body circardian rhythm affects blood pressure variability at day and night, therefore blood pressure at day and night might be different. Nocturnal hypertension is defined as increase of blood pressure >120/70mmHg at night, which is caused by disturbed circadian rhythm, and associated with higher cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events also mortality in hypertensive patients. Nocturnal hypertension and declining blood pressure pattern, can only be detected by continuous examination for 24 hours, also known as ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM. Chronotherapy, has become a strategy for managing the hypertensive nocturnal patients, by taking hypertensive medication at night to obtain normal blood pressure decrease in accordance with the normal circadian rhythm and, improving blood pressure control.

  20. Nocturnal, every-other-day, online haemodiafiltration: an effective therapeutic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Arias, Marta; Durán, Carlos E; Vera, Manel; Fontseré, Néstor; Azqueta, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Pérez, Nuria; Sentis, Alexis; Elena, Montserrat; Rodriguez, Néstor; Arcal, Carola; Bergadá, Eduardo; Cases, Aleix; Bedini, Jose Luis; Campistol, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have demonstrated excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of a longer (nocturnal) and more frequent (every-other-day) dialysis schedule with OL-HDF at the same or the highest convective volume. This prospective, in-centre crossover study was carried out in 26 patients, 18 males and 8 females, 49.2±14 years old, on 4-5 h thrice-weekly post-dilution OL-HDF, switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Patient inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good vascular access and with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A received the same convective volume as previously for 6 months followed by a higher convective volume for a further 6 months, while Group B received the same schedule in reverse order. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients who were working during the baseline period continued to work throughout the study with practically no absenteeism. The convective volume was 26.7±2 L at baseline, 27.5±2 with the unchanged volume and 42.9±4 L with the higher volume. eKt/V increased from 1.75±0.4 to 3.37±0.9. Bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values decreased, while phosphate levels fell markedly with a 90% reduction in phosphate binders. Blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) improved and the use of anti-hypertensive drugs decreased. In both groups, BUN, creatinine and β2-microglobulin reduction ratios improved. Different removal patterns were observed for myoglobin, prolactin and α1-acid glycoprotein. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since good tolerance and occupational rehabilitation, marked improvement in dialysis dose

  1. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  2. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A.; Erny, G.L.; Barros, A.S.; Esteves, V.I.; Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A.; Cabrita, E.; Gil, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  3. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Erny, G.L. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNAA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esteves, V.I. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Cabrita, E. [Department of Chemistry, New University of Lisbon, 2825-114 Caparica (Portugal); Gil, A.M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-08-03

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  4. Survival with Three-Times Weekly In-Center Nocturnal Versus Conventional Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianglin; Suri, Rita S.; Nesrallah, Gihad; Lindsay, Robert; Garg, Amit X.; Lester, Keith; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the duration of hemodialysis treatments improves outcomes remains controversial. Here, we evaluated survival and clinical changes associated with converting from conventional hemodialysis (mean=3.75 h/treatment) to in-center nocturnal hemodialysis (mean=7.85 h/treatment). All 959 consecutive patients who initiated nocturnal hemodialysis for the first time in 77 Fresenius Medical Care facilities during 2006 and 2007 were eligible. We used Cox models to compare risk for mortality during 2 years of follow-up in a 1:3 propensity score–matched cohort of 746 nocturnal and 2062 control patients on conventional hemodialysis. Two-year mortality was 19% among nocturnal hemodialysis patients compared with 27% among conventional patients. Nocturnal hemodialysis associated with a 25% reduction in the risk for death after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dialysis vintage (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% confidence interval=0.61–0.91, P=0.004). With respect to clinical features, interdialytic weight gain, albumin, hemoglobin, dialysis dose, and calcium increased on nocturnal therapy, whereas postdialysis weight, predialysis systolic blood pressure, ultrafiltration rate, phosphorus, and white blood cell count declined (all P<0.001). In summary, notwithstanding the possibility of residual selection bias, conversion to treatment with nocturnal hemodialysis associates with favorable clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and improved survival compared with propensity score–matched controls. The potential impact of extended treatment time on clinical outcomes while maintaining a three times per week hemodialysis schedule requires evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:22362905

  5. Desmopressin (melt) therapy in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria results in improved neuropsychological functioning and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne P; Raes, Ann; Hoebeke, Piet; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Vande Walle, Johan

    2016-09-01

    There is a high comorbidity between nocturnal enuresis, sleep disorders and psychological problems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a decrease in nocturnal diuresis volume not only improves enuresis but also ameliorates disrupted sleep and (neuro)psychological dysfunction, the major comorbidities of this disorder. In this open-label, prospective phase IV study, 30 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) underwent standardized video-polysomnographic testing and multi-informant (neuro)psychological testing at baseline and 6 months after the start of desmopressin treatment in the University Hospital Ghent, Belgium. Primary endpoints were the effect on sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning. The secondary endpoint was the change in the first undisturbed sleep period or the time to the first void. Thirty children aged between 6 and 16 (mean 10.43, standard deviation 3.08) years completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and a prolonged first undisturbed sleep period. Additionally, (neuro)psychological functioning was improved on several domains. The study demonstrates that the degree of comorbidity symptoms is at least aggravated by enuresis (and/or high nocturnal diuresis rate) since sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning were significantly ameliorated by treatment of enuresis. These results indicate that enuresis is not such a benign condition as has previously been assumed.

  6. Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana; Irigoien, Xabier; Genton, Marc G.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-01-01

    © Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.

  7. Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, PK

    2016-01-18

    © Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.

  8. [Nocturnal polyuria, treatment with desmopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachoval, R; Krhut, J; Šottner, O; Hanuš, T; Martan, A; Horčička, L; Feyereisl, J; Halaška, M; Švabík, K; Krofta, L

    2013-08-01

    Nonpharmacologic and especially pharmacologic treatment options are available for nocturnal polyuria. Desmopressin represents the basis of pharmacologic treatment. Desmopressin acetate is a synthetic analogue of arginine vasopressin with high affinity to V2 receptors with antidiuretic effect. It is the only medicament currently registered for antidiuretic treatment. Desmopressin has not any relevant affinity to V1 receptors, and therefore there is no hypertensive effect in contrary to natural vasopressin. Desmopressin use before a bedtime leads to reduced production of urine during a sleep, therefore time between desires to void is prolonged and number of nocturia is reduced. Clinical effect, in a meaning of reduced urine production and increased osmolality of urine, lasts approximately 8-12 hours. In the treatment of nocturnal polyuria desmopressin is used orally one hour before a bedtime. It is essential to titrate an ideal dose, the initial dose is 60 µg of MELT formula (fast melting oral formulation) and it can be increased according to the clinical effect up to the maximal recommended daily dose 240 µg. Patients treated with desmopressin should cut down a fluid intake 1 hour before and 8 hours after the use of desmopressin. Total number of adverse events connected withdesmopressin treatment in clinical studies was higher compared to placebo but the side effects were mostly mild. The most common adverse events were headaches, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dry mouth and hyponatremia both in the short-term and long-term clinical trials. Hyponatremia was observed mainly in patients over 65 year of age. Therefore treatment with desmopressin should not be commended in patients over 65 year of age without close monitoring of the natrium level in serum and all patients should be informed about the first symptoms of hyponatremia - headache, nausea and insomnia. According to Evidence Based Medicine, the level of evidence for treatment of nocturnal polyuria with

  9. Visual reliability and information rate in the retina of a nocturnal bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2008-03-11

    Nocturnal animals relying on vision typically have eyes that are optically and morphologically adapted for both increased sensitivity and greater information capacity in dim light. Here, we investigate whether adaptations for increased sensitivity also are found in their photoreceptors by using closely related and fast-flying nocturnal and diurnal bees as model animals. The nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis is capable of foraging and homing by using visually discriminated landmarks at starlight intensities. Megalopta's near relative, Lasioglossum leucozonium, performs these tasks only in bright sunshine. By recording intracellular responses to Gaussian white-noise stimuli, we show that photoreceptors in Megalopta actually code less information at most light levels than those in Lasioglossum. However, as in several other nocturnal arthropods, Megalopta's photoreceptors possess a much greater gain of transduction, indicating that nocturnal photoreceptors trade information capacity for sensitivity. By sacrificing photoreceptor signal-to-noise ratio and information capacity in dim light for an increased gain and, thus, an increased sensitivity, this strategy can benefit nocturnal insects that use neural summation to improve visual reliability at night.

  10. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  11. Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.

  12. Nocturnal asthma in school children of south punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, G.; Khan, P.A.; Iqbal, I.

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)

  13. Immobilization of malate dehydrogenase on carbon nanotubes for development of malate biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhal, A; Rana, J S; Kumar, S; Kumar, A

    2012-12-22

    An amperometric malic acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing malate dehydrogenase on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) coated on screen printed carbon electrode. The screen printed carbon electrode is made up of three electrodes viz., carbon as working, platinum as counter and silver as reference electrode. Detection of L-malic acid concentration provides important information about the ripening and shelf life of the fruits. The NADP specific malate dehydrogenase was immobilized on carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes using cross linker EDC [1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide] on screen printed carbon electrode. An amperometric current was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) which increases with increasing concentrations of malic acid at fixed concentration of NADP. Enzyme electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The detection limit of malic acid by the sensor was 60 - 120 μM and sensitivity of the sensor was 60 μM with a response time of 60s. The usual detection methods of malic acid are nonspecific, time consuming and less sensitive. However, an amperometric malic acid nanosensor is quick, specific and more sensitive for detection of malic acid in test samples.

  14. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  15. Nocturnal motor activity in fibromyalgia patients with poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E

    1995-01-01

    Nocturnal motor activity was examined in long-term rehabilitation patients complaining of poor sleep and having fibromyalgia syndrome (N = 24) or other musculoskeletal disorders (N = 60) and compared with that in 91 healthy controls drawn from a random community sample. Self-reports on sleep complaints and habits were collected. The frequency of nocturnal body movements, the "apnoea" index and ratio of "quiet sleep" to total time in bed were measured using the Static Charge Sensitive Bed (SCSB) (BioMatt). As a group, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome did not differ from patients with other musculoskeletal disorders or from healthy controls in their nocturnal motor activity. The "apnoea" index was a little higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the healthy control group but did not differ from that of the group of other musculoskeletal patients. Further multivariate analyses adjusted for age, BMI, medication and "apnoea" index did not support the assumption that an increased nocturnal motor activity characterizes patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  16. Hearing is not necessarily believing in nocturnal anurans

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Christina; Gomez, Doris; Durieux, Romain; Théry, Marc; Joly, Pierre; Léna, Jean-Paul; Plénet, Sandrine; Lengagne, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the use of visual cues for mate choice by nocturnal acoustic species raises the important, and to date unaddressed, question of how these signals affect the outcome of mate choice predicted by female preference for male calls. In order to address this question, we presented female Hyla arborea tree frogs with a series of choices between combinations of acoustic and visual cues of varying quality in nocturnal conditions. While females exhibited the expected preference f...

  17. Nematicidal Activity of Kojic Acid Produced by Aspergillus oryzae against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yoon; Jang, Ja Yeong; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Lee, Hye Won; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Yeo, Joo Hong; Lee, Hyang Burm; Kim, In Seon; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The fungal strain EML-DML3PNa1 isolated from leaf of white dogwood (Cornus alba L.) showed strong nematicidal activity with juvenile mortality of 87.6% at a concentration of 20% fermentation broth filtrate at 3 days after treatment. The active fungal strain was identified as Aspergillus oryzae, which belongs to section Flavi, based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the ITS rDNA, calmodulin (CaM), and β-tubulin (BenA) genes. The strain reduced the pH value to 5.62 after 7 days of incubation. Organic acid analysis revealed the presence of citric acid (515.0 mg/kg), malic acid (506.6 mg/kg), and fumaric acid (21.7 mg/kg). The three organic acids showed moderate nematicidal activities, but the mixture of citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid did not exhibit the full nematicidal activity of the culture filtrate of EML- DML3PNa1. Bioassay-guided fractionation coupled with (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and EI-MS analyses led to identification of kojic acid as the major nematicidal metabolite. Kojic acid exhibited dose-dependent mortality and inhibited the hatchability of M. incognita, showing EC50 values of 195.2 µg/ml and 238.3 µg/ml, respectively, at 72 h postexposure. These results suggest that A. oryzae EML-DML3PNa1 and kojic acid have potential as a biological control agent against M. incognita.

  18. Does the Age of Donor Kidneys Affect Nocturnal Polyuria in Patients With Successful Real Transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, T; Morita, K; Iwami, D; Kitta, T; Kanno, Y; Moriya, K; Takeda, M; Shinohara, N

    We investigated whether the age of donor kidneys influences the incidence of nocturnal polyuria in patients with successful renal transplantation (RTX). Eighty-five patients (45 men and 40 women) undergoing RTX (median age, 47 years) were included in this study. Twenty-four-hour bladder diaries were kept for 3 days, and nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal polyuria index (nocturnal urine volume/24-hour urine volume) of >0.33. Risk factors for nocturnal polyuria were analyzed in patients with RTX by means of the Mann-Whitney U test, χ 2 test, and a logistic regression analysis. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) developed from diabetes mellitus in 16 patients (19%). Sixty-five patients (76%) received pre-transplant dialysis, with a median duration of 5 years. The median serum creatinine level and body mass index at the most recent visit were 1.2 mg/dL and 21.2 kg/m 2 , respectively. On the basis of the 24-hour bladder diaries, nocturnal polyuria was identified in 48 patients (56%). A logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus as the original disease for ESRD was the only risk factor for nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio, 8.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-65.3; P = .0028). The age of donor kidneys at examination did not affect the incidence of nocturnal polyuria (P = .9402). Nocturnal polyuria was not uncommon in patients with successful RTX. Diabetes mellitus as the original disease for ESRD was the only risk factor for nocturnal polyuria, whereas the age of donor kidneys at examination did not affect the incidence of nocturnal polyuria. Thus, nocturnal polyuria is caused by recipient factors but not donor factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein haze formation in wines revisited. The stabilising effect of organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, L.; Monteiro, L.; Loureiro, V.; Teixeira, A.R.; Ferreira, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    The effect on the wine protein haze potential of five organic acids commonly encountered in wines (L(+)- tartaric, L( )-malic, citric, succinic and gluconic acids) was assessed. All five acids, tested at 20 mM, reduced dramatically the haze potential of proteins, either in wine or dissolved in water, throughout the range of pH values typical of wines (i.e., from 2.8 through 3.8). Subtle differences among the acid effects did not correlate with the number of their carboxyl groups, ...

  20. Lateral diffusion of CO2 in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Heitor M; Jakovljevic, Ivona; Kaiser, Friedemann; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic patchiness of photosystem II (PSII) activity in leaves of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier, which was independent of stomatal control and was observed during both the day/night cycle and circadian endogenous oscillations of CAM, was previously explained by lateral CO2 diffusion and CO2 signalling in the leaves [Rascher et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11801-11805; Rascher and Luttge (2002) Plant Biol 4:671-681]. The aim here was to actually demonstrate the importance of lateral CO2 diffusion and its effects on localized PSII activity. Covering small sections of entire leaves with silicone grease was used for local exclusion of a contribution of atmospheric CO2 to internal CO2 via transport through stomata. A setup for combined measurement of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used for recording photosynthetic activity with a spatiotemporal resolution. When remobilization of malic acid from vacuolar storage and its decarboxylation in the CAM cycle caused increasing internal CO2 concentrations sustaining high PSII activity behind closed stomata, PSII activity was also increased in adjacent leaf sections where vacuolar malic acid accumulation was minimal as a result of preventing external CO2 supply due to leaf-surface greasing, and where therefore CO2 could only be supplied by diffusion from the neighbouring malic acid-remobilizing leaf tissue. This demonstrates lateral CO2 diffusion and its effect on local photosynthetic activity.

  1. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June C Lo

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1 and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2. Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68 than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15. While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.

  2. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.

  3. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information

  4. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  5. Distribution of 14C-activity among the organic acids in the Satsuma mandarin fruits fed with 14C-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shuji; Akao, Shoichiro; Hayashida, Michito.

    1978-01-01

    1. Twenty four hours after 14 CO 2 feeding to the leaves, malic acid had the highest level of total and specific radioactivity among the organic acids extracted from the juice vesicles, and citric acid had the second highest total activity. An unidentified acid compound had a relatively high activity. 2. Pyruvic acid-2- 14 C was fed as a substrate for acid formation to the one young fruit on a shoot, and NaH 14 CO 3 was fed as a source of carbon-dioxide to the other young fruit through the pedicel. After three hours of pyruvic acid feeding, malic acid, citric acid and aspartic acid were the major labelled compounds in the vesicles. Then, a marked increase and redistribution of activity in acids took place with time, and the levels of total and specific activity in citric acid increased steadily. The sorts of labelled compounds into which activity was incorporated from NaH 14 CO 3 were essentially similar to those in pyruvic acid-2- 14 C feeding. 3. These results seem to support the theory that the dark fixation of carbon-dioxide plays an important role in the synthesis of the organic acids in citrus fruit vesicles. (auth.)

  6. Nocturnal sleep pattern in native Brazilian Terena adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIMÃO RUBENS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Social-economic factors influence sleep habits. This research analyzes characteristics of nocturnal sleep in Brazilian Native Terena adults. Sixty-four adults (31 M; 33 F from 18 to 75 years, with a mean age of 37.0, from the Indian Reservation village of Córrego do Meio, in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, an agriculturally oriented group were evaluated. Nocturnal sleep characteristics were evaluated by means of a standard questionnaire applied to each individual. It was observed that reported nocturnal sleep was longer, sleep onset was earlier and wake up time was also earlier than usually described in urban populations. The mean total time in bed was 8.5 h or more, in every age bracket. The seven-day prevalence rate of insomnia was 4.6%, while the seven-day prevalence rate of hypnotic use was 1.5%, both remarkably less than described in urban populations. These findings stress the need to consider ethnic influences on sleep patterns and disorders.

  7. Technical advances in flow cytometry-based diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Rodolfo Patussi; Bento, Laiz Cameirão; Bortolucci, Ana Carolina Apelle; Alexandre, Anderson Marega; Vaz, Andressa da Costa; Schimidell, Daniela; Pedro, Eduardo de Carvalho; Perin, Fabricio Simões; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Mendes, Cláudio Ernesto Albers; Barroso, Rodrigo de Souza; Bacal, Nydia Strachman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. Methods: A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Results: Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection. Conclusion: High-sensitivity flow cytometry allowed more sensitive determination of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone type and size, particularly in samples with small clones. PMID:27759825

  8. Radiolytic degradation of sorbic acid in isolated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, B.R.; Trehan, I.R.; Arya, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of Co(60) gamma-irradiation on stability of sorbic acid (SA) in solutions, dough and chapaties has been investigated. SA was highly susceptible to radiolytic degradation in aqueous systems. Rate of degradation decreased with rise in pH. Sugars, hydrocolloids except pectin, citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, arginine and threonine, catalyzed degradation while oxalic acid, maleic acid, Cu2+, nitrite, nitrate and phthalate had protective effects. SA was more stable in alcohols and vegetable oils than in aqueous solutions. In wheat flour radiolytic degradation of SA was less at lower moisture. Relatively SA was more stable in chapaties than in dough. Gelatinization and addition of oil in dough reduced degradation of SA

  9. The co-pigmentation of anthocyanin isolated from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia Mangostana L.) as Natural Dye for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh, H.; adillah, G. F.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Hanif, Q. A.; Hidayat, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study of color stability of anthocyanin from extract mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) with co-pigmentation method has been conducted. Malic acid and ascorbic acid used as a co-pigment to stabilize the anthocyanin structure through formation of new binding between anthocyanin. Anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp were isolated by several steps, including maceration, extraction, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The anthocyanin separation was conducted by TLC, while the identification of functional groups of those compound, were used FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for spectra analysis. Ultraviolet- visible absorption spectra have represented differences absorbance and color intensity in various pH. Copigmentation with malic acid and ascorbic acid in many composition and temperature were also well described. Meanwhile, anthocyanin-malic acid and anthocyanin-ascorbic acid have color retention higher than that of pure anthocyanin. Maximum color retention has been achieved at a ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 for ascorbic acid and malic acid, respectively. Therefore, the addition of ascorbic acid and malic acid as a copigment shows the ability to protect color retention of anthocyanin (mangosteen pericarp) from degradation process. The better efficiency of DSSC (η) have been achieved, whereas n of controlled anthocyanin, anthocyanin-ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin-malic acid were 0,1996%, 0,2922%, 0,3029%, respectively.

  10. The relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the distribution of body fluid: assessment by bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimoto, Kazumasa; Hirayama, Akihide; Samma, Shoji; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Increased nocturnal urinary volume is closely associated with nocturia. We investigated the relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the variation of body fluid distribution during the daytime using bioelectric impedance analysis. A total of 34 men older than 60 years were enrolled in this study. A frequency volume chart was recorded. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal urine volume per 24-hour production of greater than 0.35 (the nocturnal polyuria index). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed 4 times daily at 8 and 11 a.m., and 5 and 9 p.m. using an InBody S20 body composition analyzer (BioSpace, Seoul, Korea). A significant difference was found in mean +/- SEM 24-hour urine production per fat-free mass between the groups with and without nocturnal polyuria (17.8 +/- 1.4 vs 7.7 +/- 0.9 ml/kg). The increase in fluid in the legs compared with the volume at 8 a.m. was significantly larger at 5 p.m., while there was no difference in the arms or trunk. Nocturnal urine volume significantly correlated with the difference in fluid volume in the legs (r = 0.527, p = 0.0019) and extracellular fluid volume (r = 0.3844, p = 0.0248) between the volumes at 8 a.m. and 9 p.m. Overproduction of urine per fat-free mass leads to nocturnal polyuria. Extracellular fluid accumulates as edema in the legs during the day in patients with nocturnal polyuria. The volume of accumulated extracellular fluid correlates with nocturnal urine volume. We suggest that leg edema is the source of nocturnal urine volume and decreasing edema may cure nocturnal polyuria.

  11. Pregnancy and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, J.; Pel, M.; von dem Borne, A.; van der Lelie, H.

    1994-01-01

    A patient is described who developed symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) in her first pregnancy. This was uneventful except for a spontaneous preterm delivery. The second pregnancy was complicated by severe anemia and a hemolytic crisis with Budd-Chiari syndrome at 31 weeks'

  12. Crassulacean acid metabolism, CO2-recycling, and tissue desiccation in the Mexican epiphyte Tillandsia schiedeana Steud (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Adams, W W

    1987-01-01

    After 23 days without water in a greenhouse, rates of nocturnal CO2 uptake in Tillandsia schiedeana decreased substantially and maximum rates occurred later in the dark period eventually coinciding with the onset of illumination. Nocturnal CO2 uptake accounted for less than half the total nighttime increase in acidity measured in well-watered plants. With increased tissue desiccation, only 11-12% of measured acid accumulation was attributable to atmospheric CO2 uptake. Plants desiccated for 30 days regained initial levels of nocturnal acid accumulation and CO2 uptake after rehydration for 10h. These results stress the importance of CO2 recycling via CAM in this epiphytic bromeliad, especially during droughts.

  13. Impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity: the SINERGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, José Luis; Bixquert, M; Maldonado, J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the SINERGE study was to assess the impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity. Ambulatory patients >/=18 years old and classified as defined cases of nocturnal heartburn (n=337), nonnocturnal heartburn (n=139), uncontrolled hypertension (n=198), and symptomatic depression (n=104) were included in this cross-sectional study. Information on age, gender, body mass index, and comorbidity was collected and the following validated questionnaires were applied: SF-12, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. The prevalence of primary care consultation for heartburn and nocturnal heartburn was 4.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Health-related quality of life, sleep, and productivity were significantly impaired in patients with frequent nocturnal heartburn symptoms as compared with those of the patients without nocturnal symptoms or patients with hypertension. Nocturnal heartburn poses a considerable burden for the sufferer because of the impact on quality of life, sleep, and daily activities.

  14. Automatisation en flux continu du dosage enzymatique de l'acide malique des vins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lonvaud-Funel

    1980-12-01

    The authors report a continuous flow technic for enzymatic analysis of malic acid in wines. In order to minimize the effect of interfering compounds, the NADH content is read at 570 nm. This method preserve the specificity and sensibility of the enzymatic manual assay.

  15. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dumas Cintra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart® system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001. After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample.

  16. Profiling of the Contents of Amino Acids, Water-Soluble Vitamins, Minerals, Sugars and Organic Acids in Turkish Hazelnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taş Neslihan Göncüoğlu

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition, profiles of amino acids, sugars, organic acids, vitamins and minerals of fourteen Turkish hazelnut varieties harvested in 2013 and 2014 were investigated. Glutamic acid, arginine and aspartic acid were the most predominant amino acids, representing of about 50% of hazelnut protein. Individual amino acid profiles showed significant differences depending upon the harvest year (p<0.05. Concentration of sucrose was the highest followed by fructose, glucose, stachyose, raffinose and myo-inositol, respectively. Phytic acid was predominant organic acid in all varieties, followed by malic acid. Independent of the variety, hazelnuts were rich in pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal, biotin, thiamine, nicotinamide. Pantothenic and nicotinic acid were significantly higher in most of the varieties in harvest year 2014. Potassium was the most predominant mineral, followed by magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron and copper, respectively.

  17. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  18. Diurnal and Nocturnal Pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAR, SALEEM; ARIZMENDI, Ma. del CORO; VALIENTE-BANUET, ALFONSO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. • Methods Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. • Key Results Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. • Conclusions Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. PMID:16394025

  19. Hydrolysis of aspartic acid phosphoramidate nucleotides: a comparative quantum chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielssens, Servaas; Tien Trung, Nguyen; Froeyen, Matheus; Herdewijn, Piet; Tho Nguyen, Minh; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2009-09-07

    L-Aspartic acid has recently been found to be a good leaving group during HIV reverse transcriptase catalyzed incorporation of deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP) in DNA. This showed that L-Asp is a good mimic for the pyrophosphate moiety of deoxyadenosine triphosphate. The present work explores the thermochemistry and mechanism for hydrolysis of several models for L-aspartic-dAMP using B3LYP/DGDZVP, MP2/6-311++G** and G3MP2 level of theory. The effect of the new compound is gradually investigated: starting from a simple methyl amine leaving group up to the aspartic acid leaving group. The enzymatic environment was mimicked by involving two Mg(2+) ions and some important active site residues in the reaction. All reactions are compared to the corresponding O-coupled leaving group, which is methanol for methyl amine and malic acid for aspartic acid. With methyl amine as a leaving group a tautomeric associative or tautomeric dissociative mechanism is preferred and the barrier is lower than the comparable mechanism with methanol as a leaving group. The calculations on the aspartic acid in the enzymatic environment show that qualitatively the mechanism is the same as for triphosphate but the barrier for hydrolysis by the associative mechanism is higher for L-aspartic-dAMP than for L-malic-dAMP and pyrophosphate.

  20. Effectiveness of Higher Fatty Acids C8, C10 and C12, Dimethyl Dicarbonate and Sulphur Dioxide for Inhibition of Re-fermentation and Malolactic Activities in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Baroň

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of preventing the re-fermentation and protection against undesirable malolactic fermentation (MLF in order to safe content of acids in wine is very complicated. In this paper the saturated higher fatty acids (HFA – C8, C10 and C12, dimethyldicarbonate (DMDC and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were tested. The re-fermentation test showed the strongest inhibition power at ratio 2:8, 1:9 and 0:10 as C8:C10 acids – 65 days without re-fermentation. MLF experiments confirmed that addition of SO2 into the fermenting media causes rapid inhibition of lactic acid bacteria metabolic activity. Malic acid concentrations were proportionally decreasing during 6 days of experiment and at the end the content of this acid varied between 0.16 and 0.22 g/L, the only exception formed a variant with the addition of SO2 (1.57 g/L of malic acid. After calculation of the average consumption rate of malic acid, the results showed the inhibition power – SO2 (81.05% followed by variant of 40 mg/L mixture of HFA (40.76%, a variant of 200 mg/L of DMDC (31.98% and a variant of 20 mg/L mixture of HFA (12.59%. The addition of HFA can significantly reduce the dosage of other preservatives, especially SO2. Based on results, this method can be recommend in the production of wines with residual sugar and also wines made from over-mature material to prevent undesirable MLF.

  1. Targeting nocturnal hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Niklas Blach; Knudsen, Søren Tang; Fleischer, Jesper; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Ebbehøj, Eva; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2014-11-01

    Several studies in different populations have suggested that nighttime blood pressure (BP) is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than daytime BP. Consequently, treatment strategies to target nighttime BP have come into focus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of change of administration time of antihypertensive drugs. We included 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nocturnal hypertension (nighttime systolic BP >120 mm Hg) in an open-label, crossover study. Patients were randomized to 8 weeks of either morning or bedtime administration of all of the individual's once-daily antihypertensive drugs, followed by 8 weeks of switched dosing regimen. Bedtime administration of antihypertensive drugs resulted in a significant reduction in nighttime (7.5 mm Hg; Pdiabetes mellitus and nocturnal hypertension, administration of once-daily antihypertensive drugs at bedtime may be favorable. The increased nocturnal natriuresis may reflect increased effect of bedtime-administered thiazides and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, suggesting a potential mechanism of the observed effects on BP with chronotherapeutic intervention. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Sensor-based evaluation and treatment of nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease: An evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Thanawattano, Chusak

    2016-01-01

    The manifestations of nocturnal movements in Parkinson's disease (PD) are protean, with major disabilities related to nocturnal hypokinesia. While it can be assessed by clinical interviews and screening instruments, these are often inaccurate and prone to recall bias. In light of advances in sensor technology, we explored the use of sensors in the study of nocturnal hypokinesia, by performing a systematic review of the professional literature on this topic. Evidence suggests that nocturnal hypokinesia exists even in patients in the early stages, and PD patients turned significantly less and with much slower speed and acceleration than controls, partly related to low nocturnal dopamine level. We conducted another systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the efficacy of dopaminergic agents in the treatment of nocturnal hypokinesia. Several lines of evidence support the use of long-acting drugs or by continuous administration of short-acting agents to control symptoms. Sensor parameters could be considered as one of the important objective outcomes in future clinical trials investigating potential drugs to treat nocturnal hypokinesia. Physicians should be aware of this technology as it can aid the clinical assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia and enhance the quality of patient care. In addition, the use of sensors currently is being considered for various aspects of research on early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Negligible penetration of incidental amounts of alpha-hydroxy acid from rinse-off personal care products in human skin using an in vitro static diffusion cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, M; Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Story, D C; Sakaguchi, H; Fautz, R; Fuchs, A

    2011-12-01

    Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs), primarily glycolic and lactic acids, are widely used in cosmetics to alleviate dyspigmentation, photodamage, and other aging skin conditions and as pH adjusters. Glycolic acid reportedly enhances skin damage after repeated ultraviolet light exposure, e.g., increased sunburn cell formation. This study assessed potential in vitro skin penetration of lactic acid and malic acid incorporated into rinse-off personal care products, compared with rinse-off and leave-on exposures to glycolic acid (10%, pH 3.5) in a reference lotion. Radiolabeled AHA-fortified shampoo, conditioner, and lotion were evenly applied as single doses to human epidermal membranes mounted in static diffusion cells (not occluded). Exposures were 1-3 min (rinse-off) or 24 h (leave-on). Epidermal penetration of malic acid and lactic acid from the rinse-off shampoo and conditioner, respectively, was negligible, with >99% removed by rinsing, a negligible portion remaining in the stratum corneum (≤0.15%), and even less penetrating into the viable epidermis (≤0.04%). Glycolic acid penetration from the leave-on reference lotion was 1.42 μg equiv./cm2/h, with total absorbable dose recovery (receptor fluid plus epidermis) of 2.51%, compared to 0.009%, 0.003%, and 0.04% for the rinse-off reference lotion, shampoo (malic acid), and conditioner (lactic acid) exposures, respectively. Dermal penetration of AHAs into human skin is pH-, concentration-, and time-dependent. Alpha-hydroxy acids in rinse-off shampoos and conditioners are almost entirely removed from the skin within minutes by rinsing (resulting in negligible epidermal penetration). This suggests that ultraviolet radiation-induced skin effects of AHA-containing rinse-off products are negligible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep Apnea and Circadian Extracellular Fluid Change as Independent Factors for Nocturnal Polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Akishita, Masahiro; Homma, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the relationships among nocturnal polyuria, sleep apnea and body fluid volume to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturia in sleep apnea syndrome. We enrolled 104 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography for suspected sleep apnea syndrome. Self-assessed symptom questionnaires were administered to evaluate sleep disorder and lower urinary tract symptoms, including nocturia. Voiding frequency and voided volume were recorded using a 24-hour frequency-volume chart. Body fluid composition was estimated in the morning and at night using bioelectric impedance analysis. Frequency-volume chart data were analyzed in 22 patients after continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Patients with nocturnal polyuria showed a higher apnea-hypopnea index (33.9 vs 24.2, p = 0.03) and a larger circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (0.22 vs -0.19, p = 0.019) than those without nocturnal polyuria. These relations were more evident in patients 65 years old or older than in those 64 years or younger. A multivariate linear regression model showed an independent relationship of nocturnal polyuria with the apnea-hypopnea index and the circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (p = 0.0012 and 0.022, respectively). Continuous positive airway pressure therapy significantly improved nocturnal polyuria and nocturia only in patients with nocturnal polyuria. This study identified sleep apnea and the circadian change in extracellular fluid as independent factors for nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nocturnal thoracoabdominal asynchrony in house dust mite-sensitive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoJia Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available XiaoJia Wang, Shaun Reece, Stephen Olmstead, Robert L Wardle, Michael R Van ScottDepartment of Physiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USAAbstract: Nocturnal bronchoconstriction is a common symptom of asthma in humans, but is poorly documented in animal models. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA is a noninvasive clinical indication of airway obstruction. In this study, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP was used to document nocturnal TAA in house dust mite (HDM-sensitive Cynomolgus macaques. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn and lung resistance (RL measured in anesthetized ­animals at rest and following exposure to HDM allergen, methacholine, and albuterol were highly ­correlated with three RIP parameters associated with TAA, ie, phase angle of the rib cage and abdomen waveforms (PhAng, baseline effort phase relation (eBPRL and effort phase relation (ePhRL. Twenty-one allergic subjects were challenged with HDM early in the morning, and eBPRL and ePhRL were monitored for 20 hours after provocation. Fifteen of the allergic subjects exhibited gradual increases in eBPRL and ePhRL between midnight and 6 am, with peak activity at 4 am. However, as in humans, this nocturnal response was highly variable both between subjects and within subjects over time. The results document that TAA in this nonhuman primate model of asthma is highly correlated with Cdyn and RL, and demonstrate that animals exhibiting acute responses to allergen exposure during the day also exhibit nocturnal TAA.Keywords: nocturnal asthma, late phase asthmatic response, respiratory inductive plethysmography

  6. Nocturnal sleep problems among university students from 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal sleeping problems and its associated factors among university students in mainly low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age, 20.8; SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 10.4% reported severe or extreme nocturnal sleeping problems (male, 10.2%; female, 10.5%) in the past month. Noctural sleeping problems differed by country, from 32.9% in Indonesia to 3.0 % in Thailand among Asian countries, from 13.7% in Mauritius to 7.5% in South Africa, and from 11.8% in Jamaica to 6.1% in Columbia in the Americas. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, coming from a poor family background, staying off campus (on their own or with parents or guardians), stress (history of child sexual abuse), poor mental health (depression and PTSD symptoms), health risk behaviour (tobacco use, heavy internet use, gambling, skipping breakfast and having sustained an injury), lack of social support and poor academic performance were associated with nocturnal sleeping problems. A significant prevalence of past-month nocturnal sleeping problems was found. Potential factors associated with the risk of reporting sleeping complaints were identified, which may assist in prevention strategies to promote a better quality of sleep.

  7. The purification and steady-state kinetic behaviour of rabbit heart mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Davisson, V J; Schulz, A R

    1985-01-01

    The mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme [EC 1.1.1.39, L-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)] was purified from rabbit heart to a specific activity of 7 units (mumol/min)/mg at 23 degrees C. A study of the reductive carboxylation reaction indicates that this enzymic reaction is reversible. The rate of the reductive carboxylation reaction appears to be completely inhibited at an NADH concentration of 0.92 mM. A substrate saturation curve of this reaction with NADH as the varied substrat...

  8. Gamma irradiation of isocitric and citric acid in aqueous solution: Relevance in prebiotic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrón-Mendoza, A., E-mail: negron@nucleares.unam.mx; Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 70-543, 04510 México, D. F. México (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    The radiation chemistry of hydroxy acids like citric and isocitric acids is rather scarce, even though they are crucial compounds in biological systems and for food irradiation. The aim of this work is to study the radiolytic behavior of these acids focused on the interconversion induced by radiation of citric and isocitric acid into other members of the Krebs cycle. The results showed that among the products formed were succinic, malonic, malic and other acids related to metabolic pathways, and these results are correlated with its possible role in chemical evolution processes.

  9. A novel malic enzyme gene, Mime2, from Mortierella isabellina M6-22 contributes to lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Li, Lingyan; Xiong, Xiangfeng; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin; Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Qi

    2018-05-18

    This study was aimed at cloning and characterizing a novel malic enzyme (ME) gene of Mortierella isabellina M6-22 and identifying its relation with lipid accumulation. Mime2 was cloned from strain M6-22. Plasmid pET32aMIME2 was constructed to express ME of MIME2 in Escherichia coli BL21. After purification, the optimal pH and temperature of MIME2, as well as K m and V max for NADP + were determined. The effects of EDTA or metal ions (Mn 2+ , Mg 2+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ , or Zn 2+ ) on the enzymatic activity of MIME2 were evaluated. Besides, plasmid pRHMIME2 was created to express MIME2 in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae YM25235, and its cell lipid content was measured by the acid-heating method. The optimal pH and temperature of MIME2 are 5.8 and 30 °C, respectively. The act ivity of MIME2 was significantly increased by Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , or Mn 2+ at 0.5 mM but inhibited by Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ (p M6-22 contributes to lipid accumulation in strain YM25235.

  10. Acids with an equivalent taste lead to different erosion of human dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Markus; Reichert, Jörg; Bossert, Jörg; Sigusch, Bernd W; Watts, David C; Jandt, Klaus D

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of acidic soft drinks may lead to demineralization and softening of human dental enamel, known as dental erosion. The aims of this in vitro study were to determine: (i) if different acids with a similar sensorial acidic taste lead to different hardness loss of enamel and (ii) if the fruit acids tartaric, malic, lactic or ascorbic acid lead to less hardness loss of enamel than citric or phosphoric acid when their concentration in solution is based on an equivalent sensorial acidic taste. Enamel samples of non-erupted human third molars were treated with acidic solutions of tartaric (TA), malic (MA), lactic (LA), ascorbic (AA), phosphoric (PA) and citric (CA) acids with a concentration that gave an equivalent sensorial acidic taste. The acidic solutions were characterized by pH value and titratable acidity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation was used to study the nano mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the treated enamel samples and the untreated control areas, respectively. The investigated acids fell into two groups. The nano hardnesses of MA, TA and CA treated enamel samples (group I) were statistically significantly greater (penamel samples (group II). Within each group the nano hardness was not statistically significantly different (p>0.05). The SEM micrographs showed different etch prism morphologies depending on the acid used. In vitro, the acids investigated led to different erosion effects on human dental enamel, despite their equivalent sensorial acidic taste. This has not been reported previously. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interconnection between tricarboxylic acid cycle and energy generation in microbial fuel cell performed by desulfuromonas acetoxidans IMV B-7384

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Maslovska, Olga D.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2015-05-01

    Desulfuromonas acetoxidans IMV B-7384 is exoelectrogenic obligate anaerobic sulfur-reducing bacterium. Its one of the first described electrogenic bacterium that performs complete oxidation of an organic substrate with electron transfer directly to the electrode in microbial fuel cell (MFC). This bacterium is very promising for MFC development because of inexpensive cultivation medium, high survival rate and selective resistance to various heavy metal ions. The size of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 cells is comparatively small (0.4-0.8×1-2 μm) that is highly beneficial while application of porous anode material because of complete bacterial cover of an electrode area with further significant improvement of the effectiveness of its usage. The interconnection between functioning of reductive stage of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under anaerobic conditions, and MFC performance was established. Malic, pyruvic, fumaric and succinic acids in concentration 42 mM were separately added into the anode chamber of MFC as the redox agents. Application of malic acid caused the most stabile and the highest power generation in comparison with other investigated organic acids. Its maximum equaled 10.07±0.17mW/m2 on 136 hour of bacterial cultivation. Under addition of pyruvic, succinic and fumaric acids into the anode chamber of MFC the maximal power values equaled 5.80±0.25 mW/m2; 3.2±0.11 mW/m2, and 2.14±0.19 mW/m2 respectively on 40, 56 and 32 hour of bacterial cultivation. Hence the malic acid conversion via reductive stage of TCA cycle is shown to be the most efficient process in terms of electricity generation by D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 in MFC under anaerobic conditions.

  12. The Relationship Between Child Anxiety Related Disorders and Primary Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Rafeei, Mohammad; Mostajeran, Mahssa

    2016-06-01

    Nocturnal enuresis, often called bedwetting or sleep wetting, is a common problem in children after the age of five and may lead to symptoms such as infection, incontinence and frequent urination. This problem refers to a state in which children after the age of five have no control of their urine for six continuous months and it cannot be attributed to any organic factors or drug use. In this study we aimed to study generalized anxiety disorder as one of the possible causes of primary nocturnal enuresis. In this case-control study 180 children with primary nocturnal enuresis and same number of healthy children with a mean age of 7 - 17 years old with the same demographic characteristics were selected. The study took place at Amir Kabir hospital of Arak, Iran during year 2014. After collecting the information, diagnosis was verified based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) IV-TR criteria. Results were analyzed using the SPSS software (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Frequency of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety, history of anxiety in mother, history of primary nocturnal enuresis in parent's family and body mass index had a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.005). With the results obtained from this study we could say that there was a clear significant difference between the two control and patient groups for all subgroups of anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and their relationship with primary nocturnal enuresis. Given the higher prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety and comparison with healthy children, it is recommended for all children with primary nocturnal enuresis to be investigated and treated for generalized anxiety disorder.

  13. Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-ESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Wolff, Christian; Herges, Rainer; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-10-03

    Twenty-eight polyphenols (11 flavonoid derivatives and 17 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were detected in different cultivars of the Chinese cabbage pak choi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). Kaempferol was found to be the major flavonoid in pak choi, glycosylated and acylated with different compounds. Smaller amounts of isorhamnetin were also detected. A structural determination was carried out by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy for the main compound, kaempferol-3-O-hydroxyferuloylsophoroside-7-O-glucoside, for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were identified as different esters of quinic acid, glycosides, and malic acid. The latter ones are described for the first time in cabbages. The content of polyphenols was determined in 11 cultivars of pak choi, with higher concentrations present in the leaf blade than in the leaf stem. Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, particularly malic acid derivatives, are present in both the leaf blade and leaf stem, whereas flavonoid levels were determined only in the leaf blade.

  14. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Foster, Russell G.; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a ‘nocturnal bottleneck’ in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  15. Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudon M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Grossman1,4, Moshe Laudon2, Nava Zisapel2,31Department of Internal Medicine D and Hypertension Unit, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel and 3Department of Neurobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: Patients with nocturnal hypertension are at higher risk for cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular insult. Published studies inconsistently reported decreases in nocturnal blood pressure with melatonin.Methods: A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in ameliorating nocturnal blood pressure was performed using a random effects model of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, with subgroup analysis of fast-release versus controlled-release preparations.Results: Seven trials (three of controlled-release and four of fast-release melatonin with 221 participants were included. Meta-analysis of all seven studies did not reveal significant effects of melatonin versus placebo on nocturnal blood pressure. However, subgroup analysis revealed that controlled-release melatonin significantly reduced nocturnal blood pressure whereas fast-release melatonin had no effect. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly with controlled-release melatonin (-6.1 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.7 to -1.5; P = 0.009 but not fast-release melatonin (-0.3 mmHg; 95% CI -5.9 to 5.30; P = 0.92. Diastolic blood pressure also decreased significantly with controlled-release melatonin (-3.5 mmHg; 95% CI -6.1 to -0.9; P = 0.009 but not fast-release melatonin (-0.2 mmHg; 95% CI -3.8 to 3.3; P = 0.89. No safety concerns were raised.Conclusion: Add-on controlled-release melatonin to antihypertensive therapy is effective and safe in ameliorating nocturnal hypertension, whereas fast-release melatonin is ineffective. It is necessary

  16. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NADP-malic enzyme, and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase are involved in the acclimation of Nicotiana tabacum L. to drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doubnerová-Hýsková, V.; Miedzińska, L.; Dobrá, Jana; Vaňková, Radomíra; Ryšlavá, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 5 (2014), s. 19-25 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Drought * NADP-malic enzyme * Nicotiana tabacum L. Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2014

  17. Phytotherapy for children's nocturnal enuresis | Ahmadipour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results have shown that Zingiber officinale, Valeriana officinalis, Alcea rosea, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum, Ribes uva-crispa, Cornus mas, Juglans regia, Vitis vinifera, Sinapis spp., Olea europaea, and Prunus cerasus are a number of important plants that are effective on nocturnal enuresis in traditional ...

  18. Capnography for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting compliance with subsequent noninvasive ventilation in patients with ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS suffer from hypoventilation, which can easily worsen during sleep. This study evaluated the efficacy of capnography monitoring in patients with ALS for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent noninvasive ventilation (NIV treatment. METHODS: Nocturnal monitoring and brief wake screening by capnography/pulse oximetry, functional scores, and other respiratory signs were assessed in 26 patients with ALS. Twenty-one of these patients were treated with NIV and had their treatment compliance evaluated. RESULTS: Nocturnal capnography values were reliable and strongly correlated with the patients' respiratory symptoms (R(2 = 0.211-0.305, p = 0.004-0.021. The duration of nocturnal hypercapnea obtained by capnography exhibited a significant predictive power for good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment, with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.846 (p = 0.018. In contrast, no significant predictive values for nocturnal pulse oximetry or functional scores for nocturnal hypoventilation were found. Brief waking supine capnography was also useful as a screening tool before routine nocturnal capnography monitoring. CONCLUSION: Capnography is an efficient tool for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment of ALS patients, and may prove useful as an adjunctive tool for assessing the need for NIV treatment in these patients.

  19. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  20. Anatomical specializations for nocturnality in a critically endangered parrot, the Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R Corfield

    Full Text Available The shift from a diurnal to nocturnal lifestyle in vertebrates is generally associated with either enhanced visual sensitivity or a decreased reliance on vision. Within birds, most studies have focused on differences in the visual system across all birds with respect to nocturnality-diurnality. The critically endangered Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, a parrot endemic to New Zealand, is an example of a species that has evolved a nocturnal lifestyle in an otherwise diurnal lineage, but nothing is known about its' visual system. Here, we provide a detailed morphological analysis of the orbits, brain, eye, and retina of the Kakapo and comparisons with other birds. Morphometric analyses revealed that the Kakapo's orbits are significantly more convergent than other parrots, suggesting an increased binocular overlap in the visual field. The Kakapo exhibits an eye shape that is consistent with other nocturnal birds, including owls and nightjars, but is also within the range of the diurnal parrots. With respect to the brain, the Kakapo has a significantly smaller optic nerve and tectofugal visual pathway. Specifically, the optic tectum, nucleus rotundus and entopallium were significantly reduced in relative size compared to other parrots. There was no apparent reduction to the thalamofugal visual pathway. Finally, the retinal morphology of the Kakapo is similar to that of both diurnal and nocturnal birds, suggesting a retina that is specialised for a crepuscular niche. Overall, this suggests that the Kakapo has enhanced light sensitivity, poor visual acuity and a larger binocular field than other parrots. We conclude that the Kakapo possesses a visual system unlike that of either strictly nocturnal or diurnal birds and therefore does not adhere to the traditional view of the evolution of nocturnality in birds.

  1. A cutoff value based on analysis of a reference population decreases overestimation of the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haarst, Ernst P; Bosch, J L H Ruud

    2012-09-01

    We sought criteria for nocturnal polyuria in asymptomatic, nonurological adults of all ages by reporting reference values of the ratio of daytime and nighttime urine volumes, and finding nocturia predictors. Data from a database of frequency-volume charts from a reference population of 894 nonurological, asymptomatic volunteers of all age groups were analyzed. The nocturnal polyuria index and the nocturia index were calculated and factors influencing these values were determined by multivariate analysis. The nocturnal polyuria index had wide variation but a normal distribution with a mean ± SD of 30% ± 12%. The 95th percentile of the values was 53%. Above this cutoff a patient had nocturnal polyuria. This value contrasts with the International Continence Society definition of 33% but agrees with several other reports. On multivariate regression analysis with the nocturnal polyuria index as the dependent variable sleeping time, maximum voided volume and age were the covariates. However, the increase in the nocturnal polyuria index by age was small. Excluding polyuria and nocturia from analysis did not alter the results in a relevant way. The nocturnal voiding frequency depended on sleeping time and maximum voided volume but most of all on the nocturia index. The prevalence of nocturnal polyuria is overestimated. We suggest a new cutoff value for the nocturnal polyuria index, that is nocturnal polyuria exists when the nocturnal polyuria index exceeds 53%. The nocturia index is the best predictor of nocturia. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive genomic evolution of opsins reveals that early mammals flourished in nocturnal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rui; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Gomes, Cidália; Heesy, Christopher P; Antunes, Agostinho

    2018-02-05

    Based on evolutionary patterns of the vertebrate eye, Walls (1942) hypothesized that early placental mammals evolved primarily in nocturnal habitats. However, not only Eutheria, but all mammals show photic characteristics (i.e. dichromatic vision, rod-dominated retina) suggestive of a scotopic eye design. Here, we used integrative comparative genomic and phylogenetic methodologies employing the photoreceptive opsin gene family in 154 mammals to test the likelihood of a nocturnal period in the emergence of all mammals. We showed that mammals possess genomic patterns concordant with a nocturnal ancestry. The loss of the RH2, VA, PARA, PARIE and OPN4x opsins in all mammals led us to advance a probable and most-parsimonious hypothesis of a global nocturnal bottleneck that explains the loss of these genes in the emerging lineage (> > 215.5 million years ago). In addition, ancestral character reconstruction analyses provided strong evidence that ancestral mammals possessed a nocturnal lifestyle, ultra-violet-sensitive vision, low visual acuity and low orbit convergence (i.e. panoramic vision). Overall, this study provides insight into the evolutionary history of the mammalian eye while discussing important ecological aspects of the photic paleo-environments ancestral mammals have occupied.

  3. Childhood nocturnal enuresis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van der Wekke, J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in school children aged 5 to 15 years, and to investigate the association of bedwetting with ethnicity, the educational level of the parents, and the type of education (mainstream or special) received by the child. Methods. Data were

  4. Prognostic value of nocturnal pulse oximetry in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, Ricardo; Jordán-Martínez, Laura; López-Fernández, Silvia; Rivera-Fernandez, Ricardo; Tercedor, Luis; Sáez-Roca, Germán

    2018-05-23

    To analyze the prognostic value of nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable nocturnal pulse-oximetry in patients hospitalized due to heart failure and its relation to mortality and hospital readmission. We included 38 patients who were admitted consecutively to our unit with the diagnosis of decompensated heart failure. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia when more than 10 desaturations per hour were recorded during sleep. Follow-up was performed for 30.3 (standard deviation [SD] 14.2) months, the main objective being a combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and hospital readmission due to heart failure. The average age was 70.7 (SD 10.7) years, 63.3% were males. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia in 27 (71%) patients. Patients with positive pulse-oximetry had the most frequent endpoint (9.1% [1] vs. 61.5% [16], P = 0.003). After multivariate analysis, continuous nocturnal hypoxemia was related to the combined endpoint (HR = 8.37, 1.19-68.4, P = 0.03). Patients hospitalized for heart failure and nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable pulse-oximeter have an increased risk of hospital readmission and death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Bakhtiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7% was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4% (P=0.009. There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P=0.023, respiratory infections (P=0.036, deep sleep (P=0.007, corporal punishment at school (P=0.036, anal itching (P=0.043, and history of seizures (P=0.043. Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.

  6. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.

  7. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological

  8. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nocturnal hypoxia in ALS is related to cognitive dysfunction and can occur as clusters of desaturations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Park

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS.Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2<95% for ≥10% of the night and their clinical characteristics and cognitive function were compared.Compared to patients without nocturnal hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n = 10, 40% had poor memory retention (p = 0.039 and retrieval efficiency (p = 0.045. A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70% in the Hypoxia Group.These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation-reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression.

  10. Nocturnal Polyuria in Older Women with Urge Urinary Incontinence: Role of Sleep Quality, Time in Bed and Medications Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shachi; Perera, Subashan; Clarkson, Becky D; Tadic, Stasa D; Resnick, Neil M

    2017-03-01

    Nocturia is common and bothersome in older adults, especially those who are also incontinent. Since nocturnal polyuria is a major contributor, we examined factors associated with nocturnal polyuria in this population to identify those possibly amenable to intervention. We analyzed baseline data from 2 previously completed studies of urge urinary incontinence. The studies involved 284 women (mean age ± SD 72.9 ± 7.9 years) who also completed 3-day voiding diaries. Participants with a nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33% were categorized as having nocturnal polyuria (nocturnal polyuria index = nocturnal urinary volume per 24-hour urine volume). Associations between nocturnal polyuria and various demographic, clinical and sleep related parameters were determined. Overall 55% of the participants had nocturnal polyuria. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that age, body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, time spent in bed and duration of first uninterrupted sleep were independent correlates of nocturnal polyuria. Participants with a larger nocturnal excretion reported a shorter duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void and worse sleep quality despite spending similar time in bed. Body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers, time in bed and duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void are independently associated with nocturnal polyuria in older women with urge urinary incontinence, and are potentially modifiable. These findings also confirm the association between sleep and nocturnal polyuria. Further studies should explore whether interventions to reduce nocturnal polyuria and/or increase the duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void would help to improve sleep quality in this population and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for sedative hypnotics. Copyright © 2017 American Urological

  11. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Won; Park, Jinsung; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong-Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33), aged ≥60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking α-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) completed the study according to...

  12. The association between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in clinical and epidemiological studies: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Steffens, Martijn G; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Drake, Marcus J; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Blanker, Marco H

    2014-04-01

    We determined the relationship between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria. The PubMed® and Embase® databases were searched for studies written in English, German, French or Dutch with original data on adult participants in an investigation of the relationship between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria. A meta-analysis of the difference in mean nocturnal voiding frequencies between patients with and without nocturnal polyuria was conducted. Nocturnal polyuria risk was compared between participants with and without nocturia, and the resulting odds ratio was subsequently converted to relative risk with 95% CIs. From 511 references identified we selected 78 publications of 66 studies, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria for this study. Quality scores of studies were generally high for internal validity but low for external validity. In 7 studies (1,416 participants) we estimated a standardized mean difference of 0.59 (95% CI 0.29-0.89) for nocturnal voids between nocturnal polyuria and nonnocturnal polyuria cases. In 8 other studies (with 2,320 participants) we calculated a pooled OR of 4.99 (3.92-6.37) for nocturnal polyuria in individuals with nocturia. The corresponding RR, based on a nocturnal polyuria risk in the pooled population of 63.8%, was 1.41 (1.37-1.44). The association between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria is apparent and robust. However, the clinical importance of the association appears to be less obvious than previously suggested based on single studies. The observed high prevalence of nocturnal polyuria, as a result of the applied International Continence Society definition, may be responsible for this discrepancy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Local characteristics of the nocturnal boundary layer in response to external pressure forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, S.J.A.; Baas, P.; van Hooft, J.A.; van Hooijdonk, I.G.S.; Bosveld, F.C.; van de Wiel, B.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Geostrophic wind speed data, derived from pressure observations, are used in combination with tower measurements to investigate the nocturnal stable boundary layer at Cabauw (The Netherlands). Since the geostrophic wind speed is not directly influenced by local nocturnal stability, it may be

  14. Cranberry juice and combinations of its organic acids are effective against experimental urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Heidi Dorthe; Struve, Carsten; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of cranberry juice and the organic acids therein on infection by uro28 pathogenic Escherichia coli was studied in an experimental mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI). Reduced bacterial counts were found in the bladder (P ... administered singly, did not have any effect in the UTI model. Apparently, the antibacterial effect of the organic acids from cranberry juice on UTI can be obtained by administering a combination of malic acid and either citric or quinic acid. This study show for the first time that cranberry juice reduce E...

  15. Circadian rhythm of temperature selection in a nocturnal lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, R; Susalka, S J

    1997-08-01

    We recorded body temperature and locomotor activity of Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) with free access to a heat source under a 14:10 light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. Under the light-dark cycle, the lizards selected higher temperatures during the light phase, when locomotor activity was less intense. Rhythmicity in temperature selection was transiently disrupted but later resumed when the animals were placed in constant darkness. These results demonstrate the existence of a circadian rhythm of temperature selection in nocturnal ectotherms and extend previous findings of a temporal mismatch between the rhythms of locomotor activity and temperature selection in nocturnal rodents.

  16. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  17. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  18. Changes in oxidative properties of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana leaf mitochondria during development of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, P; Queiroz-Claret, C

    1985-06-01

    Kalanchoe blossfeldiana plants grown under long days (16 h light) exhibit a C3-type photosynthetic metabolism. Switching to short days (9 h light) leads to a gradual development of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Under the latter conditions, dark CO2 fixation produces large amounts of malate. During the first hours of the day, malate is rapidly decarboxylated into pyruvate through the action of a cytosolic NADP(+)-or a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme. Mitochondria were isolated from leaves of plants grown under long days or after treatment by an increasing number of short days. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as well as exogenous NADH and NADPH were readily oxidized by mitochondria isolated from the two types of plants. Glycine, known to be oxidized by C3-plant mitochondria, was still oxidized after CAM establishment. The experiments showed a marked parallelism in the increase of CAM level and the increase in substrate-oxidation capacity of the isolated mitochondria, particularly the capacity to oxidize malate in the presence of cyanide. These simultaneous variations in CAM level and in mitochondrial properties indicate that the mitochondrial NAD(+)-malic enzyme could account at least for a part of the oxidation of malate. The studies of whole-leaf respiration establish that mitochondria are implicated in malate degradation in vivo. Moreover, an increase in cyanide resistance of the leaf respiration has been observed during the first daylight hours, when malate was oxidized to pyruvate by cytosolic and mitochondrial malic enzymes.

  19. Thermal resistance parameters of acid-adapted and unadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple-carrot juice blends: effect of organic acids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-04-01

    Numerous outbreaks involving fresh juices contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 have occurred in the United States and around the world, raising concern for the safety of these products. Until now, only a few studies regarding the thermal tolerance of this pathogen in acidic juices over a wide range of pH values have been published. Therefore, the effect of varying the pH with different organic acids on the thermal inactivation of non-acid-adapted and acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 (strain C7927) was determined. The decimal reduction times (D-values) and the change in temperature required for the thermal destruction curve to traverse 1 log cycle (z-values) were calculated for non-acid-adapted E. coli in an apple-carrot juice blend (80:20) adjusted to three pH values (3.3, 3.5, and 3.7) by the addition of lactic, malic, or acetic acid and at a pH of 4.5 adjusted with NaOH. Thermal parameters were also determined for acid-adapted cells in juices acidified with malic acid. The effect of the soluble solids content on the thermal tolerance was studied in samples with a pH of 3.7 at 9.4 to 11.5 °Brix. The D-values were determined at 54, 56, and 58 °C, and trials were conducted in triplicate. Non-acid-adapted E. coli exhibited the highest thermal tolerance at pH 4.5 (D-value at 54 °C [D54 °C] of 20 ± 4 min and z-value of 6.2 °C), although on average, the D-values increased significantly (P 0.01). The data from this study will be useful for establishing critical limits for safe thermal processing of pH-controlled juices and similar products.

  20. Children with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis – the clinical profile of patients during the first nephrological consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krakowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nocturnal enuresis can be diagnosed in a child older than 5 years of age who involuntarily discharges urine in the wrong time, i.e. at night, and in the wrong place, i.e. in bed. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse the profile of patients who consult the specialist physician with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods: The data were collected from a questionnaire completed by guardians of children during the first nephrological consultation. The questions concerned the following: family history of nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting intensity, other urinary tract symptoms, a voiding chart and fluid intake record, number of nocturnal enuresis incidents in 14 days, episodes of nocturia, nocturnal diuresis volume, urinary urgency volume and constipation. Moreover, basic anthropometric measurements were taken. The data were analysed and the following values were calculated: average voided volumes, maximum voided volumes, voided volumes before 5 p.m. and 24-hour diuresis. An analogous analysis was conducted with respect to fluid intake. Results: Most patients were males. The family history of nocturnal enuresis was positive in ⅓ of patients. Approximately ⅓ of patients tended to drink fluids directly before bedtime. The number of patients with sporadic nocturnal enuresis (23–45% was comparable to the number of patients with frequent nocturnal enuresis (28–55%. Nocturnal diuresis suggested nocturnal polyuria in 11 patients (21.6%. Decreased functional bladder capacity was found in almost ¼ of patients (12–23.5%. Conclusions: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is more common in boys. The family history was positive in ⅓ of patients. Patients and their guardians are not aware of fluid intake restrictions at bedtime. The frequency of nocturnal polyuria and decreased functional bladder capacity is comparable in the investigated patients.

  1. Effect of different Bacillus strains on the profile of organic acids in a liquid culture of Daqu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, J.S.; Han, B.Z.

    2013-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of malic, lactic, acetic, citric, succinic, propionic and butyric acids, during the incubation of Bacillus spp., was developed. All samples taken from cultivation were centrifuged (20 min, 11,500g at 5 degrees C) and

  2. NIR spectroscopic properties of aqueous acids solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Atan, Hanafi; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir

    2012-06-15

    Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R² above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918-925 nm and 990-996 nm, while at 975 nm for water.

  3. Effect of Nocturnal Haemodialysis on Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, K.J.R.; Westerhuis, R.; van der Schans, C.P.; de Jong, P.E.; Gaillard, C.A. J. M.; Krijnen, W.P.; Slart, R.H.J.A.; Franssen, C.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haemodialysis patients have a high risk of malnutrition which is associated with increased mortality. Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD) is associated with a significant increase in protein intake compared with conventional haemodialysis (CHD). It is unclear whether this leads to improved

  4. Effect of CPAP Therapy on Symptoms of Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux among Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanna, Sadeka; Campbell, Douglas; Warren, Richard; Ullah, Mohammad I

    2016-09-15

    Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) is common among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies demonstrated that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces symptoms of nGER. However, improvement in nGER symptoms based on objective CPAP compliance has not been documented. We have examined the polysomnographic characteristics of patients with nGER and OSA and looked for association of OSA severity and CPAP compliance with improvement in nGER symptoms. We interviewed 85 veterans with OSA to assess their daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale [ESS]) and nGER symptom frequency after their polysomnography and polysomnographic data were reviewed. At 6 months' follow-up, ESS score, nGER score, and CPAP machine compliance data were reassessed. Data from 6 subjects were dropped from final analysis due to their initiation of new medication for nGER symptom since the initial evaluation. Sixty-two of 79 (78%) patients complained of nGER symptoms during initial visit. At baseline, nGER score was correlated with sleep efficiency (r = 0.43), and BMI correlated with the severity of OSA (r = 0.41). ESS and nGER improved (p CPAP compliant patients. A minimum CPAP compliance of 25% was needed to achieve any benefit in nGER improvement. Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux is common among patients with OSA which increases sleep disruption and worsens the symptoms of daytime sleepiness. CPAP therapy may help improve the symptoms of both nocturnal acid reflux and daytime sleepiness, but adherence to CPAP is crucial to achieve this benefit. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lack of nocturnal blood pressure fall in elderly bedridden hypertensive patients with cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masato; Ando, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2012-02-01

    To prevent recurrence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD), adequate control of blood pressure (BP) is extremely important for the treatment of hypertensive CVD patients. As absence of the nocturnal fall of BP by the expected 10-20% from daytime levels is reported to exaggerate target organ injury, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was conducted, especially to obtain data during nighttime sleep. Forty-eight elderly bedridden chronic phase CVD hypertensive patients (assessed 1-3 mo after CVD accident) participated. As a group, nocturnal BP was higher than diurnal BP, whereas nocturnal pulse rate was lower than diurnal pulse rate. The nocturnal BP fall was blunted in most (∼90%) of the patients. These results suggest that to perform a rational drug treatment, it is essential to do 24-h ABPM before initiation of antihypertensive therapy in elderly bedridden hypertensive CVD patients.

  7. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  8. Understanding nocturnal enuresis and its treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, D C; Wogoman, H A; Nietch, P

    1999-09-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a condition that touches the lives of many children around the world. Affected children and their parents may experience feelings of guilt, frustration, and anxiety because of their lack of control over the situation. Nurses can play an important role in providing education to families in regards to the causes and treatment of enuresis. It is important for nurses to understand the problem of bedwetting thoroughly so they can assist the family in making an informed decision about the various options currently available. Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a common disorder that frequently results in frustration and stress on not only the children that experience it, but their parents as well. Scharf, Pravda, Jennings, Kauffman, and Ringel (1987) note that an estimated five to seven million children in America experience enuresis. Enuresis has family and psychosocial aspects, along with financial concerns. Therefore, it is important for nurses to be aware of the causes of enuresis, how it affects the family, and the current treatments that are available.

  9. Nocturnal eating predicts tooth loss among adults: results from the Danish MONICA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; Williams, Karen B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nocturnal eating, such as that associated with night eating syndrome (NES), and oral health is unknown. This study sought to determine if nocturnal eating is related to tooth loss in a large, epidemiologic sample. Danes (N=2217; age range 30-60 years, M BMI [kg/m(2...

  10. Evaluation of the occurrence and diagnose definitions for Nocturnal Polyuria in Spinal Cord Injured patients during rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, Annick; Denys, Marie-Astrid; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Claeys, Jana; Raes, Ann; Roggeman, Saskia; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-03

    Little is known about the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and the definitions which are preferable in this population. To determine the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria (NP) in spinal cord injured patients during in-patient rehabilitation in the Ghent University Hospital. To study the influence of different time periods (daytime, bed rest and sleep) on the accuracy of the existing diagnose definitions for NP specifically for this type of patients. Retrospective study using patient records. SCI patients during hospital based rehabilitation between 2011 and 2014. Seventy-four SCI patients were selected and their records of frequency-volume charts were examined, after exclusion of unreliable data, forty-seven patients were retained for the current study. Retrospective study using data from frequency-volume charts of either two or three days from patients with SCI. Nocturnal urine production (NUP) and nocturnal polyuria index (NPi) were calculated. There was a significant increase in diuresis, calculated as urine production, between day time and bed rest (p=0.008) and between day time and sleep (p=0.001). All patients showed nocturnal polyuria during a 12-hour night time period (including both bed rest and sleep) and 39 patients showed nocturnal polyuria during the 8 hour period of sleep. There was no significant difference in mean urine production between bed rest and sleep. Prevalence of NP did not significantly differ between the complete or incomplete SCI patients or between patients with higher and lower SCI levels. This study showed that the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria in patients with SCI is high and that it is important to consider which definitions of NP are used for diagnosis. Increase in diuresis is observed during bed rest and sleep and the diagnose is correctly estimated when nocturnal urine production definitions are used in both time periods. In accordance with what was expected, diagnose of NP was

  11. Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Nocturnal Polyuria and Hypertension in Patients with Lifestyle Related Diseases and Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu; Homma, Yukio; Takeda, Masayuki; Gotoh, Momokazu; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Akino, Hironobu; Hayashi, Koichi; Yonemoto, Koji

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship of nocturnal polyuria in patients with common lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder, with special attention to hypertension. After baseline assessment, patients recorded 24-hour urinary frequency/volume, blood pressure and heart rate for 3 days. They were stratified into 4 groups based on mean blood pressure, including no hypertension, and controllable, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension, respectively. The 2,353 eligible patients, who had urinary urgency once or more per week and 1 or more nocturnal toilet visits, were enrolled from 543 sites in Japan. Of these patients complete data, including the 24-hour frequency volume chart, were collected from 1,271. Multivariable analyses showed a statistically significant association of nocturnal polyuria with increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p polyuria in women alone (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia were significantly associated with nocturnal polyuria in men alone (p polyuria was significantly associated with age, male gender, and untreated hypertension in patients with lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder. The association between hypertension and nocturnal polyuria was significant in women alone. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a Heat Wave on Nocturnal Stomatal Conductance in Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Resco de Dios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal transpiration constitutes a significant yet poorly understood component of the global water cycle. Modeling nocturnal transpiration has been complicated by recent findings showing that stomata respond differently to environmental drivers over day- vs. night-time periods. Here, we propose that nocturnal stomatal conductance depends on antecedent daytime conditions. We tested this hypothesis across six genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. growing under different CO2 concentrations (ambient vs. elevated and exposed to contrasting temperatures (ambient vs. heat wave for four days prior to the night of measurements, when all plants experienced ambient temperature conditions. We observed significant effects after the heat wave that led to 36% reductions in nocturnal stomatal conductance. The response was partly driven by changes in daytime stomatal behavior but additional factors may have come into play. We also observed significant differences in response to the heat wave across genotypes, likely driven by local adaptation to their climate of origin, but CO2 played no effect. Stomatal models may need to incorporate the role of antecedent effects to improve projections particularly after drastic changes in the environment such as heat waves.

  14. Cofactor and CO2 donor regulation involved in reductive routes for polymalic acid production by Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M2012223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Tu, Guangwei; Zan, Zhanquan

    2014-10-01

    Polymalic acid (PMA) is a water-soluble polyester with many attractive properties for biomedical application. Its monomer L-malic acid is widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical. Cofactor and CO2 donor involved in the reductive routes were investigated for PMA production by Aureobasidium pullulans. Biotin as the key cofactor of pyruvate carboxylase was favor for the PMA biosynthesis. Na2CO3 as CO2 donor can obviously improved PMA titer when compared with no CO2 supplier NaOH, and also exhibit more advantages than the other donor CaCO3 because of its water-soluble characteristic. A combinational process with addition of biotin 70 mg/L and Na2CO3 as the CO2 donor was scaled-up in 50 L fermentor, achieving the high product 34.3 g/L of PMA and productivity of 0.41 g/L h. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application.

  15. Prognostic Value of Malic Enzyme and ATP-Citrate Lyase in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer of the Young and the Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Csanadi

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignancies worldwide. Understanding its biology is therefore of pivotal importance to improve patient's prognosis. In contrast to non-neoplastic tissues, cancer cells utilize glucose mainly for production of basic cellular modules '(i.e. nucleotides, aminoacids, fatty acids. In cancer, Malic enzyme (ME and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY are key enzymes linking aerobic glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis and may therefore be of biological and prognostic significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.ME and ACLY expression was analyzed in 258 NSCLC in correlation with clinico-pathological parameters including patient's survival.Though, overall expression of both enzymes correlated positively, ACLY was associated with local tumor stage, whereas ME correlated with occurrence of mediastinal lymph node metastases. Young patients overexpressing ACLY and/or ME had a significantly longer overall survival. This proved to be an independent prognostic factor. This contrasts older NSCLC patients, in whom overexpression of ACLY and/or ME appears to predict the opposite.In NSCLC, ME and ACLY show different enzyme expressions relating to local and mediastinal spread. Most important, we detected an inverse prognostic impact of ACLY and/or ME overexpression in young and elderly patients. It can therefore be expected, that treatment of NSCLC especially, if targeting metabolic pathways, requires different strategies in different age groups.

  16. Comparative study of electroless nickel film on different organic acids modified cuprammonium fabric (CF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hang; Lu, Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An etchant-free and moderate surface pre-treatment process was studied. • Citric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid were selected as modification agents. • High adhesive nickel coating on cuprammonium fabric was obtained. • The electromagnetic parameters were evaluated from the experimental data. - Abstract: Nickel films were grown on citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA) and oxalic acid (OA) modified cuprammonium fabric (CF) substrates via electroless nickel deposition. The nickel films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) were also investigated to compare the properties of electroless nickel films. SEM images illustrated that the nickel film on MA modified CF substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of nickel nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of CA modified CF, the coverage of nickel nuclei on OA and MA modified CF substrate was very limited and the nickel particles size was too big. XRD analysis showed that the nickel films deposited on the different modified CF substrates had a structure with Ni (1 1 1) preferred orientation. All the nickel coatings via different acid modification were firmly adhered to the CF substrates, as demonstrated by an ultrasonic washing test. The result of tensile test indicated that the electroless nickel plating on CF has ability to strengthen the CF substrate while causes limited effect on tensile elongation. Moreover, the nickel film deposited on MA modified CF substrate showed more predominant in EMI SE than that deposited on CA or OA modified CF.

  17. Getting a good night sleep? The importance of recognizing and treating nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2018-01-05

    When Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are asked about the quality of their sleep, their answers are dominated by difficulties associated with impaired mobility in bed, medically referred to as nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal hypokinesia is symptomatic from the mid-stage of the disease, affecting up to 70% of PD patients, and contributes to poor sleep quality, and increased carer burden. Here we explore four areas of nocturnal hypokinesia that are relevant to clinical practice, namely: manifestations and definition; clinical assessment and objective monitoring; etiologies and contributing factors; and evidence-based therapeutic approaches. In addition, we provide an operational definition of what constitutes nocturnal hypokinesia and outline different methods of assessment, ranging from clinical interviews and rating scales to objective night-time monitoring with inertial sensors. Optimal management of nocturnal hypokinesia in PD begins with recognizing its manifestation by inquiring about cardinal symptoms and contributing factors from, not only patients, but also carers, followed by formal assessment, and the application of individualized evidence-based treatment. Night-time dopaminergic treatment is the primary therapy; however, careful clinical judgment is required to balance the benefits with the potential adverse events related to nocturnal dopaminergic stimulation. Future studies are needed to explore the practicality of home-based objective assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia, new therapeutic options not limited to dopaminergic medications, and non-pharmacologic approaches, including training on compensatory strategies and bedroom adaptations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  19. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and telomere length predicts response to immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sekiya, Yuko; Okuno, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Nao; Wang, Xinan; Xu, Yinyan; Kawashima, Nozomu; Doisaki, Sayoko; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kudo, Kazuko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease characterized by severe defects in stem cell number resulting in hypocellular marrow and peripheral blood cytopenias. Minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and a short telomere length were identified as predictive biomarkers of immunosuppressive therapy responsiveness in aplastic anemia. We enrolled 113 aplastic anemia patients (63 boys and 50 girls) in this study to evaluate their response to immunosuppressive therapy. The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and telomere length were detected by flow cytometry. Forty-seven patients (42%) carried a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population. The median telomere length of aplastic anemia patients was -0.99 standard deviation (SD) (range -4.01-+3.01 SD). Overall, 60 patients (53%) responded to immunosuppressive therapy after six months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the absence of a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a shorter telomere length as independent unfavorable predictors of immunosuppressive therapy response at six months. The cohort was stratified into a group of poor prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria negative and shorter telomere length; 37 patients) and good prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria positive and/or longer telomere length; 76 patients), respectively. The response rates of the poor prognosis and good prognosis groups at six months were 19% and 70%, respectively (P<0.001). The combined absence of a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a short telomere length is an efficient predictor of poor immunosuppressive therapy response, which should be considered while deciding treatment options: immunosuppressive therapy or first-line hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The trial was registered in www.umin.ac.jp with number UMIN000017972. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. UV-B induction of NADP-malic enzyme in etiolated and green maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drincovich, M.F.; Casati, P.; Andreo, C.S.; Donahue, R.; Edwards, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of treatment of etiolated maize seedlings with UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm), on the activity and quantity of NADP-malic enzyme (NADPME) and on RNA levels was determined. Under low levels of PAR (14 µmol m –2 s –1 ), exposure to UV-B radiation (9 µmol m –2 s –1 ) but not UV-A radiation (11 µmol m –2 s –1 ) for 6–24 h caused a marked increase in the activity of the enzyme similar to that observed under high PAR (300 µmol m –2 s –1 ) in the absence of UV-B. Western blot analysis indicated there was a specific increase of the photosynthetically active isoform of the enzyme. This increase was also measured at the RNA level by dot blot analysis, indicating that the induction is displayed at the level of NADP-ME transcription. UV-B treatment of green leaves after a 12 h dark period also caused an increase in the activity and level of NADP-ME. The UV-B induction of NADP-ME synthesis may reflect a mechanism for induction of photosynthetic processes in C4 photosynthesis. Alternatively, the relatively low intensity of UV-B radiation present under full sunlight might provide a signal that facilitates repair of UV-B-induced damage through the increased activity of different enzymes such as NADP-ME. It is speculated that the reducing power and pyruvate generated by activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration in cellular repair processes and as substrates for the fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair. (author)

  1. Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-06-01

    The apposition compound eye of a nocturnal bee, the halictid Megalopta genalis, is described for the first time. Compared to the compound eye of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera and the diurnal halictid bee Lasioglossum leucozonium, the eye of M. genalis shows specific retinal and optical adaptations for vision in dim light. The major anatomical adaptations within the eye of the nocturnal bee are (1) nearly twofold larger ommatidial facets and (2) a 4-5 times wider rhabdom diameter than found in the diurnal bees studied. Optically, the apposition eye of M. genalis is 27 times more sensitive to light than the eyes of the diurnal bees. This increased optical sensitivity represents a clear optical adaptation to low light intensities. Although this unique nocturnal apposition eye has a greatly improved ability to catch light, a 27-fold increase in sensitivity alone cannot account for nocturnal vision at light intensities that are 8 log units dimmer than during daytime. New evidence suggests that additional neuronal spatial summation within the first optic ganglion, the lamina, is involved.

  2. Sub-optimal pH Preadaptation Improves the Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains and the Malic Acid Consumption in Wine-Like Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Mariantonietta; Pannella, Gianfranco; Tremonte, Patrizio; Tipaldi, Luca; Coppola, Raffaele; Iorizzo, Massimo; Lombardi, Silvia Jane; Sorrentino, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Forty-two oenological strains of Lb. plantarum were assessed for their response to ethanol and pH values generally encountered in wines. Strains showed a higher variability in the survival when exposed to low pH (3.5 or 3.0) than when exposed to ethanol (10 or 14%). The study allowed to individuate the highest ethanol concentration (8%) and the lowest pH value (4.0) for the growth of strains, even if the maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) resulted significantly reduced by these conditions. Two strains (GT1 and LT11) preadapted to 2% ethanol and cultured up to 14% of ethanol showed a higher growth than those non-preadapted when they were cultivated at 8% of ethanol. The evaluation of the same strains preadapted to low pH values (5.0 and 4.0) and then grown at pH 3.5 or 3.0 showed only for GT1 a sensitive μ max increment when it was cultivated in MRS at pH 3 after a preadaptation to pH 5.0. The survival of GT1 and LT11 was evaluated in Ringer's solution at 14% ethanol after a long-term adaptation in MRS with 2% ethanol or in MRS with 2% ethanol acidified at pH 5.0 (both conditions, BC). Analogously, the survival was evaluated at pH 3.5 after a long-term adaptation in MRS at pH 5.0 or in MRS BC. The impact of the physiologic state (exponential phase vs stationary phase) on the survival was also evaluated. Preadapted cells showed the same behavior of non-preadapted cells only when cultures were recovered in the stationary phase. Mathematical functions were individuated for the description of the survival of GT1 and LT11 in MRS at 14% ethanol or at pH 3.5. Finally, a synthetic wine (SW) was used to assess the behavior of Lb. plantarum GT1 and LT11 preadapted in MRS at 2% ethanol or at pH 5.0 or in BC. Only GT1 preadapted to pH 5.0 and collected in the stationary phase showed constant values of microbial counts after incubation for 15 days at 20°C. In addition, after 15 days the L-malic acid resulted completely degraded and the pH value increased of about 0.3 units.

  3. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  4. Reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii (Cactaceae): the role of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Baes, P; Saravia, M; Sühring, S; Godínez-Alvarez, H; Zamar, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii, a species endemic to northwest Argentina that has nocturnal flowers. We expected that this species had a generalised pollination system, with moths and diurnal visitors as the primary pollinators. To test this, we studied the floral biology, breeding system and floral visitors of this species and the effectiveness of nocturnal and diurnal visitors. Floral biology was defined based on floral morphology, floral cycle and nectar production of the flowers. The breeding system and relative contributions of diurnal and nocturnal visitors to fruit and seed set were analysed through field experiments. E. terscheckii flowers opened at sunset and closed the following day. The peak of nectar production occurred at midnight. Flowers were determined to be self-incompatible. Moths, bees and birds were identified as floral visitors. Moths were the most frequent visitors at night, whereas bees were the most frequent visitors during the day. Fruit production by diurnal pollinators was less than that by nocturnal pollinators; among all floral visitors, moths were the most effective pollinators. We have demonstrated for the first time that moths are the primary pollinators of columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis. Our results suggest that moths might be important pollinators of columnar cactus species with nocturnal flowers in the extra-tropical deserts of South America. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. An investigation of the impact of nocturnal enuresis on children's self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J; Butler, R J; Redsell, S A; Evans, J H C

    2002-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the relationship between the self-esteem and the self-image of children with nocturnal enuresis and to examine these in relation to various aspects of clinical and demographic variables. Previous studies investigating the self-esteem of bedwetting children have had mixed findings. Some studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis have a lower self-esteem than their non-bedwetting peers, but other studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis perceive themselves similarly to non-bedwetting children. However, what have not been studied to date are the self-perceptions of bedwetting children treated in community clinics. A total of 114 bedwetting children treated in community clinics provided the sample. School nurses conducted a routine first-visit assessment, collected baseline demographic and social information and invited children to complete the Butler Self-Image Profile and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Age and extent of wetting were not significantly related to self-concept measures. Girls had significantly (p = 0.008) higher scores on positive self-image compared with boys. Children with secondary enuresis also scored higher on positive self-image compared with those with primary nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.02). The Butler self-image scores indicated a number of significant links between positive self-image and enuresis variables, whereas the Coopersmith self-esteem scores generally failed to distinguish between the enuresis variables and closely reflected those of the negative self-image scores. These findings suggest that amongst children with nocturnal enuresis, the most vulnerable in terms of self-image are male, those with primary enuresis and those with a greater number of wet nights a week.

  6. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  7. The complement inhibitor eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillmen, P.; Young, N.S.; Schubert, J.; Brodsky, R.A.; Socie, G.; Muus, P.; Roth, A.; Szer, J.; Elebute, M.O.; Nakamura, R.; Browne, P.; Risitano, A.M.; Hill, A.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Fu, C.L.; Maciejewski, J; Rollins, S.A.; Mojcik, C.F.; Rother, R.P.; Luzzatto, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the safety and efficacy of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against terminal complement protein C5 that inhibits terminal complement activation, in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized,

  8. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To determine the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and assess risk factors that can cause this disease. Methods : After the determination of 15 primary schools in the provincial center of Ankara, questionnaires were given to 15,150 students to be answered by their parents. Detailed urologic history was obtained and physical examination applied to the students whose parents answered the questionnaire. After excluding children with polysymptomatic NE, 14060 questionnaires of MNE patients were evaluated. Demographic features with social and medical history of students and their parents, general approach of family to the children, school success of the students and general behavioral attitudes, method of toilet training and the presence of nocturnal enuresis were questioned. Results : MNE was determined in 9.0% (n: 1266 of the students and nocturnal enuresis frequency was higher in boys than girls (P< 0.05. Univariate analysis revealed gender, method of toilet training, sleep problems, school success, and general approach of the family to children and general behavioral attitudes of the children as significant factors. In logistic regression analysis; age, male gender, toilette training with threatening method, deep sleeper, sleep walking, being introverted and shy, significantly increases the risk of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusions : The current study suggests that the methods of toilet training are extremely important to prevent bedwetting and behavioral disorders due to enuresis. Parents should be well-informed about the appropriate toilet training method.

  10. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  11. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  12. Mobile Disdrometer Observations of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems During PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding microphysical processes in nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is an important objective of the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) experiment, which occurred from 1 June - 15 July 2015 in the central Great Plains region of the United States. Observations of MCSs were collected using a large array of mobile and fixed instrumentation, including ground-based radars, soundings, PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs), and aircraft. In addition to these observations, three mobile Parsivel disdrometers were deployed to obtain drop-size distribution (DSD) measurements to further explore microphysical processes in convective and stratiform regions of nocturnal MCSs. Disdrometers were deployed within close range of a multiple frequency network of mobile and fixed dual-polarization radars (5 - 30 km range), and near mobile sounding units and PISAs. Using mobile disdrometer and multiple-wavelength, dual-polarization radar data, microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions of MCSs are investigated. The analysis will also examine coordinated Range-Height Indicator (RHI) scans over the disdrometers to elucidate vertical DSD structure. Analysis of dense observations obtained during PECAN in combination with mobile disdrometer DSD measurements contributes to a greater understanding of the structural characteristics and evolution of nocturnal MCSs.

  13. Factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia in at-risk adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darrell M; Calhoun, Peter M; Maahs, David M; Chase, H Peter; Messer, Laurel; Buckingham, Bruce A; Aye, Tandy; Clinton, Paula K; Hramiak, Irene; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia remains an impediment to good glycemic control, with nocturnal hypoglycemia being particularly dangerous. Information on major contributors to nocturnal hypoglycemia remains critical for understanding and mitigating risk. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for 855 nights were studied, generated by 45 subjects 15-45 years of age with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≤8.0% who participated in a larger randomized study. Factors assessed for potential association with nocturnal hypoglycemia (CGM measurement of <60 mg/dL for ≥30 min) included bedtime blood glucose (BG), exercise intensity, bedtime snack, insulin on board, day of the week, previous daytime hypoglycemia, age, gender, HbA1c level, diabetes duration, daily basal insulin, and daily insulin dose. Hypoglycemia occurred during 221 of 885 (25%) nights and was more frequent with younger age (P<0.001), lower HbA1c levels (P=0.006), medium/high-intensity exercise during the preceding day (P=0.003), and the occurrence of antecedent daytime hypoglycemia (P=0.001). There was a trend for lower bedtime BG levels to be associated with more frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia (P=0.10). Bedtime snack, before bedtime insulin bolus, weekend versus weekday, gender, and daily basal and bolus insulin were not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia. Awareness that HbA1c level, exercise, bedtime BG level, and daytime hypoglycemia are all modifiable factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia may help patients and providers decrease the risk of hypoglycemia at night. Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia increased in a linear fashion across the range of variables, with no clear-cut thresholds to guide clinicians or patients for any particular night.

  14. [Urodynamic changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and nocturnal polyuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke; Tu, Zuo-sheng; Lü, Sheng-qi; Li, Qing-quan; Chen, Xue-qin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the urodynamic changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and nocturnal polyuria. From Sept. 2002 to Jun. 2008, 23 patients with nocturnal polyuria were diagnosed as having OSAHS by polysomnography (PSG). The number and output of nocturia, the osmotic pressure and the excretion of Na(+) were recorded during both the PSG night and CPAP titrating night. Plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) were also measured at 11PM in the 2 nights and 7AM in the next mornings. Urodynamic studies including urine flow, bladder pressure during filling, pressure-flow study during voiding and urethral pressure were carried out in these patients. Urodynamic studies were performed again after treatment with CPAP for 3 months. PSG showed that the patients with nocturnal polyuria had moderate to severe OSAHS, in which the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) being 48 ± 15 events per hour. The number of nocturnal voiding during the PSG night was more than that during the CPAP titrating night. During the PSG night, the output of nocturia, the nocturia excretion of Na(+), ANP levels (at 7am in the next morning after PSG night) increased and the osmotic pressure of nocturia decreased. CPAP therapy could reverse these abnormalities. The main characteristics of urodynamics in these patients included weak detrusor contraction, hypoesthesia in filling cystometry, and decreased bladder compliance, and detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, both the motility of the detrusor of bladder and the bladder compliance improved. CPAP therapy can effectively reverse the nocturnal polyuria in OSAHS patients. In OSAHS patients, the features of nocturia, including the changes of output, osmotic pressure and the excretion of Na(+), may be related to the secretion of high-level of ANP. During the course of chronic progressively OSAHS pathophysiology, detrusor function of bladder may be damaged

  15. Self-construing in children with primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis--an investigation of three measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne C; Butler, Richard J; Holland, Philip; Doherty-Williams, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to measure different aspects of self-construing in children with primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. 25 children aged 7-14 years, with nocturnal enuresis were recruited from a paediatric outpatient's unit specialising in enuresis [mean age 10.6 [males], 9.39 [females

  16. Eculizumab in Pregnant Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, R.J.; Hochsmann, B.; Szer, J.; Kulasekararaj, A.; Guibert, S. de; Roth, A.; Weitz, I.C.; Armstrong, E.; Risitano, A.M.; Patriquin, C.J.; Terriou, L.; Muus, P.; Hill, A.; Turner, M.P.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Peffault de Latour, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against complement protein C5 that inhibits terminal complement activation, has been shown to prevent complications of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and improve quality of life and overall survival, but data on the use of eculizumab

  17. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Farnsworth, A.; Aelterman, B.; Alves, J.A.; Azijn, K.; Bernstein, G.; Branco, S.; Desmet, P.; Dokter, A.M.; Horton, K.; Kelling, S.; Kelly, J.F.; Leijnse, H.; Rong, J.; Sheldon, D.; Van den Broeck, W.; Van Den Meersche, J.K.; Van Doren, B.M.; van Gasteren, H.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals’

  18. Uranium leaching using mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-dong Wang; Guang-yue Li; De-xin Ding; Zhi-xiang Zhou; Qin-wen Deng; Nan Hu; Yan Tan

    2013-01-01

    Both of culture temperature and pH value had impacts on the degree of uranium extraction through changing types and concentrations of mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger, and significant interactions existed between them though pH value played a leading role. And with the change of pH value of mixed organic acids, the types and contents of mixed organic acids changed and impacted on the degree of uranium extraction, especially oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid. The mean degree of uranium extraction rose to peak when the culture temperature was 25 deg C (76.14 %) and pH value of mixed organic acids was 2.3 (82.40 %) respectively. And the highest one was 83.09 %. The optimal culture temperature (25 deg C) of A. niger for uranium leaching was different from the most appropriate growing temperature (37 deg C). (author)

  19. Association between morphometric variables and nocturnal desaturation in sickle-cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Cristina; Bispo, Marcelo; Trindade-Ramos, Regina Terse

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate associations between morphometric variables, cervical circumference (CC), and abdominal circumference (AC) with the presence of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. all patients were submitted to baseline polysomnography, oral cavity measurements (maxillary intermolar distance, mandibular intermolar distance, and overjet), and CC and AC measurements. a total of 85 patients were evaluated. A positive correlation was observed between the height/age Z-score and CC measurement (r = 0.233, p = 0.031). The presence of nocturnal desaturation was associated with CC (59.2± 9.3 vs. 67.5 ± 10.7, p = 0.006) and AC measurements (27.0 ± 2.0 vs. 29.0± 2.1, p = 0.028). There was a negative correlation between desaturation and maxillary intermolar distance (r = -0.365, p = 0.001) and mandibular intermolar distance (r = -0.233, p = 0.037). the morphometric variables of CC and AC may contribute to raise suspicion of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between morphometric variables and nocturnal desaturation in sickle-cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate associations between morphometric variables, cervical circumference (CC, and abdominal circumference (AC with the presence of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. METHODS: all patients were submitted to baseline polysomnography, oral cavity measurements (maxillary intermolar distance, mandibular intermolar distance, and overjet, and CC and AC measurements. RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were evaluated. A positive correlation was observed between the height/age Z-score and CC measurement (r = 0.233, p = 0.031. The presence of nocturnal desaturation was associated with CC (59.2± 9.3 vs. 67.5 ± 10.7, p = 0.006 and AC measurements (27.0 ± 2.0 vs. 29.0± 2.1, p = 0.028. There was a negative correlation between desaturation and maxillary intermolar distance (r = -0.365, p = 0.001 and mandibular intermolar distance (r = -0.233, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: the morphometric variables of CC and AC may contribute to raise suspicion of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia.

  1. Key Process Conditions for Production of C4 Dicarboxylic Acids in Bioreactor Batch Cultures of an Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, R.M.; De Hulster, E.; Kloezen, W.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent effort to improve malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of metabolic engineering resulted in a strain that produced up to 59 g liter(-1) of malate at a yield of 0.42 mol (mol glucose)(-1) in calcium carbonate-buffered shake flask cultures. With shake flasks, process

  2. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25 0 C during summer and about 20 0 C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s -1 and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin

  3. Quantitative demonstration of the efficacy of night-time apomorphine infusion to treat nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Anan, Chanawat; Boonpang, Kamolwan; Thanawattano, Chusak; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2016-12-01

    Nocturnal hypokinesia/akinesia is one of the common night-time symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), negatively affecting quality of life of patients and caregivers. The recognition of this problem and treatment options are limited in clinical practice. To evaluate the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion, using a wearable sensor, in patients who are already on daytime continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion and still suffer from nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal parameters in 10 PD patients before and during nocturnal infusion were assessed over two nights at their homes, using a wearable sensor (trunk). Nocturnal parameters included number, velocity, acceleration, degree, and duration of rolling over, and number of times they got out of bed. Correlations with validated clinical rating scales were performed. Following nocturnal apomorphine infusion (34.8 ± 6.5 mg per night), there were significant improvements in the number of turns in bed (p = 0.027), turning velocity (p = 0.046), and the degree of turning (p = 0.028) in PD patients. Significant improvements of Modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (p = 0.005), the axial score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (p = 0.013), and Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp Scale (p = 0.014) were also observed. Our study was able to demonstrate quantitatively the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion in PD patients with nocturnal hypokinesia and demonstrated the feasibility of using wearable sensors to yield objective and quantifiable outcomes in a clinical trial setting. More studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy of this treatment in a large prospective cohort of PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuropsychological functioning related to specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, C; Dhondt, K; Roels, S P; Raes, A; Groen, L-A; Hoebeke, P; Walle, J Vande

    2015-08-01

    There is a high comorbidity demonstrated in the literature between nocturnal enuresis and several neuropsychological dysfunctions, with special emphasis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the majority of the psychological studies did not include full non-invasive screening and failed to differentiate between monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and non-MNE patients. The present study primarily aimed to investigate the association between nocturnal enuresis and (neuro)psychological functioning in a selective homogeneous patient group, namely: children with MNE and associated nocturnal polyuria (NP). Secondly, the study investigated the association between specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (maximum voided volume, number of wet nights and number of nights with NP) and ADHD-inattentive symptoms, executive functioning and quality of life. The psychological measurements were multi-informant (parents, children and teachers) and multi-method (questionnaires, clinical interviews and neuropsychological testing). Thirty children aged 6-16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were included. Of them, 80% had at least one psychological, motor or neurological difficulty. The comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, especially the predominantly inattentive presentation, was most common. According to the teachers, a low maximum voided volume (corrected for age) was associated with more attention problems, and a high number of nights with NP was associated with more behaviour-regulation problems. No significant correlations were found between specific characteristics of enuresis and quality of life. Details are demonstrated in Table. The children were recruited from a tertiary referral centre, which resulted in selection bias. Moreover, NP was defined as a urine output exceeding 100% of the expected bladder capacity for age (EBC), and not according to the expert-opinion-based International Children's Continence Society norm of 130% of EBC. The definition

  5. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd+3 with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A.; Malta, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd 3+ ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame TM in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  6. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... Epilepsy Society Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) GeneReviews (1 link) Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe ...

  7. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  8. Neural organisation in the first optic ganglion of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-11-01

    Each neural unit (cartridge) in the first optic ganglion (lamina) of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis contains nine receptor cell axons (6 short and 3 long visual fibres), and four different types of first-order interneurons, also known as L-fibres (L1 to L4) or lamina monopolar cells. The short visual fibres terminate within the lamina as three different types (svf 1, 2, 3). The three long visual fibres pass through the lamina without forming characteristic branching patterns and terminate in the second optic ganglion, the medulla. The lateral branching pattern of svf 2 into adjacent cartridges is unique for hymenopterans. In addition, all four types of L-fibres show dorso-ventrally arranged, wide, lateral branching in this nocturnal bee. This is in contrast to the diurnal bees Apis mellifera and Lasioglossum leucozonium, where only two out of four L-fibre types (L2 and L4) reach neighbouring cartridges. In M. genalis, L1 forms two sub-types, viz. L1-a and L1-b; L1-b in particular has the potential to contact several neighbouring cartridges. L2 and L4 in the nocturnal bee are similar to L2 and L4 in the diurnal bees but have dorso-ventral arborisations that are twice as wide. A new type of laterally spreading L3 has been discovered in the nocturnal bee. The extensive neural branching pattern of L-fibres in M. genalis indicates a potential role for these neurons in the spatial summation of photons from large groups of ommatidia. This specific adaptation in the nocturnal bee could significantly improve reliability of vision in dim light.

  9. Use of organic acids to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on organic fresh apples and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Ran; Park, Jeong-Woong; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial effect of organic acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on whole red organic apples and lettuce. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate organic acids as sanitizers. However, no studies have compared antimicrobial effects of various organic acids on organic fresh produce, including evaluation of color changes of produce. Apples and lettuce were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 strains each of 3 foodborne pathogens provided above and treated with 1% and 2% organic acids (propionic, acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acid) for 0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 min. With increasing treatment time and acid concentration, organic acid treatments showed significant reduction compared to the control treatment (distilled water), and differences in antimicrobial effects between organic acids were observed. After 10 min of treatment with 1% and 2% organic acids in apples, propionic (0.92 to 2.75 log reduction), acetic (0.52 to 2.78 log reduction), lactic (1.69 to >3.42 log reduction), malic (1.48 to >3.42 log reduction), and citric acid (1.52 to >3.42 log reduction) exhibited significant (P acid (1.85 to 2.86 log reduction) showed significant (P acids treatment were not significant during storage. It is suggested that organic acids have a potential as sanitizers for organic fresh produce. These data may help the organic produce industry provide safe fresh produce for consumers. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Nocturnality in synapsids predates the origin of mammals by over 100 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angielczyk, K D; Schmitz, L

    2014-10-22

    Nocturnality is widespread among extant mammals and often considered the ancestral behavioural pattern for all mammals. However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailable. Using scleral ring and orbit dimensions, we demonstrate that nocturnal activity was not an innovation unique to mammals but a character that appeared much earlier in synapsid history, possibly several times independently. The 24 Carboniferous to Jurassic non-mammalian synapsid species in our sample featured eye morphologies consistent with all major diel activity patterns, with examples of nocturnality as old as the Late Carboniferous (ca 300 Ma). Carnivores such as Sphenacodon ferox and Dimetrodon milleri, but also the herbivorous cynodont Tritylodon longaevus were likely nocturnal, whereas most of the anomodont herbivores are reconstructed as diurnal. Recognizing the complexity of diel activity patterns in non-mammalian synapsids is an important step towards a more nuanced picture of the evolutionary history of behaviour in the synapsid clade. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological Demalication and Deacetification of Musts and Wines: Can Wine Yeasts Make the Wine Taste Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grape musts sometimes reveal excess acidity. An excessive amount of organic acids negatively affect wine yeasts and yeast fermentation, and the obtained wines are characterized by an inappropriate balance between sweetness, acidity or sourness, and flavor/aroma components. An appropriate acidity, pleasant to the palate is more difficult to achieve in wines that have high acidity due to an excess of malic acid, because the Saccharomyces species in general, cannot effectively degrade malic acid during alcoholic fermentation. One approach to solving this problem is biological deacidification by lactic acid bacteria or non-Saccharomyces yeasts, like Schizosaccharomyces pombe that show the ability to degrade L-malic acid. Excessive volatile acidity in wine is also a problem in the wine industry. The use of free or immobilized Saccharomyces cells has been studied to solve both these problems since these yeasts are wine yeasts that show a good balance between taste/flavor and aromatic compounds during alcoholic fermentation. The aim of this review is to give some insights into the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to perform biological demalication (malic acid degradation and deacetification (reduction of volatile acidity of wine in an attempt to better understand their biochemistry and enological features.

  12. Endurance performance and nocturnal HRV indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2010-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated. Twenty-four sedentary subjects trained over four weeks two hours per week at an average running intensity of 76+/-4% of their heart rate reserve. The R to R ECG-intervals were recorded and heart rate variability indices including high frequency power (HFP) were calculated for the nights following the training days every week. The subjects were divided into responders and non-responders according to the improvements in the maximal velocity of the incremental treadmill test (v(max)). The responders improved their v(max) by 10.9+/-46 % (p < 0.001) while no changes were observed in the non-responders (1.6+/-3.0%), although there were no differences in any training load variables between the groups. In the responders nocturnal HFP was significantly higher during the fourth training week compared to the first training week (p=0.036). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the change in v(max) and the change in nocturnal HFP (r=0.482, p=0.042). It was concluded that after similar training, an increase in cardiac vagal modulation was related to improved v(max) in the sedentary subjects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  13. Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children (First Grade) in ... The control group consisting of 100 age-matched non-enuretic children ... was insignificantly associated with a positive family history, family size or birth rank.

  14. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  15. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia, including individual factors, family factors, peer factors, school factors, and the problematic use of high-tech devices among a large-scale representative population of Taiwanese adolescents. Cross-sectional study. A total of 23 junior high and 29 senior high/vocational schools were randomly selected across southern Taiwan. Eight thousand four adolescent students. N/A. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia were examined using chi2 automatic interaction detection analysis and logistic regression analysis models. The results indicated that an older age, self-reported depression, being in the third year of school, drinking coffee at night, and problematic Internet use were significantly associated with short nocturnal sleep duration in adolescents. Furthermore, self-reported depression, low school affinity, high family conflict, low connectedness to their peer group, and problematic Internet use were associated with subjective insomnia in adolescents. The results of this study indicate that a variety of individual, family, peer, and school factors were associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia in adolescents. Furthermore, the correlates of short sleep duration were not identical to those of subjective insomnia. Parents and health professionals should be wary of sleep patterns among adolescents who have the identified correlates of short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia.

  16. Microalbuminuria in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus relates to nocturnal systolic blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, T H

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Microalbuminuria predicts early mortality in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes mellitus patients (NIDDM). Our objective in the present study was to compare and assess the relationship between 24-hour, day and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in microalbuminuric and normoalbuminuric NIDDM and in normal control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, 24 hour ambulatory BP (daytime BP and nocturnal BP) and HbA1c were compared in microalbuminuric (n = 10) and nonmicroalbuminuric NIDDM patients (n = 10) and in nondiabetic controls (n = 9). None of the patients were taking antihypertensive agents. RESULTS: In the microlbuminuric group, whereas 24 hour and daytime systolic BP differed significantly from control values (P < 0.025 and P < 0.05 respectively), there was no difference between diabetic groups. However, nocturnal systolic BP in the microalbuminuric group was significantly higher than in the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (139 vs. 125) (P < 0.05) and a significant difference was also found between the NIDDM patients and the control group (139, 125 vs. 114) (P < 0.025). In multiple regression analysis, only nocturnal systolic BP showed a significant relationship with UAE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure seen in our microalbuminuric NIDDM patients may contribute to the increased morbidity in this group.

  17. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  18. The effect of dexlansoprazole MR on nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances in patients with symptomatic GERD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Ronnie; Johnson, David A; Orr, William C; Han, Cong; Mody, Reema; Stern, Kathleen N; Pilmer, Betsy L; Perez, M Claudia

    2011-03-01

    Nocturnal heartburn and related sleep disturbances are common among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluated the efficacy of dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg in relieving nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances, improving work productivity, and decreasing nocturnal symptom severity in patients with symptomatic GERD. Patients (N=305) with frequent, moderate-to-very severe nocturnal heartburn and associated sleep disturbances were randomized 1:1 in a double-blind fashion to receive dexlansoprazole MR or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the percentage of nights without heartburn. Secondary end points were the percentage of patients with relief of nocturnal heartburn and of GERD-related sleep disturbances over the last 7 days of treatment. At baseline and week 4/final visit, patients completed questionnaires that assessed sleep quality, work productivity, and the severity and impact of nocturnal GERD symptoms. Dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg (n=152) was superior to placebo (n=153) in median percentage of nights without heartburn (73.1 vs. 35.7%, respectively; Pheartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances (47.5 vs. 19.6%, 69.7 vs. 47.9%, respectively; Pheartburn, in reducing GERD-related sleep disturbances and the consequent impairments in work productivity, and in improving sleep quality/quality of life.

  19. Experimental temperature manipulations alter songbird autumnal nocturnal migratory restlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berchtold Adrienne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Migrating birds may respond to a variety of environmental cues in order to time migration. During the migration season nocturnally migrating songbirds may migrate or stop-over at their current location, and when migrating they may vary the rate or distance of migration on any given night. It has long been known that a variety of weather-related factors including wind speed and direction, and temperature, are correlated with migration in free-living birds, however these variables are often correlated with each other. In this study we experimentally manipulated temperature to determine if it would directly modulate nocturnal migratory restlessness in songbirds. We experimentally manipulated temperature between 4, 14, and 24°C and monitored nocturnal migratory restlessness during autumn in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated sparrows are relatively shortdistance migrants with a prolonged autumnal migration, and we thus predicted they might be sensitive to weatherrelated cues when deciding whether to migrate or stopover. At warm temperatures (24°C none of the birds exhibited migratory restlessness. The probability of exhibiting migratory restlessness, and the intensity of this restlessness (number of infra-red beam breaks increased at cooler (14°C, 4°C temperatures. These data support the hypothesis that one of the many factors that birds use when making behavioural decisions during migration is temperature, and that birds can respond to temperature directly independently of other weather-related cues.

  20. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. The vomeronasal complex of nocturnal strepsirhines and implications for the ancestral condition in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Dennis, John C; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Durham, Emily L; Burrows, Anne M; Bonar, Christopher J; Steckler, Natalie K; Morrison, Edward E; Smith, Timothy D

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the vomeronasal organ in extant nocturnal strepsirhines as a model for ancestral primates. Cadaveric samples from 10 strepsirhine species, ranging from fetal to adult ages, were studied histologically. Dimensions of structures in the vomeronasal complex, such as the vomeronasal neuroepithelium (VNNE) and vomeronasal cartilage (VNC) were measured in serial sections and selected specimens were studied immunohistochemically to determine physiological aspects of the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Osteological features corresponding to vomeronasal structures were studied histologically and related to 3-D CT reconstructions. The VNC consistently rests in a depression on the palatal portion of the maxilla, which we refer to as the vomeronasal groove (VNG). Most age comparisons indicate that in adults VNNE is about twice the length compared with perinatal animals. In VNNE volume, adults are 2- to 3-fold larger compared with perinatal specimens. Across ages, a strong linear relationship exists between VNNE dimensions and body length, mass, and midfacial length. Results indicate that the VNNE of nocturnal strepsirhines is neurogenic postnatally based on GAP43 expression. In addition, based on Olfactory Marker Protein expression, terminally differentiated VSNs are present in the VNNE. Therefore, nocturnal strepsirhines have basic similarities to rodents in growth and maturational characteristics of VSNs. These results indicate that a functional vomeronasal system is likely present in all nocturnal strepsirhines. Finally, given that osteological features such as the VNG are visible on midfacial bones, primate fossils can be assessed to determine whether primate ancestors possessed a vomeronasal complex morphologically similar to that of modern nocturnal strepsirhines. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Warrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes

  3. Separating selection by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Wimmergren, Carolina; Agren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Most plants attract multiple flower visitors that may vary widely in their effectiveness as pollinators. Floral evolution is expected to reflect interactions with the most important pollinators, but few studies have quantified the contribution of different pollinators to current selection on floral traits. To compare selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the environment by conducting supplemental hand-pollinations and selective pollinator exclusions in two populations in central Norway. In both populations, the exclusion of diurnal pollinators significantly reduced seed production compared to open pollination, whereas the exclusion of nocturnal pollinators did not. There was significant selection on traits expected to influence pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency in both the diurnal and nocturnal pollination treatment. The relative strength of selection among plants exposed to diurnal and nocturnal visitors varied among traits and populations, but the direction of selection was consistent. The results suggest that diurnal pollinators are more important than nocturnal pollinators for seed production in the study populations, but that both categories contribute to selection on floral morphology. The study illustrates how experimental manipulations can link specific categories of pollinators to observed selection on floral traits, and thus improve our understanding of how species interactions shape patterns of selection.

  4. Nocturia in men is a chaotic condition dominated by nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yuta; Sugihara, Toru; Azuma, Takeshi; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2015-05-01

    To characterize nocturia in men based on frequency volume chart data and symptom profiles assessed using the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score and Athens Insomnia Scale questionnaires. The Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score and Athens Insomnia Scale questionnaires were administered to 299 consecutive treatment naïve men with nocturia (≥one time per night). Frequency volume chart data were recorded for 2 days. Correlations between nocturia and clinical characteristics including symptom scores, clinical diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, uroflowmetry and prostate volume were analyzed. Patients were divided into five groups: one time (n = 36), two times (n = 65), three times (n = 85), four times (n = 78) and five times (n = 34) of nocturia. Age, prevalence or severity of chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, low bladder capacity, nocturnal polyuria, urgency, bladder pain and sleep disorders were significantly correlated with the severity of nocturia. The Spearman correlation analysis identified eight possible independent factors for nocturia: age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urgency, bladder pain, sleep quality, sleepiness during the day, average voided volume and nocturnal volume divided by body weight. Logistic regression analysis showed that nocturnal volume divided by body weight was the strongest factor of nocturia, and ≥7, 9 and 9.7 mL/kg were practical cut-off values of three, four and five times per night of nocturia, respectively. Nocturia in men is a chaotic condition dominated by nocturnal polyuria, and related to multiple factors including age, renal function, urgency, bladder pain, insomnia and bladder volume. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  6. Alternate substrates and isotope effects as a probe of the malic enzyme reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavva, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Dissociation constants for alternative dinucleotide substrates and competitive inhibitors suggest that the dinucleotide binding site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme is hydrophobic in the vicinity of the nicotinamide ring. Changes in the divalent metal ion activator from Mg 2+ to Mn 2+ or Cd 2+ results in a decrease in the dinucleotide affinity and an increase in the affinity for malate. Primary deuterium and 13 C isotope effects obtained with the different metal ions suggest either a change in the transition state structure for the hydride transfer or decarboxylation steps or both. Deuterium isotope effects are finite whether reactants are maintained at saturating or limiting concentrations with all the metal ions and dinucleotide substrates used. For the native enzyme, primary deuterium isotope effects increase with a concomitant decrease in the 13 C effects when NAD is replaced by an alternate dinucleotide substrate different in redox potential

  7. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  8. Primary nocturnal enuresis is associated with lower intelligence quotient scores in boys from poorer socioeconomic status families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Abbas; Bahrainian, Seyed Abdolmajid; Khoshdel, Alireza; Jalaly, Niloofar; Golshan, Shabnam; Pakmanesh, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    To explore intelligence quotient in boys with primary nocturnal enuresis compared with normal boys considering their socioeconomic status. A total of 152 school-aged boys (including 55 boys with primary nocturnal enuresis and 97 matched normal controls) were assessed. Boys with a history of any neurological or urological disease were excluded. Two different districts of Tehran: Khani-Abad (a poor district) and Pirouzi (a middle class district) districts were enrolled according to socioeconomic status data reported by the World Health Organization. Intelligence tests were carried out using a validated Iranian translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised. Total, as well as performance intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient scores and verbal-performance discrepancy (the difference between verbal and performance intelligence quotient scores for each individual) were compared using a t-test between boys with primary nocturnal enuresis in each district and their matched controls. Considering each district separately, the total intelligence quotient score was lower in primary nocturnal enuresis cases than controls only in the lower income district (90.7 ± 23.3 vs 104.8 ± 14.7, P = 0.002). Similarly, boys with primary nocturnal enuresis ranked lower in verbal intelligence quotient (P = 0.002) and performance intelligence quotient (P = 0.004) compared with their matched normal controls only in lower income district, whereas in the higher income district, boys with primary nocturnal enuresis ranked similar in total intelligence quotient to their matched controls. Boys with primary nocturnal enuresis had a lower intelligence quotient compared with the control participants only in low-income district. It seems important to adjust the results of the intelligence quotient assessment in these children according to their socioeconomic status. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Associated with Nocturnal Dip in Blood Pressure: Findings from the Maracaibo Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesús D; Lee, Joseph H; Petitto, Michele; Yépez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Jin, Zhezhen; Chávez, Carlos A; Pirela, Rosa V; Calmón, Gustavo E; Lee, Winston; Johnson, Matthew P; Mena, Luis J; Al-Aswad, Lama A; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Allikmets, Rando; Maestre, Gladys E; De Moraes, C Gustavo

    2018-01-05

    To determine which nocturnal blood pressure (BP) parameters (low levels or extreme dipper status) are associated with an increased risk of glaucomatous damage in Hispanics. Observational cross-sectional study. A subset (n = 93) of the participants from the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS) who met the study eligibility criteria were included. These participants, who were at least 40 years of age, had measurements for optical tomography coherence, visual field (VF) tests, 24-hour BP, office BP, and intraocular pressure 20% compared with daytime BP) were significant risk factors for glaucomatous damage (odds ratio, 19.78 and 5.55, respectively). In this population, the link between nocturnal BP and GON is determined by extreme dipping effects rather than low nocturnal BP levels alone. Further studies considering extreme decreases in nocturnal BP in individuals at high risk of glaucoma are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nocturnal polyuria and decreased serum testosterone: is there an association in men with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the putative association between nocturia and decreased serum testosterone in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Frequency volume charts and serum testosterone levels of patients visiting the outpatient clinic for lower urinary tract symptoms were collected and analyzed. Age, prostate volume, body mass index and the presence of comorbidities were accounted for. Frequency volume charts were analyzed for pathophysiological components of nocturnal polyuria, global polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity and increased frequency to identify associated risks. Frequency volume charts were also used to chart 8-h changes of volume, frequency and capacity to identify time diurnal interactions with risk factors based on serum testosterone levels. A total of 2180 patients were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed testosterone decreased 0.142 ng/mL for every increase in nocturia, independent of other factors. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant difference between pathophysiological components. Decreased testosterone was shown to carry a significant independent risk for overall nocturia (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.013-2.527, P = 0.044), and particularly nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio 1.934, 95% confidence interval 1.001-3.737, P = 0.027). Repeated measurement models showed patients with serum testosterone below 2.50 ng/mL to have a paradoxical increase in nocturnal urine volume at night. Nocturia, especially nocturnal polyuria, is associated with decreased serum testosterone. Patients with low serum testosterone show increased nocturnal urine output. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  11. Influence of Frequent Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis on Food Preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin; Franssen, Casper; van der Schans, Cees; Smit, Lianne; Noordman, Sabine; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective: Dialysis patients frequently report a change of taste that is reversible after renal transplantation, suggesting that uremic toxins may negatively influence taste. Currently, frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) is the most effective method of hemodialysis, and is associated with

  12. Effects of nitrogen availability on polymalic acid biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongkang; Song, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Bochu; Zou, Xiang

    2016-08-22

    Polymalic acid (PMA) is a novel polyester polymer that has been broadly used in the medical and food industries. Its monomer, L-malic acid, is also a potential C4 platform chemical. However, little is known about the mechanism of PMA biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans. In this study, the effects of different nitrogen concentration on cell growth and PMA biosynthesis were investigated via comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analyses, and a related signaling pathway was also evaluated. A high final PMA titer of 44.00 ± 3.65 g/L (49.9 ± 4.14 g/L of malic acid after hydrolysis) was achieved in a 5-L fermentor under low nitrogen concentration (2 g/L of NH4NO3), which was 18.3 % higher yield than that obtained under high nitrogen concentration (10 g/L of NH4NO3). Comparative transcriptomics profiling revealed that a set of genes, related to the ribosome, ribosome biogenesis, proteasome, and nitrogen metabolism, were significantly up- or down-regulated under nitrogen sufficient conditions, which could be regulated by the TOR signaling pathway. Fourteen protein spots were identified via proteomics analysis, and were found to be associated with cell division and growth, energy metabolism, and the glycolytic pathway. qRT-PCR further confirmed that the expression levels of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthetic pathway (GLK, CS, FUM, DAT, and MCL) and the TOR signaling pathway (GS, TOR1, Tap42, and Gat1) were upregulated due to nitrogen limitation. Under rapamycin stress, PMA biosynthesis was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the transcription levels of TOR1, MCL, and DAT were also downregulated. The level of nitrogen could regulate cell growth and PMA biosynthesis. Low concentration of nitrogen was beneficial for PMA biosynthesis, which could upregulate the expression of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthesis pathway. Cell growth and PMA biosynthesis might be mediated by the TOR signaling pathway in

  13. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  14. Self-reported sleep bruxism and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: relationship to gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups.

  15. Nocturnality constrains morphological and functional diversity in the eyes of reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Lars

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient light levels are often considered to drive the evolution of eye form and function. Diel activity pattern is the main mechanism controlling the visual environment of teleost reef fish, with day-active (diurnal fish active in well-illuminated conditions, whereas night-active (nocturnal fish cope with dim light. Physiological optics predicts several specific evolutionary responses to dim-light vision that should be reflected in visual performance features of the eye. Results We analyzed a large comparative dataset on morphological traits of the eyes in 265 species of teleost reef fish in 43 different families. The eye morphology of nocturnal reef teleosts is characterized by a syndrome that indicates better light sensitivity, including large relative eye size, high optical ratio and large, rounded pupils. Improved dim-light image formation comes at the cost of reduced depth of focus and reduction of potential accommodative lens movement. Diurnal teleost reef fish, released from the stringent functional requirements of dim-light vision have much higher morphological and optical diversity than nocturnal species, with large ranges of optical ratio, depth of focus, and lens accommodation. Conclusions Physical characteristics of the environment are an important factor in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate eye. Both teleost reef fish and terrestrial amniotes meet the functional requirements of dim-light vision with a similar evolutionary response of morphological and optical modifications. The trade-off between improved dim-light vision and reduced optical diversity may be a key factor in explaining the lower trophic diversity of nocturnal reef teleosts.

  16. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; Kurzeja, Robert; Leclerc, Monique; Duarte, Henrique; Parker, Matthew; Watson, Thomas

    2015-10-17

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.

  17. [Is nocturnal polyuria more frequent among patients with Parkinson's disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, J; Torny, F; Dumas, J-P; Gamé, X; Descazeaud, A

    2015-05-01

    Nocturia is a frequent complaint in the population of idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (IPD). The consequences of nocturia in the IPD population are at high importance as these patients have motor problems and therefore a risk of nocturnal fall. The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of nocturia in patients with MPI, by determining the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (NP) in this population. A prospective study by bladder diary was conducted on 70 consecutive IPD patients consulting for regular neurological follow-up at a non-severe stage. Nocturia was defined as 1 or more awakenings to urinate. Two definitions of NP were used: nocturnal diuresis 33% or higher of the total diuresis (NUV33), which is the ICS (International Continence Society) definition, and nocturnal diuresis 90 mL/h or higher (NUP90). The mean patient age was 71 years (45-86, sex ratio 33/30). On average, patients were diagnosed for IPD 6.76 years earlier. The prevalence of NP was 64.5% according to NUV33 definition, and 17.7% according to NUP90 definition. Among patients with nocturia, the prevalence of NP was 66% (NUV33) and 21.5% (NUP90). No association was observed between disease duration of the IPD and the prevalence of nocturia and NP. Patients 70 years and older were more likely to have NP as defined by NUV33 than those less than 70 years (72.7% versus 55.17%, P=0.015). Men had more frequently nocturia (33.3% versus 20.7%, P=0.027). The prevalence of NP and nocturia was analyzed in patients with IPD at a non-severe stage. This prevalence was not higher than in the general population of the same age. The mechanism of nocturia in patients with IPD is not unambiguous and therefore requires to be explored by a bladder diary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. An Improved Iterative Fitting Method to Estimate Nocturnal Residual Layer Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL is an atmospheric region near the Earth’s surface. It is significant for weather forecasting and for the study of air quality and climate. In this study, the top of nocturnal residual layers—which are what remain of the daytime mixing layer—are estimated by an elastic backscatter Lidar in Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E, a city in Central China. The ideal profile fitting method is widely applied to determine the nocturnal residual layer height (RLH from Lidar data. However, the method is seriously affected by an optical thick layer. Thus, we propose an improved iterative fitting method to eliminate the optical thick layer effect on RLH detection using Lidar. Two typical case studies observed by elastic Lidar are presented to demonstrate the theory and advantage of the proposed method. Results of case analysis indicate that the improved method is more practical and precise than profile-fitting, gradient, and wavelet covariance transform method in terms of nocturnal RLH evaluation under low cloud conditions. Long-term observations of RLH performed with ideal profile fitting and improved methods were carried out in Wuhan from 28 May 2011 to 17 June 2016. Comparisons of Lidar-derived RLHs with the two types of methods verify that the improved solution is practical. Statistical analysis of a six-year Lidar signal was conducted to reveal the monthly average values of nocturnal RLH in Wuhan. A clear RLH monthly cycle with a maximum mean height of about 1.8 km above ground level was observed in August, and a minimum height of about 0.7 km was observed in January. The variation in monthly mean RLH displays an obvious quarterly dependence, which coincides with the annual variation in local surface temperature.

  19. Sibelius: Luonnotar. Chevauchee nocturne et lever du soleil / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Luonnotar. Chevauchee nocturne et lever du soleil. 4 Legendes. Orchestre Philharmonique Royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi. Virgin Classics 545 213-2 (CD:167F). 1996. TT: 1h 13'22"

  20. Interactions of rare earth elements with bacteria and organic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Nankawa, Takuya; Yoshida, Takahiro; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kimura, Takaumi; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of rare earth elements (REEs) Eu(III) and/or Ce(III, IV) with the common soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and organic ligands, such as malic acid, citric acid, a siderophore (DFO), cellulose, chitin, and chitosan. Malic acid formed complexes with Eu(III), but degradation of malic acid was observed when the ratio of malic acid to Eu(III) was higher than 100. Citric acid formed a stoichiometric complex with Eu(III) that was not degraded by P. fluorescens. Adsorption of Eu(III) from the DFO complex occurred as a free ion dissociated from DFO and not as the Eu(III)-DFO complex. Cerium(III) was oxidized to Ce(IV) during complexation with DFO to form the Ce(IV)-DFO complex. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) analysis showed that cellulose, chitin, and chitosan, respectively, formed a weak complex, an inner-spherical complex, and an outer-spherical complex with Eu(III). This method also demonstrated that the coordination environment of Eu(III) adsorbed on P. fluorescens possessed similar characteristics to that of chitin, and revealed that adsorption of Eu(III) on P. fluorescens was through a multidentate and predominantly inner-spherical coordination

  1. Effects of desmopressin for the treatment of nocturnal polyuria in elderly women: impact on related sleep quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Yu, Ho Song; Chung, Ho Suck; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated the efficacy, safety, and impact of desmopressin on quality of sleep in treating nocturnal polyuria in elderly women. Methods: We recruited 60 women over 60 years old with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including nocturia, and with nocturnal polyuria. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as nighttime urine production exceeding 33% of the 24-hour total urine volume determined by a frequency volume (FV) chart. All patients failed to respond to treatment of their underlying disease and evening fluid restriction. Desmopressin 0.1 mg was administered orally at bedtime for 12 weeks. The participants completed a series of questionnaires on the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) sleep scale and FV chart before and after treatment. Results: The patient population had a mean age of 69.2 ± 9.4 years (range: 61–81). The mean duration of symptoms was 61.2 ± 45.1 months. Significant decreases were evident after desmopressin treatment in the number of nocturia episodes (3.63 ± 1.61 to 2.00 ± 1.13, p = 0.01), nocturnal urine volume (p = 0.01), nocturnal polyuria index (NPI) (p = 0.01), and nocturia index (NI) p = 0.01). Among the categories of the MOS sleep scale, sleep index (p = 0.003), sleep disturbance (p = 0.001), snoring (p = 0.028), and shortness of breath (p = 0.036) significantly changed, with a decreased number of nocturia episodes. Adverse events were mild. Conclusions: Desmopressin is an effective treatment for nocturnal polyuria in elderly women, where conservative treatment has failed. Sleep quality is also improved. PMID:26600882

  2. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus. Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  3. Radiation forcing by the atmospheric aerosols in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. K.; Ponnulakshami, V. K.; Mukund, V.; Subramanian, G.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2013-05-01

    We have conducted experimental and theoretical studies on the radiation forcing due to suspended aerosols in the nocturnal boundary layer. We present radiative, conductive and convective equilibrium profile for different bottom boundaries where calculated Rayleigh number is higher than the critical Rayleigh number in laboratory conditions. The temperature profile can be fitted using an exponential distribution of aerosols concentration field. We also present the vertical temperature profiles in a nocturnal boundary in the presence of fog in the field. Our results show that during the presence of fog in the atmosphere, the ground temperature is greater than the dew-point temperature. The temperature profiles before and after the formation of fog are also observed to be different.

  4. The influence of periodic increases of human activity on crepuscular and nocturnal mammals: Testing the weekend effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Joshua H; Howell, Ryan G; Hall, Lucas K; McMillan, Brock R

    2018-01-01

    Human recreation can negatively affect wildlife, particularly on weekends when human activity is highest (i.e., the weekend effect). Much of what we understand about the weekend effect is based on research conducted on diurnal species, which have greater temporal overlap with humans. Because nocturnal species generally avoid times when humans are active, they are likely less affected by anthropogenic activity on weekends. Our objective was to test the weekend effect in relation to the degree of nocturnality of mammals in a recreational area. We predicted that as nocturnality increased, the effect of human activity would decrease. To address our objective, we placed 50 remote cameras along the Diamond Fork River in Utah from January to June 2015. We found that three out of the four focal species supported our predictions. Mule deer (crepuscular) reduced activity throughout our entire study area during weekends and avoided campgrounds. Beavers and mountain lions (both nocturnal) did not negatively respond to increased human activity. Raccoons (nocturnal) reduced activity during weekends, but only within campground areas. Our findings indicate that as the temporal overlap increases between wildlife and humans, so does the influence that humans have on wildlife. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quininium Malates: Partial Chiral Discrimination via Diastereomeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quinine was employed as a resolving agent for racemic malic acid. The resultant product was a quininium salt containing 75 % of the D-malate anion. Quinine was also crystallized with pure L- and D-malic acids and the structures of the resulting diastereomeric salts were elucidated. The crystal packings were analyzed in ...

  6. L-malate production by metabolically engineered escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-11-17

    A process for the production of malic acid in commercially significant quantities from the carbon compounds by genetically modified bacterial strains (GMBS; also referred to as biocatalysts or genetically modified microorganisms) is disclosed. Microorganisms suitable for the production of malic acid can be cultured in one or two-step processes as disclosed herein.

  7. Molecular bass for a malic enzyme null mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Wise, L.S.; Rubin, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Many tissues from normal (wt) mice have cytosolic malic enzyme (ME) activity and express two mRNAs (2 and 3.1 kb) that code for a single ME polypeptide. Mod-1 null (M-n) mice lack cytosolic ME activity, but express 2.5 and 3.6 kb mRNAs that hybridize with wt ME cDNAs. To investigate the basis for the ME deficiency cDNAs corresponding to M-n ME RNA were cloned. A λgt11 library was prepared using M-n liver mRNA as a template. Wt ME cDNA probes hybridized with several recombinant phages and a 2kb insert with an atypical (non-wt) restriction pattern was subcloned in pGEM 1 and sequenced. The M-n ME cDNA contains an internal directly repeated sequence that corresponds to nts 1109-1617 in the coding region of wt ME cDNA. A restriction fragment from M-n ME cDNA that includes the first 204 bp of repeated sequence and 306 bp of contiguous 5' sequence was subcloned into pGEM 1 and used as a template for synthesizing 32 P-labeled anti-sense RNA. After hybridization with M-n liver RNA the 510 nt transcript was resistant to RNA digestion; after hybridization with wt RNA only fragments corresponding to the normally non-contiguous 204 bp and 306 bp segments of the insert were protected. Thus the partial duplication of coding sequence in M-n ME mRNA is confirmed. Analyses of intron-exon organization in the relevant regions of the wt and M-n ME genes will provide further insights into the mechanism underlying the ME null mutation

  8. Navigational efficiency of nocturnal Myrmecia ants suffers at low light levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendra

    Full Text Available Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available.

  9. USE OF THREE-COMPONENT LEVODOPA (LEVODOPA/CARBIDOPA/ENTACAPONE TO CORRECT NOCTURNAL SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON,S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kulua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of late-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD with nocturnal symptoms and fluctuations and to present successful experience in using the three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone as a single dose prior to sleep. Patient V. aged 72 years took medical advice at the Department of Neurology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, for complaints of constrained movements, inability to turn in bed independently, painful muscle cramps, light sleep with nocturnal awakenings, and frequent (5–6 times urinations at night. The first symptoms of the disease appeared 12 years ago when the patient began to notice sluggishness, altered handwriting, and clumsiness during small movements of the right hand. By taking into account symptoms (obvious nocturnal akinesia, overactive bladder, sleep disorders, and cramps and the results of his examination, the patient was diagnosed with the akinetic-rigid form of PD (4 Hoehn-Yarh scores. Therapy was corrected as follows: the dose of amantadine remained the same (300 mg; its last administration is recommended to be at 16:00; the daily dose of levodopa was 700 mg; that of levodopa/benserazide was 550 mg/day (1 tablet × 3/4 tablet × 1 tablet. The evening intake of levodopa was changed for that of the three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa 150 mg/ carbidopa 37.5 mg/entacapone 200 mg. Results. After 3 months, the patient was observed to have significant health improvement: reduced nocturnal and morning akinesia, better gait, a considerably smaller number of nocturnal urinations (less than once per night, regression of painful calf muscle cramps, and improved sleep. Conclusion. The three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone is effective in treating late-stage PD. Its use as a single dose before going to bed has led to regressive nocturnal symptoms, better sleep, and lower motor fluctuations. 

  10. Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M

    2018-03-01

    The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO 2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light.

  11. Dual Effects of Alpha-Hydroxy Acids on the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Chung Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AHAs are organic acids with one hydroxyl group attached to the alpha position of the acid. AHAs including glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are often used extensively in cosmetic formulations. AHAs have been used as superficial peeling agents as well as to ameliorate the appearance of keratoses and acne in dermatology. However, caution should be exercised in relation to certain adverse reactions among patients using products with AHAs, including swelling, burning, and pruritus. Whether AHAs enhance or decrease photo damage of the skin remains unclear, compelling us to ask the question, is AHA a friend or a foe of the skin? The aim of this manuscript is to review the various biological effects and mechanisms of AHAs on human keratinocytes and in an animal model. We conclude that whether AHA is a friend or foe of human skin depends on its concentration. These mechanisms of AHAs are currently well understood, aiding the development of novel approaches for the prevention of UV-induced skin damage.

  12. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of Nd{sup +3} with amino acids: phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, Soraya; Carubelli, Celia R.; Massabni, Ana M.G.; Stucchi, Elizabeth B.; Leite, Sergio R. de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Malta, Oscar [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    1998-10-01

    We have studied behaviour of the phenomenological 4f-4f intensity parameters in compounds of the Nd{sup 3+} ion with glycine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, DL-malic acid and Aspartame{sup TM} in aqueous solution, as function of the pK values and partial charges on the oxygens of the carboxylate groups of these molecules. The results are discussed and qualitatively interpreted in terms of the forced electric dipole and dynamic coupling mechanisms of the 4f-4f intensities, thus indicating that the forced electric dipole mechanism is dominant. (author)

  13. Nocturnal raptors (owls: contributions to study of its popularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindelia Rincón Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes the nocturnal birds of prey on the campus of Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC; in English, Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia, in addition to the contribution to the study of its popularity, with students in fifth grade from two educational institutions, one, of the urban context, and other, of the rural context. The study involved the implementation of the didactic component to promote recognition of their biological significance in elementary school students. Among the findings two species of nocturnal birds of prey were identified: common currucutú owl (Tropical Screech Owl, Megascops choliba and the barn owl (Tyto alba, with a relative abundance of 12 individuals and 10 individuals, respectively. It also includes changes in perception from students regarding beliefs and superstitions about such species, which favors the recognition of the biological role in the ecosystem and the need for its conservation.

  14. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Perkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.

  15. The effect of lateral decubitus position on nocturnal intraocular pressure over a habitual 24-hour period in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Zhen, Yi; Wang, Hao; Yang, Diya; Wang, Ningli

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP) on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA). During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm), IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500-1000 lux) after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP) for either eye. Phour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects.

  16. Social support and nocturnal blood pressure dipping: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate associations of functional and structural social support with nocturnal BP dipping assessed over a minimum of 24 hours. A total of 297 articles were identified. Of these, 11 met criteria for inclusion; all studies were cross-sectional in design and included adult participants only (mean age = 19 to 72 years). Evidence was most consistent for an association between functional support and BP dipping, such that 5 of 7 studies reported statistically (or marginally) significant positive associations with BP dipping. Statistically significant functional support-BP dipping associations were moderate (standardized effect size (d) = 0.41) to large (d = 2.01) in magnitude. Studies examining structural support were fewer and relatively less consistent; however, preliminary evidence was observed for associations of marital status and social contact frequency with BP dipping. Statistically significant structural support findings were medium (d = 0.53) to large (d = 1.13) in magnitude. Overall, findings suggest a link between higher levels of functional support and greater nocturnal BP dipping; preliminary evidence was also observed for the protective effects of marriage and social contact frequency. Nonetheless, the relatively small number of studies conducted to date and the heterogeneity of findings across meaningful subgroups suggest that additional research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.

  17. Treatment Options for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis by Parents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    common treatment option was waking up child at intervals during the night to void by 103 (45.2 ... patient/family education, simple behavioral ... nocturnal enuresis were employing in managing ..... Dental and Medical Sciences 2014;13:41 – 4.

  18. A Climatology of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets at Cabauw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Baltink, H.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A climatology of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) is presented for the topographically flat measurement site at Cabauw, the Netherlands. LLJ characteristics are derived from a 7-yr half-hourly database of wind speed profiles, obtained from the 200-m mast and a wind profiler. Many LLJs at Cabauw

  19. The effect of lateral decubitus position on nocturnal intraocular pressure over a habitual 24-hour period in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hao

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. METHODS: Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA. During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm, IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500-1000 lux after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (<10 lux at 11:30 pm, 1:30 am, 3:30 am, and 5:30 am. The subjects were awakened and maintained each position for 5 min before the measurement. The 24-hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP for either eye. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULTS: Nineteen healthy subjects were included with a mean age of 51.3±5.8 years. During the nocturnal period, a significant IOP difference was found between the dependent eye (the eye on the lower side of LDP and the supine position, but not for all the nocturnal time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. CONCLUSION: Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects.

  20. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Won; Park, Jinsung; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong-Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Won Tae

    2015-09-01

    To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33), aged ≥60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking α-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) completed the study according to the study protocol (per-protocol group), and 24 dropped out (dropout group). Of the 24 patients in the dropout group, 5 withdrew consent due to side effects or lack of efficacy, 7 were lost to follow-up at 4 weeks, 8 were lost to follow-up at 12 weeks, and 4 dropped out due to failure to complete 3-day frequency volume charts at 12 weeks. In the per-protocol group, there was significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), especially question numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and the quality of life question (P=0.001, P=0.007, Psilodosin monotherapy exhibits good efficacy in improving nocturia and nocturnal polyuria; however, the mean NPi was still >0.33. Considering the high dropout rate of our study due to no implementation of 3-day frequency volume charts, prospective and large-scale studies are needed to confirm our results.

  1. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. Results : In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Conclusion : Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups. PMID:25352924

  2. Differential arousal regulation by prokineticin 2 signaling in the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Burton, Katherine J; Neal, Matthew L; Qiao, Yu; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Sun, Yanjun; Xu, Xiangmin; Ma, Yuanye; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-08-18

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the active phase to either day or night period for the diurnal and the nocturnal mammals are unclear. Here we report that prokineticin 2, previously shown as a circadian clock output molecule, is expressed in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and the expression of prokineticin 2 in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is oscillatory in a clock-dependent manner. We further show that the prokineticin 2 signaling is required for the activity and arousal suppression by light in the mouse. Between the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey, a signaling receptor for prokineticin 2 is differentially expressed in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and the superior colliculus, brain projection targets of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Blockade with a selective antagonist reveals the respectively inhibitory and stimulatory effect of prokineticin 2 signaling on the arousal levels for the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey. Thus, the mammalian diurnality or nocturnality is likely determined by the differential signaling of prokineticin 2 from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells onto their retinorecipient brain targets.

  3. Pathophysiology of nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittig, Søren; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The perception of the pathogenesis of enuresis has undergone marked changes over the past 30 years from a psychiatric/psychological background to a more somatic model where nighttime urine production and bladder capacity are main components together with an arousal dysfunction that prevents...... that dysfunction of the intrinsic circadian regulation located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus results in dysfunction of one or more of the brainstem centers involved in AVP secretion, arousal function, bladder control, and blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, nocturnal enuresis has a strong genetic influence...... that in some families present as autosomal dominant inheritance with high degree of penetrance. Linkage to several chromosomal areas have been confirmed in such families although a specific causative enuresis gene has not yet been identified. In conclusion, our understanding of enuresis pathophysiology has...

  4. Seeing in the dark: vision and visual behaviour in nocturnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    In response to the pressures of predation, parasitism and competition for limited resources, several groups of (mainly) tropical bees and wasps have independently evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. Despite this, nocturnal bees and wasps are able to forage at night, with many species capable of flying through a dark and complex forest between the nest and a foraging site, a behaviour that relies heavily on vision and is limited by light intensity. In the two best-studied species - the Central American sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae) and the Indian carpenter bee Xylocopa tranquebarica (Apidae) - learned visual landmarks are used to guide foraging and homing. Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. Moreover, signals generated in the photoreceptors, even though amplified by a high transduction gain, are too noisy and slow to transmit significant amounts of information in dim light. How have nocturnal bees and wasps resolved these paradoxes? Even though this question remains to be answered conclusively, a mounting body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that the slow and noisy visual signals generated by the photoreceptors are spatially summed by second-order monopolar cells in the lamina, a process that could dramatically improve visual reliability for the coarser and slower features of the visual world at night.

  5. Improvement of exhaustion and fixation of chrome tan by hydroxy organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashy, E.H.A.; Khedr, M.H.; EL-Sayed, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent in the tanning industry, but it causes extreme pollution due to the incomplete exhaustion of the serious chrome cations in tanning bath. The exhaustion and fixation of chrome tan were improved in this study through treatment of delimed hide with three carboxylic acids named citric, malic and tartaric acids before exposure to tanning process. The process was optimized taking into the account the shaking rate, chrome concentration (%), initial ph, acids concentration, and temperature and contact time. The optimum conditions for exhaustion, fixation, shrinkage temperature as well as skin quality showed that agitation rate of 150 rpm, chrome concentration of 16%, initial ph of 8.5, acid concentration of 3% tartaric acid, temperature of 35 degree C and contact time of 24 hr.The best results obtained are 88% exhaustion, 88.32% fixation and 106 degree C shrinkage temperature in aqueous medium

  6. Salmeterol versus slow-release theophylline combined with ketotifen in nocturnal asthma: a multicentre trial. French Multicentre Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J F; Bertin, L; Georges, D

    1992-11-01

    We wished to assess the efficacy of inhaled salmeterol (SML; 50 micrograms b.i.d.) compared to a combination of slow-release theophylline and ketotifen p.o. (TK; T 300 mg+K 1 mg b.i.d.) for the treatment of nocturnal asthma. Ninety six patients with nocturnal asthma, (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 60-90% of predicted value, reversibility > or = 15%, at least two nocturnal awakenings per week) were eligible for a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy cross-over study (14-day run-in, two successive 28-day treatment periods). Efficacy was assessed as success/failure, success being defined as the complete disappearance of nocturnal symptoms/awakening during the last week of each treatment period. There was a statistically significant difference between SML and TK for this criterion: 46% and 39% success with SML during periods I (first 28-day period) and II (following the cross-over), compared to only 15% and 26% with TK, respectively (p < 0.01). SML was also significantly better for the other criteria (lung function, rescue salbutamol intake during day and night). Side-effects were five times less frequent in SML-treated patients (p < 0.004). Efficacy and tolerance of SML were obviously far better than those of TK in patients with nocturnal asthma.

  7. Research and Development of Information and Communication Technology-based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring from Morning to Nocturnal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamasaki, Haruna; Okawara, Yukie; Kondo, Maiko; Nozue, Ryoko; Yamagata, Hiromi; Okura, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-hour BP control. After controlling morning HTN, nocturnal HTN is the second target. We have been developing HBPM that can measure nocturnal BP. First, we developed a semiautomatic HBPM device with the function of automatic fixed-interval BP measurement during sleep. In the J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure) study, the largest nationwide home BP cohort, we successfully measured nocturnal home BP using this device with data memory, 3 times during sleep (2, 3, and 4 am), and found that nocturnal home BP is significantly correlated with organ damage independently of office and morning BP values. The second advance was the development of trigger nocturnal BP (TNP) monitoring with an added trigger function that initiates BP measurements when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold continuously monitored by pulse oximetry. TNP can detect the specific nocturnal BP surges triggered by hypoxic episodes in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. We also added the lowest heart rate-trigger function to TNP to detect the "basal nocturnal BP," which is determined by the circulating volume and structural cardiovascular system without any increase in sympathetic tonus. This double TNP is a novel concept for evaluating the pathogenic pressor mechanism of nocturnal BP

  8. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M K; Varghese, Z; Fernando, O N; Moorhead, J F

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients was studied by comparing the day to night (D:N) ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion in 15 patients who had undergone transplantation less than one year previously (recent-transplant group) with those in 11 patients who had undergone transplantation at least one year previously. Eleven patients with chronic renal failure and 12 normal subjects served as controls. Patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion than the patients who had undergone transplantation at least a year before, while the ratios in this last group did not differ significantly from those in the normal subjects. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis gradually subsided in five patients studied for three months. Chronic renal failure and uraemic autonomic neuropathy were unlikely causes of the nocturia. The patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume than the controls with chronic renal failure, and the mean Valsalva ratio in eight of them was not significantly different from that in the normal subjects. An undue sensitivity of renal allografts to postural influences was proposed. PMID:6986946

  9. Signatures of functional constraint at aye-aye opsin genes: the potential of adaptive color vision in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H; Martin, Robert D; Verrelli, Brian C

    2007-09-01

    While color vision perception is thought to be adaptively correlated with foraging efficiency for diurnal mammals, those that forage exclusively at night may not need color vision nor have the capacity for it. Indeed, although the basic condition for mammals is dichromacy, diverse nocturnal mammals have only monochromatic vision, resulting from functional loss of the short-wavelength sensitive opsin gene. However, many nocturnal primates maintain intact two opsin genes and thus have dichromatic capacity. The evolutionary significance of this surprising observation has not yet been elucidated. We used a molecular population genetics approach to test evolutionary hypotheses for the two intact opsin genes of the fully nocturnal aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual and endangered Madagascar primate. No evidence of gene degradation in either opsin gene was observed for any of 8 aye-aye individuals examined. Furthermore, levels of nucleotide diversity for opsin gene functional sites were lower than those for 15 neutrally evolving intergenic regions (>25 kb in total), which is consistent with a history of purifying selection on aye-aye opsin genes. The most likely explanation for these findings is that dichromacy is advantageous for aye-ayes despite their nocturnal activity pattern. We speculate that dichromatic nocturnal primates may be able to perceive color while foraging under moonlight conditions, and suggest that behavioral and ecological comparisons among dichromatic and monochromatic nocturnal primates will help to elucidate the specific activities for which color vision perception is advantageous.

  10. Body position and late postoperative nocturnal hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Stausholm, K; Edvardsen, L

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients were monitored for nocturnal body position (supine vs. side) and arterial oxygen saturation pre-operatively and on the second postoperative night after major abdominal surgery. The number of positional changes were significantly decreased after operation (p ... position than on the side (p movements....... towards more time spent in the supine position (p = 0.1). Individual mean arterial oxygen saturation decreased postoperatively (p positions (p = 0.9). Pre-operatively, episodic desaturations were significantly more frequent in the supine...

  11. Effects of irradiance on Crassulacean acid metabolism in the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.E.; Eades, C.A.; Pitner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) was collected in South Carolina, maintained in a greenhouse, then exposed to five levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for 3 weeks. Following this treatment, plants were sampled for chlorophyll concentrations, nocturnal acid accumulations, and photosynthetic responses to subsequent exposure at a range of PPFD. No acclimation to PPFD was observed; all plants exhibited similar patterns of nocturnal CO 2 uptake and acid accumulation regardless of initial PPFD treatment. These patterns revealed that at a PPFD level of approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second (daytime integrated PPFD of 10 moles per square meter per day), CAM saturated or, in low-PPFD plants, was optimal. The results of this study indicate that adaptation to high PPFD is not necessarily a requirement of CAM

  12. Effects of Irradiance on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Eades, C A; Pitner, R A

    1986-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) was collected in South Carolina, maintained in a greenhouse, then exposed to five levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for 3 weeks. Following this treatment, plants were sampled for chlorophyll concentrations, nocturnal acid accumulations, and photosynthetic responses to subsequent exposure at a range of PPFD. No acclimation to PPFD was observed; all plants exhibited similar patterns of nocturnal CO(2) uptake and acid accumulation regardless of initial PPFD treatment. These patterns revealed that at a PPFD level of approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second (daytime integrated PPFD of 10 moles per square meter per day), CAM saturated or, in low-PPFD plants, was optimal. The results of this study indicate that adaptation to high PPFD is not necessarily a requirement of CAM.

  13. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudeen, P.K.; Reiter, R.J.; Texas Univ., San Antonio

    1980-01-01

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  14. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively insleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE. NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved.

  15. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics and chemical composition in five nocturnal Oenothera species (Onagraceae) in relation to floral visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoń, Sebastian; Komoń-Janczara, Elwira; Denisow, Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Main conclusion The floral nectars were sucrose-dominant; however, nectar protein and amino acid contents differed, indicating that composition of nitrogenous compounds may vary considerably even between closely related plant species, irrespectively of nectary structure. Numerous zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering floral nectar; an aqueous solution produced by specialized secretory tissues, known as floral nectaries. Although many papers on nectaries and nectar already exist, there has been a little research into the structure of nectaries and/or nectar production and composition in species belonging to the same genus. To redress this imbalance, we sought, in the present paper, to describe the floral nectary, nectar production, and nectar composition in five nocturnal Oenothera species with respect to their floral visitors. The structure of nectaries was similar for all the species investigated, and comprised the epidermis (with nectarostomata), numerous layers of nectary parenchyma, and subsecretory parenchyma. Anthesis for a single flower was short (ca. 10-12 h), and flowers lasted only one night. The release of floral nectar commenced at the bud stage (approx. 4 h before anthesis) and nectar was available to pollinators until petal closure. Nectar concentration was relatively low (ca. 27%) and the nectar was sucrose-dominant, and composed mainly of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The protein content of the nectar was also relatively low (on average, 0.31 µg ml -1 ). Nevertheless, a great variety of amino acids, including both protein and non-protein types, was detected in the nectar profile of the investigated taxa. We noted both diurnal and nocturnal generalist, opportunistic floral insect visitors.

  16. Adaptation to Life in the High Andes: Nocturnal Oxyhemoglobin Saturation in Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine Mary; Baya, Ana; Gavlak, Johanna; Carroll, Annette; Heathcote, Kate; Dimitriou, Dagmara; L'Esperance, Veline; Webster, Rebecca; Holloway, John; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Kirkham, Fenella Jane; Bucks, Romola Starr; Hogan, Alexandra Marie

    2016-05-01

    Physiological adaptation to high altitude hypoxia may be impaired in Andeans with significant European ancestry. The respiratory 'burden' of sleep may challenge adaptation, leading to relative nocturnal hypoxia. Developmental aspects of sleep-related breathing in high-altitude native children have not previously been reported. We aimed to determine the influence of development on diurnal-nocturnal oxyhemoglobin differences in children living at high altitude. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Seventy-five healthy Bolivian children aged 6 mo to 17 y, native to low altitude (500 m), moderate high altitude (2,500 m), and high altitude (3,700 m) were recruited. Daytime resting pulse oximetry was compared to overnight recordings using Masimo radical oximeters. Genetic ancestry was determined from DNA samples. Children had mixed European/Amerindian ancestry, with no significant differences between altitudes. Sixty-two participants had ≥ 5 h of nocturnal, artifact-free data. As predicted, diurnal mean oxyhemoglobin saturation decreased across altitudes (infants and children, both P sleep-related hypoxia in early childhood has potential lifespan implications. Future studies should characterize the sleep- related respiratory physiology underpinning our observations. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln, glutamic acid (Glu, aspartic acid (Asp and asparagines (Asn were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  18. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  19. Quantitative determination of carboxylic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in honey by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Gloria; Zuriarrain, Juan; Zuriarrain, Andoni; Berregi, Iñaki

    2016-04-01

    A method using (1)H NMR spectroscopy has been developed to quantify simultaneously thirteen analytes in honeys without previous separation or pre-concentration steps. The method has been successfully applied to determine carboxylic acids (acetic, formic, lactic, malic and succinic acids), amino acids (alanine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine), carbohydrates (α- and β-glucose and fructose), ethanol and hydroxymethylfurfural in eucalyptus, heather, lavender, orange blossom, thyme and rosemary honeys. Quantification was performed by using the area of the signal of each analyte in the honey spectra, together with external standards. The regression analysis of the signal area against concentration plots, used for the calibration of each analyte, indicates a good linearity over the concentration ranges found in honeys, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.985 for the thirteen quantified analytes. The recovery studies give values over the 93.7-105.4% range with relative standard deviations lower than 7.4%. Good precision, with relative standard deviations over the range of 0.78-5.21% is obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Irradiance on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in the Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E.; Eades, Carol A.; Pitner, Renee A.

    1986-01-01

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) was collected in South Carolina, maintained in a greenhouse, then exposed to five levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) for 3 weeks. Following this treatment, plants were sampled for chlorophyll concentrations, nocturnal acid accumulations, and photosynthetic responses to subsequent exposure at a range of PPFD. No acclimation to PPFD was observed; all plants exhibited similar patterns of nocturnal CO2 uptake and acid accumulation regardless of initial PPFD treatment. These patterns revealed that at a PPFD level of approximately 200 micromoles per square meter per second (daytime integrated PPFD of 10 moles per square meter per day), CAM saturated or, in low-PPFD plants, was optimal. The results of this study indicate that adaptation to high PPFD is not necessarily a requirement of CAM. PMID:16664587

  1. Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Karaboğa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enuresis Nocturna is the most common urologic problemin childhood. There is not a consensus about terminology.Terminology identified by The International Children’sContinence Society (ICCS is recommended. Bed-wettingat night during sleep (incontinence in children above 5years of age who don’t have congenital or acquired centralnervous system defect is defined as enuresis nocturna.There are two groups monosymptomatic (simpleand non-monosymptomatic (complicated. Monosymptomaticenuresis nocturna (MNE has no symptoms otherthan bed-wetting at night during sleep. Various theoriesconcerning etiology of MNE has been suggested; one ormore of genetic, hormonal, bladder associated and sleepdisorders are stated to play a role. Self-improvement canbe achieved each year by 15% increasing maturity. Underpinning treatment and in addition to this unique treatmentmust be done by considering the factors in the pathophysiology.The success of the treatment and roadmapto be followed must be arrange with child and family. Thepurpose of this eclectic is; evaluation of correct diagnosis,differential diagnosis, patient follow-up and treatment optionsof the cases applicant with nocturnal enuresis basedon the current knowledge of ICCS and Turkey EnuresisTreatment Guide.

  2. Alanine aminotransferase is associated with an adverse nocturnal blood glucose profile in individuals with normal glucose regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00-20∶00 and nocturnal (20∶00-06∶00 mean blood glucose (MBG levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation.

  3. Nocturnal enuresis in school‑aged children with sickle‑cell anemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... socioeconomic class, and sibling history of enuresis were not statistically ... and parental history of childhood enuresis are significant risk factors. .... adolescents with SCA may be at a higher risk of nocturnal ..... Thus, factors which contribute to ... in male children,[30] and more frequent developmental delays ...

  4. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Pilorz, Violetta; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice

  5. Comparing effects of insulin analogues and human insulin on nocturnal glycaemia in hypoglycaemia-prone people with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P. L.; Tarnow, L.; Bay, C.

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: Treatment with insulin analogue reduces the occurrence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia assessed by nocturnal glucose profiles in people with Type 1 diabetes prone to severe hypoglycaemia. Nocturnal glucose profiles provide a more comprehensive assessment of clinical benefit of insulin regimens......Aims: To assess the difference between analogue and human insulin with regard to nocturnal glucose profiles and risk of hypoglycaemia in people with recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. Methods: A total of 72 people [46 men, mean ± sd age 54 ± 12 years, mean ± sd HbA1c 65 ± 12 mmol/mol (8.1 ± 1.1......%), mean ± sd duration of diabetes 30 ± 14 years], who participated in a 2-year randomized, crossover trial of basal-bolus therapy with insulin detemir/insulin aspart or human NPH insulin/human regular insulin (the HypoAna trial) were studied for 2 nights during each treatment. Venous blood was drawn...

  6. The risk of hyponatremia with desmopressin use for nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Park, Joon-Sung; Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Sung Yul; Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Desmopressin is used for treating nocturnal polyuria, but hyponatremia is an associated concern in the elderly due to impaired urinary dilution. This study was undertaken to characterize hyponatremia occurring in adults using desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria. Data from 172 patients who were prescribed desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria at a urology clinic from September 2010 through February 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and laboratory parameters were investigated to examine the risk factors for desmopressin-associated hyponatremia. The average follow-up serum sodium measured 21 ± 22 days after using desmopressin was 138 ± 5 mmol/l. Hyponatremia (<135 mmol/l) was found in 24 patients (14%), and it was severe in 7 (<126 mmol/l). In the hyponatremic patients, serum sodium decreased by 11 ± 6 mmol/l. Patients with hyponatremia were older than those with normonatremia (78 ± 7 vs. 68 ± 9 years, p < 0.0001). The presence of either hyponatremia-predisposing comorbidities or concurrent medications was associated with hyponatremia. Patients with hyponatremia had lower basal hemoglobin (11 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 2 g/dl, p < 0.001) and serum sodium (139 ± 2 vs. 140 ± 2 mmol/l, p < 0.05) than those with normonatremia. Multivariate logistic regression after adjustment for basal serum sodium showed that advanced age (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03-1.27) and lower hemoglobin level (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.94) were independently associated with hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is not infrequently associated with desmopressin use. Those with advanced age (≥65 years) and lower hemoglobin are at risk of desmopressin-associated hyponatremia and need to be carefully monitored. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David; Stoyanov, Cristina; Lewold, Clemens; Månsson, Fredrik; Miller, John; Kamanga, Aniset; Shiff, Clive J

    2014-06-13

    Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. In this

  8. Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on the immobilization of aqueous Pb(II) using phosphate rock and different crystallized hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Cui, Jing; Wei, Zhenggui

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the transformation of Pb(II) to geochemically stable pyromorphite (PY) by apatite materials (AMs), has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for contaminated water and soil. In this study, we systematically investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural phosphate rock (PR) and different crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the absence and presence of LMWOAs (oxalic, malic and citric acids). The results indicated that the effectiveness of PR and HAp in immobilizing Pb(II) followed in descending order by HAp2 (the poorly crystallized HAp), HAp1 (the well crystallized HAp) and PR, regardlessof the presence of LMWOAs. The presence of malic and citric acids significantly decreased the immobilizationefficiency of Pb(II) by HAp1 and PR, clarifying the lower adsorption affinities of Pb(II)-organic acid complexes on HAp1 and PR rather than Pb(II) ion. On thecontrary, oxalic acid could markedly enhance the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by HAp1 and PR through the formation of lead oxalate, which was confirmed by FT-IR and XRDanalysis. Results also showed that LMWOAs had little promoting or inhibiting effect on the immobilization of Pb(II) by HAp2. This study suggested that the ubiquity of LMWOAs in natural environments could retard the transformation efficiency of Pb(II) to PY by AMs, especiallyin thepresenceof oxalic acid, and the poorly crystallized HAp2 had great potential to remediate Pb(II)-contaminated water and soil due to its insusceptibility to LMWOAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of resistant hypertension by nocturnal hemodialysis in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojing; Hu, Xiaohong; Mei, Changlin; Yu, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common and refractory complication of hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of resistant hypertension treated successfully by nocturnal HD. A 63-year-old female with end-stage kidney disease was hospitalized for severe headache, objective vertigo and persistent vomiting for 1 month on February 6, 2012. She had been on intermittent HD for 3 months, and her blood pressure maintained 200-240/100-130 mm Hg even after using 7 kinds of antihypertensive drugs including olmesartan, benazepril, nitrendipine, arotinolol, terazosin, clonidine and torasemide. A CT of the abdomen revealed a mild hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland (fig. 1). However, plasma renin, angiotensin and aldosterone were all within the normal range. Nocturnal extended HD was initiated with a blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a dialysis time of 7 h. After 3 months of nocturnal HD, all symptoms were relieved and her systolic blood pressure started to decrease by 10-20 mm Hg. Six months later, the predialysis blood pressure was decreased to 140-160/90-100 mm Hg and the antihypertensive drugs were reduced to 4 kinds. Meanwhile, the blood biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were all controlled well during 2 years of treatment. This case indicates that nocturnal extended HD is probably a promising and effective choice for resistant hypertension in HD patients.

  10. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  11. Effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced on workdays and weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle-Hinz, Tim; Bamberg, Eva; Dettmers, Jan; Friedrich, Niklas; Keller, Monika

    2014-04-01

    The present study reports the lagged effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced during both workdays and weekends. Fifty employees participated in a diary study. Multilevel and regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between work stress measured at the end of a workday, work-related rumination measured during the evening, and restful sleep measured the following morning. Work stress, measured as the mean of 2 consecutive workdays, was substantially but not significantly related to restful sleep on weekends. Work stress was unrelated to nocturnal heart rate variability. Work-related rumination was related to restful sleep on weekends but not on workdays. Additionally, work-related rumination on weekends was positively related to nocturnal heart rate variability during the night between Saturday and Sunday. No mediation effects of work stress on restful sleep or nocturnal heart rate variability via work-related rumination were confirmed.

  12. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on pond ash in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, P.; Adholeya, A. [Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi (India). India Habitat Centre

    2009-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of coal ash on organic acid exudation and subsequent metal uptake by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Four isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi namely, Pisolithus tinctorius (EM-1293 and EM-1299), Scleroderma verucosum (EM-1283) and Scleroderma cepa (EM-1233) were grown on pond ash moistened with Modified Melin-Norkans medium in vitro. Exudation of formic acid, malic acid and succinic acid by these fungi were detected by HPLC. Mycelial accumulation of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb by these fungi was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Relationship between organic acid exudation and metal uptake was determined using classical multivariate linear regression model. Correlation between organic acid exudation and metal uptake could be substantiated when several metals are considered collectively. The finding supports the widespread role of low molecular weight organic acid as a function of tolerance, when exposed to metals in vitro.

  13. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  14. Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and metabolic risk in obese adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Indra; McCrindle, Brian W; Manlhiot, Cedric; Lu, Zihang; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Birken, Catherine S; Hamilton, Jill

    2018-01-22

    There is conflicting data regarding the independent associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with metabolic risk in obese youth. Previous studies have not consistently addressed central adiposity, specifically elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR), which is associated with metabolic risk independent of body mass index. The objective of this study was to determine the independent effects of the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) and associated indices of nocturnal hypoxia on metabolic function in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR. Subjects had standardized anthropometric measurements. Fasting blood included insulin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, alanine transferase, and aspartate transaminase. Insulin resistance was quantified with the homeostatic model assessment. Overnight polysomnography determined the OAHI and nocturnal oxygenation indices. Of the 75 recruited subjects, 23% were diagnosed with OSA. Adjusting for age, gender, and WHtR in multivariable linear regression models, a higher oxygen desaturation index was associated with a higher fasting insulin (coefficient [standard error] = 48.076 [11.255], p Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia rather than the OAHI was associated with metabolic risk in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR. Measures of abdominal adiposity such as WHtR should be considered in future studies that evaluate the impact of OSA on metabolic health.

  15. Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping of blood pressure during night time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkær, Henrik; Jensen, Tonny; Kofoed, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and elevated nocturnal blood pressure are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Previously, associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure and coronary artery calcification have been...

  16. The Association of Pediatric Obesity With Nocturnal Non-Dipping on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macumber, Ian R; Weiss, Noel S; Halbach, Susan M; Hanevold, Coral D; Flynn, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Obesity has been linked with abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure (BP) in adults, which in turn is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. There are few data regarding abnormal dipping status in the obese pediatric population. The goal of this study was to further describe the relationship between obesity and non-dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM) in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a database of patients aged 5-21 years who had undergone 24-hour ABPM at Seattle Children's Hospital from January 2008 through May 2014. Subjects were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into lean (BMI 15th-85th percentile) and obese (BMI >95th percentile) groups. Compared to lean subjects (n = 161), obese subjects (n = 247) had a prevalence ratio (PR) for non-dipping of 2.15, adjusted for race (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-3.42). Increasing severity of obesity was not further associated with nocturnal non-dipping. Nocturnal non-dipping was not associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (PR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.71-1.44). These results suggest that in children, just as in adults, obesity is related to a relatively decreased dipping in nocturnal BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Male broiler performance and nocturnal feeding under constant 8-h ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... however, they still consumed more feed in the 8-h dark period than birds that had always been given 16 h illumination. Cobb and Ross genotypes responded similarly to all lighting treatments. Keywords: Photoperiod, broiler growth, nocturnal feeding. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (3) 2008: pp. 159-165 ...

  18. Carbon dioxide measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer over Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Culf

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and windspeed were made in the nocturnal boundary layer over a tropical forest near Manaus, Brazil using a tethered balloon system. The measurements were made up to a maximum height of 300 m on ten consecutive nights in November 1995. Simultaneous surface flux and in-canopy concentration measurements were made at the surface close to the site. The observation period included several different types of conditions. Generally strong windshear and relatively weak temperature gradients prevented the formation of a strong capping inversion to the nocturnal boundary layer. On some nights, however, the inversion was sufficiently strong that the CO2 concentration at 100 m above the surface exceeded 400 ppm. The concentration within the canopy was largely controlled by the presence of an inversion very close to the canopy surface. The temperature and wind profiles are contrasted with conditions in Randônia, Brazil, where the windshear was found to be weaker and higher carbon dioxide concentrations were observed in the early morning. The difference in carbon dioxide concentrations in the nocturnal boundary layer between dusk and dawn is used to estimate the regional nighttime flux of carbon dioxide. The value obtained generally exceeds the measured surface flux and sometimes exceeds the sum of the surface flux and the in-canopy storage made at the tower site. The reasons for the discrepancy are not clear; either one of the methods is in error or the regional carbon dioxide budget differs significantly from the local budget measured at the tower site.

  19. Screening and managing obstructive sleep apnoea in nocturnal heart block patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Liu, Zilong; Chang, Su Chi; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Wenjing; Jiang, Hong; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-02-16

    Nocturnal heart block often occurs in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is more likely to be undiagnosed in heart block patients who are ignorant of the symptoms of sleep disorder. Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is a highly reliable way to discover the risk factors of OSA, whereas the validity in sleep-related heart block patients is uncertain. We performed an observational study to address these issues and confirmed the potential protective effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Patients who were previously diagnosed with nocturnal heart block with R-R pauses exceeding 2 seconds were retrospective screened from the ECG centre of Zhongshan hospital. These recruited participants completed Berlin Questionnaire and underwent polysomnography synchronously with 24-hour Holter monitoring. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to confirm the association between nocturnal arrhythmia and OSA, as well as to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the BQ. Subsequently, subjects diagnosed with OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index > 5) underwent 3 consecutive days of CPAP therapy. On the third day, patients repeated 24-hour Holter monitoring within the institution of CPAP. The symptoms of disruptive snoring and hypersomnolence in 72 enrolled patients were more related to the occurrence of nocturnal heart block (r = 0.306, 0.226, respectively, p = 0.015, 0.019) than syncope (r = 0.134, p = 0.282) and palpitations (r = 0.106, p = 0.119), which were prominent trait of our study population. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the BQ at a cut-off point of 5 of AHI for detecting OSA in heart block patients was 81.0 %, 44.4 %, 91.07 % and 25 %. Nocturnal heart block does not appear to occur exclusively in severe sleep apnoea. The frequent occurrence of arrhythmias in prominent oxygen desaturation supports the correlation between them. CPAP therapy resulted in significant decrease in the average number of

  20. Detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and related bone marrow diseases, with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls and caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sa A; Pozdnyakova, Olga; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Stachurski, Dariusz; Anderson, Mary; Raza, Azra; Woda, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in the setting of aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome has been shown to have prognostic and therapeutic implications. However, the status of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in various categories of myelodysplastic syndrome and in other bone marrow disorders is not well-studied. By using multiparameter flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis with antibodies specific for four glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (CD55, CD59, CD16, CD66b) and performing an aerolysin lysis confirmatory test in representative cases, we assessed the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-phenotype granulocytes in 110 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, 15 with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease, 5 with idiopathic myelofibrosis and 6 with acute myeloid leukemia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-phenotype granulocytes were detected in nine patients with low grade myelodysplastic syndrome who showed clinicopathological features of bone marrow failure, similar to aplastic anemia. All paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-positive cases demonstrated loss of the four glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, with CD16(-)CD66b(-) clones being larger than those of CD55(-)CD59(-) (p<0.05). Altered glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expression secondary to granulocytic hypogranulation, immaturity, and/or immunophenotypic abnormalities was present in a substantial number of cases and diagnostically challenging. These results show that routine screening for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in patients with an intrinsic bone marrow disease who show no clinical evidence of hemolysis has an appreciable yield in patients with low grade myelodysplastic syndromes. The recognition of diagnostic caveats and pitfalls associated with the underlying intrinsic bone marrow disease is essential in interpreting paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria testing correctly. In our experience, the CD

  1. Fumaric acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by simultaneous use of oxidative and reductive routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoqiang; Chen, Xiulai; Liu, Liming; Jiang, Linghuo

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the simultaneous use of reductive and oxidative routes to produce fumaric acid was explored. The strain FMME003 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1CΔTHI2) exhibited capability to accumulate pyruvate and was used for fumaric acid production. The fum1 mutant FMME004 could produce fumaric acid via oxidative route, but the introduction of reductive route derived from Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 1526 led to lower fumaric acid production. Analysis of the key factors associated with fumaric acid production revealed that pyruvate carboxylase had a low degree of control over the carbon flow to malic acid. The fumaric acid titer was improved dramatically when the heterologous gene RoPYC was overexpressed and 32 μg/L of biotin was added. Furthermore, under the optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio, the engineered strain FMME004-6 could produce up to 5.64 ± 0.16 g/L of fumaric acid. These results demonstrated that the proposed fermentative method is efficient for fumaric acid production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. α(1)-adrenoceptor blocker naftopidil improves sleep disturbance with reduction in nocturnal urine volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Tsujimura, Akira; Takao, Tetsuya; Namiki, Mikio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-04-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying improvements in nocturia by α(1)-blockers, we investigated whether the α(1)-blocker naftopidil acts on nocturia with sleep disturbance using a frequency/volume chart (FVC). A total of 56 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were as follows: eight or more points on the I-PSS; three or more points on the I-PSS score for nocturia; and prostate volume larger than 20 ml. Patients received 50 mg of naftopidil once daily for 4 weeks, and non-responders received 75 mg for another 4 weeks. All patients were examined, and their data entered into FVC for 2 days before and after administration of naftopidil. Quality of sleep was also evaluated using modified Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Patients with sleep quality scores of three or four were assigned to sleep disturbance group (n = 33), while those with scores of less than three were assigned to non-disturbance group (n = 23). After administration of naftopidil, total I-PSS decreased and nocturia score decreased from 3.5 to 2.6 (P < 0.01). Total mean score of modified PSQI in sleep disturbance group became significantly lower after administration of naftopidil (from 16.9 to 14.0; P < 0.01). Naftopidil significantly decreased nocturnal urine volume, resulting in a decrease in the nocturnal polyuria index in both sleep disturbance and non-disturbance groups. These results suggest that α(1)-blockers have the ability to normalize sleep disorders. Naftopidil improved nocturnal polyuria regardless of the presence of sleep disturbance, meaning that it might directly reduce nocturnal urine production.

  3. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Won Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33, aged ≥60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking α-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6% completed the study according to the study protocol (per-protocol group, and 24 dropped out (dropout group. Results: Of the 24 patients in the dropout group, 5 withdrew consent due to side effects or lack of efficacy, 7 were lost to follow-up at 4 weeks, 8 were lost to follow-up at 12 weeks, and 4 dropped out due to failure to complete 3-day frequency volume charts at 12 weeks. In the per-protocol group, there was significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, especially question numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and the quality of life question (P=0.001, P=0.007, P0.33. Considering the high dropout rate of our study due to no implementation of 3-day frequency volume charts, prospective and large-scale studies are needed to confirm our results.

  4. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flyin...

  5. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'.

  6. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  7. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.; Buck, C. Loren; Oda, Gisele A.

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel. PMID:26460828

  8. Periodic limb movements during sleep are associated with a lower quality of life in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne Patrick; Raes, Ann; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan

    2015-07-01

    The study investigates whether cortical arousals and periodic limb movements during sleep are related to daytime psychological functioning in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with associated nocturnal polyuria. Psychological functioning is evaluated on five domains: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-inattentive problems, quality of life, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and executive functioning. This multi-informant (parents, teachers, and children) and multi-method study included overnight video-polysomnography, questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing. Thirty children (7 girls) 6 to 16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were selected in a tertiary enuresis center. A high index of periodic limb movements during sleep was associated with a lower quality of life, according to the child. No significant correlations were found with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-inattentive problems, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and executive functioning. This study clarifies the relationship between sleep parameters and psychological functioning of the children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and associated nocturnal polyuria according to the child, the parents, and the teachers. Periodic limb movements during sleep are associated with a lower quality of life of the child.

  9. RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH A TRIISOOCTYLAMINE DILUENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malmary

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.

  10. Trials on some synthesis related to chemical evolution under high pressure and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaki, Yoshiaki; Okada, Toshimi; Takahara, Toru; Takemoto, Kiichi

    1978-01-01

    The radiation-induced reaction of mono- and dicarboxylic acids with urea was studied both in bulk and in methanol solution. A series of mono- and dicarboxylic acids and acid amides as well as urea were obtained commercially, and purified in the usual manner. Radiation-induced reaction was carried out in test tubes at room temperature by irradiating with the γ-ray from a Co-60 source. Acrylic acid and urea were mixed at first in a test tube, and melted by heating. After the irradiation, water insoluble polymer was obtained. The polymer may have partly crosslinked nature. In case of the reaction of acrylic acid and acrylamide with urea, it was found that polymers were the main products. The reaction of malic acid with formamide was also studied under high pressure. It was found that the reaction afforded both fumaric and malic acid under atmospheric pressure, and the reaction seems to be somewhat different under high pressure. From the results, it is suggested that adenine and its relevant compounds could only be produced by the reactions of malic and maleic acid with urea, and not with formamide in the presence of polyphosphoric acid. (Kato, T.)

  11. Combined metabolomic and correlation networks analyses reveal fumarase insufficiency altered amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Entai; Li, Xian; Liu, Zerong; Zhang, Fuchang; Tian, Zhongmin

    2018-04-01

    Fumarase catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and l-malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fumarase insufficiencies were associated with increased levels of fumarate, decreased levels of malate and exacerbated salt-induced hypertension. To gain insights into the metabolism profiles induced by fumarase insufficiency and identify key regulatory metabolites, we applied a GC-MS based metabolomics platform coupled with a network approach to analyze fumarase insufficient human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and negative controls. A total of 24 altered metabolites involved in seven metabolic pathways were identified as significantly altered, and enriched for the biological module of amino acids metabolism. In addition, Pearson correlation network analysis revealed that fumaric acid, l-malic acid, l-aspartic acid, glycine and l-glutamic acid were hub metabolites according to Pagerank based on their three centrality indices. Alanine aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities increased significantly in fumarase deficiency HUVEC. These results confirmed that fumarase insufficiency altered amino acid metabolism. The combination of metabolomics and network methods would provide another perspective on expounding the molecular mechanism at metabolomics level. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Low levels of nitryl chloride at ground level: nocturnal nitrogen oxides in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Osthoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal nitrogen oxides, which include the nitrate radical (NO3, dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, and its uptake product on chloride containing aerosol, nitryl chloride (ClNO2, can have profound impacts on the lifetime of NOx ( =  NO + NO2, radical budgets, and next-day photochemical ozone (O3 production, yet their abundances and chemistry are only sparsely constrained by ambient air measurements.Here, we present a measurement data set collected at a routine monitoring site near the Abbotsford International Airport (YXX located approximately 30 km from the Pacific Ocean in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV on the west coast of British Columbia. Measurements were made from 20 July to 4 August 2012 and included mixing ratios of ClNO2, N2O5, NO, NO2, total odd nitrogen (NOy, O3, photolysis frequencies, and size distribution and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (PM1.At night, O3 was rapidly and often completely removed by dry deposition and by titration with NO of anthropogenic origin and unsaturated biogenic hydrocarbons in a shallow nocturnal inversion surface layer. The low nocturnal O3 mixing ratios and presence of strong chemical sinks for NO3 limited the extent of nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry at ground level. Consequently, mixing ratios of N2O5 and ClNO2 were low ( <  30 and  <  100 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv and median nocturnal peak values of 7.8 and 7.9 pptv, respectively. Mixing ratios of ClNO2 frequently peaked 1–2 h after sunrise rationalized by more efficient formation of ClNO2 in the nocturnal residual layer aloft than at the surface and the breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer structure in the morning. When quantifiable, production of ClNO2 from N2O5 was efficient and likely occurred predominantly on unquantified supermicron-sized or refractory sea-salt-derived aerosol. After sunrise, production of Cl radicals from photolysis of ClNO2 was negligible compared to production of OH

  13. Enhanced degradation of Herbicide Isoproturon in wheat rhizosphere by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Miao, Shan Shan; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Meng Tian; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-14

    This study investigated the herbicide isoproturon (IPU) residues in soil, where wheat was cultivated and sprayed with salicylic acid (SA). Provision of SA led to a lower level of IPU residues in rhizosphere soil compared to IPU treatment alone. Root exudation of tartaric acid, malic acid, and oxalic acids was enhanced in rhizosphere soil with SA-treated wheat. We examined the microbial population (e.g., biomass and phospholipid fatty acid), microbial structure, and soil enzyme (catalase, phenol oxidase, and dehydrogenase) activities, all of which are associated with soil activity and were activated in rhizosphere soil of SA-treated wheat roots. We further assessed the correlation matrix and principal component to figure out the association between the IPU degradation and soil activity. Finally, six IPU degraded products (derivatives) in rhizosphere soil were characterized using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS). A relatively higher level of IPU derivatives was identified in soil with SA-treated wheat than in soil without SA-treated wheat plants.

  14. Potentiometric studies on ternary complexes involving some divalent transition metal ions, gallic acid and biologically abundant aliphatic dicarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelatty Mohamed Radalla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of binary and ternary complexes of the divalent transition metal ions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ with gallic acid and the biologically important aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (adipic, succinic, malic, malonic, maleic, tartaric and oxalic acids were investigated by means of the potentiometric technique at 25 °C and I = 0.10 mol dm−3 NaNO3. The acid-base properties of the ligands were investigated and discussed. The acidity constants of gallic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acids were determined and used for determining the stability constants of the binary and ternary complexes formed in the aqueous medium under the above experimental conditions. The formation of the different 1:1 and 1:2 binary complexes and 1:1:1 ternary complexes are inferred from the corresponding potentiometric pH-metric titration curves. The ternary complex formation was found to occur in a stepwise manner. The stability constants of these binary and ternary systems were calculated. The values of Δ log K, percentage of relative stabilization (%R.S. and log X were evaluated and discussed. The concentration distribution of the various complex species formed in solution was evaluated and discussed. The mode of chelation of ternary complexes formed was ascertained by conductivity measurements.

  15. Expression and Evolution of Short Wavelength Sensitive Opsins in Colugos: A Nocturnal Lineage That Informs Debate on Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Lim, Norman T-L; Neitz, Maureen; Peichl, Leo; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    A nocturnal activity pattern is central to almost all hypotheses on the adaptive origins of primates. This enduring view has been challenged in recent years on the basis of variation in the opsin genes of nocturnal primates. A correspondence between the opsin genes and activity patterns of species in Euarchonta-the superordinal group that includes the orders Primates, Dermoptera (colugos), and Scandentia (treeshrews)-could prove instructive, yet the basic biology of the dermopteran visual system is practically unknown. Here we show that the eye of the Sunda colugo ( Galeopterus variegatus ) lacks a tapetum lucidum and has an avascular retina, and we report on the expression and spectral sensitivity of cone photopigments. We found that Sunda colugos have intact short wavelength sensitive (S-) and long wavelength sensitive (L-) opsin genes, and that both opsins are expressed in cone photoreceptors of the retina. The inferred peak spectral sensitivities are 451 and 562 nm, respectively. In line with adaptation to nocturnal vision, cone densities are low. Surprisingly, a majority of S-cones coexpress some L-opsin. We also show that the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions of exon 1 of the S-opsin gene is indicative of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a functional S-opsin in a nocturnal lineage for at least 45 million years. Accordingly, a nocturnal activity pattern remains the most likely ancestral character state of euprimates.

  16. Unusual nocturnal feeding by Brown Rock-chat Cercomela fusca (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown Rock-chat is a diurnal insectivorous bird commonly associated with human habitations. I report here nocturnal foraging of the species in and around Bikaner in Rajasthan. The birds showed a marked bimodal activity during their nocturnal foraging which peaked in early morning and late evening hours. Bright sodium-vapour lights that attracted a horde of insects during monsoons offered ideal foraging opportunities for the birds. This behavior is explained here as an adaptation to maximize their food intake during the period when the birds breed and their nutritional requirements are naturally high.

  17. Sleep disturbances in IDDM patients with nocturnal hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtson, I; Gade, J; Thomsen, C E

    1992-01-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were studied to evaluate sleep patterns during normoglycemia and spontaneous and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Two channels of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram and actooculogram were recorded. The signals were analyzed off-line, using...... a polygraphic sleep analysis system. The scoring was mainly based on the color density spectral array of the EEG. Blood glucose and growth hormone were measured serially. Asymptomatic, spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred in 38% of the nights. Conventional sleep analysis showed a tendency toward...

  18. Nutritional Status in Nocturnal Hemodialysis Patients : A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Struijk, Simone; van der Velden, Annet; Westerhuis, Ralf; van der Schans, Cees P.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients experience an elevated risk of malnutrition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) results in more effective removal of waste products and fluids. Therefore, diet and fluid restrictions are less restricted in NHD patients.

  19. Structural Characteristics of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems in the U.S. Great Plains as Observed During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Torres, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer in the U.S. Great Plains, some of the heaviest precipitation falls from large thunderstorm complexes known as Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). These frequently occurring MCSs are often nocturnal in nature, so the dynamics associated with these systems are more elusive than those in the daytime. The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was launched over a 7-week period as an endeavor to better understand nocturnal MCSs occurring in the Great Plains. PECAN featured a dense array of ground-based and airborne instruments to observe nocturnal MCS, including dual-polarization radars at multiple frequencies, mobile mesonets, and sounding units. Our role in PECAN involved deploying Ott Parsivel disdrometers to gain information on drop size distributions (DSDs) and fall speeds. Analysis of disdrometer data in conjunction with radar data presented using Contour Frequency by Altitude Diagrams (CFADs) and high-resolution radiosonde data allows for a structural comparison of PECAN MCS cases to previously identified MCS archetypes. Novel insights into the structural evolution of nocturnal MCSs in relation to their synoptic, mesoscale, and thermodynamic environments are presented, using data collected from dense and numerous observation platforms. Understanding the environmental conditions that result in different nocturnal MCS configurations is useful for gaining insight into precipitation distributions and potential severe weather and flooding hazards in the Great Plains.

  20. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of nocturnal hypoglycemia in first trimester of pregnancy in patients with insulin treated diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, Ellinor Adelheid; Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excellent metabolic control before conception and during diabetic pregnancies is the aim in order to avoid malformations and perinatal morbidity. Since an inverse correlation between median blood glucose concentration (BG) and hypoglycemia as well as a high prevalence of nocturnal...... the night, caused by either discomfort or cannula problems. Of the remaining 43 patients, 16 (37%) had at least one blood glucose ... of pregnancy in insulin treated patients. Only one patient registered the hypoglycemia. Nocturnal hypoglycemia could be predicted in the majority of patients by measurements of BG before bedtime....

  2. Comparison of Nocturia Response to Desmopressin Treatment between Patients with Normal and High Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hajdinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare efficacy of desmopressin for treatment of nocturia between patients with normal and high nocturnal bladder capacity index (NBCi. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with desmopressin for nocturia. Patients were analyzed according to high or normal NBCi value before treatment. Results. 55 patients were identified, aged 49–84, 47 males, 8 females, who started desmopressin 0.2 mg nocte between 2009 and 2011. Two groups (N: normal and H: high NBCi were similar regarding number, gender, age, 24 h urine volume, and nocturnal urine volume. On treatment, nocturnal volume decreased by mean of 364 mL. Number of nightly voids decreased in N group from 3.11 to 1.50, in H from 3.96 to 1.44. Nocturnal polyuria and nocturia indices also decreased significantly. NBCi remained the same in N group (0.56 on therapy and in H group decreased to mean 0.63. All on-treatment values were statistically similar in N and H groups. Pretreatment differences were abolished with treatment. NBCi was significantly correlated to nocturia reduction—larger reduction was observed in patients with higher NBCi. In 8/55 patients, hyponatremia was detected, but without clinical consequences. Conclusions. The results indicate that the effectiveness of desmopressin on nocturia is not dependent upon the patient's pretreatment NBCi.

  3. In-car nocturnal blue light exposure improves motorway driving: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Taillard

    Full Text Available Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light, placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years drove 400 km (250 miles on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP. Eight participants (17% complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1 showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC (F(2,91.11 = 6.64; p<0.05. Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p = 0.001 and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003 than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]. Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.

  4. Effects of Organic Acids and Sylvite on Phytoextraction of 241Am Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Du, Liang; Tan, Zhaoyi; Su, Rongbo; Li, Taowen

    2017-03-01

    Contamination of soil with Americium ( 241 Am) at nuclear sites in China poses a serious problem. We screened six plants, from five families, for their 241 Am-enrichment potential. Europium (Eu), which is morphologically and chemically similar to the highly toxic 241 Am, was used in its place. Moreover, the effects of sylvite, citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA), and humic acid (HA) on the absorption of 241 Am by the plants, and its transport within them, were evaluated along with their effect on plant biomass and 241 Am extraction volume. Barley and cabbage showed relatively stronger Eu accumulation capacities. Citric acid promoted the absorption of 241 Am by barley roots and its transport within the plants. The effects of sylvite were not obvious and those of HA were the weakest in case of sunflower; HA, however, maximally increased the biomass of the plants. Our results could provide the basis for future radionuclide phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  5. Relationship between sleep stages and nocturnal trapezius muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; Nicoletti, Corinne; Omlin, Sarah; Brink, Mark; Läubli, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Former studies reported a relationship between increased nocturnal low level trapezius muscle activity and neck or shoulder pain but it has not been explored whether trapezius muscle relaxation is related to sleep stages. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity is related to different sleep stages, as measured by polysomnography. Twenty one healthy subjects were measured on four consecutive nights in their homes, whereas the first night served as adaptation night. The measurements included full polysomnography (electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (ECG)), as well as surface EMG of the m. trapezius descendens of the dominant arm. Periods with detectable EMG activity of the trapezius muscle lasted on average 1.5% of the length of the nights and only in four nights it lasted longer than 5% of sleeping time. Neither rest time nor the length of periods with higher activity levels of the trapezius muscle did significantly differ between sleep stages. We found no evidence that nocturnal trapezius muscle activity is markedly moderated by the different sleep stages. Thus the results support that EMG measurements of trapezius muscle activity in healthy subjects can be carried out without concurrent polysomnographic recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. B-type natriuretic peptide is a determinant of the nocturnal increase in blood pressure independently of arterial hypertrophy and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya; Miki, Tetsuro; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Loss of the nocturnal blood pressure (BP) drop is a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. However, clinical parameters that predispose to changes in nocturnal BP are currently uncertain. Given the possible involvement of salt sensitivity in nocturnal BP levels, we investigated a hypothesized association between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels - a marker of body fluid retention - and nocturnal BP in a general population. Study participants were 1020 general individuals. Participants were divided into four groups (riser, nondipper, dipper, and extreme dipper) by their percentage changes in nocturnal SBP measured using an ambulatory BP monitor. Plasma BNP levels were positively associated with circadian BP change (β = 0.162, P < 0.001) independently of carotid hypertrophy (β = 0.133, P < 0.001), and awake heart rate (β = -0.102, P = 0.001) and SBP (β = -0.246, P < 0.001). Risers showed 1.6 times higher BNP levels than dippers, whereas oxygen desaturation during sleep was frequently observed in nondippers. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that BNP level was a significant determinant for the riser pattern [odds ratio (OR) 1.27 (BNP 10 pg/ml), P < 0.001], whereas oxygen desaturation was specifically associated with the nondipping pattern (OR 1.04, P = 0.001). When participants were subdivided by BNP level, risers were more frequent in the high BNP subgroup (19.5%) than in the low BNP subgroup (6.7%) (OR 3.39, P < 0.001). A slight increase in plasma BNP level was independently associated with rising nocturnal BP. Our results may help to understand the pathophysiology of circadian BP variation, and be a clue to identify individuals who require careful BP monitoring.

  7. Impact of the International Continence Society (ICS) report on the standardisation of terminology in nocturia on the quality of reports on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; Drake, Marcus J.; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To systematically review and evaluate the impact of the International Continence Society (ICS)-2002 report on standardisation of terminology in nocturia, on publications reporting on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP). In 2002, the ICS defined NP as a Nocturnal Polyuria Index (nocturnal

  8. EVOLUTION OF THE NOCTURNAL INVERSION LAYER AT AN URBAN AND NONURBAN LOCATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolutionary cycle of the nocturnal radiation inversion layer from formation until dissipation under fair weather conditions was investigated by time-series analyses of observations of inversion base and top heights, and inversion strength at an urban and a nonurban site in S...

  9. Vertical Distribution of Daily Migrating Mesopelagic Fish in Respect to Nocturnal Lights

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana

    2014-12-01

    The nighttime distribution of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish in relation to nocturnal light was studied during a circumglobal survey, in the Red Sea, and in a fjord at high latitude. The study was based on data derived from ship borne echo sounders (circumglobal and the Red Sea) as well as using upward looking echo sounders mounted on the bottom (Masfjorden, Norway). We also applied a numerical model for analyzing diel vertical migration patterns. The effect of the lunar cycle was the focus in studies at low latitudes, while seasonal changes in nocturnal light climate was in focus at high latitude. Lunar phase significantly affected the distribution of mesopelagic fish at the global scale and in the Red Sea. During nights near full moon, scattering layers of mesopelagic fish distributed deeper than during darker phases of the moon. At high latitude, mesopelagic fish switched its behavior along with seasonal changes in nocturnal lights. In autumn, the population of the studied fish (Maurolicus mueleri) formed separated layers. Juveniles performed normal diel vertical migration followed by midnight sinking, with midnight sinking mainly related to temperature minima and also for avoiding predators. Meanwhile the adults did not migrate vertically, reducing foraging but increasing the adult survival. From late winter to mid-Spring, interrupted ascents behavior was noted in the afternoon. Predator avoidance, satiation, and finding temperature optimum might be the reason behind interrupted ascents. At lighter nights in mid-summer, M. muelleri took on schooling behavior, likely as an anti-predator behavior permitting access to the upper waters in the absence of darkness.

  10. Low levels of nitryl chloride at ground level: nocturnal nitrogen oxides in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Hans D.; Odame-Ankrah, Charles A.; Taha, Youssef M.; Tokarek, Travis W.; Schiller, Corinne L.; Haga, Donna; Jones, Keith; Vingarzan, Roxanne

    2018-05-01

    The nocturnal nitrogen oxides, which include the nitrate radical (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), and its uptake product on chloride containing aerosol, nitryl chloride (ClNO2), can have profound impacts on the lifetime of NOx ( = NO + NO2), radical budgets, and next-day photochemical ozone (O3) production, yet their abundances and chemistry are only sparsely constrained by ambient air measurements. Here, we present a measurement data set collected at a routine monitoring site near the Abbotsford International Airport (YXX) located approximately 30 km from the Pacific Ocean in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) on the west coast of British Columbia. Measurements were made from 20 July to 4 August 2012 and included mixing ratios of ClNO2, N2O5, NO, NO2, total odd nitrogen (NOy), O3, photolysis frequencies, and size distribution and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (PM1). At night, O3 was rapidly and often completely removed by dry deposition and by titration with NO of anthropogenic origin and unsaturated biogenic hydrocarbons in a shallow nocturnal inversion surface layer. The low nocturnal O3 mixing ratios and presence of strong chemical sinks for NO3 limited the extent of nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry at ground level. Consequently, mixing ratios of N2O5 and ClNO2 were low ( formation of ClNO2 in the nocturnal residual layer aloft than at the surface and the breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer structure in the morning. When quantifiable, production of ClNO2 from N2O5 was efficient and likely occurred predominantly on unquantified supermicron-sized or refractory sea-salt-derived aerosol. After sunrise, production of Cl radicals from photolysis of ClNO2 was negligible compared to production of OH from the reaction of O(1D) + H2O except for a short period after sunrise.

  11. Posterior urethral valve in a six year old boy with nocturnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of posterior urethral valve (PUV) in a six year old boy with nocturnal eneuresis and failure to thrive as the only presenting symptoms. The clinically occult lesion was only unravelled when micturating cystourethrogram revealed a dilated posterior urethra with a distal narrow stream of opacified urine, bilateral ...

  12. Eight-Year Experience with Nocturnal, Every-Other-Day, Online Haemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Ojeda, Raquel; Arias-Guillen, Marta; Rossi, Florencia; Fontseré, Néstor; Vera, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Gonzalez, Leonardo Nicolás; Piñeiro, Gastón; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Rodas, Lida; Bedini, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    New haemodialysis therapeutic regimens are required to improve patient survival. Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have produced excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. In this single-centre observational study, 57 patients on 4-5-hour thrice-weekly OL-HDF were switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to report our 8-year experience with this schedule and to evaluate analytical and clinical outcomes. Nocturnal, every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients were working. The convective volume increased from 26.7 ± 2 litres at baseline to 46.6 ± 6.5 litres at 24 months (p every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since it is well tolerated and leads to clinical and social-occupational rehabilitation with satisfactory morbidity and mortality. These encouraging results strengthen us to continue and invite other clinicians to join this initiative. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A Case of Frequent Arousal Following Nocturnal Dyspnea Caused by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Wui Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a common disorder that is associated with many esophageal syndromes and complications. Most cases of reflux event occur during the day, but reflux during sleep can cause not only esophageal problems, but also sleep problems, such as arousal and poor sleep quality. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who had been referred to us with frequent arousal following sudden dyspnea. On polysomnography, no respiratory disturbances and periodic limb movements were found during the sleep study, but frequent events of arousal were reported (arousal index: 12.3/h. On a 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring test, his DeMeester score was 176.43 and the total reflux time was 1120.9 min (76.9%, indicating the presence of significant acid reflux. After treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor, the arousals following nocturnal dyspnea and fatigue in the morning disappeared in the patient. GERD should be considered as a cause of spontaneous arousal or awakening not accompanying respiratory disturbances.

  14. Long-term treatment of nocturnal enuresis with desmopressin. A follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, U B; Rittig, Søren; Nørgaard, J P

    1991-01-01

    Eight patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (age 11-24 years) were investigated prior to and after 24 weeks of desmopressin treatment in order to evaluate the impact on the endogenous vasopressin secretion and urinary output. No effect on plasma vasopressin, diurnal urinary volume, and...

  15. Potential of lactic acid bacteria as suppressors of wine allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Hatice Kalkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergens causes some symptoms as all asthma, allergic conjunctivitis, and allergic rhinitis. These symptoms are seen twice as many in women than in men. The major wine allergens reported in wines are endochitinase 4A and lipid-transfer protein (LTP. This review deal with possibilities of using lactic acid bacteria as suppressors of wine allergies. Phenolic compounds present in wines have not only antioxidant properties causing radical scavenging but also some special properties reported in many in vitro studies as regulating functions in inflammatory cells as mast cells. So what is the role of lactic acid bacteria in these cases? Lactic acid bacteria are used during malolactic fermentation step of wine production with purpose of malic acid reduction. During this bioconversion complex phenolic compounds could be hydrolysed by bacterial enzymes to their aglycone forms. Obtained aglycons could pass through the intestinal epithelium of human and allowed reduction of IgE antibody production by affecting Th1/ Th2 ratio. Considering different contents and quantities of phenols in different grape varieties and consequently in different wines more studies are required in order to determine which lactic acid bacteria and strains could be effective in suppressing wine allergens.

  16. Systematic review of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria and population-based evidence of their diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Tine Kold; Denys, Marie-Astrid; Vande Walle, Johan; Everaert, Karel

    2018-02-06

    Background Evidence of diagnostic accuracy for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria is currently unclear. Purpose Systematic review to determine population-based evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria based on data from frequency-volume charts. Methods Seventeen pre-specified search terms identified 351 unique investigations published from 1990 to 2016 in BIOSIS, Embase, Embase Alerts, International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Medline, and Cochrane. Thirteen original communications were included in this review based on pre-specified exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from each paper regarding subject age, sex, ethnicity, health status, sample size, data collection methods, and diagnostic discrimination of proposed definitions including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Results The sample size of study cohorts, participant age, sex, ethnicity, and health status varied considerably in 13 studies reporting on the diagnostic performance of seven different definitions of nocturnal polyuria using frequency-volume chart data from 4968 participants. Most study cohorts were small, mono-ethnic, including only Caucasian males aged 50 or higher with primary or secondary polyuria that were compared to a control group of healthy men without nocturia in prospective or retrospective settings. Proposed definitions had poor discriminatory accuracy in evaluations based on data from subjects independent from the original study cohorts with findings being similar regarding the most widely evaluated definition endorsed by ICS. Conclusions Diagnostic performance characteristics for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria show poor to modest discrimination and are not based on sufficient level of evidence from representative, multi-ethnic population-based data from both females and males of all adult ages.

  17. ASPIRE In-Home: rationale, design, and methods of a study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of automatic insulin suspension for nocturnal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Bergenstal, Richard M; Garg, Satish K; Bode, Bruce W; Meredith, Melissa; Slover, Robert H; Ahmann, Andrew; Welsh, John B; Lee, Scott W

    2013-07-01

    Nocturnal hypoglycemia is a barrier to therapy intensification efforts in diabetes. The Paradigm® Veo™ system may mitigate nocturnal hypoglycemia by automatically suspending insulin when a prespecified sensor glucose threshold is reached. ASPIRE (Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin REsponse) In-Home (NCT01497938) was a multicenter, randomized, parallel, adaptive study of subjects with type 1 diabetes. The control arm used sensor-augmented pump therapy. The treatment arm used sensor-augmented pump therapy with threshold suspend, which automatically suspends the insulin pump in response to a sensor glucose value at or below a prespecified threshold. To be randomized, subjects had to have demonstrated ≥2 episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia, defined as >20 consecutive minutes of sensor glucose values ≤65 mg/dl starting between 10:00 PM and 8:00 AM in the 2-week run-in phase. The 3-month study phase evaluated safety by comparing changes in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values and evaluated efficacy by comparing the mean area under the glucose concentration time curves for nocturnal hypoglycemia events in the two groups. Other outcomes included the rate of nocturnal hypoglycemia events and the distribution of sensor glucose values. Data from the ASPIRE In-Home study should provide evidence on the safety of the threshold suspend feature with respect to A1C and its efficacy with respect to severity and duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia when used at home over a 3-month period. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, Jayne E.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid...... species. The ear is formed by modifications of the cubital and subcostal veins at the forewing base, where the thin (1-3 m), ovoid (520 £ 220 )mpanal membrane occurs in a cavity. The ear is innervated by nerve IIN1c, with three chordotonal organs attaching to separate regions of the tympanal membrane...

  19. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2005-01-01

    sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... sleep related physiological mechanisms into consideration. In the present study we report that acute sleep deprivation has a dramatic effect on the volume of nocturnal urine production in both genders although the effect is more pronounced in males. Natriuresis and kaliuresis were observed on nights...

  20. The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanian, P. M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Horton, K. G. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Remote sensing techniques are playing a greater role in ornithology, and radar has proven a valuable tool for high resolution, long-term observations of airborne animals. The major disadvantage in radar remote sensing is the current inability to gain taxonomic information from these measurements. One solution is the incorporation of collocated acoustic monitoring that can provide recordings of species-specific nocturnal flight calls of migrating birds in flight. In addition, by taking multichannel recordings of these calls, the position of the calling bird can be calculated and linked to collocated radar measurements.

  1. Biochemical approaches to C4 photosynthesis evolution studies: the case of malic enzymes decarboxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Mariana; Tronconi, Marcos A; Gerrard Wheeler, Mariel C; Alvarez, Clarisa E; Drincovich, María F; Andreo, Carlos S

    2013-11-01

    C4 photosynthesis enables the capture of atmospheric CO2 and its concentration at the site of RuBisCO, thus counteracting the negative effects of low atmospheric levels of CO2 and high atmospheric levels of O2 (21 %) on photosynthesis. The evolution of this complex syndrome was a multistep process. It did not occur by simply recruiting pre-exiting components of the pathway from C3 ancestors which were already optimized for C4 function. Rather it involved modifications in the kinetics and regulatory properties of pre-existing isoforms of non-photosynthetic enzymes in C3 plants. Thus, biochemical studies aimed at elucidating the functional adaptations of these enzymes are central to the development of an integrative view of the C4 mechanism. In the present review, the most important biochemical approaches that we currently use to understand the evolution of the C4 isoforms of malic enzyme are summarized. It is expected that this information will help in the rational design of the best decarboxylation processes to provide CO2 for RuBisCO in engineering C3 species to perform C4 photosynthesis.

  2. Regulation of the expression of NADP-malic enzyme by UV-B, red and far-red light in maize seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Casati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The induction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malic enzyme (NADP-ME in etiolated maize (Zea mays seedlings by UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm was investigated by measuring changes in activity, protein quantity and RNA levels as a function of intensity and duration of exposure to the different radiations. Under low levels of PAR, exposure to UV-B radiation but not UV-A radiation for 6 to 24 h caused a marked increase in the enzyme levels similar to that observed under high PAR in the absence of UV-B. UV-B treatment of green leaves following a 12-h dark period also caused an increase in NADP-ME expression. Exposure to UV-B radiation for only 5 min resulted in a rapid increase of the enzyme, followed by a more gradual rise with longer exposure up to 6 h. Low levels of red light for 5 min or 6 h were also effective in inducing NADP-ME activity equivalent to that obtained with UV-B radiation. A 5-min exposure to far-red light following UV-B or red light treatment reversed the induction of NADP-ME, and this effect could be eliminated by further treatment with UV-B or red light. These results indicate that physiological levels of UV-B radiation can have a positive effect on the induction of this photosynthetic enzyme. The reducing power and pyruvate generated by the activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration, in cellular repair processes and as substrates for fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair.

  3. Nocturnal levels of chemerin and progranulin in adolescents: influence of sex, body mass index, glucose metabolism and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxer, Johann; Herttrich, Theresa; Zhao, Ying Y; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Körner, Antje; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Quante, Mirja

    2017-01-01

    Adipokines have been implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and sleep regulation. However, the role of chemerin and progranulin, two recently described adipokines, in the context of sleep remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess variations by sex, across different sleep stages and in relation to glucose metabolism. The study sample included 34 overweight/obese and 32 normal-weight adolescents from secondary schools and the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Child study cohort. We obtained longitudinal serum adipokine levels during in-laboratory polysomnography followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly higher mean nocturnal serum chemerin area under the curve (AUC) levels (348.2±133.3 vs. 241.7±67.7 vs. ng/mL×h, pprogranulin AUC was found between the groups. However, when assessing sex-specific levels, serum progranulin AUC levels were ~30% higher in overweight/obese males compared to overweight/obese females. Of note, nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin AUC did not exhibit a correlation with markers of glucose metabolism or sleep stages. Collectively, we report a sexual dimorphism in nocturnal progranulin and chemerin levels, which may help explain underlying differences in energy balance and body composition between males and females in the context of obesity.

  4. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Circadian phase and period responses to light stimuli in two nocturnal rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Daan, Serge

    2002-01-01

    We report period response curves (tauRC) for two nocturnal Murid species from India, Mus booduga and Mus platythrix. We further discuss the method of phase shift estimation in the presence of tau-changes, because such changes pose a serious methodological problem in the estimation of phase shifts.

  6. Nocturnal Activity of a Captive Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    IWANO, Taizo

    1991-01-01

    This report aims to clarify the nocturnal activity of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) under captive conditions to compare it with that under natural conditions. The aye-aye was nocuturnal and showed activity at any time at night. However, from 02:00 hrs until just prior to dawn, it often rested. It frequently returned to the nest throughout this period to take long rests of more than half an hour. The aye-aye's activities were classified into four categories: feeding, moving, resti...

  7. Treatment of chronic pain associated with nocturnal bruxism with botulinum toxin. A prospective and randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wayli, Hessa

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the treatment of pain associated with nocturnal bruxism. Material and Methods Fifty subjects reporting nocturnal bruxism were recruited for a randomized clinical trial. Twenty five bruxers were injected with botulinum toxin in both masseters, and twenty five were treated with traditional methods of treating bruxism. Patients were evaluated at 3rd week, 2nd and 6th month and one year after injection and then used to calculate bruxism events. Bruxism symptoms were investigated using questionnaires. Results Mean pain score due to Bruxism events in the masseter muscle decreased significantly in the botulinum toxin injection group A (P =0.000, highly significant). However, in the conventional treatment group, mean pain score does not show improvement with time (p>0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that botulinum toxin injection reduced the mean pain score and number of bruxism events, most likely by decreasing the muscle activity of masseter rather than affecting the central nervous system. Key words:Temporomandibular pain, nocturnal bruxism, botulinum toxin. PMID:28149474

  8. End-Tidal CO2 Tension Is Predictive of Effective Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Koichiro; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ogawa, Hiromasa; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-05-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) is characterized by recurring cycles of crescendo-decrescendo ventilation during sleep, and enhances sympathetic nerve activity. Thus CSA has a prognostic impact in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although nocturnal oxygen (O2) therapy decreases frequency of CSA and improves functional exercise capacity, it is also known that some non-responders to the therapy exist. We thus aimed to identify predictors of responders to nocturnal O2 therapy in CHF patients with CSA. In 12 CHF patients with CSA hospitalized at our department, sleep study was performed at 2 consecutive nights. Patients nasally inhaled O2 at either the first or second night in a randomized manner. To predict the percentage reduction in apnea-hypopnea index (%ΔAHI) in response to the nocturnal O2 therapy, we performed multiple regression analysis with a stepwise method with variables including age, brain-natriuretic peptide, circulation time, baseline AHI, hypercapnic ventilatory response and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2). Nocturnal O2 therapy significantly decreased AHI (from 32 ± 13 /h to 12 ± 10 /h, P 50% reduction of AHI), with 88.9% of sensitivity and 66.7% of specificity. In conclusion, PETCO2 is useful to predict the efficacy of O2 therapy in CHF patients with CSA, providing important information to the current nocturnal O2 therapy.

  9. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  10. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  11. Stop early to travel fast: modelling risk-averse scheduling among nocturnally migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, J.D.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.

    2013-01-01

    Many migrating birds divide their journeys into nocturnal flights interspersed by stopovers where they build up energy reserves (fuel) for subsequent flights. Given the difficulty in monitoring fuel loads of individual migrants over long distances, theoretical models are often used to interpret

  12. Frequency of nocturnal symptoms in asthmatic children attending a hospital out-patient clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G. G.; Postma, D. S.; Wempe, J. B.; Gerritsen, J.; Knol, K.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Since nocturnal symptoms indicate more severe asthma, we investigated their frequency in a hospital-based population of asthmatic children. Recognition of these symptoms offers the possibility to introduce appropriate treatment. We studied 796 consecutive children with asthma (mean (SD) age 9 (4)

  13. Magnesium diboride(MgB2) wires for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Dipak; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Field and temperature dependence of the critical current density, Jc, were measured for both un-doped and carbon doped MgB 2 /Nb/Monel wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In particular, carbon incorporation into the MgB 2 structure using malic acid additive and a chemical solution method can be advantageous because of the highly uniform mixing between the carbon and boron powders. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was estimated to be 25,000 - 25,300 Acm -2 for the wire sintered at 600 degrees C for 4 hours. The irreversibility field, Birr, of the malic acid doped wire was approximately 21.0 - 21.8 T, as obtained from a linear extrapolation of the J-B characteristic. Interestingly enough, the Jc of the malic acid doped sample exceeds 10 5 Acm -2 at 6 T and 4.2 K, which is comparable to that of commercial Nb-Ti wires

  14. Magnesium diboride(MgB{sub 2}) wires for applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Dipak; Kim, Jung Ho [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, North Wollongong (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Field and temperature dependence of the critical current density, Jc, were measured for both un-doped and carbon doped MgB{sub 2}/Nb/Monel wires manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. In particular, carbon incorporation into the MgB{sub 2} structure using malic acid additive and a chemical solution method can be advantageous because of the highly uniform mixing between the carbon and boron powders. At 4.2 K and 10 T, Jc was estimated to be 25,000 - 25,300 Acm{sup -2} for the wire sintered at 600 degrees C for 4 hours. The irreversibility field, Birr, of the malic acid doped wire was approximately 21.0 - 21.8 T, as obtained from a linear extrapolation of the J-B characteristic. Interestingly enough, the Jc of the malic acid doped sample exceeds 10{sup 5} Acm{sup -2} at 6 T and 4.2 K, which is comparable to that of commercial Nb-Ti wires.

  15. Estimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard H.; Omonode, Rex A.

    2018-04-01

    Annual budgets of greenhouse and other trace gases require knowledge of the emissions throughout the year. Unfortunately, emissions into the surface boundary layer during stable, calm nocturnal periods are not measurable using most micrometeorological methods due to non-stationarity and uncoupled flow. However, during nocturnal periods with very light winds, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) frequently accumulate near the surface and this mass accumulation can be used to determine emissions. Gas concentrations were measured at four heights (one within and three above canopy) and turbulence was measured at three heights above a mature 2.5 m maize canopy from 23 July to 10 September 2015. Nocturnal CO2 and N2O fluxes from the canopy were determined using the accumulation of mass within a 6.3 m control volume and out the top of the control volume within the nocturnal surface boundary layer. Diffusive fluxes were estimated by flux gradient method. The total accumulative and diffusive fluxes during near-calm nights (friction velocities CO2 and 0.53 nmol m-2 s-1 N2O. Fluxes were also measured using chambers. Daily mean CO2 fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 90 to 130 % of those determined using soil chambers. Daily mean N2O fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 60 to 80 % of that determined using soil chambers. The better signal-to-noise ratios of the chamber method for CO2 over N2O, non-stationary flow, assumed Schmidt numbers, and anemometer tilt were likely contributing reasons for the differences in chambers versus accumulated nocturnal mass flux estimates. Near-surface N2O accumulative flux measurements in more homogeneous regions and with greater depth are needed to confirm the conclusion that mass accumulation can be effectively used to estimate soil emissions during nearly calm nights.

  16. Abscisic acid as a factor in regulation of photosynthetic carbon metabolism of pea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Faltynowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abscisic acid (ABA on carbon metabolism and the activity of ribulosebisphosphate (RuBP and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxylases in 8-day-old pea seedlings was investigated. It was endeavoured to correlate the changes observed in metabolic processes with the endogenous ABA level. In plants treated with ABA incorporation of labeled carbon into sucrose, glucose, fructose and sugar phosphates was depressed, while 14C incorporation into starch, ribulose and malic acid was enhanced. The activity of RuBP carboxylase was considerably lowered, whereas that of PEP carboxylase was slightly increased. It is considered that inhibition of photosynthesis due to the action of ABA is caused to a great extent by the obstruction of the C-3 pathway and reduced activity of RuBP carboxylase, whereas (β-carboxylation was not blocked.

  17. Primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Background and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate background factors and treatment in children with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. The study material comprised enuretics, former enuretics and controls from the municipal community of Falkenberg on the west coast of Sweden. Whenever possible all investigations were made with the children staying in their own home environment. Different background factors have been suspected as being causative: sleep disturbances, behavioural or psychological disturbances, small bladder capacity, increased night diuresis and an insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone during sleep. These factors have been investigated in these studies. The treatment of enuresis has been dominated by the alarm and antidiuretic treatment with DDAVP. Primary nocturnal monosymptomatic enuresis is a common problem in childhood. In this study the prevalence among 392 seven year old children was 7.3%. A prior history of enuresis was found in 65% of families of the enuretics compared to 25% in controls. The enuretic children showed no statistically significant differences in behavioural or psychological problems compared to non-enuretic children. Enuretic children were described as heavy sleepers by their parents and a wake-up test performed at home showed that they were statistically significantly harder to arouse than the controls. Children with nocturnal enuresis, former enuretics and controls did not differ in social or behavioural traits in an interview study. No signs of symptom substitution was found when enuresis was resolved. Enuretic children had a normal bladder capacity and no statistically significant difference was found compared to controls and former enuretics. The enuretic children showed a normal calcium-creatinine quota in the urine. Former enuretic children showed a significantly enhanced calcium/creatinine quota compared to enuretics and controls. Enuretic children had a statistically significant lower morning

  18. Physiological effects of γ-linolenic acid and sesamin on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takashi; Iwase, Haruka; Amano, Saaya; Sunahara, Saki; Tachihara, Ayuka; Yagi, Minako; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Interrelated effects of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and sesamin, a sesame lignan, on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation were examined. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g/kg sesamin (1:1 mixture of sesamin and episesamin) and containing 100 g/kg of palm oil (saturated fat), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, or oil of evening primrose origin containing 43% GLA (GLA oil) for 18 days. In rats fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, increased the activity and mRNA levels of various enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation, except for some instances. Sesamin greatly increased these parameters, and the enhancing effects of sesamin on peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate and acyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase and acyl-CoA thioesterase activities were more exaggerated in rats fed GLA oil than in the animals fed other oils. The combination of sesamin and GLA oil also synergistically increased the mRNA levels of some peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes and of several enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism located in other cell organelles. In the groups fed sesamin-free diets, GLA oil, compared with other oils, markedly reduced the activity and mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes. Sesamin reduced all these parameters, except for malic enzyme, in rats fed palm and safflower oils, but the effects were attenuated in the animals fed GLA oil. These changes by sesamin and fat type accompanied profound alterations in serum lipid levels. This may be ascribable to the changes in apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of sup(99m)Tc/sup(99)Tc-hydroxycarboxylic acid chelates by high voltage electrophoresis without supporting material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, I.; Muenze, R.; Dreyer, I.; Dreyer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion mobilities of different sup(99m)Tc- and 99 Tc chelates prepared by reduction of pertechnetate by Sn(II) in the presence of citric, malic, tartaric, gluconic, and α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as ligands have been measured by means of electrophoresis without supporting material. All the chelates investigated proved to be anions in the pH range of 2-7. Both the Tc(V)- and Tc(IV) compounds with the same ligand including the sup(99m)Tc preparation show identical ion mobilities and dissociation characteristics. (author)

  20. Ogun Oru: a traditional explanation for nocturnal neuropsychiatric disturbances among the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, O F; Famuyiwa, O O

    2007-03-01

    This article describes three cases of ;ogun oru' (nocturnal warefare), a condition reported in southwest Nigeria involving an acute night-time disturbance that is culturally attributed to demonic infiltration of the body and psyche during dreaming. Ogun oru is characterized by its occurrence, a female preponderance, the perception of an underlying feud between the sufferer's earthly spouse and a ;spiritual' spouse, and the event of bewitchment through eating while dreaming. The condition is believed to be treatable through Christian prayers or elaborate traditional rituals designed to exorcise the imbibed demonic elements. Ogun oru may be a label applied to medical problems. The differential diagnosis includes mainly parasomnias, for example, sleep terror, sleepwalking and sleep paralysis and, to a lesser extent, nocturnal or sleep epilepsy.

  1. Integrated electrochemical gluconic acid biosensor based on self-assembled monolayer-modified gold electrodes. Application to the analysis of gluconic acid in musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, S; Gamella, M; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2007-03-21

    An integrated amperometric gluconic acid biosensor constructed using a gold electrode (AuE) modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on which gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH, 0.84 U) and the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, 1.5 micromol) were coimmobilized by covering the electrode surface with a dialysis membrane is reported. The working conditions selected were Eapp=+0.15 V and 25+/-1 degrees C. The useful lifetime of one single TTF-GADH-MPA-AuE was surprisingly long. After 53 days of continuous use, the biosensor exhibited 86% of the original sensitivity. A linear calibration plot was obtained for gluconic acid over the 6.0x10(-7) to 2.0x10(-5) M concentration range, with a limit of detection of 1.9x10(-7) M. The effect of potential interferents (glucose, fructose, galactose, arabinose, and tartaric, citric, malic, ascorbic, gallic, and caffeic acids) on the biosensor response was evaluated. The behavior of the biosensor in a flow-injection system in connection with amperometric detection was tested. The analytical usefulness of the biosensor was evaluated by determining gluconic acid in wine and must samples, and the results obtained were validated by comparison with those provided by using a commercial enzyme test kit.

  2. Bioleaching of copper, cobalt and zinc from black shale by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... duce organic acid metabolites which include citric, oxalic and gluconic acids during ... acid metabolites like citric, oxalic, malic gluconic acids used for bioleaching of ..... polluted soils using oxalate. J. Water, Air, Soil Pollut.

  3. Purification, kinetic behavior, and regulation of NAD(P)+ malic enzyme of tumor mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Lehninger, A L

    1984-05-25

    The purification and kinetic characterization of an NAD(P)+-malic enzyme from 22aH mouse hepatoma mitochondria are described. The enzyme was purified 328-fold with a final yield of 51% and specific activity of 38.1 units/mg of protein by employing DEAE-cellulose chromatography and an ATP affinity column. Sephadex G-200 chromatography yielded a native Mr = 240,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a major subunit with Mr = 61,000, suggesting a tetrameric structure, and also showed that the preparation contained less than 10% polypeptide impurities. Use of the ATP affinity column required the presence of MnCl2 and fumarate (an allosteric activator) in the elution buffers. In the absence of fumarate, the Michaelis constants for malate, NAD+, and NADP+ were 3.6 mM, 55 microM, and 72 microM, respectively; in the presence of fumarate (2 mM), the constants were 0.34 mM, 9 microM, and 13 microM, respectively. ATP was shown to be an allosteric inhibitor, competitive with malate. However, the inhibition by ATP displayed hyperbolic competitive kinetics with a KI (ATP) of 80 microM (minus fumarate) and 0.5 mM (plus 2 mM fumarate). The allosteric properties of the enzyme are integrated into a rationale for its specific role in the pathways of malate and glutamate oxidation in tumor mitochondria.

  4. Individual-based ant-plant networks: diurnal-nocturnal structure and species-area relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.

  5. Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jason W; Nilsson, Cecilia; Lim, Ka S; Bäckman, Johan; Reynolds, Don R; Alerstam, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, that is by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the flow and the speed of the animal's own propulsion in relation to the surrounding air. Here we analyse entomological and ornithological radar data from north-western Europe to investigate how two different nocturnal migrant taxa, the noctuid moth Autographa gamma and songbirds, deal with wind by analysing variation in resulting flight directions in relation to the wind-dependent angle between the animal's heading and track direction. Our results, from fixed locations along the migratory journey, reveal different global strategies used by moths and songbirds during their migratory journeys. As expected, nocturnally migrating moths experienced a greater degree of wind drift than nocturnally migrating songbirds, but both groups were more affected by wind in autumn than in spring. The songbirds' strategies involve elements of both drift and compensation, providing some benefits from wind in combination with destination and time control. In contrast, moths expose themselves to a significantly higher degree of drift in order to obtain strong wind assistance, surpassing the songbirds in mean ground speed, at the cost of a comparatively lower spatiotemporal migratory precision. Moths and songbirds show contrasting but adaptive responses to migrating through a moving flow, which are fine-tuned to the respective flight capabilities of each group in relation to the wind currents they travel within. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  6. What makes a good home-based nocturnal seizure detector? A value sensitive design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans; Van Delden, Hans; van Thiel, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design,

  7. Isotope partitioning for NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum confirms a steady-state random kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope partitioning studies beginning with E-[ 14 C]NAD, E-[ 14 C] malate, E-[ 14 C] NAD-Mg 2+ , and E-Mg-[ 14 C]malate suggest a steady-state random mechanism for the NAD-malic enzyme. Isotope trapping beginning with E-[ 14 C]NAD and with varying concentrations of Mg 2+ and malate in the chase solution indicates that Mg 2+ is added in rapid equilibrium and must be added prior to malate for productive ternary complex formation. Equal percentage trapping from E-[ 14 C]NAD-Mg and E-Mg-[ 14 C] malate indicates the mechanism is steady-state random with equal off-rates for NAD and malate from E-NAD-Mg-malate. The off-rates for both do not change significantly in the ternary E-Mg-malate and E-NAD-Mg complexes, nor does the off-rate change for NAD from E-NAD. No trapping of malate was obtained from E-[ 14 C] malate, suggesting that this complex is nonproductive. A quantitative analysis of the data allows an estimation of values for a number of the rate constants along the reaction pathway

  8. Behavioral alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To investigate the efficacy of alarm treatment in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents with nocturnal enuresis and relate treatment success to age and type of clinical support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 32 weeks, 84 children and adolescents received alarm treatment together with weekly psychological support sessions for individual families or groups of 5 to 10 families. RESULTS: 71% of the participants achieved success, defined as 14 consecutive dry nights. The result was similar for children and adolescents and for individual or group support. The time until success was shorter for participants missing fewer support sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Alarm treatment was effective for the present sample, regardless of age or type of support. Missing a higher number of support sessions, which may reflect low motivation for treatment, increased the risk of failure.

  9. Effect of the complement inhibitor eculizumab on thromboembolism in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillmen, P.; Muus, P.; Duhrsen, U.; Risitano, A.M.; Schubert, J.; Luzzatto, L.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Szer, J.; Brodsky, R.A.; Hill, A.; Socie, G.; Bessler, M.; Rollins, S.A.; Bell, L.; Rother, R.P.; Young, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hemolysis and hemoglobinemia contribute to serious clinical sequelae in hemolytic disorders. In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients, hemolysis can contribute to thromboembolism (TE), the most feared complication in PNH, and the leading cause of disease-related deaths. We evaluated

  10. Perceived Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping Among Hispanics: The Influence of Social Support and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.

  11. Association mapping of main tomato fruit sugars and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of S. lycopersicum (123 accessions and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS over two years using the mixed linear model (MLM. We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P<0.001 for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  12. Noninvasive imaging of brain oxygen metabolism in children with primary nocturnal enuresis during natural sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Huang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Hongwei; Peng, Miao; Guo, Qiyong

    2017-05-01

    A series of studies have revealed that nocturnal enuresis is closely related to hypoxia in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). However, brain oxygen metabolism of PNE children has not been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in children suffering from PNE. We used the newly developed T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging technique. Neurological evaluation, structural imaging, phase-contrast, and the TRUST imaging method were applied in children with PNE (n = 37) and healthy age- and sex-matched control volunteers (n = 39) during natural sleep to assess whole-brain CMRO 2 , CBF, OEF, and arousal from sleep scores. Results showed that whole-brain CMRO 2 and OEF values of PNE children were higher in controls, while there was no significant difference in CBF. Consequently, OEF levels of PNE children were increased to maintain oxygen supply. The elevation of OEF was positively correlated with the difficulty of arousal. Our results provide the first evidence that high oxygen consumption and high OEF values could make PNE children more susceptible to hypoxia, which may induce cumulative arousal deficits and make them more prone to nocturnal enuresis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2532-2539, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nocturnal Hot Flashes: Relationship to Objective Awakenings and Sleep Stage Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matt T.; Kim, Semmie; Galvan, Thania; White, David P.; Joffe, Hadine

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: While women report sleep interruption secondary to nighttime hot flashes, the sleep disrupting impact of nocturnal hot flashes (HF) is not well characterized. We utilized a model of induced HF to investigate the relationship of nighttime HF to sleep architecture and sleep-stage transitions. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy, premenopausal volunteers received the depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) leuprolide to rapidly induce menopause, manifesting with HF. Sleep disruption was measured on 2 polysomnograms conducted before and after 4–5 weeks on leuprolide, when HF had developed. Results: 165 HF episodes were recorded objectively during 48 sleep studies (mean 3.4 HF/night). After standardizing to sleep-stage time distribution, the majority of HF were recorded during wake (51.0%) and stage N1 (18.8%). Sixty-six percent of HF occurred within 5 minutes of an awakening, with 80% occurring just before or during the awakening. Objective HF were not associated with sleep disruption as measured by increased transitions to wake or N1, but self-reported nocturnal HF correlated with an increase from pre- to post-leuprolide in the rate of transitions to wake (p = 0.01), and to N1 (p = 0.008). Conclusions: By isolating the effect of HF on sleep in women without the confound of age-related sleep changes associated with natural menopause, this experimental model shows that HF arise most commonly during N1 and wake, typically preceding or occurring simultaneously with wake episodes. Perception of HF, but not objective HF, is linked to increased sleep-stage transitions, suggesting that sleep disruption increases awareness of and memory for nighttime HF events. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01116401. Citation: Bianchi MT, Kim S, Galvan T, White DP, Joffe H. Nocturnal hot flashes: relationship to objective awakenings and sleep stage transitions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1003–1009. PMID:26951410

  14. Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs: Apprécier la prévalence de l'énurésie nocturne chez des enfants élèves à l'école primaire (âgés de 6 à 7 ans) dans la ville d'Assiut et d'apprécier ses caractères et ses facteurs de risque. Patients et Méthodes: Une étude randomisée incluant 1519 enfants a été réalisée dans 10 écoles primaires de la ville d'Assiut ...

  15. Factors affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...

  16. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  17. Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gesine; Hackemann, Annika; Reusch, Juergen; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Hypoglycemia can be a symptom in patients with Addison's disease. The common regimen of replacement therapy with oral glucocorticoids results in unphysiological low cortisol levels in the early morning, the time of highest insulin sensitivity. Therefore patients with Addison's disease are at risk for unrecognized and potentially severe nocturnal hypoglycemia also because of a disturbed counterregulatory function. Use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help to adjust hydrocortisone treatment and to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia in these patients. Thirteen patients with Addison's disease were screened for hypoglycemia wearing a CGMS for 3-5 days. In one patient we identified a hypoglycemic episode at 3:45 a.m. with a blood glucose level of 46 mg/dL, clearly beneath the 95% tolerance interval of minimal glucose levels between 2 and 4 a.m. (53.84 mg/dL). After the hydrocortisone replacement scheme was changed, the minimum blood glucose level between 2 and 4 a.m. normalized to 87 mg/dL. Continuous glucose monitoring can detect nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and hence prevent in these patients an impaired quality of life and even serious adverse effects.

  18. Cloning of a novel gene from Penicillium oxalicum I1 which in Escherichia coli enhances the secretion of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue, L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Organic acids play an important role in the conversion of insoluble ions into soluble ones in soil. Heterologous overexpression of a single gene in a cell is the optimal strategy for increasing the secretion of organic acids solubilizing phosphate. Objectives. In this study, we constructed a primary cDNA library of Penicillium oxalicum I1, and screened clones that can solubilize P in tricalcium phosphate (TCP medium. We aimed to obtain the gene expressed in Escherichia coli, which can enhance organic acid secretion. Method. A primary cDNA library of Penicillium oxalicum I1 was constructed using the switching mechanism at the 5'-end of RNA transcription. The organic acid secretion ability of E. coli DH5α™ with overexpressed P. oxalicum I1gene was tested in TCP medium where glucose is the sole carbon source. Afterwards, pyruvic acid, citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid were used as sole carbon source substitutes for glucose in the TCP medium to test the organic acid secretion ability of the transformed E. coli DH5α™. Results. A total of 106 clones showed halos in TCP medium, among which clone I-2 displayed clear halo. The full-length cDNA of clone I-2 was 1,151 bp, with a complete open reading frame of 702 bp, which encoded a hypothetical protein of 233 amino acids. The cDNA sequence showed 68% identity and 73% query cover with other fungal gene sequences of which the function remains unknown. Escherichia coli containing the cloned gene secreted up to 567 mg·l-1 acetic acid within 48 h. The use of glucose, pyruvic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, and malic acid improved the acetic acid secretion of the E. coli DH5α™ clone I-2. By contrast, the use of citric acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid did not improve the acetic acid secretion of clone I-2 compared to a control E. coli DH5α™ strain bearing only the cloning vector without any insert. Conclusions. We obtained a

  19. Association between respiratory events and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux events in patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Tantipornsinchai, Warangkana; Desudchit, Tayard; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-06-01

    Literature has addressed the increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Significant improvement of GERD has been found after OSA treatment. However, precise mechanisms underlying this correlation remain unclear. We examined the association between nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and sleep events in patients with coexisting OSA and GERD. A case-crossover study among 12 patients with coexisting moderate-severe OSA and GERD was conducted. Participants underwent simultaneous polysomnography and esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. GER subtypes (ie, acid reflux, non-acid reflux) were defined as outcomes. Respective control time points were selected in all eligible control periods. Each sleep event was assessed individually. Estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed. A p-value of reflux and 28 non-acid reflux. Arousals and awakenings were significantly associated with subsequent GER events. The OR for GER following an arousal was 2.31 (95% CI 1.39-3.68; p  0.05). Both awakening and arousal appear to precipitate any subtype of GER events in patients with coexisting GERD and moderate to severe OSA. However, GER events were significantly less likely to occur after other respiratory events and did not appear to cause sleep-related events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of the Bioactive Compounds Violacein and Indolmycin Is Conditional in a maeA Mutant of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4054 Lacking the Malic Enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Thøgersen, Mariane; Delpin, Marina; Melchiorsen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    cluster was not interrupted by the transposon; instead the insertion was located to the maeA gene encoding the malic enzyme. Supernatant of the mutant strain inhibited Vibrio anguillarum and Staphylococcus aureus in well diffusion assays and in MIC assays at the same level as the wild type strain...... of violacein and indolmycin may be metabolically linked and that yet unidentified antibacterial compound(s) may be play a role in the antibacterial activity of P. luteoviolacea....

  1. Long-term clinical parameters after switching to nocturnal haemodialysis : a Dutch propensity-score-matched cohort study comparing patients on nocturnal haemodialysis with patients on three-times-a-week haemodialysis/haemodiafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansz, Thijs Thomas; Özyilmaz, Akin; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Romijn, Marieke; Blankestijn, Peter J; Bots, Michael L; van Jaarsveld, Brigit C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD), characterised by 8-hour sessions ≥3 times a week, is known to improve clinical parameters in the short term compared with conventional-schedule haemodialysis (HD), generally 3×3.5-4 hours a week. We studied long-term effects of NHD and used patients on

  2. Day-night changes of energy-rich compounds in crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species utilizing hexose and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Song; Nose, Akihiro

    2004-09-01

    Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) can be divided into two groups according to the major carbohydrates used for malic acid synthesis, either polysaccharide (starch) or monosaccharide (hexose). This is related to the mechanism and affects energy metabolism in the two groups. In Kalanchoë pinnata and K. daigremontiana, which utilize starch, ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast inorganic pyrophosphatase) activity is greater than inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (tonoplast adenosine triphosphatase) activity, but the reverse is the case in pineapple (Ananas comosus) utilizing hexose. To test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism of the two groups differs, day-night changes in the contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana leaves and in pineapple chlorenchyma were analysed. The contents of energy-rich compounds were measured spectrophotometrically in extracts of tissue sampled in the light and dark, using potted plants, kept for 15 d before the experiments in a growth chamber. In the three species, ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) increased in the dark and decreased in the light, in contrast to ADP and AMP. Changes in ATP and AEC were greater in Kalanchoë leaves than in pineapple chlorenchyma. PPi content in the three species increased in the dark, but on illumination it decreased rapidly and substantially, remaining little changed through the rest of the light period. Pi content of Kalanchoë leaves did not change between dark and light, whereas Pi in pineapple chlorenchyma increased in the dark and decreased in the light, and the changes were far greater than in Kalanchoë leaves. Light-dark changes in PEP content in the three species were similar. These results corroborate our hypothesis that day-night changes in the contents of energy-rich compounds differ between CAM species and are related to the

  3. The role of sea–land air thermal difference, shape of the coastline and sea surface temperature in the nocturnal offshore convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mazón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal precipitation cells and lines occur near the coastline in the whole Mediterranean basin in all seasons. The precipitation events are mainly located in areas where coastal mountain ranges and rivers enhance convergence though the interaction of nocturnal mesoscale and local flows (land breeze, katabatic and drainages winds with prevailing synoptic wind or with other mesoscale and local flows. The methodology used here to study this phenomenon consists of three stages. First, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM radar satellite database is used to detect nocturnal precipitation near the coastline, from 18 to 09 UTC. An event is included in the study if the 3 hours accumulated precipitation detected by TRMM is stationary near the coast, or has moved slightly onshore or offshore, and has lasted no more than six consecutive hours. Second, the NCEP reanalysis database is used to describe the synoptic conditions and to discard precipitation associated with synoptic events (large low pressure areas, dynamic polar fronts, or troughs, for example. In the final step by using the version 3 of the Weather Research Forecast model, we simulate and analyse some of the selected events to determine the role of the land–sea temperature differences, the curvature of the coastline and the sea surface temperature.The simulations confirm that the nocturnal precipitation studied in the Mediterranean basin near the coastline is formed from the interaction between relatively warm and wet sea-air with the cold air mass from drainage winds, as well as from the convergence of several drainage winds offshore. The mechanism is the same that is used to explain nocturnal precipitation in tropical areas.

  4. Prognostic value of efficiently correcting nocturnal desaturations after one month of non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a retrospective monocentre observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Arnol, Nathalie; Meininger, Vincent; Kraoua, Salah; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Abstract NIV adherence ('quantity' of ventilation) has a prognostic impact in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We hypothesized that NIV effectiveness ('quality') could also have a similar impact. NIV effectiveness was evaluated in 82 patients within the first month (M1) and every three months (symptoms, arterial blood bases, and nocturnal pulsed oxygen saturation - SpO2). Kaplan-Meier survival and risk factors for mortality one year after NIV initiation were evaluated. Forty patients were considered 'correctly ventilated' at M1 (Group 1, less than 5% of nocturnal oximetry time with an SpO2NIV effectiveness to correct nocturnal desaturations is an independent prognostic factor.

  5. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in school aged children: the role of personal and parents related socio-economic and educational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mahmoodzadeh; Morteza, Amestejani; Mohammad, Karamyar; Ahmad-Ali, Nikibakhsh

    2013-02-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

  6. Diel turbidity cycles in a headwater stream: evidence of nocturnal bioturbation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Richard J.; Outram, Faye; Hiscock, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A small number of recent studies have linked daily cycles in stream turbidity to nocturnal bioturbation by aquatic fauna, principally crayfish, and demonstrated this process can significantly impact upon water quality under baseflow conditions. Adding to this limited body of research, we use high-resolution water quality monitoring data to investigate evidence of diel turbidity cycles in a lowland, headwater stream with a known signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) population an...

  7. Visual and acoustic signaling in three species of Brazilian nocturnal tree frogs (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual communication seems to be widespread among nocturnal anurans, however, reports of these behaviors in many Neotropical species are lacking. Therefore, we gathered information collected during several sporadic field expeditions in central and southern Brazil with three nocturnal tree frogs: Aplastodiscus perviridis, Hypsiboas albopunctatus and H. bischoffi. These species displayed various aggressive behaviors, both visual and acoustic, towards other males. For A. perviridis we described arm lifting and leg kicking; for H. albopunctatus we described the advertisement and territorial calls, visual signalizations, including a previously unreported behavior (short leg kicking, and male-male combat; and for H. bischoffiwe described the advertisement and fighting calls, toes and fingers trembling, leg lifting, and leg kicking. We speculate about the evolution of some behaviors and concluded that the use of visual signals among Neotropical anurans may be much more common than suggested by the current knowledge.

  8. Production of N2O5 and ClNO2 through Nocturnal Processing of Biomass-Burning Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Adam T; Goldberger, Lexie; Jahl, Lydia; Thornton, Joel; Sullivan, Ryan C

    2018-01-16

    Biomass burning is a source of both particulate chloride and nitrogen oxides, two important precursors for the formation of nitryl chloride (ClNO 2 ), a source of atmospheric oxidants that is poorly prescribed in atmospheric models. We investigated the ability of biomass burning to produce N 2 O 5 (g) and ClNO 2 (g) through nocturnal chemistry using authentic biomass-burning emissions in a smog chamber. There was a positive relationship between the amount of ClNO 2 formed and the total amount of particulate chloride emitted and with the chloride fraction of nonrefractory particle mass. In every fuel tested, dinitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O 5 ) formed quickly, following the addition of ozone to the smoke aerosol, and ClNO 2 (g) production promptly followed. At atmospherically relevant relative humidities, the particulate chloride in the biomass-burning aerosol was rapidly but incompletely displaced, likely by the nitric acid produced largely by the heterogeneous uptake of N 2 O 5 (g). Despite this chloride acid displacement, the biomass-burning aerosol still converted on the order of 10% of reacted N 2 O 5 (g) into ClNO 2 (g). These experiments directly confirm that biomass burning is a potentially significant source of atmospheric N 2 O 5 and ClNO 2 to the atmosphere.

  9. The epidemiology and factors associated with nocturnal enuresis among boarding and daytime school children in southeast of Turkey: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Ali; Gunes, Gulsen; Acik, Yasemin; Akilli, Adem

    2009-09-22

    Nocturnal enuresis is an important problem among young children living in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible differences in the prevalence of enuresis between children in boarding school and daytime school and the association of enuresis with sociodemographic factors. This was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 562 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to parents from two different types of schools. One of them was a day-time school and the other was a boarding school. To describe enuresis the ICD-10 definition of at least one wet night per month for three consecutive months was used. Chi-square test and a logistic regression model was used to identify significant predictive factors for enuresis. The overall prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 14.9%. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis declined with age. Of the 6 year old children 33.3% still wetted their beds, while the ratio was 2.6% for 15 years-olds. There was no significant difference in prevalence of nocturnal enuresis between boys and girls (14.3% versus 16. 8%). Enuresis was reported as 18.5% among children attending day time school and among those 11.5% attending boarding school (p boarding school. Our findings suggest that nocturnal enuresis is a common problem among school children, especially with low income, smaller age, family history of enuresis and history of urinary tract infection. Enuresis is a pediatric public health problem and efforts at all levels should be made such as preventive, etiological and curative.

  10. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethn...

  11. Increased sympathetic activity during sleep and nocturnal hypertension in Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Hansen, H P; Jacobsen, P

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To elucidate the putative factors involved in the blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Extracellular fluid volume and fluid shift from interstitial to plasma volume (haematocrit), sympathetic nervous activity...... (plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline) and the internal 'body clock' (serum melatonin) were investigated in 31 hypertensive Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with diabetic nephropathy (24 males, age 60 (45-73) years). All variables, except extracellular volume, were measured repeatedly...... constant in both groups. Extracellular fluid volume and plasma melatonin levels were comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Sustained adrenergic activity during sleep is associated with blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy, probably...

  12. Comparison of nocturia response to desmopressin treatment in elderly men with and without nocturnal polyuria in real-life practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-L; Huang, Y-H; Hung, T-W; Ou, Y-C

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose desmopressin in elderly men with and without nocturnal polyuria (NP) in real-life practice. Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/ benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were≧ 65 years old with refractory nocturia were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively analysed elderly men treated with adding desmopressin to current medications for nocturia according to category of the baseline nocturnal urine volume. The 48-h frequency volume chart (FVC), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) were initially assessed and re-evaluated 12 weeks later. Serum sodium level was checked 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after initiation of desmopressin therapy or suspected hyponatremia event. The mean change in numbers of nocturnal voids was evaluated for efficacy of treatment. A total of 136 patients were included with 55 in non-NP group and 81 in NP group. Hypertension was more common in NP group in regard of comorbidities. During treatment period, there were significant reductions of nocturnal voids from 4.22 ± 1.38 to 2.31 ± 0.98 (p < 0.001) in non-NP group and from 4.52 ± 1.23 to 2.07 ± 0.89 (p < 0.001) in NP group. The reduction in nocturnal voids was more significant in NP group (2.44 ± 1.15 vs. 1.91 ± 1.48, p = 0.003). The mean decrease in serum sodium levels were 3.89 ± 1.22 mmol/l (p < 0.001) in non-NP group and 4.69 ± 3.5 mmol/l (p < 0.001) in NP group at the extreme value. Long-term treatment with low-dose desmopressin is safe and effective for nocturia with or without NP in elderly patients with LUTS/BPH during real-life practice. Patients should be well informed about the disease and are closely followed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Seasonal variations of low molecular weight hydroxy-dicarboxylic acids and oxaloacetic acid in remote marine aerosols from Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific (December 2010-November 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Divyavani; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2018-05-01

    Concentrations of homologous hydroxy-dicarboxylic acids (diacids) (hC3-hC6) and keto-diacid (oxaloacetic acid) were measured in the atmospheric aerosols collected at Chichijima Island (27.04° N, 142.13° E) in the western North Pacific from December 2010 to November 2011. The monthly averaged concentrations of hydroxy-diacids and oxaloacetic acid were significantly higher in spring followed by winter and autumn. Molecular distributions of hydroxy-diacids demonstrated that malic acid was the most abundant species in all four seasons, followed by tartronic acid in winter and spring and 3- and 2-hydroxyglutaric acids in summer and autumn. Hydroxy-diacids and keto-diacid maximized in spring and winter when air masses originated from the Asian continent with westerly winds. The concentrations of total hydroxy-diacids and oxaloacetic acid ranged from 0.1 to 27.3 ng m-3 and Asia to remote Chichijima Island followed by photochemical processing of organic aerosols. Seasonal molecular distribution of hydroxy-diacids and oxaloacetic acid was found to be dependent on the source strengths and plausible photochemical processing to form smaller diacids. Moderate to strong correlations among hydroxy-diacids, oxaloacetic acid and low molecular weight (LMW) diacids suggest that hydroxy-diacids and oxaloacetic acid are the intermediates in the photochemical oxidation of LMW diacid. Hence, photochemical formation of the most abundant LMW diacids, i.e., oxalic acid, could be produced from hydroxy- and keto-diacid as intermediates.

  14. Discovery and Characterization of Human-Urine Utilization by Asymptomatic-Bacteriuria-Causing Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ben Zakour, Nouri L; Sullivan, Matthew J; Beatson, Scott A; Ulett, Kimberly B; Benjamin, William H; Davies, Mark R; Dando, Samantha J; King, Nathan P; Cripps, Allan W; Schembri, Mark A; Dougan, Gordon; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes both symptomatic cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU); however, growth characteristics of S. agalactiae in human urine have not previously been reported. Here, we describe a phenotype of robust growth in human urine observed in ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) that was not seen among uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) strains isolated from patients with acute cystitis. In direct competition assays using pooled human urine inoculated with equal numbers of a prototype ABSA strain, designated ABSA 1014, and any one of several UPSA strains, measurement of the percentage of each strain recovered over time showed a markedly superior fitness of ABSA 1014 for urine growth. Comparative phenotype profiling of ABSA 1014 and UPSA strain 807, isolated from a patient with acute cystitis, using metabolic arrays of >2,500 substrates and conditions revealed unique and specific l-malic acid catabolism in ABSA 1014 that was absent in UPSA 807. Whole-genome sequencing also revealed divergence in malic enzyme-encoding genes between the strains predicted to impact the activity of the malate metabolic pathway. Comparative growth assays in urine comparing wild-type ABSA and gene-deficient mutants that were functionally inactivated for the malic enzyme metabolic pathway by targeted disruption of the maeE or maeK gene in ABSA demonstrated attenuated growth of the mutants in normal human urine as well as synthetic human urine containing malic acid. We conclude that some S. agalactiae strains can grow in human urine, and this relates in part to malic acid metabolism, which may affect the persistence or progression of S. agalactiae ABU. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Nocturnal Wakefulness is Associated with Next-Day Suicidal Ideation in Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Vande Voort, Jennifer L.; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Richards, Erica M.; Niciu, Mark J.; Furey, Maura L.; Duncan, Wallace C.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-reported sleep disturbances may confer elevated risk for suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death. However, limited research has evaluated polysomnography (PSG)-determined sleep disturbance as an acute physiological risk factor for suicidal thoughts. This study sought to investigate the relationship between nocturnal wakefulness in association with next-day suicidal ideation using overnight PSG assessment from data collected between 2006 and 2013. Method Participants with DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar depression underwent overnight PSG monitoring in a sleep laboratory. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was administered the morning after PSG recording to assess next-day suicidal ideation, severity of depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep disturbances. Results Using a generalized linear mixed model, a significant time-by-ideation interaction was found indicating greater nocturnal wakefulness at 4:00 AM among participants with suicidal ideation (F(4,136) = 3.65, p = .007). Increased time awake during the 4:00 AM hour (4:00 to 4:59) was significantly associated with elevated suicidal thoughts the next day (standardized β = .31, p = .008). This relationship persisted after controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, and severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Greater nocturnal wakefulness, particularly in the early morning hours, was significantly associated with next-day suicidal thoughts. PSG-documented sleep disruption at specific times of night may represent an acute risk factor of suicidal ideation that warrants additional research. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT00024635 PMID:27337418

  16. Variation of ascorbic acid concentration in fruits of cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Zhen, Qiaoling; Liao, Liao; Owiti, Albert; Zhao, Li; Korban, Schuyler S; Han, Yuepeng

    2017-06-15

    Ascorbic acid (AsA) content in mature fruits of 457 apple accessions were measured, and a great variation in AsA concentration was detected. Wild fruits showed significantly higher level of AsA than cultivated fruits. Fruit AsA content was positively correlated with malic acid content, but negatively correlated with fruit weight and soluble solid content. Thus, the difference in AsA content between the wild and cultivated fruits could be attributed to an indirect consequence of human selection for larger fruit size, less acidity, and increased sweetness during apple domestication. Additionally, AsA concentration was extremely high in fruit at the juvenile stage, but dramatically decreased at the expanding and mature stages. The expression levels of three genes controlling AsA accumulation, MdGGP1, MdDHAR3-3, and MdNAT7-2, were significantly negatively correlated with AsA contents in fruits, suggesting a feedback regulation mechanism in AsA-related gene expression. Our results could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate

  18. Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, T J; Croft, M Y; Murby, E J; Wells, R J

    1997-10-17

    A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS.

  19. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  20. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  1. Olfactory recognition of predators by nocturnal lizards: safety outweighs thermal benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan K. Webb; David A. Pike; Richard Shine

    2009-01-01

    Many prey species are faced with multiple predators that differ in the degree of danger posed. The threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis predicts that prey should assess the degree of threat posed by different predators and match their behavior according to current levels of risk. To test this prediction, we compared the behavioral responses of nocturnal velvet geckos, Oedura lesueurii, to chemicals from 2 snakes that pose different threats: the dangerous broad-headed snake Hoploceph...

  2. Feeding and survival of two nocturnal cursorial spiders on extrafloral nectar and honeydew sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars in the form of extrafloral nectar and honeydews may be important resources for nocturnal cursorial spiders such as Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) and Hibana futilis (Banks). C. inclusum spiderlings given only water survived an average of only 6.1 d. Feeding on cotton extrafloral nectar and m...

  3. Development of a TiO2-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danion, A.

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO 2 -coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO 2 coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO 2 - coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  4. Development of a TiO{sub 2}-coated optical fiber reactor for water decontamination; Developpement d'un reacteur a base de fibres optiques photocatalytiquement actives pour la depollution de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danion, A

    2004-09-15

    The objective of this study was to built and to study a photo-reactor composed by TiO{sub 2}-coated optical fibers for water decontamination. The physico-chemical characteristics and the optical properties of the TiO{sub 2} coating were first studied. Then, the influences of different parameters as the coating thickness, the coating length and the coating volume were investigated both on the light transmission in the TiO{sub 2}- coated fiber and on the photo-catalytic activity of the fiber for a model compound (malic acid). The photo-catalytic degradation of malic acid was optimized using the experimental design methodology allowing to build a multi-fiber reactor comprising 57 optical fibers. The photo-degradation of malic acid was conducted in the multi-fiber reactor and it was demonstrated that the multi-fiber reactor was more efficient than the single-fiber reactor at the same fibers density. Finally, the multi-fiber reactor was applied to the photo-degradation of a fungicide, called fenamidone, and a degradation pathway was proposed. (author)

  5. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  6. The severity of nocturnal hypoxia but not abdominal adiposity is associated with insulin resistance in non-obese men with sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Borel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beyond obesity, sleep apnea syndrome is frequently associated with excess abdominal adiposity that could contribute to the deteriorated cardiometabolic risk profile of apneic patients. METHODS: The present study addressed the respective contribution of the severity of sleep apnea syndrome and excess abdominal adiposity to the cardiometabolic risk profile of 38 non obese men with polysomnography-diagnosed sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index >15 events/hour. These otherwise healthy men performed a 75g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT with plasma lipid/inflammatory and redox profiles. Twenty-one apneic men with high-waist circumference (>94 cm were compared to 17 apneic men with low-waist circumference. RESULTS: Apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher AUC glucose and AUC insulin than apneic men with low-waist circumference. Accordingly, apneic men with high-waist circumference had higher hepatic insulin resistance as reflected by higher HOMA-resistance index, and lower global insulin sensitivity as reflected by lower insulin sensitivity index of Matsuda (derived from OGTT. The sleep structure and the apnea-hypopnea index were not different between the two groups. However, apneic men with high-waist circumference presented with lower mean nocturnal oxyhemoglobin (SpO2. In the 38 men, waist circumference and mean nocturnal SpO2 were inversely correlated (r = -0.43, p = 0.011 and were both associated with plasma glucose/insulin homeostasis indices: the higher the waist circumference, the lower the mean nocturnal SpO2, the lower the insulin-sensitivity. Finally, in multivariable regression model, mean nocturnal SpO2 and not waist circumference was associated with insulin-resistance. CONCLUSION: Thus, excess abdominal adiposity in non obese apneic men was associated with a deteriorated insulin-sensitivity that could be driven by a more severe nocturnal hypoxemia.

  7. Field studies of transport and dispersion of atmospheric tracers in nocturnal drainage flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gudiksen; Gilbert J. Ferber; Malcolm M. Fowler; Wynn L. Eberhard; Michael A. Fosberg; William R. Knuth

    1984-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were carried out as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program to evaluate pollutant transport and dispersion characteristics of nocturnal drainage flows within a valley in northern California. The results indicate that the degree of interaction of the drainage flows with the larger scale regional flows are...

  8. Quality and Composition of Red Wine Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe as Sole Fermentative Yeast, and in Mixed and Sequential Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Palomero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the physiology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (represented by strain 938 in the production of red wine, as the sole fermentative yeast, and in mixed and sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 796. For further comparison, fermentations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole fermentative yeast were also performed; in these fermentations a commercial lactic acid bacterium was used to perform malolactic fermentation once alcoholic fermentation was complete (unlike S. cerevisiae, the Sc. pombe performs maloalcoholic fermentation and therefore removes malic acid without such help. Relative density, acetic, malic and pyruvic acid concentrations, primary amino nitrogen and urea concentrations, and pH of the musts were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which Sc. pombe 938 was involved, nearly all the malic acid was consumed from an initial concentration of 5.5 g/L, and moderate acetic acid concentrations below 0.4 g/L were formed. The urea content of these wines was notably lower, showing a tenfold reduction when compared with those that were made with S. cerevisiae 796 alone. The sensorial properties of the different final wines varied widely. The wines fermented with Sc. pombe 938 had maximum aroma intensity and quality, and they were preferred by the tasters.

  9. Nitroglycerin-mediated, but not flow-mediated vasodilation, is associated with blunted nocturnal blood pressure fall in patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes-Guerra, Priscila C A; Cardoso, Claudia R L; Muxfeldt, Elizabeth S; Salles, Gil F

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial function by flow-mediated (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilations (NMD) was scarcely investigated in resistant hypertension. We aimed to assess the independent correlates of FMD and NMD in resistant hypertensive patients, particularly their associations with ambulatory blood pressures (BP) and nocturnal BP fall patterns. In a cross-sectional study, 280 resistant hypertensive patients performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, polysomnography, and brachial artery FMD and NMD by high-resolution ultrasonography. Independent correlates of FMD, NMD, and brachial artery diameter (BAD) were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regressions. Median (interquartile range) FMD was 0.75% (-0.6 to +4.4%) and NMD was 11.8% (7.1-18.4%). Baseline BAD and diabetes were independently associated with both FMD and NMD. Older age and prior cardiovascular diseases were associated with altered FMD, whereas higher night-time SBP and lower nocturnal SBP fall were associated with impaired NMD. Moreover, there was a significant gradient of impaired NMD according to blunted nocturnal BP decline patterns. BAD was independently associated with age, sex, BMI, albuminuria, and nocturnal SBP fall. Further adjustments to blood flow velocity, aortic stiffness, plasma aldosterone concentration, and sleep apnea did not change these relationships. NMD, but not FMD, is independently associated with unfavorable night-time BP levels and nondipping patterns, and may be a better cardiovascular risk marker in patients with resistant hypertension. BAD also may provide additional prognostic information.

  10. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  11. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  12. Remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep but not the nocturnal melatonin surge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Aucutt-Walter, Natalie; Divittore, Nicole; King, Tonya; Bixler, Edward O; Cronin, Arthur J

    2008-04-01

    Postoperative patients are sleep deprived. Opioids, commonly administered for postoperative pain control, are often mistakenly considered inducers of naturally occurring sleep. This study describes the effect of the opioid remifentanil on nocturnal sleep in healthy volunteers. In addition, this study tests the hypothesis that opioid-induced sleep disturbance is caused by a circadian pacemaker disturbance, reflected by suppressed nocturnal plasma concentration of melatonin. Polysomnography was performed in 10 volunteers from 11:00 pm to 7:00 am for four nights at 6-day intervals. On two nights, remifentanil (0.01-0.04 microg x kg x min) was infused from 10:30 pm to 7:00 am, and either a placebo capsule or 3.0 mg melatonin was administered at 10:30 pm. On two additional nights, saline was infused, and the placebo or melatonin capsules were administered at 10:30 pm. Blood was drawn at 12:00 am, 3:00 am, and 6:00 am to measure the plasma concentration of melatonin and cortisol. A repeated-measures analysis of variance model was used to determine the effect of remifentanil on sleep stages, the effect of remifentanil on the plasma concentration of melatonin, and the effect of exogenous melatonin on remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. Remifentanil inhibited rapid eye movement sleep (14.1 +/- 7.2% to 3.9 +/- 6.9%). The amount of slow wave sleep decreased from 6.8 +/- 7.6% to 3.2 +/- 6.1%, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Remifentanil did not decrease melatonin concentration. Melatonin administration did not prevent remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. An overnight constant infusion of remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep without suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  13. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for the determination of the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Keller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method for measuring air temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer at high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The measurements are based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing (DTS with a fiber optic cable attached to a tethered balloon. These data were used to estimate the height of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The experiment was successfully deployed during a two-day campaign in September 2009, providing evidence that DTS is well suited for this atmospheric application. Observed stable temperature profiles exhibit an exponential shape confirming similarity concepts of the temperature inversion close to the surface. The atmospheric mixing height (MH was estimated to vary between 5 m and 50 m as a result of the nocturnal boundary layer evolution. This value is in good agreement with the MH derived from concurrent Radon-222 (222Rn measurements and in previous studies.

  14. Nocturnal sleep, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life in stable patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliwise Donald L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of chronic kidney disease, compromised quality of life continues to be a significant problem for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD. However, in spite of the high prevalence of sleep complaints and disorders in this population, the relationship between these problems and quality of life remains to be well characterized. Thus, we studied a sample of stable HD patients to explore relationships between quality of life and both subjective and objective measures of nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness Methods The sample included forty-six HD patients, 24 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 51.6 (10.8 years. Subjects underwent one night of polysomnography followed the next morning by a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT, an objective measure of daytime sleepiness. Subjects also completed: 1 a brief nocturnal sleep questionnaire; 2 the Epworth Sleepiness Scale; and, 3 the Quality of Life Index (QLI, Dialysis Version which provides an overall QLI score and four subscale scores for Health & Functioning (H&F, Social & Economic (S&E, Psychological & Spiritual (P&S, and Family (F. (The range of scores is 0 to 30 with higher scores indicating better quality of life. Results The mean (standard deviation; SD of the overall QLI was 22.8 (4.0. The mean (SD of the four subscales were as follows: H&F – 21.1 (4.7; S&E – 22.0 (4.8; P&S – 24.5 (4.4; and, F – 26.8 (3.5. H&F (rs = -0.326, p = 0.013 and F (rs = -0.248, p = 0.048 subscale scores were negatively correlated with periodic limb movement index but not other polysomnographic measures. The H&F subscale score were positively correlated with nocturnal sleep latency (rs = 0.248, p = 0.048 while the H&F (rs = 0.278, p = 0.030 and total QLI (rs = 0.263, p = 0.038 scores were positively associated with MSLT scores. Both of these latter findings indicate that higher life quality is associated with lower sleepiness levels. ESS

  15. On the mechanisms of blunted nocturnal decline in arterial blood pressure in NIDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming Steen; Rossing, P; Bang, L E

    1995-01-01

    Nondiabetic hypertensive patients lacking the normal nocturnal decline in arterial blood pressure have enhanced cardiovascular complications. Since cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we performed a prospective cross......-sectional case-controlled study comparing the diurnal variation in arterial blood pressure, prevalence of dippers, cardiac autonomic nervous function (beat-to-beat variation during deep breathing), and extracellular fluid volume (51Cr-labeled EDTA) in 55 NIDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy (group 1), 55...... NIDDM patients with normoalbuminuria (group 2), and 22 nondiabetic control subjects (group 3). All antihypertensive treatments were withdrawn at least 2 weeks before the study. The nocturnal blood pressure reduction (daytime-to-nighttime)/daytime (mean +/- SE) was impaired in group 1 (6.6 +/- 1...

  16. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  17. Effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the acute lethality, accumulation, and enzyme activity of cadmium in Eisenia fetida in a simulated soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Long; Wang, Yu-Jun; Xuan, Liang; Dang, Fei; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) to Eisenia fetida were investigated in a simulated soil solution. The LMWOAs protected E. fetida from Cd toxicity, as indicated by the increased median lethal concentration (LC50) values and the increased activity of superoxide dismutase. In addition, Cd concentrations in E. fetida decreased dramatically in the presence of LMWOAs. These results were likely because of the complexation between Cd and LMWOAs, which decreased the bioavailability and consequential toxicity of Cd to E. fetida. Notably, LMWOAs reduced Cd toxicity in decreasing order (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid [EDTA] > citric acid > oxalic acid > malic acid > acetic acid), which was consistent with the decreasing complexation constants between LMWOAs and Cd. These results advance our understanding of the interactions between Cd and LMWOAs in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1005-1011. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Impaired Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway, Self-Reported Emotion, and Erection in Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients With Normal Nocturnal Erection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhuai Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA. However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA.Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection.Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls.Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection.Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion.Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated

  19. Impaired Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway, Self-Reported Emotion, and Erection in Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients With Normal Nocturnal Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhuai; Chen, Yun; Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Guotao; Dai, Yutian; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA). However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA. Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED) patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection. Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection. Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion. Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated with the

  20. Decreased Nocturnal Movements in Patients with Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Giacomo Della; Frusciante, Roberto; Dittoni, Serena; Vollono, Catello; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Colicchio, Salvatore; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Tonali, Pietro A.; Ricci, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Reduced mobility during sleep characterizes a variety of movement disorders and neuromuscular diseases. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common form of muscular dystrophy in the general population, and people with FSHD have poor sleep quality. The aims of the present study were to evaluate nocturnal motor activity in patients with FSHD by means of videopolysomnography and to verify whether activity was associated with modifications in sleep structure. Methods: We enrolled 32 adult patients affected by genetically confirmed FSHD (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.1 ± 13.4 years) and 32 matched control subjects, (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.5 ± 11.4 years). Major body movements (MBM) were scored in videopolygraphic recordings in accordance with established criteria. An MBM index was calculated (number of MBM per hour of sleep). Results: The FSHD group showed a decrease in the MBM index (FSHD: 1.2 ± 1.1; control subjects: 2.3 ± 1.2, analysis of variance F = 13.672; p = 0.008). The sleep pattern of patients with FSHD, as compared with that of controls, was characterized by longer sleep latencies, shorter sleep durations, an increased percentage of wake during sleep, and a decreased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep. In the patient group, the MBM index was inversely correlated with severity of disease (Spearman test: r30 = −0.387; p Marca GD; Frusciante R; Dittoni S; Vollono C; Losurdo A; Testani E; Scarano E; Colicchio S; Iannaccone E; Tonali PA; Ricci E. Decreased nocturnal movements in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(3):276-280. PMID:20572422

  1. Clinical correlation between hypercalciuria and nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Valavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalciuria may present with dysuria, urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis (NE. To determine the frequency of hypercalciuria in NE patients and normally continent children, we studied 122 consecutive pre- school children with NE referred to our nephrology clinic during two years, from September 2007 to August 2009. We measured the 24- hour urinary calcium. Furthermore, we compared the response to nasal desmopressin in hypercalciuric and normocalciuric patients. Hypercalciuria was found in 26 (21.3 % of the NE patients as compared with five (4.5% of 110 continent children [(P 0.05. The response to desmopressin above 90% occurred within one month of therapy without a significant change in the levels of hypercalciuria. We conclude that these results suggest that hypercalciuria has a significant association with NE and does not interfere with the desmopressin therapy.

  2. Observational assessment of the role of nocturnal residual-layer chemistry in determining daytime surface particulate nitrate concentrations

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    G. Prabhakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses an analysis of combined airborne and ground observations of particulate nitrate (NO3−(p concentrations made during the wintertime DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality study at one of the most polluted cities in the United States – Fresno, CA – in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and focuses on developing an understanding of the various processes that impact surface nitrate concentrations during poll