must be submitted for review and approval.) The Electronic Collection & Presentation of Nocturnal Heart Failure Information 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO...heart failure experience extreme night-to-night variability in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate over several nights. Materials & Methods: This... Failure Patients presented at/published to SURF 2017 UTSA Main Campus, San Antonio, TX, 16 Jun 2017 in accordance with MDWI 41 - 108, has been
Toyama, Takuji; Seki, Ryotaro; Kasama, Shu; Isobe, Naoki; Sakurai, Shigeki; Adachi, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi
Central sleep apnea, often found in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), has a high risk of poor prognosis. This study involved 20 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 5 times/h who were divided into 2 groups: 10 patients treated with nocturnal home oxygen therapy (HOT) and 10 patients without HOT (non-HOT). All patients had dilated cardiomyopathy and underwent overnight polysomnography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and nuclear cardiac examinations to evaluate AHI, exercise capacity according to the specific activity scale and oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold and peak exercise (peak VO(2)). Cardiac function according to (99m)Tc-MIBI QGS, and the total defect score (TDS), H/M ratio and the washout rate (WR) on (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging were calculated for all patients. As compared with the non-HOT group, the HOT group demonstrated a greater reduction in AHI (26.1+/-9.1 to 5.1+/-3.4), (123)I-MIBG TDS (31+/-8 to 25+/-9), and (123)I-MIBG WR (48+/-8% to 41+/-5%) and a greater increase in the specific activity scale (4.0+/-0.9 to 5.8+/-1.2 Mets), peak VO(2) (16.0+/-3.8 to 18.3+/-4.7 ml . min(-1) . kg(-1)), and LVEF (27+/-9% to 37+/-10%). HOT improves exercise capacity, cardiac function, and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CHF and central sleep apnea.
Toyama, Takuji; Seki, Ryotaro; Isobe, Naoki; Sakurai, Shigeki; Adachi, Hitoshi; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Kasama, Shu
Central sleep apnea, often found in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), has a high risk of poor prognosis. This study involved 20 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 5 times/h who were divided into 2 groups: 10 patients treated with nocturnal home oxygen therapy (HOT) and 10 patients without HOT (non-HOT). All patients had dilated cardiomyopathy and underwent overnight polysomnography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and nuclear cardiac examinations to evaluate AHI, exercise capacity according to the specific activity scale and oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold and peak exercise (peak VO 2 ). Cardiac function according to 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) QGS, and the total defect score (TDS), H/M ratio and the washout rate (WR) on 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging were calculated for all patients. As compared with the non-HOT group, the HOT group demonstrated a greater reduction in AHI (26.1±9.1 to 5.1±3.4), 123 I-MIBG TDS (31±8 to 25±9), and 123 I-MIBG WR (48±8% to 41±5%) and a greater increase in the specific activity scale (4.0±0.9 to 5.8±1.2 Mets), peak VO 2 (16.0±3.8 to 18.3±4.7 ml·min -1 ·kg -1 ), and LVEF (27±9% to 37±10%). HOT improves exercise capacity, cardiac function, and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CHF and central sleep apnea. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Patients of COPD become hypoxic during sleep to a significant extent. Florid hypoxic episodes occur during REM sleep secondary to central diminution in respiratory output, accentuated by hypotonia of postural muscles, intercostals and accessory muscles of respiration. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional study carried out prospectively in Gayathri Vidya Parishad Institute of Healthcare and Medical Technology, Visakhapatnam, AP, India, to evaluate breathing disorders during sleep in COPD patients and to correlate them with the stage of the disease. SAMPLE SIZE A total of 36 COPD patients were enrolled into the study. They are classified into Mild, Moderate and Severe COPD categories in accordance to the Indian guidelines. The study was conducted between April 2014 and May 2016. POLYSOMNOGRAPHY Overnight sleep study was conducted using Compumedics Profusion Polysomnographic Machine. A total of 20 leads were utilised for the study. The sleep data recorded by the computer was manually scored for analysing Sleep stages, Apnoeas and Hypopnoeas. Sleep scoring was done according to R and K classification. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation is defined as >30% of total recording time with a SaO2 <90% (or nocturnal SaO2 <85% for at least 5 minutes. RESULTS Out of the 36 patients enrolled into the study, 6 were having mild COPD, 22 had moderate COPD and 8 had severe COPD. Total number of patients who had significant oxygen desaturation during sleep were 5 (13.9%. Out of these, 1 patient (16.67% belonged to Mild COPD, 1 (4.54% belonged to Moderate COPD and 3 (37.5% belonged to Severe COPD. CONCLUSION We conclude that in patients with COPD, daytime SpO2 is the single most useful determinant that contributes to NOD; daytime hypercapnia being the other important factor. In Severe COPD group, daytime PaO2 contributes to NOD whereas in Mild COPD, a raised AHI might explain the occurrence of NOD.
Ipema, Karin; Franssen, Casper; van der Schans, Cees; Smit, Lianne; Noordman, Sabine; Haisma, Hinke
Objective: Dialysis patients frequently report a change of taste that is reversible after renal transplantation, suggesting that uremic toxins may negatively influence taste. Currently, frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) is the most effective method of hemodialysis, and is associated with
... over 90%. This system has a number of advantages. Since a concentrator essentially makes its own oxygen, there is no need for resupplies by the home care company. However, you must have a small cylinder as ...
Andreas, S; von Breska, B; Clemens, C; Schulz, R; Kreuzer, H
Cheyne-Stokes respiration is common in patients with severe congestive heart failure and is associated with significant nocturnal oxygen desaturation and sleep disruption. The pathogenesis of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with congestive heart failure has been well described and is related to prolonged circulation time between the lung and the carotid body mainly due to increased cardiac dimensions, reduced body stores of oxygen and carbon dioxide, disturbance of ventilation and respiratory control due to arousals and a relatively high hypercapnic ventilatory response. Oxygen is likely to reduce Cheyne-Stokes respiration by increasing oxygen and carbon dioxide stores and reduces the hypercapnic ventilatory response. In the following paper we describe a study designed to determine the impact of nasal nocturnal oxygen on Cheyne-Stokes respiration, sleep, peak oxygen consumption during bicycle exercise, cognitive function evaluated by the trailmaking test and daytime symptoms in patients with severe congestive heart failure. The study is designed as a randomized, cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled protocol on about 20 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 35%.
Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamasaki, Haruna; Okawara, Yukie; Kondo, Maiko; Nozue, Ryoko; Yamagata, Hiromi; Okura, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi
Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-hour BP control. After controlling morning HTN, nocturnal HTN is the second target. We have been developing HBPM that can measure nocturnal BP. First, we developed a semiautomatic HBPM device with the function of automatic fixed-interval BP measurement during sleep. In the J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure) study, the largest nationwide home BP cohort, we successfully measured nocturnal home BP using this device with data memory, 3 times during sleep (2, 3, and 4 am), and found that nocturnal home BP is significantly correlated with organ damage independently of office and morning BP values. The second advance was the development of trigger nocturnal BP (TNP) monitoring with an added trigger function that initiates BP measurements when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold continuously monitored by pulse oximetry. TNP can detect the specific nocturnal BP surges triggered by hypoxic episodes in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. We also added the lowest heart rate-trigger function to TNP to detect the "basal nocturnal BP," which is determined by the circulating volume and structural cardiovascular system without any increase in sympathetic tonus. This double TNP is a novel concept for evaluating the pathogenic pressor mechanism of nocturnal BP
Comparative Effects of an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB)/Diuretic vs. ARB/Calcium-Channel Blocker Combination on Uncontrolled Nocturnal Hypertension Evaluated by Information and Communication Technology-Based Nocturnal Home Blood Pressure Monitoring - The NOCTURNE Study.
Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hajime; Uchiyama, Kazuaki; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Tetsuro; Kanda, Kiyomi; Hasegawa, Shinji; Hoshide, Satoshi
Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events. The NOCTURNE study, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) using our recently developed information and communication technology (ICT) nocturnal home BP monitoring (HBPM) device, was performed to compare the nocturnal HBP-lowering effects of differential ARB-based combination therapies in 411 Japanese patients with nocturnal hypertension (HT).Methods and Results:Patients with nocturnal BP ≥120/70 mmHg at baseline even under ARB therapy (100 mg irbesartan daily) were enrolled. The ARB/CCB combination therapy (irbesartan 100 mg+amlodipine 5 mg) achieved a significantly greater reduction in nocturnal home systolic BP (primary endpoint) than the ARB/diuretic combination (daily irbesartan 100 mg+trichlormethiazide 1 mg) (-14.4 vs. -10.5 mmHg, P<0.0001), independently of urinary sodium excretion and/or nocturnal BP dipping status. However, the change in nocturnal home systolic BP was comparable among the post-hoc subgroups with higher salt sensitivity (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and elderly patients). This is the first RCT demonstrating the feasibility of clinical assessment of nocturnal BP by ICT-nocturnal HBPM. The ARB/CCB combination was shown to be superior to ARB/diuretic in patients with uncontrolled nocturnal HT independently of sodium intake, despite the similar impact of the 2 combinations in patients with higher salt sensitivity.
... sooner to your house or neighborhood if the power goes out. Keep their phone numbers in a place where you can find them easily. Tell your family, neighbors, and friends that you use oxygen. They ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence does not clearly support the provision of nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who desaturate during sleep but who would not otherwise qualify for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT.
Hebets, Eileen A; Aceves-Aparicio, Alfonso; Aguilar-Argüello, Samuel; Bingman, Verner P; Escalante, Ignacio; Gering, Eben J; Nelsen, David R; Rivera, Jennifer; Sánchez-Ruiz, José Ángel; Segura-Hernández, Laura; Settepani, Virginia; Wiegmann, Daniel D; Stafstrom, Jay A
Like many other nocturnal arthropods, the amblypygid Phrynus pseudoparvulus is capable of homing. The environment through which these predators navigate is a dense and heterogeneous tropical forest understory and the mechanism(s) underlying their putatively complex navigational abilities are presently unknown. This study explores the sensory inputs that might facilitate nocturnal navigation in the amblypygid P. pseudoparvulus. Specifically, we use sensory system manipulations in conjunction with field displacements to examine the potential involvement of multimodal - olfactory and visual - stimuli in P. pseudoparvulus' homing behavior. In a first experiment, we deprived individuals of their olfactory capacity and displaced them to the opposite side of their home trees (<5m). We found that olfaction-intact individuals were more likely to be re-sighted in their home refuges than olfaction-deprived individuals. In a second experiment, we independently manipulated both olfactory and visual sensory capacities in conjunction with longer-distance displacements (8m) from home trees. We found that sensory-intact individuals tended to be re-sighted on their home tree more often than sensory-deprived individuals, with a stronger effect of olfactory deprivation than visual deprivation. Comparing across sensory modality manipulations, olfaction-manipulated individuals took longer to return to their home trees than vision-manipulated individuals. Together, our results indicate that olfaction is important in the nocturnal navigation of P. pseudoparvulus and suggest that vision may also play a more minor role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans; Van Delden, Hans; van Thiel, Ghislaine
A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design,
Hebets, Eileen A; Gering, Eben J; Bingman, Verner P; Wiegmann, Daniel D
Arthropods are renowned for their navigational capabilities, with numerous examples known from insects and crustaceans. Early studies of amblypygids (Class Arachnida, Order Amblypygi) also suggest complex nocturnal navigation, despite their apparent lack of visual adaptations to the low-light conditions of a tropical understory. In a series of two studies, we use the tropical amblypygid, Phrynus pseudoparvulus, to assess their nocturnal homing ability. Our first experiment displaced and tracked resident and nonresident individuals. Resident individuals, displaced up to 4.5 m from their home refuges and released onto their home tree, were more likely to return to their previously occupied refuge than were nonresident individuals that were collected from trees outside the study area and released at the same locations. In a follow-up study, we displaced amblypygids longer distances (6-8.7 m) from their home trees and tracked them by telemetry. These individuals returned to home trees, typically within 1-3 nights, often via indirect paths. Taken together, our results provide evidence that P. pseudoparvulus are able to navigate home, often taking indirect routes, and can do so through a mechanism other than path integration.
Chan, Christopher T; Shen, Xiou Seeger; Picton, Peter; Floras, John
In patients with end-stage renal disease receiving conventional hemodialysis, both the frequency with which brief rises or falls in systolic blood pressure initiate concordant changes in pulse interval (arterial baroreflex effectiveness index), and the gain of reflex heart rate responses to these stimuli (arterial baroreflex sensitivity) are diminished. In chronic renal failure, low baroreflex effectiveness index and baroreflex sensitivity are associated with increased rates of all-cause mortality and sudden death, respectively. Conversion to home nocturnal hemodialysis augments baroreflex sensitivity but its effects on baroreflex effectiveness index have not been reported. In 20 consecutive hypertensive conventional hemodialysis patients training to transition to nocturnal hemodialysis (age 41 +/- 2 years; mean +/- standard error), baroreflex effectiveness index, baroreflex sensitivity (sequence method) and total arterial compliance (stroke volume/pulse pressure) were determined during quiet rest before and 2 months after conversion. With nocturnal hemodialysis, dialysis frequency doubled, the dose per session increased by 70% and antihypertensive medications were withdrawn (from 2.5 +/- 0.3 to 0.2 +/- 0.1 drugs/patient, P Baroreflex effectiveness index increased from (0.33 +/- 0.03 to 0.42 +/- 0.03, P = 0.01). Baroreflex sensitivity increased from 5.60 +/- 0.88 to 8.48 +/- 1.60 ms/mmHg (P baroreflex sensitivity (r = 0.63, P = 0.004) but not baroreflex effectiveness index (r = 0.05, P = 0.95), suggesting independent mechanisms for their attenuation and recovery in end-stage renal disease. Nocturnal hemodialysis increases baroreflex effectiveness index in addition to baroreflex sensitivity. The hypothesis that such changes might reduce cardiovascular event rates in this high-risk population merits prospective evaluation. More frequent engagement of the arterial baroreflex after conversion to nocturnal hemodialysis may improve short-term cardiovascular regulation.
Narang, Indra; Kadmon, Gili; Lai, Dennison; Dhanju, Simranpal; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Odame, Isaac; Amin, Reshma; Lu, Zihang; Al-Saleh, Suhail
Obstructive sleep apnea and intermittent nocturnal oxygen desaturations are highly prevalent in children with sickle cell disease and have been reported to contribute to associated morbidity, including vasoocclusive disease. Hydroxyurea (HU) is increasingly used to treat children with sickle cell disease and has been shown to decrease the number and severity of vasoocclusive crises. Although there has been an increase in the use of HU, the impact of HU on the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxia are not well documented. To evaluate whether the use of HU is associated with a decreased frequency of obstructive sleep apnea and higher nocturnal and awake oxygen saturations (SaO2) in children with sickle cell disease. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional review of children with sickle cell disease referred to the sleep laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Polysomnogram data in children with sickle cell disease receiving HU therapy were compared with those not prescribed HU. Children with sickle cell disease receiving HU therapy (HU group, n = 37) were matched with children not receiving HU (no-HU group, n = 104). Obstructive sleep apnea was diagnosed in 14 of 37 (38%) and 54 of 104 (52%) in the HU group and no-HU groups, respectively (P = 0.14). The median obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was 0.9 and 1.9 events/h in the HU group and the no-HU group, respectively (P = 0.28). The HU group compared with the no-HU group had a significantly higher median awake SaO2 (98.6 and 96.2%, respectively; P children with sickle cell disease, the use of HU was associated with an increase in awake and nocturnal SaO2, despite there being no difference in the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea and the severity of the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index. Improving nocturnal SaO2 may be an important mechanism of action of HU therapy. The use of HU to improve nocturnal saturations across the severity spectrum of sickle
Kannampuzha, Jovil; Donnelly, Sandra M; McFarlane, Philip A; Chan, Christopher T; House, James D; Pencharz, Paul B; Darling, Pauline B
Patients on conventional hemodialysis (HD) have elevated markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which may contribute to a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Glutathione (GSH), an important intracellular antioxidant, requires cysteine as a rate-limiting amino acid for its synthesis and riboflavin for its regeneration. We aimed to examine whether erythrocyte GSH (eGSH) concentrations and riboflavin status are influenced by the increased dialysis dose provided to vitamin-supplemented patients receiving home nocturnal hemodialysis (HNHD) (6-8 hours/session, 5-7 nights/week) compared with patients on standard hemodialysis (SHD) (4 hours/session, 3 days/week). This was a cross-sectional comparative study involving 30 patients undergoing SHD or HNHD regimens and a group of 15 healthy control subjects (HC). We measured eGSH concentration by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, riboflavin status by eGSH reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) as well as plasma total cysteine (Cys) and total homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin C by high-performance liquid chromatography, and C-reactive protein (CRP) by standard method. Estimated dietary protein and energy intakes were determined by 3-day food records, and nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA). There were no significant differences among groups in eGSH concentration, EGRAC, dietary protein intake, and SGA score. SHD patients had significantly higher plasma Cys (P patients.
Judith van Andel
Full Text Available A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design, and design choices influence these perspectives. However, during development processes, these influences are generally ignored and value-related choices remain implicit and poorly argued for. In the development process of the seizure detector we aimed to take values of all stakeholders into consideration. Therefore, we performed a parallel ethics study, using "value sensitive design." Analysis of stakeholder communication (in meetings and e-mail messages identified five important values, namely, health, trust, autonomy, accessibility, and reliability. Stakeholders were then asked to give feedback on the choice of these values and how they should be interpreted. In a next step, the values were related to design choices relevant for the device, and then the consequences (risks and benefits of these choices were investigated. Currently the process of design and testing of the device is still ongoing. The device will be validated in a trial in which the identified consequences of design choices are measured as secondary endpoints. Value sensitive design methodology is feasible for the development of new medical technology and can help designers substantiate the choices in their design.
van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans; van Delden, Hans; van Thiel, Ghislaine
A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design, and design choices influence these perspectives. However, during development processes, these influences are generally ignored and value-related choices remain implicit and poorly argued for. In the development process of the seizure detector we aimed to take values of all stakeholders into consideration. Therefore, we performed a parallel ethics study, using "value sensitive design." Analysis of stakeholder communication (in meetings and e-mail messages) identified five important values, namely, health, trust, autonomy, accessibility, and reliability. Stakeholders were then asked to give feedback on the choice of these values and how they should be interpreted. In a next step, the values were related to design choices relevant for the device, and then the consequences (risks and benefits) of these choices were investigated. Currently the process of design and testing of the device is still ongoing. The device will be validated in a trial in which the identified consequences of design choices are measured as secondary endpoints. Value sensitive design methodology is feasible for the development of new medical technology and can help designers substantiate the choices in their design.
Comparative effects of valsartan plus either cilnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide on home morning blood pressure surge evaluated by information and communication technology-based nocturnal home blood pressure monitoring.
Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Kario, Kazuomi
The authors tested the hypothesis that a valsartan/cilnidipine combination would suppress the home morning blood pressure (BP) surge (HMBPS) more effectively than a valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in patients with morning hypertension, defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg assessed by a self-measuring information and communication technology-based home BP monitoring device more than three times before either combination's administration. This was an 8-week prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial. The HMBPS, which is a new index, was defined as the mean morning SBP minus the mean nocturnal SBP, both measured on the same day. The authors randomly allocated 129 patients to the valsartan/cilnidipine (63 patients; mean 68.4 years) or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (66 patients; mean 67.3 years) combination groups, and the baseline HMBPS values were 17.4 mm Hg vs 16.9 mm Hg, respectively (P = .820). At the end of the treatment period, the changes in nocturnal SBP and morning SBP from baseline were significant in both the valsartan/cilnidipine and valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide groups (P communication technology-based home BP monitoring device may become an alternative to ambulatory BP monitoring, which has been a gold standard to measure nocturnal BP and the morning BP surge. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lacasse, Yves; Légaré, Martin; Maltais, François
Current smokers who are prescribed home oxygen may not benefit from the therapy. In addition to being an obvious fire hazard, there is some evidence that the physiological mechanisms by which home oxygen is believed to operate are inhibited by smoking. Although their effectiveness is yet to be demonstrated, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often regarded as an aid to smoking cessation. However, several burn accidents in e-cigarette smokers receiving home oxygen therapy have also been ...
Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario
Home oxygen therapy has been classically based on the use of compressed oxygen cylinders and portable oxygen (O(2)) concentrators. In the last few years, we have witnessed the advent of portable oxygen therapy equipment and liquid oxygen systems and even more recently portable O(2) concentrators. This equipment allows for greater patient mobility, which generates new issues that we must understand and approach adequately. One of these is selecting the best oxygen source for each patient. In doing so, it is necessary to compare the patient mobility profile with the mobility allowed by the O(2) sources in order to determine the degree of correlation between the two. Proper indication for home oxygen therapy, the selection of the right source and the titration of the oxygen flow are three components which we must face when deciding to prescribe home oxygen therapy. The patient must also cooperate with correct O(2) use. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Lacasse, Yves; Légaré, Martin; Maltais, François
Current smokers who are prescribed home oxygen may not benefit from the therapy. In addition to being an obvious fire hazard, there is some evidence that the physiological mechanisms by which home oxygen is believed to operate are inhibited by smoking. Although their effectiveness is yet to be demonstrated, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often regarded as an aid to smoking cessation. However, several burn accidents in e-cigarette smokers receiving home oxygen therapy have also been reported, leading Health Canada to release a warning of fire risk to oxygen therapy patients from e-cigarettes. It is the authors' position that patients receiving oxygen should definitely not use e-cigarettes. The authors provide suggestions for addressing the delicate issue of home oxygen therapy in current cigarette and⁄or e-cigarette smokers.
Full Text Available Current smokers who are prescribed home oxygen may not benefit from the therapy. In addition to being an obvious fire hazard, there is some evidence that the physiological mechanisms by which home oxygen is believed to operate are inhibited by smoking. Although their effectiveness is yet to be demonstrated, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are often regarded as an aid to smoking cessation. However, several burn accidents in e-cigarette smokers receiving home oxygen therapy have also been reported, leading Health Canada to release a warning of fire risk to oxygen therapy patients from e-cigarettes. It is the authors’ position that patients receiving oxygen should definitely not use e-cigarettes. The authors provide suggestions for addressing the delicate issue of home oxygen therapy in current cigarette and/or e-cigarette smokers.
Álvarez, D; Hornero, R; Abásolo, D; López, M; Del Campo, F; Zamarrón, C
This study focuses on analysis of the relationship between changes in blood oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) and heart rate (HR) recordings from nocturnal pulse oximetry (NPO) in patients suspected of suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome. Two different analyses were developed: a classical frequency analysis based on the magnitude squared coherence (MSC) and a nonlinear analysis by means of a recently developed measure of synchrony, the cross-approximate entropy (cross-ApEn). A data set of 187 subjects was studied. We found significantly higher correlation and synchrony between oximetry signals from OSA positive patients compared with OSA negative subjects. We assessed the diagnostic ability to detect OSA syndrome of both the classical and nonlinear approaches by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses with tenfold cross-validation. The nonlinear measure of synchrony significantly improved the results obtained with classical MSC: 69.2% sensitivity, 90.9% specificity and 78.1% accuracy were reached with MSC, whereas 83.7% sensitivity, 84.3% specificity and 84.0% accuracy were obtained with cross-ApEn. Our results suggest that the use of nonlinear measures of synchrony could provide essential information from oximetry signals, which cannot be obtained with classical spectral analysis
van Os, Arnoldien J; Aziz, Leelie; Schalkwijk, Dorus; Schols, Jos M G A; de Bie, Rob A
Many older people with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia suffer from sleeping problems and often show nocturnal restlessness. Professionals and informal carers face considerable problems in solving these problems. Attempts to diminish these problems with medication in a safe and responsible manner have proven hardly effective or not effective at all. Therefore, nowadays the focus lies more on non-pharmacological solutions, for example by influencing environmental factors. There are indications that treatment with low-frequency acoustic vibrations, that is Physio Acoustic Sound (PAS) therapy, has a positive effect on sleeping problems. Therefore we study the effectiveness of PAS therapy in demented patients with nocturnal restlessness. In a randomized clinical trial, 66 nursing home patients will be divided into two groups: an intervention group and a control group. For both groups nocturnal restlessness will be measured with actiwatches during a period of six weeks. In addition, a sleep diary will be filled in.For the intervention group the baseline will be assessed, in the first two weeks, reflecting the existing situation regarding nocturnal restlessness. In the next two weeks, this group will sleep on a bed identical to their own, but with a mattress containing an in-built PAS device. As soon as the patient is lying in bed, the computer programme inducing the vibrations will be switched on for the duration of 30 min. In the last two weeks, the wash-out period, the measurements of the intervention group are continued, without the PAS intervention.During the total study period, other relevant data of all the implied patients will be recorded systematically and continuously, for example patient characteristics (data from patient files), the type and seriousness of the dementia, occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms during the research period, and the occurrence of intermittent co-morbidity. If PAS therapy turns out
van Os Arnoldien J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia suffer from sleeping problems and often show nocturnal restlessness. Professionals and informal carers face considerable problems in solving these problems. Attempts to diminish these problems with medication in a safe and responsible manner have proven hardly effective or not effective at all. Therefore, nowadays the focus lies more on non-pharmacological solutions, for example by influencing environmental factors. There are indications that treatment with low-frequency acoustic vibrations, that is Physio Acoustic Sound (PAS therapy, has a positive effect on sleeping problems. Therefore we study the effectiveness of PAS therapy in demented patients with nocturnal restlessness. Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 66 nursing home patients will be divided into two groups: an intervention group and a control group. For both groups nocturnal restlessness will be measured with actiwatches during a period of six weeks. In addition, a sleep diary will be filled in. For the intervention group the baseline will be assessed, in the first two weeks, reflecting the existing situation regarding nocturnal restlessness. In the next two weeks, this group will sleep on a bed identical to their own, but with a mattress containing an in-built PAS device. As soon as the patient is lying in bed, the computer programme inducing the vibrations will be switched on for the duration of 30 min. In the last two weeks, the wash-out period, the measurements of the intervention group are continued, without the PAS intervention. During the total study period, other relevant data of all the implied patients will be recorded systematically and continuously, for example patient characteristics (data from patient files, the type and seriousness of the dementia, occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms during the research period, and the occurrence of
The purposes of this study were to clarify respiratory conditions in children undergoing home oxygen therapy in daily life settings, and to clarify usefulness of measuring oxygen saturation (SpO2) for nursing care. Subjects were three child/mother pairs in which the children were below fifteen hundred grams at birth and entered a NICU after birth, and were on home oxygen therapy upon discharge for neonatal chronic lung disease. The data was collected longitudinally by home visits until one ye...
Wrench, Christine; Darwin, Ruth; Lawson, Rod
The Sheffield home oxygen assessment and review service was developed as a nurse-led, protocol-driven service, offering high standards of care to a limited number of patients. In line with national changes to oxygen provision in 2011, the service team was approached to address inconsistencies and inequalities in the existing care pathway, with a view to becoming a fully commissioned service. This required a complete redesign of the service, using a collaborative approach to include relevant interested parties in planning and decision making. Additional support was gained through participation in the NHS Improvement lung national improvement project. This article outlines the process of service redesign, including some of the major challenges as well as the main learning points. It has led to the provision of an equitable and efficient service for all oxygen patients across the city, offering more community clinics and robust cost controls, while maintaining quality of care.
Rizzi, Maurizio; Airoldi, Andrea; Cristiano, Andrea; Frassanito, Francesca; Macaluso, Claudio; Vanni, Silvia; Legnani, Delfino
COPD is a heterogeneous disease composed by two main phenotypes: bronchitis (COPDb) and emphysema (COPDe) with different clinical presentation, physiology, imaging, response to therapy and decline in lung function. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether nocturnal hypoxemic COPDb and COPDe have a different behaviour during sleep and the effect of nocturnal oxygen supplementation (nO 2 LT). 75 COPDb and 120 COPDe were enrolled. All patients performed polysomnography, Pittsburgh and Maugeri Foundation Respiratory Failure questionnaire, and pulmonary function before and after six months of nO 2 LT. At baseline, compared to COPDb, COPDe have decreased sleep efficiency (SE) (67.5±6% vs. 76.9±3% pquality of life (QoL) improves (MFR-28 total 56±22 vs 45±20 pcognitive abilities (45±30 vs 33±31 p0.05). In COPDb nO 2 LT reduces ST90 (15±6% vs. 43±8% pquality of life in COPDe, not in COPDb. We found a difference in sleep quality between COPDe and COPDb. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Domenico Maurizio Toraldo1, Francesco De Nuccio2, Annarita Gaballo1, Giuseppe Nicolardi21A Galateo Lung Disease Hospital, Regional Service Puglia, San Cesario di Lecce, 2Laboratory of Human Anatomy, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Lecce, Lecce, ItalyBackground: Significant heterogeneity of clinical presentation and disease progression exists within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Although forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 inadequately describes this heterogeneity, a clear alternative has not emerged. This article discusses and refines the concept of phenotyping desaturators in COPD and shows a possible pattern which could be used as a framework for future research.Recent findings: COPD is a complex condition with pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations. We suggest that COPD phenotypes should be associated with clinically meaningful outcomes. The innovation of COPD phenotyping is defined as COPD desaturators. Sleep-related hypoxemia and hypercapnia are well recognized in COPD and the development of systemic inflammation during sleep. These sleep-related changes predispose to nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, and possibly death, particularly during acute exacerbations.Conclusion: A more focused definition makes possible a classification of patients into two distinct subgroups for both clinical and research purposes. Establishing a common language for future research will facilitate our understanding and management of such diseases. Even if different treatment strategies have different outcomes for these groups, we will have confirmation, or otherwise, of the clinical value of cluster analysis. This knowledge could lead to pharmacological treatment and other interventions directed to specific phenotypic groups.Keywords: phenotypes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, desaturator, nocturnal hypoxemia, systemic inflammation, intermittent hypoxia
Shawn H. Tsai
Full Text Available Nocturnal lagophthalmos is the inability to close the eyelids during sleep. It may be physiological but can cause significant symptoms in some patients. The spectrum of the disease ranges from minimal corneal epithelial changes, which may heal later in the daytime, to corneal ulcers after severe exposure. There are a variety of predisposing factors for lagophthalmos, which can be grouped as proptosis/eye exposure etiologies, palpebral insufficiency etiologies, and idiopathic etiology. The diagnosis is easily missed in subjects having nocturnal lagophthalmos with normal voluntary lid closure (idiopathic. A diagnosis of such cases can usually be made from a detailed history and careful slit lamp examination. A focused clinical evaluation for lagophthalmos in patients complaining of redness, dryness or eye irritation, especially after sleep, will identify most cases. The optimal treatment usually depends on the cause of lagophthalmos. It may include topical agents, lid taping at night or ocular surgery to correct lid malpositioning. This article reviews the incidence, clinical presentations, etiology, diagnosis, examination, and treatments of nocturnal lagophthalmos.
Copur, Ahmet Sinan; Fulambarker, Ashok; Molnar, Janos; Nadeem, Rashid; McCormack, Charles; Ganesh, Aarthi; Kheir, Fayez; Hamon, Sara
Anemia is a known comorbidity found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Hypoxemia is common and basically due to ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch in COPD. Anemia, by decreasing arterial oxygen content, may be a contributing factor for decreased delivery of oxygen to tissues. The objective of this study is to determine if anemia is a factor in qualifying COPD patients for home oxygen therapy. The study was designed as a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational chart review. Patients who were referred for home oxygen therapy evaluation were selected from the computerized patient record system. Demographic data, oxygen saturation at rest and during exercise, pulmonary function test results, hemoglobin level, medications, reason for anemia, comorbid diseases, and smoking status were recorded. The χ tests, independent sample t tests, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Only 356 of total 478 patient referrals had a diagnosis of COPD over a 2-year period. Although 39 of them were excluded, 317 patients were included in the study. The overall rate of anemia was 38% in all COPD patients. Anemia was found significantly more frequent in COPD patients on home oxygen therapy (46%) than those not on home oxygen therapy (18.5%) (P Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease class, smoking status, hemoglobin level, hematocrit, percent of forced expiratory volume in first second, forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity, residual volume/total lung volume, percent of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity were significantly different between home oxygen therapy and those not on home oxygen therapy (P anemia remained a strong predictor for long-term oxygen therapy use in COPD patients after adjusting for other significant parameters. Anemic COPD patients are more hypoxic especially during exercise than those who are not anemic. We conclude that anemia is a contributing factor in qualifying COPD patients for home oxygen
Jaturapatporn, Darin; Moran, Erica; Obwanga, Chris; Husain, Amna
Dyspnea is a common and distressing symptom in advanced cancer patients. Our preliminary work shows that in the home palliative care population sampled for this study, the prevalence of dyspnea is 29.5% and of those, 26.2% used oxygen therapy. Previous studies suggested that oxygen therapy can be a burden to patients. This study seeks to report the prevalence and describe the experience of dyspnea, pattern of oxygen use, and patients' perceived benefits and/or burdens of oxygen therapy in home palliative care patients receiving oxygen therapy. Qualitative in-depth interviews, using an interview guide, were conducted with eight participants in their homes. Thematic analysis was performed using a framework approach. All patients in this project used oxygen most of the time. The descriptions of shortness of breath varied and were nonspecific. The patients identified more advantages than disadvantages. The advantages of oxygen use included increased functional capacity, patients' perceiving oxygen as a life-saving intervention, as well as a symptom-management tool. The identified disadvantages were decreased mobility, discomfort related to the nasal prongs, barriers to accessing oxygen therapy and noise related to the equipment. The advantages of oxygen usage outweighed the disadvantages for this sample of patients in the home palliative setting.
Fabíola V. Adde
Conclusions: Long-term home oxygen therapy is increasingly common in pediatrics and has many indications. There are relevant particularities when compared to its use in adults, regarding indications, directions for use, and monitoring.
MacLean, Joanna E; Fitzgerald, Dominic A
The provision of supplemental oxygen for infants and children with hypoxaemia is expensive but advantageous because it facilitates earlier discharge from hospital and enhances quality of life in the home setting. It is seen as potentially cost effective and family friendly. However, the prescription of supplemental oxygen varies greatly between neonatologists, paediatric respiratory physicians and paediatric cardiologists. There is a lack of consensus on appropriate indications for prescribing oxygen, desirable oxygen targets and clinically significant immediate and longer-term outcome measures. Of the limited studies available, most are small studies reporting the treatment of infants with chronic neonatal lung disease with inconsistent outcome measures. Such data are not readily extrapolated to older children, who are also poorly served by existing data in adult studies. Further delineation of the indications for home oxygen therapy is required together with appropriately designed and funded multicentre trials to provide evidence for optimal oxygen therapy.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a very frequent disease in all industrialized countries. The cost for the community includes cost for hospitalisations, doctor visits, home care, rehabilitation, loss of working days, etc. From a therapeutical point of view, an effective progression of therapy and patients survival can be obtained only by stopping smoking and by following a long term oxygen therapy. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate costs of liquid oxygen therapy performed at home. Obtained results are very encouraging because a part from being cheap they also provide a better evaluation of the prescribed therapy which can also be extended to gaseous oxygen.
Myllymäki, Tero; Rusko, Heikki; Syväoja, Heidi; Juuti, Tanja; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Kyröläinen, Heikki
Acute physical exercise may affect cardiac autonomic modulation hours or even days during the recovery phase. Although sleep is an essential recovery period, the information on nocturnal autonomic modulation indicated by heart rate variability (HRV) after different exercises is mostly lacking. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal HR, HRV, HR, and HRV-based relaxation, as well as on actigraphic and subjective sleep quality. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 36 ± 4 years, maximal oxygen uptake 49 ± 4 ml/kg/min) performed five different running exercises on separate occasions starting at 6 p.m. with HR guidance at home. The effect of intensity was studied with 30 min of exercises at intensities corresponding to HR level at 45% (easy), 60% (moderate) and 75% (vigorous) of their maximal oxygen uptake. The effect of duration was studied with 30, 60, and 90 min of moderate exercises. Increased exercise intensity elevated nocturnal HR compared to control day (p exercises (p exercise day compared to control day (p exercise intensity nor duration had any impact on actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. The results suggest that increased exercise intensity and/or duration cause delayed recovery of nocturnal cardiac autonomic modulation, although long exercise duration was needed to induce changes in nocturnal HRV. Increased exercise intensity or duration does not seem to disrupt sleep quality.
Adde, Fabíola V; Alvarez, Alfonso E; Barbisan, Beatriz N; Guimarães, Bianca R
To advise pediatricians, neonatologists, pulmonologists, pediatric pulmonologists, and other professionals in the area on the main indications and characteristics of long-term home oxygen therapy in children and adolescents. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE/PubMed database (1990 to 2011). Additionally, references from selected studies were included. As consistent scientific evidence does not exist for many aspects, some of the recommendations were based on clinical experience. Long-term home oxygen therapy has been a growing practice in pediatric patients and is indicated in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cystic fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, interstitial lung diseases, and pulmonary hypertension, among others. The benefits are: decrease in hospitalizations, optimization of physical growth and neurological development, improvement of exercise tolerance and quality of sleep, and prevention of pulmonary hypertension/cor pulmonale. The levels of oxygen saturation indicative for oxygen therapy differ from those established for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and vary according to age and disease. Pulse oximetry is used to evaluate oxygen saturation; arterial blood gas is unnecessary. There are three available sources of oxygen: gas cylinders, liquid oxygen, and oxygen concentrators. The flows used are usually smaller, as are the number of hours/day needed when compared to the use in adults. Some diseases show improvement and oxygen therapy discontinuation is possible. Long-term home oxygen therapy is increasingly common in pediatrics and has many indications. There are relevant particularities when compared to its use in adults, regarding indications, directions for use, and monitoring. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Munhoz, Andrea S. [UNIFESP; Adde, Fabiola V.; Nakaie, Cleyde M. A.; Doria Filho, Ulysses; Silva Filho, Luiz V. R. F.; Rodrigues, Joaquim C.
Objectives: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients on long-term home oxygen therapy followed up by the home care program of Hospital das Clinicas, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, during a period of 8 years, and to compare groups with and without secondary pulmonary hypertension. To estimate the cost of the program using oxygen concentrators versus oxygen cylinders provided by the hospital.Methods: A descriptive, retrospective cohort study of patient...
Ekström, Magnus; Ahmadi, Zainab; Bornefalk-Hermansson, Anna; Abernethy, Amy; Currow, David
review 44 studies including 1195 participants, and we included 33 of these (901 participants)in the meta-analysis.We found that breathlessness during exercise or daily activities was reduced by oxygen compared with air (32 studies; 865 participants; SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.21; I 2 = 37%; low-quality evidence). This translates to a decrease in breathlessness of about 0.7 points on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale. In contrast, we found no effect of short-burst oxygen given before exercise (four studies; 90 participants; SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.28; I 2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). Oxygen reduced breathlessness measured during exercise tests (25 studies; 442 participants; SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.22; I 2 = 29%; moderate-quality evidence), whereas evidence of an effect on breathlessness measured in daily life was limited (two studies; 274 participants; SMD -0.13, 95% CI, -0.37 to 0.11; I 2 = 0%; low-quality evidence).Oxygen did not clearly affect HRQOL (five studies; 267 participants; SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.26; I 2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). Patient preference and adverse events could not be analysed owing to insufficient data. We are moderately confident that oxygen can relieve breathlessness when given during exercise to mildly hypoxaemic and non-hypoxaemic people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who would not otherwise qualify for home oxygen therapy. Most evidence pertains to acute effects during exercise tests, and no evidence indicates that oxygen decreases breathlessness in the daily life setting. Findings show that oxygen does not affect health-related quality of life.
Munhoz, Andréa S; Adde, Fabiola V; Nakaie, Cleyde M A; Doria Filho, Ulysses; Silva Filho, Luiz V R F; Rodrigues, Joaquim C
To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients on long-term home oxygen therapy followed up by the home care program of Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, during a period of 8 years; to compare groups with and without secondary pulmonary hypertension; and to estimate the cost of the program using oxygen concentrators vs. oxygen cylinders provided by the hospital. A descriptive, retrospective cohort study of patients on long-term home oxygen therapy followed up from 2002 to 2009 at the Unit of Pulmonology, Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo. We studied 165 patients, of whom 53% were male, with the following medians: age at the beginning of oxygen therapy--3.6 years; duration of oxygen therapy--7 years; and survival time after beginning of oxygen therapy--3.4 years. The main diagnoses were: cystic fibrosis (22%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (19%), and bronchiolitis obliterans (15%). Of the 33 patients who underwent spirometry, 70% had severe obstructive lung disease. Echocardiogram was performed in 134 patients; 51% of them had secondary pulmonary hypertension. There was a statistically significant association between pulmonary hypertension and need of higher oxygen flows (chi-square, p = 0.011), and between pulmonary hypertension and longer duration of oxygen therapy (Logrank, p = 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference between survival time after the beginning of oxygen therapy and pulmonary hypertension. The average monthly costs of the program were US$ 7,392.93 for concentrators and US$ 16,630.92 for cylinders. Long-term home oxygen therapy was used to treat different chronic diseases, predominantly in infants and preschool children. There was a high frequency of pulmonary hypertension associated with longer periods of oxygen use and greater oxygen flow, without association with survival rate. The use of concentrators instead of
Adde, Fabíola V.; Alvarez, Alfonso E.; Barbisan, Beatriz N.; Guimarães, Bianca R.
Objective: To advise pediatricians, neonatologists, pulmonologists, pediatric pulmonologists, and other professionals in the area on the main indications and characteristics of long-term home oxygen therapy in children and adolescents. Data source: A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE/PubMed database (1990 to 2011). Additionally, references from selected studies were included. As consistent scientific evidence does not exist for many aspects, some of the recommendations were ...
Oliveira, Lia; Coelho, Joana; Ferreira, Rosário; Nunes, Teresa; Saianda, Ana; Pereira, Luisa; Bandeira, Teresa
Long-term home oxygen therapy is indicated for patients with chronic hypoxemia. We intend to describe pediatric population on long-term home oxygen therapy followed-up at Pediatric Respiratory Unit of a tertiary care hospital between 2003-2012 and to compare with previous 1991-2000 review; to verify conformity with international and national recommendations and need for specific pediatric national guidelines, non-existent in Portugal. Retrospective, descriptive and comparative study based on clinical files review. Review the guidelines for oxygen therapy in pediatric population. We studied 86 patients (59.3% males). The median age at the beginning of oxygen therapy was 0.0 (0.0-216.0) months, with a median duration of 15.0 (3.0-223.0) months. The most frequent diagnosis was bronchopulmonary dysplasia (53.5%), followed by bronchiolitis obliterans (14.0%), neurologic disorders (10.5%), cystic fibrosis (8.1%), miscellaneous syndromes (5.8%), sickle-cell disease (3.5%), other neonatal lung diseases (2.3%) and interstitial lung diseases (2.3%). Are maintained on follow-up 53 (61.6%) patients, 38 on oxygen therapy; 12 (13.9%) died. The median time of follow-up was 39.5 (1.0-246.0) months, minim on other neonatal lung diseases and maximum on cystic fibrosis. Comparing with previous review, this shows a relative increase in bronchiolitis obliterans and bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients, with increased duration in the latter, and inclusion of neurologic and hematologic patients. Prescription of long-term oxygen therapy in pediatric age mainly occurs in specific diseases of infants and pre-school aged. Neurologic and hematologic patients represent new indications, similarly to international publications. The knowledge of national reality and pediatric orientations are needed for care plans and rational prescription.
Full Text Available Although acute exposure to hypoxia can disrupt metabolism, longer-term exposure may normalize glucose homeostasis or even improve glucose disposal in the presence of obesity. We examined the effects of two-week exposure to room air (Air, continuous 10% oxygen (C10%, and 12 hr nocturnal periods of 10% oxygen (N10% on glucose disposal, insulin responsiveness, and mitochondrial function in lean and obese C57BL/6J mice. Both C10% and N10% improved glucose disposal relative to Air in lean and obese mice without evidence of an increase in insulin responsiveness; however, only the metabolic improvements with N10% exposure occurred in the absence of confounding effects of weight loss. In lean mice, N10% exposure caused a decreased respiratory control ratio (RCR and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in the mitochondria of the muscle and liver compared to Air-exposed mice. In the absence of hypoxia, obese mice exhibited a decreased RCR in the muscle and increased ROS production in the liver compared to lean mice; however, any additional effects of hypoxia in the presence of obesity were minimal. Our data suggest that the development of mitochondrial inefficiency may contribute to metabolic adaptions to hypoxia, independent of weight, and metabolic adaptations to adiposity, independent of hypoxia.
Full Text Available Ilda Godoy,1 Suzana Erico Tanni,2 Carme Hernández,3 Irma Godoy21Department of Nursing, Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Pulmonology, Botucatu School of Medicine, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Integrated Care Unit, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is one of the main treatments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients receiving LTOT may have less than optimal home conditions and this may interfere with treatment. The objective of this study was, through home visits, to identify the characteristics of patients receiving LTOT and to develop knowledge regarding the home environments of these patients.Methods: Ninety-seven patients with a mean age of 69 plus or minus 10.5 years were evaluated. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive analysis. Data were collected during an initial home visit, using a questionnaire standardized for the study. The results were analyzed retrospectively.Results: Seventy-five percent of the patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 11% were active smokers. The patients’ mean pulse oximetry values were 85.9% plus or minus 4.7% on room air and 92% plus or minus 3.9% on the prescribed flow of oxygen. Most of the patients did not use the treatment as prescribed and most used a humidifier. The extension hose had a mean length of 5 plus or minus 3.9 m (range, 1.5–16 m. In the year prior to the visit, 26% of the patients received emergency medical care because of respiratory problems. Few patients reported engaging in leisure activities.Conclusion: The home visit allowed us to identify problems and interventions that could improve the way LTOT is used. The most common interventions related to smoking cessation, concentrator maintenance and cleaning, use of a humidifier, and adjustments of the length of the connector hose. Therefore, the home visit
Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Stausholm, K; Edvardsen, L
Thirteen patients were monitored for nocturnal body position (supine vs. side) and arterial oxygen saturation pre-operatively and on the second postoperative night after major abdominal surgery. The number of positional changes were significantly decreased after operation (p ... position than on the side (p movements....... towards more time spent in the supine position (p = 0.1). Individual mean arterial oxygen saturation decreased postoperatively (p positions (p = 0.9). Pre-operatively, episodic desaturations were significantly more frequent in the supine...
Jacobsen, J H; Rosenberg, R S; Huttenlocher, P R; Spire, J P
A familial syndrome of painful nocturnal cramping and jerking in members of three generations is described. All-night polysomnograms demonstrated both myoclonic jerks and sustained muscular activity in three family members, a 4-year-old girl, who presented with frequent episodes of painful awakenings; her 7-year-old brother, who had similar but less severe symptoms; and the 28-year-old mother, who had suffered nocturnal cramping and awakenings for much of her life. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a familial disorder characterized by exclusively nocturnal intermittent cramping and myoclonus of brainstem or spinal origin.
Whyte, K F; Douglas, N J
To investigate whether the supine posture caused sustained bronchoconstriction and could thus contribute to the development of nocturnal asthma, nine patients with nocturnal asthma were studied on two consecutive days, lying supine for four hours on one day and sitting upright for four hours on the other, the order of the two postures being randomised. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured immediately before an...
Holtum, J.A.M.; Summons, R.; Roeske, C.A.; Comins, H.N.; O' Leary, M.H.
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants fix carbon dioxide at night by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. If CO2 fixation is conducted with TC YO2, then in the absence of carbonic anhydrase, the malate formed by dark CO2 fixation should also contain high levels of carbon-13 and oxygen-18. Conversely, if carbonic anhydrase is present and highly active, oxygen exchange between CO2 and cellular H2O will occur more rapidly than carboxylation, and the ( TC) malate formed will contain little or no oxygen-18 above the natural abundance level. The presence of oxygen-18 in these molecules can be detected either by nuclear magnetic resonance or by mass spectrometry. Studies of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the presence and absence of carbonic anhydrase in vitro confirm the validity of the method. When CAM plants are studied by this method, we find that most species show incorporation of a significant amount of oxygen-18. Comparison of these results with results of isotope fractionation and gas exchange studies permits calculation of the in vivo activity of carbonic anhydrase toward HCO3 compared with that of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The ratio (carbonic anhydrase activity/phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity) is species dependent and varies from a low of about 7 for Ananas comosus to values near 20 for Hoya carnosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum, 40 for Kalanchoee daigremontiana, and 100 or greater for Bryophyllum tubiflorum, Kalanchoee serrata, and Kalanchoae tomentosa. Carbonic anhydrase activity increases relative to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at higher temperature. 37 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.
Holtum, J.A.M.; Summons, R.; Roeske, C.A.; Comins, H.N.; O'Leary, M.H.
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants fix carbon dioxide at night by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate. If CO 2 fixation is conducted with 13 C 18 O 2 , then in the absence of carbonic anhydrase, the malate formed by dark CO 2 fixation should also contain high levels of carbon-13 and oxygen-18. Conversely, if carbonic anhydrase is present and highly active, oxygen exchange between CO 2 and cellular H 2 O will occur more rapidly than carboxylation, and the [ 13 C] malate formed will contain little or no oxygen-18 above the natural abundance level. The presence of oxygen-18 in these molecules can be detected either by nuclear magnetic resonance or by mass spectrometry. Studies of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the presence and absence of carbonic anhydrase in vitro confirm the validity of the method. When CAM plants are studied by this method, we find that most species show incorporation of a significant amount of oxygen-18. Comparison of these results with results of isotope fractionation and gas exchange studies permits calculation of the in vivo activity of carbonic anhydrase toward HCO 3 - compared with that of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The ratio (carbonic anhydrase activity/phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity) is species dependent and varies from a low of about 7 for Ananas comosus to values near 20 for Hoya carnosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum, 40 for Kalanchoee daigremontiana, and 100 or greater for Bryophyllum tubiflorum, Kalanchoee serrata, and Kalanchoae tomentosa. Carbonic anhydrase activity increases relative to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at higher temperature. 37 references, 2 figures, 8 tables
Rittig, Søren; Kamperis, Konstantinos
overactivity, or a defect intrinsic circadian control of bladder function. The role of sleep is currently under scrutiny as recent evidence point towards poor sleep with increased sleep fragmentation, arousal index, and periodic limb movements as important factors. One unifying pathophysiologic theory suggests...... vasopressin levels and renal factors such as increased GFR and solute excretion (e.g. sodium) as well as increased prostaglandin PGE2 excretion. Furthermore, nocturnal polyuria has been associated with poor sleep (e.g. sleep fragmentation) and increased nocturnal arterial blood pressure levels. Another...... important part of enuresis pathogenesis is reduced bladder capacity, either during night-time only or present during daytime also (i.e. reduced MVV on a FV chart). The background behind the reduced nocturnal reservoir function is not fully clarified but may involve CNS regulatory centers, detrusor...
Quintero Pichardo, E
Analyze developments in the clinical adequacy of prescribing continuous home oxygen therapy to current regulations in the Andalusian Health Service. Were reviewed in a previous study requirements and continuing new domiciliary oxygen therapy conducted from January 2008 to December 2009. It constituted a Monitoring Committee Multidisciplinary and turned to analyzing the appropriateness of prescribing after two pharmaceutical interventions from April 2011 to March 2012. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 15.0 for Windows, the dependent variable being the correct blade adjustment to the first prescription and then, and as independent prescribing different units. In cases in which the prescribing correct sheet, variables were analyzed mandatory. 163 prescriptions were checked manually with a rate of compliance with the regulations of 66.30%, slightly higher than the results of the previous study (55.72% in 2008, 47.70% in 2009). The intervention did not achieve a greater degree the outlook for lack of financial and material resources, affecting one of the fundamental objectives were patient reviews. Pharmaceutical intervention has ensured that the prescription conforms to the rules and perform better, but has not been able to control the issue of revisions to rely on other medical and administrative units requesting increased technological and human resources to facilitate control. Copyright © 2013 SEFH. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Lopes Fabiana L.
Full Text Available The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.
Sartor, Francesco; Vernillo, Gianluca; de Morree, Helma M; Bonomi, Alberto G; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Veicsteinas, Arsenio
Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the (VO(2max)) provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in several clinical populations, such as patients with coronary artery disease or heart failure. Likewise, VO(2max) assessment can be very important to evaluate fitness in asymptomatic adults. Although direct determination of [VO(2max) is the most accurate method, it requires a maximal level of exertion, which brings a higher risk of adverse events in individuals with an intermediate to high risk of cardiovascular problems. Estimation of VO(2max) during submaximal exercise testing can offer a precious alternative. Over the past decades, many protocols have been developed for this purpose. The present review gives an overview of these submaximal protocols and aims to facilitate appropriate test selection in sports, clinical, and home settings. Several factors must be considered when selecting a protocol: (i) The population being tested and its specific needs in terms of safety, supervision, and accuracy and repeatability of the VO(2max) estimation. (ii) The parameters upon which the prediction is based (e.g. heart rate, power output, rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), as well as the need for additional clinically relevant parameters (e.g. blood pressure, ECG). (iii) The appropriate test modality that should meet the above-mentioned requirements should also be in line with the functional mobility of the target population, and depends on the available equipment. In the sports setting, high repeatability is crucial to track training-induced seasonal changes. In the clinical setting, special attention must be paid to the test modality, because multiple physiological parameters often need to be measured during test execution. When estimating VO(2max), one has
Full Text Available Aerobic capacity, measured as the peak oxygen uptake, is a strong predictor of survival in cardiac patients. Aerobic interval training (AIT, walking/running four times four minutes at 85-95% of peak heart rate, has proven to be effective in increasing peak oxygen uptake in coronary heart disease patients. As some patients do not attend organized rehabilitation programs, home-based exercise should be an alternative. We investigated whether AIT could be performed effectively at home, and compared the effects on peak oxygen uptake with that observed after a standard care, four-week residential rehabilitation. Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to residential rehabilitation or home-based AIT. At six months follow-up, peak oxygen uptake increased 4.6 (±2.7 and 3.9 (±3.6 mL·kg(-1 min(-1 (both p<0.005, non-significant between-group difference after residential rehabilitation and AIT, respectively. Quality of life increased significantly in both groups, with no statistical significant difference between groups. We found no evidence for a different treatment effect between patients randomized to home-based AIT compared to patients attending organized rehabilitation (95% confidence interval -1.8, 3.5. AIT patients reported good adherence to exercise training. Even though these first data indicate positive effects of home-based AIT in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, more studies are needed to provide supporting evidence for the application of this rehabilitation strategy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00363922.
Georges, Marjolaine; Nguyen-Baranoff, Danièle; Griffon, Lucie; Foignot, Clement; Bonniaud, Philippe; Camus, Philippe; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Rabec, Claudio
Nocturnal hypoventilation is now an accepted indication for the initiation of non-invasive ventilation. Nocturnal hypoventilation may be an under diagnosed condition in chronic respiratory failure. The most appropriate strategy to identify sleep hypoventilation is not yet clearly defined. In clinical practice, it is indirectly assessed using nocturnal pulse oximetry (NPO) and morning arterial blood gases (mABG). Even though continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (TcPCO2 ) monitoring is theoretically superior to NPO plus mABG, it is not routinely used. We aimed to prospectively compare NPO plus mABG with nocturnal TcPCO2 for the detection of alveolar hypoventilation in a cohort of patients with chronic restrictive respiratory dysfunction. We assessed 80 recordings of mABG, nocturnal TcPCO2 and NPO in 72 consecutive patients with neuromuscular disease or thoracic cage disorders. Nocturnal hypoventilation was defined as a mean nightime TcPCO2 ≥50 mm Hg, and nocturnal hypoxaemia as ≥30% of the night with transcutaneous pulse oxygen saturation ≤90% and/or >5 consecutive minutes with transcutaneous pulse oxygen saturation ≤88%. Amongst the 80 recordings, 25 of 76 (32.9%) without nocturnal hypoxaemia and 16 of 59 (27.1%) without hypercapnia on mABG showed nocturnal hypoventilation on TcPCO2 . Amongst recordings showing both normal NPO and mABG, 16 of 52 (30.8%) had a mean TcPCO2 ≥50 mm Hg. Nocturnal hypoxaemia was associated with nocturnal hypoventilation in all recordings. However, 5 of 21 (23.8%) recordings that showed an absence of nocturnal hypoventilation at the chosen threshold showed hypercapnia on mABG. Morning arterial blood gases and NPO alone or in combination underestimate nocturnal hypoventilation in patients with chronic restrictive respiratory dysfunction of extrapulmonary origin. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Wood, R; Grant, I; Bain, M
To ensure that decisions on the future planning of the Scottish Home Oxygen Service reflect population needs by examining the epidemiology of the main conditions that require home oxygen therapy and trends in their management. Analysis of routinely available vital event and health service data supplemented by published literature. Use of linked data to provide person-based analyses. Consideration of trends in key risk factors, disease incidence, prevalence and mortality for chronic neonatal lung disease, cystic fibrosis, chronic interstitial lung disease in adults and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Examination of trends in management of these conditions including hospital admissions, length of stay and re-admissions. The prevalence of all the conditions studied has increased in Scotland over recent years due to a combination of increased incidence, increased survival, more active case finding and demographic changes. There have been changes in management with trends towards shorter hospital stays. The clinical need for home oxygen therapy is likely to continue to increase over the next 10-20 years. It will encompass all age groups and a complex range of conditions. Public health needs to be proactive in providing relevant needs assessment information to ensure that planning within financial constraints is appropriately informed on population needs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robson, Wm Lane M
Nocturnal enuresis is an especially common problem with the potential to have an appreciable negative impact on the emotional health of a child. Our understanding of the pathogenesis continues to improve. A disorder of sleep arousal, a low nocturnal bladder capacity, and nocturnal polyuria are the three factors that interrelate to cause nocturnal enuresis. Constipation is a very common and often unrecognized factor that appreciably affects bladder function. Successful treatment involves interventions that simultaneously improve these factors. Self-esteem improves with any form of therapy and dryness is possible for the majority of children.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with nocturnal intermittent hypoxaemia. Objecive. The aim of this study was to evalute the influence of nocturnal hypoxaemia on ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial ischaemia in patients with myocardial infarction (MI. Method. We studied 77 patients (55.8±7.9 years with MI free of complications, chronic pulmonary diseases, abnormal awake blood gases tension. All patients underwent overnight pulse oximetry and 24-hour electrocardiography. Patients were divided into two groups according to nocturnal hypoxaemia. Total number of ventricular premature complex (VPC; maximal VPC/h; incidence of VPC Lown class>2 and occurrence of ST-segment depression were analyzed for nocturnal (10 PM to 6 AM, daytime (6 AM to 22 PM periods and for the entire 24 hours. Results. Both groups were similar in age, gender, standard risk factors, myocardial infarction size and did not differ in VPC during the analyzed periods. The number of nocturnal maximal VPC/h was insignificantly greater in group 1 (with hypoxaemia compared to group 2 (without hypoxaemia, (p=0.084. Maximal VPC/h did not differ significantly either for daytime or for 24 hours among the groups. Nocturnal VPC Lown>2 were significantly more frequent in group 1 (25% vs 0%, p=0.002. The incidence of VPC Lown>2 was similar during the daytime, and during 24 hrs in both groups. Occurrence of ST-segment depression did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Conclusion. Nocturnal hypoxaemia was associated with complex nocturnal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with MI. .
Wang, Kai-Wei K; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Chin-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Sheng
To identify the predictors of primary caregivers' stress in caring for in-home oxygen-dependent children by examining the association between their levels of stress, caregiver needs and social support. Increasing numbers of primary caregivers of oxygen-dependent children experience caregiving stress that warrants investigation. The study used a cross-sectional design with three psychometric scales - Modified-Parenting Stress Index, Caregiver Needs Scale and Social Support Index. The data collected during 2010-2011 were from participants who were responsible for their child's care that included oxygen therapy for ≧6 hours/day; the children's ages ranged from 3 months-16 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression were used. A total of 104 participants (M = 34, F = 70) were recruited, with an average age of 39·7 years. The average age of the oxygen-dependent children was 6·68 years and their daily use of oxygen averaged 11·39 hours. The caregivers' overall levels of stress were scored as high and information needs were scored as the highest. The most available support from family and friends was emotional support. Informational support was mostly received from health professionals, but both instrumental and emotional support were important. Levels of stress and caregiver needs were significantly correlated. Multivariable linear regression analyses identified three risk factors predicting stress, namely, the caregiver's poor health status, the child's male gender and the caregiver's greater financial need. To support these caregivers, health professionals can maintain their health status and provide instrumental, emotional, informational and financial support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
© Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.
Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain
Full Text Available A fiery feminist piece that argues that Indian women are all homeless; animals have homes but Indian women have none, because they have to depend on the mercy of their "keepers"; therefore, Indian women live a life worse than animals.
... with PNH do not have dark urine. Blood Formation Blood consists of blood cells floating in plasma . ... High Altitudes The farther you move away from sea level, the less oxygen there is. If you ...
Sartor, F.; Vernillo, G.; de Morree, H.M.; Bonomi, A.G.; La Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.; Veicsteinas, A.
Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the V˙O2max provides important diagnostic and prognostic information
Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS.Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2<95% for ≥10% of the night and their clinical characteristics and cognitive function were compared.Compared to patients without nocturnal hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n = 10, 40% had poor memory retention (p = 0.039 and retrieval efficiency (p = 0.045. A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70% in the Hypoxia Group.These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation-reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression.
Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H
Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose metabolism that result in stable energy stores. Two conditions break this nighttime fast and are associated with weight gain as well as medical and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by isolated nocturnal eating, whereas the night-eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian delay in meal timing leading to evening hyperphagia, nocturnal eating, and morning anorexia. Recently, SRED has been associated with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem. Both SRED and NES are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. In SRED, the antiseizure medication topiramate and dopaminergics have both demonstrated promising results. Nocturnal eating associated with NES has responded well to sertraline.
Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Trenkwalder, Claudia
When Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are asked about the quality of their sleep, their answers are dominated by difficulties associated with impaired mobility in bed, medically referred to as nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal hypokinesia is symptomatic from the mid-stage of the disease, affecting up to 70% of PD patients, and contributes to poor sleep quality, and increased carer burden. Here we explore four areas of nocturnal hypokinesia that are relevant to clinical practice, namely: manifestations and definition; clinical assessment and objective monitoring; etiologies and contributing factors; and evidence-based therapeutic approaches. In addition, we provide an operational definition of what constitutes nocturnal hypokinesia and outline different methods of assessment, ranging from clinical interviews and rating scales to objective night-time monitoring with inertial sensors. Optimal management of nocturnal hypokinesia in PD begins with recognizing its manifestation by inquiring about cardinal symptoms and contributing factors from, not only patients, but also carers, followed by formal assessment, and the application of individualized evidence-based treatment. Night-time dopaminergic treatment is the primary therapy; however, careful clinical judgment is required to balance the benefits with the potential adverse events related to nocturnal dopaminergic stimulation. Future studies are needed to explore the practicality of home-based objective assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia, new therapeutic options not limited to dopaminergic medications, and non-pharmacologic approaches, including training on compensatory strategies and bedroom adaptations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Su-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Min; Sung, Jung-Joon; Lee, Kyung-Min; Park, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Sang-Yun; Nam, Hyun-woo; Lee, Kwang-Woo
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS. Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n = 10, 40%) had poor memory retention (p = 0.039) and retrieval efficiency (p = 0.045). A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70%) in the Hypoxia Group. These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation-reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern) during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression.
Colombo, F; Fenice, O; Austoni, E
The recording of the variations of penile tumescence and rigidity during nocturnal unconscious erections that usually occur with the REM phases of sleep, has been considered the diagnostic tool of choice in the workup of erectile disturbances for a number of years. Such a success is partly due to its absence of invasiveness. Moreover this test was believed to allow to differentiate between the psychogenic and organic origin of impotence. As some authors have recently reported, anxiety state (common among patients who undergo invasive andrological procedure in the office) can at times influence the content of the dream state, thus negatively affecting the spontaneous nocturnal erections. Besides, sleep disturbances such as apnea and motor agitation can also induce erroneous interpretations of NPT graphs. Further, dysfunctions at the level of the cortex and the spine still allow the occurrence of nocturnal tumescence but determine an erectile deficit in the awake state. Clinically, all this poses new questions about the effectiveness of the NPT test in the study of the origin of impotence. The diagnostic methods, despite its world-wide diffusion, remains, under certain aspects, obscure: the operative details and, above all, its interpretative criteria. All this impedes the achievement of uniformity in the evaluation of the results obtained thanks to this test (e.g. the number and duration of erectile episodes, the interpretation of tumescence on its own, of the basal-apical dissociation, of the erectile episodes occurring immediately before waking, and of those of short duration).
Zappia, Theresa; Peter, Sue; Hall, Graham; Vine, Julie; Martin, Andrew; Munns, Ailsa; Shields, Linda; Verheggenn, Maureen
Acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including bronchiolitis, is one of the leading causes of pediatric hospital admissions worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that some children with acute bronchiolitis can be successfully managed using home oxygen therapy. To report the impact of a Hospital in The Home Oxygen therapy program (HiTHOx) for selected infants and young children with acute bronchiolitis and other LRTI. The HiTHOx program appears to be a safe model of care for carefully selected infants and young children with acute bronchiolitis and LRTI that reduces the hospital length of stay. The HiTHOx program provides an alternative model of care for infants and young children with acute LRTI. Implementation of models of care similar to that of the HiTHOx program in other pediatric health services may have the potential to create additional bed capacity, at the time of year when it is most needed.
Vitacca, Michele; Barbano, Luca; Colombo, Daniele; Leoni, Olivia; Guffanti, Enrico
Few studies have analyzed the prevalence and accessibility of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) in Italy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and prescription variability of HMV as well as of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), in the Lombardy Region. Prescribing rates of HMV (both noninvasive and tracheostomies), CPAP (auto-CPAP, CPAP/other sleep machines) and LTOT (liquid-O2, O2-gas, concentrators) in the 15 Local Healthcare districts of Lombardy were gathered from billing data for 2012 and compared. Crude rates (per 100,000 population) and rates for the different healthcare districts were calculated. In 2012, 6325 patients were on HMV (crude prescription rate: 63/100,000) with a high variation across districts (8/100,000 in Milano 1 vs 150/100,000 in Pavia). There were 14,237 patients on CPAP (crude prescription rate: 142/100,000; CPAP/other sleep machines 95.3% vs auto-CPAP 4.7%) with also high intra-regional variation (56/100,000 in Mantova vs. 260/100,000 in Pavia). There were 21,826 patients on LTOT (prescription rate: 217/100,000 rate; liquid-O2 94%, O2-gas 2.08%, O2-concentrators 3.8%), with again high intra-regional variation (100/100,000 in Bergamo vs 410/100,000 in Valle Camonica). The crude rate of HMV prescriptions in Lombardy is very high, with a high intra-regional variability in prescribing HMV, LTOT and CPAP which is partly explainable by the accessibility to specialist centers with HMV/sleep-study facilities. Analysis of administrative data and variability mapping can help identify areas of reduced access for an improved standardization of services. An audit among Health Payer and prescribers to interpret the described huge variability could be welcomed.
... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...
Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux
Dec 4, 2011 ... psychopathology – both impair social and occupational functions. Insomnia and short nocturnal sleep duration are regular accompaniments of psychopathology. The triad of EDS, short nocturnal sleep duration and psychopathology must necessarily impact adversely on the lives and academic performance ...
Man-Son-Hing, Malcolm; Wells, George; Lau, Anita
OBJECTIVE With respect to the use of quinine for the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps, to determine whether the findings of a previously performed meta-analysis of published data are altered with the addition of unpublished data, and whether publication bias is present in this area. DESIGN A meta-analysis of eight (four published and four unpublished) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, seven of which had a crossover design. SETTING Randomized trials that were available as of July 1997. SUBJECTS Ambulatory patients (659) who suffered from regular nocturnal leg cramps. MAIN RESULTS When individual patient data from all crossover studies were pooled, persons had 3.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15, 5.05) fewer cramps in a 4-week period when taking quinine compared with placebo. This compared with an estimate of 8.83 fewer cramps (95% CI 4.16, 13.49) from pooling published studies alone. The corresponding relative risk reductions were 21% (95% CI 12%, 30%) and 43% (95% CI 21%, 65%), respectively. Compared with placebo, the use of quinine was associated with an increased incidence of side effects, particularly tinnitus. Publication bias is present in the reporting of the efficacy of quinine for this indication, as almost all published studies reported larger estimates of its efficacy than did unpublished studies. CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that quinine is efficacious in the prevention of nocturnal leg cramps. However, its benefit may not be as large as reported from the pooling of published studies alone. Given the side effect profile of quinine, nonpharmacologic therapy (e.g., regular passive stretching of the affected muscle) is the best first-line treatment. For persons who find this ineffective and whose quality of life is significantly affected, a trial of quinine is warranted. Prescribing physicians must closely monitor the risks and benefits in individual patients. Publication bias is present in this area even though there is
I. A. Lisukov
Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, life‑threatening clonal hematological disorder caused by an acquired mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glucan (PIG-A gene. PNH is characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, thrombophilia and other severe clinical syndromes. Until recently, the treatment of PNH has been symptomatic with blood transfusions, anticoagulation and supplementation with folic acid or iron. The only potentially curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this has severe complications with high mortality rates. A new targeted treatment strategy is the inhibition of the terminal complement cascade with anti‑C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab. Eculizumab has shown significant efficacy in controlling of intravascular hemolysis resulting in improving quality of life and survival.
I. A. Lisukov
Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, life‑threatening clonal hematological disorder caused by an acquired mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glucan (PIG-A gene. PNH is characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, thrombophilia and other severe clinical syndromes. Until recently, the treatment of PNH has been symptomatic with blood transfusions, anticoagulation and supplementation with folic acid or iron. The only potentially curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this has severe complications with high mortality rates. A new targeted treatment strategy is the inhibition of the terminal complement cascade with anti‑C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab. Eculizumab has shown significant efficacy in controlling of intravascular hemolysis resulting in improving quality of life and survival.
Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R
At night the Namib Desert spider Leucorchestris arenicola performs long-distance homing across its sand dune habitat. By disabling all or pairs of the spiders' eight eyes we found that homing ability was severely reduced when vision was fully abolished. Vision, therefore, seems to play a key role...... in the nocturnal navigational performances of L. arenicola. After excluding two or three pairs of eyes, the spiders were found to be able to navigate successfully using only their lateral eyes or only their anterior median eyes. Measurement of the eyes' visual fields showed that the secondary eyes combined have...... a near full (panoramic) view of the surroundings. The visual fields of the principal eyes overlap almost completely with those of the anterior lateral eyes. Electroretinogram recordings indicate that each eye type contains a single photopigment with sensitivity peaking at approximately 525 nm...
Borg, Britt; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Rittig, Søren
PURPOSE Bladder reservoir function in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) is assessed by maximal voided volumes (MVV) registered on frequency-volume charts during daytime. Although a degree of association is evident, MVV does not necessarily reflect the nocturnal bladder...... below their MVV and MVVAge, the latter could be viewed as isolated reduced nocturnal bladder reservoir function. This indicates bladder reservoir function abnormalities during sleep that is not assessed by day recordings. Physicians treating children with MNE should consider anticholinergic...
... among the elderly (Bernert, 2007) and, mediated by depression, are associated with suicide ideation among the elderly (Nadorff et al., 2013). ... suicidal behavior in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent ... (2013) 5 Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for ...
Ipema, K.J.R.; Westerhuis, R.; van der Schans, C.P.; de Jong, P.E.; Gaillard, C.A. J. M.; Krijnen, W.P.; Slart, R.H.J.A.; Franssen, C.F.M.
Background: Haemodialysis patients have a high risk of malnutrition which is associated with increased mortality. Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD) is associated with a significant increase in protein intake compared with conventional haemodialysis (CHD). It is unclear whether this leads to improved
R.H. Slart; C.A. Gaillard; R. Westerhuis; C.F. Franssen; W.P. Krijnen; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; K.J. Ipema; P.E. de Jong
Background: Haemodialysis patients have a high risk of malnutrition which is associated with increased mortality. Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD) is associated with a significant increase in protein intake compared with conventional haemodialysis (CHD). It is unclear whether this leads to improved
Sterling, E J; Nguyen, N; Fashing, P J
Patterns of home range overlap between individuals are key parameters used in discussions of sociality in nocturnal prosimians. Despite the importance of space use variables in defining social structure in nocturnal prosimians, researchers have yet to reach a consensus concerning the most reliable techniques for measuring patterns of home range use. In this paper, we review the methods used in 27 studies of nocturnal prosimian ranging behavior published since 1977. We discuss the usefulness and limitations of the various methods of data collection (radio tracking, trap mark, and identification of sleeping site locations) and data analysis (minimum convex polygon method, minimum concave polygon method, and quadrat analysis) used in these studies. We conclude that the most effective method for gathering data on individual movements and social interactions is direct observation of individual radio tagged animals during all-night follows. In those cases where radio tracking and/or all-night follows are not possible, trap mark techniques can be used, although they tend to greatly underestimate home range size. We recommend that data collected on nocturnal prosimian ranging behavior be analyzed using the minimum convex polygon method, quadrat analysis, and, perhaps, one other of the more mathematically sophisticated techniques popular in studies of non-primate mammals. Finally, we urge researchers to employ standardized methods of data collection and data analysis in future studies of range use in nocturnal prosimians. Without standardization of methods, quantitative comparisons of the findings from different studies are biologically meaningless and prevent cross-species comparisons of space use and its relation to sociality.
Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, JLHR; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective
Nocturnal enuresis in children is quite seldom due to psychological factors. Instead, it is caused by a hereditary delay in maturation of the somatic mechanisms (reduction of nocturnal urine production, relaxation of the bladder during sleeping hours, and a normal arousal to a full bladder) which prevent the child from wetting the bed. Doctors treating bedwetting children have often used an expectant attitude because nocturnal enuresis has been looked upon as self-limiting and innocent. According to recent research, this is not true. In children aged 7 years, more than 5% and in the adult population 0.5% report nocturnal enuresis. Thus, many enuretic children will remain bedwetters for life if left untreated. Furthermore, the child is ashamed and feels guilt because of his nocturnal enuresis which threatens to give a significant impairment of self-esteem at an age when an intact self-image is extremely important for an optimal development of the child's personality. Treatment should be given when the enuretic child wants to sleep dry.
Fabíola V. Adde
monitorização.OBJECTIVE: To advise pediatricians, neonatologists, pulmonologists, pediatric pulmonologists, and other professionals in the area on the main indications and characteristics of long-term home oxygen therapy in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE/PubMed database (1990 to 2011. Additionally, references from selected studies were included. As consistent scientific evidence does not exist for many aspects, some of the recommendations were based on clinical experience. DATA SYNTHESIS: Long-term home oxygen therapy has been a growing practice in pediatric patients and is indicated in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, cystic fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, interstitial lung diseases, and pulmonary hypertension, among others. The benefits are: decrease in hospitalizations, optimization of physical growth and neurological development, improvement of exercise tolerance and quality of sleep, and prevention of pulmonary hypertension/cor pulmonale. The levels of oxygen saturation indicative for oxygen therapy differ from those established for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and vary according to age and disease. Pulse oximetry is used to evaluate oxygen saturation; arterial blood gas is unnecessary. There are three available sources of oxygen: gas cylinders, liquid oxygen, and oxygen concentrators. The flows used are usually smaller, as are the number of hours/day needed when compared to the use in adults. Some diseases show improvement and oxygen therapy discontinuation is possible. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term home oxygen therapy is increasingly common in pediatrics and has many indications. There are relevant particularities when compared to its use in adults, regarding indications, directions for use, and monitoring.
Butler, J; Mulkerrin, E; O'Keeffe, S
Nocturnal leg cramps are common in older people. Such cramps are associated with many common diseases and medications. Physiological methods may be useful for preventing cramps in some people, but there have been no controlled trials of these approaches. Quinine is moderately effective in preventing nocturnal leg cramps. However, there are concerns about the risk/benefit ratio with this drug. In patients with severe symptoms, a trial of 4–6 weeks' treatment with quinine is probably still justified, but the efficacy of treatment should be monitored, for example using a sleep and cramp diary. PMID:12415081
Melles, R B; Katz, B
A high incidence of sudden unexplained nocturnal deaths has been reported among young Asian males. These deaths are known as Pokkuri in Japan, Bangungut in the Philippines and Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death in the United States. Post mortem analysis has demonstrated cardiac conduction defects in many of the victims. Careful review of the terminal events surrounding these deaths suggests that the victims suffered from night terrors. Night terrors are a sleep disorder characterized by vocalization, motor activity, a nonarousable state, and severe autonomic discharge. The proposed recognition of both night terrors and cardiac anomalies in these patients offers a pathophysiologic mechanism for their sudden death.
Full Text Available Nocturnal enuresis is a common disorder in childhood, but its pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Iatrogenic nocturnal enuresis has been described following treatment with several psychotropic medications. Herein, we describe a 6-year-old child who experienced nocturnal enuresis during treatment with the antihistamine cetirizine. Drug rechallenge was positive. Several neurotransmitters are implicated in the pathogenesis of nocturnal enuresis, including noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. Antihistamine treatment may provoke functional imbalance of these pathways resulting in incontinence.
Baboi, Loredana; Subtil, Fabien
Background Turbine-powered ventilators are not only designed for long-term ventilation at home but also for hospital use. It is important to verify their capabilities in delivering fraction of oxygen in air (FIO2) and tidal volume (VT). Methods We assessed the FIO2 accuracy and the VT delivery in four home care ventilators (HCV) on the bench. The four HCV were Astral 150, Elisée 150, Monnal T50 and Trilogy 200 HCV, which were connected to a lung model (ASL 5000). For assessing FIO2 accuracy, lung model was set to mimic an obstructive lung and HCV were set in volume controlled mode (VC). They supplied with air, 3 or 15 L/min oxygen and FIO2 was measured by using a ventilator tester (Citrex H4TM). For the VT accuracy, the lung model was set in a way to mimic three adult configurations (normal, obstructive, or restrictive respiratory disorder) and one pediatric configuration. Each HCV was set in VC. Two VT (300 and 500 mL) in adult lung configuration and one 50 mL VT in pediatric lung configuration, at two positive end expiratory pressures 5 and 10 cmH2O, were tested. VT accuracy was measured as volume error (the relative difference between set and measured VT). Statistical analysis was performed by suing one-factor ANOVA with a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. Results For Astral 150, Elisée 150, Monnal T50 and Trilogy 200, FIO2 averaged 99.2%, 93.7%, 86.3%, and 62.1%, respectively, at 15 L/min oxygen supplementation rate (P<0.001). Volume error was 0.5%±0%, −38%±0%, −9%±0%, −29%±0% and −36%±0% for pediatric lung condition (P<0.001). In adult lung configurations, Monnal T50 systematically over delivered VT and Trilogy 150 was sensitive to lung configuration when VT was set to 300 mL at either positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Conclusions HCV are different in terms of FIO2 efficiency and VT delivery. PMID:28149559
Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children (First Grade) in Assiut City. ... Statistically significant risk factors were deep sleep and a high educational level of the parents. Primary nocturnal enuresis was insignificantly associated with a positive family history, family size or birth rank. In primary nocturnal ...
Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Anan, Chanawat; Boonpang, Kamolwan; Thanawattano, Chusak; Ray Chaudhuri, K
Nocturnal hypokinesia/akinesia is one of the common night-time symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), negatively affecting quality of life of patients and caregivers. The recognition of this problem and treatment options are limited in clinical practice. To evaluate the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion, using a wearable sensor, in patients who are already on daytime continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion and still suffer from nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal parameters in 10 PD patients before and during nocturnal infusion were assessed over two nights at their homes, using a wearable sensor (trunk). Nocturnal parameters included number, velocity, acceleration, degree, and duration of rolling over, and number of times they got out of bed. Correlations with validated clinical rating scales were performed. Following nocturnal apomorphine infusion (34.8 ± 6.5 mg per night), there were significant improvements in the number of turns in bed (p = 0.027), turning velocity (p = 0.046), and the degree of turning (p = 0.028) in PD patients. Significant improvements of Modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (p = 0.005), the axial score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (p = 0.013), and Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp Scale (p = 0.014) were also observed. Our study was able to demonstrate quantitatively the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion in PD patients with nocturnal hypokinesia and demonstrated the feasibility of using wearable sensors to yield objective and quantifiable outcomes in a clinical trial setting. More studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy of this treatment in a large prospective cohort of PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...
Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang
Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.
Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...
Results have shown that Zingiber officinale, Valeriana officinalis, Alcea rosea, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum, Ribes uva-crispa, Cornus mas, Juglans regia, Vitis vinifera, Sinapis spp., Olea europaea, and Prunus cerasus are a number of important plants that are effective on nocturnal enuresis in traditional ...
Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H
of symptomatology. In two limbs, with a normal peripheral circulation, blood flow decreased by 8 +/- 7%. In five limbs with arterial insufficiency, but no rest pain, blood flow decreased by 16 +/- 8% and in eight limbs with ischaemic nocturnal rest pain blood flow was reduced by 32 +/- 12% during sleep...
In this thesis the transfer of infrared radiation (electromagnetic waves with a wavelength between 3.6 and 100 μm) through a cloudfree nocturnal boundary layer is studied. To simulate the transfer of infrared radiation an accurate narrow band model which simulates the absorption and
Fairbrother, Kimberly; Cartner, Ben; Alley, Jessica R; Curry, Chelsea D; Dickinson, David L; Morris, David M; Collier, Scott R
During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP) "dips" compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A), 1 pm (1P), and 7 pm (7P) in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep.
Klefbeck, B; Mattsson, E; Weinberg, J; Svanborg, E
Tetraplegic patients are particularly at risk for respiratory deficiencies during sleep. In a previous study, it was found that several patients exhibited significant oxygen desaturations during arm ergometry tests. Therefore, the issue of whether patients who desaturate during exercise would be especially at risk for having nocturnal respiratory problems was raised. Respiratory recordings in connection with arm ergometry tests and during sleep. Arm ergometry tests were performed in a hospital laboratory, and sleep recordings were performed in the patients' homes. Nine C5-C6 tetraplegic patients, aged 22 to 42 years with body mass index of 15.2 to 24.2 kg/m2. Oximetry during exercise and sleep and sleep recordings. During exercise, six patients desaturated 6% to 20%. Only one patient had signs of a significant nocturnal respiratory problem with an average of eight desaturations per hour of sleep and an obstructive respiration movement pattern. Two additional patients (with normal oximetry during exercise) showed occasional desaturation below 89% during rapid eye movement sleep. In this study, the majority of tetraplegic patients desaturated during submaximal arm exercise but not during sleep. The reason could be that the patients in this study were all lean and physically active, which is at variance with previously published sleep studies.
Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise
Full Text Available Nocturnal cooling of urban areas governs the evolution of thermal state and many thermal-driven environmental issues in cities, especially those suffer strong urban heat island (UHI effect. Advances in the fundamental understanding of the underlying physics of nighttime UHI involve disentangling complex contributing effects and remains an open challenge. In this study, we develop new numerical algorithms to characterize the thermodynamics of urban nocturnal cooling based on solving the energy balance equations for both the landscape surface and the overlying atmosphere. Further, a scaling law is proposed to relate the UHI intensity to a range of governing mechanisms, including the vertical and horizontal transport of heat in the surface layer, the urban-rural breeze, and the possible urban expansion. The accuracy of proposed methods is evaluated against in-situ urban measurements collected in cities with different geographic and climatic conditions. It is found that the vertical and horizontal contributors modulate the nocturnal UHI at distinct elevation in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice
Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.
de Lucas-Ramos, P; de Miguel-Díez, J; Santacruz-Siminiani, A; González-Moro, J M R; Buendía-García, M J; Izquierdo-Alonso, J L
Patients with the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) benefit from non-invasive ventilatory support. We assessed the long-term physiopathological response to 12-months of nocturnal ventilatory assistance at home with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask in patients with this disease. A series of 13 non-consecutive patients diagnosed of OHS (5 men and 8 women) with a mean (SD) age of 61.9 (8) years, underwent the following studies before (baseline) and after 12 months of non-invasive domiciliary mechanical ventilation: arterial blood gases, nocturnal digital pulse oximetry, spirometry, body plethysmography, maximum muscular respiratory pressures and ventilatory pattern with measurement of occlusion pressure (P0.1) before and after hypercapnia. An overnight cardiorespiratory polygraphy was done at baseline. After 12 months of non-invasive mechanical ventilation, there were significant (P invasive home mechanical ventilation is an effective approach for long-term treatment of OHS.
This music comprises three pairs of highly contrasted miniatures; I have separated each movement from its ‘companion’ in order to explore possible relationships between the different pairs (in spite of the stark contrasts between them) and to fracture the natural continuity of the music.\\ud \\ud The outer pieces are a sustained chorale, plaintive and largely undecorated. The second and fourth Nocturnes are a small tribute to Elliott Carter who had died while I was at work on this commission. W...
Full Text Available Introduction: Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem in the paediatric population. A number of reports indicate that there is a relationship between sleep-disordered breathing in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and nocturnal enuresis. Restoration of nasopharyngeal patency may eliminate nocturnal enuresis. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of nocturnal enuresis in children snoring due to nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy as well as to assess the effects of restored upper respiratory patency by means of adenectomy and tonsillectomy on the resolution of nocturnal enuresis in children. Material and methods: The study included 50 children with sleep-disordered breathing qualified for adenectomy, tonsillotomy or adenotonsillotomy (median age 7 years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children (median age 8 years. Children in the study group were assessed prior to surgical procedure as well as 3 and 6 months after surgery. The presence of sleep-disordered breathing and nocturnal enuresis was determined based on author’s questionnaire completed by parents. Results: The incidence of nocturnal enuresis in children with nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy was 18% (M:F 17%:19%; p > 0.05. Nocturnal enuresis was still reported in 6% of children 3 months after tonsillotomy. The disorder resolved in all girls and 97% of boys 6 months after procedure. Conclusions: Sleep-disordered breathing in children with nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy is associated with nocturnal enuresis. Restoration of nasopharyngeal patency in these patients eliminates nocturnal enuresis. Tonsillar hypertrophy causing obstructive breathing should be included in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis.
Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.
Elizabeth K. Perkin
Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.
Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.
Hallegraeff, Joannes; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees
Background: Up to 33% of the general population over 50 years of age are affected by nocturnal leg cramps. Currently there are no generally accepted clinical characteristics, which identify nocturnal leg cramps. This study aims to identify these clinical characteristics and to differentiate between
however, some studies reveal that majority of sufferers are not taken for medical consultation as a ... their children. Amongst these children, majority had severe nocturnal enuresis and a positive family history of enuresis. Conclusion: Treatment of primary nocturnal ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.
Müller, Florian; Eikenaar, Cas; Crysler, Zoe J; Taylor, Philip D; Schmaljohann, Heiko
Most migratory songbirds travel between their breeding areas and wintering grounds through a series of nocturnal flights. The timing of their departures defines the potential flight duration and thus the distance covered during a migratory night. Yet, migratory songbirds show substantial variation in their nocturnal departure timing. With this study, we aim to assess whether the respective challenges of the migration route, namely its distance and nature, help to explain this variation. At a stopover site, we caught Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) of two subspecies that differ in distance and nature of their onward migration route in spring, but not in autumn. We determined the start of their nocturnal migratory restlessness during short-term captivity, and radiotracked their nocturnal departure timing after release in both migration seasons. Northern Wheatears started their nocturnal migratory restlessness earlier when facing a long remaining migration distance and an extended sea barrier in spring. Individual departure directions generally affected the nocturnal departure timing with early departures being directed towards the respective migratory destination. In spring, this pattern was predominantly found in birds carrying relatively large fuel stores, but was absent in lean birds. At the same time, birds facing a short remaining migration distance and no extended sea barrier strongly reacted to relatively large fuel stores by an early start of nocturnal migratory behaviour (migratory restlessness and departure timing), whereas this reaction was not found in birds facing a long remaining migration distance and sea barrier. These results suggest that the basic diel schedule of birds' migratory activity is adapted to the onward migration route. Further, they suggest that birds adjust their behavioural response, that is start of nocturnal migratory behaviour, to fuel stores in relation to their impending migratory challenges. This is a substantial step in
de Heij, Maaike E.; van der Graaf, Alexandra J.; Hafner, Dennis; Tinbergen, Joost M.
To study the energetic costs of incubation in relation to clutch size, clutch sizes were manipulated and the metabolic rate of female great tits, Parus major (Linnaeus), during nocturnal incubation (MRinc) was measured using mobile oxygen analysers. Individuals were measured on consecutive nights
Full Text Available Modiano affirme que chaque roman marque un pas en avant dans la réalisation de son oeuvre. « J’ai l’impression qu’à chaque livre je me suis débarrassé d’un truc pour essayer d’accéder à d'autres choses », explique-t-il dans un entretien avec Laurence Liban. Qu’en est-il donc pour Accident nocturne ?Modiano affirme que chaque roman marque un pas en avant dans la réalisation de son oeuvre. « J’ai l’impression qu’à chaque livre je me suis débarrassé d’un truc pour essayer d’accéder à autre chose », explique-t-il dans un entretien avec Laurence Liban. Qu’en est-il donc pour Accident nocturne ?
Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.
Full Text Available Hypercalciuria may present with dysuria, urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis (NE. To determine the frequency of hypercalciuria in NE patients and normally continent children, we studied 122 consecutive pre- school children with NE referred to our nephrology clinic during two years, from September 2007 to August 2009. We measured the 24- hour urinary calcium. Furthermore, we compared the response to nasal desmopressin in hypercalciuric and normocalciuric patients. Hypercalciuria was found in 26 (21.3 % of the NE patients as compared with five (4.5% of 110 continent children [(P 0.05. The response to desmopressin above 90% occurred within one month of therapy without a significant change in the levels of hypercalciuria. We conclude that these results suggest that hypercalciuria has a significant association with NE and does not interfere with the desmopressin therapy.
Denys, Marie-Astrid; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Petrovic, Mirko; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel
To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output. The median age (n = 95) was 74 years (69-79), 87% were women and 73% had nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms (nocturnal urinary incontinence or nocturia ≥2). Participants with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms had a significantly higher nocturnal urine output (809 mL vs 650 mL; P = 0.001) and no significant difference in maximum voided volume (350 mL vs 437 mL; P = 0.079) compared with participants without nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants (nocturnal polyuria index >33% [n = 56], nocturnal polyuria index >40% [n = 42], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index >1.87 [n = 51]) showed higher night-time diuresis rates, free water and sodium clearance compared with during the daytime. Controls (nocturnal polyuria index ≤33% [n = 26], nocturnal polyuria index ≤40% [n = 40], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index ≤1.87 [n = 44]) had no circadian rhythm in their diuresis rate or sodium clearance, but more nocturnal free water clearance compared with during the daytime. The majority of older adults with urinary incontinence present nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. An increased nocturnal sodium diuresis seems to be the only mechanism differentiating patients with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms from controls. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.
Wu, Xu; Liu, Zilong; Chang, Su Chi; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Wenjing; Jiang, Hong; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun
Nocturnal heart block often occurs in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is more likely to be undiagnosed in heart block patients who are ignorant of the symptoms of sleep disorder. Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is a highly reliable way to discover the risk factors of OSA, whereas the validity in sleep-related heart block patients is uncertain. We performed an observational study to address these issues and confirmed the potential protective effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Patients who were previously diagnosed with nocturnal heart block with R-R pauses exceeding 2 seconds were retrospective screened from the ECG centre of Zhongshan hospital. These recruited participants completed Berlin Questionnaire and underwent polysomnography synchronously with 24-hour Holter monitoring. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to confirm the association between nocturnal arrhythmia and OSA, as well as to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the BQ. Subsequently, subjects diagnosed with OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index > 5) underwent 3 consecutive days of CPAP therapy. On the third day, patients repeated 24-hour Holter monitoring within the institution of CPAP. The symptoms of disruptive snoring and hypersomnolence in 72 enrolled patients were more related to the occurrence of nocturnal heart block (r = 0.306, 0.226, respectively, p = 0.015, 0.019) than syncope (r = 0.134, p = 0.282) and palpitations (r = 0.106, p = 0.119), which were prominent trait of our study population. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the BQ at a cut-off point of 5 of AHI for detecting OSA in heart block patients was 81.0 %, 44.4 %, 91.07 % and 25 %. Nocturnal heart block does not appear to occur exclusively in severe sleep apnoea. The frequent occurrence of arrhythmias in prominent oxygen desaturation supports the correlation between them. CPAP therapy resulted in significant decrease in the average number of
Fronczek, R.; Raymann, R.J.; Overeem, S.; Romeijn, N.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Lammers, G.J.; Someren, E.J.W. van
OBJECTIVE: Besides excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep is a major complaint of patients with narcolepsy. Previously, alterations in skin temperature regulation in narcoleptic patients have been shown to be related to increased sleepiness. This study tests the hypothesis that
Fronczek, R.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Overeem, S.; Romeijn, N.; van Dijk, J. G.; Lammers, G.J.; van Someren, E.J.W.
Objective: Besides excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep is a major complaint of patients with narcolepsy. Previously, alterations in skin temperature regulation in narcoleptic patients have been shown to be related to increased sleepiness. This study tests the hypothesis that
Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Luonnotar. Chevauchee nocturne et lever du soleil. 4 Legendes. Orchestre Philharmonique Royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi. Virgin Classics 545 213-2 (CD:167F). 1996. TT: 1h 13'22"
Jocelyn Y Cheng
Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE. Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE.
Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Sato, Keiko; Okura, Ayako; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kario, Kazuomi
The authors sought to determine the association between the blunted morning blood pressure (BP) surge and nocturnal BP dipping of the "riser" pattern in 501 patients with hypertension enrolled in the ACHIEVE-ONE (Ambulatory Blood Pressure Control and Home Blood Pressure [Morning and Evening] Lowering by the N-Channel Blocker Cilnidipine) trial. The patients' sleep-trough morning BP surge and prewaking surge were calculated and then classified according to their nocturnal systolic BP reduction pattern as extreme dippers, dippers, nondippers, and risers. The prevalence of the riser pattern was significantly higher in both the lowest sleep-trough morning BP surge decile and the prewaking surge decile (blunted surge group) compared with the remaining deciles (56.0% vs 10.4% [Pmorning BP surge (odds ratio, 73.3; Pmorning BP surges may account for the cardiovascular risk previously reported in such patients. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Çulha, Gülnaz; Duran, Nizami
Aim: The possible association between certain childhood infections and the propensity to develop nocturnal enuresis may include intestinal helminth infections. Objective: To explore the association between Enterobius vermicularis and nocturnal enuresis among children 4 to 7 years of age in a Turkish orphanage. Methods: Eighty children (45 boy, 35 girl, age range 4-7 years) participated in this study. The association between Enterobius vermicularis and enuressis was investigated after mebendaz...
Hut, Roelof A.; Pilorz, Violetta; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge; Yamazaki, Shin
Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice that work for food we show that reduced food intake alone shifts the activity phase from the night into the day and eventually causes nocturnal torpor (natural hypothermia). Release into continuous...
Hasan Mohamed Aljefri
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.
Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, progressive, and life-threatening hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis and a prothrombotic state. Patients with PNH might have slightly increased risk of infections due to complement-associated defects subsequent to CD59 deficiency. Here, we report a rare case of a 65-year-old male patient with necrotic ulcers on both legs, where the recognition of pancytopenia and microthrombi led to the diagnosis of PNH based on FLAER (FLuorescent AERolysin flow cytometric analysis. He was subsequently started on eculizumab therapy, with starting and maintenance doses set as per drug labelling. Progression of the patient’s leg ulcers during follow-up, with fulminant tissue destruction, purulent discharge, and necrotic patches, led to a later diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia infection. Courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics, surgical debridement, and superficial skin grafting were applied with successful effect during ongoing eculizumab therapy. This case highlights the point that it is important to maintain treatment of underlying disorders such as PNH in the presence of life-threatening infections like NF.
Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Pitta, Fabio
Patients with hypoxemia and chronic respiratory failure may need to use oxygen therapy to correct hypoxemia and to use ventilatory support to augment alveolar ventilation, reverse abnormalities in blood gases (in particular hypercapnia) and reduce the work of breathing. Areas covered: This narrative review provides an overview on the use of oxygen therapy devices or portable ventilators for improved physical activity in daily life (PADL) as well as discusses the issue of lower mobility in daily life among stable patients with chronic respiratory disease who present indication for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) or home-based noninvasive ventilation (NIV). A literature review of these concepts was performed by using all related search terms. Expert commentary: Technological advances led to the development of light and small oxygen therapy devices and portable ventilators which aim to facilitate patients' mobility and ambulation. However, the day-by-day dependence of a device may reduce mobility and partially impair patients' PADL. Nocturnal NIV implementation in hypercapnic patients seems promising to improve PADL. The magnitude of their equipment-related physical inactivity is underexplored up to this moment and more long-term randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis examining the effects of ambulatory oxygen and NIV on PADL are required.
Abdel Kafi, S
In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.
Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is an acquired chronic disorder characterized by a triad of clinical features - hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, and thrombosis. Not many reports of renal involvement in PNH are available in literature. We present a case series of PNH with renal involvement. We present the data of PNH patients who attended to Departments of General Medicine and Nephrology at a government-run tertiary care institute in South India. The diagnosis of PNH in these patients during initial phase, between 1998 and 2004 was based on sucrose lysis and Ham's test. After 2004, the diagnosis was based on flow cytometry to detect CD59 (membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis, a glycoprotein, and CD55 (decay accelerating factor in regulation of complement action. The patient data were collected from 1998 to 2014. There were 14 patients of PNH in this period. The mean age was 37 years and the range was 16–68 years. There were eight females. Acute kidney injury (AKI was noted in six patients. Dialysis was performed in four of them. The mean serum creatinine and urea at the initiation of dialysis were 5.4 ± 0.6 and 64.1 ± 6.1 mg/dl, respectively. The median number of hemodialysis sessions done was four. Renal biopsy was done in four patients. In three patients, the urinalysis and serum chemistry were suggestive of Fanconi syndrome. In our patients, three renal manifestations of PNH were identified. They were AKI, renal vessel thrombosis, and Fanconi syndrome. Chronic renal failure was not identified.
Nakamura, Masaki; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Nishida, Shingo; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi
Many patients with panic disorder (PD) experience nocturnal panic attacks. We investigated the differences in demographic variables and symptom characteristics as well as response to treatment among patients with primary day panic (DP), primary nocturnal panic (NP), and the coexistence of DP and NP (DP/NP), and discuss whether NP is a distinct disease category. One hundred one consecutive untreated patients with PD were enrolled and subsequently divided into the NP, DP, and DP/NP groups. The presence of 13 panic attack symptom items as well as scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were compared among the groups. After 3 months of regular treatment, PDSS scores were assessed again to evaluate treatment response. Nocturnal panic attacks of the participants were mostly reported to occur in the first tertile of nocturnal sleep. The number of males, onset age, and presence of choking sensation were significantly higher, and the PDSS score was significantly lower in the NP group compared with the other groups. The DP/NP group showed the highest PDSS score, and participants in this group were prescribed the highest doses of medication among all groups. Only diagnostic sub-category was significantly associated with treatment response. The total score for PDSS and PSQI correlated significantly only in the NP group. DP/NP could be a severe form of PD, while primary NP could be a relatively mild subcategory that may partially share common pathophysiology with adult type night terror.
Miura, Akira; Myouken, Shizuka; Yamada, Masako; Fujihara, Chizuko; Miura, Kouhei; Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kouhei; Endo, Masako Y; Koga, Shunsaku; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki
We determined effect of aerobic exercise in early evening on the quality, quantity, and haemodynamic response of subsequent nocturnal sleep in the home. Ten healthy young participants performed two protocols, with/without cycle ergometer exercise (60 min at 50% heart rate reserve) in early evening. Blood pressure (BP) (Holter) and physical activity (accelerometer) were measured from late afternoon of day 1 until noon of next day (day 2). Additionally, at bedtime participants were equipped with a small device worn on the wrist that identified sleep stage. There were no substantial differences in objective indices of sleep between two protocols (total sleep time: 438 ± 76 vs. 457 ± 64 min; P > 0.10). BP during nocturnal sleep tended to be lowered by prior exercise (MAP: 71 ± 5 vs. 68 ± 6 mmHg; P = 0.08). Aerobic exercise in early evening apparently has no acute effect on sleep per se, but seems to have a residual effect on haemodynamics, i.e. prolongation of post-exercise hypotension.
Mustafa, G.; Khan, P.A.; Iqbal, I.
At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)
Vivanco, Pablo; López-Espinoza, Antonio; Madariaga, Ana Maria; Rol, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio
Octodon degus, a mainly diurnal rodent, characterized by its ability to shift to a nocturnal locomotor pattern under laboratory conditions, was studied to determine whether restricted food access during the scotophase could induce nocturnalism. To address this question, wheel running activity, feeding, and body temperature rhythms were analyzed for diurnal degus housed with a wheel and subjected to either long (12 h) or short (2 h) food availability periods, in the latter case with random or scheduled food access times. The results show that allowing nocturnal feeding for 2 h, but not 12 h, can shift a previous diurnal phase preference for wheel running activity and body temperature to the scotophase, with random feeding being more effective than scheduled food availability. However, this behavioral inversion proved to be unstable, as the degus returned to the diurnal phase within only a few days after the restricted feeding was discontinued. In addition, the negative masking effect induced by light, which is characteristic of the degus' nocturnal chronotype, was not observed when the animals were forced to feed at night. Thus, neither long, short, random, nor scheduled food-availability during the scotophase was able to induce all the characteristics of the nocturnal chronotype in Octodon degus.
Hallegraeff, Joannes; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees
Up to 33% of the general population over 50 years of age are affected by nocturnal leg cramps. Currently there are no generally accepted clinical characteristics, which identify nocturnal leg cramps. This study aims to identify these clinical characteristics and to differentiate between them and the characteristics of restless leg syndrome and periodic limb disorder. A systematic literature study was executed from December 2015 to May 2016. This study comprised of a systematic literature review of randomized clinical trials, observational studies on nocturnal and rest cramps of legs and other muscles, and other systematic and narrative reviews. Two researchers independently extracted literature data and analyzed this using a standardized reviewing protocol. Modified versions of the Cochrane Collaboration tools assessed the risk of bias. A Delphi study was conducted to assess agreement on the characteristics of nocturnal leg cramps. After systematic and manual searches, eight randomized trials and ten observational studies were included. On the basis of these we identified seven diagnostic characteristics of nocturnal leg cramps: intense pain, period of duration from seconds to maximum 10 minutes, location in calf or foot, location seldom in thigh or hamstrings, persistent subsequent pain, sleep disruption and distress. The seven above characteristics will enhance recognition of the condition, and help clinicians make a clear distinction between NLC and other sleep-related musculoskeletal disorder among older adults.
form of sleep -disordered breathing in SCI is nocturnal hypoventilation (NH) due to respiratory muscle paralysis and/or reduced ventilatory drive...DATES COVERED 2011 – 29 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0826 Home-Based Diagnosis and Management of Sleep ...with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly have sleep -disordered breathing due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and/or nocturnal hypoventilation (NH) due to
Beck, Christian W.
Home Education seems to be a successful way to educate. Academic results and socialization processes in home education are promising. Already home education is global, home educators everywhere educate their children themselves without schools. They develop new forms of local and international co-operation. Is home education an impulse to a renewing of modern education? Is home education globalization otherwise?
Full Text Available The body circardian rhythm affects blood pressure variability at day and night, therefore blood pressure at day and night might be different. Nocturnal hypertension is defined as increase of blood pressure >120/70mmHg at night, which is caused by disturbed circadian rhythm, and associated with higher cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events also mortality in hypertensive patients. Nocturnal hypertension and declining blood pressure pattern, can only be detected by continuous examination for 24 hours, also known as ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM. Chronotherapy, has become a strategy for managing the hypertensive nocturnal patients, by taking hypertensive medication at night to obtain normal blood pressure decrease in accordance with the normal circadian rhythm and, improving blood pressure control.
Roelof A Hut
Full Text Available Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice that work for food we show that reduced food intake alone shifts the activity phase from the night into the day and eventually causes nocturnal torpor (natural hypothermia. Release into continuous darkness with ad libitum food, elicits immediate reversal of activity to the previous nocturnal phase, indicating that the classical circadian pacemaker maintained its phase to the light-dark cycle. This flexibility in behavioral timing would allow mice to exploit the diurnal temporal niche while minimizing energy expenditure under poor feeding conditions in nature. This study reveals an intimate link between metabolism and mammalian circadian organization.
Zhao, Huabin; Rossiter, Stephen J; Teeling, Emma C; Li, Chanjuan; Cotton, James A; Zhang, Shuyi
Nonfunctional visual genes are usually associated with species that inhabit poor light environments (aquatic/subterranean/nocturnal), and these genes are believed to have lost function through relaxed selection acting on the visual system. Indeed, the visual system is so adaptive that the reconstruction of intact ancestral opsin genes has been used to reject nocturnality in ancestral primates. To test these assertions, we examined the functionality of the short and medium- to long-wavelength opsin genes in a group of mammals that are supremely adapted to a nocturnal niche: the bats. We sequenced the visual cone opsin genes in 33 species of bat with diverse sensory ecologies and reconstructed their evolutionary history spanning 65 million years. We found that, whereas the long-wave opsin gene was conserved in all species, the short-wave opsin gene has undergone dramatic divergence among lineages. The occurrence of gene defects in the short-wave opsin gene leading to loss of function was found to directly coincide with the origin of high-duty-cycle echolocation and changes in roosting ecology in some lineages. Our findings indicate that both opsin genes have been under purifying selection in the majority bats despite a long history of nocturnality. However, when spectacular losses do occur, these result from an evolutionary sensory modality tradeoff, most likely driven by subtle shifts in ecological specialization rather than a nocturnal lifestyle. Our results suggest that UV color vision plays a considerably more important role in nocturnal mammalian sensory ecology than previously appreciated and highlight the caveat of inferring light environments from visual opsins and vice versa.
Refinetti, R; Susalka, S J
We recorded body temperature and locomotor activity of Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) with free access to a heat source under a 14:10 light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. Under the light-dark cycle, the lizards selected higher temperatures during the light phase, when locomotor activity was less intense. Rhythmicity in temperature selection was transiently disrupted but later resumed when the animals were placed in constant darkness. These results demonstrate the existence of a circadian rhythm of temperature selection in nocturnal ectotherms and extend previous findings of a temporal mismatch between the rhythms of locomotor activity and temperature selection in nocturnal rodents.
... best for you. Oxygen is usually delivered through nasal prongs (an oxygen cannula) or a face mask. Oxygen equipment can attach to other medical equipment such as CPAP machines and ventilators. Oxygen therapy can help you ...
Moraga, Fernando A; Jiménez, Daniel; Richalet, Jean Paul; Vargas, Manuel; Osorio, Jorge
Our objective was to determine the nocturnal ventilatory pattern and characterize the effect of oxygen enrichment on nocturnal ventilatory pattern and sleep quality in miners exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia at 4200m. A total of 16 acclimatized miners were studied. Nocturnal ventilatory pattern (plethysmographic inductance), arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate (pulse oximetry) were performed in 9/16 subjects. Sleep quality at high altitude was assessed by self-questionnaires in 16/16 subjects. All measurements were performed during at least 7h of sleep. Subjects were studied while sleeping at high altitude without (control, C) and with oxygen supplementation (FiO2=0.25, treated, T). Periodic breathing (%) C: 25±18 vs T: 6.6±5.6 (pbreathing with apneas was present in miners exposed to high altitude for 1 to 4 years and was reduced by treatment with supplementary oxygen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Lee, Kang-Yun; Liu, Wen-Te; Lin, Shu-Min; Lin, Ting-Yu; Ni, Yung-Lun; Wang, Chao-Yung; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Han-Pin
Exercise limitation is an important issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it often co-exists with obstructive sleep apnoea (overlap syndrome). This study examined the effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on walking capacity in COPD patients with or without obstructive sleep apnoea. Forty-four stable moderate-to-severe COPD patients were recruited and completed this study. They all underwent polysomnography, CPAP titration, accommodation, and treatment with adequate pressure. The incremental shuttle walking test was used to measure walking capacity at baseline and after two nights of CPAP treatment. Urinary catecholamine and heart rate variability were measured before and after CPAP treatment. After two nights of CPAP treatment, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and oxygen desaturation index significantly improved in both overlap syndrome and COPD patients, however these changes were significantly greater in the overlap syndrome than in the COPD group. Sleep architecture and autonomic dysfunction significantly improved in the overlap syndrome group but not in the COPD group. CPAP treatment was associated with an increased walking capacity from baseline from 226.4 ± 95.3 m to 288.6 ± 94.6 m (P exercise heart rate, oxygenation, and Borg scale in the overlap syndrome group. An improvement in the apnoea-hypopnoea index was an independent factor associated with the increase in walking distance (r = 0.564). Nocturnal CPAP may improve walking capacity in COPD patients with overlap syndrome. NCT00914264.
F.G. Scholz; S.J. Bucci; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; F. Miralles-Wilhelm
Under certain environmental conditions, nocturnal transpiration can be relatively high in temperate and tropical woody species. In nutrient-poor systems such as the Brazilian Cerrado, nocturnal transpiration may enhance delivery of nutrients to roots. We compared nocturnal transpiration of three dominant Cerrado tree species growing in unfertilized plots and plots to...
Legault, Sylvie; Lanfranchi, Paola; Montplaisir, Jacques; Nielsen, Tore; Dore, Annie; Khairy, Paul; Marcotte, François; Mercier, Lise-Andrée
Sleep disordered breathing is frequently observed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of heart disease, acute and chronic hypoxia have been shown to promote sleep-related periodic breathing with central apnea characterized by a repetitive reduction or lack of respiratory activity. Cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) is associated with chronic hypoxia, regardless of whether an increase in pulmonary artery pressures coexists. Sleep aggravated hypoxia has been observed in many such patients, but it remains to be determined whether sleep disordered breathing is contributory. We, therefore, sought to assess sleep-related breathing pattern in patients with CCHD. Adults with CCHD, resting arterial oxygen saturation 40% were prospectively enrolled in a cross-sectional study. To assess sleep and respiratory indices, subjects underwent a standardized clinical appraisal that included arterial blood gas analysis and a comprehensive sleep study with an ambulatory device. An apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >or=5/h was considered to indicate sleep apnea. Ten adults with CCHD, aged 38+/-11 years, completed the study. Seven patients had elevated pulmonary artery pressures, with a mean systolic pressure of 86.3+/-18.1 mm Hg. All patients demonstrated normal sleep parameters. Oxygen saturation further declined in 5 patients during sleep. However, no associated alteration in respiratory parameters was observed and no significant arrhythmia. The mean AHI was 1.1+/-1.0/h. No subject met the pre-defined criterion for sleep apnea. Although further oxygen desaturation may be observed during sleep in patients with CCHD, it occurs in the absence of sleep disordered breathing.
The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mahrt, Larry
Observations of slope flows in a coastal valley are analyzed. The diurnal variation of upslope and downslope flows depends on season in a systematic way which appears to be related to the high latitude of the observational site and the presence of a nearby layer of marine air. Summer nocturnal flow...
Hut, Roelof A.; Pilorz, Violetta; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge; Yamazaki, Shin
Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice
Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Farnsworth, A.; Aelterman, B.; Alves, J.A.; Azijn, K.; Bernstein, G.; Branco, S.; Desmet, P.; Dokter, A.M.; Horton, K.; Kelling, S.; Kelly, J.F.; Leijnse, H.; Rong, J.; Sheldon, D.; Van den Broeck, W.; Van Den Meersche, J.K.; Van Doren, B.M.; van Gasteren, H.
Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals’
... however, they still consumed more feed in the 8-h dark period than birds that had always been given 16 h illumination. Cobb and Ross genotypes responded similarly to all lighting treatments. Keywords: Photoperiod, broiler growth, nocturnal feeding. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (3) 2008: pp. 159-165 ...
Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email: email@example.com, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.
We examined the quality and efficiency of sleep as well as changes in lung function in nocturnal asthmatics in a double- blind, randomised, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Once-daily, sustained-release, evening-administered theophylline was compared with placebo while concurrent anti-asthma medication (inhaled ...
Herzog, Michael; Schieb, Eva; Bremert, Thomas; Herzog, Beatrice; Hosemann, Werner; Kaftan, Holger; Kühnel, Thomas
Despite several ways of investigation, such as clinical examination, drug-induced sleep endoscopy and pressure measurement of the upper airway, it is still difficult to locate the site of snoring exactly. Frequency analysis of snoring sounds is described as a promising diagnostic tool. The aim of the study was to examine simulated snoring under conditions awake, record the produced snoring sounds and compare those sounds with nocturnal snoring. A total of 50 snoring male patients were examined clinically by flexible nasal endoscopy and simulated snoring under conditions awake, and the simulated snoring sounds were recorded. Additionally, nocturnal snoring sounds were recorded during nighttime polysomnography. Snoring events were analyzed by fast-fourier-transformation and the intensity peaks 1-5 were evaluated. Rhythmic and non-rhythmic snoring events were distinguished depending on present obstructive apneas. Clinical and polysomnographical data were correlated with the results of the frequency analysis of the snoring sounds. Simulated snoring sounds revealed a low frequency of 200 Hz in intensity peaks 1 and 2 with an increase up to 3,000 Hz in peaks 3-5. Similar frequency patterns were detected in rhythmic nocturnal snoring. Non-rhythmic snoring events revealed frequency patterns between 2,000 and 3,000 Hz in all five intensity peaks. Simulated snoring resembles rhythmic nocturnal snoring with low-frequency intensity peaks, whereas non-rhythmic snoring revealed high frequencies. The examination during simulated snoring and frequency analysis of snoring sounds might contribute in locating the pathogenesis of snoring.
Isacsson, G; Barregård, L; Seldén, A; Bodin, L
The mercury (Hg) release from dental amalgam fillings increases by mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of nocturnal bruxism on Hg exposure from dental amalgams and to evaluate the effect of an occlusal appliance. 88 female patients from an orofacial pain clinic with a complete maxillary and mandibular dentition, a normal frontal vertical overbite with cuspid guidance, and at least 4 occlusal amalgam fillings in contact with antagonists in intercuspidal position, were examined with the Bruxcore bruxism monitoring device to measure the level of on-going nocturnal bruxism. Based on the degree of abrasion recorded, the subjects were divided into a group defined as bruxists, (n = 29), another group defined as non-bruxists, (n = 32), serving as controls, the intermediate group being discarded. The Hg exposure was assessed from the Hg concentration in plasma and urine, corrected for the creatinine content. In a regression model with bruxism as the only explanatory variable, no significant effect of bruxism was found, but when the number of amalgam fillings, chewing gum use, and other background variables were taken into account, there was a limited impact of bruxism on Hg in plasma. The nocturnal use of an occlusal appliance did not, however, significantly change the Hg levels. This study indicates that mechanical wear on amalgams from nocturnal bruxism may increase the Hg uptake, but the magnitude of this effect seems to be less than from the use of chewing gum.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal sleeping problems and its associated factors among university students in mainly low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age, 20.8; SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 10.4% reported severe or extreme nocturnal sleeping problems (male, 10.2%; female, 10.5%) in the past month. Noctural sleeping problems differed by country, from 32.9% in Indonesia to 3.0 % in Thailand among Asian countries, from 13.7% in Mauritius to 7.5% in South Africa, and from 11.8% in Jamaica to 6.1% in Columbia in the Americas. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, coming from a poor family background, staying off campus (on their own or with parents or guardians), stress (history of child sexual abuse), poor mental health (depression and PTSD symptoms), health risk behaviour (tobacco use, heavy internet use, gambling, skipping breakfast and having sustained an injury), lack of social support and poor academic performance were associated with nocturnal sleeping problems. A significant prevalence of past-month nocturnal sleeping problems was found. Potential factors associated with the risk of reporting sleeping complaints were identified, which may assist in prevention strategies to promote a better quality of sleep.
The small mammal community in Acacia savanna consists of three omnivorous nocturnal rodent species, Mastomys natalensis, Saccostomus campestris and Aethomys chrysophilus, which eat varying proportions of seed in their diet. From a seed removal experiment, it was found that rodents preferentially selected Acacia ...
Fatima Dumas Cintra
Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart® system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001. After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample.
Thomas, Robert Joseph; Tamisier, Renaud; Boucher, Judith; Kotlar, Yana; Vigneault, Kevin; Weiss, J Woodrow; Gilmartin, Geoffrey
To assess the effect of 2 weeks of nocturnal hypoxia exposure using simulated altitude on attention and working memory in healthy adult humans. Prospective experimental physiological assessment. General Clinical Research Center. Eleven healthy, nonsmoking, subjects (7 men, 4 women). The subjects had a mean age of 27 +/- 1.5 years and body mass index of 23 +/- 0.9 kg/m2. Subjects were exposed to 9 hours of continuous hypoxia from 2200 to 0700 hours in an altitude tent. Acclimatization was accomplished by graded increases in "altitude" over 3 nights (7700, 10,000 and 13,000 feet), followed by 13,000 feet for 13 consecutive days (FIO2 0.13). Polysomnography that included airflow measurements with a nasal cannula were done at baseline and during 3 time points across the protocol (nights 3, 7, and 14). Attention (10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Task) and working memory (10-minute verbal 2-back) were assessed at baseline and on day 4, 8, 9, and 15. Nocturnal hypoxia was documented using endpoints of minimum oxygen saturation, oxygen desaturation index, and percentage of total sleep time under 90% and 80%. Total sleep time was reduced, stage 1 sleep was increased, and both obstructive and nonobstructive respiratory events were induced by altitude exposure. There was no difference in subjective mood, attention, or working memory. Two weeks of nocturnal continuous hypoxia in an altitude tent did not induce subjective sleepiness or impair objective vigilance and working memory. Caution is recommended in the extrapolation to humans the effects of hypoxia in animal models.
Rodrigues, Pedro A P; Oliveira, Paulo S
The arboreal ant Odontomachus hastatus nests among roots of epiphytic bromeliads in the sandy forest at Cardoso Island (Brazil). Crepuscular and nocturnal foragers travel up to 8m to search for arthropod prey in the canopy, where silhouettes of leaves and branches potentially provide directional information. We investigated the relevance of visual cues (canopy, horizon patterns) during navigation in O. hastatus. Laboratory experiments using a captive ant colony and a round foraging arena revealed that an artificial canopy pattern above the ants and horizon visual marks are effective orientation cues for homing O. hastatus. On the other hand, foragers that were only given a tridimensional landmark (cylinder) or chemical marks were unable to home correctly. Navigation by visual cues in O. hastatus is in accordance with other diurnal arboreal ants. Nocturnal luminosity (moon, stars) is apparently sufficient to produce contrasting silhouettes from the canopy and surrounding vegetation, thus providing orientation cues. Contrary to the plain floor of the round arena, chemical cues may be important for marking bifurcated arboreal routes. This experimental demonstration of the use of visual cues by a predominantly nocturnal arboreal ant provides important information for comparative studies on the evolution of spatial orientation behavior in ants. "This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Xiaona; Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Yantao; Wang, Huishan; Liu, Xicheng; Liu, Minna; Xu, Haiqing; Wu, Hong; Wang, Nianrong; Zhang, Fenghua; Liu, Wenlong; Tang, Jianbo; Li, Honghui; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Liangfen
To understand the infantile nocturnal sleep-wake pattern developmental trajectory with Actiwatch, which would benefit the clinical assessment of infantile sleep. This study was a longitudinal study conducted between 7 Oct, 2009-30 Oct, 2011 in 10 hospitals of 9 cities of China ( Beijing, Xi'an, Qingdao, Wuhan, Changsha, Chongqing, Huzhou, Xiamen and Liuzhou). Actiwatch was used to track the sleep-wake pattern development trajectory of healthy infants in the first year of life in the home setting. Participating infants were followed up at 10th day and 28th day during the first month, and then monthly from the second to the sixth month after birth, and then at ninth and twelve months of age respectively. Meanwhile, infantile sleep was observed continuously for about 60 hours at each visit. According to the characteristics of repeated measurement data of this study, two-level random effect model was adopted to analyze the trend of infantile nocturnal sleep-wake parameters changing with age, and the gender difference. A total of 473 healthy infants were included in this study, among whom 246 (52.0%) were boys, and 227 (48.0%) were girls; 355 (75.1%) infants completed the whole year follow-up survey. With infants' age increasing, the latency of infants' nighttime sleep onset decreased from 66.8 minutes on 10th day to 15.5-18.7 minutes at 6-12 months of age. The number of night wakes also decreased with age, while uninterrupted sleep periods lengthened with age. On the 10th day, there were 3.0 times of nightwaking on average, and the longest continuous sleeping interval lasted for 227.6 minutes on average. At 12-month of age, infants could sleep continuously for 350.9 minutes at most on average, while the number of nightwaking decreased to 1.6 times per night on average. Generally, nighttime sleep efficiency increased from 66.3% on the 10th day to 86.3% at 12-month of age. The differences of sleep-wake patterns between boys and girls presented as boys' nocturnal longest
Cheek, Rita E; Shaver, Joan L; Lentz, Martha J
Relationships between common lifestyle practices important to sleep hygiene (e.g., smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, ingesting caffeine, exercising, bed times, getting-up times) and nocturnal sleep have not been documented for women with insomnia in their home environments. This community-based sample of 121 women, ages 40 to 55 years, included 92 women who had experienced insomnia for at least 3 months and 29 women with good-quality sleep. Women recorded lifestyle practices and sleep perceptions (time to fall asleep, awakenings during sleep, feeling rested after sleeping, and overall sleep quality) in diaries while undergoing 6 nights of somnographic sleep monitoring at home. Compared to women with good-quality sleep, women with insomnia reported greater night-to-night variation in perceived sleep variables, poorer overall sleep quality (M = 2.8, SD = 0.7 vs. M = 1.9, SD = 0.5, P sleep variables were low, ranging from 0 to 0.20. An aggregated sleep hygiene practice score was not associated with either perceived or somnographic sleep variables. Regression analysis using dummy variables showed that combinations of alcohol, caffeine, exercise, smoking, and history of physical disease explained 9% to 19% of variance in perceived or somnographic sleep variables. Lifestyle practices, and combinations thereof, do warrant consideration when assessing or treating insomnia, but these data fail to support a dominant relationship between lifestyle practices and either perceived or somnographic sleep variables.
Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael
The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....
Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren
Hypothesis / aims of studyAim of this study was to elucidate the impact of sleep on the quantity and quality of the nocturnal urine production in healthy individuals.Our hypothesis was that sleep deprivation is related to excess nocturnal urine production.Study design, materials and methods...... sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... deprivation. The circadian rhythm of AVP, PGE2 and MEL was evaluated at baseline and during sleep deprivation.ResultsNo significant differences were found in the urinary production at daytime between the two experimental 24-h periods. Males excreted significantly higher amounts of urine on a 24-h basis...
Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke
Variation in daily activity patterns facilitates temporal partitioning of habitat and resources among species. Knowledge of temporal niche partitioning in paleobiological systems has been limited by the difficulty of obtaining reliable information about activity patterns from fossils. On the basis of an analysis of scleral ring and orbit morphology in 33 archosaurs, including dinosaurs and pterosaurs, we show that the eyes of Mesozoic archosaurs were adapted to all major types of diel activity (that is, nocturnal, diurnal, and cathemeral) and provide concrete evidence of temporal niche partitioning in the Mesozoic. Similar to extant amniotes, flyers were predominantly diurnal; terrestrial predators, at least partially, nocturnal; and large herbivores, cathemeral. These similarities suggest that ecology drives the evolution of diel activity patterns.
Maria Lindelia Rincón Hernández
Full Text Available This research characterizes the nocturnal birds of prey on the campus of Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC; in English, Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia, in addition to the contribution to the study of its popularity, with students in fifth grade from two educational institutions, one, of the urban context, and other, of the rural context. The study involved the implementation of the didactic component to promote recognition of their biological significance in elementary school students. Among the findings two species of nocturnal birds of prey were identified: common currucutú owl (Tropical Screech Owl, Megascops choliba and the barn owl (Tyto alba, with a relative abundance of 12 individuals and 10 individuals, respectively. It also includes changes in perception from students regarding beliefs and superstitions about such species, which favors the recognition of the biological role in the ecosystem and the need for its conservation.
Bendtson, I; Gade, J; Thomsen, C E
Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were studied to evaluate sleep patterns during normoglycemia and spontaneous and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Two channels of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram and actooculogram were recorded. The signals were analyzed off-line, using...... a polygraphic sleep analysis system. The scoring was mainly based on the color density spectral array of the EEG. Blood glucose and growth hormone were measured serially. Asymptomatic, spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred in 38% of the nights. Conventional sleep analysis showed a tendency toward...
Prueger, John H.; Alfieri, joesph G.; Hipps, Lawrence E.; Kustas, William P.; Neale, Christopher M.
Vineyards are agricultural surfaces that present a unique structural perturbation to the mean wind flow. As part of the Grape Remote Sensing Atmospheric Profiling and Evapotranspiration Experiment (GRAPEX) a 10-m profile tower of three sonic anemometers at 2, 3.75 and 8 m above ground level in in a mature vineyard having was deployed to measure high frequency diurnal variations of 3-dimensional velocity components (u, v, w) and temperature (T) throughout the growing season. Previous work has been published involving eddy covariance measurements in vineyards but these mostly represented convective daytime unstable conditions. Significantly less has been published about turbulence in vineyards during stable nocturnal periods. Hence, in this study we focused on the nocturnal stable periods under clear skies and relatively light winds typical of the northern portion of California's Central Valley. Our objective was to characterize and evaluate turbulent exchange processes in the layer near the top of a vine canopy during nocturnal periods which are often characterized by weak and intermittent turbulence. Spectra, cospectra and coherence plots were evaluated for nocturnal periods. The spectra suggest there are periods of intermittent turbulence with features indicative of local and regional scale processes. Additionally the impact of the vine structure and spacing on slow meandering flows enhance the decomposition of organized turbulent eddies resulting in intricate mechanical turbulence generated by intermittent eddies that are rapidly decomposed as eddies interact with the vine structure and spacing. Preliminary results will be discussed that provide insight into turbulence characteristics at several heights above a canopy vineyard as affected by vine structure and spacing, wind speed, direction and stable conditions.
Leung, A. K.; Wong, B. E.; Chan, P. Y.; Cho, H. Y.
The records of 2527 healthy children seen in an ambulatory care clinic were evaluated for nocturnal leg cramps in the preceding 12 months, frequency and duration of the cramps, whether the cramps affected one leg or both legs at a time, whether there was associated muscle cramps in feet, whether the cramps occurred when the child was awake or asleep, and whether there was residual tenderness in the affected muscles. Nocturnal leg cramps were present in 185 children for an overall incidence of 7.3%. Leg cramps were noted only in children aged > or = 8 years. The incidence increased at 12 years and peaked at 16 to 18 years of age. A majority (81.6%) of the affected children had nocturnal leg cramps 1 to 4 times per year. The mean duration of episodes was 1.7 minutes. Leg cramps were unilateral in 98.9% of cases and the ipsilateral foot also was involved in 18.9% of cases. One hundred thirty-five (73%) children had leg cramps while asleep, and the remaining 23 (12.4%) children had leg cramps in either state. Fifty-seven (30.8%) children had residual tenderness in the affected muscles. The mean duration of residual tenderness was 33.2 minutes (range: 2 minutes-1 day). We conclude that nocturnal leg cramps are common in children aged > 12 years. A majority of the affected children have leg cramps 1 to 4 times per year. The cramps are usually unilateral and occur when the children are asleep. Normal duration of the leg cramp is < 2 minutes. Residual tenderness is present in approximately 30% of the affected children. Residual tenderness, if present, usually lasts for half an hour. PMID:10388258
Full Text Available Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological
Farnsworth, Andrew; Aelterman, Bart; Alves, Jose A.; Azijn, Kevin; Bernstein, Garrett; Branco, Sérgio; Desmet, Peter; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Horton, Kyle; Kelling, Steve; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Leijnse, Hidde; Rong, Jingjing; Sheldon, Daniel; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Van Den Meersche, Jan Klaas; Van Doren, Benjamin Mark; van Gasteren, Hans
Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals’ life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human–wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological products, and public
Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.
Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching acce...
de Latour, Régis Peffault; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Blaise, Didier; de Souza, Carmino A.; Vigouroux, Stephane; Willemze, Roelf; Terriou, Louis; Tichelli, Andre; Mohty, Mohamad; de Guibert, Sophie; Marsh, Judith C.; Passweg, Jakob; Yves Mary, Jean; Socié, Gerard
Background In the era of eculizumab, identifying patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria who may benefit from allogeneic stem cell transplantation is challenging. Design and Methods We describe the characteristics and overall survival of 211 patients transplanted for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in 83 EBMT centers from 1978 to 2007. Next, we conducted a comparison with a cohort of 402 non-transplanted patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria diagnosed between 1950 and 2005 in 92 French centers. We compared the occurrence of complications (i.e. thromboembolism and aplastic anemia) using either an individual or a stratum-matching procedure. Results After a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year overall survival rate ± standard error (%) was 68±3 in the transplanted group (54±7 in the case of thromboembolism, 69±5 in the case of aplastic anemia without thromboembolism and 86±6 in the case of recurrent hemolytic anemia without thromboembolism or aplastic anemia). Only thromboembolism as the indication for transplantation was associated with worse outcome (P=0.03). We identified 24 pairs of transplanted and non-transplanted patients with thromboembolism for the matched comparison, with worse overall survival for the transplanted patients (hazard ratio=10.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-78.1; P=0.007). This was confirmed by the global matching procedure (P=0.03). As regards aplastic anemia without thromboembolism, 30 pairs were identified for the matched comparison. It was not observed that transplanted patients had a significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio=4.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-18.9; P=0.06). A global matching procedure was not feasible. Conclusions Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is probably not a suitable treatment option for life-threatening thromboembolism in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. PMID:22689687
Galatius-Jensen, S; Hansen, J; Rasmussen, Verner
-0700) with a Holter tape recorder and a pulse oximeter. Fifteen patients were monitored for five nights, one patient for four nights, one patient for three nights, and two patients for two nights. RESULTS--Five patients had > 30 episodic oxygen desaturations of > or = 5% during the nights of monitoring and many...
Full Text Available Social-economic factors influence sleep habits. This research analyzes characteristics of nocturnal sleep in Brazilian Native Terena adults. Sixty-four adults (31 M; 33 F from 18 to 75 years, with a mean age of 37.0, from the Indian Reservation village of Córrego do Meio, in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, an agriculturally oriented group were evaluated. Nocturnal sleep characteristics were evaluated by means of a standard questionnaire applied to each individual. It was observed that reported nocturnal sleep was longer, sleep onset was earlier and wake up time was also earlier than usually described in urban populations. The mean total time in bed was 8.5 h or more, in every age bracket. The seven-day prevalence rate of insomnia was 4.6%, while the seven-day prevalence rate of hypnotic use was 1.5%, both remarkably less than described in urban populations. These findings stress the need to consider ethnic influences on sleep patterns and disorders.
Mizumoto, Takeshi; Aihara, Ikkyu; Otsuka, Takuma; Takeda, Ryu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Hiroshi G
We present a novel method for imaging acoustic communication between nocturnal animals. Investigating the spatio-temporal calling behavior of nocturnal animals, e.g., frogs and crickets, has been difficult because of the need to distinguish many animals' calls in noisy environments without being able to see them. Our method visualizes the spatial and temporal dynamics using dozens of sound-to-light conversion devices (called "Firefly") and an off-the-shelf video camera. The Firefly, which consists of a microphone and a light emitting diode, emits light when it captures nearby sound. Deploying dozens of Fireflies in a target area, we record calls of multiple individuals through the video camera. We conduct two experiments, one indoors and the other in the field, using Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). The indoor experiment demonstrates that our method correctly visualizes Japanese tree frogs' calling behavior. It has confirmed the known behavior; two frogs call synchronously or in anti-phase synchronization. The field experiment (in a rice paddy where Japanese tree frogs live) also visualizes the same calling behavior to confirm anti-phase synchronization in the field. Experimental results confirm that our method can visualize the calling behavior of nocturnal animals in their natural habitat.
Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C
Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate associations of functional and structural social support with nocturnal BP dipping assessed over a minimum of 24 hours. A total of 297 articles were identified. Of these, 11 met criteria for inclusion; all studies were cross-sectional in design and included adult participants only (mean age = 19 to 72 years). Evidence was most consistent for an association between functional support and BP dipping, such that 5 of 7 studies reported statistically (or marginally) significant positive associations with BP dipping. Statistically significant functional support-BP dipping associations were moderate (standardized effect size (d) = 0.41) to large (d = 2.01) in magnitude. Studies examining structural support were fewer and relatively less consistent; however, preliminary evidence was observed for associations of marital status and social contact frequency with BP dipping. Statistically significant structural support findings were medium (d = 0.53) to large (d = 1.13) in magnitude. Overall, findings suggest a link between higher levels of functional support and greater nocturnal BP dipping; preliminary evidence was also observed for the protective effects of marriage and social contact frequency. Nonetheless, the relatively small number of studies conducted to date and the heterogeneity of findings across meaningful subgroups suggest that additional research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.
de Dios, Víctor Resco; Roy, Jacques; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Alday, Josu G; Landais, Damien; Milcu, Alexandru; Gessler, Arthur
Evapotranspiration is a major component of the water cycle, yet only daytime transpiration is currently considered in Earth system and agricultural sciences. This contrasts with physiological studies where 25% or more of water losses have been reported to occur occurring overnight at leaf and plant scales. This gap probably arose from limitations in techniques to measure nocturnal water fluxes at ecosystem scales, a gap we bridge here by using lysimeters under controlled environmental conditions. The magnitude of the nocturnal water losses (12-23% of daytime water losses) in row-crop monocultures of bean (annual herb) and cotton (woody shrub) would be globally an order of magnitude higher than documented responses of global evapotranspiration to climate change (51-98 vs. 7-8 mm yr(-1)). Contrary to daytime responses and to conventional wisdom, nocturnal transpiration was not affected by previous radiation loads or carbon uptake, and showed a temporal pattern independent of vapour pressure deficit or temperature, because of endogenous controls on stomatal conductance via circadian regulation. Our results have important implications from large-scale ecosystem modelling to crop production: homeostatic water losses justify simple empirical predictive functions, and circadian controls show a fine-tune control that minimizes water loss while potentially increasing posterior carbon uptake.
Full Text Available Migrating birds may respond to a variety of environmental cues in order to time migration. During the migration season nocturnally migrating songbirds may migrate or stop-over at their current location, and when migrating they may vary the rate or distance of migration on any given night. It has long been known that a variety of weather-related factors including wind speed and direction, and temperature, are correlated with migration in free-living birds, however these variables are often correlated with each other. In this study we experimentally manipulated temperature to determine if it would directly modulate nocturnal migratory restlessness in songbirds. We experimentally manipulated temperature between 4, 14, and 24°C and monitored nocturnal migratory restlessness during autumn in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated sparrows are relatively shortdistance migrants with a prolonged autumnal migration, and we thus predicted they might be sensitive to weatherrelated cues when deciding whether to migrate or stopover. At warm temperatures (24°C none of the birds exhibited migratory restlessness. The probability of exhibiting migratory restlessness, and the intensity of this restlessness (number of infra-red beam breaks increased at cooler (14°C, 4°C temperatures. These data support the hypothesis that one of the many factors that birds use when making behavioural decisions during migration is temperature, and that birds can respond to temperature directly independently of other weather-related cues.
Torimoto, Kazumasa; Hirayama, Akihide; Samma, Shoji; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko
Increased nocturnal urinary volume is closely associated with nocturia. We investigated the relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the variation of body fluid distribution during the daytime using bioelectric impedance analysis. A total of 34 men older than 60 years were enrolled in this study. A frequency volume chart was recorded. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal urine volume per 24-hour production of greater than 0.35 (the nocturnal polyuria index). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed 4 times daily at 8 and 11 a.m., and 5 and 9 p.m. using an InBody S20 body composition analyzer (BioSpace, Seoul, Korea). A significant difference was found in mean +/- SEM 24-hour urine production per fat-free mass between the groups with and without nocturnal polyuria (17.8 +/- 1.4 vs 7.7 +/- 0.9 ml/kg). The increase in fluid in the legs compared with the volume at 8 a.m. was significantly larger at 5 p.m., while there was no difference in the arms or trunk. Nocturnal urine volume significantly correlated with the difference in fluid volume in the legs (r = 0.527, p = 0.0019) and extracellular fluid volume (r = 0.3844, p = 0.0248) between the volumes at 8 a.m. and 9 p.m. Overproduction of urine per fat-free mass leads to nocturnal polyuria. Extracellular fluid accumulates as edema in the legs during the day in patients with nocturnal polyuria. The volume of accumulated extracellular fluid correlates with nocturnal urine volume. We suggest that leg edema is the source of nocturnal urine volume and decreasing edema may cure nocturnal polyuria.
Michael Joseph Lavery
Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a debilitating condition with numerous etiologies. Many patients suffer from nocturnal pruritus, which can decrease quality of life and affect mortality in hemodialysis patients. Nocturnal pruritus may occur in all sleep stages but is most prevalent in stages N1 and N2. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturnal itch, which will aid in the development of tailored management strategies.
Agar, John W; Perkins, Anthony; Heaf, James G
We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use.......We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use....
Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Bech-Danielsen, Claus
Building a home and creating a family are highly interconnected processes. So what happens with the home when people separate or divorce? In this paper we address this question both from a quantitative and a qualitative approach. Based on an extensive database with socio-economic background data...... problems of dissolving a home. How to decide who should stay, who should move and how was it to stay alone in or to leave the matrimonial home?...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Dipankar Home. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 18 Issue 10 October 2013 pp 905-916 General Article. Bohr's Philosophy of Wave–Particle Complementarity · Dipankar Home · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
... oxygen at very high altitudes (like in the mountains or in an airplane) even if you do ... an arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. The ABG measures your oxygen level directly from your blood and ...
South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 38, No 3 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Winther, Ida Wentzel
What is home? A building, a physical and mental phenomenon, or a concept? There are many homes and ways `to home oneself´. Many of us quite often dwell in other places than at home (as professional commuters between two places, as travellers staying in hotels, as children of divorced parents...... living one week with mom and one week with dad). We spend so much time in and between these movements and settings that we may even (have to learn how to) ‘home ourselves'. In other words, we may use different strategies in order to create a homely feeling and a certain sense of belonging. This paper...... expands on the notion that home indicates more than a house, but also responds to the overuse of the concept home. The aim of this article is to examine how home is done, stretched between everyday life, practices, dreams, loss and cultural ideas of home. My intention is not to remove home...
Yack, Jayne E.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Surlykke, Annemarie
Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid....... Extracellular recordings from IIN1c reveal sensory responses to ultrasonic (>20 kHz), but not low frequency(butterflies exposed to ultrasound exhibit a variety of evasive maneuvers...... of evolutionary divergence, since we demonstrate that the ears are homologous to low frequency ears in some diurnal Nymphalidae butterflies....
Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren
sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... sleep related physiological mechanisms into consideration. In the present study we report that acute sleep deprivation has a dramatic effect on the volume of nocturnal urine production in both genders although the effect is more pronounced in males. Natriuresis and kaliuresis were observed on nights...
Stepanian, P. M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Horton, K. G. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
Remote sensing techniques are playing a greater role in ornithology, and radar has proven a valuable tool for high resolution, long-term observations of airborne animals. The major disadvantage in radar remote sensing is the current inability to gain taxonomic information from these measurements. One solution is the incorporation of collocated acoustic monitoring that can provide recordings of species-specific nocturnal flight calls of migrating birds in flight. In addition, by taking multichannel recordings of these calls, the position of the calling bird can be calculated and linked to collocated radar measurements.
Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Chaiwong, Suchapit; Anan, Chanawat; Penkeaw, Nuntiwat; Leaknok, Amarinee; Boonpang, Kamolwan; Saksornchai, Karn; Rattanachaisit, Watchara; Thanawattano, Chusak; Jagota, Priya
Nocturnal hypokinesia is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD), negatively affecting quality of life of both patients and caregivers. However, evidence-based treatment strategies are limited. To evaluate the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch, using a wearable sensor, in the management of nocturnal immobility. 34 PD subjects with nocturnal immobility were randomized to receive rotigotine transdermal patch (mean ± SD of 10.46 ± 4.63 mg/24 h, n = 17) or placebo patch (n = 17). Treatment was titrated to an optimal dose over 1-8 weeks, then maintained for 4 weeks. Primary endpoints were objective parameters assessing axial rotation measured using an axial inertial sensor (the NIGHT-Recorder) over two nights at the patients' home. Scale-based assessments were also performed. There was a significant difference, in favor of rotigotine, in change from baseline score in the number of turns in bed (ANCOVA, p = 0.001), and degree of axial turn (p = 0.042). These objective improvements were mirrored by significantly greater improvements in clinical scale-based assessments, including the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total scores (p = 0.009), UPDRS-motor scores (p Disease Sleep Scale (p sensors to record objective outcomes in PD-related clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khusid, Johnathan A; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Carlsson, Martin O; Mangan, Erin K
A recent study demonstrated improvement in nocturnal urgency in patients with overactive bladder when treated with fesoterodine. In the current study we aimed to determine which bladder diary parameters predict the response to fesoterodine in these patients. Patients with nocturnal urgency completed a 2-week, single-blind placebo run-in followed by 1:1 double-blind randomization to 12 weeks of fesoterodine or placebo. We analyzed bladder diary parameter changes from baseline to week 12, including the actual number of night voids (total number of nocturia episodes), maximum voided volume, nocturnal bladder capacity, Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index (NBCi) (actual number of night voids - nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume - 1), nocturnal urine volume, the nocturia index (nocturnal urine volume/maximum voided volume) and the nocturnal polyuria index (nocturnal urine volume/24-hour volume). Additionally, we analyzed OAB-q (Overactive Bladder Questionnaire) changes. There was a linear relationship between the likelihood of being a responder for NBCi and the nocturia index. Responders had a significant decrease in nocturnal urine volume relative to baseline (-181.7 ml, p overactive bladder syndrome and low nocturnal bladder capacity with a mismatch between nocturnal urine production and bladder capacity may benefit from fesoterodine. Symptom improvement appears to be mediated by increases in typical rather than maximum nocturnal voided volumes. Symptom improvement was associated with improved quality of life. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, C; Connaughton, D; Murray, S; Ormond, J; Butler, A; Phelan, E; Young, J; Durack, L; Flavin, J; O'Grady, M; O'Kelly, P; Lavin, P; Leavey, S; Lappin, D; Giblin, L; Casserly, L; Plant, W D; Conlon, P
Home haemodialysis (HHD) has the potential to impact positively on patient outcomes and health resource management. There has been rejuvenated international interest in HHD in recent years. We aimed to review the activity and outcomes of the Irish HHD Programme since inception (2009-2016). Patient data were collected using the national electronic Renal Patient database (eMEDRenal version 3.2.1) and individual centre records. All data were recorded in a coded fashion on a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet and analysed with Stata SE software. 101 patients completed training and commenced HHD; a further 45 patients were assessed for HHD suitability but did not ultimately dialyse at home. Twenty patients switched to nocturnal HHD when this resource became available. The switch from conventional in-centre dialysis to HHD led to an increase in the mean weekly hours on HD and a reduction in medication burden for the majority of patients. The overall rate of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) as primary vascular access was 62%. Most HHD complications were related to access function or access-related infection. Over the seven-years, 29 HHD patients were transplanted and nine patients died. No deaths resulted directly from a HHD complication or technical issue. Patient and technique survival rates compared favourably to published international reports. However, we identified several aspects that require attention. A small number of patients were receiving inadequate dialysis and require targeted education. Ongoing efforts to increase AVF and self-needling rates in HD units must continue. Psychosocial support is critical during the transition between dialysis modalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Brooks, Amber; Lack, Leon
The purposes of this study were to compare the benefits of different length naps relative to no nap and to analyze the electroencephalographic elements that may account for the benefits. A repeated-measures design included 5 experimental conditions: a no-nap control and naps of precisely 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes of sleep. Nocturnal sleep restricted to about 5 hours in participants' homes was followed by afternoon naps at 3:00 PM and 3 hours of postnap testing conducted in a controlled laboratory environment. Twenty-four healthy, young adults who were good sleepers and not regular nappers. The 5-minute nap produced few benefits in comparison with the no-nap control. The 10-minute nap produced immediate improvements in all outcome measures (including sleep latency, subjective sleepiness, fatigue, vigor, and cognitive performance), with some of these benefits maintained for as long as 155 minutes. The 20-minute nap was associated with improvements emerging 35 minutes after napping and lasting up to 125 minutes after napping. The 30-minute nap produced a period of impaired alertness and performance immediately after napping, indicative of sleep inertia, followed by improvements lasting up to 155 minutes after the nap. These findings suggest that the 10-minute nap was overall the most effective afternoon nap duration of the nap lengths examined in this study. The implications from these results also suggest a need to consider a process occurring in the first 10 minutes of sleep that may account for the benefits associated with brief naps.
Barthlott, Christian; Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert; Handwerker, Jan; Kohler, Martin; Wieser, Andreas
In the region of Corsica, located in the western Mediterranean Sea, the mean daily lightning activity for late summer and autumn as an indicator for deep convection shows a distinct maximum in mid-afternoon and a secondary maximum in the night. During the night, most of the lightning activity is located offshore and near the island's coastline. Currently there are no observational data which could be used to explain this nocturnal offshore convection but understanding its formation mechanism is crucial for accurately forecasting the regional weather. In this work, we explore two possible mechanisms initiating nocturnal offshore convection: (i) convergence with subsequent lifting due to the interaction between drainage winds and the synoptic flow over the sea and (ii) dynamically induced lee-side convergence due to the island barrier effect. To this end, we perform numerical simulations with the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model at a convection-resolving horizontal grid spacing of 2.8 km. The analysis of two cases with different low-level wind directions reveals that the role of the island's drainage flow can either favour or hinder the development of deep convection. Furthermore, convective initiation is very sensitive to terrain elevation and model initialisation time and small changes of these features can decide whether deep convection occurs or not.
Provini, F; Antelmi, E; Vignatelli, L; Zaniboni, A; Naldi, G; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Vetrugno, R; Plazzi, G; Pizza, F; Montagna, P
We investigated the prevalence of nocturnal smoking (NS) in patients with RLS. One hundred RLS patients living in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) and 100 matched controls, randomly selected from the general population, underwent interviews for the presence of nocturnal smoking and for obsessive-compulsive traits, depression, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and subjective sleep quality. NS was more prevalent in RLS patients than controls (lifetime prevalence: 12% vs. 2%, P=0.012). Patients with NS had more frequently Sleep-Related Eating Disorders (SRED) than patients without NS (83.3% vs. 26.1%, P=0.0002). Pathological and borderline Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) values as well as pathological values at the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) increased from controls to RLS patients without NS to RLS patients with NS (P=0.005 and P=0.01, respectively). We demonstrate an increased prevalence of NS in patients with RLS, in many cases associated with increased SRED. NS may be associated with psychopathological traits in RLS and may be relevant in the management of RLS patients. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.
Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences. PMID:26339552
Cohrs, Stefan; Pohlmann, Kathrin; Guan, Zhenghua; Jordan, Wolfgang; Meier, Andreas; Huether, Gerald; Rüther, Eckart; Rodenbeck, Andrea
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction is a frequent finding in psychiatric disorders, including psychotic depression and schizophrenia. Conflicting results exist concerning the influence of antipsychotics on the HPA-axis. Therefore, this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study investigated the effect of quetiapine on nocturnal urinary cortisol and melatonin excretion in 13 healthy male subjects under conditions of undisturbed and experimentally disturbed sleep. Volunteers were studied 3 times for 3 consecutive nights (N0, adaptation; N1, standard sleep conditions; N2, acoustic stress) 4 days apart. Placebo, quetiapine 25 mg or quetiapine 100 mg was administered orally 1 h before bedtime on nights 1 and 2. Urine produced during the 8-h bedtime period was collected for later determination of cortisol and melatonin concentrations by standard radioimmunoassays. MANOVA showed a significant effect for N1 vs. N2 with elevated total amount of cortisol ( pmelatonin ( pcortisol excretion in comparison to placebo. No interaction effect of stress condition was observed. There was no effect of quetiapine on melatonin levels. The significant reduction of nocturnal cortisol excretion following quetiapine reflects a decreased activity of the HPA-axis in healthy subjects. This finding may be an important aspect in quetiapine's mode of action in different patient populations.
Jessica L. Yorzinski
Full Text Available Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus. Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.
Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C
Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.
Santos, Carlos D.; Miranda, Ana C.; Granadeiro, José P.; Lourenço, Pedro M.; Saraiva, Sara; Palmeirim, Jorge M.
Large areas of natural and semi-natural habitats are exposed to artificial illumination from adjacent urban areas and roads. Estuarine and coastal wetlands are particularly exposed to such illumination because shorelines often are heavily utilized by man. However, the impact of artificial illumination on the waders that forage in these highly productive habitats is virtually unknown. We evaluated the effects of artificial illumination on the nocturnal habitat selection and foraging behaviour of six wader species with different feeding strategies: three visual foragers, two species that alternate visual and tactile strategies (mixed foragers), and one tactile forager. We quantified the number of birds and their foraging behaviour at sites affected and not affected by streetlights, and also before and after illuminating experimental sites. Areas illuminated by streetlights were used more during the night by visual foragers, and to a lesser extent by mixed foragers, than non-illuminated areas. Visual foragers increased their foraging effort in illuminated areas, and mixed foragers changed to more efficient visual foraging strategies. These behavioural shifts improved prey intake rate by an average of 83% in visual and mixed foragers. We have showed that artificial illumination has a positive effect on the nocturnal foraging of waders, but on the other hand may draw them to degraded areas close to urban centres, and potentially raises their exposure to predators. Our findings suggest that artificial illumination is worth investigation as a tool in the management of intertidal habitats for waders.
McMullan, Ciaran J.; Curhan, Gary C.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Forman, John P.
Exogenous melatonin ameliorates insulin resistance in animals, while among humans, polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor gene are associated with insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the association of endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in humans. We analyzed the association between endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion, estimated by measuring the main melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, from the first morning urinary void, and the prevalence ...
Sindrup, J H; Wroblewski, H; Kastrup, J
with the concept of a central nervous or humoral elicitation of nocturnal hyperaemia, although local metabolic and other factors might participate as well. Paraplegic men have an intact regulation of the postural and nocturnal changes in peripheral blood flow whether of central sympathetic or humoral origin....
May 9, 2016 ... Background: Reports show that children with sickle‑cell anemia (SCA) have a tendency for nocturnal enuresis when compared with their counterparts with normal hemoglobin. Although nocturnal enuresis in SCA has been attributed to several factors including tubular and even bladder dysfunction, ...
Background: Reports show that children with sickle‑cell anemia (SCA) have a tendency for nocturnal enuresis when compared with their counterparts with normal hemoglobin. Although nocturnal enuresis in SCA has been attributed to several factors including tubular and even bladder dysfunction, its relationship with ...
June C Lo
Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1 and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2. Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68 than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15. While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.
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Moffatt, M E; Harlos, S; Kirshen, A J; Burd, L
Desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) is promoted to treat nocturnal enuresis but indications for its use are unclear. We reviewed all randomized controlled trials to determine (1) short- and long-term efficacy, (2) responders, (3) dose-response curve, (4) side effects, and (5) comparative efficacy with other treatments. A Medline search of the English language literature from January 1966 to August 1992, supplemented by contact with the drug companies, yielded 18 articles which were true randomized controlled trials (11 cross-over and 7 parallel studies). The 18 randomized controlled trials included 689 subjects for most of whom some other type of treatment had failed. All studies found decreased mean frequency of wetting ranging from 10% to 91%, but only 24.5% of subjects achieved short-term dryness. One study of DDAVP responders directly tested long-term dryness and 21% stayed dry. In three studies that incidentally reported on long-term effects 5.7% stayed dry after stopping DDAVP: There was wide variation in the type of patient included. Seven studies addressed prognostic factors. Children more than 9 years old and with fewer initial wet nights do better. Four studies seem to include almost exclusively monosymptomatic children with nocturnal enuresis (ie, primary nocturnal enuresis, positive family history, and no urinary symptoms). Results were no better than those which included mixed symptoms. Five studies attempted to address the dose-response issue. Despite some methodological issues, there is probably some dose-response effect. Side effects were infrequent in the 589 subjects who received DDAVP as opposed to placebo. No cases of water intoxication and no significant shifts in electrolytes were reported in the four studies which measured them. Nasal stuffiness, headache, epistaxis, and mild abdominal pain seem to be the only side effects noted, and these were uncommon. Only one study compared DDAVP with conditioning alarms. Alarm patients had 10% fewer wet nights
Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William
Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment.
Tian, Yu-Hong; Cheng, Huan
To assess the sensory integration function of children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and explore the role of sensory integration dysfunction in the pathogenesis of PNE. Sensory integration function was assessed by the Childhood Sensory Integration Ability Development Checklist in 46 children with PNE and 46 normal children (control). The incidence of sensory integration dysfunction in the PNE group (82.6%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (43.5%)(Psensory integration dysfunction in the PNE group but only 1 (2.1%) in the control group (Psensory integration indexes revealed by sensory integration function testing in the PNE group were significantly lower than those in the control group (Psensory integration dysfunction. Sensory integration dysfunction may be associated with the pathogenesis of PNE.
Bendtson, I; Gade, J; Thomsen, C E
Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were studied to evaluate sleep patterns during normoglycemia and spontaneous and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Two channels of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram and actooculogram were recorded. The signals were analyzed off-line, using a polygrap......Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were studied to evaluate sleep patterns during normoglycemia and spontaneous and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Two channels of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram and actooculogram were recorded. The signals were analyzed off-line, using...... a polygraphic sleep analysis system. The scoring was mainly based on the color density spectral array of the EEG. Blood glucose and growth hormone were measured serially. Asymptomatic, spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred in 38% of the nights. Conventional sleep analysis showed a tendency toward...
Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee Yul; Chun, Rho Won; Noh, Jung Woo [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired disease involving multiple hematopoietic cell lines. Characteristics of PNH are intrinsic hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia and venous thrombosis. We report a case of PNH with characterostoc MR and CT findings. The signal intensity of renal cortex was lower than that of medulla on both T1-and T2-weighted MR imaging. On T2 weighted MR images, the liver showed very low signal intensity but the signal intensity of the spleen was normal. On precontrast CT the attenuation of renal cortex was higher than that of renal medulla and the attenuation of liver was higher than that of the spleen. These findings of MR imaging and CT were the result from the deposition of hemosiderin in the cells of proximal convoluted tubules and transfusional hemosiderosis of liver.
Rosenberg, J; Wildschiødtz, G; Pedersen, M H
pattern is disturbed severely with early depression of REM and slow wave sleep and with rebound of REM sleep on the second and third nights. Postoperative rebound of REM sleep may contribute to the development of sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia....... significantly after surgery (P sleep decreased significantly on the first night after operation (P sleep (rebound) on the second, third or both nights after operation compared with the preoperative night. Slow wave sleep...... was depressed significantly on the first two nights after operation (P sleep-associated hypoxaemic episodes for individual patients increased about three-fold on the second and third nights after operation compared with the night before operation (P sleep...
ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H
We investigated the relationship between predator detection threshold and antipredator behaviour in noctuoid moths. Moths with ears sensitive to the echolocation calls of insectivorous bats use avoidance manoeuvres in flight to evade these predators. Earless moths generally fly less than eared species as a primary defence against predation by bats. For eared moths, however, there is interspecific variation in auditory sensitivity. At the species level, and when controlling for shared evolutionary history, nocturnal flight time and auditory sensitivity were positively correlated in moths, a relationship that most likely reflects selection pressure from aerial-hawking bats. We suggest that species-specific differences in the detection of predator cues are important but often overlooked factors in the evolution and maintenance of antipredator behaviour.
Sutherland, R. A.
A relatively simple, objective, nocturnal temperature forecasting model suitable for freezing and near-freezing conditions has been designed so that a user, presumably a weather forecaster, can put in standard meteorological data at a particular location and receive an hour-by-hour prediction of surface and air temperatures for that location for an entire night. The user has the option of putting in his own estimates of wind speeds and background sky radiation which are treated as independent variables. An analysis of 141 test runs show that 57.4% of the time the model predicts to within 1 C for the best cases and to within 3 C for 98.0% of all cases.
Eranga S Wijewickrama
Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham′s test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis.
Full Text Available Introduction. Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. Case Outline. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the ‘desirable’ range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day. The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day. At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. Conclusion. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.
Dunne, P J
Home oxygen therapy represents a scientifically validated and universally accepted therapeutic regimen for the treatment of chronic hypoxemia secondary to COPD. The clinical benefits of home oxygen, including a decrease in morbidity and often a concomitant increase in the quality of life have been repeatedly confirmed through rigorous worldwide trials, studies, and investigations. However, since home oxygen is an expensive treatment modality, important questions continue to be raised about the overall cost-benefit of the intervention. Such scrutiny is expected to continue, especially in the United States, as the entire issue of health care cost-containment remains atop the domestic political agenda. Providers of home oxygen therapy have traditionally realized quite favorable reimbursement for home oxygen equipment, especially for those patient-customers covered under the Medicare program. However, recent Medicare reimbursement reductions of more than 30% have raised serious questions about the ability of home oxygen providers, especially those with annual revenues less than $1 million, to sustain their historical high level of support services to home oxygen patient-customers. Of particular concern is the economic hardship of supplying portable oxygen, especially for those patient-customers with unusually high ambulatory needs. The use of oxygen-conserving devices is viewed by some as one strategy to better control the costs of supplying portable oxygen, although there are those who still question whether or not oxygen-conserving devices can effectively forestall arterial oxygen desaturation across the entire spectrum of ambulation. Given the evidence now being reported that compliance in using home oxygen as prescribed may well be much lower than originally believed, the time is probably right to revisit the role played by home oxygen providers in determining continuing need through the performance of periodic reassessments. Such reassessments, if designed
Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc
Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.
Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc
Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes. PMID:24236115
Thomas Le Tallec
Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.
Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Zack, Debra J; Li, Wenzhi; Stewart, V Michelle; Koenig, Andrew S
To investigate the relationships between inflammation, nocturnal back pain and fatigue in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and the impact of 12 weeks' etanercept treatment versus sulfasalazine or placebo. Data were combined from four clinical trials for patients with AS who received at least one dose of etanercept, sulfasalazine or placebo and had at least one postbaseline assessment value. Linear regression was performed (controlling for site, protocol and demographics), to explore the relationship between inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]), nocturnal back pain (visual analog scale [VAS] 0-100 mm) and fatigue (VAS 0-100 mm Bath AS Disease Activity Index fatigue item). Out of 1283 patients (etanercept, n = 867; sulfasalazine, n = 187; placebo, n = 229), improvement in nocturnal back pain was a significant predictor of improvement in fatigue. Significant correlations were found between nocturnal back pain and fatigue, but not CRP levels. Etanercept provided significantly greater pain/fatigue improvement than sulfasalazine or placebo. Improvements in nocturnal back pain and fatigue had weak relationships with improvement in inflammation (CRP level). AS patients treated with etanercept demonstrated superior improvement in nocturnal back pain and fatigue versus sulfasalazine or placebo. Decrease in nocturnal back pain can improve fatigue. Assessing treatment response using CRP levels alone may be misleading without also examining patient-reported outcomes such as back pain and fatigue.
McEvoy, J F; Ribot, R F H; Wingfield, J C; Bennett, A T D
Understanding of avian nocturnal flight comes mainly from northern hemisphere species in seasonal temperate ecosystems where nocturnal flight is often precisely timed and entrained by annual photoperiod. Here we investigate patterns of nocturnal flight in waterbirds of Australian desert ecosystems that fly considerable distances to find temporary water bodies formed from rainfall which is highly unpredictable seasonally and spatially, and when there is sufficient water, they then breed. How they perform these feats of navigation and physiology remain poorly known. Using GPS tracking of 38 satellite tagged Pacific black ducks (Anas superciliosa) in two contrasting ecosystems, before and after heavy rainfall we revealed a key role for facultative nocturnal flight in the movement ecology of this species. After large rainfall events, birds rapidly increased nocturnal flight activity in the arid aseasonal ecosystem, but not in the mesic seasonal one. Nocturnal flights occurred throughout the night in both ecosystems. Long range flights (>50 km in 2 hours) occurred almost exclusively at night; at night the distance flown was higher than during the day, birds visited more locations, and the locations were more widely dispersed. Our work reveals that heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight activity in desert populations of waterbirds.
Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S
Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.
... changed dramatically over the past several decades. These changes have been driven by government regulations and consumer pressures. Today’s nursing homes are highly regulated, high-quality institutions for ...
Allocca Hernandez, Giacomo Antonio
Getting old involves a lot of changes in life. Family and social relations change and mobility can decrease. These variations require new settings, and of course special care. A nursing home is a place dedicated to help with this situation. Sometimes nursing homes can be perceived as mere institutions by society, and even by future residents. Inside, senior citizens are suppose to spend the rest of their lives doing the same activities day after day. How can we improve these days? Archite...
Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, M.Y.; Duarte, H.F.
and are typically intertwined with other contributing factors, they constitute an important cause of jet formation. This mechanism is the only one that can be simulated by one-dimensional atmospheric boundary-layer model. This mechanism is a strong function of the distribution of surface energy properties which...... in the nocturnal boundary layer, several studies demonstrated the role of nocturnal jets in transporting moisture, ozone, and other trace gases between the biosphere and the lower atmosphere (Mathieu et al., 2005; Karipot et al., 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009). This study suggests that SCADIS, because of its simplicity...... and low computational demand, has potential as a research tool regarding surface–atmosphere gaseous exchange in the nocturnal boundary layer, especially if carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone and other gases are released or deposited inside the forest canopy....
Mahabala, Chakrapani; Kamath, Padmanabha; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Pai, Narasimha D; Pai, Aparna U
Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Management of hypertension is generally based on office blood pressure since it is easy to determine. Since casual blood pressure readings in the office are influenced by various factors, they do not represent basal blood pressure. Dipping of the blood pressure in the night is a normal physiological change that can be blunted by cardiovascular risk factors and the severity of hypertension. Nondipping pattern is associated with disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased proteinuria, secondary forms of hypertension, increased insulin resistance, and increased fibrinogen level. Long-term observational studies have documented increased cardiovascular events in patients with nondipping patterns. Nocturnal dipping can be improved by administering the antihypertensive medications in the night. Long-term clinical trials have shown that cardiovascular events can be reduced by achieving better dipping patterns by administering medications during the night. Identifying the dipping pattern is useful for decisions to investigate for secondary causes, initiating treatment, necessity of chronotherapy, withdrawal or reduction of unnecessary medications, and monitoring after treatment initiation. Use of this concept at the primary care level has been limited because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been the only method for documenting dipping/nondipping status so far. This monitoring technique is expensive and inconvenient for routine usage. Simpler methods using home blood pressure monitoring systems are evolving to document basal blood pressure in the night, which would help in greater acceptance and use of the concept of dipper/nondipper in managing hypertension at the primary care level.
Full Text Available Home hemodialysis (HD is a modality of renal replacement therapy that can be safely and independently performed at home by end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. Home HD can be performed at the convenience of the patients on a daily basis, every other day and overnight (nocturnal. Despite the great and many perceived benefits of home HD, including the significant improvements in health outcomes and resource utilization, the adoption of home HD has been limited; lack or inadequate pre-dialysis education and training constitute a major barrier. The lack of self-confidence and/or self-efficacy to manage own therapy, lack of family and/or social support, fear of machine and cannulation of blood access and worries of possible catastrophic events represent other barriers for the implementation of home HD besides inadequate competence and/or expertise in caring for home HD patients among renal care providers (nephrologists, dialysis nurses, educators. A well-studied, planned and prepared and carefully implemented central country program supported by adequate budget can play a positive role in overcoming the challenges to home HD. Healthcare authorities, with the increasingly financial and logistic demands and the relatively higher mortality and morbidity rates of the conventional in-center HD, should tackle home HD as an attractive and cost-effective modality with more freedom, quality of life and improvement of clinical outcomes for the ESRD patients.
Lundgren, Jennifer D; Williams, Karen B; Heitmann, Berit L
/88) predicts number of missing teeth at time two (1993/94), when controlling for age, education, smoking status, body mass, carbohydrate intake, binge eating behavior, and diabetes diagnosis. A negative binomial model predicting number of missing teeth from nocturnal eating while controlling for covariates......The relationship between nocturnal eating, such as that associated with night eating syndrome (NES), and oral health is unknown. This study sought to determine if nocturnal eating is related to tooth loss in a large, epidemiologic sample. Danes (N=2217; age range 30-60 years, M BMI [kg/m(2......)]=25.9, % Male=50.1) enrolled in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) were assessed on oral health, eating behavior, anthropometrics, general health, and demographic characteristics in both 1987/88 and 1993/94. We hypothesized that nocturnal eating at time one (1987...
Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Th?ry, Marc
Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine ...
Full Text Available PurposeThis study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty” and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”. We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors.ResultsEarly first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08. After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20. Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables.ConclusionThere is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early.
Shin, Sang Hee; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi-Jung; Lee, Yong Seung; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Han, Sang Won
Previous reports have suggested that the incidence of spina bifida occulta in patients with nocturnal enuresis is higher than in the general population. However, the effect of spina bifida occulta on the response to nocturnal enuresis treatment is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spina bifida occulta and response to treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Between 2006 and 2009, the records of 160 children with nocturnal enuresis were reviewed. Children with other organic urological disease or symptoms suggestive of spinal dysraphism were excluded. Plain radiography for the kidney-ureter-bladder was carried out before the start of the nocturnal enuresis treatment. Response to treatment of children with and without spina bifida occulta was compared. Of 160 children, 53 were girls; the mean age was 7.8 ± 2.06 years. The mean duration of treatment was 8.7 ± 9.29 months. Spina bifida occulta was detected in 43 children (26.9%). Spina bifida occulta affected L4 in four children, L5 in 12 children, S1 in 26 children and S2 in one child. There was a significant difference between the spina bifida occulta and non-spina bifida occulta groups in terms of outcome (P=0.002), with a complete response more likely in children without spina bifida occulta (P=0.005). None of the children with primary non-mono symptomatic nocturnal enuresis and spina bifida occulta showed a complete response. The presence of spina bifida occulta significantly affects the response to treatment in patients with nocturnal enuresis. Thus, verifying spina bifida occulta in this patient population can facilitate the prediction of the response to nocturnal enuresis treatment. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.
Khalida Anwer Yousef
Full Text Available Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem among children and adolescents. Data regarding this problem in schoolchildren in Yemen are scarce. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal incontinence in Aden school going children, describe its severity and identify the relation between nocturnal enuresis with personal and family characteristics. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted on the public basic schoolchildren in Aden, Yemen, in the period November 2007-April 2009. A random, multistage sample of 890 students was taken from four districts in eight schools and divided into two strata: males and females. Data were obtained by using pre-recoded questionnaire, which was completed by parents. The response rate was 73.7% (656 students; 113 (17.2% cases of nocturnal enuresis were encountered. Nocturnal enuresis de-creased by age from 31.5% at 6-8 years to 8.7% at 15+ years (P < 0.05. Primary nocturnal enuresis affected 76.1%, of which the majority of children were bedwetting every night. Positive family history of nocturnal enuresis, deeper sleep, daytime enuresis, tea drinking, being non working father or with less education showed significant association with the occurrence of enuresis in the students. Stressful events in the previous 6 months of the study were twice more frequently noted. The study concluded that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Aden public school children and its associated factors are almost comparable with that reported in epidemiological studies from various countries. Health education will encourage the parents to be aware, cope with this problem and seek appropriate medical advice.
Klobucníková, Katariná; Carnická, Zuzana; Wagnerová, Helená; Siarnik, Pavel
Authors evaluated quality of sleep and daytime vigilance in patients with nocturnal epilepsy and compared it to those with daytime epilepsy. Nocturnal seizures are an important type of epilepsy. They can result in morbidity due to disruption of sleep architecture. Daytime sleepiness, as a serious consequence of nocturnal seizures, has negative influence on quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Authors examined 100 patients with epilepsy. The occurrence of epileptic seizures in circadian rhythm, type of epilepsy and epileptic seizures, as well as aetiology of epilepsy were evaluated. Patients were divided in two groups, 17 patients with nocturnal epilepsy and 83 patients with epileptic seizures not related to sleep. All of them underwent overnight video-EEG-polysomnography and they filled in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire (ESS) as well as The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire (PSQI). Overnight video-EEG-polysomnography detected significant changes in the sleep architecture in patients with nocturnal epilepsy. Significant decrease of N3 stage of NREM sleep (14.31%±8.07 in the group of nocturnal epilepsy vs. 20.12%±9.24 in the group of daytime epilepsy, p=0.01). Concurrently, significantly poorer sleep quality according to PSQI (18.52±7.51 in the group of nocturnal epilepsy vs. 6.21±3.62 in the group of daytime epilepsy, p=0.01) and tendency to increased daytime sleepiness according to ESS was revealed in these patients. Remarkable changes in sleep architecture associated with poor quality of sleep and increased daytime sleepiness were detected in patients with nocturnal epilepsy. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of sleep history taking in patients with epilepsy and their further evaluation in sleep laboratory.
Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Borch, Luise; Borg, Britt; Rittig, Søren
In a third of all children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis their condition is refractory to first line treatments. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has been documented to be efficacious in children with daytime incontinence. We investigated the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (3 or more wet nights per week) and no nocturnal polyuria were randomized to treatment with active or sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation involving 1-hour sessions twice daily for 10 weeks in a double-blind design. Of the 52 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis included in the study 47 completed treatment (mean age 9.5 ± 2.1 years, 38 males). None of the children experienced a full response with complete remission of enuresis. Treatment with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation did not lead to significant changes in number of wet nights, nocturnal urine production on wet or dry nights, maximum voided volume with and without first morning voided volume, or voiding frequency when comparing parameters before and after treatment. The present study demonstrates no anti-enuretic effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Nocturnal urine production and bladder capacity remained unchanged during and after treatment with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carnevali, Lucilla; Lovari, Sandro; Monaco, Andrea; Mori, Emiliano
The reduction of predation risk is widely considered a major factor affecting the nocturnal activity of mammals. Furthermore, on precipitous mountain terrain, moving in very poor light conditions should be avoided by animals with no special eyesight adaptation to darkness. The Northern chamois Rupicapra rupicapra has been for long considered as a diurnal species, with occasional nocturnal movements. For the first time, we have quantified the nocturnal activity of 21 radiotagged female chamois from the Italian Eastern Alps (Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino Natural Park), continuously monitored for two years from sunset to sunrise, with 24h tracking sessions carried out for six months. Large predators were not present in the study site. Despite their mainly diurnal activity pattern, peaks of nocturnal movements were detected throughout the year. The least proportion of active night fixes occurred in January and in July, while the most were in April and in October. The greater nocturnal activity in the warm months compared to cold periods, was probably due to frozen snow cover reducing nocturnal movements. Movements were mainly concentrated in bright moonlight nights, possibly because of the absence of large predators, but more likely because of increased visibility. Changes in activity levels throughout the year may also reflect changes in energy requirements of Northern chamois. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Warrant, Eric J.
At night, our visual capacities are severely reduced, with a complete loss in our ability to see colour and a dramatic loss in our ability to see fine spatial and temporal details. This is not the case for many nocturnal animals, notably insects. Our recent work, particularly on fast-flying moths and bees and on ball-rolling dung beetles, has shown that nocturnal animals are able to distinguish colours, to detect faint movements, to learn visual landmarks, to orient to the faint pattern of polarised light produced by the moon and to navigate using the stars. These impressive visual abilities are the result of exquisitely adapted eyes and visual systems, the product of millions of years of evolution. Nocturnal animals typically have highly sensitive eye designs and visual neural circuitry that is optimised for extracting reliable information from dim and noisy visual images. Even though we are only at the threshold of understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for reliable nocturnal vision, growing evidence suggests that the neural summation of photons in space and time is critically important: even though vision in dim light becomes necessarily coarser and slower, it also becomes significantly more reliable. We explored the benefits of spatiotemporal summation by creating a computer algorithm that mimicked nocturnal visual processing strategies. This algorithm dramatically increased the reliability of video collected in dim light, including the preservation of colour, strengthening evidence that summation strategies are essential for nocturnal vision.
Luo, Chang W; Huang, Zachary Y; Chen, Xiao M; Li, Kun; Chen, You; Sun, Yong Y
Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is being increasingly planted worldwide, but questions remain regarding its pollination biology. This study examined the contribution of diurnal and nocturnal insects to the pollination of monoecious J. curcas, through its floral biology, pollination ecology, and foraging behavior of potential pollinators. Nectar production of both male and female flowers peaked in the morning, declined in the afternoon, and rapidly bottomed during the night in all of their anthesis days. The diurnal visitors to the flowers of J. curcas are bees and flies, and the nocturnal visitors are moths. Flowers received significantly more visits by diurnal insects than by nocturnal insects. Through bagging flowers during night or day or both or exclusion, we compared fruit and seed production caused by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators. Both nocturnal and diurnal visitors were successful pollinators. However, flowers exposed only to nocturnal visitors produced less fruits than those exposed only to diurnal visitors. Thus, diurnal pollinators contribute more to seed production by J. curcas at the study site.
Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte
flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices......, and by comparing three groups of educational migrants, the migrants’ reasons for staying connected and sending remittances are scrutinized. The paper finds that although educational migrants do not generate extensive economic remittances for local development in Nepal, they stay connected to their rural homes...
Full Text Available We report a case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH in a 14 year-old girl presenting a cerebral arterial thrombosis. The initial diagnosis was carential anemia due to menarche following identification of slight macrocytic anemia, leucopenia and mild thrombocytopenia at routine blood analysis. The child was eventually referred to a children’s hospital after the onset of progressive fatigue, anorexia and paleness. Severe anemia (hemoglobin 6 g/dL with negative Coombs test, mild leucopenia (white blood cells 4.9×109/L and thrombocytopenia (platelets 97×109/L and high values of lactate dehydrogenase (2855 U/L were identified; a packed red cells transfusion was administered. Her condition worsened and she subsequently presented complete right hemiplegia, aphasia and coma; magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive ischemic lesion. A diagnosis of PNH was eventually made following high sensitivity flow cytometry, which identified a PNH clone (CD66b negative equal to 93.7% of granulocytes. Fast recovery from neurologic and hematological problems occurred in response to anticoagulant therapy and intravenous therapy with eculizumab. We are convinced that PNH should be included in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with cytopenia.
Stafstrom, Jay A; Michalik, Peter; Hebets, Eileen A
The interplay between an animal's environmental niche and its behavior can influence the evolutionary form and function of its sensory systems. While intraspecific variation in sensory systems has been documented across distant taxa, fewer studies have investigated how changes in behavior might relate to plasticity in sensory systems across developmental time. To investigate the relationships among behavior, peripheral sensory structures, and central processing regions in the brain, we take advantage of a dramatic within-species shift of behavior in a nocturnal, net-casting spider (Deinopis spinosa), where males cease visually-mediated foraging upon maturation. We compared eye diameters and brain region volumes across sex and life stage, the latter through micro-computed X-ray tomography. We show that mature males possess altered peripheral visual morphology when compared to their juvenile counterparts, as well as juvenile and mature females. Matching peripheral sensory structure modifications, we uncovered differences in relative investment in both lower-order and higher-order processing regions in the brain responsible for visual processing. Our study provides evidence for sensory system plasticity when individuals dramatically change behavior across life stages, uncovering new avenues of inquiry focusing on altered reliance of specific sensory information when entering a new behavioral niche.
Napan, Sirikarn; Kwagyan, John; Randall, Otelio S; Xu, Shichen; Ketete, Muluemebet; Maqbool, Abid R
Nondipping pattern of circadian blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, limited data are available among obese African-Americans. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the pattern of circadian BP variation and to identify clinical conditions associated with nondipping in this population. A total of 211 obese African-Americans enrolled in a weight-reduction program underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. Nondipping was defined as a nocturnal BP reduction of less than 10%. Systolic BP (SBP) nondipping was present in 158 participants (74.9%) and diastolic BP (DBP) nondipping was present in 93 participants (44.1%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, diabetes was associated with SBP nondipping (adjusted OR, 2.53; CI: 1.16-5.76; P=0.02), and increasing BMI (5 kg/m) was associated with DBP nondipping (adjusted OR, 1.46; CI: 1.17-1.83; P=0.001). In linear regression analyses, BMI was positively correlated to office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time SBP (P=0.03, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.005, respectively) and office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time PP (P=0.01, P<0.001, 0.001, and P=0.003, respectively). This study demonstrated an excessively high prevalence of nondippers and independent associations between diabetes and SBP nondipping and between BMI and DBP nondipping in an obese African-American population.
Fábio A. Nascimento
Full Text Available We report a 72-year-old man with a four-year history of dyscognitive seizures (with occasional secondary generalization who developed isolated, nocturnal dry cough immediately after being started on PO phenytoin. The cough was not accompanied by any other symptom or sign as his physical exam was completely normal. Further investigation with chest CT and spirometry was unremarkable. This symptom persisted for six months and did not resolve until we weaned him off of phenytoin. According to the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, his cough was classified as being probably (score +6 related to the use of this antiepileptic drug. To our knowledge, there has been only one study that reported phenytoin-triggered cough. It described a postoperative patient who developed cough and bronchospasm after receiving IV phenytoin. By reporting our case and discussing the literature on this specific topic, we have essentially two goals. First, we intend to remind clinicians that isolated persistent cough can be an adverse reaction to phenytoin. Second, we hope to encourage further studies that will be able to elucidate the association presented herein.
Zamorano-Ulloa, R.; Yee-Madeira, H.; Flores-Llamas, H.; Perez-Ramirez, J.G.
The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) of normal subjects and six patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) were studied at 300deg K and 77 K. PNH is a very rate autoimmune hematological disease. The possibility of structural alterations of Hb induced by, or as part of the altered PNH-red cell membrane was the objective of this study. The Moessbauer parameters of the Hb of the normal subjects, both at 300 K and at 77 K, are identical to values previously reported. The PNH-Hb spectra show clear differences. They are wider and more asymmetric. At 77 K, an extra doublet grows in with an isomer shift of 0.425 mm/sec. and a quadrupolar splitting of 1.951 mm/sec. The other two doublets have δ's and ΔQ's slightly, but significantly, different from the corresponding values for normal Hb. These results are rationalized in terms of a population of Hb molecules with structures varying very slightly in a narrow range. The spread in structures manifests itself in a wider and more asymmetric Moessbauer spectrum. (orig.)
Full Text Available Home hemodialysis (HHD has proved to be a useful form of renal replacement therapy. The economic advantage of HHD is well established and interest in it is renewed. Once it has been decided to establish a HHD program, a well developed strategic plan is required. This should address financial and logistical issues and establish policies that will address responsi-bilities of both patients and HD centers. The recruitment of patients is facilitated by ensuring that all incident patients have early access to an education program describing all forms of renal replacement therapy that the regional renal program provides. Patients and members of the pre-dialysis education program should understand the selection process criteria in advance. Once the assessment is completed and the patient agrees to the proceedings, a plan of action should be esta-blished for enrolling the patient into the program and initiating training. Patients′ education pro-gram should take into consideration principles of adult learning. When choosing dialysis equip-ment for home use, the needs and preferences of the patients should be respected. As a rule of thumb, the equipment should be simple to use, yet still provide adequate and reliable therapy. De-ciding where to set up and position the HHD equipment is important. Installation of HHD ma-chine at home requires a continuous supply of accessories. Before establishing a HHD program, commitment of the dialysis center to provide and maintain the infrastructure of the program is mandatory. The estimated patients suitable for HHD are less than 15% of all prospective dialysis patients. Generally, those who are have greatly improved quality of life and by using modalities such as nocturnal and daily dialysis can have improved physical well-being with considerable potential cost savings.
Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to
Susanna E Kitts-Morgan
Full Text Available This study's objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05 on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE or core home range size (50% KDE. Male cats tended (P = 0.08 to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha compared to female cats (0.64 ha. Reproductively intact cats (n = 2 had larger (P < 0.0001 diurnal and nocturnal home ranges as compared to altered cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife.
Rosansky, S J; Menachery, S J; Whittman, D; Rosenberg, J C
Blood pressure (BP) has a circadian pattern with a 10% to 15% drop in systolic and diastolic BP comparing nighttime and daytime averages. The mechanism and the "reason" for the decline of nocturnal blood pressure has not been described. If the nocturnal decline is a restorative physiologic process we reasoned that sleep deprivation would increase the nocturnal drop. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that there is a compensatory decline in nocturnal sleep blood pressure after a period of nocturnal sleep deprivation. Twenty-four house staff personnel (normotensive and not taking any BP medications) with a mean age of 29.3 years were recruited for this study (13 men and 11 women). Subjects were randomly assigned to have 24-h BP monitoring after being sleep deprived (on call with 3 +/- 1.3 h of sleep) or after a normal night's sleep (7.3 +/- 0.8 h). There was no significant difference in hours asleep or time to bed or time awake for both 24-h studies. Subjects had similar activities for both monitoring intervals. The percent change in day awake versus night asleep mean values for systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure for sleep deprived and normal night's sleep intervals were compared using paired t tests. None of these paired parameters were significantly different despite a subjectively "deeper" sleep postcall. In conclusion, sleep deprivation does not appear to result in a compensatory decline in nocturnal blood pressure. Thus, the "reason" for the normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure remains to be explored.
Horiuchi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nakmaura, H.; Wu, C.; Rydelek, P.; Kachi, M.
We have developed an automated system for analyzing Hi-net seismograms for earthquake early warning (EEW) in Japan. Because of limitations imposed by station spacing, our system generally cannot issue an EEW to areas within about 30 km distance of the earthquake's hypocenter. We estimate that about 10 times the number of stations would be needed to issue an EEW in these areas, but the overhead would be cost prohibitive for governmental agencies. The practical deployment of EEW in Japan has started in October, 2007 and millions of people are expected to purchase and install the receiving/alarm unit of EEW. Since most of these units are connected to internet and equipped with a CPU and memory, we realized that the addition of an inexpensive seismometer and digitizer would transform the receiver into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer; these modifications only cost about $20. The home seismometer can help to generate alerts at the time of the occurrence of a large local earthquake by using locally observed data. Also, home seismograms can be used to estimate the amplification factor in sedimentary layers, which will be used to determine the site correction for shaking intensity by comparing the waveform data from the home seismometer against those from nearby Hi-net or K-NET stations. This amplification factor, which is essentially the basis of a shake-map with very-high spatial resolution, will help to establish a safety index of houses/buildings for large earthquakes, since a structure located at a site with large seismic amplification can be damaged more seriously than those with small amplification factors. The installation of home seismometers will create an extremely dense seismic network that is without precedence. We are developing an automatic system that collects waveform data from all home seismometer installations, calculates earthquake parameters in real-time, and then sends back alarms signals based on computed
Mulligan, Edward P; Brunette, Meredith; Shirley, Zachary; Khazzam, Michael
Nocturnal shoulder pain resulting in poor sleep quality is a common finding in patients with shoulder disease. The purpose of this paper was to describe and to compare the sleep quality, pain, and function in adult subjects who have been diagnosed with rotator cuff disorders, osteoarthritis, or adhesive capsulitis (AC). Patients completed a clinical assessment and comprehensive questionnaire regarding their current medical health history, shoulder symptoms, and impact of their symptoms on activities of daily living and quality of sleep. The study analyzed 343 patients with an average age of 57.4 years. The mean Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score for AC was 34%, which was significantly lower than the score for the subacromial impingement syndrome group of 53% (P = .007). The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scale score for AC was 38, which was also significantly lower than the score for the subacromial impingement syndrome group of 51 (P = .007). There were no significant differences in pain, with mean scores ranging from 4.90 to 5.82 for diagnostic subgroups on a visual analog scale (P = .28). Sleep quality was significantly poorer in the AC group (P = .008), with a mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score of 12.07. Specific subcomponents of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index that had a significant impact on sleep interruption included sleep quality, sleep duration, and habitual sleep efficiency in the AC group (P shoulder disease may have sleep-related issues, patients with adhesive capsulitis are particularly vulnerable to reduced sleep quality. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nissen-Meyer, Lise Sofie H; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Golebiowska, Elzbieta; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens; Akkök, Çiğdem Akalın
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare haematological disease characterised by chronic haemolysis, pancytopenia and venous thrombosis. The condition is attributable to a lack of control of complement attack on erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes, and can be diagnosed by means of flow cytometry. In this quality assurance study, we have reviewed information from the medical records of all patients tested for PNH using flow cytometry at our laboratory over a ten-year period. In the period 2000-2010 a total of 28 patients were tested for PNH using flow cytometry at the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Oslo University Hospital. We have reviewed the results of these examinations retrospectively together with information from medical records and transfusion data for the patients concerned. Flow cytometry identified 22 patients with PNH: four with classic disease and 18 with PNH secondary to another bone marrow disease. Five patients had atypical thrombosis. Seventeen patients received antithymocyte globulin or drug treatment; of these, six recovered from their bone marrow disease, while six died and five had a need for long-term transfusion. Five patients with life-threatening bone marrow disease underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, three of whom died. Six of 22 patients received eculizumab; the need for transfusion has been reduced or eliminated in three patients treated with eculizumab over a longer period. Flow cytometry identified PNH in a majority of patients from whom we obtained samples. Most patients had a PNH clone secondary to bone marrow failure. Atypical thrombosis should be borne in mind as an indication for the test. Treatment with eculizumab is relevant for selected patients with PNH.
Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza
Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.
Full Text Available Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7% was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4% (P=0.009. There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P=0.023, respiratory infections (P=0.036, deep sleep (P=0.007, corporal punishment at school (P=0.036, anal itching (P=0.043, and history of seizures (P=0.043. Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.
Mitchell, T H
PURPOSE: Microalbuminuria predicts early mortality in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes mellitus patients (NIDDM). Our objective in the present study was to compare and assess the relationship between 24-hour, day and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in microalbuminuric and normoalbuminuric NIDDM and in normal control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, 24 hour ambulatory BP (daytime BP and nocturnal BP) and HbA1c were compared in microalbuminuric (n = 10) and nonmicroalbuminuric NIDDM patients (n = 10) and in nondiabetic controls (n = 9). None of the patients were taking antihypertensive agents. RESULTS: In the microlbuminuric group, whereas 24 hour and daytime systolic BP differed significantly from control values (P < 0.025 and P < 0.05 respectively), there was no difference between diabetic groups. However, nocturnal systolic BP in the microalbuminuric group was significantly higher than in the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (139 vs. 125) (P < 0.05) and a significant difference was also found between the NIDDM patients and the control group (139, 125 vs. 114) (P < 0.025). In multiple regression analysis, only nocturnal systolic BP showed a significant relationship with UAE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure seen in our microalbuminuric NIDDM patients may contribute to the increased morbidity in this group.
Wang, Nian-Rong; Ye, Ya
To investigate the development of nocturnal sleep pattern in infants. Fifty healthy full-term newborns born in Chongqing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital were chosen for a prospective longitudinal study. A non-invasive sleep monitor, Actiwatch, was used to monitor infants' 12 sleep parameters on the 10th day, 28th day, the first Tuesday at the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th and 12th month after birth, each monitoring time lasting 60 hours. All sleep parameters were analyzed by two-level mixed effect model. Twenty-two boys and 25 girls completed the whole follow-up study. From birth to the 12th month after birth, the nocturnal sleep onset latency (NSOL) decreased by about 48% at 3 months of age and by 83% at 6 months of age. The nocturnal sleep efficiency (NSE%) increased from 66% to 87%, the nocturnal total sleep time (NTST) increased from 416 minutes to 517 minutes, and the longest nocturnal continuous sleeping time (L-NCST) increased from 197 minutes to 327 minutes. NSE%, NTST and L-NCST increased with age (Psleeping ability and NSE% in boys were lower than those in girls (Psleep patterns develop rapidly during the first 6 months, especially within the first 3 months after birth. Partial infantile sleep parameters are related to gender.
Fuschillo, S; De Felice, A; Gaudiosi, C; Balzano, G
Patients with severe kyphoscoliosis, with or without stable respiratory failure, frequently experience oxyhaemoglobin desaturation during sleep, exercise, or both. Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) applied during sleep has been demonstrated to be able to control nocturnal desaturations and also improve diurnal respiratory failure, if this is present, in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a seven-day treatment with nocturnal NIPPV on exercise tolerance in a group of 6 patients with severe kyphoscoliosis and significant nocturnal and exercise-induced oxyhaemoglobin desaturation. NIPPV was applied each night for a week by means of a volume cycled pressure ventilator set in assisted/controlled mode. In each patient lung function, daytime arterial blood gas analysis, overnight non invasive recording of arterial saturation, and 6-minutes walking test were carried out initially and at the end of the NIPPV course. During nocturnal NIPPV, as compared to baseline, the percent of night time spent below 90% of oxyhaemoglobin saturation significantly fell from 20 +/- 12.8 to 2.3 +/- 1.9 (Student t-test: p = 0.017). The 6-minute walking distance significantly increased from 244.7 +/- 132.2 to 340 +/- 122.3 m (p = 0.0097). Spirometry, daytime arterial blood gas analysis, and exercise-induced oxyhaemoglobin desaturation were unaffected by treatment. A one-week course of treatment with nocturnal NIPPV improves exercise capacity in patients with severe kyphoscoliosis.
McLean, B K; Nikitovitch-Winer, M B
The possible involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the control of rhythmic secretion of prolactin has been examined in the pseudopregnant rat. Baseline data were obtained in decapitated animals in which the diuranl surge was observed in the 1430--2030 h range and the nocturnal surge during the 2330-0530 h interval. Atrial cannulation permitted a faithful reproduction of the prolactin pattern seen in decapitated rats if at least 3 days elapsed between the cannulation operation and bleeding, while cardiac puncture, under light ether anesthesia, appeared to suppress the diurnal surge. This latter observation appeared to depend on the time of sampling in relation to the onset of the dark phase of the daily lighting cycle. Atropine (35 or 70 mg/100 g BW) was found to inhibit the nocturnal surge in animals bled by either the cardiac puncture or cannulation techniques --an effect which was reversed by pretreatment with eserine (50 or 100 mug/100 g BW). Nicotine (0.75 mg/100 g BW) was found to delay, but not completely to inhibit, the nocturnal surge. When evaluated in the light of other available information, these observations suggest that a complex cholinergic mechanism is involved in control of the nocturnal rhythm of prolactin in pseudopregnancy and that the two surges, diurnal and nocturnal, are differentially controlled.
Vallderiola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Aparicio, Javier; Tarradellas, Jaume; Salazar, Gabriel; Oliver, Josep María; Callén, Antonio; Delgado, Tania; Nobbe, Fritz
Objectives. This open-label study assessed the efficacy and safety of exclusive night-time administration of transdermal rotigotine in patients with nocturnal and early morning PD symptoms. Methods. Patients with PD and nocturnal and early morning symptoms received transdermal rotigotine patches (2–16 mg/24 h) applied in the evening and removed in the morning for 3 months. Sleep disturbance was assessed with modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2). Other outcomes included a pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and short-form Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) for quality of life. Results. 74 patients completed treatment in this study. At the end of treatment, PDSS-2 total score had improved by mean 10.9 points from baseline (p < 0.001). All three PDSS-2 domain scores (sleep disturbances, nocturnal motor symptoms, and nocturnal symptoms) were also significantly improved by 41%, 56%, and 48%, respectively (p < 0.001). VAS-pain score decreased from 3.2 to 2.3 (p < 0.001). PDQ-8 score decreased from 23.8 to 18.1 (p < 0.001). The most frequently reported adverse events included nausea (9%), anxiety (4%), and dizziness (4%). Conclusions. Night-time administration of transdermal rotigotine is an effective and well tolerated treatment for nocturnal symptoms in patients with PD. PMID:26576319
... Videos for Educators Search English Español The Medical Home KidsHealth / For Parents / The Medical Home What's in ... for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a place ...
Beck, Christian W.
Home Education seems to be a successful way to educate. Academic results and socialization processes in home education are promising. Already home education is global, home educators everywhere educate their children themselves without schools. They develop new forms of local and international co-operation. Is home education an impulse to a renewing of modern education? Is home education globalization otherwise?
J. Fallon Campbell
Full Text Available Hypertension is an important manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE but reports of prevalence vary between 20-70% in published reports of adult and pediatric patients. For both children and adults with SLE, the clinical diagnosis and management of hypertension has traditionally been based on guidelines developed for the general population. In clinical trials, the criteria used for defining participants with hypertension are mostly undefined. As a first step towards formally assessing the blood pressure (BP patterns of children diagnosed with SLE, 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring data was analyzed on clinic patients who presented with prehypertension or stage I hypertension. In this pediatric SLE cohort (n=10, 20% met daytime criteria for a diagnosis of hypertension. Patterns of BP elevation varied widely with white coat, masked, isolated systolic, and diastolic nocturnal hypertension all identified. Nocturnal hypertension was detected in 60% and attenuated nocturnal BP dipping in 90% of both hypertensive and normotensive SLE patients. In SLE patients, the median nighttime systolic and diastolic loads were 25% and 15.5% compared with median daily loads of 12.5% and 11.5%. Daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP load and nocturnal dipping was compared to a control population consisting of 85 non-SLE patients under 21 years old with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension presenting to hypertension clinic. Median systolic BP dipped 5.3 mmHg in SLE patients compared to 11.9 mmHg in non-lupus (p-value = 0.001. Median diastolic BP dipped 12.9 mmHg versus 18.5 mmHg in non-lupus (p-value = 0.003. Patterns of BP dysregulation in pediatric SLE merit further exploration. Children with or without SLE displaying prehypertensive or stage 1 casual BP measurements had similar rates of hypertension by ambulatory BP monitoring. However, regardless of BP diagnosis, and independent of kidney involvement, there was an increased proportion with
Pavione Rodrigues Pereira, R; Nascimento Fagundes, S; Surry Lebl, A; Azevedo Soster, L; Machado, M G; Koch, V H; Tanaka, C
Integration of the neuromuscular system is required for maintaining balance and adequate voiding function. Children with enuresis have delayed maturation of the motor cortex, with changes in the sensory and motor systems. Along with various alterations, including the genetic, hormonal, behavioral, and sleep disturbances, and neuromotor and sensory deficits associated with nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children and adults, a consistent alteration in the posture of children with NE has been observed in the current practice. Because posture and the balance control system are strongly connected, this study aimed to investigate posture and balance in children and teenagers with NE. A total of 111 children with enuresis were recruited to the enuretic group (EG) and 60 asymptomatic children made up the control group (CG). The participants were divided into two age subgroups: (A) 7-11 years old, N = 77 for EG/A, N = 38 for CG/A; and (B) 12-16 years old, N = 34 for EG/B, N = 22 for CG/B. Balance was assessed using an electronic force plate (100 Hz) to calculate the area of the center of pressure (COP) displacement. The COP is the point that results from the action of vertical forces projected onto the force plate. Sensory integration was analyzed using a 60-s trial with the subject standing under four conditions: (1) eyes open, stable surface; (2) eyes closed, stable surface; (3) eyes open, unstable surface; (4) eyes closed, unstable surface. Posture was assessed by placing reflective anatomical landmarks on the anterior superior iliac spine, the posterior superior iliac spine, the greater trochanter, and lateral malleolus. A photograph was taken while the subject stood quietly. The angles were obtained from landmark connections using software to assess the following posture variables: pelvic ante/retroversion and pelvic ante/retropulsion. The EG showed a greater area of COP displacement compared with the CG under all four sensory conditions and both subgroups, except
Valtonen, A. K.; Ayres, M. P.
Changes in phenology are a crucial manifestation of climate change in ecological systems. Notable changes in phenology have been reported especially for high latitude systems. Are high latitude systems more sensitive to climate change because the resident species have higher physiological sensitivity to temperature? In this work, we compared the fit of three phenological models (thermal sum, photoperiod, solar day) to the time-series data of > 300 species of nocturnal moths collected with light-traps across Finland during years 1993-2004. We fitted the models separately to the data from southern and northern part of the country. We found strong support for thermal controls of phenology in 68% of the modeled species (and generations) in south and 60% in north, suggesting that at least two thirds of the species within this community are likely to shift their phenology along with rising temperatures in the future. Photoperiodic controls were more common in the north, possibly because these populations experience greater selective pressure from shorter growing seasons. Contrary to our expectations there was no tendency for greater thermal sensitivity in northern populations among species with strong thermal control of phenology. However, approximately half of the species had higher development rates at moderate temperatures (15°C) in the north, which is presumably a response to short growing seasons. When 3°C higher hourly temperatures were fitted to the thermal sum models of species with strong thermal control of phenology, southern populations shifted their phenology on average by 15.2 days (range 3.9 and 30.1) and northern populations by 11.4 days (range 2.6 and 26.7). We believe that these predictions could be improved in future with experimental studies on a variety of species, resolving species' and population specific thermal sensitivity and the control mechanisms of diapause termination in the spring. Yet, experiments on hundreds of species, like studied here
Full Text Available Background Panic disorder refers to the repeated or unexpected anxiety or panic attacks. It makes patients feel extreme pain. Although the episodes of most patients with panic disorder happen at daytime, the nocturnal panic attacks (NPA are quite common. Paients pay more attention to NPA. Insomnia is more serious in patients with NPA than those patients with panic disorder attack at daytime. Many patients may occur anxiety and avoidance behavior after NPA. Patients are often afraid of sleeping, or even do not sleep. The aim of this study is to analyze polysomnographic (PSG parameter changes and clinical concomitant symptoms of patietns with NPA, to explore the characteristics of sleep, in order to provide better diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment for these patients. Methods The features of sleep of 20 NPA patients and 23 healthy controls were monitored by video-PSG. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD were used to assess the state of anxiety, depression, and dyssomnia of the patients. Results In comparison with normal control group, the NPA group showed shortened total sleep time (TST, decreased sleep efficiency (SE and sleep maintenance rate, delayed arousal time, increased number of arousal and number of arousal episode longer than 5 minutes, increased percentage of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ, decreased percentage of NREM sleep stageⅢ and percentage of rapid eye movement (REM sleep (P 0.05, for all. In NPA group, there were 13 cases (13/20 with anxiety, 17 (17/20 with depression, 13 cases/times (13/20 with difficulty of falling asleep, 17 cases/times (17/20 with difficulties in maintaining sleep (frequent arousals and difficult to fall asleep again and 7 cases/times (7/20 with wake up early. Conclusion NPA patients present decreased deep sleep, increased shallow sleep and poor sleep quality, and are mostly accompanied with mild or moderate depression and (or anxiety
Tipton, Philip W; Wszołek, Zbigniew K
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and nocturnal leg cramps (NLCs) are common disorders affecting 7.0% and 24.1% of the population in some European countries, respectively. Patients suffering from RLS experience uncomfortable nocturnal sensations in the legs with the urge to move that dissipates while moving. NLC is characterized by abrupt muscle contraction, most often in the gastrocnemius or foot muscles, which occurs at night and may result in significant sleep disturbances. The diagnosis of these disorders has presented a challenge to health care providers because of symptom overlap with other sensory and motor disturbances with nocturnal predominance. Treatment options and approaches are lacking, partially because of our currently incomplete understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. We reviewed the medical literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of RLS and NLC with a focus on improved diagnostic accuracy and treatment approaches.
Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B
, potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were...... nocturnal RQ compared to controls (0.81 ± 0.01 vs. 0.85 ± 0.01 (mean ± SE), P = 0.01), and hence higher nocturnal fat oxidation (2.55 ± 0.13 vs. 2.09 ± 0.12 kJ/min (mean ± SE), P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Young LBW men do not exhibit reductions in 24-h EE. However, LBW subjects display increased nocturnal fat...
Horton, Kyle G; Stepanian, Phillip M; Wainwright, Charlotte E; Tegeler, Amy K
Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.
Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.
Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.
Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,* Chizuru Matsumoto,1,* Nobuko Nabetani,2 Yoshinari Yasuda,3 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Norimasa Umemura2 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Haruka Community Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Blood pressure (BP telemonitoring systems and pharmacist management programs were introduced into Haruka Community Pharmacy. A 22-year-old healthy male came to the community pharmacy, although he was not in a diseased state, he had been informed previously that he had a moderately high BP during a routine examination. He continued home BP telemonitoring for 28 days. A pharmacist intervention was conducted at 2 week intervals. His average nighttime systolic BP was higher than the daytime systolic BP. The pharmacist consulted a doctor based on the BP telemonitoring results, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was initiated. The doctor detected nocturnal hypertension based on the results of ABPM monitoring. BP telemonitoring systems have been introduced into a small percentage of pharmacies in Japan, and this is the first case report for the usefulness of these systems in a community pharmacy. Keywords: community pharmacy, management, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
Angarita-Jaimes, N C; Parker, J E A; Abe, M; Mashauri, F; Martine, J; Towers, C E; McCall, P J; Towers, D P
Many vectors of malaria and other infections spend most of their adult life within human homes, the environment where they bloodfeed and rest, and where control has been most successful. Yet, knowledge of peri-domestic mosquito behaviour is limited, particularly how mosquitoes find and attack human hosts or how insecticides impact on behaviour. This is partly because technology for tracking mosquitoes in their natural habitats, traditional dwellings in disease-endemic countries, has never been available. We describe a sensing device that enables observation and recording of nocturnal mosquitoes attacking humans with or without a bed net, in the laboratory and in rural Africa. The device addresses requirements for sub-millimetre resolution over a 2.0 × 1.2 × 2.0 m volume while using minimum irradiance. Data processing strategies to extract individual mosquito trajectories and algorithms to describe behaviour during host/net interactions are introduced. Results from UK laboratory and Tanzanian field tests showed that Culex quinquefasciatus activity was higher and focused on the bed net roof when a human host was present, in colonized and wild populations. Both C. quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae exhibited similar behavioural modes, with average flight velocities varying by less than 10%. The system offers considerable potential for investigations in vector biology and many other fields. © 2016 The Authors.
Smolensky, Michael H; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Portaluppi, Francesco
Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like--now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children--is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm λ) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm λ) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light
Full Text Available Chakrapani Mahabala,1 Padmanabha Kamath,2 Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran,3 Narasimha D Pai,2 Aparna U Pai41Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India; 2Department of Cardiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India; 3Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India; 4Department of Radiodiagnosis, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal State, IndiaAbstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Management of hypertension is generally based on office blood pressure since it is easy to determine. Since casual blood pressure readings in the office are influenced by various factors, they do not represent basal blood pressure. Dipping of the blood pressure in the night is a normal physiological change that can be blunted by cardiovascular risk factors and the severity of hypertension. Nondipping pattern is associated with disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased proteinuria, secondary forms of hypertension, increased insulin resistance, and increased fibrinogen level. Long-term observational studies have documented increased cardiovascular events in patients with nondipping patterns. Nocturnal dipping can be improved by administering the antihypertensive medications in the night. Long-term clinical trials have shown that cardiovascular events can be reduced by achieving better dipping patterns by administering medications during the night. Identifying the dipping pattern is useful for decisions to investigate for secondary causes, initiating treatment, necessity of chronotherapy, withdrawal or reduction of unnecessary medications, and monitoring after treatment initiation. Use of this concept at the primary care level has been limited because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been the only method
Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n = 10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to
Wasilewska, J; Kaczmarski, M
Coincidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome has been discussed in recent years. Treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) reduces gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Moreover, treatment of gastroesophageal reflux with omeprazole can reduce the severity of obstructive sleep in selected individuals. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that gastroesophageal reflux does not influence sleep quality and breathing pattern during sleep in children. 24 children (14 boys, 10 girls, aged 2 months-3 years) with sleep disturbances indicating GER were studied. Standard polysomnography with parallel recording of 24-h oesophageal monitoring was performed. Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in active/REM sleep and quiet/NREM sleep was compared between nocturnal acid GER children (13 children; 7 boys, 6 girls; aged 1.28 +/- 0.95y; FRT-18.63 +/- 11.83%) and nocturnal acid GER-free controls (11 children; 7 boys, 4 girls; aged 1.64 +/- 0.97y; FRT-2.93 +/- 2.08%). Exclusion criteria were: 1. laboratory signs of infection (increasing OB, increasing CRP, increasing alpha2-globulin); 2. clinical symptoms of infection in the respiratory tract, the alimentary tract or in the urinary tract. In children with nocturnal GER higher incidence of obstructive apnea/hypopnea during REM sleep was found: AHI = 23.35/h +/- 19.1; (CI 95%11.81-34.89) vs AHI = 4.99/h +/- 3.12 in children without nocturnal GER. We found no differences between the groups in saturation < 90% time during sleep. The study confirms coincidence of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux and sleep-related breathing disorders in children. Higher number of apnea/hypopnea during REM sleep was found in children with nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux.
Baretić, Maja; Kraljević, Ivana; Renar, Ivana Pavlić
The aim was to determine which adult type 1 diabetic patient receiving multiple daily injection therapy is the most appropriate candidate for insulin pump therapy, while taking into consideration limited insulin pump affordability in Croatia. A total of 145 type 1 diabetic patients (52% diagnosed in adult age) were monitored at the Department of Endocrinology, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Zagreb University Hospital Center from 2009 to 2014. Twenty-one patients started insulin pump therapy in adulthood (seven men and 14 women, median age 27). Five patients had chronic complications (retinopathy in two, polyneuropathy in one, and both nephropathy and retinopathy in two patients). The median HbA1c at the initiation of pump therapy was 6.95% versus 6.5% after 1 year of pump therapy. Patients were stratified according to indications for insulin pump therapy (frequent and/or severe hypoglycemia, specific lifestyle, having not reached glycemic goals despite adherence/labile diabetes, and preconception). Patients could meet more than one criterion. Initially, the occurrence of hypoglycemia was analyzed by 6-day continuous glucose monitoring, while re-evaluation was done after collecting history data at 1 year ± 3 months. Initially, all patients had a median of 5 hypoglycemias/6 days (30% nocturnal) versus 1 hypoglycemia/6 days (without nocturnal) after 1 year. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test yielded a statistically significant difference in hypoglycemic events, nocturnal hypoglycemia and HbA1c. Patients commencing insulin pump therapy due to hypoglycemia initially had median HbA1c of 6.7% with 7 hypoglycemia/6 days (50% nocturnal). After one year, median HbA1c was 6% with 1 hypoglycemia/6 days (without nocturnal). In conclusion, the main indication for insulin pump therapy in adults is the frequency of hypoglycemia, especially nocturnal ones.
Sasaki, Eiji; Tsuda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Maeda, Shugo; Inoue, Ryo; Chiba, Daisuke; Okubo, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki
Sleep disturbances frequently accompany chronic pain from osteoarthritis (OA). Effective management of sleep disturbances may require successful treatment of chronic pain, a key factor in the clinical evaluation of knee OA. However, the relationship between the severity of knee OA and sleep quality is unclear. Our purpose was to correlate the prevalence of nocturnal knee pain with different OA severity levels and to determine its influence on sleep quality. Subjects included 1,214 local volunteers with mean ± SD age 58.1 ± 13.0 years. The existence and severity of knee OA were determined by the Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade, and joint space widths were measured. The presence of nocturnal knee pain and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) were assessed by self-completed questionnaires. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Knee-related factors affecting sleep quality were detected using statistical methods. The prevalence of nocturnal knee pain was 3.6%, 6.9%, 19.4%, 32.7%, and 75.0% in K/L grades 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Also, prevalence significantly increased with OA severity (P Sleep problems also increased with K/L grade (P = 0.038), and KOOS quality of life (QOL) was significantly lower in those with OA and sleep problems. Logistic regression showed that sleep problems were related to joint space narrowing (P = 0.016) and nocturnal knee pain (P = 0.039). Severe OA also disturbed onset and maintenance of sleep. The prevalence of nocturnal knee pain and sleep problems increased with the severity of OA, impacting QOL. These results suggest the necessity of appropriate nocturnal pain control. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Carlos B Zavalaga
Full Text Available Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus, the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5-7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13 were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes, birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii, which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy.
Zavalaga, Carlos B; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Becciu, Paolo; Yoda, Ken
Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus), the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5-7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13) were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes), birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata) and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii), which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy.
Pirrera, Sandra; De Valck, Elke; Cluydts, Raymond
The aim of this field study is to gain more insight into the way nocturnal road traffic noise impacts the sleep of inhabitants living in noisy regions, by taking into account several modifying variables. Participants were tested during five consecutive nights in their homes and comparisons between effective indoor and outdoor noise levels (LAeq, LAmax, number of noise events), sleep (actigraphy and sleep logs) and aspects of well-being (questionnaires) were made. Also, we investigated into what extent nocturnal noise exposure - objectively measured as well as perceived - directly relates to sleep outcomes and how the bedroom location influenced our measurements. We found that subjects living and sleeping in noisy regions correctly perceive their environment in terms of noise exposure and reported an overall discomfort due to traffic noise. In the evaluation of the objective noise levels, the inside noise levels did not follow the outside noise levels, though the different noise patterns could be described as characteristic for a noise and quiet environment. The impact on sleep, however, was only modest and we did not find any influence of noise intrusion on mood or pre-sleep arousal levels. Concerning the subjectively reported noise disturbances during the night, a clear relationship between noise and sleep outcomes could be established; with sleep onset latencies and judged sleep quality being particularly affected. The importance of inside and outside noise assessment as well as the use of multiple noise indicators in a home environment is further described. Additional emphasis is put on the determination of quiet control regions and the bedroom location, as this can alter noise levels and sleep outcomes. Also, including subjective noise evaluations during the night might not only provide crucial information on how participants experience the noise, but also allows for a more qualitative interpretation of the actual noise situation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B
Full Text Available Brown Rock-chat is a diurnal insectivorous bird commonly associated with human habitations. I report here nocturnal foraging of the species in and around Bikaner in Rajasthan. The birds showed a marked bimodal activity during their nocturnal foraging which peaked in early morning and late evening hours. Bright sodium-vapour lights that attracted a horde of insects during monsoons offered ideal foraging opportunities for the birds. This behavior is explained here as an adaptation to maximize their food intake during the period when the birds breed and their nutritional requirements are naturally high.
Sarwar, Shahzad; Chaudhry, Monazza; Ali, Natasha
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired, life-threatening haematological disorder. It is characterised by complement induced haemolytic anaemia, thrombosis and impaired bone marrow function. Thrombosis most commonly occurs in the hepatic, portal, superior mesenteric and cerebral veins. A22-year female, previously diagnosed with severe aplastic anaemia treated with anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) and cyclosporine, had become transfusion independent for more than 10 years. She presented with abdominal pain and vomiting, initially diagnosed with portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry revealed a diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria type III. She was treated with vitmamin K anatagonist and platelet transfusion.
Robinson, Joanne C; Butler, Richard J; Holland, Philip; Doherty-Williams, Dianne
This study aims to measure different aspects of self-construing in children with primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. 25 children aged 7-14 years, with nocturnal enuresis were recruited from a paediatric outpatient's unit specialising in enuresis [mean age 10.6 [males], 9.39 [females
Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Thanawattano, Chusak
The manifestations of nocturnal movements in Parkinson's disease (PD) are protean, with major disabilities related to nocturnal hypokinesia. While it can be assessed by clinical interviews and screening instruments, these are often inaccurate and prone to recall bias. In light of advances in sensor technology, we explored the use of sensors in the study of nocturnal hypokinesia, by performing a systematic review of the professional literature on this topic. Evidence suggests that nocturnal hypokinesia exists even in patients in the early stages, and PD patients turned significantly less and with much slower speed and acceleration than controls, partly related to low nocturnal dopamine level. We conducted another systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the efficacy of dopaminergic agents in the treatment of nocturnal hypokinesia. Several lines of evidence support the use of long-acting drugs or by continuous administration of short-acting agents to control symptoms. Sensor parameters could be considered as one of the important objective outcomes in future clinical trials investigating potential drugs to treat nocturnal hypokinesia. Physicians should be aware of this technology as it can aid the clinical assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia and enhance the quality of patient care. In addition, the use of sensors currently is being considered for various aspects of research on early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boudewijn, Ilse M; Savenije, Olga E M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan
BACKGROUND: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and
Boudewijn, Ilse M; Savenije, Olga E M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan
BACKGROUND: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and
Cody A. Freas
Full Text Available Solitary foraging ants commonly use visual cues from their environment for navigation. Foragers are known to store visual scenes from the surrounding panorama for later guidance to known resources and to return successfully back to the nest. Several ant species travel not only on the ground, but also climb trees to locate resources. The navigational information that guides animals back home during their descent, while their body is perpendicular to the ground, is largely unknown. Here, we investigate in a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia midas, whether foragers travelling down a tree use visual information to return home. These ants establish nests at the base of a tree on which they forage and in addition, they also forage on nearby trees. We collected foragers and placed them on the trunk of the nest tree or a foraging tree in multiple compass directions. Regardless of the displacement location, upon release ants immediately moved to the side of the trunk facing the nest during their descent. When ants were released on non-foraging trees near the nest, displaced foragers again travelled around the tree to the side facing the nest. All the displaced foragers reached the correct side of the tree well before reaching the ground. However, when the terrestrial cues around the tree were blocked, foragers were unable to orient correctly, suggesting that the surrounding panorama is critical to successful orientation on the tree. Through analysis of panoramic pictures, we show that views acquired at the base of the foraging tree nest can provide reliable nest-ward orientation up to 1.75 m above the ground. We discuss, how animals descending from trees compare their current scene to a memorised scene and report on the similarities in visually guided behaviour while navigating on the ground and descending from trees.
Kayaba, Momoko; Iwayama, Kaito; Ogata, Hitomi; Seya, Yumi; Kiyono, Ken; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei
The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sleep/wakefulness and energy metabolism until next noon. In a balanced cross-over design, nine young male subjects sitting in a room-size metabolic chamber were exposed either to blue LEDs or to no light for 2 h in the evening. Wavelength of monochromatic LEDs was 465 nm and its intensity was 12.1 μW/cm(2). During sleep, sleep architecture and alpha and delta power of EEG were similar in the two experimental conditions. However, the following morning, when subjects were instructed to stay awake in a sitting position, duration judged as sleep at stages 1 and 2 was longer for subjects who received than for those who received no light exposure. Energy metabolism during sleep was not affected by evening blue light exposure, but the next morning energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and the thermic effect of breakfast were significantly lower in subjects who received blue light exposure than in those who received no light exposure. Exposure to low intensity blue light in the evening, which does not affect sleep architecture and energy metabolism during sleep, elicits drowsiness and suppression of energy metabolism the following morning.
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Cockcroft, D W; Hoeppner, V H; Werner, G D
Recurrent nocturnal asthma following a single exposure to Western Red Cedar sawdust was documented by measurements of peak flow rates in two sensitized subjects. The nocturnal asthma followed a dual asthmatic response in the first subject and a late (non-immediate) asthmatic response in the second. Both subjects developed a 10-fold reduction in the dose of histamine required to decrease the FEV1 by 20%. This cedar-induced increase in non-specific bronchial reactivity was maximal at the time of the recurrent nocturnal asthma, and persisted after nocturnal asthma had ceased and after FEV1 had returned to normal. We hypothesize that the enhanced non-specific bronchial reactivity which occurs following late asthmatic responses to bronchial challenge is the cause of recurrent nocturnal asthma following single exposure to a sensitizing agent.
Duiverman, M.L.; Wempe, J.B.; Bladder, G.; Jansen, D.F.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; Zijlstra, J.G.; Wijkstra, P.J.
Background: Long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) might improve the outcomes of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with chronic respiratory failure. A study was undertaken to investigate whether nocturnal NIPPV in addition to
Koch, B.C.P.; Hagen, E.C.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Boringa, J.B.S.; Kerkhof, G.A.; ter Wee, P.M.
Background: End-stage renal disease and its treatment are associated with sleep disturbances such as deterioration of the circadian sleep-wake pattern. Melatonin rhythm, which has an important role in this pattern, is disturbed. The nocturnal melatonin surge is absent in this population. Whether
Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Anna; Politano, Luisa
Patients affected by glycogenosis type II frequently present sleep disordered breathing. The presence of symptoms suggestive of sleep breathing disorders was investigated, by a questionnaire, in 10 patients, affected by adult or juvenile forms of glycogenosis type II. Diurnal respiratory function, diaphragm weakness and nocturnal respiratory pattern were evaluated at the enrolment. In patients presenting sleep disordered breathing, the same parameters were re-evaluated after treatment with assisted non invasive ventilation. Out of 10 patients, 5 presented symptoms suggestive of sleep-disordered breathing at the baseline, 2 a pattern of sleep apnea syndrome and 3 nocturnal hypoventilation. All patients presented diaphragmatic weakness. No correlation was found between forced vital capacity values (FVC) in sit position and nocturnal respiratory disorders. Five patients with respiratory disorders were treated with non invasive ventilation. All patients - after one month of treatment - showed an improvement in symptoms with reduced diurnal hypersomnia (ESS < 10), absence of morning headaches and nocturnal awakenings, and reduced nicturia regardless the modality of ventilation. We recommend that all patients with glycogenosis type II, once diagnosed, are carefully monitored for the development of respiratory involvement, even in the absence of reduced FVC values and in the early stages of the disease, to receive appropriate therapy.
Porter, P A; Byrne, G; Stick, S; Jones, T W
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of nocturnal hypoglycaemia on sleep architecture in adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). DESIGN: 20 adolescents with IDDM (mean age 12.8 years, mean glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.9%) were studied on one night. Plasma glucose was measured every 30 minutes and cortisol and growth hormone levels every 60 minutes. Sleep was recorded using standard polysomnographic montages, and sleep architecture was analysed for total sleep time, stages 1-4, rapid eye movement, fragmentation, and arousals. RESULTS: Six subjects (30%) became hypoglycaemic (five subjects < 2.5 mmol/l), with one being symptomatic. There were no differences in age, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, or insulin regimen between hypoglycaemic and non-hypoglycaemic subjects. Hypoglycaemia was not predicted by glucose measurements before bed. There was no detectable rise in plasma cortisol or growth hormone concentrations during hypoglycaemia. Sleep architecture was not disturbed by nocturnal hypoglycaemia with no differences found in sleep stages, fragmentation, or arousals. CONCLUSIONS: Nocturnal hypoglycaemia is a common and usually asymptomatic complication of treatment in adolescents with IDDM. Moderate hypoglycaemia has not been shown to affect sleep architecture adversely. These findings are consistent with, and may explain, the observation that severe hypoglycaemia, with consequent seizure activity, is more common at night than during the day. Counterregulatory hormone responses to nocturnal hypoglycaemia may be less marked than with similar degrees of diurnal hypoglycaemia. PMID:8869191
Knudsen, U B; Rittig, Søren; Nørgaard, J P
Eight patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (age 11-24 years) were investigated prior to and after 24 weeks of desmopressin treatment in order to evaluate the impact on the endogenous vasopressin secretion and urinary output. No effect on plasma vasopressin, diurnal urinary volume, and...
Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H
To determine the frequency of nocturnal eating (NE) and sleep related eating disorder (SRED) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) versus psychophysiological insomnia (INS), and the relationship of these conditions with dopaminergic and sedative-hypnotic medications. Prospective case series. Sleep disorders center. Newly diagnosed RLS or INS. RLS or INS pharmacotherapy with systematic follow up interview for NE/SRED. Patients presenting with RLS (n = 88) or INS (n = 42) were queried for the presence of NE and SRED. RLS patients described nocturnal eating (61%) and SRED (36%) more frequently than INS patients (12% and 0%; both p RLS patients (64%; p = 0.003). Among patients on sedative-hypnotics, amnestic SRED and sleepwalking were more common in the setting of RLS (80%) than INS (8%; p RLS were not secondary to dopaminergic therapy, as RLS patients demonstrated a substantial drop (68% to 34%; p = 0.0026) in the frequency of NE after dopamine agents were initiated, and there were no cases of dopaminergic agents inducing novel NE or SRED. NE is common in RLS and not due to frequent nocturnal awakenings or dopaminergic agents. Amnestic SRED occurs predominantly in the setting of RLS mistreatment with sedating agents. In light of previous reports, these findings suggest that nocturnal eating is a non-motor manifestation of RLS with several clinical implications discussed here.
Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Kapoor, Kulwant Singh
Study Design Prospective cohort study with questionnaire. Purpose To compare the treatment outcome of nocturnal leg cramps in lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) patients on conservative treatment with historical surgical cohorts and to determine the sensitivity and specificity as well as positive predictive value and negative predictive value of knee flexion test suggested for LSCS patient. Overview of Literature True prevalence of nocturnal leg cramps in LSCS patients as well as the clinical outcome of its surgical treatment have been reported. Methods A questionnaire suggested from previous study with minor modifications was used in this study. Clinical data was collected. Knee flexion test was performed in two groups. Results The prevalence of nocturnal leg cramp was higher in the LSCS group compared to the control group (second group). In LSCS patients, 38 (88%) had improved leg cramps after the conservative treatment, 3 (6.97%) remained unchanged, and 2 (4.6%) had worsened leg cramps. Of the 43 patients, 21 (48.8%) had no disturbance to their activities of daily living. In the LSCS group, the sensitivity and specificity of the knee flexion test was 53.5% and 33.3%, respectively. The knee flexion test in the LSCS group had a positive predictive value and a negative predictive value of 65.71% and 23.1%, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that nocturnal leg cramps were significantly more frequent in LSCS patients than in the control group. PMID:25346815
Tang, Xiaojing; Hu, Xiaohong; Mei, Changlin; Yu, Shengqiang
Resistant hypertension is a common and refractory complication of hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of resistant hypertension treated successfully by nocturnal HD. A 63-year-old female with end-stage kidney disease was hospitalized for severe headache, objective vertigo and persistent vomiting for 1 month on February 6, 2012. She had been on intermittent HD for 3 months, and her blood pressure maintained 200-240/100-130 mm Hg even after using 7 kinds of antihypertensive drugs including olmesartan, benazepril, nitrendipine, arotinolol, terazosin, clonidine and torasemide. A CT of the abdomen revealed a mild hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland (fig. 1). However, plasma renin, angiotensin and aldosterone were all within the normal range. Nocturnal extended HD was initiated with a blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a dialysis time of 7 h. After 3 months of nocturnal HD, all symptoms were relieved and her systolic blood pressure started to decrease by 10-20 mm Hg. Six months later, the predialysis blood pressure was decreased to 140-160/90-100 mm Hg and the antihypertensive drugs were reduced to 4 kinds. Meanwhile, the blood biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were all controlled well during 2 years of treatment. This case indicates that nocturnal extended HD is probably a promising and effective choice for resistant hypertension in HD patients.
Rivera-López, Ricardo; Jordán-Martínez, Laura; López-Fernández, Silvia; Rivera-Fernandez, Ricardo; Tercedor, Luis; Sáez-Roca, Germán
To analyze the prognostic value of nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable nocturnal pulse-oximetry in patients hospitalized due to heart failure and its relation to mortality and hospital readmission. We included 38 patients who were admitted consecutively to our unit with the diagnosis of decompensated heart failure. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia when more than 10 desaturations per hour were recorded during sleep. Follow-up was performed for 30.3 (standard deviation [SD] 14.2) months, the main objective being a combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and hospital readmission due to heart failure. The average age was 70.7 (SD 10.7) years, 63.3% were males. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia in 27 (71%) patients. Patients with positive pulse-oximetry had the most frequent endpoint (9.1%  vs. 61.5% , P = 0.003). After multivariate analysis, continuous nocturnal hypoxemia was related to the combined endpoint (HR = 8.37, 1.19-68.4, P = 0.03). Patients hospitalized for heart failure and nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable pulse-oximeter have an increased risk of hospital readmission and death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sandra Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Frederick C. Meinzer; Jose A. Hinojosa; William A. Hoffman; Augusto C. Franco
The impact of nocturnal water loss and recharge of stem water storage on predawn disequilibrium between leaf (ΨL) and soil (Ψ S) water potentials was studied in three dominant tropical savanna woody species in central Brazil (Cerrado). Sap flow continued throughout the night during the dry season and...
Weersink, EJM; vanZomeren, EH; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS
It has been shown that asthmatics have nocturnal symptoms associated with impaired cognitive performance. We explored more carefully different therapeutic approaches on this performance in relation to lung function in 46 atopics with mild to moderate asthma and with a circadian variation in peak
Pittendrigh, Colin S.; Daan, Serge
1. In the first part of the paper, the model of non-parametric entrainment of circadian pacemakers is tested for the case of nocturnal rodents. The model makes use of the available data on freerunning period (τ) in constant darkness and on phase response curves (PRC) for short light pulses. It is
Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the ﬁrst 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.
Spruill, Tanya M.; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Chaplin, William F.; Butler, Mark; Palfrey, Amy; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Agyemang, Charles; Ravenell, Joseph
African Americans exhibit a lower degree of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping compared with Whites, but the reasons for reduced BP dipping in this group are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors associated with BP dipping in a population-based cohort of
Zhang, J.H.; Lamers, F.; Hickie, I.B.; He, J.P.; Feig, E.; Merikangas, K.R.
Study Objectives: Recent studies have suggested that nonrestorative sleep (NRS) symptoms may be distinct from nocturnal insomnia symptoms (NIS). However, there is limited information on the demographic, medical, and biologic correlates of NRS independent from NIS in the general population. This
We report a case of posterior urethral valve (PUV) in a six year old boy with nocturnal eneuresis and failure to thrive as the only presenting symptoms. The clinically occult lesion was only unravelled when micturating cystourethrogram revealed a dilated posterior urethra with a distal narrow stream of opacified urine, bilateral ...
Mahrt, Larry; Heald, R. C.; Lenschow, D. H.
In an effort to describe the basic vertical structure of the nocturnal boundary layer, observations from four experiments are analyzed. During the night, the depth of significant cooling appears to increase with time while the depth of the turbulence and height of the low level wind maximum tend ...
J.A. Torres; R.R. Snelling; M. Canals
Nocturnal nuptial flights of ants were studied at Guaynabo and Guanica in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A great proportion of the species had a high frequency of flights during the year with little seasonality in the frequency of flights. Flights were less frequent during the dry season. Nuptlal flights at Guaynabo occurred mostly during the post-sunset (18:30-22...
WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; POSTMA, DS; AUFFARTH, B; TEENGS, JP; KOETER, GH
Effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral beta-agonist bambuterol on the nocturnal worsening of asthma were studied in patients with allergic asthma with a circadian peak expiratory flow variation greater-than-or-equal-to 15% (group 1, n = 8) and
Bijnen, S.T. van; Wouters, D.; Mierlo, G.J. van; Muus, P.; Zeerleder, S.
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by complement-mediated hemolysis and a high risk of life-threatening venous and arterial thrombosis. Uncontrolled complement activation and the release of cell-free heme may result in systemic inflammation, neutrophil activation,
van Bijnen, S. T. A.; Wouters, D.; van Mierlo, G. J.; Muus, P.; Zeerleder, S.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by complement-mediated hemolysis and a high risk of life-threatening venous and arterial thrombosis. Uncontrolled complement activation and the release of cell-free heme may result in systemic inflammation, neutrophil activation, and the
Full Text Available Objectives : To determine the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and assess risk factors that can cause this disease. Methods : After the determination of 15 primary schools in the provincial center of Ankara, questionnaires were given to 15,150 students to be answered by their parents. Detailed urologic history was obtained and physical examination applied to the students whose parents answered the questionnaire. After excluding children with polysymptomatic NE, 14060 questionnaires of MNE patients were evaluated. Demographic features with social and medical history of students and their parents, general approach of family to the children, school success of the students and general behavioral attitudes, method of toilet training and the presence of nocturnal enuresis were questioned. Results : MNE was determined in 9.0% (n: 1266 of the students and nocturnal enuresis frequency was higher in boys than girls (P< 0.05. Univariate analysis revealed gender, method of toilet training, sleep problems, school success, and general approach of the family to children and general behavioral attitudes of the children as significant factors. In logistic regression analysis; age, male gender, toilette training with threatening method, deep sleeper, sleep walking, being introverted and shy, significantly increases the risk of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusions : The current study suggests that the methods of toilet training are extremely important to prevent bedwetting and behavioral disorders due to enuresis. Parents should be well-informed about the appropriate toilet training method.
Density measurements revealed the height distribution of the ongoing migration up to 4km above ground level (agl). Daily radiosondes provided information on temperature, humidity, pressure and wind profiles up to 4km agl. We compared height distributions of nocturnal migrants with predictions based on the atmospheric ...
Collier, J; Butler, R J; Redsell, S A; Evans, J H C
This study sought to evaluate the relationship between the self-esteem and the self-image of children with nocturnal enuresis and to examine these in relation to various aspects of clinical and demographic variables. Previous studies investigating the self-esteem of bedwetting children have had mixed findings. Some studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis have a lower self-esteem than their non-bedwetting peers, but other studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis perceive themselves similarly to non-bedwetting children. However, what have not been studied to date are the self-perceptions of bedwetting children treated in community clinics. A total of 114 bedwetting children treated in community clinics provided the sample. School nurses conducted a routine first-visit assessment, collected baseline demographic and social information and invited children to complete the Butler Self-Image Profile and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Age and extent of wetting were not significantly related to self-concept measures. Girls had significantly (p = 0.008) higher scores on positive self-image compared with boys. Children with secondary enuresis also scored higher on positive self-image compared with those with primary nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.02). The Butler self-image scores indicated a number of significant links between positive self-image and enuresis variables, whereas the Coopersmith self-esteem scores generally failed to distinguish between the enuresis variables and closely reflected those of the negative self-image scores. These findings suggest that amongst children with nocturnal enuresis, the most vulnerable in terms of self-image are male, those with primary enuresis and those with a greater number of wet nights a week.
Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C
In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Garrett, Eva C; Dennis, John C; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Durham, Emily L; Burrows, Anne M; Bonar, Christopher J; Steckler, Natalie K; Morrison, Edward E; Smith, Timothy D
This study investigates the vomeronasal organ in extant nocturnal strepsirhines as a model for ancestral primates. Cadaveric samples from 10 strepsirhine species, ranging from fetal to adult ages, were studied histologically. Dimensions of structures in the vomeronasal complex, such as the vomeronasal neuroepithelium (VNNE) and vomeronasal cartilage (VNC) were measured in serial sections and selected specimens were studied immunohistochemically to determine physiological aspects of the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Osteological features corresponding to vomeronasal structures were studied histologically and related to 3-D CT reconstructions. The VNC consistently rests in a depression on the palatal portion of the maxilla, which we refer to as the vomeronasal groove (VNG). Most age comparisons indicate that in adults VNNE is about twice the length compared with perinatal animals. In VNNE volume, adults are 2- to 3-fold larger compared with perinatal specimens. Across ages, a strong linear relationship exists between VNNE dimensions and body length, mass, and midfacial length. Results indicate that the VNNE of nocturnal strepsirhines is neurogenic postnatally based on GAP43 expression. In addition, based on Olfactory Marker Protein expression, terminally differentiated VSNs are present in the VNNE. Therefore, nocturnal strepsirhines have basic similarities to rodents in growth and maturational characteristics of VSNs. These results indicate that a functional vomeronasal system is likely present in all nocturnal strepsirhines. Finally, given that osteological features such as the VNG are visible on midfacial bones, primate fossils can be assessed to determine whether primate ancestors possessed a vomeronasal complex morphologically similar to that of modern nocturnal strepsirhines. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Cabezas-Guerrero, Milton F.; Bento, José Maurício S.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants ( Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer ( Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar ( Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey. Additionally, we examined whether the earwig preferred odors emitted from short- or long-term damaged maize. We first determined the earwig diel foraging rhythm and confirmed that D. luteipes is a nocturnal predator. Olfactometer assays showed that during the day, although the earwigs were walking actively, they did not discriminate the volatiles of undamaged maize plants from those of herbivore damaged maize plants. In contrast, at night, earwigs preferred volatiles emitted by maize plants attacked by D. saccharalis or S. frugiperda over undamaged plants and short- over long-term damaged maize. Our GC-MS analysis revealed that short-term damaged nocturnal plant volatile blends were comprised mainly of fatty acid derivatives (i.e., green leaf volatiles), while the long-term damaged plant volatile blend contained mostly terpenoids. We also observed distinct volatile blend composition emitted by maize damaged by the different caterpillars. Our results showed that D. luteipes innately uses nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey. Moreover, the attraction of the earwig to short-term damaged plants is likely mediated by fatty acid derivatives.
... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...
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Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HOME Investment Partnership Program (HOME) is authorized under Title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act. HOME provides formula grants to...
Bruns, W; Steinborn, F; Menzel, R; Staritz, B; Bibergeil, H
The whole-day continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with portable pumps in daily blood glucose autocontrol guarantees a more stabile and favourable glycaemia than multiple injections in labile type I diabetics. The success is mainly to be traced back to the continuous replacement of the basal secretion, particularly to the nocturnal fasting phase. In this study the effect on the glycaemia is investigated with exclusively nocturnal administration of the CSII under maintenance of multiple insulin injections during this day. In a group of 18 type I diabetics the nocturnal CSII in comparison to intermediate insulin administrations in the evening led to a significant improvement of glycaemia (p less than 0.01), in particular to the decrease of the fasting blood sugars (p less than 0.05). In two casuistic observations in comparison to all the other conventional methods for the compensation of the nocturnal glycaemia (depot insulin, nocturnal injection of normal insulin) the nocturnal CSII proved to be superior. Therefore, the nocturnal CSII is an--though more rarely to be used--alternative, which may be taken into consideration, of a whole-day CSII is temporarily unwished for.
Rejane de P. Meneses
profissionais e familiares.OBJECTIVES: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE plays a very important role in the practice of pediatrics due to its high prevalence, its psychosocial impact, and its controversial etiology and treatment. Our objective was to show that MNE can be a well-defined clinical entity (monosymptomatic, but it can also be a symptom of urinary disorder, thus requiring a completely different therapeutic approach. METHODS: The literature presents numerous publications related to the matter of MNE, thus we tried to select, for this review, the classical and the most recent publications from internationally recognized authors; in addition, we also have a 13-year work experience at the Unit for Urinary Disorders of the Pediatric Nephrology Center of the state of Paraná (Unidade de Distúrbios Miccionais - Centro de Nefrologia Pediatrica do Paraná. RESULTS: The lack of a well-defined, international consensus on the concept, terminology, and classification of MNE is an obstacle for the assessment of the numerous studies found in the literature. The individualization of the MNE clinical entity is the fundamental starting point for providing appropriate guidance for patients. Enuresis can be found in most societies and, thus, it gives way to several interpretations and forms of treatment. There is a consensus, however, on the damage to the self-esteem of enuretic children, and consequently, on the advantage of proper treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, MNE is kept as a family secret while children remain without proper guidance and treatment and suffering with the lack of understanding and damage to their self-esteem. Doctors should survey patients extensively for MNE during pediatric appointments. It is possible to discard other diagnoses with a detailed survey of habits, quality of the urination, and history of urinary infection and a meticulous physical examination. MNE should be faced as a medical problem worthy of the attention of professionals and
Ringbaek, T.; Lange, P.; Mogensen, T.
Acute exacerbation of COPD is a major cause of hospitalisation in Denmark. Most of the patients require supplemental oxygen in the acute phase and some patients continue oxygen therapy at home after discharge. In this paper we discuss the physiological mechanisms of respiratory failure seen in ac...
Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Clark, Andrew; Gilliland, Jason; Miller, Michael R; Edwards, Jane; Haidar, Tania; Batey, Brandon; Vogt, Kelly N; Parry, Neil G; Fraser, Douglas D; Merritt, Neil
The London Health Sciences Centre Home Safety Program (HSP) provides safety devices, education, a safety video, and home safety checklist to all first-time parents for the reduction of childhood home injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the HSP for the prevention of home injuries in children up to 2 years of age. A program evaluation was performed with follow-up survey, along with an interrupted time series analysis of emergency department (ED) visits for home injuries 5 years before (2007-2013) and 2 years after (2013-2015) implementation. Spatial analysis of ED visits was undertaken to assess differences in home injury rates by dissemination areas controlling differences in socioeconomic status (i.e., income, education, and lone-parent status) at the neighborhood level. A total of 3,458 first-time parents participated in the HSP (a 74% compliance rate). Of these, 20% (n = 696) of parents responded to our questionnaire, with 94% reporting the program to be useful (median, 6; interquartile range, 2 on a 7-point Likert scale) and 81% learning new strategies for preventing home injuries. The median age of the respondent's babies were 12 months (interquartile range, 1). The home safety check list was used by 87% of respondents to identify hazards in their home, with 95% taking action to minimize the risk. The time series analysis demonstrated a significant decline in ED visits for home injuries in toddlers younger than2 years of age after HSP implementation. The declines in ED visits for home injuries remained significant over and above each socioeconomic status covariate. Removing hazards, supervision, and installing safety devices are key facilitators in the reduction of home injuries. Parents found the HSP useful to identify hazards, learn new strategies, build confidence, and provide safety products. Initial finding suggests that the program is effective in reducing home injuries in children up to 2 years of age. Therapeutic/care management study
Akan, Serkan; Ürkmez, Ahmet; Yildirim, Caglar; Sahin, Aytac; Yüksel, Özgür Haki; Verit, Ayhan
Secondary nocturnal enuresis is generally seen between 5 and 7 years of age and it is rarely encountered when compared with the primary incontinence. Patients with suggested diagnosis of secondary nocturnal enuresis should be examined for neurological and spinal anomalies and diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure and urinary tract infection should be ruled out in differential diagnosis (1-3). Herein, we are presenting case reports of adolescent patients with secondary nocturnal enuresis refractory to medical therapy and developed after in-vehicle and extravehicular accidents.
Full Text Available Secondary nocturnal enuresis is generally seen between 5 and 7 years of age and it is rarely encountered when compared with the primary incontinence. Patients with suggested diagnosis of secondary nocturnal enuresis should be examined for neurological and spinal anomalies and diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, renal failure and urinary tract infection should be ruled out in differential diagnosis (1-3. Herein, we are presenting case reports of adolescent patients with secondary nocturnal enuresis refractory to medical therapy and developed after in-vehicle and extravehicular accidents.
Colles, S L; Dixon, J B; O'Brien, P E
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by a time-delayed pattern of eating relative to sleep, where most food is consumed in the evening and night. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of NES and nocturnal snacking by exploring the relationship between NES and (1) obesity, (2) binge eating disorder (BED) and (3) psychological distress. One hundred and eighty bariatric surgery candidates, 93 members of a non-surgical weight loss support group and 158 general community respondents (81 males/350 females, mean age: 45.8+/-13.3 years, mean body mass index (BMI): 34.8+/-10.8 and BMI range: 17.7-66.7). NES diagnosis required within the previous 3 months: (1) no appetite for breakfast, (2) consumption of > or =50% of daily energy after 1900 hours and (3) sleep difficulties > or =3 nights/week. Nocturnal snacking (awakening to eat) was recorded. Validated questionnaires assessed BED, symptoms of depression, appearance dissatisfaction (AD) and mental health-related quality of life (MHQoL). NES and binge eating (BE) (> or =1 episode/week) were confirmed by interview. NES criteria were met by 11.1% of the total cohort. Across all groups, BE (P=0.001), BMI (P=0.003) and male gender (P=0.013) explained 10% of NES variance. Individuals with co-morbid NES and BE reported similarly elevated psychological distress as other binge eaters. NES alone was not associated with psychological distress. Those with NES who consumed nocturnal snacks reported poorer MHQoL (P=0.007) and greater depressive symptoms (P=0.039) and hunger (P=0.013) than others with NES. Low MHQoL (P=0.007) and male gender (P=0.022) explained 27% of the variance in the nocturnal snacking group. In this study, NES was positively associated with BMI, BE and male gender. Elevated psychological distress was only apparent in those who consumed nocturnal snacks. Further characterization and understanding of the clinical significance of NES and nocturnal snacking is required.
Strauss, Sharon Y; Stanton, Maureen L; Emery, Nancy C; Bradley, Carrie A; Carleton, Alexandra; Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Ervin, Olivia A; Gray, Levi N; Hamilton, Andrew M; Rogge, Jennifer Harrington; Harper, Skye D; Law, Kimberley Cook; Pham, Vinh Q; Putnam, Matthew E; Roth, Tara M; Theil, Jacob H; Wells, Lara M; Yoshizuka, Eric M
Although much of the theory on the success of invasive species has been geared at escape from specialist enemies, the impact of introduced generalist invertebrate herbivores on both native and introduced plant species has been underappreciated. The role of nocturnal invertebrate herbivores in structuring plant communities has been examined extensively in Europe, but less so in North America. Many nocturnal generalists (slugs, snails, and earwigs) have been introduced to North America, and 96% of herbivores found during a night census at our California Central Valley site were introduced generalists. We explored the role of these herbivores in the distribution, survivorship, and growth of 12 native and introduced plant species from six families. We predicted that introduced species sharing an evolutionary history with these generalists might be less vulnerable than native plant species. We quantified plant and herbivore abundances within our heterogeneous site and also established herbivore removal experiments in 160 plots spanning the gamut of microhabitats. As 18 collaborators, we checked 2000 seedling sites every day for three weeks to assess nocturnal seedling predation. Laboratory feeding trials allowed us to quantify the palatability of plant species to the two dominant nocturnal herbivores at the site (slugs and earwigs) and allowed us to account for herbivore microhabitat preferences when analyzing attack rates on seedlings. The relationship between local slug abundance and percent cover of five common plant taxa at the field site was significantly negatively associated with the mean palatability of these taxa to slugs in laboratory trials. Moreover, seedling mortality of 12 species in open-field plots was positively correlated with mean palatability of these taxa to both slugs and earwigs in laboratory trials. Counter to expectations, seedlings of native species were neither more vulnerable nor more palatable to nocturnal generalists than those of
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Nocturnal Oximetry (NO as a diagnostic screening tool for obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS, compared with polysomnography (PSG as the gold standard. Methodology: 63 patients with clinical suspicion of OSAHS and exclusion of respiratory disease underwent PSG and NO. We then determined NO sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV. Results: OSAHS was diagnosed in 47 patients with a mean age of 54 years. In the evaluation of the percentage of Total Sleep Time (TST with oxygen desaturation below 90%, we found significant differences between patients with OSAHS (25.4Â Â±Â 29.7% and without OSAHS (1Â Â±Â 1.5%, p<0,001. We used two cutoff points to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV, based on the severity of O2 desaturation (StO2<90%. Using the first cutoff point we diagnosed with NO as positive all the patients with TST desaturation values â¥1% of the TST. Under these circumstances we found a sensitivity of 76.6%, a specificity of 75%, a PPV of 90% and an NPV value of 52.2% for our screening test (NO. Using the second cutoff point, we diagnosed with NO as positive all the patients with TST desaturation values â¥5% of the TST. With this method we found a sensitivity of 65.9%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 50%. Conclusion: NO is a useful screening test for the diagnosis of OSAHS in patients without respiratory disease. Resumo: Objectivo: Foi objectivo deste estudo determinar a sensibilidade e a especificidade da oximetria nocturna (ON como mÃ©todo de screening diagnÃ³stico para a sÃndroma de apneia-hipopneia obstrutiva do sono (SAHOS, utilizando como mÃ©todo de referÃªncia a polissonografia (PSG. Metodologia: Foram incluÃdos 63 doentes com suspeita clÃnica de SAHOS e exclusÃ£o de doenÃ§a respiratÃ³ria, sendo
Guo, Wen-Bin; Zou, Ya-Guang; Li, Fei; Zhou, Qi-Zhao; Li, Tie-Qiun; Jing, Xiao-Wei; Zheng, Shao-Bin; Tan, Wan-Long; Liu, Cun-Dong; Mao, Xiang-Ming
The ratio of psychological to organic ED changes with aging. This study aimed to analyze the results of nocturnal electrobioimpedance volumetric assessment (NEVA) for ED patients of different age groups and their significance in the diagnosis of ED. A total of 83 ED patients were divided into 4 age groups ( or = 50 yr) and detected for nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) by NEVA. Thirty-four of the cases were diagnosed as organic ED, and the other 49 as psychological ED. With the increase of age, the former was increased from 30.3% in the or = 50 yr group, while the latter decreased from 69.7% to 40.0%. The percentage of organic ED tends to grow with the increase of age, while that of psychological ED is just the opposite.
Korenke, Georg-Christoph; Eggert, Marlene; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Steinlein, Ortrud K
Mutations in NPRL3, one of three genes that encode proteins of the mTORC1-regulating GATOR1 complex, have recently been reported to cause cortical dysplasia with focal epilepsy. We have now analyzed a multiplex epilepsy family by whole exome sequencing and identified a frameshift mutation (NM_001077350.2; c.1522delG; p.E508Rfs*46) within exon 13 of NPRL3. This truncating mutation causes an epilepsy phenotype characterized by early childhood onset of mainly nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The penetrance in our family was low (three affected out of six mutation carriers), compared to families with either ion channel- or DEPDC5-associated familial nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The absence of apparent structural brain abnormalities suggests that mutations in NPRL3 are not necessarily associated with focal cortical dysplasia but might be able to cause epilepsy by different, yet unknown pathomechanisms. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.
Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B
The purpose of the study was to investigate possible regional variations in recently discovered nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rates. Approximately 90 min after going to sleep, a 100% blood flow rate increment, lasting about 100 min, has been demonstrated in the distal and medial...... aspect of the right lower leg of normal human subjects. In the present study subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rates were measured simultaneously in the right and left lower legs of 16 normal human subjects over 12-20 h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe wash-out technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors...... and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depots were applied on the medial aspects of the right lower leg and on the medial (series 1) and lateral (series 2) aspect of the left lower leg 10 cm proximal to the malleolar level by means of the epicutaneous, atraumatic labelling technique. A nocturnal...
Luís Felipe Toledo
Full Text Available Visual communication seems to be widespread among nocturnal anurans, however, reports of these behaviors in many Neotropical species are lacking. Therefore, we gathered information collected during several sporadic field expeditions in central and southern Brazil with three nocturnal tree frogs: Aplastodiscus perviridis, Hypsiboas albopunctatus and H. bischoffi. These species displayed various aggressive behaviors, both visual and acoustic, towards other males. For A. perviridis we described arm lifting and leg kicking; for H. albopunctatus we described the advertisement and territorial calls, visual signalizations, including a previously unreported behavior (short leg kicking, and male-male combat; and for H. bischoffiwe described the advertisement and fighting calls, toes and fingers trembling, leg lifting, and leg kicking. We speculate about the evolution of some behaviors and concluded that the use of visual signals among Neotropical anurans may be much more common than suggested by the current knowledge.
Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Pichard, Nadège; Charbuy, Henriette; Touitou, Yvan
Many studies in autistic disorder report sleep problems and altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology. Additionally, melatonin, a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology. Nocturnal urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay in groups of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (n = 49) and normal control individuals (n = 88) matched on age, sex, and Tanner stage of puberty. Nocturnal 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion rate was significantly and substantially lower in patients with autism than in normal controls (mean +/- SEM, .75 +/- .11 vs. 1.80 +/- .17 microg/hr, p =.0001), and was significantly negatively correlated with severity of autistic impairments in verbal communication and play (p autistic disorder, and to determine the utility of melatonin administration in individuals with autism.
Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi
Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.
Hellmuth, Ellinor Adelheid; Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L
BACKGROUND: Excellent metabolic control before conception and during diabetic pregnancies is the aim in order to avoid malformations and perinatal morbidity. Since an inverse correlation between median blood glucose concentration (BG) and hypoglycemia as well as a high prevalence of nocturnal...... hypoglycemia have been described, we investigated the frequency of nocturnal hypoglycemia and the predictive value of bedtime blood glucose concentration for development of this condition in insulin treated diabetic patients. METHODS: During hospitalization, with no other changes in the patients' normal...... the night, caused by either discomfort or cannula problems. Of the remaining 43 patients, 16 (37%) had at least one blood glucose prevalence at 05 h. Only one patient felt hypoglycemic during the night. Hemoglobin A1c was similar...
Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.
Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at diurnal roost trees remain largely uninvestigated. For example, the influence of reproductive status, weather, and roost tree and surrounding habitat characteristics on timing of emergence, intra-night activity, and entrance at their roost trees is poorly known. We examined nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis maternity colonies during pregnancy and lactation at diurnal roost trees situated in areas that were and were not subjected to recent prescribed fires at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia from 2007 to 2009. According to exit counts and acoustic data, northern myotis colony sizes were similar between reproductive periods and roost tree settings. However, intra-night activity patterns differed slightly between reproductive periods and roost trees in burned and non-burned areas. Weather variables poorly explained variation in activity patterns during pregnancy, but precipitation and temperature were negatively associated with activity patterns during lactation. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.
Weber, Peter; Jüngling, Freimut; Datta, Alexandre Niklaus
Recurrent nocturnal behavioural and movement paroxysms are a diagnostic challenge for the clinical pediatrician. We report on an adolescent girl who presents recurrent stereotypical nightmare-like episodes occurring during non-REM sleep stages 1-2 (N1 and N2). We discuss the differential diagnoses between epileptic and nonepileptic events and between nocturnal frontal and temporal seizures. The pathophysiological and unusual electroencephalographical features are discussed with respect to clinical features and results of interictal FDG-PET. Conclusion In case of stereotypical nightmare-like episodes in children or adolescents, an epileptic origin has to be ruled out before a parasomnia is diagnosed. In addition, a normal awake EEG or interictal sleep EEG in the diagnostic workup may not exclude an epileptic disorder. In case of nightly stereotypic motor or affective events, an epileptic disorder should be discussed.
Full Text Available Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively insleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE. NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved.
Cordeiro, G D; Pinheiro, M; Dötterl, S; Alves-Dos-Santos, I
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit developed, yet little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and breeding system of C. phaea. We collected the floral visitors and tested the pollinators' effectiveness. We also determined the floral scents released at night and during daytime, and studied behavioural responses of crepuscular/nocturnal bees towards these scents. The flowers of cambuci were self-incompatible and had pollen as the only resource for flower visitors. Anthesis lasted around 14 h, beginning at 04:30 h at night. The flowers released 14 volatile compounds, mainly aliphatic and aromatic compounds. We collected 52 species of floral visitors, mainly bees. Nocturnal and crepuscular bees (four species) were among the most frequent species and the only effective pollinators. In field bioassays performed at night, nocturnal/crepuscular bees were attracted by a synthetic scent blend consisting of the six most abundant compounds. This study describes the first scent-mediated pollination system between a plant and its nocturnal bee pollinators. Further, C. phaea has several floral traits that do not allow classification into other nocturnal pollination syndromes (e.g. pollinator attraction already before sunrise, with pollen as the only reward), instead it is a plant specifically adapted to nocturnal bees. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Full Text Available Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated.This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV, and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150, a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164 were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179 and awake physical activity (β = 0.190 were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336 and awake physical activity (β = 0.489 were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls.Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension.
Hirose, S; Ravi, L; Prince, G M; Rosenfeld, M G; Silber, R; Andresen, S W; Hazra, S V; Medof, M E
To identify mannosyl (Man)-containing intermediates of the human glycoinositol phospholipid (GPI) anchor pathway and examine their expression in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), mannolipid products deriving from in vitro guanosine diphosphate [3H]Man labeling of HeLa cell microsomes were characterized. The defined GPI species were correlated with products deriving from in vivo [3H]Man labeling of normal and (GPI-anchor defective) affected leukocytes. In vitro analyses in HeLa cells ...
Emily T Griffiths
Full Text Available Bird species often use flight calls to engage in social behavior, for instance maintain group cohesion and to signal individual identity, kin or social associations, or breeding status of the caller. Additional uses also exist, in particular among migrating songbirds for communication during nocturnal migration. However, our understanding of the information that these vocalizations convey is incomplete, especially in nocturnal scenarios. To examine whether information about signaler traits could be encoded in flight calls we quantified several acoustic characteristics from calls of a nocturnally migrating songbird, the American Redstart. We recorded calls from temporarily captured wild specimens during mist-netting at the Powdermill Avian Research Center in Rector, PA. We measured call similarity among and within individuals, genders, and age groups. Calls from the same individual were significantly more similar to one another than to the calls of other individuals, and calls were significantly more similar among individuals of the same sex than between sexes. Flight calls from hatching-year and after hatching-year individuals were not significantly different. Our results suggest that American Redstart flight calls may carry identifiers of gender and individual identity. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of individuality or sexual dimorphism in the flight calls of a migratory songbird. Furthermore, our results suggest that flight calls may have more explicit functions beyond simple group contact and cohesion. Nocturnal migration may require coordination among numerous individuals, and the use of flight calls to transmit information among intra- and conspecifics could be advantageous. Applying approaches that account for such individual and gender information may enable more advanced research using acoustic monitoring.
Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Juste, Javier
Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreov...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient light levels are often considered to drive the evolution of eye form and function. Diel activity pattern is the main mechanism controlling the visual environment of teleost reef fish, with day-active (diurnal fish active in well-illuminated conditions, whereas night-active (nocturnal fish cope with dim light. Physiological optics predicts several specific evolutionary responses to dim-light vision that should be reflected in visual performance features of the eye. Results We analyzed a large comparative dataset on morphological traits of the eyes in 265 species of teleost reef fish in 43 different families. The eye morphology of nocturnal reef teleosts is characterized by a syndrome that indicates better light sensitivity, including large relative eye size, high optical ratio and large, rounded pupils. Improved dim-light image formation comes at the cost of reduced depth of focus and reduction of potential accommodative lens movement. Diurnal teleost reef fish, released from the stringent functional requirements of dim-light vision have much higher morphological and optical diversity than nocturnal species, with large ranges of optical ratio, depth of focus, and lens accommodation. Conclusions Physical characteristics of the environment are an important factor in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate eye. Both teleost reef fish and terrestrial amniotes meet the functional requirements of dim-light vision with a similar evolutionary response of morphological and optical modifications. The trade-off between improved dim-light vision and reduced optical diversity may be a key factor in explaining the lower trophic diversity of nocturnal reef teleosts.
Poiani, S. [UNESP; Dietrich, C. [UNESP; Barroso, A.; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria [UNESP
Many species of insects display a disposition to move towards light. As a consequence, nocturnal artificial lighting often contributes to an increase in insect population among humans. We tested the hypothesis that residential white lamps can evoke significantly different attraction to insects even when their light outputs are nearly indistinguishable to humans. In a two-choice experiment using insect traps equipped with either a compact fluorescent or a LED light source with similar photomet...
Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Sagaspe, Patricia; Anund, Anna; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Philip, Pierre
Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years) drove 400 km (250 miles) on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm) during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP). Eight participants (17%) complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1) showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) (F(2,91.11) = 6.64; pquality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.
Ohayon, Maurice M
To (1) define the prevalence and importance of nocturnal awakenings (NA) in the general population, and (2) investigate its associations with daytime impairment, physical diseases, and psychiatric disorders. This is a cross-sectional telephone study conducted in the general population of France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Spain. A representative sample consisting of 22,740 non-institutionalized individuals aged 15 or over was interviewed regarding sleeping habits, health, sleep and mental disorders. Nocturnal awakenings were evaluated according to their frequency per week and per night and their duration. At the time of the interview, 31.2% (95% confidence interval: 30.6-31.8%) of the sample reported waking up at least 3 nights per week and 7.7% (7.4% to 8.0%) of the sample had difficulty resuming sleep (DRS) after they woke up. Duration of the symptom was longer than one year in 78.8% of the cases. DRS had greater impacts on daytime functioning than any other kind of NA or other insomnia symptoms with odds ratios five to seven times higher than individuals waking up once or twice within the same night. Individuals with painful physical condition or with a psychiatric disorder were more than four times more likely to have DRS. Other significant factors associated with NA were hypertension, cardio-vascular disease, upper airway disease, diabetes, and heavy caffeine consumption. Nocturnal awakenings are highly prevalent in the general population and strongly associated with various physical diseases and psychiatric disorders. There is also a dose response effect in the associations: odds ratios increased with the number of awakenings during the same night and the difficulty resuming sleep once awakened. The study shows that nocturnal awakenings are complex and should be assessed systematically. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai, Shirong; Tan, Sara; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Kramer, Michael S; Gooley, Joshua J
To examine the influence of maternal sleep quality and nocturnal sleep duration on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a multiethnic Asian population. A cohort of 686 women (376 Chinese, 186 Malay, and 124 Indian) with a singleton pregnancy attended a clinic visit at 26-28 weeks of gestation as part of the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort study. Self-reported sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). GDM was diagnosed based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test administered after an overnight fast (1999 WHO criteria). Multiple logistic regression was used to model separately the associations of poor sleep quality (PSQI score > 5) and short nocturnal sleep duration (sleep quality and 77 women (11.2%) were categorized as short sleepers; 131 women (19.1%) were diagnosed with GDM. Poor sleep quality and short nocturnal sleep duration were independently associated with increased risk of GDM (poor sleep, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11 to 2.76; short sleep, adjusted OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.66). During pregnancy, Asian women with poor sleep quality or short nocturnal sleep duration exhibited abnormal glucose regulation. Treating sleep problems and improving sleep behavior in pregnancy could potentially reduce the risk and burden of GDM. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cohen Engler, Anat; Hadash, Amir; Shehadeh, Naim; Pillar, Giora
Melatonin is secreted during the night in adults but not in infants. It has a hypnotic effect as well as a relaxing effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. It is plausible that breast milk, which consists of melatonin, may have an effect on improving infants' sleep and reducing infantile colic. Our first goal was to assess the differences in the prevalence and severity of infantile colic and nocturnal sleep between breast-fed infants and supplement-fed infants. The second was to characterize the profile of melatonin secretion in human breast milk compared to artificial formulas. Ninety-four mothers of healthy 2 to 4-month-old infants filled a questionnaire regarding irritability/potential infantile colic and sleep characteristics. For the second part, we measured melatonin levels in breast milk of five women every 2 h during 24 h and in three samples of commonly used artificial formulas. Exclusively breast-fed infants had a significantly lower incidence of colic attacks (p = 0.04), lower severity of irritability attacks (p = 0.03), and a trend for longer nocturnal sleep duration (p = 0.06). Melatonin in human milk showed a clear circadian curve and was unmeasurable in all artificial milks. Exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced irritability/colic and a tendency toward longer nocturnal sleep. Breast milk (nocturnal) consists of substantial melatonin levels, whereas artificial formulas do not. We speculate that melatonin which is supplied to the infant via breast milk plays a role in improving sleep and reducing colic in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed ones.
Jonathan K. Webb; David A. Pike; Richard Shine
Many prey species are faced with multiple predators that differ in the degree of danger posed. The threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis predicts that prey should assess the degree of threat posed by different predators and match their behavior according to current levels of risk. To test this prediction, we compared the behavioral responses of nocturnal velvet geckos, Oedura lesueurii, to chemicals from 2 snakes that pose different threats: the dangerous broad-headed snake Hoploceph...
Denise E. Lukacs; Melanie Poulin; Hayley Besenthal; Otto C. Fad; Stephen P. Miller; James L. Atkinson; Esther J. Finegan
The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation was used to measure the activity time budgets of at least one focal animal per observation period. The activity time budgets ...
Kremers, Dorothee; Briseño Jaramillo, Margarita; Böye, Martin; Lemasson, Alban; Hausberger, Martine
Lemasson & Hausberger : Equal contribution; International audience; Nocturnal vocal activity in dolphins is often thought to be associated with feeding activity. However, when no food resources are available dolphins spend their time for the most part resting/sleeping. While unihemispherically sleeping, dolphins mostly swim slowly and synchronously in close proximity with one or more other individuals. Although vocal activity is lower during resting/sleeping, dolphins are not entirely silent ...
Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; Kurzeja, Robert; Leclerc, Monique; Duarte, Henrique; Parker, Matthew; Watson, Thomas
The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.
Wilson, Darrell M; Calhoun, Peter M; Maahs, David M; Chase, H Peter; Messer, Laurel; Buckingham, Bruce A; Aye, Tandy; Clinton, Paula K; Hramiak, Irene; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W
Hypoglycemia remains an impediment to good glycemic control, with nocturnal hypoglycemia being particularly dangerous. Information on major contributors to nocturnal hypoglycemia remains critical for understanding and mitigating risk. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for 855 nights were studied, generated by 45 subjects 15-45 years of age with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≤8.0% who participated in a larger randomized study. Factors assessed for potential association with nocturnal hypoglycemia (CGM measurement of snack, insulin on board, day of the week, previous daytime hypoglycemia, age, gender, HbA1c level, diabetes duration, daily basal insulin, and daily insulin dose. Hypoglycemia occurred during 221 of 885 (25%) nights and was more frequent with younger age (Psnack, before bedtime insulin bolus, weekend versus weekday, gender, and daily basal and bolus insulin were not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia. Awareness that HbA1c level, exercise, bedtime BG level, and daytime hypoglycemia are all modifiable factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia may help patients and providers decrease the risk of hypoglycemia at night. Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia increased in a linear fashion across the range of variables, with no clear-cut thresholds to guide clinicians or patients for any particular night.
Schiöler, L; Ruth, M; Jõgi, R; Gislason, T; Storaas, T; Janson, C; Forsberg, B; Sigsgaard, T; Torén, K; Hellgren, J
It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a risk factor for developing rhinitis/rhinosinusitis, but data are lacking. This is a prospective 10-year follow-up study of a large multicenter cohort from Northern Europe, evaluating the relationship between nocturnal GERD and noninfectious rhinitis (NIR). The study comprised 5417 subjects born between 1945 and 1973, who answered a questionnaire in 1999-2001 and again in 2010-2012. Noninfectious rhinitis was defined as having nasal obstruction, secretion, and/or sneezing without having the common cold. Odds ratios for developing NIR in relation to age, gender, BMI, smoking, asthma, and nocturnal GERD were calculated. During the 10-year observation period, 1034 subjects (19.1%) developed NIR. Subjects reporting nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux in both 1999 and 2010 had more NIR in 2010 (2.8% vs 1.2%, P rhinitis/rhinosinusitis. GERD should therefore be considered in patients with rhinitis of known and unknown origin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Beu, Cassia M. L.; Marques, Márcia T. A.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Sakagami, Yoshiaki; Santos, Pedro A. A.; Moreira, A. C. de C. A.; Landulfo, Eduardo
Two Doppler lidars were recently used to collect data from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in Sao Paulo city (23°32'S, 46°38'W). The measurement campaign was carried out from December-2015 to February-2016, during the summer, which is the rainy season. Although Sao Paulo is the main city of a huge metropolitan region with more than 11 million of inhabitants and 7 millions of vehicles, according to the government agencies, the lack of PBL observational data is still a limitation for the atmospheric dispersion studies. Therefore, this work should contribute to the comprehension of PBL mechanisms and also for future atmospheric modeling studies. The data revealed that the nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) frequently occurred along those 3 months, but its height is highly variable, from 100 m up to 650 m. It was also seen that the nocturnal LLJs can extend for several hours, right before the sunset until sunrise. This work aims to investigate the turbulence production by the nocturnal LLJs and its influence into the stable boundary layer (SBL).
Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a focal epilepsy with seizures arising mainly during sleep and characterized by complex, often bizarre, motor behavior or sustained dystonic posturing. First described in 1981, it was initially considered a motor disorder of sleep and was named nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia (NPD). The unusual seizure semiology, onset during sleep, and often uninformative scalp EEG and brain MRI make it difficult to distinguish NPD attacks from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias. The long-debated epileptic origin of the condition was finally demonstrated in 1990 and the term NFLE introduced. Even though many aspects of parasomnias and NFLE have been clarified in the last two decades, the differential diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. To address controversial issues and define the diagnostic criteria for NFLE, a Consensus Conference was held in Bologna, Italy in 2014. Major points of agreement emerged on: (i) the relationship of the seizures with sleep and not with the circadian pattern of seizure occurrence; (ii) the possible extrafrontal origin of hypermotor seizures, without substantial differences in seizure semiology. In the wake of the Consensus, the syndrome was renamed Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy (SHE). Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alcoforado, M.-J.; Andrade, H.
In recent years, several studies have examined the Lisbon urban climate. A central conclusion is the existence of a nocturnal urban heat island (mean ΔTu-r = 2.5 °C). The aim of this paper is to summarise several attempts carried out in the last decade to interpolate nocturnal air temperatures across Lisbon, in order to be able to draw thermal maps as accurately as possible. This study refers only to clear nights. Stepwise multiple regression and a Geographic Information System were used to model the relation between air temperature and parameters related to land-use and topography. The different regression models (coefficients of determination between 0.68 and 0.92) show that canopy layer air temperature depends on sky-view factor, building height and percentage of built-up area, but also to a great extend on mesoclimatic geographic factors such as altitude, topography and distance from the Tagus River. Examples of four frequently encountered nocturnal air temperature patterns are presented, each corresponds to a different weather type. This method employed could prove useful in drawing climatic maps that may be of use in master plans of urban municipalities.
Full Text Available Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available.
Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Yoshida, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshiki; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Kuraishi, Takeshi; Hattori, Shosaku; Kondo, Tomohiro; Yoshizawa, Midori; Kai, Chieko; Kiso, Yasuo; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi
Owl monkeys are the only one species possessing the nocturnal lifestyles among the simian monkeys. Their eyes and retinas have been interested associating with the nocturnal adaptation. We examined the cellular specificity and electroretinogram (ERG) reactivity in the retina of the owl monkeys by comparison with the squirrel monkeys, taxonomically close-species and expressing diurnal behavior. Owl monkeys did not have clear structure of the foveal pit by the funduscope, whereas the retinal wholemount specimens indicated a small-condensed spot of the ganglion cells. There were abundant numbers of the rod photoreceptor cells in owl monkeys than those of the squirrel monkeys. However, the owl monkeys' retina did not possess superiority for rod cell-reactivity in the scotopic ERG responses. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the rod cells in owl monkeys' retina had very small-sized inner and outer segments as compared with squirrel monkeys. Owl monkeys showed typical nocturnal traits such as rod-cell dominance. However, the individual photoreceptor cells seemed to be functionally weak for visual capacity, caused from the morphological immaturity at the inner and outer segments.
Hsiao, Po-Jen; Wang, Shou-Chieh; Wen, Mei-Chin; Diang, Liang-Kuang; Lin, Shih-Hua
Fanconi syndrome and chronic kidney disease associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is rarely reported. We describe a 51-year-old woman with glomerular filtration rate decrease and hypokalemia, glucosuria, and proteinuria during a 4-year period. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was diagnosed 17 years earlier, and she has received multiple blood transfusions because of hemolytic episodes during the last 5 years. Deteriorating kidney function and persistent Fanconi syndrome were accompanied by a progressive increase in serum ferritin levels. Laboratory studies showed proximal renal tubular acidosis, hypophosphotemic hyperphosphaturia, normoglycemic glucosuria, and aminoaciduria. Serologic testing, tumor markers, Bence-Jones protein, and heavy-metal screening results were negative. Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed characteristic features of iron deposition in the bilateral renal cortices. Kidney biopsy showed chronic interstitial nephritis with prominent hemosiderin deposition in the proximal tubules. With potassium citrate, calcitriol, and deferoxamine therapy, Fanconi syndrome persisted, but kidney function was stable. Renal hemosiderosis secondary to both chronic repetitive hemolytic episodes and transfusion-related iron overload in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria can lead to Fanconi syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Copyright 2009 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi
In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate associations between morphometric variables, cervical circumference (CC, and abdominal circumference (AC with the presence of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. METHODS: all patients were submitted to baseline polysomnography, oral cavity measurements (maxillary intermolar distance, mandibular intermolar distance, and overjet, and CC and AC measurements. RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were evaluated. A positive correlation was observed between the height/age Z-score and CC measurement (r = 0.233, p = 0.031. The presence of nocturnal desaturation was associated with CC (59.2± 9.3 vs. 67.5 ± 10.7, p = 0.006 and AC measurements (27.0 ± 2.0 vs. 29.0± 2.1, p = 0.028. There was a negative correlation between desaturation and maxillary intermolar distance (r = -0.365, p = 0.001 and mandibular intermolar distance (r = -0.233, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: the morphometric variables of CC and AC may contribute to raise suspicion of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia.
Nielsen, F S; Hansen, H P; Jacobsen, P
AIMS: To elucidate the putative factors involved in the blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Extracellular fluid volume and fluid shift from interstitial to plasma volume (haematocrit), sympathetic nervous activity...... with the patients lying awake in bed from 21:30 to 23:00 h (baseline) and during sleep from 23:00 to 07:00 h. Using the median nocturnal blood pressure reduction (8.4%) as a guide, the patients were divided into groups; group 1 with the highest and group 2 with the lowest nocturnal blood pressure reduction. RESULTS......: Haematocrit decreased from baseline to the sleep period in group 1 by a mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 1.7 (0.3-3.1)%, but it increased by 0.5 (-1.0-1.9)% in group 2, mean difference (95% CI), -2.1 (-4.0 to -0.2)% (P = 0.029). Noradrenaline decreased from baseline to the sleep period, mean (95% CI...
Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E.; Caires, Kyle C.; Bohannon, Lisa A.; Parsons, Elizabeth I.; Hilburn, Katharine A.
This study’s objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife. PMID:25894078
Dutton, P. Leslie
This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.
Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.
Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...
Longshore, Kathleen M.; Lowrey, Chris E.; Jeffress, Matthew; Thompson, Daniel B.
Adequate management of a species requires complete knowledge of its ecology, including both nocturnal and diurnal behavior. Knowledge of the movement behavior of bighorn sheep can provide insight for understanding spatial population processes as the combined result of individual behavior, physiological constraints, and fine-scale environmental influences. However, because of past difficulties in tracking radio-collared animals in the dark, little is known about nocturnal movements of many ungulates, including desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni). The use of GPS collars that supply sequential location records over a 24-hour period has provided new opportunities for recording movements of animals. We report findings from a preliminary analysis of data on nocturnal movements of desert bighorn sheep wearing GPS collars in the Muddy Mountains, Nevada. The study is part of a larger research project on movement patterns aimed at assessing the connectivity of bighorn sheep populations that comprise the metapopulation in southern Nevada. We recorded nighttime locations at 2100 and 0400 PST and calculated a total of 8,758 nocturnal movement distances for 12 ewes and 16 rams. Nocturnal movements were characteristic of all individuals. Bighorn sheep varied in the magnitude of movement from night to night and there were significant differences among individuals in the mean distance moved. Females had a greater proportion of short movement distances when compared to males; males had the greatest proportion of long distance movements. Movement distances were affected by sex, season, and percent of the moon’s surface illumination. Mean movement distances of males were greater than those of females. For both males and females, mean movement distances were shortest during the late spring months (April-June) and greatest during summer (July–September). Mean movement distances were greatest when the moon was brightest for all seasons except late spring, when movement
Bollinger, A L; Wilson, M E; Pusateri, A E; Green, M L; Martin, T G; Diekman, M A
Twenty prepubertal crossbred gilts (Yorkshire x Hampshire x Duroc) weighing 98.1 +/- 4.2 kg at 5 mo of age were placed in an environmentally controlled room having a temperature of 18 degrees C and light:dark cycle of 12 h:12 h. Light intensity measured 700 lx at eye level to the gilts. Three mature ewes were penned adjacent to the gilts to serve as positive controls for the light-dark cycles. After a 30-d acclimation period, 10 gilts from the pool determined to be prepubertal (serum progesterone light), 1130, 1200, 2300 (4 h after onset of darkness), 2330, and 2400 for 4 d. On d 5 of sampling, gilts were transported in an open-bed truck for 15 min, returned to their original environment, and exposed to boars for 20 min. Boar exposure was repeated every day throughout the remainder of the experimental period. Blood samples were drawn from each gilt until 7 d after estrus or for 12 d in those gilts that did not exhibit estrus. Blood samples were drawn by venipuncture from the ewes during the entire experimental period. For each sampling day, within an individual gilt or ewe, means of serum concentrations of melatonin (MEL) for night (scotophase) and day (photophase) samples were calculated. After three replications were conducted, four classes of animals were obtained: ewes (n = 9); nonpubertal gilts (n = 10); and two classes of gilts that ultimately reached puberty (prepubertal [n = 16] and postpubertal [n = 16]). Across all gilts, only 65 of 406 bleeding periods (16.0%) had a nocturnal (scotophase) rise in serum MEL. The proportion of gilts expressing a nocturnal rise in serum MEL did not differ as gilts approached puberty (P > .05). Incidence of nocturnal rises of MEL was similar (P > .05) in gilts that attained puberty and gilts that did not attain puberty. Nocturnal rises in MEL were observed in 86.2% of the bleeding periods of ewes housed in the same environment. These data indicate clearly that nocturnal rises in serum MEL are not necessary for a gilt to
Baukal, Charles E
Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a
... the way. Moving from one's home to a nursing home is a big life change. Adjusting to the move and becoming comfortable will ... residents. Ask them what they like and what changes they would suggest. What ... nursing assistants and observe them with residents. Nursing assistants ...
Sekula, L K; Lucke, J F; Heist, E K; Czambel, R K; Rubin, R T
We previously reported a trend toward a higher mean nocturnal serum melatonin (MEL) concentration, based on 30-min blood sampling over 24 h, in 23 female definite endogenous depressive compared to 23 matched normal female control subjects, and no significant difference in 15 male depressives compared to their controls (Rubin et al., 1992). In both groups of patients vs. their controls, there also were trends toward an earlier MEL rise time, by about 30 min, and a later MEL peak time, by about 90 min. Because the offset of MEL secretion was not estimated in that study, the total duration of MEL secretion could not be determined. To further delineate the nocturnal MEL secretion curve, we modeled the MEL data by a linear-Beta model, a four-parameter adaptation of the Beta function. One parameter accounted-for baseline (diurnal) MEL concentration, two accounted for the shapes of the ascending and descending phases of the nocturnal secretion curve, and the fourth accounted for the area under the curve. The model permitted estimation of the start, peak, and end times of nocturnal MEL secretion. There again was a trend toward a higher mean nocturnal MEL concentration in the female depressives compared to their matched controls. There were no significant patient-control differences in secretion onset or peak times in either the women or the men except for nocturnal MEL offset time: the female patients had a trend toward a later offset time, by about 40 min, than their controls; this difference was not present in the men. With women and men analyzed together, the difference in nocturnal MEL offset time between patients and controls just reached significance (P cortisol.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) website provides consumer and provider information regarding the quality of care in nursing homes. NHQI discusses quality...
Full Text Available ... UOAA). The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...
Full Text Available ... kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Home Health Compare has information about the quality of care provided by Medicare-certified home health agencies throughout the nation. Medicare-certified means the...
... Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos en ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Home Canning and Botulism Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... myself and others safe when it comes to home-canned foods? Many cases of foodborne botulism have ...
Full Text Available ... Careers at ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills ...
Human Resources Division
Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...
... navigation Home Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email ... COLOBOMA 9 MICROPHTHALMIA, ISOLATED, WITH CORECTOPIA OPTIC DISC ANOMALIES WITH RETINAL AND/OR MACULAR DYSTROPHY Sources for ...
The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.
Full Text Available ... Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...
Dessaturação noturna: preditores e influência no padrão do sono de pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica com hipoxemia leve em vigília Nocturnal desaturation: predictors and the effect on sleep patterns in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and concomitant mild daytime hypoxemia
Renata Claudia Zanchet
predicting nocturnal desaturation, and to evaluate the influence of nocturnal desaturation on the sleep pattern of these patients. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were divided into two groups: those with nocturnal desaturation and those without. RESULTS: Comparing the first group (52% with the second, we found the following: age, 63 ± 5 years versus 63 ± 6 years; forced expiratory volume in the first second = 53 ± 31% versus 56 ± 19% predicted; ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity, 49 ± 14% versus 52 ± 10%; arterial oxygen tension, 68 ± 8 mmHg versus 72 ± 68 mmHg; and arterial oxygen saturation, 93 ± 2% versus 94 ± 1%. Patients in the nocturnal desaturation group presented lower daytime arterial oxygen saturation and nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of the sleep patterns observed. The ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity was found to correlate with forced vital capacity, daytime arterial oxygen tension and daytime arterial oxygen saturation. In addition, arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry during exercise was found to correlate with nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. However, only daytime arterial oxygen saturation was predictive of nocturnal desaturation. CONCLUSION: The only variable capable of predicting nocturnal desaturation was daytime arterial oxygen saturation. Nocturnal desaturation did not influence the sleep patterns of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accompanied by mild daytime hypoxemia.
Hammons, Christopher W.
Describes home schooling movement and argues home schooling is viable alternative to public education system. Discusses increase in home-schooled students applying to college, taking and performing well on college entrance exams (ACT and SAT), engaging in extracurricular activities, and succeeding in college. Addresses and refutes criticisms of…
Long, Joyce Fleck
Presents one family's experience with home schooling, explaining that no two home schools are alike, which is both a strength and a weakness of the movement. The paper discusses the parent's educational philosophy and the family's personal curriculum and pedagogical choices. It concludes by examining the growing trend in home schooling. (SM)
Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.
The Ohio Department of Education estimates that 15,000 children were being home-schooled in Ohio, based on a 1991 survey of school superintendents. This document presents an overview of home schooling and describes the nature and extent of home schooling in Ohio. Data are based on a review of literature, information received from national and…
This article reports that while home schooling may have particular appeal to celebrities, over the last decade families of all kinds have embraced the practice for widely varying reasons: no longer is home schooling exclusive to Christian fundamentalism and the countercultural Left. Along with growing acceptance of home schooling nationally has…
Kreuzer, Maria; von Wallpach, Sylvia; Muehlbacher, Hans
In a context of unprecedented migration home reaches high relevance. This study aims at understanding the (re-)construction of home by first generation consumer migrants. The findings provide insights into consumers’ (re-)construction of various dimensions of home and identify “inner home” as a new...
Full Text Available ... Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo ...
This checklist guides home care visitors in identifying environmental asthma triggers most commonly found in homes. It includes sections on the building, home interior and room interior and provides low-cost action steps for remediation. EPA 402-F-03-030.
Kulkarni, Gaurav; de Waal, Koert; Grahame, Sally; Collison, Adam; Roddick, Laurence; Hilton, Jodi; Gulliver, Tanya; Whitehead, Bruce; Mattes, Joerg
Some infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) may require oxygen supplementation at home but a role for overnight polysomnography (PSG) in the management of home oxygen therapy has been rarely described. Forty-one infants with BPD born at less than 30 weeks gestational age were discharged with continuous home oxygen supplementation therapy between 2010 and 2013. PSG data were recorded on oxygen supplementation versus room air at median post conceptual age of 2 months (range 1-5.5 months) (first PSG after discharge to home). Those infants who continued oxygen supplementation therapy at home had at least one more PSG before oxygen therapy was discontinued (last PSG). We also collected PSG data in 10 healthy term infants (median age 3.5 months; range 2-4 months). In infants with BPD in room air, increased numbers of central apnoeas, hypopnoeas and SaO 2 desaturations were the predominant PSG features with a median apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 16.8 events per hour (range 0-155). On oxygen supplementation therapy, median AHI dramatically improved (2.2, range 0-22; p < 0.001) and was not different from control infants (2.0, range 0-3.9; p = 0.31). AHI on room air at the last PSG when home oxygen was ceased was 4.1 per hour (range 0-13.8) slightly higher than in healthy infants. Central sleep disordered breathing in infants with BPD dramatically normalises with low flow nasal cannula home oxygen therapy and improves with age. Mild central sleep disordered breathing remains detectable, although much improved, when compared to healthy infants at the time when the decision to cease home oxygen therapy was made by the physician.
Kendzerska, Tetyana; Leung, Richard S; Gershon, Andrea S; Tomlinson, George; Ayas, Najib
The interrelationships between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity are complex and bidirectional; however, current evidence regarding their combined effect on cardiovascular risk is limited and conflicting. Animal studies suggest that obesity may exacerbate the cardiovascular consequences of intermittent hypoxemia. In this historical observational study, we investigated whether obesity increases the effect of nocturnal hypoxemia on the incidence of cardiovascular events in adults with suspected OSA. All adults with suspected OSA who underwent diagnostic polysomnography at a large academic hospital between 1994 and 2010 were linked to provincial health administrative data to determine a composite cardiovascular outcome (hospitalization due to heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, or revascularization procedures). Using a competing-risk model and controlling for confounders, hazards were compared between four groups: group 1 comprised obese patients (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ) with oxygen desaturation (>9 min of sleep spent with Sa O 2 obese patients without desaturation; group 3 comprised nonobese patients with desaturation; and group 4 comprised nonobese patients without desaturation. Interaction was measured using the relative excess risk due to interaction. A total of 10,149 participants were followed, with 17%, 25%, 8%, and 50% in groups 1-4, respectively. Over a median of 7.8 years, 896 (8.8%) first cardiovascular events occurred. Group 1 was associated with the highest hazard compared with the other groups, using group 4 as a reference (hazard ratio [HR] for group 1, 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.32; HR for group 2, 1.59, 95% CI, 1.29-1.95; HR for group 3, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.15-1.98). The relative excess risk due to interaction was -0.25 (95% CI, -0.78 to 0.27), indicating no interaction. In adults with suspected OSA, the highest cardiovascular risk was found in obese patients with nocturnal oxygen desaturation; however, the effect of
Kristensen, P. L.; Tarnow, L.; Bay, C.
.1 ± 1.1%), mean ± sd duration of diabetes 30 ± 14 years], who participated in a 2-year randomized, crossover trial of basal-bolus therapy with insulin detemir/insulin aspart or human NPH insulin/human regular insulin (the HypoAna trial) were studied for 2 nights during each treatment. Venous blood was drawn...... hourly during sleep. Primary endpoints were nocturnal glucose profiles and occurrence of hypoglycaemia (blood glucose ≤ 3.9 mmol/l). Results: During insulin analogue treatment, the mean nocturnal plasma glucose level was significantly higher than during treatment with human insulin (10.6 vs 8.1 mmol....... Conclusions: Treatment with insulin analogue reduces the occurrence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia assessed by nocturnal glucose profiles in people with Type 1 diabetes prone to severe hypoglycaemia. Nocturnal glucose profiles provide a more comprehensive assessment of clinical benefit of insulin regimens...
Muir, J F; Bertin, L; Georges, D
We wished to assess the efficacy of inhaled salmeterol (SML; 50 micrograms b.i.d.) compared to a combination of slow-release theophylline and ketotifen p.o. (TK; T 300 mg+K 1 mg b.i.d.) for the treatment of nocturnal asthma. Ninety six patients with nocturnal asthma, (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 60-90% of predicted value, reversibility > or = 15%, at least two nocturnal awakenings per week) were eligible for a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy cross-over study (14-day run-in, two successive 28-day treatment periods). Efficacy was assessed as success/failure, success being defined as the complete disappearance of nocturnal symptoms/awakening during the last week of each treatment period. There was a statistically significant difference between SML and TK for this criterion: 46% and 39% success with SML during periods I (first 28-day period) and II (following the cross-over), compared to only 15% and 26% with TK, respectively (p < 0.01). SML was also significantly better for the other criteria (lung function, rescue salbutamol intake during day and night). Side-effects were five times less frequent in SML-treated patients (p < 0.004). Efficacy and tolerance of SML were obviously far better than those of TK in patients with nocturnal asthma.
Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove
of these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home......Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis...
Hunt, A.; Savage, C.
This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.
Savage, C.; Hunt, A.
This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.
Selim, Bernardo J; Koo, Brian B; Qin, Li; Jeon, Sangchoon; Won, Christine; Redeker, Nancy S; Lampert, Rachel J; Concato, John P; Bravata, Dawn M; Ferguson, Jared; Strohl, Kingman; Bennett, Adam; Zinchuk, Andrey; Yaggi, Henry K
To determine whether sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with cardiac arrhythmia in a clinic-based population with multiple cardiovascular comorbidities and severe SDB. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 697 veterans who underwent polysomnography for suspected SDB. SDB was categorized according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): none (AHI < 5), mild (5 ≥ AHI < 15), and moderate-severe (AHI ≥ 15). Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias consisted of: (1) complex ventricular ectopy, (CVE: non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, bigeminy, trigeminy, or quadrigeminy), (2) combined supraventricular tachycardia, (CST: atrial fibrillation or supraventricular tachycardia), (3) intraventricular conduction delay (ICD), (4) tachyarrhythmias (ventricular and supraventricular), and (5) any cardiac arrhythmia. Unadjusted, adjusted logistic regression, and Cochran-Armitage testing examined the association between SDB and cardiac arrhythmias. Linear regression models explored the association between hypoxia, arousals, and cardiac arrhythmias. Compared to those without SDB, patients with moderate-severe SDB had almost three-fold unadjusted odds of any cardiac arrhythmia (2.94; CI 95%, 2.01-4.30; p < 0.0001), two-fold odds of tachyarrhythmias (2.16; CI 95%,1.47-3.18; p = 0.0011), two-fold odds of CVE (2.01; 1.36-2.96; p = 0.003), and two-fold odds of ICD (2.50; 1.58-3.95; p = 0.001). A linear trend was identified between SDB severity and all cardiac arrhythmia subtypes (p value linear trend < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, BMI, gender, and cardiovascular diseases, moderate-severe SDB patients had twice the odds of having nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias (2.24; 1.48-3.39; p = 0.004). Frequency of obstructive respiratory events and hypoxia were strong predictors of arrhythmia risk. SDB is independently associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias. Increasing severity of SDB was associated with an increasing risk for any cardiac arrhythmia. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep
Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.
Acoustic scattering layers (SL) ascribed to pearlside Maurolicus muelleri were studied in Masfjorden, Norway, using upward-looking echo sounders cabled to shore for continuous long-term measurements. The acoustic studies were accompanied by continuous measurements of surface light and supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. From autumn to spring, young M. muelleri formed an SL in the upper ∼75 to 150 m in the daytime, characterized by migration to near-surface water near dusk, subsequent \\'midnight sinking\\', followed by a dawn ascent before a return to the daytime habitat. Light levels were ∼1 order of magnitude lower during the dawn ascent than for ascent in the afternoon, with the latter terminating before fish reached upper layers on ∼1/3 of the nights from late November to mid-April. Adults showed less tendency of migration during autumn and winter, until the SLs of young and adults merged in late spring, and thereafter displayed coherent migration behavior. The midnight sinking became progressively deeper from autumn to winter but was strongly reduced from mid-May when the darkest nocturnal light intensity (PAR) at the surface was above 10-3 μmol m-2 s-1. The pearlside took on schooling in upper waters during the even lighter nights in early June, with minimum light of ∼5 × 10-3 to 10-1 μmol m-2 s-1 at the surface. Nocturnal schooling ceased in early July, and midnight sinking reappeared in mid-August. We suggest that the strong variation in nocturnal light intensity at high latitudes provides changing trade-offs between visual foraging and avoiding predators and hence varying time budgets for feeding in the upper, productive layers.
Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.
Full Text Available Measurements of climatic processes such as cold air drainage flows are problematic over mountainous areas. Observation of cold air drainage is not available in the existing observation network and it requires a special methodology. The main objective of this study was to characterize the cold air drainage over regions with a slope. A high resolution infrared camera, a meteorological station and Digital Elevation Model (DEM were used. The specific objective was to derive nocturnal cold air drainage velocity over the slope. To address these objectives, a number of infrared measurement campaigns were conducted during calm and clear sky conditions over an agricultural zone (blackcurrant farm in Canada. Using thermal infrared images, the nocturnal surface temperature gradient were computed in hourly basis. The largest gradient magnitudes were found between 17h -20h. The cooling rates at basin area were two times higher in comparison to the magnitudes observed within slope area. The image analysis illustrated this considerable temperature gradient of the basin may be partly due to transport of cold air drainage into the basin from the slope. The results show that thermal imagery can be used to characterize and understand the microclimate related to the occurrence of radiation frost in the agricultural field. This study provided the opportunity to track the cold air drainage flow and pooling of cold air in low lying areas. The infrared analysis demonstrated that nocturnal drainage flow displayed continuous variation in terms of space and time in response to microscale slope heterogeneities. In addition, the analysis highlighted the periodic aspect for cold air drainage flow.
Celestine Okorome Mume
Full Text Available Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Severity of depression (psychopathology has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an interrelationship between sleep duration, EDS and psychopathology. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence rates of EDS and general psychopathology among university students in Nigeria; determine the range of and mean sleep duration in the students; and determine the extent to which sleep duration and EDS predict general psychopathology in the same group of subjects. Materials and methods. Eight hundred and forty-five students at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The subjects were required to provide information on their age, gender and the total amount of sleep per night they usually had. General psychopathology was assessed using the English language version of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30. They were also evaluated for EDS using the English language version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. Results. Six hundred and thirty-four subjects (75.03% of the participants provided complete data. The prevalence of EDS was 11.2% and the rate of general psychopathology in the subjects 13.1%. The range of sleep duration was 2 - 9 hours with a mean of 5.1 hours (standard deviation 1.3. On a regression model with the GHQ score as the dependent variable and sleep duration and ESS as the independent variables, the correlation coefficient between EDS, sleep duration and psychopathology (R was 0.47. Conclusion. EDS and psychopathology are common in the student population studied. Nocturnal sleep duration for an average student is far less than that for an average adult. Nocturnal sleep duration and EDS acted as moderate predictors of general psychopathology among
Full Text Available Objectives: Nocturnal enuresis (NE is very common and is one of the most common causes for patients to be admitted to urology, pediatrics, child psychiatry and child surgery departments. We aimed to investigate the effect on depression and self-esteem of this disorder that can cause problems on person's social development and human relations. Material and methods: 90 patients who were admitted to our clinic with complaints of nocturnal enuresis were enrolled. Investigations to rule out organic causes were performed in this group of patients. Out of them 38 children and adolescents (age range 8-18 years with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE agreed to participate in the study In the same period 46 healthy children and adolescents with a similar age range without bed wetting complaint were included in the study as a control group. The age of the family, educational and socioeconomic level were questioned and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI forms were filled out. Results: Mean age of the cases (18 females or 47.4% and 20 males or 52.6% was 10.76 ± 3.82 years whereas mean age of controls (26 females or 56.5% and 20 males or 43.5% was 10.89 ± 3.11 years. Depression scale was significantly higher (p = 0.001 in the case group than in the control group (10.42 ± 4.31 vs 7.09 ± 4.35. In both groups there was no statistically significant difference by age and sex in terms of depression scale (p > 0.05. Conclusion: NE is widely seen as in the community and is a source of stresses either for children and for their families. When patients were admitted to physicians for treatment, a multidisciplinary approach should be offered and the necessary psychological support should be provided jointly by child psychiatrists and psychologists.
The nighttime distribution of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish in relation to nocturnal light was studied during a circumglobal survey, in the Red Sea, and in a fjord at high latitude. The study was based on data derived from ship borne echo sounders (circumglobal and the Red Sea) as well as using upward looking echo sounders mounted on the bottom (Masfjorden, Norway). We also applied a numerical model for analyzing diel vertical migration patterns. The effect of the lunar cycle was the focus in studies at low latitudes, while seasonal changes in nocturnal light climate was in focus at high latitude. Lunar phase significantly affected the distribution of mesopelagic fish at the global scale and in the Red Sea. During nights near full moon, scattering layers of mesopelagic fish distributed deeper than during darker phases of the moon. At high latitude, mesopelagic fish switched its behavior along with seasonal changes in nocturnal lights. In autumn, the population of the studied fish (Maurolicus mueleri) formed separated layers. Juveniles performed normal diel vertical migration followed by midnight sinking, with midnight sinking mainly related to temperature minima and also for avoiding predators. Meanwhile the adults did not migrate vertically, reducing foraging but increasing the adult survival. From late winter to mid-Spring, interrupted ascents behavior was noted in the afternoon. Predator avoidance, satiation, and finding temperature optimum might be the reason behind interrupted ascents. At lighter nights in mid-summer, M. muelleri took on schooling behavior, likely as an anti-predator behavior permitting access to the upper waters in the absence of darkness.
Claverie, Elodie; Meunier, Félicien; Javaux, Mathieu; Sadok, Walid
Increasing evidence suggests that in crops, nocturnal water use could represent 30% of daytime water consumption, particularly in semi-arid and arid areas. This raises the questions of whether nocturnal transpiration rates (TR N ) are (1) less influenced by drought than daytime TR (TR D ), (2) increased by higher nocturnal vapor pressure deficit (VPD N ), which prevails in such environments and (3) involved in crop drought tolerance. In this investigation, we addressed those questions by subjecting two wheat genotypes differing in drought tolerance to progressive soil drying under two long-term VPD N regimes imposed under naturally fluctuating conditions. A first goal was to characterize the response curves of whole-plant TR N and TR N /TR D ratios to progressive soil drying. A second goal was to examine the effect of VPD N increase on TR N response to soil drying and on 13 other developmental traits. The study revealed that under drought, TR N was not responsive to progressive soil drying and - intriguingly - that TR N seemingly increased with drought under high VPD N consistently for the drought-sensitive genotype. Because TR D was concomitantly decreasing with progressive drought, this resulted in TR N representing up to 70% of TR D at the end of the drydown. In addition, under drought, VPD N increase was found not to influence traits such as leaf area or stomata density. Overall, those findings indicate that TR N contribution to daily water use under drought might be much higher than previously thought, that it is controlled by specific mechanisms and that decreasing TR N under drought might be a valuable trait for improving drought tolerance. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.
Chapman, Jason W; Nilsson, Cecilia; Lim, Ka S; Bäckman, Johan; Reynolds, Don R; Alerstam, Thomas
Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, that is by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the flow and the speed of the animal's own propulsion in relation to the surrounding air. Here we analyse entomological and ornithological radar data from north-western Europe to investigate how two different nocturnal migrant taxa, the noctuid moth Autographa gamma and songbirds, deal with wind by analysing variation in resulting flight directions in relation to the wind-dependent angle between the animal's heading and track direction. Our results, from fixed locations along the migratory journey, reveal different global strategies used by moths and songbirds during their migratory journeys. As expected, nocturnally migrating moths experienced a greater degree of wind drift than nocturnally migrating songbirds, but both groups were more affected by wind in autumn than in spring. The songbirds' strategies involve elements of both drift and compensation, providing some benefits from wind in combination with destination and time control. In contrast, moths expose themselves to a significantly higher degree of drift in order to obtain strong wind assistance, surpassing the songbirds in mean ground speed, at the cost of a comparatively lower spatiotemporal migratory precision. Moths and songbirds show contrasting but adaptive responses to migrating through a moving flow, which are fine-tuned to the respective flight capabilities of each group in relation to the wind currents they travel within. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.
Fusani, Leonida; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Schwabl, Ingrid; Goymann, Wolfgang
A large number of passerine species migrate at night, although most of them are diurnal outside the migratory seasons. This diurnal-to-nocturnal transition is a major life-history event, yet little is known about its physiological control. Previous work showed that during the migratory periods captive birds showing nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) have reduced concentrations of circulating melatonin at night compared to non-migratory periods. This suggested that the hormone melatonin, a main component of the avian circadian system, is involved in the expression of Zugunruhe. Other studies demonstrated that the relationship between low melatonin levels and Zugunruhe is not a seasonal correlation. When Zugunruhe was interrupted by exposing birds to a fasting-and-refeeding protocol, melatonin levels increased. Here we studied whether melatonin and food availability influence the intensity of Zugunruhe in wild migrating garden warblers (Sylvia borin) at a stopover site. Birds were held in recording cages overnight, with or without food available, and either bled to determine melatonin concentrations or treated transdermally with melatonin. We found that melatonin levels at night were correlated with the intensity of diurnal locomotor activity and with condition, but were not correlated with Zugunruhe. Similarly, the melatonin treatment did not have effects on Zugunruhe, whereas food availability increased it. Our study shows that the nocturnal melatonin levels in migrating warblers depend on food availability and are correlated with condition. In addition, it suggests that melatonin does not control Zugunruhe and might rather be involved in energy conservation and/or clock synchronization during migration. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loerbroks, Adrian; Debling, Desiree; Amelang, Manfred; Stürmer, Til
We aimed to investigate the association between nocturnal sleep duration, changes in nocturnal sleep duration and cognitive impairment in older adults. 4010 participants of a population-based cohort study provided information on nocturnal sleep duration at baseline (1991-1995) and at follow-up (2002/2003). 792 follow-up participants aged 70+ by 2006 participated in telephone-based cognitive assessments. Several cognitive tests were used including the telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS). Cognitive impairment was defined as memory score and a total score were constructed. Multivariable prevalence ratios (PRs) of cognitive impairment and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were computed using Poisson regression. Analyses were restricted to those free of depression in 2002/2003 (n = 695). Sleeping Sleeping >or=9 h was positively, although imprecisely, associated with impairment of verbal memory (PR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.0, 3.0), and less pronounced with the other cognitive measures. An increase in sleep duration from 7-8 h in 1992-1995 to >or=9 h 8.5 years later (versus sleeping 7-8 h at both time points) was associated with an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment according to the TICS (PR = 2.1, 95% = 1.0, 4.5) and the verbal memory score (PR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.0, 3.8). Increases in sleep duration are associated with cognitive impairment. A biological explanation for this association is currently lacking. Increases in sleep duration could be a marker of cognitive deficits. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias
Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A
The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....
Johnson, G.; Teegen, J. T.; Waddell, H.
Miniature, portable resuscitation system is used during evacuation of patients to medical facilities. A carrying case contains a modified resuscitator head, cylinder of oxygen, two-stage oxygen regulator, low pressure tube, and a mask for mouth and nose.
Carman, Kursat B; Ceran, Omer; Kaya, Cevdet; Nuhoglu, Cagatay; Karaman, M Ihsan
To study the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and the impact of associated familial factors in Turkish children with a different socioeconomic status. A specific questionnaire was distributed to 3,000 parents of primary school children (6-12 years old). Of these children, 1,500 attended primary schools in Umraniye, a suburban region of Istanbul (group 1), and the other 1,500 children visited schools in Suadiye, a well-developed part of Istanbul (group 2). The first part of the survey investigated the familial conditions of the children (financial status, family history of enuresis, and family size). The second part of the questionnaire surveyed the demographic and physical characteristics of the children. The last part was designed to investigate the opinions and beliefs of the parents about nocturnal enuresis and treatment modalities. The prevalence rates of nocturnal enuresis and associated familial factors of these children from two different regions of Istanbul were compared. Of the 3,000 questionnaires distributed, 2,589 (86.3%) were returned and included in the final analysis. The mean age of group 1 and 2 children was 8.88 +/- 1.4 and 8.9 +/- 1.5 years, respectively (p > 0.05). The gender of the subjects was equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Enuresis was present in 334 children (25.5%) of group 1 and in 205 children (16%) of group 2. Enuresis was significantly more common in group 1 (p difference between the groups (p > 0.01). The parents of the enuretic children from the suburban region of Istanbul were found to consider the condition a normal developmental entity. They believed that enuresis will resolve spontaneously and that no treatment is necessary. On the contrary, the parents of the enuretic children in the well-developed region of the city believed that enuresis is a psychological problem and that intensive psychological assistance is essential for the management. Our study indicates that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in
DUMONT, Eric; BREMOND, Roland; CHRISTIANSON, Kent; GREENHOUSE, Daniel; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC; UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA BERKELEY
Dans le cadre du partenariat CalFrance, la Section Eclairage et Visibilité du LCPC et le Visual Detection Laboratory de l'Université de Berkeley ont évalué la faisabilité d'un outil intégré de mesure de la visibilité nocturne et de l'éblouissement par les phares à destination des gestionnaires routiers. RAPPORT DE CONTRAT In the framework of the CalFrance partnership, the Lighting and Visibility Research Team of the LCPC in France and the Visual Detection Laboratory of the University of...
Full Text Available The occurrence of coat colour polymorphisms in populations may promote the ecological success of species by permitting a wider spectrum of use of different subsets of available resources. We conducted an analysis of temporal segregation by comparing night brightness with nocturnal activity of spotted and melanistic oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus. Melanistic oncillas were more active during bright nights and spotted oncillas and other species were more active during dark nights. Each colour morph occupied a temporal niche outside the confidence interval of the other colour morph, demonstrating the ecological significance of polymorphic colour patterns in this felid species.
Derry, Christopher P
Accurately diagnosing sleep-related events, and particularly distinguishing nocturnal frontal lobe seizures from other sleep disorders such as parasomnias, can be challenging. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of paroxysmal events from sleep, epileptic and non-epileptic, considers important diagnostic points in the history, and evaluates the role of investigations in this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Marco Javier Flores
Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.
Full Text Available Pregnancy in women with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. There is limited published experience regarding therapy of PNH during pregnancy. We describe a case of a 30 year old female with hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome and PNH. After two years of treatment with eculizumab, she became pregnant. She developed breakthrough hemolysis at 20 weeks gestation. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated a subtherapeutic eculizumab level with absence of complement blockade. Escalation of her eculizumab dose successfully controlled hemolysis and restored therapeutic eculizumab level and activity. She delivered a healthy baby at 36 weeks.
Bordeleau, Érik; Pape, Toni; Rose-Antoinette, Ronald; Szymanski, Adam
Nocturnal Fabulations is an essay in intercessing. This is not a book that is simply ‘about’ Apichatpong Weerasethakul, though it does engage his work in detail. It is a book that deeply questions what else might be at stake in setting up the conditions for collaboration across two genres: cinema and writing. This collective project is animated by a shared curiosity in the pragmatics of fabulation and its speculative gesture of bringing forth a people to come. In an encounter with Apichat...
Sindrup, J H; Wroblewski, H; Kastrup, J
and local sympathetic vasoconstrictive activity in their lower legs. Moreover, they all had a nocturnal hyperaemic blood flow phase of the same magnitude and duration as the control subjects. 4. The possibility that the somaesthetic nerves play a role in the hyperaemic response could be excluded, as all...... the paraplegic men suffered from complete lower-leg somaesthetic denervation. 5. A significant correlation was found between the time of going to bed and the nightly hyperaemic response in the right and left lower legs (P less than 0.01). 6. It is concluded that the present data are in accordance...
Karyampudi, Arun; Ghoshal, Uday C; Singh, Rajan; Verma, Abhai; Misra, Asha; Saraswat, Vivek A
Though nocturnal acid-breakthrough (NAB) is common in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients, its clinical importance results from esophageal acidification, which has been shown to be uncommon. Ilaprazole, a long-acting proton pump inhibitor, may cause NAB infrequently. Accordingly, we studied prospectively, (1) frequency and degree of esophageal acidification during NAB, and (2) frequency and severity of NAB while on ilaprazole versus omeprazole. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with GERD on once daily ilaprazole, 10 mg (n = 28) or omeprazole, 20 mg (n = 30) for > one month underwent 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring prospectively. NAB was defined as intra-gastric pH one hour during night, and esophageal acidification as pH < 4 for any duration. Nocturnal symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, and chest pain) were also recorded. Of the 58 patients (age 35.5 [inter-quartile range 26.5-46.0] years, 38 [65.5%], 42 (72.4%) had NAB. Though patients with NAB had lower nocturnal intra-gastric pH than without (2.8 [1.9-4.1] vs 5.7 [4.6-6.8], P < 0.001), frequency and duration of nocturnal esophageal acidification (17/42 vs 4/16, P = 0.360 and 0.0 [0.0-1.0] vs 0.0 [0.0-0.3] minutes, P = 0.260, respectively) and symptoms were comparable (13/42 vs 6/16, P = 0.750). Though ilaprazole was associated with less NABs (1 [range 1-2, n = 19] vs 1 [range 1-3, n = 23], P = 0.010) than omeprazole, the frequency, duration, and mean intra-gastric pH during NAB were comparable (19/28 vs 23/30, P = 0.560; 117 [0-315] vs 159 [69-287] minutes, P = 0.500; 1.02 [0.7-1.4] vs 1.04 [0.44-1.3], P = 0.620, respectively). Though NAB was common while patients were on a proton pump inhibitor, esophageal acidification was uncommon. Frequency and severity of NAB were comparable among patients on ilaprazole and omeprazole, except for the lesser number of NABs with ilaprazole.
Full Text Available Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light, placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years drove 400 km (250 miles on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP. Eight participants (17% complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1 showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC (F(2,91.11 = 6.64; p<0.05. Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p = 0.001 and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003 than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]. Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.
"The distributed computing project LHC@home is moving to London from Cern in Switzerland. Researchers at Qeen Mary University have been trialling the system since June, but are now ready for the offical launch" (1 page)
Kreuzer, Maria; Mühlbacher, Hans; von Wallpach, Sylvia
In an increasingly globalized, digitalized and perceived unmanageable world, consumers strive for belongingness, identification and security and re-discover the importance of home. Home is central to peoples’ individual as well as collective identities and their self-development (McCracken, 1989......). Home, however, is a multi-dimensional concept and reaching a universal definition is nearly impossible (Moore, 2000). Therefore, this research project aims to answer the following research questions: 1) What is the meaning of home? 2) How do consumers experience home? And 3) What is the role...... of products and consumption rituals for experiencing home? To answer these questions, two qualitative studies covering 32 in-depth autobiographical interviews were conducted to elicit emotional, symbolic and cultural meanings and experiences related to home. Interviews took place in the same geographical area...
Oxygen is essential to life of all organisms except for obligate anaerobic species, because it is necessary for energy generation and also for some biosynthetic pathways. However, sensitivity to low oxygen levels can vary widely in different organisms and cell types. The pathogenic yeast species Cryptococcus neoformans is known to love oxygen. In response to the lack of oxygen (hypoxia), this yeast delays budding without resigning DNA replication, which eventually results in unique cell cycle...
Canfield, Donald Eugene
This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....
Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.
An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.
Machida, K; Kawabe, Y; Mori, M; Haga, T
According to a Japanese national survey (June 30, 1990), the number of patients receiving home oxygen therapy (HOT) has been greater than 18,000 since March 1985, when HOT was first covered by health insurance. The oxygen concentrator, especially the molecular sieve type, is the most common method of delivery (more than 90%). In April 1988, the portable oxygen cylinder was acknowledged by health insurance, and the liquid oxygen supply system in April 1990. Three types of portable oxygen delivery systems are available; oxygen cyclinder, liquid oxygen system, and oxygen concentrator (membrane type), of which the oxygen cylinder is most commonly used. In our hospital, portable oxygen supply systems were used in 80% of 168 HOT cases in 1990, and the use of 400 L aluminum oxygen cylinders at a flow rate of 1-2 L/min has been most popular. There is an strong desire from patients for lighter portable oxygen supply system of longer duration. In 19 patients with chronic respiratory failure, we evaluated a newly designed demand oxygen delivery system (DODS), which weighs 2.4 kg including the DOD device (TER-20 Teijin), 1.1 L oxygen cylinder made of ultressor, nasal cannula, and carrier. Arterial blood gases at rest (room air) were PaO2 61.9 +/- 6.3 torr, PaCO2 63.8 +/- 9.4 torr and pH 7.40 +/- 0.04. A crossover trial was performed under three conditions; breathing room air with no weight, and pulse oxygen flow and continuous oxygen flow each carrying 2.4 kg of weight. Both 6 minute walking (E1) and walking on a slow speed treadmill (E2) were studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sinkala, Elly; Eddington, David T
Oxygen tension is critical in a number of cell pathways but is often overlooked in cell culture. One reason for this is the difficulty in modulating and assessing oxygen tensions without disturbing the culture conditions. Toward this end, a simple method to generate oxygen-sensitive microwells was developed through embossing polystyrene (PS) and platinum(ii) octaethylporphyrin ketone (PtOEPK) thin films. In addition to monitoring the oxygen tension, microwells were employed in order to isolate uniform clusters of cells in microwells. The depth and width of the microwells can be adapted to different experimental parameters easily by altering the thin film processing or embossing stamp geometries. The thin oxygen sensitive microwell substrate is also compatible with high magnification modalities such as confocal imaging. The incorporation of the oxygen sensor into the microwells produces measurements of the oxygen tension near the cell surface. The oxygen sensitive microwells were calibrated and used to monitor oxygen tensions of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells (MDCKs) cultured at high and low densities as a proof of concept. Wells 500 µm in diameter seeded with an average of 330 cells exhibited an oxygen level of 12.6% whereas wells seeded with an average of 20 cells per well exhibited an oxygen level of 19.5%, a 35.7% difference. This platform represents a new tool for culturing cells in microwells in a format amenable to high magnification imaging while monitoring the oxygen state of the culture media.
Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.
The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels
T. K. Kulua
Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of late-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD with nocturnal symptoms and fluctuations and to present successful experience in using the three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone as a single dose prior to sleep. Patient V. aged 72 years took medical advice at the Department of Neurology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, for complaints of constrained movements, inability to turn in bed independently, painful muscle cramps, light sleep with nocturnal awakenings, and frequent (5–6 times urinations at night. The first symptoms of the disease appeared 12 years ago when the patient began to notice sluggishness, altered handwriting, and clumsiness during small movements of the right hand. By taking into account symptoms (obvious nocturnal akinesia, overactive bladder, sleep disorders, and cramps and the results of his examination, the patient was diagnosed with the akinetic-rigid form of PD (4 Hoehn-Yarh scores. Therapy was corrected as follows: the dose of amantadine remained the same (300 mg; its last administration is recommended to be at 16:00; the daily dose of levodopa was 700 mg; that of levodopa/benserazide was 550 mg/day (1 tablet × 3/4 tablet × 1 tablet. The evening intake of levodopa was changed for that of the three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa 150 mg/ carbidopa 37.5 mg/entacapone 200 mg. Results. After 3 months, the patient was observed to have significant health improvement: reduced nocturnal and morning akinesia, better gait, a considerably smaller number of nocturnal urinations (less than once per night, regression of painful calf muscle cramps, and improved sleep. Conclusion. The three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone is effective in treating late-stage PD. Its use as a single dose before going to bed has led to regressive nocturnal symptoms, better sleep, and lower motor fluctuations.
Williams, Kirstin A; Wallman, James F; Lessard, Bryan D; Kavazos, Christopher R J; Mazungula, D Nkosinathi; Villet, Martin H
Published research has offered contradictory evidence of the occurrence of nocturnal oviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies, a behavior that can affect the interpretation of forensic estimates of a minimum post mortem interval ( min PMI) by up to 12 hours, depending on latitude and season. The majority of published studies are from the northern hemisphere. Field experiments were conducted in South Africa and Australia that extend observations to species of the southern hemisphere. Various vertebrate carrion was exposed at night in summer under different lunar phases and/or artificial lighting, and in woodland and pasture areas. Three laboratory experiments were also conducted. No nocturnal oviposition occurred outdoors in Berry, Australia, but Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya megacephala laid eggs outdoors at night in Grahamstown and Durban, South Africa. In laboratory experiments L. sericata, L. cuprina, Chrysomya chloropyga and Chrysomya putoria laid eggs and Calliphora augur deposited larvae under nocturnal conditions. Chrysomya albiceps and C. chloropyga laid eggs in darkness with increasing likelihood as ambient temperature increased. This study shows that nocturnal ovi/larviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies is possible in both South Africa and Australia. The forensic issue is therefore not whether nocturnal oviposition occurs, but rather whether the conditions of a particular case are more or less conducive to it. Circadian rhythms and physiological thresholds (particularly temperature and humidity) appear to act individually and in conjunction to stimulate or inhibit nocturnal laying. The significance of carcass size, freezing and handling of carcasses and comprehensive quantification for experimental design is discussed, and recommendations are made for future laboratory and case scene experiments.
Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)
Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected during the 1978-79 winter to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. The GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely corresponded to the general soil map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils, whereas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also corresponded well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model showed both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.
Prashant Veerreddy MD, MPH
Full Text Available Discolored urine is a common reason for office visits to a primary care physician and urology referral. Early differentiation of the type or cause of discolored urine is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prompt management. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disorder caused by acquired somatic mutations in the PIG-A gene on the X-chromosome of hemopoietic stem cells and leads to deficiency of surface membrane anchor proteins. The deficiency of these proteins leads to an increased risk of hemolysis of erythrocytes and structural damage of platelets, resulting in a clinical syndrome characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and venous thrombosis. Patients with this clinical syndrome present with paroxysms of hemolysis, causing hemoglobinuria manifesting as discolored urine. This can be easily confused with other common causes of discolored urine and result in extensive urologic work-up. Three commonly confused entities of discolored urine include hematuria, hemoglobinuria, and myoglobinuria. Specific characteristics in a dipstick test or urinalysis can guide differentiation of these three causes of discolored urine. This article begins with a case summary of a woman presenting with cranberry-colored urine and a final delayed diagnosis of paryxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Her hemoglobinuria was misdiagnosed as hematuria, leading to extensive urologic work-up. The article also gives an overview of the approach to diagnosing and treating discolored urine.
Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Hardy, Louise L; Rissel, Chris
Sleep duration and pattern have important implications for children's health. This study aims to investigate nocturnal sleep duration, sleep pattern and their relationships with outdoor play and screen time among children aged 2 to five years. The study used data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia. Data on children's sleep, outdoor playtime and screen time were reported by mothers via face-to-face interviews when children were 2, 3.5 and five years old. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. At age 2, 3.5 and five years, 497, 415 and 369 mother-child dyads participated. Significantly, there was an overall increase in children's nocturnal sleep duration, sleep latency and an earlier bedtime, and there was a decrease in the proportion of children who woke at night over time. Each additional hour of screen time was associated with three-minute (95% CI 0.6-5) shorter sleep, 1.6-minute (95% CI 0.59-2.63) longer sleep latency, four-minute (95% CI 1.8-6.0) later bedtime and less likely sleeping ≥10 hours per night with adjusted odds ratio 0.88 (95% CI 0.77-1.00), after controlling for mothers' demographics. Among young children, screen time and outdoor playtime were associated with sleep duration and pattern. Reducing screen time and increasing outdoor playtime might help improving children's sleep. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kulkarni, Pavan S.
Four distinct nocturnal surface ozone (NSO) enhancement events were observed, with NSO concentration exceeding 80μg/m3, at multiple ozone (O3) monitoring stations (32 sites) in January, November and December between year 2000–2010, in Portugal. The reasonable explanation for the observed bimodal pattern of surface ozone with enhanced NSO concentration during nighttime has to be transport processes, as the surface ozone production ceases at nighttime. Simultaneous measurements of O3 at multiple stations during the study period in Portugal suggest that horizontal advection alone cannot explain the observed NSO enhancement. Thus, detailed analysis of the atmospheric conditions, simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, were performed to evaluate the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for NSO enhancement in the region. Simulations revealed that each event occurred as a result of one or the combination of different atmospheric processes such as, passage of a cold front followed by a subsidence zone; passage of a moving surface trough, with associated strong horizontal wind speed and vertical shear; combination of vertical and horizontal transport at the synoptic scale; formation of a low level jet with associated vertical mixing below the jet stream. The study confirmed that large-scale flow pattern resulting in enhanced vertical mixing in the nocturnal boundary layer, plays a key role in the NSO enhancement events, which frequently occur over Portugal during winter months. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L; Juste, Javier
Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreover, species using tree hollows or nest boxes in the study area during migration periods were not present in the bats' diet, indicating that birds are solely captured on the wing during night-time passage. Additional to a generalist feeding strategy, we found that bats selected medium-sized bird species, thereby assumingly optimizing their energetic cost-benefit balance and injury risk. Surprisingly, bats preyed upon birds half their own body mass. This shows that the 5% prey to predator body mass ratio traditionally assumed for aerial hunting bats does not apply to this hunting strategy or even underestimates these animals' behavioural and mechanical abilities. Considering the bats' generalist feeding strategy and their large prey size range, we suggest that nocturnal bat predation may have influenced the evolution of bird migration strategies and behaviour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Nocturnal vocal activity in dolphins is often thought to be associated with feeding activity. However, when no food resources are available dolphins spend their time for the most part resting/sleeping. While unihemispherically sleeping, dolphins mostly swim slowly and synchronously in close proximity with one or more other individuals. Although vocal activity is lower during resting/sleeping, dolphins are not entirely silent the entire night. However, nothing is known about the temporal patterning of vocal activity at night and its potential relation with activity in dolphins. Here we recorded the vocal activity of a group of five captive bottlenose dolphins at night while having no feeding opportunity, examined whether there was any temporal pattern and/or a relation with breathing activity, used here as an index of overall activity. The temporal pattern revealed two peaks of intense whistle activity (8 p.m. and midnight, which were followed by a strong decrease of whistle rate and a slight decrease of respiration rate. We suggest that the high vocal activity at the peak periods might indicate socializing periods and that dolphins, like many other species, show periods of increased social and vocal interactions (chorusing? before starting to rest/sleep, maybe to ensure the synchrony of slow swimming observed in this species. These findings contribute to a better understanding of nocturnal vocal activity in cetaceans and suggest new lines of research on vocal/social activity of dolphins in relation to presleep and resting behavior.
Agarwal, Vaibhav; Bansal, Mayank
Present work focuses on the use of tamarind gum to develop a drug delivery system making combined use of floating and pulsatile principles, for the chrono-prevention of nocturnal acid breakthrough. The desired aim was achieved by fabricating a floating delivery system bearing time - lagged coating of Tamarindus indica seed polymer for the programmed release of Famotidine. Response Surface METHODology was the statistical tool that was employed for experiment designing, mathematical model generation and optimization study. A 32 full factorial design was used in designing the experiment. % weight ratio of tamarind gum to ethyl cellulose in the coating combination and the coating weight were the independent variables, whereas the lag time for drug release and the cumulative % drug release in 330 minutes were the observed responses. Results revealed that both the coating composition and the coating weight significantly affected the release of drug from the dosage form. The optimized formulation prepared according to the computer generated software, Design-Expert® deciphered response which were in close proximity with the experimental responses, thus confirming the robustness and accuracy of the predicted model for the utilization of natural polymer like tamarind gum for the chronotherapeutic treatment of nocturnal acid breakthrough.
Duggan, Graham; Burn, Charlotte C; Clauss, Marcus
Captive giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are known to perform oral and locomotor stereotypies. However, many studies do not consider the behavioral repertoire of these animals during the time when animals are confined to night quarters. At two zoological institutions, a total of six captive giraffes were observed via camera trap technology throughout six diurnal and nocturnal periods to record feeding, ruminating, and stereotypic behaviors. The effect of browse enrichment was assessed on alternate nights to determine how behaviors may be altered in the presence of natural forage. Results need to be interpreted with caution due to a high proportion of time when animals were out of camera range. For the observed time, stereotypical licking behavior was significantly higher at night compared to daytime at both facilities, while tongue play increased at the same time, but not significantly. The provision of browse enrichment during the night decreased the rate of tongue playing, but not significantly; however, browse did significantly reduce pacing behavior. Across treatments and institutions, observed oral stereotypies tended to correlate negatively with increased feeding behavior. Apart from a short-term effect of enrichment, this study indicates relevant differences in the frequencies of behaviors observed during the day and night, suggesting that assessing nocturnal behavior specifically may be important in many species. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ana G Popa-Lisseanu
Full Text Available Along food chains, i.e., at different trophic levels, the most abundant taxa often represent exceptional food reservoirs, and are hence the main target of consumers and predators. The capacity of an individual consumer to opportunistically switch towards an abundant food source, for instance, a prey that suddenly becomes available in its environment, may offer such strong selective advantages that ecological innovations may appear and spread rapidly. New predator-prey relationships are likely to evolve even faster when a diet switch involves the exploitation of an unsaturated resource for which few or no other species compete. Using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as dietary tracers, we provide here strong support to the controversial hypothesis that the giant noctule bat Nyctalus lasiopterus feeds on the wing upon the multitude of flying passerines during their nocturnal migratory journeys, a resource which, while showing a predictable distribution in space and time, is only seasonally available. So far, no predator had been reported to exploit this extraordinarily diverse and abundant food reservoir represented by nocturnally migrating passerines.
Van Doren, Benjamin M; Horton, Kyle G; Dokter, Adriaan M; Klinck, Holger; Elbin, Susan B; Farnsworth, Andrew
Billions of nocturnally migrating birds move through increasingly photopolluted skies, relying on cues for navigation and orientation that artificial light at night (ALAN) can impair. However, no studies have quantified avian responses to powerful ground-based light sources in urban areas. We studied effects of ALAN on migrating birds by monitoring the beams of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum's "Tribute in Light" in New York, quantifying behavioral responses with radar and acoustic sensors and modeling disorientation and attraction with simulations. This single light source induced significant behavioral alterations in birds, even in good visibility conditions, in this heavily photopolluted environment, and to altitudes up to 4 km. We estimate that the installation influenced ≈1.1 million birds during our study period of 7 d over 7 y. When the installation was illuminated, birds aggregated in high densities, decreased flight speeds, followed circular flight paths, and vocalized frequently. Simulations revealed a high probability of disorientation and subsequent attraction for nearby birds, and bird densities near the installation exceeded magnitudes 20 times greater than surrounding baseline densities during each year's observations. However, behavioral disruptions disappeared when lights were extinguished, suggesting that selective removal of light during nights with substantial bird migration is a viable strategy for minimizing potentially fatal interactions among ALAN, structures, and birds. Our results also highlight the value of additional studies describing behavioral patterns of nocturnally migrating birds in powerful lights in urban areas as well as conservation implications for such lighting installations.
Kim, S.B.; Workman, W.G.; Korolevych, V.; Davis, P.A.
The objective of this study was to provide the parameter values required to model OBT formation in the edible parts of plants following a hypothetical accidental tritium release to the atmosphere at night. The parameters considered were leaf area index, stomatal resistance, photosynthesis rate, the photosynthetic production rate of starch, the nocturnal hydrolysis rate of starch, the fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis that appears in the fruits, and the mass of the fruit. Values of these parameters were obtained in the summer of 2002 for lettuce, radishes and tomatoes grown under typical Canadian environmental conditions. Based on the maximum observed photosynthetic rate and growth rate, the fraction of starch translocated to the fruit was calculated to be 17% for tomato fruit and 14% for radish root. - Highlights: ► Plant physiological parameters affecting nocturnal OBT formation have been investigated. ► The fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis in the leaves that appears in the fruit was calculated. ► Realistic estimates of OBT concentrations following a nighttime accidental HTO release to the atmosphere.
Spruill, Tanya M; Shallcross, Amanda J; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Chaplin, William F; Butler, Mark; Palfrey, Amy; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Sims, Mario; Sarpong, Daniel F; Agyemang, Charles; Ravenell, Joseph
African Americans exhibit a lower degree of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping compared with Whites, but the reasons for reduced BP dipping in this group are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors associated with BP dipping in a population-based cohort of African Americans. This cross-sectional study included 668 Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants with valid 24-hour ambulatory BP data and complete data on psychosocial factors of interest including stress, negative emotions, and psychosocial resources (e.g., perceived support). The association of each psychosocial factor with BP dipping percentage and nondipping status (defined as Higher depressive symptoms, higher hostility, and lower perceived social support were associated with a lower BP dipping percentage in unadjusted models and after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and mean 24-hour systolic BP (P social support as a potentially modifiable determinant of nocturnal BP dipping warrants further investigation. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Arena, Salvatore; Patricolo, Mario
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and its associated factors in a major referral centre for nocturnal enuresis in the City of Abu Dhabi. Children referred to the Pediatric Continence Clinic of Department of Pediatric and Urology Surgery at Al Noor Hospital, Abu Dhabi (UAE), between January 2014 and January 2016 for the suspected diagnosis of NE were considered. The inclusion criteria of our study were: age 5-14 years; full medical history and physical examination; urine dipstick to exclude glycosuria and proteinuria; completion of diagnostic urological work-up; final diagnosis of PMNE. Parents were encouraged to follow a program on urotherapy. All children underwent renal and bladder ultrasound, abdominal X-ray and uroflowmetry with electromyography. Constipation was treated, if present. 39 patients had a diagnosis of PMNE. A constipation was present in 17 children (43.6%). Statistical analysis documented a higher incidence of PMNE in the male groups. 38 out of 39 children (97.4%) resolved PMNE, 14 following urotherapy and 24 required medical therapy with desmopressin. Our experience clearly confirms a higher prevalence rate of PMNE in boys than in girls. In the study population, the large intake of dry and reducedin- fibers foods, the excessive intake of carbonated drinks and the hot climatic condition might negatively influence the incidence of fecal retention and the subsequent PMNE. A multi-modal assessment seems to be effective in the management of PMNE, showing a very high rate of resolution.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara. The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species.
MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M
1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438
Derry, Christopher P.; Harvey, A. Simon; Walker, Matthew C.; Duncan, John S.; Berkovic, Samuel F.
Study Objectives. To describe the semiological features of NREM arousal parasomnias in detail and identify features that can be used to reliably distinguish parasomnias from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). Design. Systematic semiologial evaluation of parasomnias and NFLE seizures recorded on video-EEG monitoring. Patients. 120 events (57 parasomnias, 63 NFLE seizures) from 44 subjects (14 males). Interventions. The presence or absence of 68 elemental clinical features was determined in parasomnias and NFLE seizures. Qualitative analysis of behavior patterns and ictal EEG was undertaken. Statistical analysis was undertaken using established techniques. Results. Elemental clinical features strongly favoring parasomnias included: interactive behavior, failure to wake after event, and indistinct offset (all P night terrors as prototypical behavior patterns of NREM parasomnias, but as a hierarchical continuum rather than distinct entities. Our observations provide an evidence base to assist in the clinical diagnosis of NREM parasomnias, and their distinction from NFLE seizures, on semiological grounds. Citation: Derry CP; Harvey AS; Walker MC; Duncan JS; Berkovic SF. NREM arousal parasomnias and their distinction from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a video EEG analysis. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1637-1644. PMID:20041600
MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M
1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.
Camila M. Nakata
Full Text Available Nocturnal heat island formation is a prom inent phenomenon in urban planning research and thermal comfort. It is characterized by an increased air temperature from the periphery to the center of the cities and is partly caused by the urban geometry. The phenomenon is a result of the influence of the characteristics of urbanization, which alter the energy balance of the cities. Among surveys in this context, the model proposed by Oke (1981 shows its relevan ce in the area. Using simulations with reduced models, Oke found that the fraction of visible sky negatively correlated with the heat buildup on the surfaces and increased the air temperature. The relationship between the height of the buildings and the width of the path (H/W ratio, height/width was used to measure the urban geometry in this previous study. Based on that study, this research verified the role of geometry in the formation of an urban heat island in a Brazilian city, aiming to adapt this model to real urban conditions. The methodological procedures rely on the following steps: a study of a theoretical-numerical base model (Oke model, 1981 and adjustment (validati on. Thus, the methodology to be employed included urban data collection, which include d urban geometry and air temperature, the application of the Oke model and its adjustme nt. The results found in this investigation corroborate the study of Oke (1981 and dem onstrate that urban geometry effectively contributes to the formation of nocturnal heat islands.
Li, Dayong; Ren, Baoping; Grueter, Cyril C; Li, Baoguo; Li, Ming
Weather, predation, and social organization are hypothesized to influence sleeping habits of nonhuman primates at night. To investigate how the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) prepares for and behaves during cold nights in their harsh alpine forest habitat (above 3,000 m), we studied the sleeping habits of the 171 one-male units (OMU) in one group for 12 months at Xiangguqing in the Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, China. It took 20.2 min from the time the study group entered a sleeping site until they fell asleep. This duration was consistent over seasons. On average, sleeping time was 11.5 hr per night over the year. Seasonal mean lengths of sleeping time varied significantly, however, and ranged from 10 to 13 hr per night, correlating with night length. Two sleeping styles were distinguishable: solitary sleeping and huddled sleeping. That adult males in OMUs principally slept alone. This is likely to reflect night-time guarding behavior. Female-juvenile and female-infant dyadic huddles were the most prevalent sleeping unit (42% of all observed data), and the monkeys employed female-biased huddling during nocturnal sleep. Huddled sleeping group size showed significant seasonal variation, with the largest huddle (eight individuals) occurring in winter. Climate and social organization profoundly influence the nocturnal sleeping habits of R. bieti, while huddling behavior may help shield animals from cold nights and provide additional protection against predators. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
La Sorte, Frank A; Hochachka, Wesley M; Farnsworth, Andrew; Sheldon, Daniel; Van Doren, Benjamin M; Fink, Daniel; Kelling, Steve
Wind plays a significant role in the flight altitudes selected by nocturnally migrating birds. At mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, atmospheric conditions are dictated by the polar-front jet stream, whose amplitude increases in the autumn. One consequence for migratory birds is that the region's prevailing westerly winds become progressively stronger at higher migration altitudes. We expect this seasonality in wind speed to result in migrants occupying progressively lower flight altitudes, which we test using density estimates of nocturnal migrants at 100 m altitudinal intervals from 12 weather surveillance radar stations located in the northeastern USA. Contrary to our expectations, median migration altitudes deviated little across the season, and the variance was lower during the middle of the season and higher during the beginning and especially the end of the season. Early-season migrants included small- to intermediate-sized long-distance migrants in the orders Charadriiformes and Passeriformes, and late-season migrants included large-bodied and intermediate-distance migrants in the order Anseriformes. Therefore, seasonality in the composition of migratory species, and related variation in migration strategies and behaviours, resulted in a convex-concave bounded distribution of migration altitudes. Our results provide a basis for assessing the implications for migratory bird populations of changes in mid-latitude atmospheric conditions probably occurring under global climate change.
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and obesity have become two of the main threats to public health in the Western world. In addition, obesity is the most important determinant of the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS, a condition that adversely affects glucose metabolism. However, it is unknown whether patients with diabetes have more severe SAHS than non-diabetic subjects. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate whether obese patients with T2DM are more prone to severe SAHS than obese non-diabetic subjects.Thirty obese T2DM and 60 non-diabetic women closely matched by age, body mass index, waist circumference, and smoking status were recruited from the outpatient Obesity Unit of a university hospital. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, smoking habit, neuromuscular and cerebrovascular disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and pregnancy. Examinations included a non-attended respiratory polygraphy, pulmonary function testing, and an awake arterial gasometry. Oxygen saturation measures included the percentage of time spent at saturations below 90% (CT90. A high prevalence of SAHS was found in both groups (T2DM:80%, nondiabetic:78.3%. No differences in the number of sleep apnea-hypopnea events between diabetic and non-diabetic patients were observed. However, in diabetic patients, a significantly increase in the CT90 was detected (20.2+/-30.2% vs. 6.8+/-13,5%; p = 0.027. In addition, residual volume (RV was significantly higher in T2DM (percentage of predicted: 79.7+/-18.1 vs. 100.1+/-22.8; p<0.001. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2DM but not RV was independently associated with CT90.T2DM adversely affects breathing during sleep, becoming an independent risk factor for severe nocturnal hypoxemia in obese patients. Given that SAHS is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease, the screening for SAHS in T2DM patients seems mandatory.
Ren, Si-Hua; He, Yu-Xin; Ma, Yi-Ran; Jin, Jing-Chun; Kang, Dan
To investigate the effects of oxygen concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the biological characteristics of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and to analyzed the relationship among the oxygen concentration, ROS and the biological characteristics of mouse HSC through simulation of oxygen environment experienced by PB HSC during transplantation. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in vitro amplification, directional differentiation (BFU-E, CFU-GM, CFU-Mix), homing of adhesion molecules (CXCR4, CD44, VLA4, VLA5, P-selectin), migration rate, CFU-S of NOD/SCID mice irradiated with sublethal dose were performed to study the effect of oxgen concentration and reactive oxygen species on the biological characteristics of mouse BM-HSC and the relationship among them. The oxygen concentrations lower than normal oxygen concentration (especially hypoxic oxygen environment) could reduce ROS level and amplify more Lin(-) c-kit(+) Sca-1(+) BM HSC, which was more helpful to the growth of various colonies (BFU-E, CFU-GM, CFU-Mix) and to maintain the migratory ability of HSC, thus promoting CFU-S growth significantly after the transplantation of HSC in NOD/SCID mice irradiated by a sublethal dose. BM HSC exposed to oxygen environments of normal, inconstant oxygen level and strenuously thanging of oxygen concentration could result in higher level of ROS, at the same time, the above-mentioned features and functional indicators were relatively lower. The ROS levels of BM HSC in PB HSCT are closely related to the concentrations and stability of oxygen surrounding the cells. High oxygen concentration results in an high level of ROS, which is not helpful to maintain the biological characteristics of BM HSC. Before transplantation and in vitro amplification, the application of antioxidancs and constant oxygen level environments may be beneficial for transplantation of BMMSC.
Ho Joong Sung
Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.
Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan
An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.
Lewicki, Michelle C; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Kerr, Peter G
Since their inception in the 1960s, home-based dialysis therapies have been viable alternatives to conventional thrice weekly in center hemodialysis. In spite of this, uptake of these therapies has been steadily declining over past decades with utilization varying globally; dependent on training support, funding models, and prevailing Nephrologist beliefs. In the Australian context, home dialysis (predominantly peritoneal dialysis and extended hours nocturnal hemodialysis) is now again increasing in popularity--with enthusiasm driven not only by evidence of an array of physiological and psychological patient benefit but also significant economic advantage: critical in the current climate where dialysis therapies in Australia take approximately $1 billion dollars per year from the healthcare budget. When assessing the significant advantages of home-based therapies, it is important to consider not only the increasing body of evidence around improved survival but also that for dramatically better health-related quality of life, decreased economic burden and the overall benefits of undertaking treatment in the home. With patient-centered care an increasingly important aspect of our decision making paradigm, home-based dialysis should be considered as the default option in all patients transitioning to renal replacement therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Aubert, D; Berard, E; Blanc, J-P; Lenoir, G; Liard, F; Lottmann, H
The causes and treatment of isolated primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) are the subject of ongoing controversy. We are proposing consensus practical recommendations, based on a formalised analysis of the literature and validated by a large panel of experts. A task force of six experts based its work on the guide for literature analysis and recommendations and recommendation grading of the French Haute Autorité de Santé (formalized consensus process methodological guidelines) to evaluate the level of scientific proof (grade of 1 to 4) and the strength of the recommendations (grade A, B, C) of the publications on PNE. As a result of this, 223 articles from 2003 on were identified, of which only 127 (57 %) have an evaluable level of proof. This evaluation was then reviewed by a 19-member rating group. Several recommendations, poorly defined by the literature, had to be proposed by a professional agreement resulting from a consultation between the members of the task force and those of the rating group. For its final validation, the document was submitted to a reading group of 21 members working in a wide range of specialist areas and practices but all involved in PNE. The definition of PNE is very specific: intermittent incontinence during sleep, from the age of 5, with no continuous period of continence longer than 6 months, with no other associated symptom, particularly during the day. Its diagnosis is clinical by the exclusion of all other urinary pathologies. Two factors must be identified during the consultation: nocturnal polyuria promoted by excessive fluid intake, inverse secretion of vasopressin, snoring and sleep apnoea. It is sensitive to desmopressin; small bladder capacity evaluated according to a voiding diary and the ICCS formula. It may be associated with diurnal hyperactivity of the detrusor (30 %). It is resistant to desmopressin. Problems associated with PNE are: abnormal arousal threshold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10 %), low
La Sorte, Frank A; Hochachka, Wesley M; Farnsworth, Andrew; Sheldon, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Geevarghese, Jeffrey; Winner, Kevin; Van Doren, Benjamin M; Kelling, Steve
1. Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments, and multiple environmental and biological factors determine the timing of migration. How these factors operate in combination during autumn migration, which is considered to be under weaker time constraints relative to spring migration, is not clear. 2. Here, we examine the patterns and determinants of migration timing for nocturnal migrants during autumn migration in the north-eastern USA using nocturnal reflectivity data from 12 weather surveillance radar stations and modelled diurnal probability of occurrence for 142 species of nocturnal migrants. We first model the capacity of seasonal atmospheric conditions (wind and precipitation) and ecological productivity (vegetation greenness) to predict autumn migration intensity. We then test predictions, formulated under optimal migration theory, on how migration timing should be related to assemblage-level estimates of body size and total migration distance within the context of dietary guild (insectivore and omnivore) and level of dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 3. Our results indicate seasonal declines in ecological productivity delineate the beginning and end of peak migration, whose intensity is best predicted by the velocity of winds at migration altitudes. Insectivorous migrants departed earlier in the season and, consistent with our predictions, large-bodied and long-distance insectivorous migrants departed the earliest. Contrary to our predictions, large-bodied and some long-distance omnivorous migrants departed later in the season, patterns that were replicated in part by insectivorous migrants that displayed dietary plasticity during autumn migration. 4. Our findings indicate migration timing in the region is dictated by optimality strategies, modified based on the breadth and flexibility of migrant's foraging diets, with declining ecological productivity defining possible resource thresholds during which
Farnsworth, Andrew; Van DOREN, Benjamin M; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sheldon, Daniel; Winner, Kevin; Irvine, Jed; Geevarghese, Jeffrey; Kelling, Steve
Billions of birds migrate at night over North America each year. However, few studies have described the phenology of these movements, such as magnitudes, directions, and speeds, for more than one migration season and at regional scales. In this study, we characterize density, direction, and speed of nocturnally migrating birds using data from 13 weather surveillance radars in the autumns of 2010 and 2011 in the northeastern USA. After screening radar data to remove precipitation, we applied a recently developed algorithm for characterizing velocity profiles with previously developed methods to document bird migration. Many hourly radar scans contained windborne "contamination," and these scans also exhibited generally low overall reflectivities. Hourly scans dominated by birds showed nightly and seasonal patterns that differed markedly from those of low reflectivity scans. Bird migration occurred during many nights, but a smaller number of nights with large movements of birds defined regional nocturnal migration. Densities varied by date, time, and location but peaked in the second and third deciles of night during the autumn period when the most birds were migrating. Migration track (the direction to which birds moved) shifted within nights from south-southwesterly to southwesterly during the seasonal migration peaks; this shift was not consistent with a similar shift in wind direction. Migration speeds varied within nights, although not closely with wind speed. Airspeeds increased during the night; groundspeeds were highest between the second and third deciles of night, when the greatest density of birds was migrating. Airspeeds and groundspeeds increased during the fall season, although groundspeeds fluctuated considerably with prevailing winds. Significant positive correlations characterized relationships among bird densities at southern coastal radar stations and northern inland radar stations. The quantitative descriptions of broadscale nocturnal migration
Fiedler, S.; Schepanski, K.; Heinold, B.; Knippertz, P.; Tegen, I.
Mineral dust aerosol has important impacts on atmospheric radiation transfer, optical properties and precipitability of clouds, as well as human health and eco-systems. Time, location and amount of dust emission are key factors for simulating the atmospheric life cycle of dust and its effects accurately. Dust emission is a non-linear function of surface properties, and the momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. A phenomenon capable of mobilizing dust is the Nocturnal Low-Level Jet (NLLJ), a wind speed maximum at night caused by air accelerating due to reduced dynamical friction in the nocturnal boundary layer. Momentum from the NLLJ is transferred downwards by turbulence, predominantly during the following morning when surface heating erodes the nocturnal temperature inversion. While this breakdown of NLLJs has been suggested to be a main driver for dust storms in North Africa, a quantitative investigation based on analysis data is lacking. As part of the European Research Council funded 'Desert Storms' project, this work presents the first statistical analysis of the importance of NLLJs for the mineral dust amount emitted in North Africa. A new automated detection algorithm for NLLJs has been developed for analyzing the spatio-temporal characteristics and associated mineral dust emission amounts. The algorithm is applied to the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim re-analysis for 1979-2010. Near-surface wind speed and soil moisture from ERA-interim drive an off-line dust model for calculating associated dust emission fluxes. Annually and spatially averaged, NLLJs form in 29 % of the nights in North Africa. The areal distribution of NLLJs highlights their frequent occurrence along the margins of the Saharan heat-low in summer, and in regions affected by mountain channeling like the Bodélé Depression, Chad, predominantly in winter. In these seasonally varying hotspots NLLJs are identified in 40-80 % of the nights
Garner, N.; Brownsey, D. K.; Tokarek, T. W.; Ye, C. Z.; Yordanov, N. R.; Osthoff, H. D.; Schiller, C. L.; Vingarzan, R.
Routine monitoring stations on the West coast of North America serve to monitor baseline levels of criteria pollutants such as ozone (O3) arriving from the Pacific Ocean. In Canada, the Amphitrite Point Observatory (APO) in Ucluelet on the West coast of Vancouver Island has been added to this network to provide regional baseline measurements. Recently, McKendry and coworkers have reported frequent episodes of nocturnal O3 depletion events (ODEs) at APO (range: 5-20 ppbv) that generally correlate with alongshore winds, elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), and low vertical entrainment but whose cause(s) has (have) remained unclear. In this work, results from the Ozone-depleting reactions in a coastal atmosphere (ORCA) campaign, which took place at APO from July 6 - 31, 2015, are presented. In addition to the long-term measurements that include aerosol size distribution and composition measurements, mixing ratios of speciated monoterpenes (e.g., α- and β-pinene, limonene), molecular halogens (i.e., Cl2, I2), halogen oxides (i.e., OIO), plus a full suite of nitrogen oxides (including N2O5, PAN, PPN, ΣPN, ΣAN, HNO3, HONO, and ClNO2) were quantified. Synoptic conditions at the site varied greatly between nights. During westerly flow of relatively clean marine air, O3 was generally conserved at night, indicating that deposition of O3 to the ocean surface is a minor loss pathway. When the air mass originated from other sectors, episodes of nocturnal ODEs were observed on several occasions, in which mixing ratios of biogenic VOCs were enhanced. These included air masses that originated from densely forested areas to the East, air masses polluted by marine traffic emissions from the southeast, and air masses from the NW that have traveled parallel to the coastline. In this sector, the air was likely in contact with terrestrial vegetation via land-sea breeze circulations. The results suggest that nocturnal ODEs at APO are mainly driven by local or regional processes
Full Text Available Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the air–surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were undertaken over a 40 ha alpine grassland in Australia's Snowy Mountains region across a 3-week period during the late austral summer. Bi-directional GEM fluxes were observed throughout the study, with overall mean value of 0.2 ± 14.5 ng m−2 h−1 and mean nocturnal fluxes of −1.5 ± 7.8 ng m−2 h−1 compared to diurnal fluxes of 1.8 ± 18.6 ng m−2 h−1. Deposition velocities ranged from −2.2 to 2.9 cm s−1, whilst ambient GEM concentrations throughout the study were 0.59 ± 0.10 ng m−3. Cumulative GEM fluxes correlated well with 24 h running mean soil temperatures, and one precipitation event was shown to have a positive impact on diurnal emission fluxes. The underlying vegetation had largely senesced and showed little stomatal control on fluxes. Nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (NAMDEs were observed concomitant with O3 depletion and dew formation under shallow, stable nocturnal boundary layers. A mass balance box model was able to reproduce ambient GEM concentration patterns during NAMDE and non-NAMDE nights without invoking chemical oxidation of GEM throughout the column, indicating a significant role of surface processes controlling deposition in these events. Surface deposition was enhanced under NAMDE nights, though uptake to dew likely represents less than one-fifth of this enhanced deposition. Instead, enhancement of the surface GEM gradient as a result of oxidation at the surface in the presence of dew is hypothesised to be responsible for a large portion of GEM depletion during these particular events. GEM emission pulses following nights with significant deposition provide evidence for the prompt recycling of 17 % of deposited mercury, with the remaining portion retained in surface sinks. The long-term impacts of any sinks are however likely to be minimal, as
Howard, Dean; Edwards, Grant C.
Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were undertaken over a 40 ha alpine grassland in Australia's Snowy Mountains region across a 3-week period during the late austral summer. Bi-directional GEM fluxes were observed throughout the study, with overall mean value of 0.2 ± 14.5 ng m-2 h-1 and mean nocturnal fluxes of -1.5 ± 7.8 ng m-2 h-1 compared to diurnal fluxes of 1.8 ± 18.6 ng m-2 h-1. Deposition velocities ranged from -2.2 to 2.9 cm s-1, whilst ambient GEM concentrations throughout the study were 0.59 ± 0.10 ng m-3. Cumulative GEM fluxes correlated well with 24 h running mean soil temperatures, and one precipitation event was shown to have a positive impact on diurnal emission fluxes. The underlying vegetation had largely senesced and showed little stomatal control on fluxes. Nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (NAMDEs) were observed concomitant with O3 depletion and dew formation under shallow, stable nocturnal boundary layers. A mass balance box model was able to reproduce ambient GEM concentration patterns during NAMDE and non-NAMDE nights without invoking chemical oxidation of GEM throughout the column, indicating a significant role of surface processes controlling deposition in these events. Surface deposition was enhanced under NAMDE nights, though uptake to dew likely represents less than one-fifth of this enhanced deposition. Instead, enhancement of the surface GEM gradient as a result of oxidation at the surface in the presence of dew is hypothesised to be responsible for a large portion of GEM depletion during these particular events. GEM emission pulses following nights with significant deposition provide evidence for the prompt recycling of 17 % of deposited mercury, with the remaining portion retained in surface sinks. The long-term impacts of any sinks are however likely to be minimal, as cumulative GEM flux across the study period was close to zero.
determine factors associated with home deliveries. Main outcome .... Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess and estimate the factors and magnitude of effect on home deliveries. The variables in the model were age or age group, marital .... This finding coupled with lack of transport, made it very difficult for ...
Staroverova, T. I.
From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…
Full Text Available ... Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit ...
A broad overview of the home networking field, ranging from wireless technologies to practical applications. In the future, it is expected that private networks (e.g. home networks) will become part of the global network ecosystem, participating in sharing their own content, running IP...
Tommerup, Henrik M.
An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...
Full Text Available ... de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation ...
Rust, Val D.; Reed, Frances
Viewing the growing disenchantment with state-controlled schooling, the authors predict that home teaching will become an established educational alternative within a short time, and they reflect on the teachings and writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart, an eighteenth-century advocate of educating children at home. (Editor/SJL)
Madsen, Per Printz
In the last couple of year's computer based home control systems are getting more and more common in modern homes. For instance these systems take care of light control, heat control and security systems. The latest trend is to use wireless communication like Z-Wave and ZigBee to interconnect di...
Clean and well-maintained homes can prevent many illnesses and injuries. This podcast discusses how good health begins at home. Created: 3/30/2009 by Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention (CCEHIP). Date Released: 3/30/2009.
Mrs. Patience Edoho Samson-Akpan
PLWHA. The recommendation was that home based care should be encouraged and given priority by stake holders in the management of PLWHA. KEY WORDS: home-based care, quality of life, basic nursing care, psychosocial care. INTRODUCTION. HIV/AIDS is a chronic progressive disease which threatens the quality ...
Lambert, Michael P., Ed.; Welch, Sally R., Ed.
This handbook contains a collections of nine articles on the subject of direct-response advertising. The handbook gives advice on how to create effective advertisements for home study courses. The nine articles are the following: "Overview of Home Study Advertising in the 1990s" (Michael P. Lambert); "Ad Features that Sell"…
Full Text Available ... Payment Models Surgeons as Institutional Employees Our ... Ostomy Associations of America (UOAA). The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration ...
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The pineal gland is an adaptive organ that precisely regulates the biological rhythms of melatonin brain hemostasis. Variation in the regulation of melatonin rhythms is a likely cause of depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and normal control subjects. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the industrial medical unit of the Iron Smelting Company of Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: The morning and nocturnal serum melatonin levels of patients and controls were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. All data were assessed using variance analysis. RESULTS: The morning and nocturnal serum melatonin levels of depressed and healthy subjects differed (P < 0.05. The nocturnal serum melatonin levels of depressed women were lower than those of depressed men (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that the nocturnal serum melatonin levels in the depressed patients were lower than in the controls. Thus, the peak melatonin phase in the depressed patients was reached with delay. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01357083
Cheng, Grand H-L; Chan, Angelique; Lo, June C
Durations of nocturnal sleep and daytime nap influence the well-being of older adults. It is thus essential to understand their determinants. However, much previous research did not assess sleep duration and nap duration individually, and longitudinal data is lacking. This study aimed at examining the impact of demographic, psychosocial, and health factors, including ethnicity, social networks outside the household, smoking and physical exercise on sleep duration and nap duration among community-dwelling elderly. Our study involved over 2,600 older adults (≥60 years) from a longitudinal, nationally representative survey - the Panel on Health and Ageing of Singaporean Elderly. Sleep and nap durations at Time 2 (two years later) were regressed on predictors measured at Time 1. Time 2 short nocturnal sleep duration was predicted by Malay ethnicity (relative to Chinese and Indian), older age, lower education level, more depressive symptoms, and obesity, whereas future long nocturnal sleep duration was predicted by weaker social networks, older age, and more chronic diseases. Furthermore, smoking, obesity, Malay or Indian (relative to Chinese), older age, male gender, and cognitive impairment predicted longer daytime nap duration in the future. Older adults' nocturnal sleep and daytime nap durations may be affected by different demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Thus, it is important to differentiate these two attributes in this age group.
Hallegraeff, Joannes M.; van der Schans, Cees P.; de Ruiter, Renee; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.
Question: In adults who experience nocturnal leg cramps, does stretching of the calf and hamstring muscles each day just before sleep reduce the frequency and severity of the cramps? Design: A randomised trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Eighty adults
dr. M.H. de Greef; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; R. de Ruiter; J.M. Hallegraeff
QUESTION: In adults who experience nocturnal leg cramps, does stretching of the calf and hamstring muscles each day just before sleep reduce the frequency and severity of the cramps? DESIGN: A randomised trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty adults
van de Pol, Ineke; van Iterson, Mat; Maaskant, Jolanda
Delirium in critically-ill patients is a common multifactorial disorder that is associated with various negative outcomes. It is assumed that sleep disturbances can result in an increased risk of delirium. This study hypothesized that implementing a protocol that reduces overall nocturnal sound
Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne Patrick; Raes, Ann; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan
The study investigates whether cortical arousals and periodic limb movements during sleep are related to daytime psychological functioning in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with associated nocturnal polyuria. Psychological functioning is evaluated on five domains: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-inattentive problems, quality of life, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and executive functioning. This multi-informant (parents, teachers, and children) and multi-method study included overnight video-polysomnography, questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing. Thirty children (7 girls) 6 to 16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were selected in a tertiary enuresis center. A high index of periodic limb movements during sleep was associated with a lower quality of life, according to the child. No significant correlations were found with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-inattentive problems, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and executive functioning. This study clarifies the relationship between sleep parameters and psychological functioning of the children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and associated nocturnal polyuria according to the child, the parents, and the teachers. Periodic limb movements during sleep are associated with a lower quality of life of the child.
Macumber, Ian R; Weiss, Noel S; Halbach, Susan M; Hanevold, Coral D; Flynn, Joseph T
Obesity has been linked with abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure (BP) in adults, which in turn is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. There are few data regarding abnormal dipping status in the obese pediatric population. The goal of this study was to further describe the relationship between obesity and non-dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM) in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a database of patients aged 5-21 years who had undergone 24-hour ABPM at Seattle Children's Hospital from January 2008 through May 2014. Subjects were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into lean (BMI 15th-85th percentile) and obese (BMI >95th percentile) groups. Compared to lean subjects (n = 161), obese subjects (n = 247) had a prevalence ratio (PR) for non-dipping of 2.15, adjusted for race (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-3.42). Increasing severity of obesity was not further associated with nocturnal non-dipping. Nocturnal non-dipping was not associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (PR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.71-1.44). These results suggest that in children, just as in adults, obesity is related to a relatively decreased dipping in nocturnal BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.Y.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.; Chanono, M.
Sixty-four Azawak male calves were used to study the effect of nocturnal grazing (NG) and supplementation (S) in the dry season on forage and water intake, faecal output, eating time and weight changes of cattle in the Sahel. Treatments were factorial combinations of four levels of NG (0, 2, 4 and 6
Leopold, M.F.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Yorio, P.
This paper describes nocturnal, marine feeding behaviour in the Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in November 2009. The gulls assembled at night at the end of a long pier, running 800 m offshore into the Golfo Nuevo, at Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Argentina. Powerful lights predictably
Adriaanse, R.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Wiersinga, W. M.
The nocturnal TSH surge was studied in controls, in 34 patients with hypothalamic/pituitary disease and in 21 patients with primary hypothyroidism. It was absent in 5/12 hypothyroid patients and in 5/22 euthyroid patients with hypothalamic/pituitary disease (42% vs 23%, NS). Central hypothyroidism
This article discusses home schooling gifted children, including reasons families choose to home school their children, laws regulating home schooling, the educational background of parents who home school, and curriculum options. Advantages and disadvantages of home schooling are explored, along with data indicating the higher achievement of home…
Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Bech-Danielsen, Claus
Housing research is increasingly focusing on how different groups of residents use their dwelling and transform it into a home. In this article, we look at the homes of immigrants in Danish social housing. The article is based on qualitative interviews with Somali, Iraqi and Turkish immigrants...... might find another meaning in the concept of 'home' than their Danish neighbours. Thus the main issue for our research is to ascertain the extent to which immigrants are able to identify with their dwelling and to establish 'home' in Danish social housing. Does the meaning of the dwelling amongst...... immigrants differ from the one we know from other residents? And to what degree does the physical framework of Danish social housing support or maybe conflict with regard to immigrants' expectations, traditions and routines. Our analysis suggests that the home is as important for immigrants...
Jennum, Poul; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine; Rabøl, Rasmus
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate the impact of nocturnal hypoglycemia on sleep patterns (assessed by polysomnography) and counterregulatory hormones. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-blinded, crossover trial, 26 subjects with type 2 diabetes attended two experimental...... night visits (one normoglycemic and one hypoglycemic) in randomized order. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were controlled by hyperinsulinemic glucose clamping. On the hypoglycemic night, hypoglycemia was induced after reaching sleep stage N2 by turning off glucose infusion until the PG target of 2.......7-2.8 mmol/L was reached and maintained for 15 min. Thereafter, subjects were brought back to normoglycemia for the rest of the night. On the normoglycemic night, PG was maintained at 5.0-7.0 mmol/L throughout the night. RESULTS: During the first 4 h of sleep (0-4 h; after reaching sleep stage N2...