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Sample records for nocturnal hemoglobinuria receiving

  1. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help slow the breakdown of red blood cells. Blood transfusions may be needed. Supplemental iron and folic acid ... is no known way to prevent this disorder. Alternative Names PNH Images Blood cells References Brodsky RA. Proxymal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In: ...

  2. Pregnancy and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, J.; Pel, M.; von dem Borne, A.; van der Lelie, H.

    1994-01-01

    A patient is described who developed symptoms of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) in her first pregnancy. This was uneventful except for a spontaneous preterm delivery. The second pregnancy was complicated by severe anemia and a hemolytic crisis with Budd-Chiari syndrome at 31 weeks'

  3. Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lisukov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, life‑threatening clonal hematological disorder caused by an acquired mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glucan (PIG-A gene. PNH is characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, thrombophilia and other severe clinical syndromes. Until recently, the treatment of PNH has been symptomatic with blood transfusions, anticoagulation and supplementation with folic acid or iron. The only potentially curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this has severe complications with high mortality rates. A new targeted treatment strategy is the inhibition of the terminal complement cascade with anti‑C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab. Eculizumab has shown significant efficacy in controlling of intravascular hemolysis resulting in improving quality of life and survival.

  4. Treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lisukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, life‑threatening clonal hematological disorder caused by an acquired mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glucan (PIG-A gene. PNH is characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, thrombophilia and other severe clinical syndromes. Until recently, the treatment of PNH has been symptomatic with blood transfusions, anticoagulation and supplementation with folic acid or iron. The only potentially curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this has severe complications with high mortality rates. A new targeted treatment strategy is the inhibition of the terminal complement cascade with anti‑C5 monoclonal antibody (eculizumab. Eculizumab has shown significant efficacy in controlling of intravascular hemolysis resulting in improving quality of life and survival.

  5. The complement inhibitor eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillmen, P.; Young, N.S.; Schubert, J.; Brodsky, R.A.; Socie, G.; Muus, P.; Roth, A.; Szer, J.; Elebute, M.O.; Nakamura, R.; Browne, P.; Risitano, A.M.; Hill, A.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Fu, C.L.; Maciejewski, J; Rollins, S.A.; Mojcik, C.F.; Rother, R.P.; Luzzatto, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the safety and efficacy of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against terminal complement protein C5 that inhibits terminal complement activation, in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized,

  6. Necrotizing Fasciitis in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

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    Pusem Patir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare, progressive, and life-threatening hematopoietic stem cell disorder characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis and a prothrombotic state. Patients with PNH might have slightly increased risk of infections due to complement-associated defects subsequent to CD59 deficiency. Here, we report a rare case of a 65-year-old male patient with necrotic ulcers on both legs, where the recognition of pancytopenia and microthrombi led to the diagnosis of PNH based on FLAER (FLuorescent AERolysin flow cytometric analysis. He was subsequently started on eculizumab therapy, with starting and maintenance doses set as per drug labelling. Progression of the patient’s leg ulcers during follow-up, with fulminant tissue destruction, purulent discharge, and necrotic patches, led to a later diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia infection. Courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics, surgical debridement, and superficial skin grafting were applied with successful effect during ongoing eculizumab therapy. This case highlights the point that it is important to maintain treatment of underlying disorders such as PNH in the presence of life-threatening infections like NF.

  7. Eculizumab in Pregnant Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, R.J.; Hochsmann, B.; Szer, J.; Kulasekararaj, A.; Guibert, S. de; Roth, A.; Weitz, I.C.; Armstrong, E.; Risitano, A.M.; Patriquin, C.J.; Terriou, L.; Muus, P.; Hill, A.; Turner, M.P.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Peffault de Latour, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against complement protein C5 that inhibits terminal complement activation, has been shown to prevent complications of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and improve quality of life and overall survival, but data on the use of eculizumab

  8. Technical advances in flow cytometry-based diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Rodolfo Patussi; Bento, Laiz Cameirão; Bortolucci, Ana Carolina Apelle; Alexandre, Anderson Marega; Vaz, Andressa da Costa; Schimidell, Daniela; Pedro, Eduardo de Carvalho; Perin, Fabricio Simões; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Mendes, Cláudio Ernesto Albers; Barroso, Rodrigo de Souza; Bacal, Nydia Strachman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. Methods: A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Results: Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection. Conclusion: High-sensitivity flow cytometry allowed more sensitive determination of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone type and size, particularly in samples with small clones. PMID:27759825

  9. Acute tubular necrosis in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

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    Eranga S Wijewickrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham′s test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis.

  10. Effect of the complement inhibitor eculizumab on thromboembolism in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillmen, P.; Muus, P.; Duhrsen, U.; Risitano, A.M.; Schubert, J.; Luzzatto, L.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Szer, J.; Brodsky, R.A.; Hill, A.; Socie, G.; Bessler, M.; Rollins, S.A.; Bell, L.; Rother, R.P.; Young, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Hemolysis and hemoglobinemia contribute to serious clinical sequelae in hemolytic disorders. In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients, hemolysis can contribute to thromboembolism (TE), the most feared complication in PNH, and the leading cause of disease-related deaths. We evaluated

  11. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: a case report of MR, CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee Yul; Chun, Rho Won; Noh, Jung Woo

    1995-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired disease involving multiple hematopoietic cell lines. Characteristics of PNH are intrinsic hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia and venous thrombosis. We report a case of PNH with characterostoc MR and CT findings. The signal intensity of renal cortex was lower than that of medulla on both T1-and T2-weighted MR imaging. On T2 weighted MR images, the liver showed very low signal intensity but the signal intensity of the spleen was normal. On precontrast CT the attenuation of renal cortex was higher than that of renal medulla and the attenuation of liver was higher than that of the spleen. These findings of MR imaging and CT were the result from the deposition of hemosiderin in the cells of proximal convoluted tubules and transfusional hemosiderosis of liver

  12. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and telomere length predicts response to immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sekiya, Yuko; Okuno, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Nao; Wang, Xinan; Xu, Yinyan; Kawashima, Nozomu; Doisaki, Sayoko; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kudo, Kazuko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease characterized by severe defects in stem cell number resulting in hypocellular marrow and peripheral blood cytopenias. Minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and a short telomere length were identified as predictive biomarkers of immunosuppressive therapy responsiveness in aplastic anemia. We enrolled 113 aplastic anemia patients (63 boys and 50 girls) in this study to evaluate their response to immunosuppressive therapy. The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and telomere length were detected by flow cytometry. Forty-seven patients (42%) carried a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population. The median telomere length of aplastic anemia patients was -0.99 standard deviation (SD) (range -4.01-+3.01 SD). Overall, 60 patients (53%) responded to immunosuppressive therapy after six months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the absence of a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a shorter telomere length as independent unfavorable predictors of immunosuppressive therapy response at six months. The cohort was stratified into a group of poor prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria negative and shorter telomere length; 37 patients) and good prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria positive and/or longer telomere length; 76 patients), respectively. The response rates of the poor prognosis and good prognosis groups at six months were 19% and 70%, respectively (P<0.001). The combined absence of a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a short telomere length is an efficient predictor of poor immunosuppressive therapy response, which should be considered while deciding treatment options: immunosuppressive therapy or first-line hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The trial was registered in www.umin.ac.jp with number UMIN000017972. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  13. Cerebral stroke in a teenage girl with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

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    Francesco Gervasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH in a 14 year-old girl presenting a cerebral arterial thrombosis. The initial diagnosis was carential anemia due to menarche following identification of slight macrocytic anemia, leucopenia and mild thrombocytopenia at routine blood analysis. The child was eventually referred to a children’s hospital after the onset of progressive fatigue, anorexia and paleness. Severe anemia (hemoglobin 6 g/dL with negative Coombs test, mild leucopenia (white blood cells 4.9×109/L and thrombocytopenia (platelets 97×109/L and high values of lactate dehydrogenase (2855 U/L were identified; a packed red cells transfusion was administered. Her condition worsened and she subsequently presented complete right hemiplegia, aphasia and coma; magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive ischemic lesion. A diagnosis of PNH was eventually made following high sensitivity flow cytometry, which identified a PNH clone (CD66b negative equal to 93.7% of granulocytes. Fast recovery from neurologic and hematological problems occurred in response to anticoagulant therapy and intravenous therapy with eculizumab. We are convinced that PNH should be included in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with cytopenia.

  14. A Moessbauer study of hemoglobin in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamorano-Ulloa, R.; Yee-Madeira, H.; Flores-Llamas, H.; Perez-Ramirez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) of normal subjects and six patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) were studied at 300deg K and 77 K. PNH is a very rate autoimmune hematological disease. The possibility of structural alterations of Hb induced by, or as part of the altered PNH-red cell membrane was the objective of this study. The Moessbauer parameters of the Hb of the normal subjects, both at 300 K and at 77 K, are identical to values previously reported. The PNH-Hb spectra show clear differences. They are wider and more asymmetric. At 77 K, an extra doublet grows in with an isomer shift of 0.425 mm/sec. and a quadrupolar splitting of 1.951 mm/sec. The other two doublets have δ's and ΔQ's slightly, but significantly, different from the corresponding values for normal Hb. These results are rationalized in terms of a population of Hb molecules with structures varying very slightly in a narrow range. The spread in structures manifests itself in a wider and more asymmetric Moessbauer spectrum. (orig.)

  15. Neutrophil activation and nucleosomes as markers of systemic inflammation in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: effects of eculizumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijnen, S.T. van; Wouters, D.; Mierlo, G.J. van; Muus, P.; Zeerleder, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by complement-mediated hemolysis and a high risk of life-threatening venous and arterial thrombosis. Uncontrolled complement activation and the release of cell-free heme may result in systemic inflammation, neutrophil activation,

  16. Neutrophil activation and nucleosomes as markers of systemic inflammation in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: effects of eculizumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bijnen, S. T. A.; Wouters, D.; van Mierlo, G. J.; Muus, P.; Zeerleder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by complement-mediated hemolysis and a high risk of life-threatening venous and arterial thrombosis. Uncontrolled complement activation and the release of cell-free heme may result in systemic inflammation, neutrophil activation, and the

  17. Report of a case of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) with complex evolution and liver transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar,Railene Célia B.; Guimarães,Andréa M.; Brito Junior,Lacy C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disease, with thrombotic episodes and frequent pancytopenia. We report the case of a 32 year-old female PNH patient with bone marrow aplasia, which followed a complex course, diagnosed with aplastic anemia associated with PNH, evolving in three years with Budd-Chiari syndrome and liver transplantation. Post-transplant complications, hepatic arterial thrombosis, graft rejection, liver retransplantation and treatment of P...

  18. Evaluation of Danazol, Cyclosporine, and Prednisolone as Single Agent or in Combination for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjaksha Ghosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The responses of 32 patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH were assessed after the patients were put on various combinations of danazol, prednisolone, and cyclosporine. METHODS: Nineteen males and 13 females aged between 14 and 60 years with confirmed diagnosis of PNH were treated with danazol (4, danazol + cyclosporine (7, cyclosporine (1, and prednisolone + danazol (20. Response to these interventions was assessed regularly. Danazol was added to cyclosporine in patients with aplastic bone marrow after 3 months of cyclocporine use only unless the former therapy was successful. Four patients with aplastic marrow received only danazol because they had renal insufficiency at presentation. Patients were evaluated with regular complete blood count and routine liver and renal function tests. RESULTS: One patient responded to cyclosporine only. Thirteen of 32 patients (40% had complete response, 12/32 patients (37% had partial response leading to freedom from red cell transfusion, and 2/32 (7% had no response. Five patients (16% died due to thrombosis or hemorrhage within 3 months of therapy before their response to therapy could be assessed. The median period of review of the cases was 4 years and 6 months. CONCLUSION: Danazol is a useful addition to PNH therapy both in combination with cyclosporine for hypoplastic PNH and with prednisolone for other forms of PNH, and this therapy could be a good alternative where eculizumab and anti-lymphocyte globulin cannot be used for various reasons.

  19. A Hispanic female patient with heartburn: A rare presentation of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Jiménez, Luis A; González-Márquez, Amy Lee; Alicea-Guevara, Ricardo; Santiago-Casiano, Mónica; de la Paz-López, Maryknoll; Negrón-Garcia, Luis; Báez-Diaz, Luis; Cáceres-Pérkins, William

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a non-malignant, acquired clonal hematopoietic stem cell disease that can present with bone marrow failure, hemolytic anemia, smooth muscle dystonias, and thrombosis. We present a case of a 32 year-old-female, G2P2A0 with no past medical history of any systemic illnesses who refers approximately 2 months of progressively worsening constant heartburn with associated abdominal discomfort. CBC showed leukopenia (WBC 2.9 x 103 /µL) with neutropenia (segmented neutrophils 48%), macrocytic anemia (Hgb 6.1 g/dL, hematocrit 20%, MCV,113 fL) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count 59 x 109/L). Abdomino-pelvic CT scan revealed a superior mesenterc vein thrombosis, which was treated initially with low-molecular-weight heparih for full anticoagulation. Peripheral blood flow cytometry assays revealed diminished expression of CD55 and CD59 on the erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes.' Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare, clonal, hematopoietic stem-cell disorder whose manifestations are almost entirely explained by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis. The natural history of PNH is highly variable, ranging from indolent to life-threatening. The median survival is 10 to 15 years, but with a wide range. Thrombosis is the leading cause of death, but others may die of complications of bone marrow failure, renal failure, myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Anticoagulation is only partially effective in preventing thrombosis in PNH; thus, thrombosis is an absolute indication for initiating treatment with Eculizumab. Nevertheless, bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is still the only curative therapy for PNH but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

  20. Detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and related bone marrow diseases, with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls and caveats.

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    Wang, Sa A; Pozdnyakova, Olga; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Stachurski, Dariusz; Anderson, Mary; Raza, Azra; Woda, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in the setting of aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome has been shown to have prognostic and therapeutic implications. However, the status of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in various categories of myelodysplastic syndrome and in other bone marrow disorders is not well-studied. By using multiparameter flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis with antibodies specific for four glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (CD55, CD59, CD16, CD66b) and performing an aerolysin lysis confirmatory test in representative cases, we assessed the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-phenotype granulocytes in 110 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, 15 with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease, 5 with idiopathic myelofibrosis and 6 with acute myeloid leukemia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-phenotype granulocytes were detected in nine patients with low grade myelodysplastic syndrome who showed clinicopathological features of bone marrow failure, similar to aplastic anemia. All paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-positive cases demonstrated loss of the four glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, with CD16(-)CD66b(-) clones being larger than those of CD55(-)CD59(-) (p<0.05). Altered glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expression secondary to granulocytic hypogranulation, immaturity, and/or immunophenotypic abnormalities was present in a substantial number of cases and diagnostically challenging. These results show that routine screening for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in patients with an intrinsic bone marrow disease who show no clinical evidence of hemolysis has an appreciable yield in patients with low grade myelodysplastic syndromes. The recognition of diagnostic caveats and pitfalls associated with the underlying intrinsic bone marrow disease is essential in interpreting paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria testing correctly. In our experience, the CD

  1. Outcomes of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria with or without aplastic anemia.

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    Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Sung Soo; Jeon, Young-Woo; Yoon, Jae-Ho; Cho, Byung-Sik; Eom, Ki-Sung; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Seok; Min, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hee-Je; Cho, Seok-Goo; Kim, Dong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jong Wook

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) with or without aplastic anemia (AA). A total of 33 patients with PNH clones who underwent allogeneic SCT were analyzed. After a median follow-up of 57 months (range, 6.0-151.3), the 5-year estimated overall survival rate was 87.9±5.7%. Four patients died of transplant-related mortality (TRM). With the exception of one patient with early TRM, 32 patients were engrafted. Two patients who had developed delayed GF received a second transplant and recovered. The cumulative incidences of acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) (≥grade II) and chronic GVHD (≥moderate) were 27.3±7.9% and 18.7±7.0%, respectively. Twenty-one patients receiving SCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) had available follow-up data for PNH cell population for the first 6 months post-transplant. Analysis of these data revealed that the PNH clones disappeared within approximately 2 months. RIC regimen was sufficient to eradicate PNH clones with sustained donor-type engraftment after allogeneic SCT. Therefore, application of allogeneic SCT with RIC should be considered in patients with PNH, in accordance with the severity of the underlying bone marrow failure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Clinical roundtable monograph: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: a case-based discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szer, Jeff; Hill, Anita; Weitz, Ilene Ceil

    2012-11-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired disorder characterized by chronic intravascular hemolysis as the primary clinical manifestation and morbidities that include anemia, thrombosis, renal impairment, pulmonary hypertension, and bone marrow failure. The prevalence of the PNH clone (from <1-100% PNH granulocytes) is approximately 16 per million, and careful monitoring is required. The average age of onset of the clinical disease is the early 30s, although it can present at all ages. PNH is caused by the acquisition of a somatic mutation of the gene phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor (PIG-A) in a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), with clonal expansion of the mutated HSC. The mutation causes a deficiency in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). In cells derived from normal HSCs, the complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59 are anchored to the hematopoietic cell membrane surface via GPI, protecting the cells from complement-mediated lysis. However, in patients with PNH, these 2 proteins, along with numerous other GPI-linked proteins, are absent from the cell surface of red cells, granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets, resulting in complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis and other complications. Lysis of red blood cells is the most obvious manifestation, but as other cell lineages are also affected, this complement-mediated attack contributes to additional complications, such as thrombosis. Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the C5 complement protein, is the only effective drug therapy for PNH patients. The antibody prevents cleavage of the C5 protein by C5 convertase, in turn preventing generation of C5b-9 and release of C5a, thereby protecting from hemolysis of cells lacking the CD59 surface protein and other complications associated with complement activation. Drs. Ilene C. Weitz, Anita Hill, and Jeff Szer discuss 3 recent cases of patients with PNH.

  3. Red cells with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-phenotype in patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletis, John; Terpos, Evangelos; Samarkos, Michalis; Meletis, Christos; Apostolidou, Effie; Komninaka, Veroniki; Anargyrou, Konstantinos; Korovesis, Konstantinos; Mavrogianni, Despina; Variami, Eleni; Viniou, Nora; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2002-04-01

    CD55 and CD59 are complement regulatory proteins that are linked to the cell membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. They are reduced mainly in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and in other hematological disorders. However, there are very few reports in the literature concerning their expression in patients with acute leukemias (AL). We studied the CD55 and CD59 expression in 88 newly diagnosed patients with AL [65 with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) and 23 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)] using the sephacryl gel test, the Ham and sucrose lysis tests and we compared the results with patients' clinical data and disease course. Eight patients with PNH were also studied as controls. Red cell populations deficient in both CD55 and CD59 were detected in 23% of ANLL patients (especially of M(0), M(2) and M(6) FAB subtypes), 13% of ALL and in all PNH patients. CD55-deficient erythrocytes were found in 6 ANLL patients while the expression of CD59 was decreased in only 3 patients with ANLL. No ALL patient had an isolated deficiency of these antigens. There was no correlation between the existence of CD55 and/or CD59 deficiency and the percentage of bone marrow infiltration, karyotype or response to treatment. However no patient with M(3), M(5), M(7) subtype of ANLL and mature B- or T-cell ALL showed a reduced expression of both antigens. The deficient populations showed no alteration after chemotherapy treatment or during disease course. This study provides evidence about the lower expression of CD55 and CD59 in some AL patients and the correlation with their clinical data. The possible mechanisms and the significance of this phenotype are discussed.

  4. Multiparameter FLAER-based flow cytometry for screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria enhances detection rates in patients with aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Varma, Neelam; Chandra, Dinesh; Bose, Parveen; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Subhash

    2015-05-01

    Flow cytometry is the gold standard methodology for screening of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. In the last few years, proaerolysin conjugated with fluorescein (FLAER) has become an important component of antibody panel used for the detection of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clone. This study aimed to compare PNH clone detection by flow cytometry in the pre-FLAER era versus the FLAER era. This was a retrospective analysis of 4 years and included 1004 individuals screened for PNH clone, either presenting as hemolytic anemia or as aplastic anemia. In the pre-FLAER time period, the RBCs and neutrophils were screened with antibodies against CD55 and CD59. With the introduction of FLAER, neutrophils were screened with FLAER/CD24/CD15 and monocytes with FLAER/CD14/CD33 combination. A comparative analysis was done for detection of PNH clone in aplastic anemia patients versus non-aplastic anemia patients, as well as between pre-FLAER and FLAER era. Out of a total of 1004 individuals, 59 (5.8%) were detected to have PNH clone positivity. The frequency of PNH clone detected in aplastic anemia and non-aplastic anemia groups was 12.02 and 3.36%, respectively. The detection rate of PNH clone increased from 4.5% (32/711) in the pre-FLAER era to 9.2% (27/293) with the introduction of FLAER. However, this increase could be attributed to increased detection of PNH clone in the aplastic anemia group, which showed a significant increase from 8.3 to 18.2% after use of FLAER. In the non-aplastic group, PNH clone was detected with similar frequencies before and after use of FLAER (3.2 versus 3.8%, respectively). Mean PNH clone size was lower in the aplastic anemia group when compared with the non-aplastic group. RBCs always showed a lower clone size than neutrophils. PNH clone on neutrophils and monocytes was however similar. Inclusion of FLAER increases the sensitivity of the test which is especially useful in picking up small PNH clones in patients of aplastic anemia.

  5. Improvement of Renal Function by Long-Term Sustained Eculizumab Treatment in a Patient with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ninomiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is one of the major manifestations of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. CKD in PNH is induced mainly by intravascular hemolysis of PNH-affected red blood cells (RBC missing the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins with complement-regulatory activities, CD55 and CD59. CKD develops by heme absorption in the proximal tubules resulting in the interstitial deposition of iron in the kidneys. We administered eculizumab to a patient with PNH, who was one of 29 patients enrolled in the AEGIS clinical trial, an open-label study of eculizumab in Japan. The patient was complicated by stage 3 CKD with impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, at grade G3b, and had obvious proteinuria (2-3+, 1-2 g/day. In a two-year extension to the 12-week AEGIS study, eGFR improved significantly, and the eGFR has since been maintained at grade G2 without proteinuria by sustained eculizumab treatment (>6 years. Renal function improved and maintained by long-term sustained eculizumab treatment, presumably by clearance of iron from the kidney as well as inhibition of the production of anaphylatoxin C5a, even in advanced stages of CKD, is one of the benefits of eculizumab treatment in PNH.

  6. [The variation and clinical significance of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone in patients with aplastic anemia before and after immunosuppressive therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-xin; Zhu, Ming-qing; He, Guang-sheng; Wang, Xiu-li; Fang, Bao-zhi; Lu, Cong; Liu, Zhen-zhen; Wu, Qian; Yang, Yong; Wu, De-pei; Sun, Ai-ning

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the evolution of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clone and its clinical significance before and after immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). A total of 186 patients diagnosed as AA were enrolled in this study. Among them, 55 patients were diagnosed as severe AA (SAA) and treated with cyclosporine (CsA) plus anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), 131 were diagnosed as non SAA (NSAA) and treated with CsA alone. All patients were screened for PNH clone by flow cytometry before treatment and followed up for 18-76 months, with a median time of 22 months. Positive PNH clones were detected in 10 SAA (18.9%) patients, significantly more than that of NSAA group [9 patients (7.4%), t = 5.041, P = 0.025]. The proportions of PNH clones in SAA group at 6, 12, 24 and > 24 months were 13.38%, 14.88%, 20.00% and 18.85%, respectively, also significantly higher than those of NSAA patients (5.67%, 5.31%, 5.47% and 9.08%, all P values clone was positive or negative. PNH clone are detectable in AA patients either treated with ATG plus CsA or CsA alone, and more significant by ATG plus CsA. Whether PNH clone occurred before or after IST does not affect the therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Opportunity cost of funding drugs for rare diseases: the cost-effectiveness of eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Doug; Cheung, Matthew C; Evans, Gerald A

    2014-11-01

    Both ethical and economics concerns have been raised with respect to the funding of drugs for rare diseases. This article reports both the cost-effectiveness of eculizumab for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and its associated opportunity costs. Analysis compared eculizumab plus current standard of care v. current standard of care from a publicly funded health care system perspective. A Markov model covered the major consequences of PNH and treatment. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in terms of the incremental cost per life year and per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Opportunity costs were assessed by the health gains foregone and the alternative uses for the additional resources. Eculizumab is associated with greater life years (1.13), QALYs (2.45), and costs (CAN$5.24 million). The incremental cost per life year and per QALY gained is CAN$4.62 million and CAN$2.13 million, respectively. Based on established thresholds, the opportunity cost of funding eculizumab is 102.3 discounted QALYs per patient funded. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. If the acquisition cost of eculizumab was reduced by 98.5%, it could be considered cost-effective. The nature of rare diseases means that data are often sparse for the conduct of economic evaluations. When data were limited, assumptions were made that biased results in favor of eculizumab. This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting economic evaluations in the context of rare diseases. Eculizumab may provide substantive benefits to patients with PNH in terms of life expectancy and quality of life but at a high incremental cost and a substantial opportunity cost. Decision makers should fully consider the opportunity costs before making positive reimbursement decisions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Presence of acute and chronic renal failure in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: results of a retrospective analysis from the Spanish PNH Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Ana; Núñez, Ramiro; Gaya, Anna; Cuevas-Ruiz, María Victoria; Bosch, José Miguel; Carral, Anna; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Gómez-Roncero, María Isabel; Mora, Asunción; Bravo, Pilar; Lavilla, Esperanza; Monteserín, Carmen; Hernández, Belén; Martínez-Barranco, Pilar; Jarque, Isidro; Urquía, María Anunciación; García-Donas, Gloria; Brunet, Salut; González, Fernando Ataulfo; Urbano, Álvaro

    2017-10-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, life-threatening blood disease. With the advent of eculizumab treatment, renal function has substantially improved, although no data from real-world clinical practice are available. An observational, retrospective, multicenter study was conducted in Spain on clinical data obtained from outpatient visits of patients with PNH (Spanish PNH Registry) who had experienced acute (ARF) or chronic (CRF) renal failure. Of the 128 patients registered (April 2014), 60 were diagnosed with classic PNH. Twenty-seven (45.0%) patients with a mean age of 48.5 (±16.2) years had renal failure, ARF or CRF, and were included in this study. Near half of the patients (n = 13; 48.1%) presented with ARF alone, 33.3% (n = 9) had CRF with episodes of ARF, while 18.5% (n = 5) were diagnosed with CRF alone. For patients with diagnosis of PNH and renal failure (n = 27), the median time to the first ARF episode was 6.5 (CI 95%; 2.2, 14.9) years, whereas the median to the diagnosis of CRF was 14.5 (CI 95%; 3.8, 19.2) years after the diagnosis of PNH. Patients with ARF (n = 22) were treated with eculizumab and did not experience new episodes of ARF, except for one patient with sepsis. Of the patients with CRF, two received treatment without experiencing further episodes of ARF. Sixteen patients who completed treatment (11 with ARF and 5 with ARF + CRF) recovered from the episode of ARF or from CRF. Of the remaining patients treated with eculizumab, one patient improved from stages III to II, three patients stabilized without showing disease progression, and one patient progressed from stages III to IV. Treatment with eculizumab in PNH patients has beneficial effects on renal function, preventing ARF and progression to CRF.

  9. Hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna: relato de dois casos Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Araújo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A Hemoglobina Paroxística Noturna (HPN é uma doença adquirida da stem cell hematopoética caracterizada por anemia hemolítica crônica, episódios trombóticos, e com freqüência pancitopenia. É uma desordem clonal, causada por mutação somática do gene PIG-A ligado ao cromossomo X, o qual é requisitado para a formação da estrutura da âncora glicosil-fosfatidil-inositol (GPI. A deficiência da GPI ancorada á proteína CD59 explica a hemólise intravascular na PNH, resultando da inabilidade dos eritrócitos inativar a superfície do complemento. Uma imensa relação clínica existe entre HPN e a anemia aplástica (AA. A ausência de GPI ancorada às proteínas é facilmente detectada pelos métodos de citometria de fluxo aplicados aos eritrócitos e leucócitos; os testes de Ham a da sucrose são absolutos. Em algumas vezes o tratamento com corticóides e/ou androgênio é útil. O transplante de medula óssea alogênico é curativo. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar dois casos de HPN com revisão, enfatizando os aspectos fisiopatológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos e tratamento da HPN.Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is an acquired hematopoietic stem cell disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, thrombotic episodes and often pancytopenia. It is a chronic disorder caused by a somatic mutation of the X-linked gene PIG-A, which is required for formation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI - anchor structure. Deficiency of the GPI-anchored protein CD59 explains intravascular hemolysis in PNH, which results from the inability of erythrocytes to inactivate the surface complement. A very strong clinical relationship exists between aplastic anemia (AA and PNH. Absence of GPI-anchored proteins is easily detected by flow cytometric methods applied to both erythrocytes and leukocytes; the Ham and sucrose tests are now obsolete. Treatment with glucocorticoids and / or androgen is sometimes helpful. Allogeneic

  10. Hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna: da fisiopatologia ao tratamento Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: from physiopathology to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Mariana de Almeida Santos Arruda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinúria paroxística noturna (HPN é uma anemia hemolítica crônica adquirida rara, de curso clínico extremamente variável. Apresenta-se frequentemente com infecções recorrentes, neutropenia e trombocitopenia, e surge em associação com outras doenças hematológicas, especialmente com síndromes de falência medular, como anemia aplásica e síndrome mielodisplásica. É considerada ainda um tipo de trombofilia adquirida, apresentando-se com tromboses venosas variadas, com especial predileção por trombose de veias hepáticas e intra-abdominais, sua maior causa de mortalidade. A tríade anemia hemolítica, pancitopenia e trombose faz da HPN uma síndrome clínica única, que deixou de ser encarada como simples anemia hemolítica adquirida para ser considerada um defeito mutacional clonal da célula-tronco hematopoética (CTH. A mutação ocorre no gene da fosfaditilinositolglicana classe-A, e resulta no bloqueio precoce da síntese de âncoras de glicosilfosfaditilinositol (GPI, responsáveis por manter aderidas à membrana plasmática dezenas de proteínas com funções específicas. A falência em sintetizar GPI madura gera redução de todas as proteínas de superfície normalmente ancoradas por ela. Dentre elas estão o CD55 e o CD59, que controlam a ativação da cascata do complemento. Assim, na HPN há aumento da susceptibilidade de eritrócitos ao complemento, gerando hemólise. Revisa-se aqui sua fisiopatologia, curso clínico, os tratamentos disponíveis com ênfase para o transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas alogênicas e para o eculizumab, um anticorpo monoclonal humanizado que bloqueia a ativação do complemento terminal no nível C5 e previne a formação do complexo de ataque à membrana, a primeira droga a demonstrar eficácia no tratamento da HPN.Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a rare disorder, an acquired chronic hemolytic anemia, often associated with recurrent nocturnal exacerbations

  11. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on to develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Special Precautions Airplane Travel and High Altitudes The farther you move ... is. If you have anemia , flying in an airplane or visiting places at higher elevations than you’ ...

  12. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria first described in 1882 by Paul Strübing: an example of cooperation between clinical and basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmanns, J C

    1982-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of the first description of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria by Paul Strübing presents an opportunity to analyze the premises valid for the description of this disease in addition to an attempt at an extensive pathophysiological analysis. Strübing's two papers of 1882 were way ahead of his time, when pathophysiology was just at its beginning, particularly considering the fact that neither Marchiafava, who is still commonly credited wit the first description of this disease (1911) and its recognition as a clinical entity (1928), nor his student Micheli analyzed the PNH syndrome in pathophysiological terms as carefully as Strübing. Both of the former names were given to the disease, which is generally referred to as the Marchiafava-Micheli Anemia. William Crosby, who in 1951 in a historical review of PHN first pointed out the pioneering achievement of Strübing, suggested that it was mainly due to the lack of the right "intellectual climate" at the time that so little attention was paid to his work. Still another important aspect of the early history of PNH will be described in the present paper. The analysis of Strübing's publications leads to the conclusion that he was only able to make his important contribution to medical science because he not only had the appropriate clinical setting but also the scientific backup of the famous physiologist Leonhard Landois and his institute at the University of Greifswald, which is an excellent example of scientific progress through cooperation between a clinician and a research scientist.

  13. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Superimposed with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann-Ling Chen

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: The most frequent causes of PNH-related fetomaternal morbidity and mortality are hemolysis and thrombosis. The situation becomes even more complicated when PNH is superimposed with preeclampsia. Appropriate clinical surveillance, awareness of the potential risks of hemolysis and thrombosis, as well as evaluation of fetal wellbeing are essential.

  14. Percussion hemoglobinuria - a novel term for hand trauma-induced mechanical hemolysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Sundaram

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Extracorpuscular hemolysis caused by mechanical trauma has been well described in relation to lower extremity use, such as in soldiers and runners. Terms such as "march hemoglobinuria", "foot strike hemolysis" and "runners hemoglobinuria" have previously been coined and are easily recalled. Newer cases, however, are being identified in individuals vigorously using their upper extremities, such as drum players who use their hands to strike the instrument. Given the increased recognition of upper extremity-related mechanical hemolysis and hemoglobinuria in drummers, and the use of hand drumming worldwide, we would like introduce a novel term for this condition and call it "percussion hemoglobinuria". Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian man presented with reddish brown discoloration of his urine after playing the djembe drum. Urine examination after a rigorous practice session revealed blood on the dipstick, and 0 to 2 red blood cells per high power field microscopically. The urine sample was negative for myoglobulin. Other causes of hemolysis and hematuria were excluded and cessation of drum playing resulted in resolution of his symptoms. Conclusions The association of mechanical trauma-induced hemoglobinuria and playing hand percussion instruments is increasingly being recognized. We, however, feel that the true prevalence is higher than what has been previously recorded in the literature. By coining the term "percussion hemoglobinuria" we hope to raise the awareness of screening for upper extremity trauma-induced mechanical hemolysis in the evaluation of a patient with hemoglobinuria.

  15. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  16. Childhood nocturnal enuresis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van der Wekke, J.; Hirasing, R.A.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in school children aged 5 to 15 years, and to investigate the association of bedwetting with ethnicity, the educational level of the parents, and the type of education (mainstream or special) received by the child. Methods. Data were

  17. CHRONIC HEPATITIS OR «DISGUISE» PAROXYSMAL NOCTURAL HEMOGLOBINURIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Dolgopolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective is description of a case of diagnostics of a paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. Subjects and methods. The male patient of 50 years asked for medical care with complaints to emergence of yellowness a skin, urine darkening, not expressed general weakness. To the patient examination was conducted: clinical and biochemical blood tests, urine, miyelogramm, definition of an index of sphericity of erythrocytes, definition of free hemoglobin of plasma of blood, urine, gemosiderinuriya, flow citometry, immunological markers of rheumatic diseases, tool inspection, etc. Results. On the basis of complaints, a clinical picture of a disease, data of objective and tool inspections the final diagnosis is made: a paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, a classical haemolytic form (on the International classification of diseases of the 10th revision – B 59.5. The comorbid diagnoses: anemia of heavy degree; transfusion dependence; thrombosis of a subclavial vein on the right (11.2011; cholelithiasis; chronic calculous cholecystitis in remission; chronic hepatitis of the mixed genesis (alcoholic, metabolic, moderate degree of activity. By the main diagnostic method which allowed to verify the diagnosis became flow citometry. According to an flow citometry erythrocytes I Tip (normal expression of CD59 – 87,0 %, II Type (partial deficiency of CD59 – 0,3 %, III Type (full deficiency of CD59 – 12,7 %; monocytes with deficiency of FLAER/CD14 – 93,3 %; granulocytes with deficiency of FLAER/CD24 – 97,7 %. Flow citometry was revealed by availability of APG-clone among erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. Judging by the huge size of a clone (on granulocytes 97,7 %, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the patient was in the highest zone of risk of APG of crises. Conclusion. Practical interest of this supervision is caused by a rarity of this hematologic disease, the analysis of modern opportunities of diagnostics and complexity of a choice of

  18. Current management of nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Wm Lane M

    2008-07-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is an especially common problem with the potential to have an appreciable negative impact on the emotional health of a child. Our understanding of the pathogenesis continues to improve. A disorder of sleep arousal, a low nocturnal bladder capacity, and nocturnal polyuria are the three factors that interrelate to cause nocturnal enuresis. Constipation is a very common and often unrecognized factor that appreciably affects bladder function. Successful treatment involves interventions that simultaneously improve these factors. Self-esteem improves with any form of therapy and dryness is possible for the majority of children.

  19. Pathophysiology of nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittig, Søren; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The perception of the pathogenesis of enuresis has undergone marked changes over the past 30 years from a psychiatric/psychological background to a more somatic model where nighttime urine production and bladder capacity are main components together with an arousal dysfunction that prevents...... that dysfunction of the intrinsic circadian regulation located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus results in dysfunction of one or more of the brainstem centers involved in AVP secretion, arousal function, bladder control, and blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, nocturnal enuresis has a strong genetic influence...... that in some families present as autosomal dominant inheritance with high degree of penetrance. Linkage to several chromosomal areas have been confirmed in such families although a specific causative enuresis gene has not yet been identified. In conclusion, our understanding of enuresis pathophysiology has...

  20. Hemato-biochemical and clinico-epidemiological aspects of parturient hemoglobinuria in Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 60 buffaloes suffering from parturient hemoglobinuria (PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan and simultaneously, 60 clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were included for case control study. Clinico-epidemiological data were collected. Blood/serum samples from all buffaloes were collected and analyzed. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee colored urine. Milk production was reduced and respiration and pulse rates were significantly accelerated. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced along with characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly high occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty-seven (45.0% buffaloes developed hemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33 (55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more liters of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Mean values of total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were lower (P<0.001, while erythrocyte sediment rate was higher (P<0.001 in PHU affected buffaloes as compared to the values in healthy buffaloes. Neutrophils were significantly higher, while lymphocytes and erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were lower, in PHU affected buffaloes than in healthy buffaloes. Serum phosphorus, copper and selenium were significantly (P<0.001 lower, whereas potassium, iron and molybdenum (P<0.001 were higher in buffaloes suffering from PHU than healthy buffaloes.

  1. Does the Age of Donor Kidneys Affect Nocturnal Polyuria in Patients With Successful Real Transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, T; Morita, K; Iwami, D; Kitta, T; Kanno, Y; Moriya, K; Takeda, M; Shinohara, N

    We investigated whether the age of donor kidneys influences the incidence of nocturnal polyuria in patients with successful renal transplantation (RTX). Eighty-five patients (45 men and 40 women) undergoing RTX (median age, 47 years) were included in this study. Twenty-four-hour bladder diaries were kept for 3 days, and nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal polyuria index (nocturnal urine volume/24-hour urine volume) of >0.33. Risk factors for nocturnal polyuria were analyzed in patients with RTX by means of the Mann-Whitney U test, χ 2 test, and a logistic regression analysis. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) developed from diabetes mellitus in 16 patients (19%). Sixty-five patients (76%) received pre-transplant dialysis, with a median duration of 5 years. The median serum creatinine level and body mass index at the most recent visit were 1.2 mg/dL and 21.2 kg/m 2 , respectively. On the basis of the 24-hour bladder diaries, nocturnal polyuria was identified in 48 patients (56%). A logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus as the original disease for ESRD was the only risk factor for nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio, 8.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-65.3; P = .0028). The age of donor kidneys at examination did not affect the incidence of nocturnal polyuria (P = .9402). Nocturnal polyuria was not uncommon in patients with successful RTX. Diabetes mellitus as the original disease for ESRD was the only risk factor for nocturnal polyuria, whereas the age of donor kidneys at examination did not affect the incidence of nocturnal polyuria. Thus, nocturnal polyuria is caused by recipient factors but not donor factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Karaboğa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enuresis Nocturna is the most common urologic problemin childhood. There is not a consensus about terminology.Terminology identified by The International Children’sContinence Society (ICCS is recommended. Bed-wettingat night during sleep (incontinence in children above 5years of age who don’t have congenital or acquired centralnervous system defect is defined as enuresis nocturna.There are two groups monosymptomatic (simpleand non-monosymptomatic (complicated. Monosymptomaticenuresis nocturna (MNE has no symptoms otherthan bed-wetting at night during sleep. Various theoriesconcerning etiology of MNE has been suggested; one ormore of genetic, hormonal, bladder associated and sleepdisorders are stated to play a role. Self-improvement canbe achieved each year by 15% increasing maturity. Underpinning treatment and in addition to this unique treatmentmust be done by considering the factors in the pathophysiology.The success of the treatment and roadmapto be followed must be arrange with child and family. Thepurpose of this eclectic is; evaluation of correct diagnosis,differential diagnosis, patient follow-up and treatment optionsof the cases applicant with nocturnal enuresis basedon the current knowledge of ICCS and Turkey EnuresisTreatment Guide.

  3. Nocturnal asthma in school children of south punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, G.; Khan, P.A.; Iqbal, I.

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)

  4. Behavioral alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To investigate the efficacy of alarm treatment in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents with nocturnal enuresis and relate treatment success to age and type of clinical support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 32 weeks, 84 children and adolescents received alarm treatment together with weekly psychological support sessions for individual families or groups of 5 to 10 families. RESULTS: 71% of the participants achieved success, defined as 14 consecutive dry nights. The result was similar for children and adolescents and for individual or group support. The time until success was shorter for participants missing fewer support sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Alarm treatment was effective for the present sample, regardless of age or type of support. Missing a higher number of support sessions, which may reflect low motivation for treatment, increased the risk of failure.

  5. ICCS/ESCCA consensus guidelines to detect GPI-deficient cells in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and related disorders part 4 - assay validation and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldaker, Teri; Whitby, Liam; Saber, Maryam; Holden, Jeannine; Wallace, Paul K; Litwin, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Over the past six years, a diverse group of stakeholders have put forth recommendations regarding the analytical validation of flow cytometric methods and described in detail the differences between cell-based and traditional soluble analyte assay validations. This manuscript is based on these general recommendations as well as the published experience of experts in the area of PNH testing. The goal is to provide practical assay-specific guidelines for the validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometric PNH assays. Examples of the reports and validation data described herein are provided in Supporting Information. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. [Nocturnal polyuria, treatment with desmopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachoval, R; Krhut, J; Šottner, O; Hanuš, T; Martan, A; Horčička, L; Feyereisl, J; Halaška, M; Švabík, K; Krofta, L

    2013-08-01

    Nonpharmacologic and especially pharmacologic treatment options are available for nocturnal polyuria. Desmopressin represents the basis of pharmacologic treatment. Desmopressin acetate is a synthetic analogue of arginine vasopressin with high affinity to V2 receptors with antidiuretic effect. It is the only medicament currently registered for antidiuretic treatment. Desmopressin has not any relevant affinity to V1 receptors, and therefore there is no hypertensive effect in contrary to natural vasopressin. Desmopressin use before a bedtime leads to reduced production of urine during a sleep, therefore time between desires to void is prolonged and number of nocturia is reduced. Clinical effect, in a meaning of reduced urine production and increased osmolality of urine, lasts approximately 8-12 hours. In the treatment of nocturnal polyuria desmopressin is used orally one hour before a bedtime. It is essential to titrate an ideal dose, the initial dose is 60 µg of MELT formula (fast melting oral formulation) and it can be increased according to the clinical effect up to the maximal recommended daily dose 240 µg. Patients treated with desmopressin should cut down a fluid intake 1 hour before and 8 hours after the use of desmopressin. Total number of adverse events connected withdesmopressin treatment in clinical studies was higher compared to placebo but the side effects were mostly mild. The most common adverse events were headaches, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dry mouth and hyponatremia both in the short-term and long-term clinical trials. Hyponatremia was observed mainly in patients over 65 year of age. Therefore treatment with desmopressin should not be commended in patients over 65 year of age without close monitoring of the natrium level in serum and all patients should be informed about the first symptoms of hyponatremia - headache, nausea and insomnia. According to Evidence Based Medicine, the level of evidence for treatment of nocturnal polyuria with

  7. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  8. Effect of Nocturnal Haemodialysis on Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, K.J.R.; Westerhuis, R.; van der Schans, C.P.; de Jong, P.E.; Gaillard, C.A. J. M.; Krijnen, W.P.; Slart, R.H.J.A.; Franssen, C.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haemodialysis patients have a high risk of malnutrition which is associated with increased mortality. Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD) is associated with a significant increase in protein intake compared with conventional haemodialysis (CHD). It is unclear whether this leads to improved

  9. Nocturnal Polyuria : Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, JLHR; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective

  10. Effect of indomethacin on desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria and nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Rittig, Søren; Bower, Wendy F; Djurhuus, Jens C

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the acute effect of indomethacin on renal water and solute handling in children with coexisting monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria, and in healthy controls. A total of 23 subjects were recruited, consisting of 12 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria with partial or no response to desmopressin, and 11 age matched controls. Children completed a 48-hour inpatient study protocol consisting of fractional urine collections and blood samples. Sodium and water intake were standardized. During the second night a dose of 50 mg indomethacin was administered orally before bedtime. Diuresis, urine osmolalities, clearances and fractional excretions were calculated for sodium, potassium, urea, osmoles and solute-free water. Renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured in plasma. Prostaglandin E(2) was measured in urine. Indomethacin markedly decreased the nocturnal sodium, urea and osmotic excretion in children with enuresis and controls. The overall effect on nocturnal urine output was inconsistent in the group with enuresis. Subjects in whom nocturnal diuresis was decreased following administration of indomethacin remained dry. Prostaglandin inhibition leads to antidiuresis, reducing the amount of sodium, urea and osmotic excretion in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria. The sodium regulating hormones do not seem to mediate these processes. The overall effect in desmopressin nonresponders with nocturnal polyuria is variable. The extent to which indomethacin can be applied in the treatment of enuresis needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Iatrogenic nocturnal eneuresis- an overlooked side effect of anti histamines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Italiano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal enuresis is a common disorder in childhood, but its pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Iatrogenic nocturnal enuresis has been described following treatment with several psychotropic medications. Herein, we describe a 6-year-old child who experienced nocturnal enuresis during treatment with the antihistamine cetirizine. Drug rechallenge was positive. Several neurotransmitters are implicated in the pathogenesis of nocturnal enuresis, including noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. Antihistamine treatment may provoke functional imbalance of these pathways resulting in incontinence.

  12. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  13. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  14. Phytotherapy for children's nocturnal enuresis | Ahmadipour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results have shown that Zingiber officinale, Valeriana officinalis, Alcea rosea, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum, Ribes uva-crispa, Cornus mas, Juglans regia, Vitis vinifera, Sinapis spp., Olea europaea, and Prunus cerasus are a number of important plants that are effective on nocturnal enuresis in traditional ...

  15. The effect of dexlansoprazole MR on nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances in patients with symptomatic GERD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Ronnie; Johnson, David A; Orr, William C; Han, Cong; Mody, Reema; Stern, Kathleen N; Pilmer, Betsy L; Perez, M Claudia

    2011-03-01

    Nocturnal heartburn and related sleep disturbances are common among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluated the efficacy of dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg in relieving nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances, improving work productivity, and decreasing nocturnal symptom severity in patients with symptomatic GERD. Patients (N=305) with frequent, moderate-to-very severe nocturnal heartburn and associated sleep disturbances were randomized 1:1 in a double-blind fashion to receive dexlansoprazole MR or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the percentage of nights without heartburn. Secondary end points were the percentage of patients with relief of nocturnal heartburn and of GERD-related sleep disturbances over the last 7 days of treatment. At baseline and week 4/final visit, patients completed questionnaires that assessed sleep quality, work productivity, and the severity and impact of nocturnal GERD symptoms. Dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg (n=152) was superior to placebo (n=153) in median percentage of nights without heartburn (73.1 vs. 35.7%, respectively; Pheartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances (47.5 vs. 19.6%, 69.7 vs. 47.9%, respectively; Pheartburn, in reducing GERD-related sleep disturbances and the consequent impairments in work productivity, and in improving sleep quality/quality of life.

  16. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Hemoglobinuria posparto en vacas de tres rebaños lecheros de la región del Bío-Bío, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Noro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La hemoglobinuria posparto es una enfermedad metabólica esporádica que presentan las vacas lecheras, manifestándose dentro de las 6 semanas posparto asociada al rápido incremento de la producción de leche al inicio de la lactancia. Se caracteriza por una anemiaaguda regenerativa por hemólisis intravascular con hemoglobinuria. Entre los factores que predisponen a su presentación están la ingesta de una dieta carente en fósforo, cobre o selenio, o bien concomitante a la presencia de agentes hemolíticos en plantas crucíferas como el nabo o colza. El trabajo describe aspectos relacionados a la presentación de brotes de la enfermedad en tres rebaños lecheros de la región del Bío-bío, Chile, con hipofosfatemia asociada a la incorporación de derivados de la remolacha azucarera en la dieta.

  18. Nocturnal Polyuria: Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, Ruud; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective study in which participants completed a bladder diary, collected urine and provided a blood sample. With an age dependent nocturnal polyuria index greater than 20% to 33% as the referent 4 definitions of nocturnal polyuria were compared, including 1) nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33%, 2) nocturnal urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and 3) greater than 10 ml/kg, and 4) nocturia index greater than 1.5. In 112 male and female participants significant differences in baseline characteristics and bladder diary parameters were found according to definition. Diuresis rate, free water clearance and sodium clearance had similar 24-hour courses in the subgroups with and without polyuria by each definition. The range varied more in the subgroup with vs without polyuria, especially at night for diuresis rate and free water clearance. At night the latter decreased in the polyuria subgroup based on each definition (p polyuria subgroups was found only for urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and polyuria index greater than 20% to 33%. For each definition sodium clearance remained high in the polyuria subgroup, which differed significantly from the no polyuria subgroups (p polyuria by definition. The renal function profile indicating the pathophysiological mechanism of nocturnal polyuria did not seem to be influenced by definition but free water clearance and sodium clearance cutoff sensitivity differed substantially. These results must be confirmed in a larger homogeneous sample. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body position and late postoperative nocturnal hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Stausholm, K; Edvardsen, L

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients were monitored for nocturnal body position (supine vs. side) and arterial oxygen saturation pre-operatively and on the second postoperative night after major abdominal surgery. The number of positional changes were significantly decreased after operation (p ... position than on the side (p movements....... towards more time spent in the supine position (p = 0.1). Individual mean arterial oxygen saturation decreased postoperatively (p positions (p = 0.9). Pre-operatively, episodic desaturations were significantly more frequent in the supine...

  20. Nocturnal bees are attracted by widespread floral scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Airton Torres; Maia, Artur Campos Dalia; Ojima, Poliana Yumi; dos Santos, Adauto A; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2012-03-01

    Flower localization in darkness is a challenging task for nocturnal pollinators. Floral scents often play a crucial role in guiding them towards their hosts. Using common volatile compounds of floral scents, we trapped female nocturnal Megalopta-bees (Halictidae), thus uncovering olfactory cues involved in their search for floral resources. Applying a new sampling method hereby described, we offer novel perspectives on the investigation of nocturnal bees.

  1. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. The effect of desmopressin on nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and morning postural hypotension in patients with autonomic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, C J; Fosbraey, P; da Costa, D F; Thornley, A; Bannister, R

    1986-01-01

    Day and night urine volume, morning and evening body weight, and supine and sitting blood pressure were measured in five patients with chronic autonomic failure who were not receiving treatment with drugs. All had nocturnal polyuria, overnight weight loss, and a pronounced postural fall in blood pressure, with lowest levels in the morning. Desmopressin (2-4 micrograms given intramuscularly at 8 pm) reduced nocturnal polyuria, diminished overnight weight loss, raised supine blood pressure, and reduced the postural fall, especially in the morning, when patients were often at their worst. Desmopressin may be a useful alternative to, or may supplement, other forms of treatment in some patients with autonomic failure. PMID:3089519

  3. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for mixed nocturia with nocturnal polyuria and decreased nocturnal bladder capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jeong Gu; Park, Choal Hee; Paick, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Han, Deok Hyun; Park, Won Hee; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥ 18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥ 2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4 ± 44.1 to 220.3 ± 90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.

  4. The effects of adenotonsillotomy on nocturnal enuresis in snoring children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kostrzewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem in the paediatric population. A number of reports indicate that there is a relationship between sleep-disordered breathing in children with tonsillar hypertrophy and nocturnal enuresis. Restoration of nasopharyngeal patency may eliminate nocturnal enuresis. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of nocturnal enuresis in children snoring due to nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy as well as to assess the effects of restored upper respiratory patency by means of adenectomy and tonsillectomy on the resolution of nocturnal enuresis in children. Material and methods: The study included 50 children with sleep-disordered breathing qualified for adenectomy, tonsillotomy or adenotonsillotomy (median age 7 years. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children (median age 8 years. Children in the study group were assessed prior to surgical procedure as well as 3 and 6 months after surgery. The presence of sleep-disordered breathing and nocturnal enuresis was determined based on author’s questionnaire completed by parents. Results: The incidence of nocturnal enuresis in children with nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy was 18% (M:F 17%:19%; p > 0.05. Nocturnal enuresis was still reported in 6% of children 3 months after tonsillotomy. The disorder resolved in all girls and 97% of boys 6 months after procedure. Conclusions: Sleep-disordered breathing in children with nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue hypertrophy is associated with nocturnal enuresis. Restoration of nasopharyngeal patency in these patients eliminates nocturnal enuresis. Tonsillar hypertrophy causing obstructive breathing should be included in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis.

  5. Early dinner reduces nocturnal gastric acidity.

    OpenAIRE

    Duroux, P; Bauerfeind, P; Emde, C; Koelz, H R; Blum, A L

    1989-01-01

    This study examines whether eating food at different times has differential effects on intragastric pH. Experiments were done in 23 healthy volunteers (12 men). Intragastric acidity was monitored by ambulatory 22 hour pH-metry. Composition of meals was standardised: breakfast and lunch at 7 am and 12 noon respectively, and dinner at 6 or 9 pm, in random order. The time of going to bed and getting up was also standardised. With early dinner nocturnal pH was higher, than with late dinner (pH me...

  6. Association between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Fujii, Akihito; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2003-11-01

    To examine the relationship between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux. Controlled descriptive study and double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' home. Ten patients with bruxism and 10 normal subjects were matched for height, weight, age, and sex. They did not have symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Medication with a proton pump inhibitor (ie, a gastric-acid-inhibiting drug). The bruxism group showed a significantly higher frequency of nocturnal rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes (mean +/- SD: 6.7 +/- 2.2 times per hour) and a higher frequency and percentage of time of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 4.0 and 5.0 (0.5 +/- 0.9 and 3.6 +/- 1.6 times per hour and 1.3% +/- 2.5% and 7.4% +/- 12.6%, respectively) than the control group (RMMA episodes: 2.4 +/- 0.9 times per hour; gastroesophageal reflux episodes: 0.0 +/- 0.0 and 0.1 +/- 0.3 times per hour and 0.0% +/- 0.0% and 0.0% +/- 0.0%, respectively). In the bruxism group, 100% of the gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 3.0 and 4.0 included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst, the duration of which was approximately 0.5 to 1.0 seconds, probably representing swallowing of saliva. The majority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 also included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst in the control and bruxism groups (100% +/- 0.0% vs 70.7% +/- 16.5%), again probably due to swallowing of saliva. The remaining minority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 contained only an electromyographic burst (swallowing of saliva). The frequency of RMMA episodes after the release of the medication from the proton pump inhibitor, which increased the gastric and esophageal pH, was significantly lower than that after administration of the placebo in the control

  7. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  8. Depression of nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in castrate male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudeen, P.K.; Reiter, R.J.; Texas Univ., San Antonio

    1980-01-01

    Pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was examined in intact rats, castrated rats, and in rats that had been castrated and had received testosterone proprionate. Castration resulted in significantly depressing nocturnal levels of pineal NAT (p<0.05) when compared to enzyme activity in intact rats. Testosterone proprionate administration restored plasma LH levels to normal values in castrate rats but did not induce nocturnal pineal enzyme activity to levels seen in the pineal glands of intact rats. The data substantiate the existence of a feedback control of pineal biosynthetic activity by the hypophyseal-gonadal system, but the identity of the hormone(s) responsible for regulation of pineal NAT activity is not known. (author)

  9. Understanding nocturnal enuresis and its treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, D C; Wogoman, H A; Nietch, P

    1999-09-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a condition that touches the lives of many children around the world. Affected children and their parents may experience feelings of guilt, frustration, and anxiety because of their lack of control over the situation. Nurses can play an important role in providing education to families in regards to the causes and treatment of enuresis. It is important for nurses to understand the problem of bedwetting thoroughly so they can assist the family in making an informed decision about the various options currently available. Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a common disorder that frequently results in frustration and stress on not only the children that experience it, but their parents as well. Scharf, Pravda, Jennings, Kauffman, and Ringel (1987) note that an estimated five to seven million children in America experience enuresis. Enuresis has family and psychosocial aspects, along with financial concerns. Therefore, it is important for nurses to be aware of the causes of enuresis, how it affects the family, and the current treatments that are available.

  10. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Perkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.

  11. Endurance performance and nocturnal HRV indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2010-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated. Twenty-four sedentary subjects trained over four weeks two hours per week at an average running intensity of 76+/-4% of their heart rate reserve. The R to R ECG-intervals were recorded and heart rate variability indices including high frequency power (HFP) were calculated for the nights following the training days every week. The subjects were divided into responders and non-responders according to the improvements in the maximal velocity of the incremental treadmill test (v(max)). The responders improved their v(max) by 10.9+/-46 % (p < 0.001) while no changes were observed in the non-responders (1.6+/-3.0%), although there were no differences in any training load variables between the groups. In the responders nocturnal HFP was significantly higher during the fourth training week compared to the first training week (p=0.036). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the change in v(max) and the change in nocturnal HFP (r=0.482, p=0.042). It was concluded that after similar training, an increase in cardiac vagal modulation was related to improved v(max) in the sedentary subjects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  12. α(1)-adrenoceptor blocker naftopidil improves sleep disturbance with reduction in nocturnal urine volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Tsujimura, Akira; Takao, Tetsuya; Namiki, Mikio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-04-01

    To examine the mechanism underlying improvements in nocturia by α(1)-blockers, we investigated whether the α(1)-blocker naftopidil acts on nocturia with sleep disturbance using a frequency/volume chart (FVC). A total of 56 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were as follows: eight or more points on the I-PSS; three or more points on the I-PSS score for nocturia; and prostate volume larger than 20 ml. Patients received 50 mg of naftopidil once daily for 4 weeks, and non-responders received 75 mg for another 4 weeks. All patients were examined, and their data entered into FVC for 2 days before and after administration of naftopidil. Quality of sleep was also evaluated using modified Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Patients with sleep quality scores of three or four were assigned to sleep disturbance group (n = 33), while those with scores of less than three were assigned to non-disturbance group (n = 23). After administration of naftopidil, total I-PSS decreased and nocturia score decreased from 3.5 to 2.6 (P < 0.01). Total mean score of modified PSQI in sleep disturbance group became significantly lower after administration of naftopidil (from 16.9 to 14.0; P < 0.01). Naftopidil significantly decreased nocturnal urine volume, resulting in a decrease in the nocturnal polyuria index in both sleep disturbance and non-disturbance groups. These results suggest that α(1)-blockers have the ability to normalize sleep disorders. Naftopidil improved nocturnal polyuria regardless of the presence of sleep disturbance, meaning that it might directly reduce nocturnal urine production.

  13. Nocturnal Hypertension and Attenuated Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping is Common in Pediatric Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Fallon; Swartz, Sarah J.; Wenderfer, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but reports of prevalence vary between 20-70% in published reports of adult and pediatric patients. For both children and adults with SLE, the clinical diagnosis and management of hypertension has traditionally been based on guidelines developed for the general population. In clinical trials, the criteria used for defining participants with hypertension are mostly undefined. As a first step towards formally assessing the blood pressure (BP) patterns of children diagnosed with SLE, 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring data was analyzed on clinic patients who presented with prehypertension or stage I hypertension. In this pediatric SLE cohort (n=10), 20% met daytime criteria for a diagnosis of hypertension. Patterns of BP elevation varied widely with white coat, masked, isolated systolic, and diastolic nocturnal hypertension all identified. Nocturnal hypertension was detected in 60% and attenuated nocturnal BP dipping in 90% of both hypertensive and normotensive SLE patients. In SLE patients, the median nighttime systolic and diastolic loads were 25% and 15.5% compared with median daily loads of 12.5% and 11.5%. Daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP load and nocturnal dipping was compared to a control population consisting of 85 non-SLE patients under 21 years old with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension presenting to hypertension clinic. Median systolic BP dipped 5.3 mmHg in SLE patients compared to 11.9 mmHg in non-lupus ( p-value = 0.001). Median diastolic BP dipped 12.9 mmHg versus 18.5 mmHg in non-lupus ( p-value = 0.003). Patterns of BP dysregulation in pediatric SLE merit further exploration. Children with or without SLE displaying prehypertensive or stage 1 casual BP measurements had similar rates of hypertension by ambulatory BP monitoring. However, regardless of BP diagnosis, and independent of kidney involvement, there was an increased proportion with attenuated

  14. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  15. Nocturnal Eating: Association with Binge Eating, Obesity, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Harvey, Kate; DeBar, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical correlates of nocturnal eating, a core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome. Method Data from 285 women who had participated in a two-stage screening for binge eating were utilized. Women (n = 41) who reported one or more nocturnal eating episodes in the past 28 days on the Eating Disorder Examination and women who did not report nocturnal eating (n =244) were compared on eating disorder symptomatology, Body Mass Index (BMI), and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Results Nocturnal eaters were significantly more likely to report binge eating and differed significantly from non-nocturnal eaters (with responses indicating greater disturbance) on weight and shape concern, eating concern, self-esteem, depression, and functional impairment, but not on BMI or dietary restraint. Group differences remained significant in analyses adjusting for binge eating. Conclusions This study confirms the association between nocturnal eating and binge eating previously found in treatment seeking samples yet also suggests that the elevated eating disorder symptoms and decreased psychosocial adjustment observed in nocturnal eaters is not simply a function of binge eating. PMID:19708071

  16. Nocturnal enuresis in india: Are we diagnosing and managing correctly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem affecting school-aged children worldwide. Although it has significant impact on child's psychology, it is always under-recognized in India and considered as a condition which will outgrow with advancing age. Nocturnal enuresis classified as primary or secondary and monosymptomatic or nonmonosymptomatic. Factors that cause enuresis include genetic factors, bladder dysfunction, psychological factors, and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, leading to nocturnal polyuria. Diagnosis consists of detailed medical history, clinical examination, frequency-volume charts, and appropriate investigations. The frequency-volume chart or voiding diary helps in establishing diagnosis and tailoring therapy. The first step in treating nocturnal enuresis is to counsel the parents and the affected child about the condition and reassure them that it can be cured. One of the effective strategies to manage enuresis is alarm therapy, but currently, it is not easily available in India. Desmopressin has been used in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis for close to 50 years. It provides an effective and safe option for the management of nocturnal enuresis. This review covers the diagnosis and management of nocturnal enuresis and introduces the concept of “bedwetting clinics” in India, which should help clinicians in the thorough investigation of bedwetting cases.

  17. Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Revisited by Impedance-pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Tack, Jan; Sifrim, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Impedance-pH monitoring allows detailed characterization of gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal activity associated with reflux. We assessed the characteristics of nocturnal reflux and esophageal activity preceding and following reflux. Methods Impedance-pH tracings from 11 healthy subjects and 76 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease off acid-suppressive therapy were analyzed. Characteristics of nocturnal supine reflux, time distribution and esophageal activity seen on impedance at 2 minute intervals preceding and following reflux were described. Results Patients had more nocturnal reflux events than healthy subjects (8 [4-12] vs 2 [1-5], P = 0.002), with lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux (57% [35-78] vs 80% [60-100], P = 0.044). Nocturnal reflux was mainly liquid (80%) and reached the proximal esophagus more often in patients (6% vs 0%, P = 0.047). Acid reflux predominated in the first 2 hours (66%) and weakly acidic reflux in the last 3 hours (70%) of the night. Most nocturnal reflux was preceded by aboral flows and cleared by short lasting volume clearance. In patients, prolonged chemical clearance was associated with less esophageal activity. Conclusions Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux is as common as acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and predominates later in the night. Impedance-pH can predict prolonged chemical clearance after nocturnal acid reflux. PMID:21602991

  18. Pathophysiology of nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms in older patients with urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Petrovic, Mirko; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-01

    To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output. The median age (n = 95) was 74 years (69-79), 87% were women and 73% had nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms (nocturnal urinary incontinence or nocturia ≥2). Participants with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms had a significantly higher nocturnal urine output (809 mL vs 650 mL; P = 0.001) and no significant difference in maximum voided volume (350 mL vs 437 mL; P = 0.079) compared with participants without nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants (nocturnal polyuria index >33% [n = 56], nocturnal polyuria index >40% [n = 42], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index >1.87 [n = 51]) showed higher night-time diuresis rates, free water and sodium clearance compared with during the daytime. Controls (nocturnal polyuria index ≤33% [n = 26], nocturnal polyuria index ≤40% [n = 40], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index ≤1.87 [n = 44]) had no circadian rhythm in their diuresis rate or sodium clearance, but more nocturnal free water clearance compared with during the daytime. The majority of older adults with urinary incontinence present nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. An increased nocturnal sodium diuresis seems to be the only mechanism differentiating patients with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms from controls. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  20. Clinical correlation between hypercalciuria and nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Valavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalciuria may present with dysuria, urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis (NE. To determine the frequency of hypercalciuria in NE patients and normally continent children, we studied 122 consecutive pre- school children with NE referred to our nephrology clinic during two years, from September 2007 to August 2009. We measured the 24- hour urinary calcium. Furthermore, we compared the response to nasal desmopressin in hypercalciuric and normocalciuric patients. Hypercalciuria was found in 26 (21.3 % of the NE patients as compared with five (4.5% of 110 continent children [(P 0.05. The response to desmopressin above 90% occurred within one month of therapy without a significant change in the levels of hypercalciuria. We conclude that these results suggest that hypercalciuria has a significant association with NE and does not interfere with the desmopressin therapy.

  1. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  2. A mutation in a functional Sp1 binding site of the telomerase RNA gene (hTERC promoter in a patient with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason Philip J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the gene coding for the RNA component of telomerase, hTERC, have been found in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita (DC and aplastic anemia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is a clonal blood disorder associated with aplastic anemia and characterized by the presence of one or more clones of blood cells lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored proteins due to a somatic mutation in the PIGA gene. Methods We searched for mutations in DNA extracted from PNH patients by amplification of the hTERC gene and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC. After a mutation was found in a potential transcription factor binding site in one patient electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to detect binding of transcription factors to that site. The effect of the mutation on the function of the promoter was tested by transient transfection constructs in which the promoter is used to drive a reporter gene. Results Here we report the finding of a novel promoter mutation (-99C->G in the hTERC gene in a patient with PNH. The mutation disrupts an Sp1 binding site and destroys its ability to bind Sp1. Transient transfection assays show that mutations in this hTERC site including C-99G cause either up- or down-regulation of promoter activity and suggest that the site regulates core promoter activity in a context dependent manner in cancer cells. Conclusions These data are the first report of an hTERC promoter mutation from a patient sample which can modulate core promoter activity in vitro, raising the possibility that the mutation may affect the transcription of the gene in hematopoietic stem cells in vivo, and that dysregulation of telomerase may play a role in the development of bone marrow failure and the evolution of PNH clones.

  3. Comparative Effects of an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB)/Diuretic vs. ARB/Calcium-Channel Blocker Combination on Uncontrolled Nocturnal Hypertension Evaluated by Information and Communication Technology-Based Nocturnal Home Blood Pressure Monitoring - The NOCTURNE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hajime; Uchiyama, Kazuaki; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Tetsuro; Kanda, Kiyomi; Hasegawa, Shinji; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2017-06-23

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events. The NOCTURNE study, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) using our recently developed information and communication technology (ICT) nocturnal home BP monitoring (HBPM) device, was performed to compare the nocturnal HBP-lowering effects of differential ARB-based combination therapies in 411 Japanese patients with nocturnal hypertension (HT).Methods and Results:Patients with nocturnal BP ≥120/70 mmHg at baseline even under ARB therapy (100 mg irbesartan daily) were enrolled. The ARB/CCB combination therapy (irbesartan 100 mg+amlodipine 5 mg) achieved a significantly greater reduction in nocturnal home systolic BP (primary endpoint) than the ARB/diuretic combination (daily irbesartan 100 mg+trichlormethiazide 1 mg) (-14.4 vs. -10.5 mmHg, P<0.0001), independently of urinary sodium excretion and/or nocturnal BP dipping status. However, the change in nocturnal home systolic BP was comparable among the post-hoc subgroups with higher salt sensitivity (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and elderly patients). This is the first RCT demonstrating the feasibility of clinical assessment of nocturnal BP by ICT-nocturnal HBPM. The ARB/CCB combination was shown to be superior to ARB/diuretic in patients with uncontrolled nocturnal HT independently of sodium intake, despite the similar impact of the 2 combinations in patients with higher salt sensitivity.

  4. Phenytoin-induced isolated chronic, nocturnal dry cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 72-year-old man with a four-year history of dyscognitive seizures (with occasional secondary generalization who developed isolated, nocturnal dry cough immediately after being started on PO phenytoin. The cough was not accompanied by any other symptom or sign as his physical exam was completely normal. Further investigation with chest CT and spirometry was unremarkable. This symptom persisted for six months and did not resolve until we weaned him off of phenytoin. According to the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, his cough was classified as being probably (score +6 related to the use of this antiepileptic drug. To our knowledge, there has been only one study that reported phenytoin-triggered cough. It described a postoperative patient who developed cough and bronchospasm after receiving IV phenytoin. By reporting our case and discussing the literature on this specific topic, we have essentially two goals. First, we intend to remind clinicians that isolated persistent cough can be an adverse reaction to phenytoin. Second, we hope to encourage further studies that will be able to elucidate the association presented herein.

  5. Influence of Frequent Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis on Food Preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin; Franssen, Casper; van der Schans, Cees; Smit, Lianne; Noordman, Sabine; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective: Dialysis patients frequently report a change of taste that is reversible after renal transplantation, suggesting that uremic toxins may negatively influence taste. Currently, frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) is the most effective method of hemodialysis, and is associated with

  6. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... Epilepsy Society Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) GeneReviews (1 link) Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe ...

  7. Sibelius: Luonnotar. Chevauchee nocturne et lever du soleil / Pierre Gervasoni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gervasoni, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Luonnotar. Chevauchee nocturne et lever du soleil. 4 Legendes. Orchestre Philharmonique Royal de Stockholm, Paavo Järvi. Virgin Classics 545 213-2 (CD:167F). 1996. TT: 1h 13'22"

  8. Temporal Relationships Between Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in Healthy Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Karen P; Hall, Martica H; Lee, Laisze; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Many adolescents do not achieve the recommended 9 hr of sleep per night and report daytime napping, perhaps because it makes up for short nocturnal sleep. This article tests temporal relationships between daytime naps and nighttime sleep as measured by actigraphy and diary among 236 healthy high school students during one school week. Mixed model analyses adjusted for age, race, and gender demonstrated that shorter actigraphy-assessed nocturnal sleep duration predicted longer napping (measured by actigraphy and diary) the next day. Napping (by actigraphy and diary) predicted shorter nocturnal sleep duration and worse sleep efficiency that night measured by actigraphy. Diary-reported napping also predicted poorer self-reported sleep quality that night. Frequent napping may interfere with nocturnal sleep during adolescence.

  9. Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children (First Grade) in ... The control group consisting of 100 age-matched non-enuretic children ... was insignificantly associated with a positive family history, family size or birth rank.

  10. Hearing is not necessarily believing in nocturnal anurans

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Christina; Gomez, Doris; Durieux, Romain; Théry, Marc; Joly, Pierre; Léna, Jean-Paul; Plénet, Sandrine; Lengagne, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of the use of visual cues for mate choice by nocturnal acoustic species raises the important, and to date unaddressed, question of how these signals affect the outcome of mate choice predicted by female preference for male calls. In order to address this question, we presented female Hyla arborea tree frogs with a series of choices between combinations of acoustic and visual cues of varying quality in nocturnal conditions. While females exhibited the expected preference f...

  11. Effects of moderate and heavy endurance exercise on nocturnal HRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, E; Vesterinen, V; Rusko, H; Nummela, A

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on nocturnal autonomic modulation. Nocturnal R-R intervals were collected after a rest day, after a moderate endurance exercise and after a marathon run in ten healthy, physically active men. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed as a continuous four-hour period starting 30 min after going to bed for sleep. In relation to average nocturnal heart rate after rest day, increases to 109+/-6% and 130+/-11% of baseline were found after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Standard deviation of R-R intervals decreased to 90+/-9% and 64+/-10%, root-mean-square of differences between adjacent R-R intervals to 87+/-10% and 55+/-16%, and high frequency power to 77+/-19% and 34+/-19% of baseline after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Also nocturnal low frequency power decreased to 56+/-26% of baseline after the marathon. Changes in nocturnal heart rate and HRV suggest prolonged dose-response effects on autonomic modulation after exercises, which may give useful information on the extent of exercise-induced nocturnal autonomic modulation and disturbance to the homeostasis.

  12. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria at Oslo University Hospital 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen-Meyer, Lise Sofie H; Tjønnfjord, Geir E; Golebiowska, Elzbieta; Kjeldsen-Kragh, Jens; Akkök, Çiğdem Akalın

    2015-06-16

    Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare haematological disease characterised by chronic haemolysis, pancytopenia and venous thrombosis. The condition is attributable to a lack of control of complement attack on erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes, and can be diagnosed by means of flow cytometry. In this quality assurance study, we have reviewed information from the medical records of all patients tested for PNH using flow cytometry at our laboratory over a ten-year period. In the period 2000-2010 a total of 28 patients were tested for PNH using flow cytometry at the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Oslo University Hospital. We have reviewed the results of these examinations retrospectively together with information from medical records and transfusion data for the patients concerned. Flow cytometry identified 22 patients with PNH: four with classic disease and 18 with PNH secondary to another bone marrow disease. Five patients had atypical thrombosis. Seventeen patients received antithymocyte globulin or drug treatment; of these, six recovered from their bone marrow disease, while six died and five had a need for long-term transfusion. Five patients with life-threatening bone marrow disease underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, three of whom died. Six of 22 patients received eculizumab; the need for transfusion has been reduced or eliminated in three patients treated with eculizumab over a longer period. Flow cytometry identified PNH in a majority of patients from whom we obtained samples. Most patients had a PNH clone secondary to bone marrow failure. Atypical thrombosis should be borne in mind as an indication for the test. Treatment with eculizumab is relevant for selected patients with PNH.

  13. Improvement in pulmonary functions and clinical parameters due to addition of breathing exercises in asthma patients receiving optimal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Breathing exercises provided significant improvements in spirometric parameters and significant reduction in breathlessness, wheezing, and nocturnal symptoms as well as requirements of rescue medicines in asthma patients who were receiving optimal asthma treatment.

  14. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  15. Nocturnal enuresis among primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mohamed Aljefri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and personal and family risk factors for nocturnal enuresis (NE among primary school children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, three-part structured questionnaire involving 832 school children aged 6 - 15 years between 2007 and 2008. We assessed participants′ socio-demographic factors, family characteristics and factors related to the presence of NE. The mean age of the children was 11.5 (±2.7 years. The overall prevalence of NE was 28.6%, with a predominance of girls, and the prevalence decreased with increasing age (P 0.002 and a higher number of siblings (P = 0.01. Our findings reveal a high prevalence of NE among children in Al-Mukalla City, Yemen, with a higher prevalence in girls than in boys compared with the other studies. Sleep pattern, stressful life events, family history of NE, large family size and more children in the household may act as a risk factor for NE.

  16. Nocturnal vision and landmark orientation in a tropical halictid bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Gislén, Anna; Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi; Wcislo, William T

    2004-08-10

    Some bees and wasps have evolved nocturnal behavior, presumably to exploit night-flowering plants or avoid predators. Like their day-active relatives, they have apposition compound eyes, a design usually found in diurnal insects. The insensitive optics of apposition eyes are not well suited for nocturnal vision. How well then do nocturnal bees and wasps see? What optical and neural adaptations have they evolved for nocturnal vision? We studied female tropical nocturnal sweat bees (Megalopta genalis) and discovered that they are able to learn landmarks around their nest entrance prior to nocturnal foraging trips and to use them to locate the nest upon return. The morphology and optics of the eye, and the physiological properties of the photoreceptors, have evolved to give Megalopta's eyes almost 30 times greater sensitivity to light than the eyes of diurnal worker honeybees, but this alone does not explain their nocturnal visual behavior. This implies that sensitivity is improved by a strategy of photon summation in time and in space, the latter of which requires the presence of specialized cells that laterally connect ommatidia into groups. First-order interneurons, with significantly wider lateral branching than those found in diurnal bees, have been identified in the first optic ganglion (the lamina ganglionaris) of Megalopta's optic lobe. We believe that these cells have the potential to mediate spatial summation. Despite the scarcity of photons, Megalopta is able to visually orient to landmarks at night in a dark forest understory, an ability permitted by unusually sensitive apposition eyes and neural photon summation.

  17. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  18. Diagnosing the pathophysiologic mechanisms of nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Krott, Louise; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan; Everaert, Karel

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosis of nocturnal polyuria (NP) is based on a bladder diary. Addition of a renal function profile (RFP) for analysis of concentrating and solute-conserving capacity allows differentiation of NP pathophysiology and could facilitate individualized treatment. To map circadian rhythms of water and solute diuresis by comparing participants with and without NP. This prospective observational study was carried out in Ghent University Hospital between 2011 and 2013. Participants with and without NP completed a 72-h bladder dairy. RFP, free water clearance (FWC), and creatinine, solute, sodium, and urea clearance were measured for all participants. The study participants were divided into those with (n=77) and those without (n=35) NP. The mean age was 57 yr (SD 16 yr) and 41% of the participants were female. Compared to participants without NP, the NP group exhibited a higher diuresis rate throughout the night (p=0.015); higher FWC (p=0.013) and lower osmolality (p=0.030) at the start of the night; and persistently higher sodium clearance during the night (p<0.001). The pathophysiologic mechanism of NP was identified as water diuresis alone in 22%, sodium diuresis alone in 19%, and a combination of water and sodium diuresis in 47% of the NP group. RFP measurement in first-line NP screening to discriminate between water and solute diuresis as pathophysiologic mechanisms complements the bladder diary and could facilitate optimal individualized treatment of patients with NP. We evaluated eight urine samples collected over 24h to detect the underlying problem in NP. We found that NP can be attributed to water or sodium diuresis or a combination of both. This urinalysis can be used to adapt treatment according to the underlying mechanism in patients with bothersome consequences of NP, such as nocturia and urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Does menopause influence nocturnal awakening with headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, L M; Hachul, H; Yagihara, F; Santos-Silva, R; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether menopausal status influences the occurrence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the female population of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of this complaint to sociodemographic determinants, hot flushes, sleep quality and parameters, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue according to menopausal status. The female population of the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO) (n = 576) was divided according to menopausal status (pre-, peri-, early and late menopause) based on questionnaires and hormonal blood measures. The complaint of waking up because of a headache at least once a week was assessed by the UNIFESP Sleep questionnaire. Additionally, hot flushes, sleep complaints, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue were assessed by specific questionnaires. A full-night polysomnography assessed sleep parameters. The prevalence of NAH in women in the Sao Paulo population was 13.3%. Perimenopause was associated with a higher risk of having NAH (odds ratio 13.9; 95% confidence interval 4.3-45.2). More complaints of NAH were observed in obese women. All the groups with NAH showed more hot flushes, worse subjective sleep quality, more complaints of insomnia, anxiety symptoms and fatigue. We observed a constellation of symptoms in women according to menopausal status and NAH that included hot flushes, sleep complaints, more anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Moreover, some of these symptoms were more frequent in perimenopausal women with NAH. Therefore, we concluded that menopausal status influences NAH and the women in perimenopause presented a high risk of having this complaint.

  20. Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, PK

    2016-01-18

    © Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.

  1. Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana; Irigoien, Xabier; Genton, Marc G.; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-01-01

    © Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.

  2. Differences in ocular parameters between diurnal and nocturnal raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Horowitz, Igal; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Lublin, Avishai; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    To establish and compare normal ocular parameters between and within diurnal and nocturnal raptor groups. Eighty-eight ophthalmically normal raptors of six nocturnal and 11 diurnal species were studied. Tear production was measured using Schirmer tear test (STT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and applanation tonometry was conducted. Ultrasonographic measurements of axial length (AL), mediolateral axis (ML), vitreous body (VB), and pecten length (PL) were recorded, and conjunctival cultures were obtained. A weak correlation (R = 0.312, P = 0.006) was found between PRTT and STT. Tear production was significantly lower in nocturnal species (P raptors were positive for mycology or bacteriology, either on culture or PCR. The most common infectious agent isolated was Staphylococcus spp. Phenol red thread test and STT are both valid methods to measure tear production; however, a separate baseline must be determined for each species using these methods, as the results of one method cannot be extrapolated to the other. Due to significant differences observed within diurnal and nocturnal species, it appears that a more intricate division should be used when comparing these parameters for raptors, and the classification of diurnal or nocturnal holds little significance in the baseline of these data. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I; Kamilar, Jason M; Kirk, E Christopher

    2012-12-22

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal 'bottleneck' in the early evolution of crown mammals.

  4. The effects of nocturnal compared with conventional hemodialysis on mineral metabolism: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael; Manns, Braden J; Klarenbach, Scott; Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Culleton, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common among patients receiving dialysis and is associated with increased mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) is a long, slow dialytic modality that may improve hyperphosphatemia and disorders of mineral metabolism. We performed a randomized-controlled trial of NHD compared with conventional hemodialysis (CvHD); in this paper, we report detailed results of mineral metabolism outcomes. Prevalent patients were randomized to receive NHD 5 to 6 nights per week for 6to 10 hours per night or to continue CvHD thrice weekly for 6 months. Oral phosphate binders and vitamin D analogs were adjusted to maintain phosphate, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels within recommended targets. Compared with CvHD patients, patients in the NHD group had a significant decrease in serum phosphate over the course of the study (0.49 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.74; P=0.002) despite a significant reduction in the use of phosphate binders. Sixty-one percent of patients in the NHD group compared with 20% in the CvHD group had a decline in intact PTH (P=0.003). Nocturnal hemodialysis lowers serum phosphate, calcium-phosphate product and requirement for phosphate binders. The effects of NHD on PTH are variable. The impact of these changes on long-term cardiovascular and bone-related outcomes requires further investigation.

  5. Nocturnal, every-other-day, online haemodiafiltration: an effective therapeutic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Arias, Marta; Durán, Carlos E; Vera, Manel; Fontseré, Néstor; Azqueta, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Pérez, Nuria; Sentis, Alexis; Elena, Montserrat; Rodriguez, Néstor; Arcal, Carola; Bergadá, Eduardo; Cases, Aleix; Bedini, Jose Luis; Campistol, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have demonstrated excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of a longer (nocturnal) and more frequent (every-other-day) dialysis schedule with OL-HDF at the same or the highest convective volume. This prospective, in-centre crossover study was carried out in 26 patients, 18 males and 8 females, 49.2±14 years old, on 4-5 h thrice-weekly post-dilution OL-HDF, switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Patient inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good vascular access and with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A received the same convective volume as previously for 6 months followed by a higher convective volume for a further 6 months, while Group B received the same schedule in reverse order. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients who were working during the baseline period continued to work throughout the study with practically no absenteeism. The convective volume was 26.7±2 L at baseline, 27.5±2 with the unchanged volume and 42.9±4 L with the higher volume. eKt/V increased from 1.75±0.4 to 3.37±0.9. Bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values decreased, while phosphate levels fell markedly with a 90% reduction in phosphate binders. Blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) improved and the use of anti-hypertensive drugs decreased. In both groups, BUN, creatinine and β2-microglobulin reduction ratios improved. Different removal patterns were observed for myoglobin, prolactin and α1-acid glycoprotein. Nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since good tolerance and occupational rehabilitation, marked improvement in dialysis dose

  6. Nocturnal Hypertension: Neglected Issue in Comprehensive Hypertension Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Kristanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The body circardian rhythm affects blood pressure variability at day and night, therefore blood pressure at day and night might be different. Nocturnal hypertension is defined as increase of blood pressure >120/70mmHg at night, which is caused by disturbed circadian rhythm, and associated with higher cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events also mortality in hypertensive patients. Nocturnal hypertension and declining blood pressure pattern, can only be detected by continuous examination for 24 hours, also known as ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM. Chronotherapy, has become a strategy for managing the hypertensive nocturnal patients, by taking hypertensive medication at night to obtain normal blood pressure decrease in accordance with the normal circadian rhythm and, improving blood pressure control.

  7. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information

  8. Micro-arousals during nocturnal sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, P; Kundra, O; Rajna, P; Pál, I; Vargha, M

    1979-01-01

    In 8 young adult human subjects EEG- and polygraphic characteristics of transient shifts towards arousal (micro-arousal, MA) have been studied during sleep under five different experimental conditions in 40 night sessions. Out of the five applied experimental situations, two (psychostimulant application and sensory stimulation) resulted in a shift of the balance between the systems of sleep and arousal towards an increased activity of the arousal system, while an other condition (rebound following partial sleep deprivation) led to an opposite change to a rise in "sleep pressure". An inverse correlation has been found between the frequency of MA and the depth of sleep, a finding consistently observed in every subject and in every experimental situation. During the process of sleep periodic changes in the dispersity of MA could be seen; the number of MA-s decreased and increased according to the descending and ascending slope of the sleep cycles. During the ascending slope of cycles there was a coupling between the occurence of MA-s and the changes of phases. Increases in the level of activation and in sleep pressure did not influence the occurrence of MA-s. Increasing the tone of the arousal system in chemical way, or by means of enhancing the phasic sensory input resulted in a reduction of the difference between the number of MA on the descending and ascending slopes of cycles. During the phases of sleep, the spontaneous occurrence of MA-s went parallel with the possibility to evoke MA-s by sensory stimuli. These data show that MA is a regular phenomenon of nocturnal sleep; MA manifests itself as a result of phasic functioning of the reticular arousal system and plays a role in the organization of those periods of the sleep cycle, which tend toward arousal. It is suggested that MA-phenomenon is considered a standard measure of sleep and that it could represent an indicator of the function of the arousal system controlled by external or internal mechanisms during

  9. Nocturnal Hot Flashes: Relationship to Objective Awakenings and Sleep Stage Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matt T.; Kim, Semmie; Galvan, Thania; White, David P.; Joffe, Hadine

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: While women report sleep interruption secondary to nighttime hot flashes, the sleep disrupting impact of nocturnal hot flashes (HF) is not well characterized. We utilized a model of induced HF to investigate the relationship of nighttime HF to sleep architecture and sleep-stage transitions. Methods: Twenty-eight healthy, premenopausal volunteers received the depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) leuprolide to rapidly induce menopause, manifesting with HF. Sleep disruption was measured on 2 polysomnograms conducted before and after 4–5 weeks on leuprolide, when HF had developed. Results: 165 HF episodes were recorded objectively during 48 sleep studies (mean 3.4 HF/night). After standardizing to sleep-stage time distribution, the majority of HF were recorded during wake (51.0%) and stage N1 (18.8%). Sixty-six percent of HF occurred within 5 minutes of an awakening, with 80% occurring just before or during the awakening. Objective HF were not associated with sleep disruption as measured by increased transitions to wake or N1, but self-reported nocturnal HF correlated with an increase from pre- to post-leuprolide in the rate of transitions to wake (p = 0.01), and to N1 (p = 0.008). Conclusions: By isolating the effect of HF on sleep in women without the confound of age-related sleep changes associated with natural menopause, this experimental model shows that HF arise most commonly during N1 and wake, typically preceding or occurring simultaneously with wake episodes. Perception of HF, but not objective HF, is linked to increased sleep-stage transitions, suggesting that sleep disruption increases awareness of and memory for nighttime HF events. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01116401. Citation: Bianchi MT, Kim S, Galvan T, White DP, Joffe H. Nocturnal hot flashes: relationship to objective awakenings and sleep stage transitions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1003–1009. PMID:26951410

  10. Circadian rhythm of temperature selection in a nocturnal lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, R; Susalka, S J

    1997-08-01

    We recorded body temperature and locomotor activity of Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) with free access to a heat source under a 14:10 light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. Under the light-dark cycle, the lizards selected higher temperatures during the light phase, when locomotor activity was less intense. Rhythmicity in temperature selection was transiently disrupted but later resumed when the animals were placed in constant darkness. These results demonstrate the existence of a circadian rhythm of temperature selection in nocturnal ectotherms and extend previous findings of a temporal mismatch between the rhythms of locomotor activity and temperature selection in nocturnal rodents.

  11. In-car nocturnal blue light exposure improves motorway driving: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Taillard

    Full Text Available Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light, placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years drove 400 km (250 miles on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP. Eight participants (17% complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1 showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC (F(2,91.11 = 6.64; p<0.05. Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p = 0.001 and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003 than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]. Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004.

  12. A Climatology of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets at Cabauw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Baltink, H.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A climatology of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) is presented for the topographically flat measurement site at Cabauw, the Netherlands. LLJ characteristics are derived from a 7-yr half-hourly database of wind speed profiles, obtained from the 200-m mast and a wind profiler. Many LLJs at Cabauw

  13. Male broiler performance and nocturnal feeding under constant 8-h ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... however, they still consumed more feed in the 8-h dark period than birds that had always been given 16 h illumination. Cobb and Ross genotypes responded similarly to all lighting treatments. Keywords: Photoperiod, broiler growth, nocturnal feeding. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (3) 2008: pp. 159-165 ...

  14. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  15. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Farnsworth, A.; Aelterman, B.; Alves, J.A.; Azijn, K.; Bernstein, G.; Branco, S.; Desmet, P.; Dokter, A.M.; Horton, K.; Kelling, S.; Kelly, J.F.; Leijnse, H.; Rong, J.; Sheldon, D.; Van den Broeck, W.; Van Den Meersche, J.K.; Van Doren, B.M.; van Gasteren, H.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals’

  16. Nocturnal sleep problems among university students from 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal sleeping problems and its associated factors among university students in mainly low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age, 20.8; SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 10.4% reported severe or extreme nocturnal sleeping problems (male, 10.2%; female, 10.5%) in the past month. Noctural sleeping problems differed by country, from 32.9% in Indonesia to 3.0 % in Thailand among Asian countries, from 13.7% in Mauritius to 7.5% in South Africa, and from 11.8% in Jamaica to 6.1% in Columbia in the Americas. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, coming from a poor family background, staying off campus (on their own or with parents or guardians), stress (history of child sexual abuse), poor mental health (depression and PTSD symptoms), health risk behaviour (tobacco use, heavy internet use, gambling, skipping breakfast and having sustained an injury), lack of social support and poor academic performance were associated with nocturnal sleeping problems. A significant prevalence of past-month nocturnal sleeping problems was found. Potential factors associated with the risk of reporting sleeping complaints were identified, which may assist in prevention strategies to promote a better quality of sleep.

  17. Treatment Options for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis by Parents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    common treatment option was waking up child at intervals during the night to void by 103 (45.2 ... patient/family education, simple behavioral ... nocturnal enuresis were employing in managing ..... Dental and Medical Sciences 2014;13:41 – 4.

  18. Working for Food Shifts Nocturnal Mouse Activity into the Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Pilorz, Violetta; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Daan, Serge; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal rodents show diurnal food anticipatory activity when food access is restricted to a few hours in daytime. Timed food access also results in reduced food intake, but the role of food intake in circadian organization per se has not been described. By simulating natural food shortage in mice

  19. Nocturnal motor activity in fibromyalgia patients with poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E

    1995-01-01

    Nocturnal motor activity was examined in long-term rehabilitation patients complaining of poor sleep and having fibromyalgia syndrome (N = 24) or other musculoskeletal disorders (N = 60) and compared with that in 91 healthy controls drawn from a random community sample. Self-reports on sleep complaints and habits were collected. The frequency of nocturnal body movements, the "apnoea" index and ratio of "quiet sleep" to total time in bed were measured using the Static Charge Sensitive Bed (SCSB) (BioMatt). As a group, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome did not differ from patients with other musculoskeletal disorders or from healthy controls in their nocturnal motor activity. The "apnoea" index was a little higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the healthy control group but did not differ from that of the group of other musculoskeletal patients. Further multivariate analyses adjusted for age, BMI, medication and "apnoea" index did not support the assumption that an increased nocturnal motor activity characterizes patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  20. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dumas Cintra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart® system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001. After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample.

  1. Desmopressin (melt) therapy in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria results in improved neuropsychological functioning and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne P; Raes, Ann; Hoebeke, Piet; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Vande Walle, Johan

    2016-09-01

    There is a high comorbidity between nocturnal enuresis, sleep disorders and psychological problems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a decrease in nocturnal diuresis volume not only improves enuresis but also ameliorates disrupted sleep and (neuro)psychological dysfunction, the major comorbidities of this disorder. In this open-label, prospective phase IV study, 30 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) underwent standardized video-polysomnographic testing and multi-informant (neuro)psychological testing at baseline and 6 months after the start of desmopressin treatment in the University Hospital Ghent, Belgium. Primary endpoints were the effect on sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning. The secondary endpoint was the change in the first undisturbed sleep period or the time to the first void. Thirty children aged between 6 and 16 (mean 10.43, standard deviation 3.08) years completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and a prolonged first undisturbed sleep period. Additionally, (neuro)psychological functioning was improved on several domains. The study demonstrates that the degree of comorbidity symptoms is at least aggravated by enuresis (and/or high nocturnal diuresis rate) since sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning were significantly ameliorated by treatment of enuresis. These results indicate that enuresis is not such a benign condition as has previously been assumed.

  2. Analysis of nocturia with 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration: concept for effective treatment modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Yukihiro; Nakao, Masahiro; Honjo, Hisashi; Ukimura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2011-03-01

    • To determine the relationship between the number of nocturia and 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration as well as to assess the significance of these factors with respect to eliminating nocturnal voidings in individual patients with nocturia. • Among 532 participants who completed a 3-day bladder diary between April 2005 and December 2006, the diaries of 450 participants without 24-h polyuria were analyzed. • Clinical variables such as the number of daytime and night-time voids, 24-h urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, daytime and night-time maximum voided volumes (MVV), night/day MVV ratio, sleep duration and proportion of night/day urine production rates were obtained from each diary. • Participants were classified into eight groups according to values of three factors: nocturnal MVV, proportion of night/day urine production rates and length of sleep duration. • Each group was divided into three subgroups: non-nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is zero), mild nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is one) and severe nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is two or more). • The data from non-nocturics with three normal factors were regarded as the normal control and compared with the variables of the other subgroups using Dunnett's method. • Variables that form the basis of classifying participants into eight groups and corresponding to abnormal factors of each group were statistically significant in all the subgroups of each group. • Furthermore, a significantly increased 24-h urine volume was found in severe nocturics of the group with three normal factors. • A significantly decreased 24-h urine volume was found in non-nocturics of groups with nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity and both long sleep duration and nocturnal polyuria. • A significantly increased nocturnal MVV and night/day MVV ratio were shown in non-nocturics and mild nocturics of the groups

  3. The anti-bat strategy of ultrasound absorption: the wings of nocturnal moths (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) absorb more ultrasound than the wings of diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntelezos, Athanasios; Guarato, Francesco; Windmill, James F C

    2017-01-15

    The selection pressure from echolocating bats has driven the development of a diverse range of anti-bat strategies in insects. For instance, several studies have proposed that the wings of some moths absorb a large portion of the sound energy contained in a bat's ultrasonic cry; as a result, the bat receives a dampened echo, and the moth becomes invisible to the bat. To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to bat predation drives the development of higher ultrasound absorbance, we used a small reverberation chamber to measure the ultrasound absorbance of the wings of nocturnal (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) and diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae). The absorption factor of the nocturnal saturniids peaks significantly higher than the absorption factor of the diurnal chalcosiines. However, the wings of the chalcosiines absorb more ultrasound than the wings of some diurnal butterflies. Following a phylogenetic analysis on the character state of diurnality/ nocturnality in the Zygaenidae, we propose that diurnality in the Chalcosiinae is plesiomorphic (retained); hence, the absorbance of their wings is probably not a vestigial trait from an ancestral, nocturnal form but an adaptation to bat activity that overlaps their own. On a within-species level, females of the saturniids Argema mittrei and Samia cynthia ricini have significantly higher absorption factors than the males. In the female S. c. ricini, the higher absorption factor corresponds to a detection distance by bats that is at best 20-30% shorter than that of the male. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Nocturnal raptors (owls: contributions to study of its popularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindelia Rincón Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes the nocturnal birds of prey on the campus of Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC; in English, Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia, in addition to the contribution to the study of its popularity, with students in fifth grade from two educational institutions, one, of the urban context, and other, of the rural context. The study involved the implementation of the didactic component to promote recognition of their biological significance in elementary school students. Among the findings two species of nocturnal birds of prey were identified: common currucutú owl (Tropical Screech Owl, Megascops choliba and the barn owl (Tyto alba, with a relative abundance of 12 individuals and 10 individuals, respectively. It also includes changes in perception from students regarding beliefs and superstitions about such species, which favors the recognition of the biological role in the ecosystem and the need for its conservation.

  5. Sleep disturbances in IDDM patients with nocturnal hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtson, I; Gade, J; Thomsen, C E

    1992-01-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were studied to evaluate sleep patterns during normoglycemia and spontaneous and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Two channels of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram and actooculogram were recorded. The signals were analyzed off-line, using...... a polygraphic sleep analysis system. The scoring was mainly based on the color density spectral array of the EEG. Blood glucose and growth hormone were measured serially. Asymptomatic, spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia occurred in 38% of the nights. Conventional sleep analysis showed a tendency toward...

  6. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25 0 C during summer and about 20 0 C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s -1 and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin

  7. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  9. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological

  10. [Is nocturnal polyuria more frequent among patients with Parkinson's disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, J; Torny, F; Dumas, J-P; Gamé, X; Descazeaud, A

    2015-05-01

    Nocturia is a frequent complaint in the population of idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (IPD). The consequences of nocturia in the IPD population are at high importance as these patients have motor problems and therefore a risk of nocturnal fall. The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of nocturia in patients with MPI, by determining the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (NP) in this population. A prospective study by bladder diary was conducted on 70 consecutive IPD patients consulting for regular neurological follow-up at a non-severe stage. Nocturia was defined as 1 or more awakenings to urinate. Two definitions of NP were used: nocturnal diuresis 33% or higher of the total diuresis (NUV33), which is the ICS (International Continence Society) definition, and nocturnal diuresis 90 mL/h or higher (NUP90). The mean patient age was 71 years (45-86, sex ratio 33/30). On average, patients were diagnosed for IPD 6.76 years earlier. The prevalence of NP was 64.5% according to NUV33 definition, and 17.7% according to NUP90 definition. Among patients with nocturia, the prevalence of NP was 66% (NUV33) and 21.5% (NUP90). No association was observed between disease duration of the IPD and the prevalence of nocturia and NP. Patients 70 years and older were more likely to have NP as defined by NUV33 than those less than 70 years (72.7% versus 55.17%, P=0.015). Men had more frequently nocturia (33.3% versus 20.7%, P=0.027). The prevalence of NP and nocturia was analyzed in patients with IPD at a non-severe stage. This prevalence was not higher than in the general population of the same age. The mechanism of nocturia in patients with IPD is not unambiguous and therefore requires to be explored by a bladder diary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flyin...

  12. Social support and nocturnal blood pressure dipping: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate associations of functional and structural social support with nocturnal BP dipping assessed over a minimum of 24 hours. A total of 297 articles were identified. Of these, 11 met criteria for inclusion; all studies were cross-sectional in design and included adult participants only (mean age = 19 to 72 years). Evidence was most consistent for an association between functional support and BP dipping, such that 5 of 7 studies reported statistically (or marginally) significant positive associations with BP dipping. Statistically significant functional support-BP dipping associations were moderate (standardized effect size (d) = 0.41) to large (d = 2.01) in magnitude. Studies examining structural support were fewer and relatively less consistent; however, preliminary evidence was observed for associations of marital status and social contact frequency with BP dipping. Statistically significant structural support findings were medium (d = 0.53) to large (d = 1.13) in magnitude. Overall, findings suggest a link between higher levels of functional support and greater nocturnal BP dipping; preliminary evidence was also observed for the protective effects of marriage and social contact frequency. Nonetheless, the relatively small number of studies conducted to date and the heterogeneity of findings across meaningful subgroups suggest that additional research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.

  13. Targeting nocturnal hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Niklas Blach; Knudsen, Søren Tang; Fleischer, Jesper; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Ebbehøj, Eva; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2014-11-01

    Several studies in different populations have suggested that nighttime blood pressure (BP) is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than daytime BP. Consequently, treatment strategies to target nighttime BP have come into focus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of change of administration time of antihypertensive drugs. We included 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nocturnal hypertension (nighttime systolic BP >120 mm Hg) in an open-label, crossover study. Patients were randomized to 8 weeks of either morning or bedtime administration of all of the individual's once-daily antihypertensive drugs, followed by 8 weeks of switched dosing regimen. Bedtime administration of antihypertensive drugs resulted in a significant reduction in nighttime (7.5 mm Hg; Pdiabetes mellitus and nocturnal hypertension, administration of once-daily antihypertensive drugs at bedtime may be favorable. The increased nocturnal natriuresis may reflect increased effect of bedtime-administered thiazides and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, suggesting a potential mechanism of the observed effects on BP with chronotherapeutic intervention. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Nocturnal sleep pattern in native Brazilian Terena adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIMÃO RUBENS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Social-economic factors influence sleep habits. This research analyzes characteristics of nocturnal sleep in Brazilian Native Terena adults. Sixty-four adults (31 M; 33 F from 18 to 75 years, with a mean age of 37.0, from the Indian Reservation village of Córrego do Meio, in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, an agriculturally oriented group were evaluated. Nocturnal sleep characteristics were evaluated by means of a standard questionnaire applied to each individual. It was observed that reported nocturnal sleep was longer, sleep onset was earlier and wake up time was also earlier than usually described in urban populations. The mean total time in bed was 8.5 h or more, in every age bracket. The seven-day prevalence rate of insomnia was 4.6%, while the seven-day prevalence rate of hypnotic use was 1.5%, both remarkably less than described in urban populations. These findings stress the need to consider ethnic influences on sleep patterns and disorders.

  15. Mobile Disdrometer Observations of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems During PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding microphysical processes in nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is an important objective of the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) experiment, which occurred from 1 June - 15 July 2015 in the central Great Plains region of the United States. Observations of MCSs were collected using a large array of mobile and fixed instrumentation, including ground-based radars, soundings, PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs), and aircraft. In addition to these observations, three mobile Parsivel disdrometers were deployed to obtain drop-size distribution (DSD) measurements to further explore microphysical processes in convective and stratiform regions of nocturnal MCSs. Disdrometers were deployed within close range of a multiple frequency network of mobile and fixed dual-polarization radars (5 - 30 km range), and near mobile sounding units and PISAs. Using mobile disdrometer and multiple-wavelength, dual-polarization radar data, microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions of MCSs are investigated. The analysis will also examine coordinated Range-Height Indicator (RHI) scans over the disdrometers to elucidate vertical DSD structure. Analysis of dense observations obtained during PECAN in combination with mobile disdrometer DSD measurements contributes to a greater understanding of the structural characteristics and evolution of nocturnal MCSs.

  16. Experimental temperature manipulations alter songbird autumnal nocturnal migratory restlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berchtold Adrienne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Migrating birds may respond to a variety of environmental cues in order to time migration. During the migration season nocturnally migrating songbirds may migrate or stop-over at their current location, and when migrating they may vary the rate or distance of migration on any given night. It has long been known that a variety of weather-related factors including wind speed and direction, and temperature, are correlated with migration in free-living birds, however these variables are often correlated with each other. In this study we experimentally manipulated temperature to determine if it would directly modulate nocturnal migratory restlessness in songbirds. We experimentally manipulated temperature between 4, 14, and 24°C and monitored nocturnal migratory restlessness during autumn in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated sparrows are relatively shortdistance migrants with a prolonged autumnal migration, and we thus predicted they might be sensitive to weatherrelated cues when deciding whether to migrate or stopover. At warm temperatures (24°C none of the birds exhibited migratory restlessness. The probability of exhibiting migratory restlessness, and the intensity of this restlessness (number of infra-red beam breaks increased at cooler (14°C, 4°C temperatures. These data support the hypothesis that one of the many factors that birds use when making behavioural decisions during migration is temperature, and that birds can respond to temperature directly independently of other weather-related cues.

  17. Impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity: the SINERGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, José Luis; Bixquert, M; Maldonado, J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the SINERGE study was to assess the impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity. Ambulatory patients >/=18 years old and classified as defined cases of nocturnal heartburn (n=337), nonnocturnal heartburn (n=139), uncontrolled hypertension (n=198), and symptomatic depression (n=104) were included in this cross-sectional study. Information on age, gender, body mass index, and comorbidity was collected and the following validated questionnaires were applied: SF-12, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. The prevalence of primary care consultation for heartburn and nocturnal heartburn was 4.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Health-related quality of life, sleep, and productivity were significantly impaired in patients with frequent nocturnal heartburn symptoms as compared with those of the patients without nocturnal symptoms or patients with hypertension. Nocturnal heartburn poses a considerable burden for the sufferer because of the impact on quality of life, sleep, and daily activities.

  18. Neuropsychological functioning related to specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, C; Dhondt, K; Roels, S P; Raes, A; Groen, L-A; Hoebeke, P; Walle, J Vande

    2015-08-01

    There is a high comorbidity demonstrated in the literature between nocturnal enuresis and several neuropsychological dysfunctions, with special emphasis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the majority of the psychological studies did not include full non-invasive screening and failed to differentiate between monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and non-MNE patients. The present study primarily aimed to investigate the association between nocturnal enuresis and (neuro)psychological functioning in a selective homogeneous patient group, namely: children with MNE and associated nocturnal polyuria (NP). Secondly, the study investigated the association between specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (maximum voided volume, number of wet nights and number of nights with NP) and ADHD-inattentive symptoms, executive functioning and quality of life. The psychological measurements were multi-informant (parents, children and teachers) and multi-method (questionnaires, clinical interviews and neuropsychological testing). Thirty children aged 6-16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were included. Of them, 80% had at least one psychological, motor or neurological difficulty. The comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, especially the predominantly inattentive presentation, was most common. According to the teachers, a low maximum voided volume (corrected for age) was associated with more attention problems, and a high number of nights with NP was associated with more behaviour-regulation problems. No significant correlations were found between specific characteristics of enuresis and quality of life. Details are demonstrated in Table. The children were recruited from a tertiary referral centre, which resulted in selection bias. Moreover, NP was defined as a urine output exceeding 100% of the expected bladder capacity for age (EBC), and not according to the expert-opinion-based International Children's Continence Society norm of 130% of EBC. The definition

  19. Circadian Rhythm of Glomerular Filtration and Solute Handling Related to Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossche, L; Raes, A; Hoebeke, P; De Bruyne, P; Vande Walle, J

    2016-01-01

    Although nocturnal polyuria in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis can largely be explained by the decreased nocturnal vasopressin secretion hypothesis, other circadian rhythms in the kidney also seem to have a role. We recently documented an absent day/night rhythm in a subgroup of desmopressin refractory cases. We explore the importance of abnormal circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration and tubular (sodium, potassium) parameters in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis. In this retrospective study of a tertiary enuresis population we collected data subsequent to a standardized screening (International Children's Continence Society questionnaire), 14-day diary for nocturnal enuresis and diuresis, and 24-hour concentration profile. The study population consisted of 139 children with nocturnal enuresis who were 5 years or older. Children with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were used as controls. There was a maintained circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium, osmotic excretion and diuresis rate in children with monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and there was no difference between the 2 groups. Secondary analysis revealed that in patients with nocturnal polyuria (with monosymptomatic or nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis) circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium and osmotic excretion, and diuresis rate was diminished in contrast to those without nocturnal polyuria (p Circadian rhythm of the kidney does not differ between patients with nonmonosymptomatic and monosymptomatic enuresis. However, the subgroup with enuresis and nocturnal polyuria has a diminished circadian rhythm of nocturnal diuresis, sodium excretion and glomerular filtration in contrast to children without nocturnal polyuria. This observation cannot be explained by the vasopressin theory alone. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the distribution of body fluid: assessment by bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimoto, Kazumasa; Hirayama, Akihide; Samma, Shoji; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Increased nocturnal urinary volume is closely associated with nocturia. We investigated the relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the variation of body fluid distribution during the daytime using bioelectric impedance analysis. A total of 34 men older than 60 years were enrolled in this study. A frequency volume chart was recorded. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal urine volume per 24-hour production of greater than 0.35 (the nocturnal polyuria index). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed 4 times daily at 8 and 11 a.m., and 5 and 9 p.m. using an InBody S20 body composition analyzer (BioSpace, Seoul, Korea). A significant difference was found in mean +/- SEM 24-hour urine production per fat-free mass between the groups with and without nocturnal polyuria (17.8 +/- 1.4 vs 7.7 +/- 0.9 ml/kg). The increase in fluid in the legs compared with the volume at 8 a.m. was significantly larger at 5 p.m., while there was no difference in the arms or trunk. Nocturnal urine volume significantly correlated with the difference in fluid volume in the legs (r = 0.527, p = 0.0019) and extracellular fluid volume (r = 0.3844, p = 0.0248) between the volumes at 8 a.m. and 9 p.m. Overproduction of urine per fat-free mass leads to nocturnal polyuria. Extracellular fluid accumulates as edema in the legs during the day in patients with nocturnal polyuria. The volume of accumulated extracellular fluid correlates with nocturnal urine volume. We suggest that leg edema is the source of nocturnal urine volume and decreasing edema may cure nocturnal polyuria.

  1. Nocturnal polyuria is related to absent circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guchtenaere, A; Vande Walle, C; Van Sintjan, P; Raes, A; Donckerwolcke, R; Van Laecke, E; Hoebeke, P; Vande Walle, J

    2007-12-01

    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is frequently associated with nocturnal polyuria and low urinary osmolality during the night. Initial studies found decreased vasopressin levels associated with low urinary osmolality overnight. Together with the documented desmopressin response, this was suggestive of a primary role for vasopressin in the pathogenesis of enuresis in the absence of bladder dysfunction. Recent studies no longer confirm this primary role of vasopressin. Other pathogenetic factors such as disordered renal sodium handling, hypercalciuria, increased prostaglandins and/or osmotic excretion might have a role. So far, little attention has been given to abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate. We evaluated the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and diuresis in children with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. We evaluated 15 children (9 boys) 9 to 14 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria resistant to desmopressin treatment. The control group consisted of 25 children (12 boys) 9 to 16 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Compared to the control population, children with nocturnal polyuria lost their circadian rhythm not only for diuresis and sodium excretion but also for glomerular filtration rate. Patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria lack a normal circadian rhythm for diuresis and sodium excretion, and the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate is absent. This absence of circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and/or sodium handling cannot be explained by a primary role of vasopressin, but rather by a disorder in circadian rhythm of renal glomerular and/or tubular functions.

  2. The risk of hyponatremia with desmopressin use for nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Park, Joon-Sung; Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Sung Yul; Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Desmopressin is used for treating nocturnal polyuria, but hyponatremia is an associated concern in the elderly due to impaired urinary dilution. This study was undertaken to characterize hyponatremia occurring in adults using desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria. Data from 172 patients who were prescribed desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria at a urology clinic from September 2010 through February 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and laboratory parameters were investigated to examine the risk factors for desmopressin-associated hyponatremia. The average follow-up serum sodium measured 21 ± 22 days after using desmopressin was 138 ± 5 mmol/l. Hyponatremia (<135 mmol/l) was found in 24 patients (14%), and it was severe in 7 (<126 mmol/l). In the hyponatremic patients, serum sodium decreased by 11 ± 6 mmol/l. Patients with hyponatremia were older than those with normonatremia (78 ± 7 vs. 68 ± 9 years, p < 0.0001). The presence of either hyponatremia-predisposing comorbidities or concurrent medications was associated with hyponatremia. Patients with hyponatremia had lower basal hemoglobin (11 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 2 g/dl, p < 0.001) and serum sodium (139 ± 2 vs. 140 ± 2 mmol/l, p < 0.05) than those with normonatremia. Multivariate logistic regression after adjustment for basal serum sodium showed that advanced age (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03-1.27) and lower hemoglobin level (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.94) were independently associated with hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is not infrequently associated with desmopressin use. Those with advanced age (≥65 years) and lower hemoglobin are at risk of desmopressin-associated hyponatremia and need to be carefully monitored. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2005-01-01

    sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... sleep related physiological mechanisms into consideration. In the present study we report that acute sleep deprivation has a dramatic effect on the volume of nocturnal urine production in both genders although the effect is more pronounced in males. Natriuresis and kaliuresis were observed on nights...

  4. Nocturnal Activity of a Captive Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis)

    OpenAIRE

    IWANO, Taizo

    1991-01-01

    This report aims to clarify the nocturnal activity of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) under captive conditions to compare it with that under natural conditions. The aye-aye was nocuturnal and showed activity at any time at night. However, from 02:00 hrs until just prior to dawn, it often rested. It frequently returned to the nest throughout this period to take long rests of more than half an hour. The aye-aye's activities were classified into four categories: feeding, moving, resti...

  5. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, Jayne E.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid...... species. The ear is formed by modifications of the cubital and subcostal veins at the forewing base, where the thin (1-3 m), ovoid (520 £ 220 )mpanal membrane occurs in a cavity. The ear is innervated by nerve IIN1c, with three chordotonal organs attaching to separate regions of the tympanal membrane...

  6. The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanian, P. M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Horton, K. G. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Remote sensing techniques are playing a greater role in ornithology, and radar has proven a valuable tool for high resolution, long-term observations of airborne animals. The major disadvantage in radar remote sensing is the current inability to gain taxonomic information from these measurements. One solution is the incorporation of collocated acoustic monitoring that can provide recordings of species-specific nocturnal flight calls of migrating birds in flight. In addition, by taking multichannel recordings of these calls, the position of the calling bird can be calculated and linked to collocated radar measurements.

  7. Pattern of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary School Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs: Apprécier la prévalence de l'énurésie nocturne chez des enfants élèves à l'école primaire (âgés de 6 à 7 ans) dans la ville d'Assiut et d'apprécier ses caractères et ses facteurs de risque. Patients et Méthodes: Une étude randomisée incluant 1519 enfants a été réalisée dans 10 écoles primaires de la ville d'Assiut ...

  8. Nocturnal sleep, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life in stable patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliwise Donald L

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of chronic kidney disease, compromised quality of life continues to be a significant problem for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD. However, in spite of the high prevalence of sleep complaints and disorders in this population, the relationship between these problems and quality of life remains to be well characterized. Thus, we studied a sample of stable HD patients to explore relationships between quality of life and both subjective and objective measures of nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness Methods The sample included forty-six HD patients, 24 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 51.6 (10.8 years. Subjects underwent one night of polysomnography followed the next morning by a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT, an objective measure of daytime sleepiness. Subjects also completed: 1 a brief nocturnal sleep questionnaire; 2 the Epworth Sleepiness Scale; and, 3 the Quality of Life Index (QLI, Dialysis Version which provides an overall QLI score and four subscale scores for Health & Functioning (H&F, Social & Economic (S&E, Psychological & Spiritual (P&S, and Family (F. (The range of scores is 0 to 30 with higher scores indicating better quality of life. Results The mean (standard deviation; SD of the overall QLI was 22.8 (4.0. The mean (SD of the four subscales were as follows: H&F – 21.1 (4.7; S&E – 22.0 (4.8; P&S – 24.5 (4.4; and, F – 26.8 (3.5. H&F (rs = -0.326, p = 0.013 and F (rs = -0.248, p = 0.048 subscale scores were negatively correlated with periodic limb movement index but not other polysomnographic measures. The H&F subscale score were positively correlated with nocturnal sleep latency (rs = 0.248, p = 0.048 while the H&F (rs = 0.278, p = 0.030 and total QLI (rs = 0.263, p = 0.038 scores were positively associated with MSLT scores. Both of these latter findings indicate that higher life quality is associated with lower sleepiness levels. ESS

  9. Local characteristics of the nocturnal boundary layer in response to external pressure forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, S.J.A.; Baas, P.; van Hooft, J.A.; van Hooijdonk, I.G.S.; Bosveld, F.C.; van de Wiel, B.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Geostrophic wind speed data, derived from pressure observations, are used in combination with tower measurements to investigate the nocturnal stable boundary layer at Cabauw (The Netherlands). Since the geostrophic wind speed is not directly influenced by local nocturnal stability, it may be

  10. Nocturnal hypoxia in ALS is related to cognitive dysfunction and can occur as clusters of desaturations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Park

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS.Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2<95% for ≥10% of the night and their clinical characteristics and cognitive function were compared.Compared to patients without nocturnal hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n = 10, 40% had poor memory retention (p = 0.039 and retrieval efficiency (p = 0.045. A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70% in the Hypoxia Group.These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation-reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression.

  11. Capnography for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting compliance with subsequent noninvasive ventilation in patients with ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS suffer from hypoventilation, which can easily worsen during sleep. This study evaluated the efficacy of capnography monitoring in patients with ALS for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent noninvasive ventilation (NIV treatment. METHODS: Nocturnal monitoring and brief wake screening by capnography/pulse oximetry, functional scores, and other respiratory signs were assessed in 26 patients with ALS. Twenty-one of these patients were treated with NIV and had their treatment compliance evaluated. RESULTS: Nocturnal capnography values were reliable and strongly correlated with the patients' respiratory symptoms (R(2 = 0.211-0.305, p = 0.004-0.021. The duration of nocturnal hypercapnea obtained by capnography exhibited a significant predictive power for good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment, with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.846 (p = 0.018. In contrast, no significant predictive values for nocturnal pulse oximetry or functional scores for nocturnal hypoventilation were found. Brief waking supine capnography was also useful as a screening tool before routine nocturnal capnography monitoring. CONCLUSION: Capnography is an efficient tool for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent NIV treatment of ALS patients, and may prove useful as an adjunctive tool for assessing the need for NIV treatment in these patients.

  12. Nocturnal eating predicts tooth loss among adults: results from the Danish MONICA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; Williams, Karen B; Heitmann, Berit L

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nocturnal eating, such as that associated with night eating syndrome (NES), and oral health is unknown. This study sought to determine if nocturnal eating is related to tooth loss in a large, epidemiologic sample. Danes (N=2217; age range 30-60 years, M BMI [kg/m(2...

  13. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Won; Park, Jinsung; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong-Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33), aged ≥60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking α-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) completed the study according to...

  14. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June C Lo

    Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1 and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2. Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68 than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15. While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.

  15. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.

  16. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  17. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus. Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  18. Relationship between sleep stages and nocturnal trapezius muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; Nicoletti, Corinne; Omlin, Sarah; Brink, Mark; Läubli, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Former studies reported a relationship between increased nocturnal low level trapezius muscle activity and neck or shoulder pain but it has not been explored whether trapezius muscle relaxation is related to sleep stages. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity is related to different sleep stages, as measured by polysomnography. Twenty one healthy subjects were measured on four consecutive nights in their homes, whereas the first night served as adaptation night. The measurements included full polysomnography (electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (ECG)), as well as surface EMG of the m. trapezius descendens of the dominant arm. Periods with detectable EMG activity of the trapezius muscle lasted on average 1.5% of the length of the nights and only in four nights it lasted longer than 5% of sleeping time. Neither rest time nor the length of periods with higher activity levels of the trapezius muscle did significantly differ between sleep stages. We found no evidence that nocturnal trapezius muscle activity is markedly moderated by the different sleep stages. Thus the results support that EMG measurements of trapezius muscle activity in healthy subjects can be carried out without concurrent polysomnographic recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M K; Varghese, Z; Fernando, O N; Moorhead, J F

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients was studied by comparing the day to night (D:N) ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion in 15 patients who had undergone transplantation less than one year previously (recent-transplant group) with those in 11 patients who had undergone transplantation at least one year previously. Eleven patients with chronic renal failure and 12 normal subjects served as controls. Patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion than the patients who had undergone transplantation at least a year before, while the ratios in this last group did not differ significantly from those in the normal subjects. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis gradually subsided in five patients studied for three months. Chronic renal failure and uraemic autonomic neuropathy were unlikely causes of the nocturia. The patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume than the controls with chronic renal failure, and the mean Valsalva ratio in eight of them was not significantly different from that in the normal subjects. An undue sensitivity of renal allografts to postural influences was proposed. PMID:6986946

  20. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  1. Primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Background and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate background factors and treatment in children with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. The study material comprised enuretics, former enuretics and controls from the municipal community of Falkenberg on the west coast of Sweden. Whenever possible all investigations were made with the children staying in their own home environment. Different background factors have been suspected as being causative: sleep disturbances, behavioural or psychological disturbances, small bladder capacity, increased night diuresis and an insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone during sleep. These factors have been investigated in these studies. The treatment of enuresis has been dominated by the alarm and antidiuretic treatment with DDAVP. Primary nocturnal monosymptomatic enuresis is a common problem in childhood. In this study the prevalence among 392 seven year old children was 7.3%. A prior history of enuresis was found in 65% of families of the enuretics compared to 25% in controls. The enuretic children showed no statistically significant differences in behavioural or psychological problems compared to non-enuretic children. Enuretic children were described as heavy sleepers by their parents and a wake-up test performed at home showed that they were statistically significantly harder to arouse than the controls. Children with nocturnal enuresis, former enuretics and controls did not differ in social or behavioural traits in an interview study. No signs of symptom substitution was found when enuresis was resolved. Enuretic children had a normal bladder capacity and no statistically significant difference was found compared to controls and former enuretics. The enuretic children showed a normal calcium-creatinine quota in the urine. Former enuretic children showed a significantly enhanced calcium/creatinine quota compared to enuretics and controls. Enuretic children had a statistically significant lower morning

  2. Getting a good night sleep? The importance of recognizing and treating nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2018-01-05

    When Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are asked about the quality of their sleep, their answers are dominated by difficulties associated with impaired mobility in bed, medically referred to as nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal hypokinesia is symptomatic from the mid-stage of the disease, affecting up to 70% of PD patients, and contributes to poor sleep quality, and increased carer burden. Here we explore four areas of nocturnal hypokinesia that are relevant to clinical practice, namely: manifestations and definition; clinical assessment and objective monitoring; etiologies and contributing factors; and evidence-based therapeutic approaches. In addition, we provide an operational definition of what constitutes nocturnal hypokinesia and outline different methods of assessment, ranging from clinical interviews and rating scales to objective night-time monitoring with inertial sensors. Optimal management of nocturnal hypokinesia in PD begins with recognizing its manifestation by inquiring about cardinal symptoms and contributing factors from, not only patients, but also carers, followed by formal assessment, and the application of individualized evidence-based treatment. Night-time dopaminergic treatment is the primary therapy; however, careful clinical judgment is required to balance the benefits with the potential adverse events related to nocturnal dopaminergic stimulation. Future studies are needed to explore the practicality of home-based objective assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia, new therapeutic options not limited to dopaminergic medications, and non-pharmacologic approaches, including training on compensatory strategies and bedroom adaptations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Le Tallec

    Full Text Available Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8 were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  4. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  5. Late postoperative nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia and associated sleep pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Wildschiødtz, G; Pedersen, M H

    1994-01-01

    significantly after surgery (P REM) sleep decreased significantly on the first night after operation (P REM sleep (rebound) on the second, third or both nights after operation compared with the preoperative night. Slow wave sleep...... was depressed significantly on the first two nights after operation (P REM sleep-associated hypoxaemic episodes for individual patients increased about three-fold on the second and third nights after operation compared with the night before operation (P sleep...... pattern is disturbed severely with early depression of REM and slow wave sleep and with rebound of REM sleep on the second and third nights. Postoperative rebound of REM sleep may contribute to the development of sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia....

  6. Surface influence upon vertical profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1983-05-01

    Near-surface wind profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer, depth h, above relatively flat, tree-covered terrain are described in the context of the analysis of Garratt (1980) for the unstable atmospheric boundary layer. The observations at two sites imply a surface-based transition layer, of depth z *, within which the observed non-dimensional profiles Φ M 0 are a modified form of the inertial sub-layer relation Φ _M ( {{z L}} = ( {{{1 + 5_Z } L}} ) according to Φ _M^{{0}} ˜eq ( {{{1 + 5z} L}} )exp [ { - 0.7( {{{1 - z} z}_ * } )] , where z is height above the zero-plane displacement and L is the Monin-Obukhov length. At both sites the depth z * is significantly smaller than the appropriate neutral value ( z * N ) found from the previous analysis, as might be expected in the presence of a buoyant sink for turbulent kinetic energy.

  7. Differential approach to treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko O.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to develop an algorithm of differentiated therapy in children with PNE. 234 children aged 5-15 years were studied. Results of treatment of children with primary nocturnal enuresis using the traditional therapeutic scheme and the algorithm of differential therapy based on identification of individual pathology were analyzed. The best clinical effect (recovery— in 73,1%, improvement— in 19,4% of cases was obtained in children undergone the complex of recommended measures: psychological consultation, rational and family psychotherapy, medication correction, physical and physiotherapy, alarm-monitoring; the complex was used differentially, i.e. depending on the identified pathology. In conclusion the article stated that individual treatment program with the obligatory inclusion of alarm-control for child with PNE should be selected after performing the recommended set of diagnostic measures

  8. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nocturnal activity of nesting shrubland and grassland passerines: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christy M.; Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Smith, Kimberly G.; Schmitz, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal activity of nesting passerines is largely undocumented in field situations. We used video recordings to quantify sleep patterns of four shrubland and three grassland bird species during the nestling period. All species exhibited “back sleep” (bill tucked under scapular feathers); individuals woke frequently for vigils of their surroundings. Sleep-bout duration varied from 6 minutes (grasshopper sparrow) to 28 minutes (blue-winged warbler, field sparrow). Duration on nest varied from 6.4 hours (field sparrow) to 8.8 hours (indigo bunting). Adults woke 20–30 minutes before sunrise. First morning absence from the nest was short; nestlings were fed within 12 minutes of a parent’s departure. Further research is needed to understand energetic costs of sleep and behavioral adaptations to environmental pressures.

  10. Observations and models of simple nocturnal slope flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, J.C.; Horst, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of simple nocturnal slope winds were taken on Rattlesnake Mountain, a nearly ideal two-dimensional ridge. Tower and tethered balloon instrumentation allowed the determination of the wind and temperature characteristics of the katabatic layer as well as the ambient conditions. Two cases were chosen for study; these were marked by well-defined surface-based temperature inversions and a low-level maximum in the downslope wind component. The downslope development of the slope flow could be determined from the tower measurements, and showed a progressive strenghtening of the katabatic layer. Hydraulic models developed by Manins and Sawford (1979a) and Briggs (1981) gave useful estimates of drainage layer depths, but were not otherwise applicable. A simple numerical model that relates the eddy diffusivity to the local turbulent kinetic energy was found to give good agreement with the observed wind and temperature profiles of the slope flows

  11. A cutoff value based on analysis of a reference population decreases overestimation of the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haarst, Ernst P; Bosch, J L H Ruud

    2012-09-01

    We sought criteria for nocturnal polyuria in asymptomatic, nonurological adults of all ages by reporting reference values of the ratio of daytime and nighttime urine volumes, and finding nocturia predictors. Data from a database of frequency-volume charts from a reference population of 894 nonurological, asymptomatic volunteers of all age groups were analyzed. The nocturnal polyuria index and the nocturia index were calculated and factors influencing these values were determined by multivariate analysis. The nocturnal polyuria index had wide variation but a normal distribution with a mean ± SD of 30% ± 12%. The 95th percentile of the values was 53%. Above this cutoff a patient had nocturnal polyuria. This value contrasts with the International Continence Society definition of 33% but agrees with several other reports. On multivariate regression analysis with the nocturnal polyuria index as the dependent variable sleeping time, maximum voided volume and age were the covariates. However, the increase in the nocturnal polyuria index by age was small. Excluding polyuria and nocturia from analysis did not alter the results in a relevant way. The nocturnal voiding frequency depended on sleeping time and maximum voided volume but most of all on the nocturia index. The prevalence of nocturnal polyuria is overestimated. We suggest a new cutoff value for the nocturnal polyuria index, that is nocturnal polyuria exists when the nocturnal polyuria index exceeds 53%. The nocturia index is the best predictor of nocturia. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  13. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  14. Decreased Nocturnal Movements in Patients with Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Giacomo Della; Frusciante, Roberto; Dittoni, Serena; Vollono, Catello; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Colicchio, Salvatore; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Tonali, Pietro A.; Ricci, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Reduced mobility during sleep characterizes a variety of movement disorders and neuromuscular diseases. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common form of muscular dystrophy in the general population, and people with FSHD have poor sleep quality. The aims of the present study were to evaluate nocturnal motor activity in patients with FSHD by means of videopolysomnography and to verify whether activity was associated with modifications in sleep structure. Methods: We enrolled 32 adult patients affected by genetically confirmed FSHD (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.1 ± 13.4 years) and 32 matched control subjects, (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.5 ± 11.4 years). Major body movements (MBM) were scored in videopolygraphic recordings in accordance with established criteria. An MBM index was calculated (number of MBM per hour of sleep). Results: The FSHD group showed a decrease in the MBM index (FSHD: 1.2 ± 1.1; control subjects: 2.3 ± 1.2, analysis of variance F = 13.672; p = 0.008). The sleep pattern of patients with FSHD, as compared with that of controls, was characterized by longer sleep latencies, shorter sleep durations, an increased percentage of wake during sleep, and a decreased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep. In the patient group, the MBM index was inversely correlated with severity of disease (Spearman test: r30 = −0.387; p Marca GD; Frusciante R; Dittoni S; Vollono C; Losurdo A; Testani E; Scarano E; Colicchio S; Iannaccone E; Tonali PA; Ricci E. Decreased nocturnal movements in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(3):276-280. PMID:20572422

  15. Simvastatin-induced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. Case Outline. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the ‘desirable’ range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day. The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day. At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. Conclusion. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  16. Simvastatin-lnduced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojaković, Natasa; Igić, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the'desirable' range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day). At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways.l It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  17. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  18. Low dose oral desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Jing; Lin, Yu-Nan; Huang, Shi-Wei; Chang, Chien-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of low dose oral desmopressin in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with more than nocturnal voids and nocturnal polyuria more than 30% of total daily urine volume. Eligible patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia older than 65 years with nocturia, nocturnal polyuria and International Prostate Symptom Score 14 or greater were included in the study. All patients received placebo or 0.1 mg desmopressin orally at bedtime. Patients were required to visit the outpatient clinic from the first visit, and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Patients maintained flow volume charts and used diaries to record voiding data throughout the study. During followup urinalysis, urine sodium, urine osmolality, serum electrolytes, prostate specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, transrectal ultrasonography of prostate, uroflowmetry and post-void residual urine volume were performed at each visit. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in the study and randomized as 58 in the placebo group and 57 in the desmopressin group. Desmopressin significantly decreased nocturnal urine output and the number of nocturia episodes, and prolonged the first sleep period (p polyuria in the lower urinary tract symptoms of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Long-term desmopressin therapy gradually decreases serum sodium and it might induce hyponatremia even in patients without initial hyponatremia. For long-term desmopressin administration serum sodium should be assessed carefully, at least at 1 week after treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial differences in the impact of social support on nocturnal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Denise C; Ziegler, Michael G; Nelesen, Richard A; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-06-01

    To investigate whether black and white adults benefit similarly from perceived social support in relation to blood pressure (BP) dipping during sleep. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL, 12-item version), which measures the perceived availability of several types of functional social support, was examined for interactive effects with race on dipping of mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The sample consisted of 156 young to middle-aged adults (61 blacks, 95 whites; mean age = 35.7 years). Mean ISEL scores did not differ between racial groups. Controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), resting BP, and socioeconomic status (SES), the interaction of social support by race yielded associations with nighttime dipping in MAP and DBP (p social support increased, white adults received cardiovascular benefits as suggested by enhanced nocturnal dipping of BP, but black adults accrued risks as evidenced by blunted declines in BP during sleep.

  20. Impulse propagation in the nocturnal boundary layer: analysis of the geometric component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Philip; Waxler, Roger

    2012-05-01

    On clear dry nights over flat land, a temperature inversion and stable nocturnal wind jet lead to an acoustic duct in the lowest few hundred meters of the atmosphere. An impulsive signal propagating in such a duct is received at long ranges from the source as an extended wave train consisting of a series of weakly dispersed distinct arrivals followed by a strongly dispersed low-frequency tail. The leading distinct arrivals have been previously shown to be well modeled by geometric acoustics. In this paper, the geometric acoustics approximation for the leading arrivals is investigated. Using the solutions of the eikonal and transport equations, travel times, amplitudes, and caustic structures of the distinct arrivals have been determined. The time delay between and relative amplitudes of the direct-refracted and single ground reflection arrivals have been investigated as parameters for an inversion scheme. A two parameter quadratic approximation to the effective sound speed profile has been fit and found to be in strong agreement with meteorological measurements from the time of propagation.

  1. Nocturnal rapid eye movement sleep latency for identifying patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Olivier; Moore, Hyatt; Jouhier, Laura; Drake, Christopher; Peppard, Paul E; Han, Fang; Hong, Seung-Chul; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; O'Hara, Ruth; Haffen, Emmanuel; Roth, Thomas; Young, Terry; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-07-01

    Narcolepsy, a disorder associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02 and caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, is diagnosed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) following nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). In many patients, a short rapid eye movement sleep latency (REML) during the NPSG is also observed but not used diagnostically. To determine diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of nocturnal REML measures in narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. Observational study using receiver operating characteristic curves for NPSG REML and MSLT findings (sleep studies performed between May 1976 and September 2011 at university medical centers in the United States, China, Korea, and Europe) to determine optimal diagnostic cutoffs for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency compared with different samples: controls, patients with other sleep disorders, patients with other hypersomnias, and patients with narcolepsy with normal hypocretin levels. Increasingly stringent comparisons were made. In a first comparison, 516 age- and sex-matched patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were selected from 1749 patients and compared with 516 controls. In a second comparison, 749 successive patients undergoing sleep evaluation for any sleep disorders (low pretest probability for narcolepsy) were compared within groups by final diagnosis of narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. In the third comparison, 254 patients with a high pretest probability of having narcolepsy were compared within group by their final diagnosis. Finally, 118 patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were compared with 118 age- and sex-matched patients with a diagnosis of narcolepsy but with normal hypocretin levels. Sensitivity and specificity of NPSG REML and MSLT as diagnostic tests for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. This diagnosis was defined as narcolepsy associated with cataplexy plus HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity (no cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 results available) or narcolepsy with documented low (≤ 110 pg

  2. Nutritional Status in Nocturnal Hemodialysis Patients : A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Struijk, Simone; van der Velden, Annet; Westerhuis, Ralf; van der Schans, Cees P.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients experience an elevated risk of malnutrition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) results in more effective removal of waste products and fluids. Therefore, diet and fluid restrictions are less restricted in NHD patients.

  3. Lack of nocturnal blood pressure fall in elderly bedridden hypertensive patients with cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masato; Ando, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2012-02-01

    To prevent recurrence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD), adequate control of blood pressure (BP) is extremely important for the treatment of hypertensive CVD patients. As absence of the nocturnal fall of BP by the expected 10-20% from daytime levels is reported to exaggerate target organ injury, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was conducted, especially to obtain data during nighttime sleep. Forty-eight elderly bedridden chronic phase CVD hypertensive patients (assessed 1-3 mo after CVD accident) participated. As a group, nocturnal BP was higher than diurnal BP, whereas nocturnal pulse rate was lower than diurnal pulse rate. The nocturnal BP fall was blunted in most (∼90%) of the patients. These results suggest that to perform a rational drug treatment, it is essential to do 24-h ABPM before initiation of antihypertensive therapy in elderly bedridden hypertensive CVD patients.

  4. Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Associated with Nocturnal Dip in Blood Pressure: Findings from the Maracaibo Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesús D; Lee, Joseph H; Petitto, Michele; Yépez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Jin, Zhezhen; Chávez, Carlos A; Pirela, Rosa V; Calmón, Gustavo E; Lee, Winston; Johnson, Matthew P; Mena, Luis J; Al-Aswad, Lama A; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Allikmets, Rando; Maestre, Gladys E; De Moraes, C Gustavo

    2018-01-05

    To determine which nocturnal blood pressure (BP) parameters (low levels or extreme dipper status) are associated with an increased risk of glaucomatous damage in Hispanics. Observational cross-sectional study. A subset (n = 93) of the participants from the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS) who met the study eligibility criteria were included. These participants, who were at least 40 years of age, had measurements for optical tomography coherence, visual field (VF) tests, 24-hour BP, office BP, and intraocular pressure 20% compared with daytime BP) were significant risk factors for glaucomatous damage (odds ratio, 19.78 and 5.55, respectively). In this population, the link between nocturnal BP and GON is determined by extreme dipping effects rather than low nocturnal BP levels alone. Further studies considering extreme decreases in nocturnal BP in individuals at high risk of glaucoma are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nocturnal Polyuria in Older Women with Urge Urinary Incontinence: Role of Sleep Quality, Time in Bed and Medications Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shachi; Perera, Subashan; Clarkson, Becky D; Tadic, Stasa D; Resnick, Neil M

    2017-03-01

    Nocturia is common and bothersome in older adults, especially those who are also incontinent. Since nocturnal polyuria is a major contributor, we examined factors associated with nocturnal polyuria in this population to identify those possibly amenable to intervention. We analyzed baseline data from 2 previously completed studies of urge urinary incontinence. The studies involved 284 women (mean age ± SD 72.9 ± 7.9 years) who also completed 3-day voiding diaries. Participants with a nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33% were categorized as having nocturnal polyuria (nocturnal polyuria index = nocturnal urinary volume per 24-hour urine volume). Associations between nocturnal polyuria and various demographic, clinical and sleep related parameters were determined. Overall 55% of the participants had nocturnal polyuria. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that age, body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, time spent in bed and duration of first uninterrupted sleep were independent correlates of nocturnal polyuria. Participants with a larger nocturnal excretion reported a shorter duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void and worse sleep quality despite spending similar time in bed. Body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers, time in bed and duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void are independently associated with nocturnal polyuria in older women with urge urinary incontinence, and are potentially modifiable. These findings also confirm the association between sleep and nocturnal polyuria. Further studies should explore whether interventions to reduce nocturnal polyuria and/or increase the duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void would help to improve sleep quality in this population and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for sedative hypnotics. Copyright © 2017 American Urological

  6. Visual reliability and information rate in the retina of a nocturnal bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2008-03-11

    Nocturnal animals relying on vision typically have eyes that are optically and morphologically adapted for both increased sensitivity and greater information capacity in dim light. Here, we investigate whether adaptations for increased sensitivity also are found in their photoreceptors by using closely related and fast-flying nocturnal and diurnal bees as model animals. The nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis is capable of foraging and homing by using visually discriminated landmarks at starlight intensities. Megalopta's near relative, Lasioglossum leucozonium, performs these tasks only in bright sunshine. By recording intracellular responses to Gaussian white-noise stimuli, we show that photoreceptors in Megalopta actually code less information at most light levels than those in Lasioglossum. However, as in several other nocturnal arthropods, Megalopta's photoreceptors possess a much greater gain of transduction, indicating that nocturnal photoreceptors trade information capacity for sensitivity. By sacrificing photoreceptor signal-to-noise ratio and information capacity in dim light for an increased gain and, thus, an increased sensitivity, this strategy can benefit nocturnal insects that use neural summation to improve visual reliability at night.

  7. Nocturnal oxygen saturation profiles of healthy term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip Ian; Dakin, Carolyn; Hughes, Ian; Yuill, Maggie; Parsley, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is used extensively in hospital and home settings to measure arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Interpretation of the trend and range of SpO2 values observed in infants is currently limited by a lack of reference ranges using current devices, and may be augmented by development of cumulative frequency (CF) reference-curves. This study aims to provide reference oxygen saturation values from a prospective longitudinal cohort of healthy infants. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Sleep-laboratory. 34 healthy term infants were enrolled, and studied at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age (N=30, 25, 27, 26, 20, respectively). Full overnight polysomnography, including 2 s averaging pulse oximetry (Masimo Radical). Summary SpO2 statistics (mean, median, 5th and 10th percentiles) and SpO2 CF plots were calculated for each recording. CF reference-curves were then generated for each study age. Analyses were repeated with sleep-state stratifications and inclusion of manual artefact removal. Median nocturnal SpO2 values ranged between 98% and 99% over the first 2 years of life and the CF reference-curves shift right by 1% between 2 weeks and 3 months. CF reference-curves did not change with manual artefact removal during sleep and did not vary between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Manual artefact removal did significantly change summary statistics and CF reference-curves during wake. SpO2 CF curves provide an intuitive visual tool for evaluating whether an individual's nocturnal SpO2 distribution falls within the range of healthy age-matched infants, thereby complementing summary statistics in the interpretation of extended oximetry recordings in infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  9. Sensory system plasticity in a visually specialized, nocturnal spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafstrom, Jay A; Michalik, Peter; Hebets, Eileen A

    2017-04-21

    The interplay between an animal's environmental niche and its behavior can influence the evolutionary form and function of its sensory systems. While intraspecific variation in sensory systems has been documented across distant taxa, fewer studies have investigated how changes in behavior might relate to plasticity in sensory systems across developmental time. To investigate the relationships among behavior, peripheral sensory structures, and central processing regions in the brain, we take advantage of a dramatic within-species shift of behavior in a nocturnal, net-casting spider (Deinopis spinosa), where males cease visually-mediated foraging upon maturation. We compared eye diameters and brain region volumes across sex and life stage, the latter through micro-computed X-ray tomography. We show that mature males possess altered peripheral visual morphology when compared to their juvenile counterparts, as well as juvenile and mature females. Matching peripheral sensory structure modifications, we uncovered differences in relative investment in both lower-order and higher-order processing regions in the brain responsible for visual processing. Our study provides evidence for sensory system plasticity when individuals dramatically change behavior across life stages, uncovering new avenues of inquiry focusing on altered reliance of specific sensory information when entering a new behavioral niche.

  10. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas . We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  11. Compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Cheng, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Ants use both terrestrial landmarks and celestial cues to navigate to and from their nest location. These cues persist even as light levels drop during the twilight/night. Here, we determined the compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas , in which the majority of individuals begin foraging during the evening twilight period. Myrmecia midas foragers with vectors of ≤5   m when displaced to unfamiliar locations did not follow the home vector, but instead showed random heading directions. Foragers with larger home vectors (≥10   m) oriented towards the fictive nest, indicating a possible increase in cue strength with vector length. When the ants were displaced locally to create a conflict between the home direction indicated by the path integrator and terrestrial landmarks, foragers oriented using landmark information exclusively and ignored any accumulated home vector regardless of vector length. When the visual landmarks at the local displacement site were blocked, foragers were unable to orient to the nest direction and their heading directions were randomly distributed. Myrmecia midas ants typically nest at the base of the tree and some individuals forage on the same tree. Foragers collected on the nest tree during evening twilight were unable to orient towards the nest after small lateral displacements away from the nest. This suggests the possibility of high tree fidelity and an inability to extrapolate landmark compass cues from information collected on the tree and at the nest site to close displacement sites. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Investigation of nocturnal oviposition by necrophilous flies in central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Robert S; Wallace, Susan G; Kirkpatrick, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The need to accurately estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) has prompted research into factors affecting fly oviposition (i.e., oviposition and/or larviposition) on a corpse. Research efforts have focused on whether or not diurnally active flies oviposit during nighttime hours. This study reports that nocturnal oviposition (defined as occurring between 2100-0600 h CDST (Central Daylight Savings Time)) did not occur on freshly killed white rats or mice, on beef (fresh or aged up to 48 h), on freshly thawed pigs, nor, usually, on thawed pigs that were aged for up to 48 h. Limited oviposition did occur between 2100 and 2120 h on one bloated pig at a lighted rural site. Necrophilous flies were present and active at lighted and dark sites (urban and rural) before and immediately after sunset, but fly activity on the bait ceased within 50 min postsunset and did not resume until after 0600 h. These observations support other studies reporting that diurnally active flies do not oviposit during the nighttime.

  13. Slow nocturnal home hemodialysis (SNHHD)--one year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwendyk, M; Pierratos, A; Francoeur, R; Wallace, L; Sit, W; Vas, S

    1996-01-01

    High costs and overcrowding of dialysis centres are leading to a global crisis in health care provision. We are developing slow nocturnal home hemodialysis (SNHHD) in which patients dialyze for eight to 10 hours during sleep five to seven nights per week. Vascular access is by means of the Cook silastic jugular catheter. Special precautions are taken to prevent accidental disconnection and air embolism. Dialysis functions are remotely monitored on computer via a modem by trained staff. Five patients have completed five to seven weeks of training and have been successfully performing SNHHD single-handedly (three out of five patients live alone) for 14, 14, 11, 10 and four months respectively. All have discontinued their phosphate binders and increased dietary phosphate intake. Compared with conventional hemodialysis (CHD) results, average pre-dialysis urea and creatinine levels are remarkably reduced to 9.6 mmol/l and 486 umol/l respectively. The average cumulative weekly Kt/V for CHD is 5.0 as compared to 7.7 while on SNHHD. Four out of five patients report sleeping soundly and experience greatly increased energy and stamina. Their days are entirely free. Repeated in-situ re-use of the dialyzer and blood lines will reduce the patient's work and make SNHHD a very inexpensive modality. SNHHD appears to be a widely applicable treatment with many advantages to both the patient and the health care system.

  14. Survival with Three-Times Weekly In-Center Nocturnal Versus Conventional Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianglin; Suri, Rita S.; Nesrallah, Gihad; Lindsay, Robert; Garg, Amit X.; Lester, Keith; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the duration of hemodialysis treatments improves outcomes remains controversial. Here, we evaluated survival and clinical changes associated with converting from conventional hemodialysis (mean=3.75 h/treatment) to in-center nocturnal hemodialysis (mean=7.85 h/treatment). All 959 consecutive patients who initiated nocturnal hemodialysis for the first time in 77 Fresenius Medical Care facilities during 2006 and 2007 were eligible. We used Cox models to compare risk for mortality during 2 years of follow-up in a 1:3 propensity score–matched cohort of 746 nocturnal and 2062 control patients on conventional hemodialysis. Two-year mortality was 19% among nocturnal hemodialysis patients compared with 27% among conventional patients. Nocturnal hemodialysis associated with a 25% reduction in the risk for death after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dialysis vintage (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% confidence interval=0.61–0.91, P=0.004). With respect to clinical features, interdialytic weight gain, albumin, hemoglobin, dialysis dose, and calcium increased on nocturnal therapy, whereas postdialysis weight, predialysis systolic blood pressure, ultrafiltration rate, phosphorus, and white blood cell count declined (all P<0.001). In summary, notwithstanding the possibility of residual selection bias, conversion to treatment with nocturnal hemodialysis associates with favorable clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and improved survival compared with propensity score–matched controls. The potential impact of extended treatment time on clinical outcomes while maintaining a three times per week hemodialysis schedule requires evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:22362905

  15. Anatomical specializations for nocturnality in a critically endangered parrot, the Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R Corfield

    Full Text Available The shift from a diurnal to nocturnal lifestyle in vertebrates is generally associated with either enhanced visual sensitivity or a decreased reliance on vision. Within birds, most studies have focused on differences in the visual system across all birds with respect to nocturnality-diurnality. The critically endangered Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, a parrot endemic to New Zealand, is an example of a species that has evolved a nocturnal lifestyle in an otherwise diurnal lineage, but nothing is known about its' visual system. Here, we provide a detailed morphological analysis of the orbits, brain, eye, and retina of the Kakapo and comparisons with other birds. Morphometric analyses revealed that the Kakapo's orbits are significantly more convergent than other parrots, suggesting an increased binocular overlap in the visual field. The Kakapo exhibits an eye shape that is consistent with other nocturnal birds, including owls and nightjars, but is also within the range of the diurnal parrots. With respect to the brain, the Kakapo has a significantly smaller optic nerve and tectofugal visual pathway. Specifically, the optic tectum, nucleus rotundus and entopallium were significantly reduced in relative size compared to other parrots. There was no apparent reduction to the thalamofugal visual pathway. Finally, the retinal morphology of the Kakapo is similar to that of both diurnal and nocturnal birds, suggesting a retina that is specialised for a crepuscular niche. Overall, this suggests that the Kakapo has enhanced light sensitivity, poor visual acuity and a larger binocular field than other parrots. We conclude that the Kakapo possesses a visual system unlike that of either strictly nocturnal or diurnal birds and therefore does not adhere to the traditional view of the evolution of nocturnality in birds.

  16. Diurnal and Nocturnal Pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAR, SALEEM; ARIZMENDI, Ma. del CORO; VALIENTE-BANUET, ALFONSO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. • Methods Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. • Key Results Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. • Conclusions Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. PMID:16394025

  17. Sleep Apnea and Circadian Extracellular Fluid Change as Independent Factors for Nocturnal Polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Akishita, Masahiro; Homma, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the relationships among nocturnal polyuria, sleep apnea and body fluid volume to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturia in sleep apnea syndrome. We enrolled 104 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography for suspected sleep apnea syndrome. Self-assessed symptom questionnaires were administered to evaluate sleep disorder and lower urinary tract symptoms, including nocturia. Voiding frequency and voided volume were recorded using a 24-hour frequency-volume chart. Body fluid composition was estimated in the morning and at night using bioelectric impedance analysis. Frequency-volume chart data were analyzed in 22 patients after continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Patients with nocturnal polyuria showed a higher apnea-hypopnea index (33.9 vs 24.2, p = 0.03) and a larger circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (0.22 vs -0.19, p = 0.019) than those without nocturnal polyuria. These relations were more evident in patients 65 years old or older than in those 64 years or younger. A multivariate linear regression model showed an independent relationship of nocturnal polyuria with the apnea-hypopnea index and the circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (p = 0.0012 and 0.022, respectively). Continuous positive airway pressure therapy significantly improved nocturnal polyuria and nocturia only in patients with nocturnal polyuria. This study identified sleep apnea and the circadian change in extracellular fluid as independent factors for nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Bakhtiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7% was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4% (P=0.009. There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P=0.023, respiratory infections (P=0.036, deep sleep (P=0.007, corporal punishment at school (P=0.036, anal itching (P=0.043, and history of seizures (P=0.043. Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.

  19. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls.

  20. Ocellar adaptations for dim light vision in a nocturnal bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Richard P; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2011-04-15

    Growing evidence indicates that insect ocelli are strongly adapted to meet the specific functional requirements in the environment in which that insect lives. We investigated how the ocelli of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis are adapted to life in the dim understory of a tropical rainforest. Using a combination of light microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, we found that the retinae contain bar-shaped rhabdoms loosely arranged in a radial pattern around multi-layered lenses, and that both lenses and retinae form complex non-spherical shapes reminiscent of those described in other ocelli. Intracellular electrophysiology revealed that the photoreceptors have high absolute sensitivity, but that the threshold location varied widely between 10(9) and 10(11) photons cm(-2) s(-1). Higher sensitivity and greater visual reliability may be obtained at the expense of temporal resolution: the corner frequencies of dark-adapted ocellar photoreceptors were just 4-11 Hz. Spectral sensitivity profiles consistently peaked at 500 nm. Unlike the ocelli of other flying insects, we did not detect UV-sensitive visual pigments in M. genalis, which may be attributable to a scarcity of UV photons under the rainforest canopy at night. In contrast to earlier predictions based on anatomy, the photoreceptors are not sensitive to the e-vector of polarised light. Megalopta genalis ocellar photoreceptors possess a number of unusual properties, including inherently high response variability and the ability to produce spike-like potentials. These properties bear similarities to photoreceptors in the compound eye of the cockroach, and we suggest that the two insects share physiological characteristics optimised for vision in dim light.

  1. Microalbuminuria in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus relates to nocturnal systolic blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, T H

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Microalbuminuria predicts early mortality in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes mellitus patients (NIDDM). Our objective in the present study was to compare and assess the relationship between 24-hour, day and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in microalbuminuric and normoalbuminuric NIDDM and in normal control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, 24 hour ambulatory BP (daytime BP and nocturnal BP) and HbA1c were compared in microalbuminuric (n = 10) and nonmicroalbuminuric NIDDM patients (n = 10) and in nondiabetic controls (n = 9). None of the patients were taking antihypertensive agents. RESULTS: In the microlbuminuric group, whereas 24 hour and daytime systolic BP differed significantly from control values (P < 0.025 and P < 0.05 respectively), there was no difference between diabetic groups. However, nocturnal systolic BP in the microalbuminuric group was significantly higher than in the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (139 vs. 125) (P < 0.05) and a significant difference was also found between the NIDDM patients and the control group (139, 125 vs. 114) (P < 0.025). In multiple regression analysis, only nocturnal systolic BP showed a significant relationship with UAE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure seen in our microalbuminuric NIDDM patients may contribute to the increased morbidity in this group.

  2. Nocturnal Polyuria and Hypertension in Patients with Lifestyle Related Diseases and Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu; Homma, Yukio; Takeda, Masayuki; Gotoh, Momokazu; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Akino, Hironobu; Hayashi, Koichi; Yonemoto, Koji

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship of nocturnal polyuria in patients with common lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder, with special attention to hypertension. After baseline assessment, patients recorded 24-hour urinary frequency/volume, blood pressure and heart rate for 3 days. They were stratified into 4 groups based on mean blood pressure, including no hypertension, and controllable, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension, respectively. The 2,353 eligible patients, who had urinary urgency once or more per week and 1 or more nocturnal toilet visits, were enrolled from 543 sites in Japan. Of these patients complete data, including the 24-hour frequency volume chart, were collected from 1,271. Multivariable analyses showed a statistically significant association of nocturnal polyuria with increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p polyuria in women alone (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia were significantly associated with nocturnal polyuria in men alone (p polyuria was significantly associated with age, male gender, and untreated hypertension in patients with lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder. The association between hypertension and nocturnal polyuria was significant in women alone. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia, including individual factors, family factors, peer factors, school factors, and the problematic use of high-tech devices among a large-scale representative population of Taiwanese adolescents. Cross-sectional study. A total of 23 junior high and 29 senior high/vocational schools were randomly selected across southern Taiwan. Eight thousand four adolescent students. N/A. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia were examined using chi2 automatic interaction detection analysis and logistic regression analysis models. The results indicated that an older age, self-reported depression, being in the third year of school, drinking coffee at night, and problematic Internet use were significantly associated with short nocturnal sleep duration in adolescents. Furthermore, self-reported depression, low school affinity, high family conflict, low connectedness to their peer group, and problematic Internet use were associated with subjective insomnia in adolescents. The results of this study indicate that a variety of individual, family, peer, and school factors were associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia in adolescents. Furthermore, the correlates of short sleep duration were not identical to those of subjective insomnia. Parents and health professionals should be wary of sleep patterns among adolescents who have the identified correlates of short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia.

  4. Separating selection by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Wimmergren, Carolina; Agren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Most plants attract multiple flower visitors that may vary widely in their effectiveness as pollinators. Floral evolution is expected to reflect interactions with the most important pollinators, but few studies have quantified the contribution of different pollinators to current selection on floral traits. To compare selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the environment by conducting supplemental hand-pollinations and selective pollinator exclusions in two populations in central Norway. In both populations, the exclusion of diurnal pollinators significantly reduced seed production compared to open pollination, whereas the exclusion of nocturnal pollinators did not. There was significant selection on traits expected to influence pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency in both the diurnal and nocturnal pollination treatment. The relative strength of selection among plants exposed to diurnal and nocturnal visitors varied among traits and populations, but the direction of selection was consistent. The results suggest that diurnal pollinators are more important than nocturnal pollinators for seed production in the study populations, but that both categories contribute to selection on floral morphology. The study illustrates how experimental manipulations can link specific categories of pollinators to observed selection on floral traits, and thus improve our understanding of how species interactions shape patterns of selection.

  5. Adaptive genomic evolution of opsins reveals that early mammals flourished in nocturnal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rui; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Gomes, Cidália; Heesy, Christopher P; Antunes, Agostinho

    2018-02-05

    Based on evolutionary patterns of the vertebrate eye, Walls (1942) hypothesized that early placental mammals evolved primarily in nocturnal habitats. However, not only Eutheria, but all mammals show photic characteristics (i.e. dichromatic vision, rod-dominated retina) suggestive of a scotopic eye design. Here, we used integrative comparative genomic and phylogenetic methodologies employing the photoreceptive opsin gene family in 154 mammals to test the likelihood of a nocturnal period in the emergence of all mammals. We showed that mammals possess genomic patterns concordant with a nocturnal ancestry. The loss of the RH2, VA, PARA, PARIE and OPN4x opsins in all mammals led us to advance a probable and most-parsimonious hypothesis of a global nocturnal bottleneck that explains the loss of these genes in the emerging lineage (> > 215.5 million years ago). In addition, ancestral character reconstruction analyses provided strong evidence that ancestral mammals possessed a nocturnal lifestyle, ultra-violet-sensitive vision, low visual acuity and low orbit convergence (i.e. panoramic vision). Overall, this study provides insight into the evolutionary history of the mammalian eye while discussing important ecological aspects of the photic paleo-environments ancestral mammals have occupied.

  6. Reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii (Cactaceae): the role of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Baes, P; Saravia, M; Sühring, S; Godínez-Alvarez, H; Zamar, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii, a species endemic to northwest Argentina that has nocturnal flowers. We expected that this species had a generalised pollination system, with moths and diurnal visitors as the primary pollinators. To test this, we studied the floral biology, breeding system and floral visitors of this species and the effectiveness of nocturnal and diurnal visitors. Floral biology was defined based on floral morphology, floral cycle and nectar production of the flowers. The breeding system and relative contributions of diurnal and nocturnal visitors to fruit and seed set were analysed through field experiments. E. terscheckii flowers opened at sunset and closed the following day. The peak of nectar production occurred at midnight. Flowers were determined to be self-incompatible. Moths, bees and birds were identified as floral visitors. Moths were the most frequent visitors at night, whereas bees were the most frequent visitors during the day. Fruit production by diurnal pollinators was less than that by nocturnal pollinators; among all floral visitors, moths were the most effective pollinators. We have demonstrated for the first time that moths are the primary pollinators of columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis. Our results suggest that moths might be important pollinators of columnar cactus species with nocturnal flowers in the extra-tropical deserts of South America. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. On the importance of radiative heat exchange during nocturnal flight in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Jérôme; Larochelle, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Many migratory flights take place during cloudless nights, thus under conditions where the sky temperature can commonly be 20 degrees C below local air temperature. The sky then acts as a radiative sink, leading objects exposed to it to have a lower surface temperature than unexposed ones because less infrared energy is received from the sky than from the surfaces that are isothermic to air. To investigate the significance of this effect for heat dissipation during nocturnal flight in birds, we built a wind tunnel with the facility to control wall temperature (TASK) and air temperature (TAIR) independently at air speeds (UWIN) comparable to flying speeds. We used it to measure the influence of TASK, TAIR and UWIN on plumage and skin temperatures in pigeons having to dissipate a thermal load while constrained at rest in a flight posture. Our results show that the temperature of the flight and insulation plumages exposed to a radiative sink can be accurately described by multiple regression models (r2>0.96) based only on TAIR, TASK and UWIN. Predictions based on these models indicate that while convection dominates heat loss for a plumage exposed to air moving at flight speed in a thermally uniform environment, radiation may dominate in the presence of a radiative sink comparable to a clear sky. Our data also indicate that reducing TASK to a temperature 20 degrees C below TAIR can increase the temperature difference across the exposed plumage by at least 13% and thus facilitate heat flow through the main thermal resistance to the loss of internally produced heat in birds. While extrapolation from our experimentally constrained conditions to free flight in the atmosphere is difficult, our results suggest that the sky temperature has been a neglected factor in determining the range of TAIR over which prolonged flight is possible.

  8. The association between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in clinical and epidemiological studies: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Steffens, Martijn G; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Drake, Marcus J; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Blanker, Marco H

    2014-04-01

    We determined the relationship between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria. The PubMed® and Embase® databases were searched for studies written in English, German, French or Dutch with original data on adult participants in an investigation of the relationship between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria. A meta-analysis of the difference in mean nocturnal voiding frequencies between patients with and without nocturnal polyuria was conducted. Nocturnal polyuria risk was compared between participants with and without nocturia, and the resulting odds ratio was subsequently converted to relative risk with 95% CIs. From 511 references identified we selected 78 publications of 66 studies, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria for this study. Quality scores of studies were generally high for internal validity but low for external validity. In 7 studies (1,416 participants) we estimated a standardized mean difference of 0.59 (95% CI 0.29-0.89) for nocturnal voids between nocturnal polyuria and nonnocturnal polyuria cases. In 8 other studies (with 2,320 participants) we calculated a pooled OR of 4.99 (3.92-6.37) for nocturnal polyuria in individuals with nocturia. The corresponding RR, based on a nocturnal polyuria risk in the pooled population of 63.8%, was 1.41 (1.37-1.44). The association between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria is apparent and robust. However, the clinical importance of the association appears to be less obvious than previously suggested based on single studies. The observed high prevalence of nocturnal polyuria, as a result of the applied International Continence Society definition, may be responsible for this discrepancy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping of blood pressure during night time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkær, Henrik; Jensen, Tonny; Kofoed, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and elevated nocturnal blood pressure are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Previously, associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure and coronary artery calcification have been...

  10. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  11. [Urodynamic changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and nocturnal polyuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke; Tu, Zuo-sheng; Lü, Sheng-qi; Li, Qing-quan; Chen, Xue-qin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the urodynamic changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and nocturnal polyuria. From Sept. 2002 to Jun. 2008, 23 patients with nocturnal polyuria were diagnosed as having OSAHS by polysomnography (PSG). The number and output of nocturia, the osmotic pressure and the excretion of Na(+) were recorded during both the PSG night and CPAP titrating night. Plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) were also measured at 11PM in the 2 nights and 7AM in the next mornings. Urodynamic studies including urine flow, bladder pressure during filling, pressure-flow study during voiding and urethral pressure were carried out in these patients. Urodynamic studies were performed again after treatment with CPAP for 3 months. PSG showed that the patients with nocturnal polyuria had moderate to severe OSAHS, in which the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) being 48 ± 15 events per hour. The number of nocturnal voiding during the PSG night was more than that during the CPAP titrating night. During the PSG night, the output of nocturia, the nocturia excretion of Na(+), ANP levels (at 7am in the next morning after PSG night) increased and the osmotic pressure of nocturia decreased. CPAP therapy could reverse these abnormalities. The main characteristics of urodynamics in these patients included weak detrusor contraction, hypoesthesia in filling cystometry, and decreased bladder compliance, and detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, both the motility of the detrusor of bladder and the bladder compliance improved. CPAP therapy can effectively reverse the nocturnal polyuria in OSAHS patients. In OSAHS patients, the features of nocturia, including the changes of output, osmotic pressure and the excretion of Na(+), may be related to the secretion of high-level of ANP. During the course of chronic progressively OSAHS pathophysiology, detrusor function of bladder may be damaged

  12. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  13. The Relationship Between Child Anxiety Related Disorders and Primary Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Rafeei, Mohammad; Mostajeran, Mahssa

    2016-06-01

    Nocturnal enuresis, often called bedwetting or sleep wetting, is a common problem in children after the age of five and may lead to symptoms such as infection, incontinence and frequent urination. This problem refers to a state in which children after the age of five have no control of their urine for six continuous months and it cannot be attributed to any organic factors or drug use. In this study we aimed to study generalized anxiety disorder as one of the possible causes of primary nocturnal enuresis. In this case-control study 180 children with primary nocturnal enuresis and same number of healthy children with a mean age of 7 - 17 years old with the same demographic characteristics were selected. The study took place at Amir Kabir hospital of Arak, Iran during year 2014. After collecting the information, diagnosis was verified based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) IV-TR criteria. Results were analyzed using the SPSS software (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Frequency of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety, history of anxiety in mother, history of primary nocturnal enuresis in parent's family and body mass index had a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.005). With the results obtained from this study we could say that there was a clear significant difference between the two control and patient groups for all subgroups of anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and their relationship with primary nocturnal enuresis. Given the higher prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety and comparison with healthy children, it is recommended for all children with primary nocturnal enuresis to be investigated and treated for generalized anxiety disorder.

  14. Self-construing in children with primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis--an investigation of three measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joanne C; Butler, Richard J; Holland, Philip; Doherty-Williams, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to measure different aspects of self-construing in children with primary mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis. 25 children aged 7-14 years, with nocturnal enuresis were recruited from a paediatric outpatient's unit specialising in enuresis [mean age 10.6 [males], 9.39 [females

  15. Sensor-based evaluation and treatment of nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease: An evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Thanawattano, Chusak

    2016-01-01

    The manifestations of nocturnal movements in Parkinson's disease (PD) are protean, with major disabilities related to nocturnal hypokinesia. While it can be assessed by clinical interviews and screening instruments, these are often inaccurate and prone to recall bias. In light of advances in sensor technology, we explored the use of sensors in the study of nocturnal hypokinesia, by performing a systematic review of the professional literature on this topic. Evidence suggests that nocturnal hypokinesia exists even in patients in the early stages, and PD patients turned significantly less and with much slower speed and acceleration than controls, partly related to low nocturnal dopamine level. We conducted another systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the efficacy of dopaminergic agents in the treatment of nocturnal hypokinesia. Several lines of evidence support the use of long-acting drugs or by continuous administration of short-acting agents to control symptoms. Sensor parameters could be considered as one of the important objective outcomes in future clinical trials investigating potential drugs to treat nocturnal hypokinesia. Physicians should be aware of this technology as it can aid the clinical assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia and enhance the quality of patient care. In addition, the use of sensors currently is being considered for various aspects of research on early diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The nocturnal panic attacks: polysomnographic features and comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yan-lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Panic disorder refers to the repeated or unexpected anxiety or panic attacks. It makes patients feel extreme pain. Although the episodes of most patients with panic disorder happen at daytime, the nocturnal panic attacks (NPA are quite common. Paients pay more attention to NPA. Insomnia is more serious in patients with NPA than those patients with panic disorder attack at daytime. Many patients may occur anxiety and avoidance behavior after NPA. Patients are often afraid of sleeping, or even do not sleep. The aim of this study is to analyze polysomnographic (PSG parameter changes and clinical concomitant symptoms of patietns with NPA, to explore the characteristics of sleep, in order to provide better diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment for these patients. Methods The features of sleep of 20 NPA patients and 23 healthy controls were monitored by video-PSG. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD were used to assess the state of anxiety, depression, and dyssomnia of the patients. Results In comparison with normal control group, the NPA group showed shortened total sleep time (TST, decreased sleep efficiency (SE and sleep maintenance rate, delayed arousal time, increased number of arousal and number of arousal episode longer than 5 minutes, increased percentage of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ, decreased percentage of NREM sleep stageⅢ and percentage of rapid eye movement (REM sleep (P 0.05, for all. In NPA group, there were 13 cases (13/20 with anxiety, 17 (17/20 with depression, 13 cases/times (13/20 with difficulty of falling asleep, 17 cases/times (17/20 with difficulties in maintaining sleep (frequent arousals and difficult to fall asleep again and 7 cases/times (7/20 with wake up early. Conclusion NPA patients present decreased deep sleep, increased shallow sleep and poor sleep quality, and are mostly accompanied with mild or moderate depression and (or anxiety

  17. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  18. Prevalence of nocturnal hypoglycemia in first trimester of pregnancy in patients with insulin treated diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, Ellinor Adelheid; Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excellent metabolic control before conception and during diabetic pregnancies is the aim in order to avoid malformations and perinatal morbidity. Since an inverse correlation between median blood glucose concentration (BG) and hypoglycemia as well as a high prevalence of nocturnal...... the night, caused by either discomfort or cannula problems. Of the remaining 43 patients, 16 (37%) had at least one blood glucose ... of pregnancy in insulin treated patients. Only one patient registered the hypoglycemia. Nocturnal hypoglycemia could be predicted in the majority of patients by measurements of BG before bedtime....

  19. Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudon M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Grossman1,4, Moshe Laudon2, Nava Zisapel2,31Department of Internal Medicine D and Hypertension Unit, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel and 3Department of Neurobiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: Patients with nocturnal hypertension are at higher risk for cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular insult. Published studies inconsistently reported decreases in nocturnal blood pressure with melatonin.Methods: A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in ameliorating nocturnal blood pressure was performed using a random effects model of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, with subgroup analysis of fast-release versus controlled-release preparations.Results: Seven trials (three of controlled-release and four of fast-release melatonin with 221 participants were included. Meta-analysis of all seven studies did not reveal significant effects of melatonin versus placebo on nocturnal blood pressure. However, subgroup analysis revealed that controlled-release melatonin significantly reduced nocturnal blood pressure whereas fast-release melatonin had no effect. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly with controlled-release melatonin (-6.1 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.7 to -1.5; P = 0.009 but not fast-release melatonin (-0.3 mmHg; 95% CI -5.9 to 5.30; P = 0.92. Diastolic blood pressure also decreased significantly with controlled-release melatonin (-3.5 mmHg; 95% CI -6.1 to -0.9; P = 0.009 but not fast-release melatonin (-0.2 mmHg; 95% CI -3.8 to 3.3; P = 0.89. No safety concerns were raised.Conclusion: Add-on controlled-release melatonin to antihypertensive therapy is effective and safe in ameliorating nocturnal hypertension, whereas fast-release melatonin is ineffective. It is necessary

  20. Unusual nocturnal feeding by Brown Rock-chat Cercomela fusca (Passeriformes: Muscicapidae in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown Rock-chat is a diurnal insectivorous bird commonly associated with human habitations. I report here nocturnal foraging of the species in and around Bikaner in Rajasthan. The birds showed a marked bimodal activity during their nocturnal foraging which peaked in early morning and late evening hours. Bright sodium-vapour lights that attracted a horde of insects during monsoons offered ideal foraging opportunities for the birds. This behavior is explained here as an adaptation to maximize their food intake during the period when the birds breed and their nutritional requirements are naturally high.

  1. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for High Risk Hemoglobinopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-03

    Sickle Cell Disease; Transfusion Dependent Alpha- or Beta- Thalassemia; Diamond Blackfan Anemia; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Glanzmann Thrombasthenia; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome; Non-Malignant Hematologic Disorders

  2. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  3. Impact of the International Continence Society (ICS) report on the standardisation of terminology in nocturia on the quality of reports on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; Drake, Marcus J.; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To systematically review and evaluate the impact of the International Continence Society (ICS)-2002 report on standardisation of terminology in nocturia, on publications reporting on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP). In 2002, the ICS defined NP as a Nocturnal Polyuria Index (nocturnal

  4. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  5. EFFECTS OF BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL ON CIRCADIAN VARIATION OF AIRWAY RESPONSIVENESS AND NOCTURNAL SYMPTOMS OF ASTHMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; POSTMA, DS; AUFFARTH, B; TEENGS, JP; KOETER, GH

    Effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral beta-agonist bambuterol on the nocturnal worsening of asthma were studied in patients with allergic asthma with a circadian peak expiratory flow variation greater-than-or-equal-to 15% (group 1, n = 8) and

  6. Nocturnal Orgasm in College Women: Its Relation to Dreams and Anxiety Associated with Sexual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, Comradge L.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)

  7. Effects of a Heat Wave on Nocturnal Stomatal Conductance in Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Resco de Dios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal transpiration constitutes a significant yet poorly understood component of the global water cycle. Modeling nocturnal transpiration has been complicated by recent findings showing that stomata respond differently to environmental drivers over day- vs. night-time periods. Here, we propose that nocturnal stomatal conductance depends on antecedent daytime conditions. We tested this hypothesis across six genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. growing under different CO2 concentrations (ambient vs. elevated and exposed to contrasting temperatures (ambient vs. heat wave for four days prior to the night of measurements, when all plants experienced ambient temperature conditions. We observed significant effects after the heat wave that led to 36% reductions in nocturnal stomatal conductance. The response was partly driven by changes in daytime stomatal behavior but additional factors may have come into play. We also observed significant differences in response to the heat wave across genotypes, likely driven by local adaptation to their climate of origin, but CO2 played no effect. Stomatal models may need to incorporate the role of antecedent effects to improve projections particularly after drastic changes in the environment such as heat waves.

  8. Prognostic value of nocturnal pulse oximetry in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, Ricardo; Jordán-Martínez, Laura; López-Fernández, Silvia; Rivera-Fernandez, Ricardo; Tercedor, Luis; Sáez-Roca, Germán

    2018-05-23

    To analyze the prognostic value of nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable nocturnal pulse-oximetry in patients hospitalized due to heart failure and its relation to mortality and hospital readmission. We included 38 patients who were admitted consecutively to our unit with the diagnosis of decompensated heart failure. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia when more than 10 desaturations per hour were recorded during sleep. Follow-up was performed for 30.3 (standard deviation [SD] 14.2) months, the main objective being a combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and hospital readmission due to heart failure. The average age was 70.7 (SD 10.7) years, 63.3% were males. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia in 27 (71%) patients. Patients with positive pulse-oximetry had the most frequent endpoint (9.1% [1] vs. 61.5% [16], P = 0.003). After multivariate analysis, continuous nocturnal hypoxemia was related to the combined endpoint (HR = 8.37, 1.19-68.4, P = 0.03). Patients hospitalized for heart failure and nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable pulse-oximeter have an increased risk of hospital readmission and death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Field studies of transport and dispersion of atmospheric tracers in nocturnal drainage flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gudiksen; Gilbert J. Ferber; Malcolm M. Fowler; Wynn L. Eberhard; Michael A. Fosberg; William R. Knuth

    1984-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were carried out as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program to evaluate pollutant transport and dispersion characteristics of nocturnal drainage flows within a valley in northern California. The results indicate that the degree of interaction of the drainage flows with the larger scale regional flows are...

  10. Improvement of resistant hypertension by nocturnal hemodialysis in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojing; Hu, Xiaohong; Mei, Changlin; Yu, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common and refractory complication of hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of resistant hypertension treated successfully by nocturnal HD. A 63-year-old female with end-stage kidney disease was hospitalized for severe headache, objective vertigo and persistent vomiting for 1 month on February 6, 2012. She had been on intermittent HD for 3 months, and her blood pressure maintained 200-240/100-130 mm Hg even after using 7 kinds of antihypertensive drugs including olmesartan, benazepril, nitrendipine, arotinolol, terazosin, clonidine and torasemide. A CT of the abdomen revealed a mild hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland (fig. 1). However, plasma renin, angiotensin and aldosterone were all within the normal range. Nocturnal extended HD was initiated with a blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a dialysis time of 7 h. After 3 months of nocturnal HD, all symptoms were relieved and her systolic blood pressure started to decrease by 10-20 mm Hg. Six months later, the predialysis blood pressure was decreased to 140-160/90-100 mm Hg and the antihypertensive drugs were reduced to 4 kinds. Meanwhile, the blood biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were all controlled well during 2 years of treatment. This case indicates that nocturnal extended HD is probably a promising and effective choice for resistant hypertension in HD patients.

  11. Nocturnal airflow obstruction, histamine, and the autonomic central nervous system in children with allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen, W. M.; Postma, D. S.; Koëter, G. H.; Knol, K.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate whether an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system or release of histamine, or both, is responsible for the nocturnal increase in airflow obstruction in asthmatic children. The study comprised 18 children with allergic asthma, nine with (group 1) and nine

  12. Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-06-01

    The apposition compound eye of a nocturnal bee, the halictid Megalopta genalis, is described for the first time. Compared to the compound eye of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera and the diurnal halictid bee Lasioglossum leucozonium, the eye of M. genalis shows specific retinal and optical adaptations for vision in dim light. The major anatomical adaptations within the eye of the nocturnal bee are (1) nearly twofold larger ommatidial facets and (2) a 4-5 times wider rhabdom diameter than found in the diurnal bees studied. Optically, the apposition eye of M. genalis is 27 times more sensitive to light than the eyes of the diurnal bees. This increased optical sensitivity represents a clear optical adaptation to low light intensities. Although this unique nocturnal apposition eye has a greatly improved ability to catch light, a 27-fold increase in sensitivity alone cannot account for nocturnal vision at light intensities that are 8 log units dimmer than during daytime. New evidence suggests that additional neuronal spatial summation within the first optic ganglion, the lamina, is involved.

  13. Regional variations in nocturnal fluctuations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in the lower leg of man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    was observed in both series concerning the duration of the period from going to bed until the hyperaemia phase (P less than 0.001). The mechanisms involved in the nightly subcutaneous hyperaemia are at present unknown. The sudden, synchronized increase in nocturnal subcutaneous blood flow points to a central...... nervous or humoral elicitation, although local metabolic factors might participate as well....

  14. EVOLUTION OF THE NOCTURNAL INVERSION LAYER AT AN URBAN AND NONURBAN LOCATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolutionary cycle of the nocturnal radiation inversion layer from formation until dissipation under fair weather conditions was investigated by time-series analyses of observations of inversion base and top heights, and inversion strength at an urban and a nonurban site in S...

  15. Stop early to travel fast: modelling risk-averse scheduling among nocturnally migrating birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaren, J.D.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.

    2013-01-01

    Many migrating birds divide their journeys into nocturnal flights interspersed by stopovers where they build up energy reserves (fuel) for subsequent flights. Given the difficulty in monitoring fuel loads of individual migrants over long distances, theoretical models are often used to interpret

  16. Circadian phase and period responses to light stimuli in two nocturnal rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Daan, Serge

    2002-01-01

    We report period response curves (tauRC) for two nocturnal Murid species from India, Mus booduga and Mus platythrix. We further discuss the method of phase shift estimation in the presence of tau-changes, because such changes pose a serious methodological problem in the estimation of phase shifts.

  17. A Functional Analysis of Circadian Pacemakers in Nocturnal Rodents. IV. Entrainment : Pacemaker as Clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittendrigh, Colin S.; Daan, Serge

    1976-01-01

    1. In the first part of the paper, the model of non-parametric entrainment of circadian pacemakers is tested for the case of nocturnal rodents. The model makes use of the available data on freerunning period (τ) in constant darkness and on phase response curves (PRC) for short light pulses. It is

  18. Nocturnality in synapsids predates the origin of mammals by over 100 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angielczyk, K D; Schmitz, L

    2014-10-22

    Nocturnality is widespread among extant mammals and often considered the ancestral behavioural pattern for all mammals. However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailable. Using scleral ring and orbit dimensions, we demonstrate that nocturnal activity was not an innovation unique to mammals but a character that appeared much earlier in synapsid history, possibly several times independently. The 24 Carboniferous to Jurassic non-mammalian synapsid species in our sample featured eye morphologies consistent with all major diel activity patterns, with examples of nocturnality as old as the Late Carboniferous (ca 300 Ma). Carnivores such as Sphenacodon ferox and Dimetrodon milleri, but also the herbivorous cynodont Tritylodon longaevus were likely nocturnal, whereas most of the anomodont herbivores are reconstructed as diurnal. Recognizing the complexity of diel activity patterns in non-mammalian synapsids is an important step towards a more nuanced picture of the evolutionary history of behaviour in the synapsid clade. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. What makes a good home-based nocturnal seizure detector? A value sensitive design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans; Van Delden, Hans; van Thiel, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design,

  20. Nocturnal enuresis in school‑aged children with sickle‑cell anemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... socioeconomic class, and sibling history of enuresis were not statistically ... and parental history of childhood enuresis are significant risk factors. .... adolescents with SCA may be at a higher risk of nocturnal ..... Thus, factors which contribute to ... in male children,[30] and more frequent developmental delays ...

  1. Frequency of nocturnal symptoms in asthmatic children attending a hospital out-patient clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G. G.; Postma, D. S.; Wempe, J. B.; Gerritsen, J.; Knol, K.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Since nocturnal symptoms indicate more severe asthma, we investigated their frequency in a hospital-based population of asthmatic children. Recognition of these symptoms offers the possibility to introduce appropriate treatment. We studied 796 consecutive children with asthma (mean (SD) age 9 (4)

  2. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To determine the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and assess risk factors that can cause this disease. Methods : After the determination of 15 primary schools in the provincial center of Ankara, questionnaires were given to 15,150 students to be answered by their parents. Detailed urologic history was obtained and physical examination applied to the students whose parents answered the questionnaire. After excluding children with polysymptomatic NE, 14060 questionnaires of MNE patients were evaluated. Demographic features with social and medical history of students and their parents, general approach of family to the children, school success of the students and general behavioral attitudes, method of toilet training and the presence of nocturnal enuresis were questioned. Results : MNE was determined in 9.0% (n: 1266 of the students and nocturnal enuresis frequency was higher in boys than girls (P< 0.05. Univariate analysis revealed gender, method of toilet training, sleep problems, school success, and general approach of the family to children and general behavioral attitudes of the children as significant factors. In logistic regression analysis; age, male gender, toilette training with threatening method, deep sleeper, sleep walking, being introverted and shy, significantly increases the risk of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusions : The current study suggests that the methods of toilet training are extremely important to prevent bedwetting and behavioral disorders due to enuresis. Parents should be well-informed about the appropriate toilet training method.

  4. Differential arousal regulation by prokineticin 2 signaling in the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Burton, Katherine J; Neal, Matthew L; Qiao, Yu; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Sun, Yanjun; Xu, Xiangmin; Ma, Yuanye; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-08-18

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the active phase to either day or night period for the diurnal and the nocturnal mammals are unclear. Here we report that prokineticin 2, previously shown as a circadian clock output molecule, is expressed in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and the expression of prokineticin 2 in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is oscillatory in a clock-dependent manner. We further show that the prokineticin 2 signaling is required for the activity and arousal suppression by light in the mouse. Between the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey, a signaling receptor for prokineticin 2 is differentially expressed in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and the superior colliculus, brain projection targets of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Blockade with a selective antagonist reveals the respectively inhibitory and stimulatory effect of prokineticin 2 signaling on the arousal levels for the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey. Thus, the mammalian diurnality or nocturnality is likely determined by the differential signaling of prokineticin 2 from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells onto their retinorecipient brain targets.

  5. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Foster, Russell G.; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a ‘nocturnal bottleneck’ in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  6. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the U.S. adult general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Mark R

    2013-01-08

    As noted by Ohayon et al., nocturnal wandering (NW) is not synonymous with sleepwalking. NW may also refer to wandering during the night due to epilepsy. Alcohol intoxication can also result in drunken behavior while awake, but this type of cognitive impairment may be undistinguishable from other forms of NW. Dementia and CNS drug effects can also result in NW.

  7. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  8. Long-term treatment of nocturnal enuresis with desmopressin. A follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, U B; Rittig, Søren; Nørgaard, J P

    1991-01-01

    Eight patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (age 11-24 years) were investigated prior to and after 24 weeks of desmopressin treatment in order to evaluate the impact on the endogenous vasopressin secretion and urinary output. No effect on plasma vasopressin, diurnal urinary volume, and...

  9. Posterior urethral valve in a six year old boy with nocturnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of posterior urethral valve (PUV) in a six year old boy with nocturnal eneuresis and failure to thrive as the only presenting symptoms. The clinically occult lesion was only unravelled when micturating cystourethrogram revealed a dilated posterior urethra with a distal narrow stream of opacified urine, bilateral ...

  10. Feeding and survival of two nocturnal cursorial spiders on extrafloral nectar and honeydew sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars in the form of extrafloral nectar and honeydews may be important resources for nocturnal cursorial spiders such as Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) and Hibana futilis (Banks). C. inclusum spiderlings given only water survived an average of only 6.1 d. Feeding on cotton extrafloral nectar and m...

  11. The Effects of a Contingency Contracting Program on the Nocturnal Enuresis of Three Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Anthony C.; Dunlap, Glen; Neff, Bryon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a contingency contracting program to eliminate nocturnal enuresis of three children ages 5 to 12. Methods: The program was implemented by the children's primary caregivers, two of whom were foster parents and the third a case worker in the foster care system. The program was a package…

  12. An investigation of the impact of nocturnal enuresis on children's self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J; Butler, R J; Redsell, S A; Evans, J H C

    2002-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the relationship between the self-esteem and the self-image of children with nocturnal enuresis and to examine these in relation to various aspects of clinical and demographic variables. Previous studies investigating the self-esteem of bedwetting children have had mixed findings. Some studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis have a lower self-esteem than their non-bedwetting peers, but other studies report that children with nocturnal enuresis perceive themselves similarly to non-bedwetting children. However, what have not been studied to date are the self-perceptions of bedwetting children treated in community clinics. A total of 114 bedwetting children treated in community clinics provided the sample. School nurses conducted a routine first-visit assessment, collected baseline demographic and social information and invited children to complete the Butler Self-Image Profile and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Age and extent of wetting were not significantly related to self-concept measures. Girls had significantly (p = 0.008) higher scores on positive self-image compared with boys. Children with secondary enuresis also scored higher on positive self-image compared with those with primary nocturnal enuresis (p = 0.02). The Butler self-image scores indicated a number of significant links between positive self-image and enuresis variables, whereas the Coopersmith self-esteem scores generally failed to distinguish between the enuresis variables and closely reflected those of the negative self-image scores. These findings suggest that amongst children with nocturnal enuresis, the most vulnerable in terms of self-image are male, those with primary enuresis and those with a greater number of wet nights a week.

  13. Nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles attract the generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Cabezas-Guerrero, Milton F.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants ( Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer ( Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar ( Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey. Additionally, we examined whether the earwig preferred odors emitted from short- or long-term damaged maize. We first determined the earwig diel foraging rhythm and confirmed that D. luteipes is a nocturnal predator. Olfactometer assays showed that during the day, although the earwigs were walking actively, they did not discriminate the volatiles of undamaged maize plants from those of herbivore damaged maize plants. In contrast, at night, earwigs preferred volatiles emitted by maize plants attacked by D. saccharalis or S. frugiperda over undamaged plants and short- over long-term damaged maize. Our GC-MS analysis revealed that short-term damaged nocturnal plant volatile blends were comprised mainly of fatty acid derivatives (i.e., green leaf volatiles), while the long-term damaged plant volatile blend contained mostly terpenoids. We also observed distinct volatile blend composition emitted by maize damaged by the different caterpillars. Our results showed that D. luteipes innately uses nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey. Moreover, the attraction of the earwig to short-term damaged plants is likely mediated by fatty acid derivatives.

  14. Nocturnal thoracoabdominal asynchrony in house dust mite-sensitive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoJia Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available XiaoJia Wang, Shaun Reece, Stephen Olmstead, Robert L Wardle, Michael R Van ScottDepartment of Physiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USAAbstract: Nocturnal bronchoconstriction is a common symptom of asthma in humans, but is poorly documented in animal models. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA is a noninvasive clinical indication of airway obstruction. In this study, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP was used to document nocturnal TAA in house dust mite (HDM-sensitive Cynomolgus macaques. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn and lung resistance (RL measured in anesthetized ­animals at rest and following exposure to HDM allergen, methacholine, and albuterol were highly ­correlated with three RIP parameters associated with TAA, ie, phase angle of the rib cage and abdomen waveforms (PhAng, baseline effort phase relation (eBPRL and effort phase relation (ePhRL. Twenty-one allergic subjects were challenged with HDM early in the morning, and eBPRL and ePhRL were monitored for 20 hours after provocation. Fifteen of the allergic subjects exhibited gradual increases in eBPRL and ePhRL between midnight and 6 am, with peak activity at 4 am. However, as in humans, this nocturnal response was highly variable both between subjects and within subjects over time. The results document that TAA in this nonhuman primate model of asthma is highly correlated with Cdyn and RL, and demonstrate that animals exhibiting acute responses to allergen exposure during the day also exhibit nocturnal TAA.Keywords: nocturnal asthma, late phase asthmatic response, respiratory inductive plethysmography

  15. Neural organisation in the first optic ganglion of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-11-01

    Each neural unit (cartridge) in the first optic ganglion (lamina) of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis contains nine receptor cell axons (6 short and 3 long visual fibres), and four different types of first-order interneurons, also known as L-fibres (L1 to L4) or lamina monopolar cells. The short visual fibres terminate within the lamina as three different types (svf 1, 2, 3). The three long visual fibres pass through the lamina without forming characteristic branching patterns and terminate in the second optic ganglion, the medulla. The lateral branching pattern of svf 2 into adjacent cartridges is unique for hymenopterans. In addition, all four types of L-fibres show dorso-ventrally arranged, wide, lateral branching in this nocturnal bee. This is in contrast to the diurnal bees Apis mellifera and Lasioglossum leucozonium, where only two out of four L-fibre types (L2 and L4) reach neighbouring cartridges. In M. genalis, L1 forms two sub-types, viz. L1-a and L1-b; L1-b in particular has the potential to contact several neighbouring cartridges. L2 and L4 in the nocturnal bee are similar to L2 and L4 in the diurnal bees but have dorso-ventral arborisations that are twice as wide. A new type of laterally spreading L3 has been discovered in the nocturnal bee. The extensive neural branching pattern of L-fibres in M. genalis indicates a potential role for these neurons in the spatial summation of photons from large groups of ommatidia. This specific adaptation in the nocturnal bee could significantly improve reliability of vision in dim light.

  16. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  17. Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M

    2018-03-01

    The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO 2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light.

  18. The vomeronasal complex of nocturnal strepsirhines and implications for the ancestral condition in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Dennis, John C; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Durham, Emily L; Burrows, Anne M; Bonar, Christopher J; Steckler, Natalie K; Morrison, Edward E; Smith, Timothy D

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the vomeronasal organ in extant nocturnal strepsirhines as a model for ancestral primates. Cadaveric samples from 10 strepsirhine species, ranging from fetal to adult ages, were studied histologically. Dimensions of structures in the vomeronasal complex, such as the vomeronasal neuroepithelium (VNNE) and vomeronasal cartilage (VNC) were measured in serial sections and selected specimens were studied immunohistochemically to determine physiological aspects of the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Osteological features corresponding to vomeronasal structures were studied histologically and related to 3-D CT reconstructions. The VNC consistently rests in a depression on the palatal portion of the maxilla, which we refer to as the vomeronasal groove (VNG). Most age comparisons indicate that in adults VNNE is about twice the length compared with perinatal animals. In VNNE volume, adults are 2- to 3-fold larger compared with perinatal specimens. Across ages, a strong linear relationship exists between VNNE dimensions and body length, mass, and midfacial length. Results indicate that the VNNE of nocturnal strepsirhines is neurogenic postnatally based on GAP43 expression. In addition, based on Olfactory Marker Protein expression, terminally differentiated VSNs are present in the VNNE. Therefore, nocturnal strepsirhines have basic similarities to rodents in growth and maturational characteristics of VSNs. These results indicate that a functional vomeronasal system is likely present in all nocturnal strepsirhines. Finally, given that osteological features such as the VNG are visible on midfacial bones, primate fossils can be assessed to determine whether primate ancestors possessed a vomeronasal complex morphologically similar to that of modern nocturnal strepsirhines. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Children with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis – the clinical profile of patients during the first nephrological consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krakowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nocturnal enuresis can be diagnosed in a child older than 5 years of age who involuntarily discharges urine in the wrong time, i.e. at night, and in the wrong place, i.e. in bed. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse the profile of patients who consult the specialist physician with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods: The data were collected from a questionnaire completed by guardians of children during the first nephrological consultation. The questions concerned the following: family history of nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting intensity, other urinary tract symptoms, a voiding chart and fluid intake record, number of nocturnal enuresis incidents in 14 days, episodes of nocturia, nocturnal diuresis volume, urinary urgency volume and constipation. Moreover, basic anthropometric measurements were taken. The data were analysed and the following values were calculated: average voided volumes, maximum voided volumes, voided volumes before 5 p.m. and 24-hour diuresis. An analogous analysis was conducted with respect to fluid intake. Results: Most patients were males. The family history of nocturnal enuresis was positive in ⅓ of patients. Approximately ⅓ of patients tended to drink fluids directly before bedtime. The number of patients with sporadic nocturnal enuresis (23–45% was comparable to the number of patients with frequent nocturnal enuresis (28–55%. Nocturnal diuresis suggested nocturnal polyuria in 11 patients (21.6%. Decreased functional bladder capacity was found in almost ¼ of patients (12–23.5%. Conclusions: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is more common in boys. The family history was positive in ⅓ of patients. Patients and their guardians are not aware of fluid intake restrictions at bedtime. The frequency of nocturnal polyuria and decreased functional bladder capacity is comparable in the investigated patients.

  20. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  1. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  2. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  3. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  4. Enurese noturna monossintomática Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de P. Meneses

    2001-06-01

    profissionais e familiares.OBJECTIVES: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE plays a very important role in the practice of pediatrics due to its high prevalence, its psychosocial impact, and its controversial etiology and treatment. Our objective was to show that MNE can be a well-defined clinical entity (monosymptomatic, but it can also be a symptom of urinary disorder, thus requiring a completely different therapeutic approach. METHODS: The literature presents numerous publications related to the matter of MNE, thus we tried to select, for this review, the classical and the most recent publications from internationally recognized authors; in addition, we also have a 13-year work experience at the Unit for Urinary Disorders of the Pediatric Nephrology Center of the state of Paraná (Unidade de Distúrbios Miccionais - Centro de Nefrologia Pediatrica do Paraná. RESULTS: The lack of a well-defined, international consensus on the concept, terminology, and classification of MNE is an obstacle for the assessment of the numerous studies found in the literature. The individualization of the MNE clinical entity is the fundamental starting point for providing appropriate guidance for patients. Enuresis can be found in most societies and, thus, it gives way to several interpretations and forms of treatment. There is a consensus, however, on the damage to the self-esteem of enuretic children, and consequently, on the advantage of proper treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, MNE is kept as a family secret while children remain without proper guidance and treatment and suffering with the lack of understanding and damage to their self-esteem. Doctors should survey patients extensively for MNE during pediatric appointments. It is possible to discard other diagnoses with a detailed survey of habits, quality of the urination, and history of urinary infection and a meticulous physical examination. MNE should be faced as a medical problem worthy of the attention of professionals and

  5. Correlation between clinical manifestations of nocturnal enuresis and attentional performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Kai; Huang, Kuo-How; Chen, Shyh-Chyan; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yang, Hung-Ju; Guo, Ya-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to be more vulnerable to various forms of voiding dysfunction and nocturnal enuresis (NE). We attempt to compare the clinical manifestations and attentional performance between ADHD children with NE and those without NE. We consecutively enrolled children diagnosed with ADHD in child and adolescent psychiatric clinics. The questionnaires for evaluation of ADHD symptoms and voiding dysfunction symptoms were administered to all study participants. All participants also received the Test Battery for Attention Performance (TAP) for assessment of attentional function. A total of 53 children were enrolled in this study, comprising 47 boys and six girls. The prevalence rate of NE was 28.3%. Children in the NE group had statistically significant higher dysfunctional voiding symptom score (5.40 ± 3.66 vs.3.16 ± 2.74; p = 0.018) and two subscales of "When I wet myself, my underwear is soaked" (p attention than the non-NE group. Children with ADHD have a high prevalence of NE. ADHD children with NE had a significantly higher dysfunctional voiding symptom score and shorter reaction time in most domains of the TAP test. Further study is needed to discern the impact of NE on the neuropsychological function of ADHD children. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Why take the chance? A qualitative grounded theory study of nocturnal haemodialysis recipients who decline kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen M; Molzahn, Anita E; Chan, Christopher T; Cockfield, Sandra L; Kim, S Joseph; Pauly, Robert P

    2016-05-18

    The objective of this study was to examine the factors that influence decision-making to forgo transplantation in favour of remaining on nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD). A grounded theory approach using in-depth telephone interviewing was used. Participants were identified from 2 tertiary care renal programmes in Canada. The study participants were otherwise eligible patients with end-stage renal disease who have opted to remain off of the transplant list. A total of 7 eligible participants were interviewed. 5 were male. The mean age was 46 years. A constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify a core category and factors influencing the decision-making process. In this grounded theory study of people receiving NHD who refused kidney transplantation, the core category of 'why take a chance when things are going well?' was identified, along with 4 factors that influenced the decision including 'negative past experience', 'feeling well on NHD', 'gaining autonomy' and 'responsibility'. This study provides insight into patients' thought processes surrounding an important treatment decision. Such insights might help the renal team to better understand, and thereby respect, patient choice in a patient-centred care paradigm. Findings may also be useful in the development of education programmes addressing the specific concerns of this population of patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  8. Evaluation of the occurrence and diagnose definitions for Nocturnal Polyuria in Spinal Cord Injured patients during rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, Annick; Denys, Marie-Astrid; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Claeys, Jana; Raes, Ann; Roggeman, Saskia; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-03

    Little is known about the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and the definitions which are preferable in this population. To determine the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria (NP) in spinal cord injured patients during in-patient rehabilitation in the Ghent University Hospital. To study the influence of different time periods (daytime, bed rest and sleep) on the accuracy of the existing diagnose definitions for NP specifically for this type of patients. Retrospective study using patient records. SCI patients during hospital based rehabilitation between 2011 and 2014. Seventy-four SCI patients were selected and their records of frequency-volume charts were examined, after exclusion of unreliable data, forty-seven patients were retained for the current study. Retrospective study using data from frequency-volume charts of either two or three days from patients with SCI. Nocturnal urine production (NUP) and nocturnal polyuria index (NPi) were calculated. There was a significant increase in diuresis, calculated as urine production, between day time and bed rest (p=0.008) and between day time and sleep (p=0.001). All patients showed nocturnal polyuria during a 12-hour night time period (including both bed rest and sleep) and 39 patients showed nocturnal polyuria during the 8 hour period of sleep. There was no significant difference in mean urine production between bed rest and sleep. Prevalence of NP did not significantly differ between the complete or incomplete SCI patients or between patients with higher and lower SCI levels. This study showed that the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria in patients with SCI is high and that it is important to consider which definitions of NP are used for diagnosis. Increase in diuresis is observed during bed rest and sleep and the diagnose is correctly estimated when nocturnal urine production definitions are used in both time periods. In accordance with what was expected, diagnose of NP was

  9. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  10. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  11. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  12. Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) during the maternity season in West Virginia (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at diurnal roost trees remain largely uninvestigated. For example, the influence of reproductive status, weather, and roost tree and surrounding habitat characteristics on timing of emergence, intra-night activity, and entrance at their roost trees is poorly known. We examined nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis maternity colonies during pregnancy and lactation at diurnal roost trees situated in areas that were and were not subjected to recent prescribed fires at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia from 2007 to 2009. According to exit counts and acoustic data, northern myotis colony sizes were similar between reproductive periods and roost tree settings. However, intra-night activity patterns differed slightly between reproductive periods and roost trees in burned and non-burned areas. Weather variables poorly explained variation in activity patterns during pregnancy, but precipitation and temperature were negatively associated with activity patterns during lactation. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  13. Ogun Oru: a traditional explanation for nocturnal neuropsychiatric disturbances among the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, O F; Famuyiwa, O O

    2007-03-01

    This article describes three cases of ;ogun oru' (nocturnal warefare), a condition reported in southwest Nigeria involving an acute night-time disturbance that is culturally attributed to demonic infiltration of the body and psyche during dreaming. Ogun oru is characterized by its occurrence, a female preponderance, the perception of an underlying feud between the sufferer's earthly spouse and a ;spiritual' spouse, and the event of bewitchment through eating while dreaming. The condition is believed to be treatable through Christian prayers or elaborate traditional rituals designed to exorcise the imbibed demonic elements. Ogun oru may be a label applied to medical problems. The differential diagnosis includes mainly parasomnias, for example, sleep terror, sleepwalking and sleep paralysis and, to a lesser extent, nocturnal or sleep epilepsy.

  14. Perceived Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping Among Hispanics: The Influence of Social Support and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.

  15. Visual and acoustic signaling in three species of Brazilian nocturnal tree frogs (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Toledo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual communication seems to be widespread among nocturnal anurans, however, reports of these behaviors in many Neotropical species are lacking. Therefore, we gathered information collected during several sporadic field expeditions in central and southern Brazil with three nocturnal tree frogs: Aplastodiscus perviridis, Hypsiboas albopunctatus and H. bischoffi. These species displayed various aggressive behaviors, both visual and acoustic, towards other males. For A. perviridis we described arm lifting and leg kicking; for H. albopunctatus we described the advertisement and territorial calls, visual signalizations, including a previously unreported behavior (short leg kicking, and male-male combat; and for H. bischoffiwe described the advertisement and fighting calls, toes and fingers trembling, leg lifting, and leg kicking. We speculate about the evolution of some behaviors and concluded that the use of visual signals among Neotropical anurans may be much more common than suggested by the current knowledge.

  16. Increased sympathetic activity during sleep and nocturnal hypertension in Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Hansen, H P; Jacobsen, P

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To elucidate the putative factors involved in the blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Extracellular fluid volume and fluid shift from interstitial to plasma volume (haematocrit), sympathetic nervous activity...... (plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline) and the internal 'body clock' (serum melatonin) were investigated in 31 hypertensive Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with diabetic nephropathy (24 males, age 60 (45-73) years). All variables, except extracellular volume, were measured repeatedly...... constant in both groups. Extracellular fluid volume and plasma melatonin levels were comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Sustained adrenergic activity during sleep is associated with blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy, probably...

  17. Radiation forcing by the atmospheric aerosols in the nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. K.; Ponnulakshami, V. K.; Mukund, V.; Subramanian, G.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2013-05-01

    We have conducted experimental and theoretical studies on the radiation forcing due to suspended aerosols in the nocturnal boundary layer. We present radiative, conductive and convective equilibrium profile for different bottom boundaries where calculated Rayleigh number is higher than the critical Rayleigh number in laboratory conditions. The temperature profile can be fitted using an exponential distribution of aerosols concentration field. We also present the vertical temperature profiles in a nocturnal boundary in the presence of fog in the field. Our results show that during the presence of fog in the atmosphere, the ground temperature is greater than the dew-point temperature. The temperature profiles before and after the formation of fog are also observed to be different.

  18. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for the determination of the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Keller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method for measuring air temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer at high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The measurements are based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing (DTS with a fiber optic cable attached to a tethered balloon. These data were used to estimate the height of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The experiment was successfully deployed during a two-day campaign in September 2009, providing evidence that DTS is well suited for this atmospheric application. Observed stable temperature profiles exhibit an exponential shape confirming similarity concepts of the temperature inversion close to the surface. The atmospheric mixing height (MH was estimated to vary between 5 m and 50 m as a result of the nocturnal boundary layer evolution. This value is in good agreement with the MH derived from concurrent Radon-222 (222Rn measurements and in previous studies.

  19. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively insleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE. NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved.

  20. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  1. The effect of lateral decubitus position on nocturnal intraocular pressure over a habitual 24-hour period in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Zhen, Yi; Wang, Hao; Yang, Diya; Wang, Ningli

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP) on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA). During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm), IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500-1000 lux) after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP) for either eye. Phour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects.

  2. Signatures of functional constraint at aye-aye opsin genes: the potential of adaptive color vision in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H; Martin, Robert D; Verrelli, Brian C

    2007-09-01

    While color vision perception is thought to be adaptively correlated with foraging efficiency for diurnal mammals, those that forage exclusively at night may not need color vision nor have the capacity for it. Indeed, although the basic condition for mammals is dichromacy, diverse nocturnal mammals have only monochromatic vision, resulting from functional loss of the short-wavelength sensitive opsin gene. However, many nocturnal primates maintain intact two opsin genes and thus have dichromatic capacity. The evolutionary significance of this surprising observation has not yet been elucidated. We used a molecular population genetics approach to test evolutionary hypotheses for the two intact opsin genes of the fully nocturnal aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual and endangered Madagascar primate. No evidence of gene degradation in either opsin gene was observed for any of 8 aye-aye individuals examined. Furthermore, levels of nucleotide diversity for opsin gene functional sites were lower than those for 15 neutrally evolving intergenic regions (>25 kb in total), which is consistent with a history of purifying selection on aye-aye opsin genes. The most likely explanation for these findings is that dichromacy is advantageous for aye-ayes despite their nocturnal activity pattern. We speculate that dichromatic nocturnal primates may be able to perceive color while foraging under moonlight conditions, and suggest that behavioral and ecological comparisons among dichromatic and monochromatic nocturnal primates will help to elucidate the specific activities for which color vision perception is advantageous.

  3. Nocturnality constrains morphological and functional diversity in the eyes of reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Lars

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient light levels are often considered to drive the evolution of eye form and function. Diel activity pattern is the main mechanism controlling the visual environment of teleost reef fish, with day-active (diurnal fish active in well-illuminated conditions, whereas night-active (nocturnal fish cope with dim light. Physiological optics predicts several specific evolutionary responses to dim-light vision that should be reflected in visual performance features of the eye. Results We analyzed a large comparative dataset on morphological traits of the eyes in 265 species of teleost reef fish in 43 different families. The eye morphology of nocturnal reef teleosts is characterized by a syndrome that indicates better light sensitivity, including large relative eye size, high optical ratio and large, rounded pupils. Improved dim-light image formation comes at the cost of reduced depth of focus and reduction of potential accommodative lens movement. Diurnal teleost reef fish, released from the stringent functional requirements of dim-light vision have much higher morphological and optical diversity than nocturnal species, with large ranges of optical ratio, depth of focus, and lens accommodation. Conclusions Physical characteristics of the environment are an important factor in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate eye. Both teleost reef fish and terrestrial amniotes meet the functional requirements of dim-light vision with a similar evolutionary response of morphological and optical modifications. The trade-off between improved dim-light vision and reduced optical diversity may be a key factor in explaining the lower trophic diversity of nocturnal reef teleosts.

  4. Diel turbidity cycles in a headwater stream: evidence of nocturnal bioturbation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Richard J.; Outram, Faye; Hiscock, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A small number of recent studies have linked daily cycles in stream turbidity to nocturnal bioturbation by aquatic fauna, principally crayfish, and demonstrated this process can significantly impact upon water quality under baseflow conditions. Adding to this limited body of research, we use high-resolution water quality monitoring data to investigate evidence of diel turbidity cycles in a lowland, headwater stream with a known signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) population an...

  5. Nocturnal blood pressure in normotensive subjects and those with white coat, primary, and secondary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Middeke, M.; Schrader, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mean nocturnal blood pressure of patients with various forms of renal and endocrine hypertension with that in patients with primary and white coat hypertension, and normal blood pressure. DESIGN--Ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure over 24 hours in a prospective study. SETTING--Two German centres for outpatients with hypertension and kidney diseases. SUBJECTS--176 normotensive subjects, 490 patients with primary hypertension including mild and severe forms, 42 wi...

  6. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with keys to species

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Griswold, Terry; Ayala, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to...

  7. Concealed by darkness: interactions between predatory bats and nocturnally migrating songbirds illuminated by DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Juste, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreov...

  8. An Improved Iterative Fitting Method to Estimate Nocturnal Residual Layer Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL is an atmospheric region near the Earth’s surface. It is significant for weather forecasting and for the study of air quality and climate. In this study, the top of nocturnal residual layers—which are what remain of the daytime mixing layer—are estimated by an elastic backscatter Lidar in Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E, a city in Central China. The ideal profile fitting method is widely applied to determine the nocturnal residual layer height (RLH from Lidar data. However, the method is seriously affected by an optical thick layer. Thus, we propose an improved iterative fitting method to eliminate the optical thick layer effect on RLH detection using Lidar. Two typical case studies observed by elastic Lidar are presented to demonstrate the theory and advantage of the proposed method. Results of case analysis indicate that the improved method is more practical and precise than profile-fitting, gradient, and wavelet covariance transform method in terms of nocturnal RLH evaluation under low cloud conditions. Long-term observations of RLH performed with ideal profile fitting and improved methods were carried out in Wuhan from 28 May 2011 to 17 June 2016. Comparisons of Lidar-derived RLHs with the two types of methods verify that the improved solution is practical. Statistical analysis of a six-year Lidar signal was conducted to reveal the monthly average values of nocturnal RLH in Wuhan. A clear RLH monthly cycle with a maximum mean height of about 1.8 km above ground level was observed in August, and a minimum height of about 0.7 km was observed in January. The variation in monthly mean RLH displays an obvious quarterly dependence, which coincides with the annual variation in local surface temperature.

  9. Nocturia in men is a chaotic condition dominated by nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yuta; Sugihara, Toru; Azuma, Takeshi; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2015-05-01

    To characterize nocturia in men based on frequency volume chart data and symptom profiles assessed using the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score and Athens Insomnia Scale questionnaires. The Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score and Athens Insomnia Scale questionnaires were administered to 299 consecutive treatment naïve men with nocturia (≥one time per night). Frequency volume chart data were recorded for 2 days. Correlations between nocturia and clinical characteristics including symptom scores, clinical diagnosis, Charlson Comorbidity Index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, uroflowmetry and prostate volume were analyzed. Patients were divided into five groups: one time (n = 36), two times (n = 65), three times (n = 85), four times (n = 78) and five times (n = 34) of nocturia. Age, prevalence or severity of chronic kidney disease, hyperlipidemia, low bladder capacity, nocturnal polyuria, urgency, bladder pain and sleep disorders were significantly correlated with the severity of nocturia. The Spearman correlation analysis identified eight possible independent factors for nocturia: age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urgency, bladder pain, sleep quality, sleepiness during the day, average voided volume and nocturnal volume divided by body weight. Logistic regression analysis showed that nocturnal volume divided by body weight was the strongest factor of nocturia, and ≥7, 9 and 9.7 mL/kg were practical cut-off values of three, four and five times per night of nocturia, respectively. Nocturia in men is a chaotic condition dominated by nocturnal polyuria, and related to multiple factors including age, renal function, urgency, bladder pain, insomnia and bladder volume. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Factors affecting nocturnal enuresis amongst school-aged children: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafalsadat Hakim; Farshid Kompani; Mohammad Bahadoram

    2015-01-01

    Enuresis is the inability to control urination during sleep. It is one of the most common childhood urologic disorders. Nocturnal enuresis refers to the occurrence of involuntary voiding at night after 5 years. Persistent nocturia can decrease self-esteem, increase anxiety and other emotional problems in children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors affecting nocturia amongst school-aged children. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 200 children over a period...

  11. Nocturnality in synapsids predates the origin of mammals by over 100 million years

    OpenAIRE

    Angielczyk, K. D.; Schmitz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnality is widespread among extant mammals and often considered the ancestral behavioural pattern for all mammals. However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailab...

  12. Seeing in the dark: vision and visual behaviour in nocturnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    In response to the pressures of predation, parasitism and competition for limited resources, several groups of (mainly) tropical bees and wasps have independently evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. Despite this, nocturnal bees and wasps are able to forage at night, with many species capable of flying through a dark and complex forest between the nest and a foraging site, a behaviour that relies heavily on vision and is limited by light intensity. In the two best-studied species - the Central American sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae) and the Indian carpenter bee Xylocopa tranquebarica (Apidae) - learned visual landmarks are used to guide foraging and homing. Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. Moreover, signals generated in the photoreceptors, even though amplified by a high transduction gain, are too noisy and slow to transmit significant amounts of information in dim light. How have nocturnal bees and wasps resolved these paradoxes? Even though this question remains to be answered conclusively, a mounting body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that the slow and noisy visual signals generated by the photoreceptors are spatially summed by second-order monopolar cells in the lamina, a process that could dramatically improve visual reliability for the coarser and slower features of the visual world at night.

  13. Is Nocturnal Foraging in a Tropical Bee an Escape From Interference Competition?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam R.; Kitchen, Shannon M.; Toney, Ryan M.; Ziegler, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Temporal niche partitioning may result from interference competition if animals shift their activity patterns to avoid aggressive competitors. If doing so also shifts food sources, it is difficult to distinguish the effects of interference and consumptive competition in selecting for temporal niche shift. Bees compete for pollen and nectar from flowers through both interference and consumptive competition, and some species of bees have evolved nocturnality. Here, we use tropical forest canopy...

  14. How does a diurnal hawkmoth find nectar? Differences in sensory control with a nocturnal relative

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Goyret; Almut Kelber

    2011-01-01

    Recent research shows that a nocturnal hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, inspects flowers in search for nectar by means of a series of hovering and proboscis movements controlled by different sensory modalities, mainly vision and mechanoreception. The diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum is a closely related hawkmoth challenged with the same task but under illuminances 6--8 orders of magnitude higher. Here, we use flower models presenting color markings, 3D features, or both to study innate flower movemen...

  15. Olfactory recognition of predators by nocturnal lizards: safety outweighs thermal benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan K. Webb; David A. Pike; Richard Shine

    2009-01-01

    Many prey species are faced with multiple predators that differ in the degree of danger posed. The threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis predicts that prey should assess the degree of threat posed by different predators and match their behavior according to current levels of risk. To test this prediction, we compared the behavioral responses of nocturnal velvet geckos, Oedura lesueurii, to chemicals from 2 snakes that pose different threats: the dangerous broad-headed snake Hoploceph...

  16. Quantifying the local influence at a tall tower site in nocturnal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, David; Buckley, Robert; Zhang, Gengsheng; Kurzeja, Robert; Leclerc, Monique; Duarte, Henrique; Parker, Matthew; Watson, Thomas

    2015-10-17

    The influence of the local terrestrial environment on nocturnal atmospheric CO2 measurements at a 329-m television transmitter tower (and a component of a CO2 monitoring network) was estimated with a tracer release experiment and a subsequent simulation of the releases. This was done to characterize the vertical transport of emissions from the surface to the uppermost tower level and how it is affected by atmospheric stability. The tracer release experiment was conducted over two nights in May of 2009 near the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. Tracer was released on two contrasting nights—slightly stable and moderately stable—from several upwind surface locations. Measurements at the 329-m level on both nights indicate that tracer was able to mix vertically within a relatively short (~24 km) distance, implying that nocturnal stable conditions do not necessarily prevent vertical dispersion in the boundary layer and that CO2 measurements at the tower are at least partly influenced by nearby emissions. A simulation of the tracer release is used to calculate the tower footprint on the two nights to estimate the degree to which the local domain affects the tower readings. The effect of the nocturnal boundary layer on the area sampled by the tower can be seen clearly, as the footprints were affected by changes in stability. The contribution of local sources to the measurements at the tower was minimal, however, suggesting that nocturnal concentrations at upper levels are contributed mostly by regional sources.

  17. Nocturnal Wakefulness is Associated with Next-Day Suicidal Ideation in Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Vande Voort, Jennifer L.; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Richards, Erica M.; Niciu, Mark J.; Furey, Maura L.; Duncan, Wallace C.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Self-reported sleep disturbances may confer elevated risk for suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death. However, limited research has evaluated polysomnography (PSG)-determined sleep disturbance as an acute physiological risk factor for suicidal thoughts. This study sought to investigate the relationship between nocturnal wakefulness in association with next-day suicidal ideation using overnight PSG assessment from data collected between 2006 and 2013. Method Participants with DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar depression underwent overnight PSG monitoring in a sleep laboratory. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was administered the morning after PSG recording to assess next-day suicidal ideation, severity of depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep disturbances. Results Using a generalized linear mixed model, a significant time-by-ideation interaction was found indicating greater nocturnal wakefulness at 4:00 AM among participants with suicidal ideation (F(4,136) = 3.65, p = .007). Increased time awake during the 4:00 AM hour (4:00 to 4:59) was significantly associated with elevated suicidal thoughts the next day (standardized β = .31, p = .008). This relationship persisted after controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, and severity of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Greater nocturnal wakefulness, particularly in the early morning hours, was significantly associated with next-day suicidal thoughts. PSG-documented sleep disruption at specific times of night may represent an acute risk factor of suicidal ideation that warrants additional research. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT00024635 PMID:27337418

  18. A nocturnal decline of salivary pH associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Kurai, Jun; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Igishi, Tadashi; Okazaki, Ryota; Tohda, Yuji; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Salivary pH is associated with esophageal acid reflux and neutralization of esophageal acid. In this study, we assessed the association between nocturnal decline of salivary pH and airway hyperresponsiveness. Salivary pH was serially assessed in 9 patients with mild asthma (7 men and 2 women; mean age 33.3 years; mean %predicted FEV(1.0) 89.4%) and 10 healthy volunteers (6 men and 4 women; mean age 31.2 years) using a pH indicator tape. The buffering capacity of saliva was defined as the median effective dose (ED(50)) for acidification of saliva with 0.01 N HCl, and airway responsiveness was defined as the dose of methacholine producing a 35% fall in Grs (PD(35)-Grs). There was a significant correlation between the values obtained from the pH indicator tape and those obtained from the electrometric pH meter. Using the indicator tape for sequential monitoring, we observed a nocturnal fall (ΔpH) in salivary pH in all subjects. A significant correlation was found between airway hyperresponsiveness (PD(35)-Grs) and either ΔpH or ED(50) in mildly asthmatic patients. Vagal reflux dysfunction might contribute to nocturnal salivary pH as well as to airway hyperresponsiveness in mild asthmatics.

  19. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.; Buck, C. Loren; Oda, Gisele A.

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel. PMID:26460828

  20. Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia and metabolic risk in obese adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Indra; McCrindle, Brian W; Manlhiot, Cedric; Lu, Zihang; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Birken, Catherine S; Hamilton, Jill

    2018-01-22

    There is conflicting data regarding the independent associations of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with metabolic risk in obese youth. Previous studies have not consistently addressed central adiposity, specifically elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR), which is associated with metabolic risk independent of body mass index. The objective of this study was to determine the independent effects of the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) and associated indices of nocturnal hypoxia on metabolic function in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR. Subjects had standardized anthropometric measurements. Fasting blood included insulin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, alanine transferase, and aspartate transaminase. Insulin resistance was quantified with the homeostatic model assessment. Overnight polysomnography determined the OAHI and nocturnal oxygenation indices. Of the 75 recruited subjects, 23% were diagnosed with OSA. Adjusting for age, gender, and WHtR in multivariable linear regression models, a higher oxygen desaturation index was associated with a higher fasting insulin (coefficient [standard error] = 48.076 [11.255], p Intermittent nocturnal hypoxia rather than the OAHI was associated with metabolic risk in obese youth after adjusting for WHtR. Measures of abdominal adiposity such as WHtR should be considered in future studies that evaluate the impact of OSA on metabolic health.

  1. Adaptation to Life in the High Andes: Nocturnal Oxyhemoglobin Saturation in Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine Mary; Baya, Ana; Gavlak, Johanna; Carroll, Annette; Heathcote, Kate; Dimitriou, Dagmara; L'Esperance, Veline; Webster, Rebecca; Holloway, John; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Kirkham, Fenella Jane; Bucks, Romola Starr; Hogan, Alexandra Marie

    2016-05-01

    Physiological adaptation to high altitude hypoxia may be impaired in Andeans with significant European ancestry. The respiratory 'burden' of sleep may challenge adaptation, leading to relative nocturnal hypoxia. Developmental aspects of sleep-related breathing in high-altitude native children have not previously been reported. We aimed to determine the influence of development on diurnal-nocturnal oxyhemoglobin differences in children living at high altitude. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Seventy-five healthy Bolivian children aged 6 mo to 17 y, native to low altitude (500 m), moderate high altitude (2,500 m), and high altitude (3,700 m) were recruited. Daytime resting pulse oximetry was compared to overnight recordings using Masimo radical oximeters. Genetic ancestry was determined from DNA samples. Children had mixed European/Amerindian ancestry, with no significant differences between altitudes. Sixty-two participants had ≥ 5 h of nocturnal, artifact-free data. As predicted, diurnal mean oxyhemoglobin saturation decreased across altitudes (infants and children, both P sleep-related hypoxia in early childhood has potential lifespan implications. Future studies should characterize the sleep- related respiratory physiology underpinning our observations. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  3. Noninvasive imaging of brain oxygen metabolism in children with primary nocturnal enuresis during natural sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Huang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Hongwei; Peng, Miao; Guo, Qiyong

    2017-05-01

    A series of studies have revealed that nocturnal enuresis is closely related to hypoxia in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). However, brain oxygen metabolism of PNE children has not been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in children suffering from PNE. We used the newly developed T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging technique. Neurological evaluation, structural imaging, phase-contrast, and the TRUST imaging method were applied in children with PNE (n = 37) and healthy age- and sex-matched control volunteers (n = 39) during natural sleep to assess whole-brain CMRO 2 , CBF, OEF, and arousal from sleep scores. Results showed that whole-brain CMRO 2 and OEF values of PNE children were higher in controls, while there was no significant difference in CBF. Consequently, OEF levels of PNE children were increased to maintain oxygen supply. The elevation of OEF was positively correlated with the difficulty of arousal. Our results provide the first evidence that high oxygen consumption and high OEF values could make PNE children more susceptible to hypoxia, which may induce cumulative arousal deficits and make them more prone to nocturnal enuresis. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2532-2539, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Navigational efficiency of nocturnal Myrmecia ants suffers at low light levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendra

    Full Text Available Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available.

  5. Sleep disorders and the prevalence of asymptomatic nocturnal acid and non-acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Christine; Marzio, Dina Halegoua-De; Shah, Paurush; Denuna-Rivera, Susie; Doghramji, Karl; Cohen, Sidney; Dimarino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal acid reflux is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic sleep arousals, leading to fragmented sleep. The frequency and influence of acid reflux in patients with various forms of insomnia has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify nocturnal acid and nonacid reflux in patients with primary sleep disorders as previously diagnosed by polysomnography. THIRTY ONE SUBJECTS WERE STUDIED: (A) 9 subjects with a polysomnographically diagnosed sleep disorder (1 with restless legs syndrome, 4 with narcolepsy, 4 with periodic limb movement disorder); (B) 12 subjects with primary insomnia (PI) and unrevealing polysomnography; and (C) 10 controls without disturbed sleep. All subjects underwent a physical examination and 24 h transnasal pH and impedance monitoring to detect acid and non-acid reflux. The 21 subjects with fragmented sleep due to a primary sleep disorder had significantly more recumbent acid exposure (>1.2% of time) as compared with control subjects (33% versus 0%). When fragmented sleep subjects were divided into two groups, 17% of PI subjects and 55% of subjects with a diagnosed sleep disorder had significant recumbent acid exposure (P=0.009). Likewise, the median recumbent nonacid events were increased in the sleep disordered group (P=0.011). This study indicates that patients with primary sleep disorders have prominent nocturnal acid reflux without symptoms of daytime acid reflux. Acid reflux is most prominent in patients with polysomnographic findings of disturbed sleep as compared to patients with PI; while non acid reflux is increased minimally in these patients.

  6. Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.

  7. Association between morphometric variables and nocturnal desaturation in sickle-cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Cristina; Bispo, Marcelo; Trindade-Ramos, Regina Terse

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate associations between morphometric variables, cervical circumference (CC), and abdominal circumference (AC) with the presence of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. all patients were submitted to baseline polysomnography, oral cavity measurements (maxillary intermolar distance, mandibular intermolar distance, and overjet), and CC and AC measurements. a total of 85 patients were evaluated. A positive correlation was observed between the height/age Z-score and CC measurement (r = 0.233, p = 0.031). The presence of nocturnal desaturation was associated with CC (59.2± 9.3 vs. 67.5 ± 10.7, p = 0.006) and AC measurements (27.0 ± 2.0 vs. 29.0± 2.1, p = 0.028). There was a negative correlation between desaturation and maxillary intermolar distance (r = -0.365, p = 0.001) and mandibular intermolar distance (r = -0.233, p = 0.037). the morphometric variables of CC and AC may contribute to raise suspicion of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between morphometric variables and nocturnal desaturation in sickle-cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate associations between morphometric variables, cervical circumference (CC, and abdominal circumference (AC with the presence of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia. METHODS: all patients were submitted to baseline polysomnography, oral cavity measurements (maxillary intermolar distance, mandibular intermolar distance, and overjet, and CC and AC measurements. RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were evaluated. A positive correlation was observed between the height/age Z-score and CC measurement (r = 0.233, p = 0.031. The presence of nocturnal desaturation was associated with CC (59.2± 9.3 vs. 67.5 ± 10.7, p = 0.006 and AC measurements (27.0 ± 2.0 vs. 29.0± 2.1, p = 0.028. There was a negative correlation between desaturation and maxillary intermolar distance (r = -0.365, p = 0.001 and mandibular intermolar distance (r = -0.233, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: the morphometric variables of CC and AC may contribute to raise suspicion of nocturnal desaturation in children and adolescents with sickle-cell anemia.

  9. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Warrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes

  10. Screening and managing obstructive sleep apnoea in nocturnal heart block patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Liu, Zilong; Chang, Su Chi; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Wenjing; Jiang, Hong; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-02-16

    Nocturnal heart block often occurs in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is more likely to be undiagnosed in heart block patients who are ignorant of the symptoms of sleep disorder. Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is a highly reliable way to discover the risk factors of OSA, whereas the validity in sleep-related heart block patients is uncertain. We performed an observational study to address these issues and confirmed the potential protective effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Patients who were previously diagnosed with nocturnal heart block with R-R pauses exceeding 2 seconds were retrospective screened from the ECG centre of Zhongshan hospital. These recruited participants completed Berlin Questionnaire and underwent polysomnography synchronously with 24-hour Holter monitoring. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to confirm the association between nocturnal arrhythmia and OSA, as well as to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the BQ. Subsequently, subjects diagnosed with OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index > 5) underwent 3 consecutive days of CPAP therapy. On the third day, patients repeated 24-hour Holter monitoring within the institution of CPAP. The symptoms of disruptive snoring and hypersomnolence in 72 enrolled patients were more related to the occurrence of nocturnal heart block (r = 0.306, 0.226, respectively, p = 0.015, 0.019) than syncope (r = 0.134, p = 0.282) and palpitations (r = 0.106, p = 0.119), which were prominent trait of our study population. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the BQ at a cut-off point of 5 of AHI for detecting OSA in heart block patients was 81.0 %, 44.4 %, 91.07 % and 25 %. Nocturnal heart block does not appear to occur exclusively in severe sleep apnoea. The frequent occurrence of arrhythmias in prominent oxygen desaturation supports the correlation between them. CPAP therapy resulted in significant decrease in the average number of

  11. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  12. Factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia in at-risk adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darrell M; Calhoun, Peter M; Maahs, David M; Chase, H Peter; Messer, Laurel; Buckingham, Bruce A; Aye, Tandy; Clinton, Paula K; Hramiak, Irene; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia remains an impediment to good glycemic control, with nocturnal hypoglycemia being particularly dangerous. Information on major contributors to nocturnal hypoglycemia remains critical for understanding and mitigating risk. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for 855 nights were studied, generated by 45 subjects 15-45 years of age with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≤8.0% who participated in a larger randomized study. Factors assessed for potential association with nocturnal hypoglycemia (CGM measurement of <60 mg/dL for ≥30 min) included bedtime blood glucose (BG), exercise intensity, bedtime snack, insulin on board, day of the week, previous daytime hypoglycemia, age, gender, HbA1c level, diabetes duration, daily basal insulin, and daily insulin dose. Hypoglycemia occurred during 221 of 885 (25%) nights and was more frequent with younger age (P<0.001), lower HbA1c levels (P=0.006), medium/high-intensity exercise during the preceding day (P=0.003), and the occurrence of antecedent daytime hypoglycemia (P=0.001). There was a trend for lower bedtime BG levels to be associated with more frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia (P=0.10). Bedtime snack, before bedtime insulin bolus, weekend versus weekday, gender, and daily basal and bolus insulin were not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia. Awareness that HbA1c level, exercise, bedtime BG level, and daytime hypoglycemia are all modifiable factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia may help patients and providers decrease the risk of hypoglycemia at night. Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia increased in a linear fashion across the range of variables, with no clear-cut thresholds to guide clinicians or patients for any particular night.

  13. Primary nocturnal enuresis is associated with lower intelligence quotient scores in boys from poorer socioeconomic status families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Abbas; Bahrainian, Seyed Abdolmajid; Khoshdel, Alireza; Jalaly, Niloofar; Golshan, Shabnam; Pakmanesh, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    To explore intelligence quotient in boys with primary nocturnal enuresis compared with normal boys considering their socioeconomic status. A total of 152 school-aged boys (including 55 boys with primary nocturnal enuresis and 97 matched normal controls) were assessed. Boys with a history of any neurological or urological disease were excluded. Two different districts of Tehran: Khani-Abad (a poor district) and Pirouzi (a middle class district) districts were enrolled according to socioeconomic status data reported by the World Health Organization. Intelligence tests were carried out using a validated Iranian translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised. Total, as well as performance intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient scores and verbal-performance discrepancy (the difference between verbal and performance intelligence quotient scores for each individual) were compared using a t-test between boys with primary nocturnal enuresis in each district and their matched controls. Considering each district separately, the total intelligence quotient score was lower in primary nocturnal enuresis cases than controls only in the lower income district (90.7 ± 23.3 vs 104.8 ± 14.7, P = 0.002). Similarly, boys with primary nocturnal enuresis ranked lower in verbal intelligence quotient (P = 0.002) and performance intelligence quotient (P = 0.004) compared with their matched normal controls only in lower income district, whereas in the higher income district, boys with primary nocturnal enuresis ranked similar in total intelligence quotient to their matched controls. Boys with primary nocturnal enuresis had a lower intelligence quotient compared with the control participants only in low-income district. It seems important to adjust the results of the intelligence quotient assessment in these children according to their socioeconomic status. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Numerical sensitivity study of the nocturnal low-level jet over a forest canopy and implications for nocturnal surface exchange of carbon dioxide and other trace gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, M.Y.; Duarte, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a wind speed maximum in the nocturnal boundary layer, commonly referred to as a low-level jet (LLJ) (Blackadar, 1957), is a common feature of the vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and impacts the meteorology and the local climate of a region. A variety...... and are typically intertwined with other contributing factors, they constitute an important cause of jet formation. This mechanism is the only one that can be simulated by one-dimensional atmospheric boundary-layer model. This mechanism is a strong function of the distribution of surface energy properties which...... in turn depends on the time of day, latitude of location, and underlying surface characteristics. These parameters influence the jet height, maximum speed of the jet, and the duration of the wind speed maximum. The present study uses the numerical model SCADIS described by Sogachev et al. (2002) in its...

  15. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  16. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  17. Research and Development of Information and Communication Technology-based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring from Morning to Nocturnal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamasaki, Haruna; Okawara, Yukie; Kondo, Maiko; Nozue, Ryoko; Yamagata, Hiromi; Okura, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-hour BP control. After controlling morning HTN, nocturnal HTN is the second target. We have been developing HBPM that can measure nocturnal BP. First, we developed a semiautomatic HBPM device with the function of automatic fixed-interval BP measurement during sleep. In the J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure) study, the largest nationwide home BP cohort, we successfully measured nocturnal home BP using this device with data memory, 3 times during sleep (2, 3, and 4 am), and found that nocturnal home BP is significantly correlated with organ damage independently of office and morning BP values. The second advance was the development of trigger nocturnal BP (TNP) monitoring with an added trigger function that initiates BP measurements when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold continuously monitored by pulse oximetry. TNP can detect the specific nocturnal BP surges triggered by hypoxic episodes in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. We also added the lowest heart rate-trigger function to TNP to detect the "basal nocturnal BP," which is determined by the circulating volume and structural cardiovascular system without any increase in sympathetic tonus. This double TNP is a novel concept for evaluating the pathogenic pressor mechanism of nocturnal BP

  18. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Won; Park, Jinsung; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong-Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Won Tae

    2015-09-01

    To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33), aged ≥60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking α-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) completed the study according to the study protocol (per-protocol group), and 24 dropped out (dropout group). Of the 24 patients in the dropout group, 5 withdrew consent due to side effects or lack of efficacy, 7 were lost to follow-up at 4 weeks, 8 were lost to follow-up at 12 weeks, and 4 dropped out due to failure to complete 3-day frequency volume charts at 12 weeks. In the per-protocol group, there was significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), especially question numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and the quality of life question (P=0.001, P=0.007, Psilodosin monotherapy exhibits good efficacy in improving nocturia and nocturnal polyuria; however, the mean NPi was still >0.33. Considering the high dropout rate of our study due to no implementation of 3-day frequency volume charts, prospective and large-scale studies are needed to confirm our results.

  19. Expression and Evolution of Short Wavelength Sensitive Opsins in Colugos: A Nocturnal Lineage That Informs Debate on Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Lim, Norman T-L; Neitz, Maureen; Peichl, Leo; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    A nocturnal activity pattern is central to almost all hypotheses on the adaptive origins of primates. This enduring view has been challenged in recent years on the basis of variation in the opsin genes of nocturnal primates. A correspondence between the opsin genes and activity patterns of species in Euarchonta-the superordinal group that includes the orders Primates, Dermoptera (colugos), and Scandentia (treeshrews)-could prove instructive, yet the basic biology of the dermopteran visual system is practically unknown. Here we show that the eye of the Sunda colugo ( Galeopterus variegatus ) lacks a tapetum lucidum and has an avascular retina, and we report on the expression and spectral sensitivity of cone photopigments. We found that Sunda colugos have intact short wavelength sensitive (S-) and long wavelength sensitive (L-) opsin genes, and that both opsins are expressed in cone photoreceptors of the retina. The inferred peak spectral sensitivities are 451 and 562 nm, respectively. In line with adaptation to nocturnal vision, cone densities are low. Surprisingly, a majority of S-cones coexpress some L-opsin. We also show that the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions of exon 1 of the S-opsin gene is indicative of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a functional S-opsin in a nocturnal lineage for at least 45 million years. Accordingly, a nocturnal activity pattern remains the most likely ancestral character state of euprimates.

  20. The influence of periodic increases of human activity on crepuscular and nocturnal mammals: Testing the weekend effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Joshua H; Howell, Ryan G; Hall, Lucas K; McMillan, Brock R

    2018-01-01

    Human recreation can negatively affect wildlife, particularly on weekends when human activity is highest (i.e., the weekend effect). Much of what we understand about the weekend effect is based on research conducted on diurnal species, which have greater temporal overlap with humans. Because nocturnal species generally avoid times when humans are active, they are likely less affected by anthropogenic activity on weekends. Our objective was to test the weekend effect in relation to the degree of nocturnality of mammals in a recreational area. We predicted that as nocturnality increased, the effect of human activity would decrease. To address our objective, we placed 50 remote cameras along the Diamond Fork River in Utah from January to June 2015. We found that three out of the four focal species supported our predictions. Mule deer (crepuscular) reduced activity throughout our entire study area during weekends and avoided campgrounds. Beavers and mountain lions (both nocturnal) did not negatively respond to increased human activity. Raccoons (nocturnal) reduced activity during weekends, but only within campground areas. Our findings indicate that as the temporal overlap increases between wildlife and humans, so does the influence that humans have on wildlife. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Salmeterol versus slow-release theophylline combined with ketotifen in nocturnal asthma: a multicentre trial. French Multicentre Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J F; Bertin, L; Georges, D

    1992-11-01

    We wished to assess the efficacy of inhaled salmeterol (SML; 50 micrograms b.i.d.) compared to a combination of slow-release theophylline and ketotifen p.o. (TK; T 300 mg+K 1 mg b.i.d.) for the treatment of nocturnal asthma. Ninety six patients with nocturnal asthma, (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 60-90% of predicted value, reversibility > or = 15%, at least two nocturnal awakenings per week) were eligible for a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy cross-over study (14-day run-in, two successive 28-day treatment periods). Efficacy was assessed as success/failure, success being defined as the complete disappearance of nocturnal symptoms/awakening during the last week of each treatment period. There was a statistically significant difference between SML and TK for this criterion: 46% and 39% success with SML during periods I (first 28-day period) and II (following the cross-over), compared to only 15% and 26% with TK, respectively (p < 0.01). SML was also significantly better for the other criteria (lung function, rescue salbutamol intake during day and night). Side-effects were five times less frequent in SML-treated patients (p < 0.004). Efficacy and tolerance of SML were obviously far better than those of TK in patients with nocturnal asthma.

  2. Remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep but not the nocturnal melatonin surge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Aucutt-Walter, Natalie; Divittore, Nicole; King, Tonya; Bixler, Edward O; Cronin, Arthur J

    2008-04-01

    Postoperative patients are sleep deprived. Opioids, commonly administered for postoperative pain control, are often mistakenly considered inducers of naturally occurring sleep. This study describes the effect of the opioid remifentanil on nocturnal sleep in healthy volunteers. In addition, this study tests the hypothesis that opioid-induced sleep disturbance is caused by a circadian pacemaker disturbance, reflected by suppressed nocturnal plasma concentration of melatonin. Polysomnography was performed in 10 volunteers from 11:00 pm to 7:00 am for four nights at 6-day intervals. On two nights, remifentanil (0.01-0.04 microg x kg x min) was infused from 10:30 pm to 7:00 am, and either a placebo capsule or 3.0 mg melatonin was administered at 10:30 pm. On two additional nights, saline was infused, and the placebo or melatonin capsules were administered at 10:30 pm. Blood was drawn at 12:00 am, 3:00 am, and 6:00 am to measure the plasma concentration of melatonin and cortisol. A repeated-measures analysis of variance model was used to determine the effect of remifentanil on sleep stages, the effect of remifentanil on the plasma concentration of melatonin, and the effect of exogenous melatonin on remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. Remifentanil inhibited rapid eye movement sleep (14.1 +/- 7.2% to 3.9 +/- 6.9%). The amount of slow wave sleep decreased from 6.8 +/- 7.6% to 3.2 +/- 6.1%, but this decrease was not statistically significant. Remifentanil did not decrease melatonin concentration. Melatonin administration did not prevent remifentanil-induced sleep disturbance. An overnight constant infusion of remifentanil inhibits rapid eye movement sleep without suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  3. Rates of nocturnal transpiration in two evergreen temperate woodland species with differing water-use strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppel, Melanie; Tissue, David; Taylor, Daniel; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona; Eamus, Derek

    2010-08-01

    Nocturnal fluxes may be a significant factor in the annual water budget of forested ecosystems. Here, we assessed sap flow in two co-occurring evergreen species (Eucalyptus parramattensis and Angophora bakeri) in a temperate woodland for 2 years in order to quantify the magnitude of seasonal nocturnal sap flow (E(n)) under different environmental conditions. The two species showed different diurnal water relations, demonstrated by different diurnal curves of stomatal conductance, sap flow and leaf water potential. The relative influence of several microclimatic variables, including wind speed (U), vapour pressure deficit (D), the product of U and D (UD) and soil moisture content, were quantified. D exerted the strongest influence on E(n) (r² = 0.59-0.86), soil moisture content influenced E(n) when D was constant, but U and UD did not generally influence E(n). In both species, cuticular conductance (G(c)) was a small proportion of total leaf conductance (G(s)) and was not a major pathway for E(n). We found that E(n) was primarily a function of transpiration from the canopy rather than refilling of stem storage, with canopy transpiration accounting for 50-70% of nocturnal flows. Mean E(n) was 6-8% of the 24-h flux across seasons (spring, summer and winter), but was up to 19% of the 24-h flux on some days in both species. Despite different daytime strategies in water use of the two species, both species demonstrated low night-time water loss, suggesting similar controls on water loss at night. In order to account for the impact of E(n) on pre-dawn leaf water potential arising from the influence of disequilibria between root zone and leaf water potential, we also developed a simple model to more accurately predict soil water potential (ψ(s)).

  4. Evaluation of depression and self-esteem in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Koca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nocturnal enuresis (NE is very common and is one of the most common causes for patients to be admitted to urology, pediatrics, child psychiatry and child surgery departments. We aimed to investigate the effect on depression and self-esteem of this disorder that can cause problems on person's social development and human relations. Material and methods: 90 patients who were admitted to our clinic with complaints of nocturnal enuresis were enrolled. Investigations to rule out organic causes were performed in this group of patients. Out of them 38 children and adolescents (age range 8-18 years with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE agreed to participate in the study In the same period 46 healthy children and adolescents with a similar age range without bed wetting complaint were included in the study as a control group. The age of the family, educational and socioeconomic level were questioned and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI forms were filled out. Results: Mean age of the cases (18 females or 47.4% and 20 males or 52.6% was 10.76 ± 3.82 years whereas mean age of controls (26 females or 56.5% and 20 males or 43.5% was 10.89 ± 3.11 years. Depression scale was significantly higher (p = 0.001 in the case group than in the control group (10.42 ± 4.31 vs 7.09 ± 4.35. In both groups there was no statistically significant difference by age and sex in terms of depression scale (p > 0.05. Conclusion: NE is widely seen as in the community and is a source of stresses either for children and for their families. When patients were admitted to physicians for treatment, a multidisciplinary approach should be offered and the necessary psychological support should be provided jointly by child psychiatrists and psychologists.

  5. Patterns of nocturnal rehydration in root tissues of Vaccinium corymbosum L. under severe drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Richards, James H; Diaz, Andres; Eissensat, David M

    2009-01-01

    Although roots in dry soil layers are commonly rehydrated by internal hydraulic redistribution during the nocturnal period, patterns of tissue rehydration are poorly understood. Rates of nocturnal rehydration were examined in roots of different orders in Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Bluecrop' (Northern highbush blueberry) grown in a split-pot system with one set of roots in relatively moist soil and the other set of roots in dry soil. Vaccinium is noted for a highly branched and extremely fine root system. It is hypothesized that nocturnal root tissue rehydration would be slow, especially in the distal root orders because of their greater hydraulic constraints (smaller vessel diameters and fewer number of vessels). Vaccinium root hydraulic properties delayed internal water movement. Even when water was readily available to roots in the wet soil and transpiration was minimal, it took a whole night-time period of 12 h for the distal finest roots (1st to 4th order) under dry soil conditions to reach the same water potentials as fine roots in moist soil (1st to 4th order). Even though roots under dry soil equilibrated with roots in moist soil, the equilibrium point reached before sunrise was about -1.2 MPa, indicating that tissues were not fully rehydrated. Using a single-branch root model, it was estimated that individual roots exhibiting the lowest water potentials in dry soil were 1st order roots (distal finest roots of the root system). However, considered at the branch level, root orders with the highest hydraulic resistances corresponded to the lowest orders of the permanent root system (3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order roots), thus indicating possible locations of hydraulic safety control in the root system of this species.

  6. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias

    2012-05-01

    Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  8. Vertical Distribution of Daily Migrating Mesopelagic Fish in Respect to Nocturnal Lights

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana

    2014-12-01

    The nighttime distribution of vertically migrating mesopelagic fish in relation to nocturnal light was studied during a circumglobal survey, in the Red Sea, and in a fjord at high latitude. The study was based on data derived from ship borne echo sounders (circumglobal and the Red Sea) as well as using upward looking echo sounders mounted on the bottom (Masfjorden, Norway). We also applied a numerical model for analyzing diel vertical migration patterns. The effect of the lunar cycle was the focus in studies at low latitudes, while seasonal changes in nocturnal light climate was in focus at high latitude. Lunar phase significantly affected the distribution of mesopelagic fish at the global scale and in the Red Sea. During nights near full moon, scattering layers of mesopelagic fish distributed deeper than during darker phases of the moon. At high latitude, mesopelagic fish switched its behavior along with seasonal changes in nocturnal lights. In autumn, the population of the studied fish (Maurolicus mueleri) formed separated layers. Juveniles performed normal diel vertical migration followed by midnight sinking, with midnight sinking mainly related to temperature minima and also for avoiding predators. Meanwhile the adults did not migrate vertically, reducing foraging but increasing the adult survival. From late winter to mid-Spring, interrupted ascents behavior was noted in the afternoon. Predator avoidance, satiation, and finding temperature optimum might be the reason behind interrupted ascents. At lighter nights in mid-summer, M. muelleri took on schooling behavior, likely as an anti-predator behavior permitting access to the upper waters in the absence of darkness.

  9. Is nocturnal eating in restless legs syndrome linked to a specific psychopathological profile? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Sara; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Rizzo, Giovanni; Antelmi, Elena; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Brugnoli, Roberto; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Provini, Federica

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate psychological comorbidity in drug-naive or drug-free primary restless legs syndrome (p-RLS) patients with nocturnal eating disorder (NED), and to analyze the association of comorbid p-RLS and NED with obsessive-compulsive, mood and anxiety symptoms, and personality. Participants comprised 20 consecutive female outpatients with p-RLS, 10 without NED and 10 with NED, and 10 female controls matched for age. Both patients and controls were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression and the Anxiety Rating Scales, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory and the temperament and character inventory-revised. Compared to controls, p-RLS patients without and with NED had higher trait anxiety and current anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. p-RLS patients with NED also had significantly higher doubting compared to p-RLS patients without NED. Furthermore, groups differed for harm avoidance (HA), with p-RLS patients with and without NED having higher scores than controls. Untreated p-RLS patients, particularly those with nocturnal eating, report anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perceive stressful situations as dangerous and threatening and tend to respond with anxiety to such situations. They have higher tendency to respond intensely to aversive stimuli, inhibiting behavior to avoid punishment, novelty, and frustrative omission of expected rewards. We hypothesize that higher levels of HA, a biologically determined personality trait, might constitute a diathesis predisposing individuals to display obsessive-compulsive symptoms, namely increasingly severe compulsive nocturnal eating.

  10. Individual-based ant-plant networks: diurnal-nocturnal structure and species-area relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.

  11. Seasonal patterns in the nocturnal distributionand behavior of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri at high latitudes

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana

    2015-02-17

    Acoustic scattering layers (SL) ascribed to pearlside Maurolicus muelleri were studied in Masfjorden, Norway, using upward-looking echo sounders cabled to shore for continuous long-term measurements. The acoustic studies were accompanied by continuous measurements of surface light and supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. From autumn to spring, young M. muelleri formed an SL in the upper ∼75 to 150 m in the daytime, characterized by migration to near-surface water near dusk, subsequent \\'midnight sinking\\', followed by a dawn ascent before a return to the daytime habitat. Light levels were ∼1 order of magnitude lower during the dawn ascent than for ascent in the afternoon, with the latter terminating before fish reached upper layers on ∼1/3 of the nights from late November to mid-April. Adults showed less tendency of migration during autumn and winter, until the SLs of young and adults merged in late spring, and thereafter displayed coherent migration behavior. The midnight sinking became progressively deeper from autumn to winter but was strongly reduced from mid-May when the darkest nocturnal light intensity (PAR) at the surface was above 10-3 μmol m-2 s-1. The pearlside took on schooling in upper waters during the even lighter nights in early June, with minimum light of ∼5 × 10-3 to 10-1 μmol m-2 s-1 at the surface. Nocturnal schooling ceased in early July, and midnight sinking reappeared in mid-August. We suggest that the strong variation in nocturnal light intensity at high latitudes provides changing trade-offs between visual foraging and avoiding predators and hence varying time budgets for feeding in the upper, productive layers.

  12. Effect of CPAP Therapy on Symptoms of Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux among Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanna, Sadeka; Campbell, Douglas; Warren, Richard; Ullah, Mohammad I

    2016-09-15

    Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) is common among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies demonstrated that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces symptoms of nGER. However, improvement in nGER symptoms based on objective CPAP compliance has not been documented. We have examined the polysomnographic characteristics of patients with nGER and OSA and looked for association of OSA severity and CPAP compliance with improvement in nGER symptoms. We interviewed 85 veterans with OSA to assess their daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale [ESS]) and nGER symptom frequency after their polysomnography and polysomnographic data were reviewed. At 6 months' follow-up, ESS score, nGER score, and CPAP machine compliance data were reassessed. Data from 6 subjects were dropped from final analysis due to their initiation of new medication for nGER symptom since the initial evaluation. Sixty-two of 79 (78%) patients complained of nGER symptoms during initial visit. At baseline, nGER score was correlated with sleep efficiency (r = 0.43), and BMI correlated with the severity of OSA (r = 0.41). ESS and nGER improved (p CPAP compliant patients. A minimum CPAP compliance of 25% was needed to achieve any benefit in nGER improvement. Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux is common among patients with OSA which increases sleep disruption and worsens the symptoms of daytime sleepiness. CPAP therapy may help improve the symptoms of both nocturnal acid reflux and daytime sleepiness, but adherence to CPAP is crucial to achieve this benefit. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Carbon dioxide measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer over Amazonian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Culf

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and windspeed were made in the nocturnal boundary layer over a tropical forest near Manaus, Brazil using a tethered balloon system. The measurements were made up to a maximum height of 300 m on ten consecutive nights in November 1995. Simultaneous surface flux and in-canopy concentration measurements were made at the surface close to the site. The observation period included several different types of conditions. Generally strong windshear and relatively weak temperature gradients prevented the formation of a strong capping inversion to the nocturnal boundary layer. On some nights, however, the inversion was sufficiently strong that the CO2 concentration at 100 m above the surface exceeded 400 ppm. The concentration within the canopy was largely controlled by the presence of an inversion very close to the canopy surface. The temperature and wind profiles are contrasted with conditions in Randônia, Brazil, where the windshear was found to be weaker and higher carbon dioxide concentrations were observed in the early morning. The difference in carbon dioxide concentrations in the nocturnal boundary layer between dusk and dawn is used to estimate the regional nighttime flux of carbon dioxide. The value obtained generally exceeds the measured surface flux and sometimes exceeds the sum of the surface flux and the in-canopy storage made at the tower site. The reasons for the discrepancy are not clear; either one of the methods is in error or the regional carbon dioxide budget differs significantly from the local budget measured at the tower site.

  14. Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jason W; Nilsson, Cecilia; Lim, Ka S; Bäckman, Johan; Reynolds, Don R; Alerstam, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, that is by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the flow and the speed of the animal's own propulsion in relation to the surrounding air. Here we analyse entomological and ornithological radar data from north-western Europe to investigate how two different nocturnal migrant taxa, the noctuid moth Autographa gamma and songbirds, deal with wind by analysing variation in resulting flight directions in relation to the wind-dependent angle between the animal's heading and track direction. Our results, from fixed locations along the migratory journey, reveal different global strategies used by moths and songbirds during their migratory journeys. As expected, nocturnally migrating moths experienced a greater degree of wind drift than nocturnally migrating songbirds, but both groups were more affected by wind in autumn than in spring. The songbirds' strategies involve elements of both drift and compensation, providing some benefits from wind in combination with destination and time control. In contrast, moths expose themselves to a significantly higher degree of drift in order to obtain strong wind assistance, surpassing the songbirds in mean ground speed, at the cost of a comparatively lower spatiotemporal migratory precision. Moths and songbirds show contrasting but adaptive responses to migrating through a moving flow, which are fine-tuned to the respective flight capabilities of each group in relation to the wind currents they travel within. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  15. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sleep positions and nocturnal body movements based on free-living accelerometer recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarpsno, Eivind Schjelderup; Mork, Paul Jarle; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to establish normative values for body positions and movements during sleep, the objective of this study was to explore the distribution of sleep positions and extent of nocturnal body moments and the association with sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol......), but more arm, thigh, and upper-back movements compared to normal-weight participants. Smokers had fewer shifts in body position than nonsmokers (-0.27, 95% CI -0.4 to -0.13). Conclusion: The predominant sleep position in adults is on the side. This preference increases with age and BMI. The extent...

  17. A nocturnal decline of salivary pH associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Kurai, Jun; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Igishi, Tadashi; Okazaki, Ryota; Tohda, Yuji; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Salivary pH is associated with esophageal acid reflux and neutralization ofesophageal acid. In this study, we assessed the association between nocturnal decline ofsalivary pH and airway hyperresponsiveness. Salivary pH was serially assessed in 9 patientswith mild asthma (7 men and 2 women ;mean age 33.3 years ;mean %predictedFEV1.0 89.4%) and 10 healthy volunteers (6 men and 4 women ; mean age 31.2 years) usinga pH indicator tape. The buffering capacity of saliva was defined as the median eff...

  18. Unravelling the nocturnal appearance of bogue Boops boops shoals in the anthropogenically modified shallow littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavraki, N; Georgiadis, M; Koutsikopoulos, C; Tzanatos, E

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the role of the nocturnal migration of bogue Boops boops shoals to anthropogenically modified shallow littoral locations was examined, evaluating four alternative hypotheses: (1) feeding, (2) reproduction, (3) attraction of B. boops to artificial light and (4) concealment in the darkness related to predation avoidance. All hypotheses apart from predation avoidance were rejected, as B. boops tended to concentrate in shaded locations of wider illuminated areas, a finding not only important concerning fish behaviour, but also with significant management implications. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores MarcoJavier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  20. CQI proiect Every other day nocturnal HHD - An alternative approach to reduce burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    More frequent dialysis, typically performed five to six times per week at home, has been associated with a num- ber of clinical, cardiovascular, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) benefits. Daily therapy often results in a burden for patients and care partners. A continuous qual- ity improvement (CQI) initiative was conducted to evaluate if an alternate day, longer duration therapy (3.5 treatments with six to 10 hour treatments per week) would provide a viable alternative for home hemodialysis (HHD). This initia- tive demonstrated that every other day (EOD) nocturnal HD is a feasible alternative option to daily HHD and should be considered to individualize home dialysis therapy.

  1. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with keys to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor H; Griswold, Terry; Ayala, Ricardo

    2010-03-01

    Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to the Central American species of Megalopta s. str. and the species of the parasitic subgenus Noctoraptor are presented.

  2. GINGIVAL ENLARGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH NOCTURNAL FRONTAL LOBE EPILEPSY. A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma ANAMIKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available „Epilepsy” refers to a group of neurological disorders characterized by chronic, recurrent, paroxysmal seizure activity. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by brief, recurring seizures produ‑ ced in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping, and also by clusters of brief motor seizures. Seizure disorders may affect the dental status and oral health of patients. Epileptic drugs lead to gingival hyper‑ plasia, namely tissue enlargement, caused by an increased number of cells.

  3. Surface Layer Processes And Nocturnal Low Level Jet Development--An Observational Study During Pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    temperature was measured at -0.05m, -0.10m, and -0.25m and soil moisture at -0.10m and -0.25m. Shortwave solar irradiance and exitance measurements and...evolution, as found in the second column. This quantity is intended to serve as a measurement of the relative intensity of the LLJ wind maximum to a... measure of turbulence intensity relative to the ambient mean 6 m wind speed during the afternoon hours prior to the onset of the stable nocturnal

  4. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  5. Low levels of nitryl chloride at ground level: nocturnal nitrogen oxides in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Hans D.; Odame-Ankrah, Charles A.; Taha, Youssef M.; Tokarek, Travis W.; Schiller, Corinne L.; Haga, Donna; Jones, Keith; Vingarzan, Roxanne

    2018-05-01

    The nocturnal nitrogen oxides, which include the nitrate radical (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), and its uptake product on chloride containing aerosol, nitryl chloride (ClNO2), can have profound impacts on the lifetime of NOx ( = NO + NO2), radical budgets, and next-day photochemical ozone (O3) production, yet their abundances and chemistry are only sparsely constrained by ambient air measurements. Here, we present a measurement data set collected at a routine monitoring site near the Abbotsford International Airport (YXX) located approximately 30 km from the Pacific Ocean in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) on the west coast of British Columbia. Measurements were made from 20 July to 4 August 2012 and included mixing ratios of ClNO2, N2O5, NO, NO2, total odd nitrogen (NOy), O3, photolysis frequencies, and size distribution and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (PM1). At night, O3 was rapidly and often completely removed by dry deposition and by titration with NO of anthropogenic origin and unsaturated biogenic hydrocarbons in a shallow nocturnal inversion surface layer. The low nocturnal O3 mixing ratios and presence of strong chemical sinks for NO3 limited the extent of nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry at ground level. Consequently, mixing ratios of N2O5 and ClNO2 were low ( formation of ClNO2 in the nocturnal residual layer aloft than at the surface and the breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer structure in the morning. When quantifiable, production of ClNO2 from N2O5 was efficient and likely occurred predominantly on unquantified supermicron-sized or refractory sea-salt-derived aerosol. After sunrise, production of Cl radicals from photolysis of ClNO2 was negligible compared to production of OH from the reaction of O(1D) + H2O except for a short period after sunrise.

  6. USE OF THREE-COMPONENT LEVODOPA (LEVODOPA/CARBIDOPA/ENTACAPONE TO CORRECT NOCTURNAL SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON,S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kulua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe a clinical case of late-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD with nocturnal symptoms and fluctuations and to present successful experience in using the three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone as a single dose prior to sleep. Patient V. aged 72 years took medical advice at the Department of Neurology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, for complaints of constrained movements, inability to turn in bed independently, painful muscle cramps, light sleep with nocturnal awakenings, and frequent (5–6 times urinations at night. The first symptoms of the disease appeared 12 years ago when the patient began to notice sluggishness, altered handwriting, and clumsiness during small movements of the right hand. By taking into account symptoms (obvious nocturnal akinesia, overactive bladder, sleep disorders, and cramps and the results of his examination, the patient was diagnosed with the akinetic-rigid form of PD (4 Hoehn-Yarh scores. Therapy was corrected as follows: the dose of amantadine remained the same (300 mg; its last administration is recommended to be at 16:00; the daily dose of levodopa was 700 mg; that of levodopa/benserazide was 550 mg/day (1 tablet × 3/4 tablet × 1 tablet. The evening intake of levodopa was changed for that of the three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa 150 mg/ carbidopa 37.5 mg/entacapone 200 mg. Results. After 3 months, the patient was observed to have significant health improvement: reduced nocturnal and morning akinesia, better gait, a considerably smaller number of nocturnal urinations (less than once per night, regression of painful calf muscle cramps, and improved sleep. Conclusion. The three-component drug Stalevo (levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone is effective in treating late-stage PD. Its use as a single dose before going to bed has led to regressive nocturnal symptoms, better sleep, and lower motor fluctuations. 

  7. Effects of desmopressin for the treatment of nocturnal polyuria in elderly women: impact on related sleep quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Yu, Ho Song; Chung, Ho Suck; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated the efficacy, safety, and impact of desmopressin on quality of sleep in treating nocturnal polyuria in elderly women. Methods: We recruited 60 women over 60 years old with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including nocturia, and with nocturnal polyuria. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as nighttime urine production exceeding 33% of the 24-hour total urine volume determined by a frequency volume (FV) chart. All patients failed to respond to treatment of their underlying disease and evening fluid restriction. Desmopressin 0.1 mg was administered orally at bedtime for 12 weeks. The participants completed a series of questionnaires on the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) sleep scale and FV chart before and after treatment. Results: The patient population had a mean age of 69.2 ± 9.4 years (range: 61–81). The mean duration of symptoms was 61.2 ± 45.1 months. Significant decreases were evident after desmopressin treatment in the number of nocturia episodes (3.63 ± 1.61 to 2.00 ± 1.13, p = 0.01), nocturnal urine volume (p = 0.01), nocturnal polyuria index (NPI) (p = 0.01), and nocturia index (NI) p = 0.01). Among the categories of the MOS sleep scale, sleep index (p = 0.003), sleep disturbance (p = 0.001), snoring (p = 0.028), and shortness of breath (p = 0.036) significantly changed, with a decreased number of nocturia episodes. Adverse events were mild. Conclusions: Desmopressin is an effective treatment for nocturnal polyuria in elderly women, where conservative treatment has failed. Sleep quality is also improved. PMID:26600882

  8. Nocturnal polyuria and decreased serum testosterone: is there an association in men with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the putative association between nocturia and decreased serum testosterone in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Frequency volume charts and serum testosterone levels of patients visiting the outpatient clinic for lower urinary tract symptoms were collected and analyzed. Age, prostate volume, body mass index and the presence of comorbidities were accounted for. Frequency volume charts were analyzed for pathophysiological components of nocturnal polyuria, global polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity and increased frequency to identify associated risks. Frequency volume charts were also used to chart 8-h changes of volume, frequency and capacity to identify time diurnal interactions with risk factors based on serum testosterone levels. A total of 2180 patients were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed testosterone decreased 0.142 ng/mL for every increase in nocturia, independent of other factors. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant difference between pathophysiological components. Decreased testosterone was shown to carry a significant independent risk for overall nocturia (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.013-2.527, P = 0.044), and particularly nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio 1.934, 95% confidence interval 1.001-3.737, P = 0.027). Repeated measurement models showed patients with serum testosterone below 2.50 ng/mL to have a paradoxical increase in nocturnal urine volume at night. Nocturia, especially nocturnal polyuria, is associated with decreased serum testosterone. Patients with low serum testosterone show increased nocturnal urine output. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Nocturnal and Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure Is Associated with Renal Structure Damage and Function in Patients with IgAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lirong; Zhang, Huhai; Yang, Jurong; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Kailong; Huo, Bengang; Dai, Huanzi; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Jie; Tan, Wei; He, Yani

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) is closely related to target organ damage in hypertension. However, the association between abnormal circadian rhythm of BP and renal injury is not clear. We investigated whether renal injury is associated with nocturnal BP and circadian rhythm of BP in Chinese IgAN patients. Clinic and 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring data were obtained from 330 Chinese IgAN patients with mean 24 h BP circadian BP, and 27% had nocturnal hypertension with a nondipping pattern. Compared with nocturnal normotensive patients, patients with nocturnal hypertension had significantly higher levels of blood cystatin C, blood uric acid, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and significantly a higher mean renal tissue injury score. The nondipping hypertensive group had significantly higher nocturnal diastolic and systolic BP, blood uric acid, and glomerulosclerosis rates, whereas eGFR was lower. In nondipping hypertensive patients, urinary sodium excretion and renal tissue injury scores were significantly higher than dipping patients. Nocturnal hypertension and abnormal circadian BP correlated with renal tissue injury, renal interstitial fibrosis, and aortic arch atherosclerosis. Abnormal circadian rhythm of BP and nocturnal hypertension are common clinical manifestations in Chinese IgAN patients with normal mean 24 h BP. Abnormal circadian BP and nocturnal hypertension may accelerate IgAN progression by inducing renal dysfunction and histopathological damage. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  11. The effect of lateral decubitus position on nocturnal intraocular pressure over a habitual 24-hour period in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hao

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. METHODS: Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA. During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm, IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500-1000 lux after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (<10 lux at 11:30 pm, 1:30 am, 3:30 am, and 5:30 am. The subjects were awakened and maintained each position for 5 min before the measurement. The 24-hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP for either eye. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULTS: Nineteen healthy subjects were included with a mean age of 51.3±5.8 years. During the nocturnal period, a significant IOP difference was found between the dependent eye (the eye on the lower side of LDP and the supine position, but not for all the nocturnal time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. CONCLUSION: Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects.

  12. Field measurements of key parameters associated with nocturnal OBT formation in vegetables grown under Canadian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Workman, W.G.; Korolevych, V.; Davis, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide the parameter values required to model OBT formation in the edible parts of plants following a hypothetical accidental tritium release to the atmosphere at night. The parameters considered were leaf area index, stomatal resistance, photosynthesis rate, the photosynthetic production rate of starch, the nocturnal hydrolysis rate of starch, the fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis that appears in the fruits, and the mass of the fruit. Values of these parameters were obtained in the summer of 2002 for lettuce, radishes and tomatoes grown under typical Canadian environmental conditions. Based on the maximum observed photosynthetic rate and growth rate, the fraction of starch translocated to the fruit was calculated to be 17% for tomato fruit and 14% for radish root. - Highlights: ► Plant physiological parameters affecting nocturnal OBT formation have been investigated. ► The fraction of starch produced daily by photosynthesis in the leaves that appears in the fruit was calculated. ► Realistic estimates of OBT concentrations following a nighttime accidental HTO release to the atmosphere.

  13. Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement over Portugal during winter: Influence of different atmospheric conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.

    2016-09-24

    Four distinct nocturnal surface ozone (NSO) enhancement events were observed, with NSO concentration exceeding 80μg/m3, at multiple ozone (O3) monitoring stations (32 sites) in January, November and December between year 2000–2010, in Portugal. The reasonable explanation for the observed bimodal pattern of surface ozone with enhanced NSO concentration during nighttime has to be transport processes, as the surface ozone production ceases at nighttime. Simultaneous measurements of O3 at multiple stations during the study period in Portugal suggest that horizontal advection alone cannot explain the observed NSO enhancement. Thus, detailed analysis of the atmospheric conditions, simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, were performed to evaluate the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for NSO enhancement in the region. Simulations revealed that each event occurred as a result of one or the combination of different atmospheric processes such as, passage of a cold front followed by a subsidence zone; passage of a moving surface trough, with associated strong horizontal wind speed and vertical shear; combination of vertical and horizontal transport at the synoptic scale; formation of a low level jet with associated vertical mixing below the jet stream. The study confirmed that large-scale flow pattern resulting in enhanced vertical mixing in the nocturnal boundary layer, plays a key role in the NSO enhancement events, which frequently occur over Portugal during winter months. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Elke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara. The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species.

  15. Eight-Year Experience with Nocturnal, Every-Other-Day, Online Haemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Ojeda, Raquel; Arias-Guillen, Marta; Rossi, Florencia; Fontseré, Néstor; Vera, Manel; Rico, Nayra; Gonzalez, Leonardo Nicolás; Piñeiro, Gastón; Jiménez-Hernández, Mario; Rodas, Lida; Bedini, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    New haemodialysis therapeutic regimens are required to improve patient survival. Longer and more frequent dialysis sessions have produced excellent survival and clinical advantages, while online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) provides the most efficient form of dialysis treatment. In this single-centre observational study, 57 patients on 4-5-hour thrice-weekly OL-HDF were switched to nocturnal every-other-day OL-HDF. Inclusion criteria consisted of stable patients with good prospects for improved occupational, psychological and social rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to report our 8-year experience with this schedule and to evaluate analytical and clinical outcomes. Nocturnal, every-other-day OL-HDF was well tolerated and 56% of patients were working. The convective volume increased from 26.7 ± 2 litres at baseline to 46.6 ± 6.5 litres at 24 months (p every-other-day OL-HDF could be an excellent therapeutic alternative since it is well tolerated and leads to clinical and social-occupational rehabilitation with satisfactory morbidity and mortality. These encouraging results strengthen us to continue and invite other clinicians to join this initiative. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Nocturnal Vocal Activity in Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus: Could Dolphins have Presleep Choruses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Kremers

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal vocal activity in dolphins is often thought to be associated with feeding activity. However, when no food resources are available dolphins spend their time for the most part resting/sleeping. While unihemispherically sleeping, dolphins mostly swim slowly and synchronously in close proximity with one or more other individuals. Although vocal activity is lower during resting/sleeping, dolphins are not entirely silent the entire night. However, nothing is known about the temporal patterning of vocal activity at night and its potential relation with activity in dolphins. Here we recorded the vocal activity of a group of five captive bottlenose dolphins at night while having no feeding opportunity, examined whether there was any temporal pattern and/or a relation with breathing activity, used here as an index of overall activity. The temporal pattern revealed two peaks of intense whistle activity (8 p.m. and midnight, which were followed by a strong decrease of whistle rate and a slight decrease of respiration rate. We suggest that the high vocal activity at the peak periods might indicate socializing periods and that dolphins, like many other species, show periods of increased social and vocal interactions (chorusing? before starting to rest/sleep, maybe to ensure the synchrony of slow swimming observed in this species. These findings contribute to a better understanding of nocturnal vocal activity in cetaceans and suggest new lines of research on vocal/social activity of dolphins in relation to presleep and resting behavior.

  17. Efficacy of Desmopressin to Treat Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men: Effects on Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Yu, Ho Song; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of desmopressin in elderly patients with nocturnal polyuria (NP) to evaluate its effects on sleep quality. Patients with NP (defined as the nighttime urine production >33% of total 24-hour urine volume determined from a frequency-volume chart) were recruited. Desmopressin (0.2 mg) was treated orally at bedtime for 12 weeks. The participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale. The mean patient age was 62.7 ± 13.0 (range 42-78 years). The mean symptom duration was 42.2 ± 39.7 months. The number of nocturia episodes (from 3.49 ± 1.83 to 2.03 ± 1.35, p = 0.01), nocturnal urine volume (p = 0.01), NP index (p = 0.01), and nocturia index (p = 0.01) decreased significantly after treatment with desmopressin. Among the MOS Sleep Scale categories, hours slept/night (p = 0.042), shortness of breath (p = 0.019), and adequacy of sleep (p = 0.001) changed significantly with a decrease in the number of nocturia episodes. Adverse events were mild. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for NP and improved sleep quality in elderly men. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement over Portugal during winter: Influence of different atmospheric conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Sharma, Ashish; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, Rui; Silva, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Four distinct nocturnal surface ozone (NSO) enhancement events were observed, with NSO concentration exceeding 80μg/m3, at multiple ozone (O3) monitoring stations (32 sites) in January, November and December between year 2000–2010, in Portugal. The reasonable explanation for the observed bimodal pattern of surface ozone with enhanced NSO concentration during nighttime has to be transport processes, as the surface ozone production ceases at nighttime. Simultaneous measurements of O3 at multiple stations during the study period in Portugal suggest that horizontal advection alone cannot explain the observed NSO enhancement. Thus, detailed analysis of the atmospheric conditions, simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, were performed to evaluate the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for NSO enhancement in the region. Simulations revealed that each event occurred as a result of one or the combination of different atmospheric processes such as, passage of a cold front followed by a subsidence zone; passage of a moving surface trough, with associated strong horizontal wind speed and vertical shear; combination of vertical and horizontal transport at the synoptic scale; formation of a low level jet with associated vertical mixing below the jet stream. The study confirmed that large-scale flow pattern resulting in enhanced vertical mixing in the nocturnal boundary layer, plays a key role in the NSO enhancement events, which frequently occur over Portugal during winter months. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Delay in convection in nocturnal boundary layer due to aerosol-induced cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhiraj Kumar; Ponnulakshmi, V. K.; Subramanian, G.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2012-11-01

    Heat transfer processes in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) influence the surface energy budget, and play an important role in many micro-meteorological processes including the formation of inversion layers, radiation fog, and in the control of air-quality near the ground. Under calm clear-sky conditions, radiation dominates over other transport processes, and as a result, the air layers just above ground cool the fastest after sunset. This leads to an anomalous post-sunset temperature profile characterized by a minimum a few decimeters above ground (Lifted temperature minimum). We have designed a laboratory experimental setup to simulate LTM, involving an enclosed layer of ambient air, and wherein the boundary condition for radiation is decoupled from those for conduction and convection. The results from experiments involving both ambient and filtered air indicate that the high cooling rates observed are due to the presence of aerosols. Calculated Rayleigh number of LTM-type profiles is of the order 105-107 in the field and of order 103-105 in the laboratory. In the LTM region, there is convective motion when the Rayleigh number is greater than 104 rather than the critical Rayleigh number (Rac = 1709). The diameter of convection rolls is a function of height of minimum of LTM-type profiles. The results obtained should help in the parameterization of transport process in the nocturnal boundary layer, and highlight the need to accounting the effects of aerosols and ground emissivity in climate models.

  20. Retinal transcriptome sequencing sheds light on the adaptation to nocturnal and diurnal lifestyles in raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghua; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Teng, Wenjia; Hao, Yuyang; Liang, Wei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Haitao

    2016-09-20

    Owls (Strigiformes) represent a fascinating group of birds that are the ecological night-time counterparts to diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes). The nocturnality of owls, unusual within birds, has favored an exceptional visual system that is highly tuned for hunting at night, yet the molecular basis for this adaptation is lacking. Here, using a comparative evolutionary analysis of 120 vision genes obtained by retinal transcriptome sequencing, we found strong positive selection for low-light vision genes in owls, which contributes to their remarkable nocturnal vision. Not surprisingly, we detected gene loss of the violet/ultraviolet-sensitive opsin (SWS1) in all owls we studied, but two other color vision genes, the red-sensitive LWS and the blue-sensitive SWS2, were found to be under strong positive selection, which may be linked to the spectral tunings of these genes toward maximizing photon absorption in crepuscular conditions. We also detected the only other positively selected genes associated with motion detection in falcons and positively selected genes associated with bright-light vision and eye protection in other diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes). Our results suggest the adaptive evolution of vision genes reflect differentiated activity time and distinct hunting behaviors.

  1. Concealed by darkness: interactions between predatory bats and nocturnally migrating songbirds illuminated by DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L; Juste, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreover, species using tree hollows or nest boxes in the study area during migration periods were not present in the bats' diet, indicating that birds are solely captured on the wing during night-time passage. Additional to a generalist feeding strategy, we found that bats selected medium-sized bird species, thereby assumingly optimizing their energetic cost-benefit balance and injury risk. Surprisingly, bats preyed upon birds half their own body mass. This shows that the 5% prey to predator body mass ratio traditionally assumed for aerial hunting bats does not apply to this hunting strategy or even underestimates these animals' behavioural and mechanical abilities. Considering the bats' generalist feeding strategy and their large prey size range, we suggest that nocturnal bat predation may have influenced the evolution of bird migration strategies and behaviour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nocturnal Low-level Jet Evolution in a Broad Valley Observed by Dual Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Damian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of a nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ in the 40km$40\\,\\text{km}$ broad Rhine Valley near Karlsruhe is studied, in the framework of a case study, with two heterodyne detection Doppler lidars using the new scan concept of “virtual towers”. For validation of this measuring technique, we performed comparative case studies with a tethered balloon and the highly instrumented 200m$200\\,\\text{m}$ KIT tower. The findings show capabilities of the virtual tower technique for wind measurements. Virtual towers can be placed at all locations within the range of Lidar measurements. Associated with nocturnal stable stratification, the LLJ, a wind speed maximum of about 9ms-1$9\\,\\text{m}\\,\\text{s}^{-1}$, develops at 100m$100\\,\\text{m}$ to 150m$150\\,\\text{m}$ agl, but the wind does not show the typical clockwise wind direction change that is reported in many other studies. This is attributed to the channeling effect occurring in broad valleys like the Rhine Valley when the boundary layer is stably stratified. Such channeling means a significant deviation of the wind direction from the Ekman spiral so that low-altitude winds turn into valley-parallel direction.

  3. Effects of nocturnal illumination on life-history decisions and fitness in two wild songbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q; Da Silva, Arnaud; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Kempenaers, Bart; Visser, Marcel E; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2015-05-05

    The effects of artificial night lighting on animal behaviour and fitness are largely unknown. Most studies report short-term consequences in locations that are also exposed to other anthropogenic disturbance. We know little about how the effects of nocturnal illumination vary with different light colour compositions. This is increasingly relevant as the use of LED lights becomes more common, and LED light colour composition can be easily adjusted. We experimentally illuminated previously dark natural habitat with white, green and red light, and measured the effects on life-history decisions and fitness in two free-living songbird species, the great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in two consecutive years. In 2013, but not in 2014, we found an effect of light treatment on lay date, and of the interaction of treatment and distance to the nearest lamp post on chick mass in great tits but not in pied flycatchers. We did not find an effect in either species of light treatment on breeding densities, clutch size, probability of brood failure, number of fledglings and adult survival. The finding that light colour may have differential effects opens up the possibility to mitigate negative ecological effects of nocturnal illumination by using different light spectra. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  5. Quantitative demonstration of the efficacy of night-time apomorphine infusion to treat nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Anan, Chanawat; Boonpang, Kamolwan; Thanawattano, Chusak; Ray Chaudhuri, K

    2016-12-01

    Nocturnal hypokinesia/akinesia is one of the common night-time symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), negatively affecting quality of life of patients and caregivers. The recognition of this problem and treatment options are limited in clinical practice. To evaluate the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion, using a wearable sensor, in patients who are already on daytime continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion and still suffer from nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal parameters in 10 PD patients before and during nocturnal infusion were assessed over two nights at their homes, using a wearable sensor (trunk). Nocturnal parameters included number, velocity, acceleration, degree, and duration of rolling over, and number of times they got out of bed. Correlations with validated clinical rating scales were performed. Following nocturnal apomorphine infusion (34.8 ± 6.5 mg per night), there were significant improvements in the number of turns in bed (p = 0.027), turning velocity (p = 0.046), and the degree of turning (p = 0.028) in PD patients. Significant improvements of Modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (p = 0.005), the axial score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (p = 0.013), and Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp Scale (p = 0.014) were also observed. Our study was able to demonstrate quantitatively the efficacy of nocturnal apomorphine infusion in PD patients with nocturnal hypokinesia and demonstrated the feasibility of using wearable sensors to yield objective and quantifiable outcomes in a clinical trial setting. More studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy of this treatment in a large prospective cohort of PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term clinical parameters after switching to nocturnal haemodialysis : a Dutch propensity-score-matched cohort study comparing patients on nocturnal haemodialysis with patients on three-times-a-week haemodialysis/haemodiafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansz, Thijs Thomas; Özyilmaz, Akin; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Romijn, Marieke; Blankestijn, Peter J; Bots, Michael L; van Jaarsveld, Brigit C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD), characterised by 8-hour sessions ≥3 times a week, is known to improve clinical parameters in the short term compared with conventional-schedule haemodialysis (HD), generally 3×3.5-4 hours a week. We studied long-term effects of NHD and used patients on

  7. 4A.10: PREFERENTIAL REDUCTION IN MORNING/NOCTURNAL HYPERTENSION BY RENAL DENERVATION FOR DRUG- RESISTANT HYPERTENSION: A NEW ABPM ANALYSIS OF SYMPLICITY HTN-3 AND HTN-JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, K; Bakris, G L; Bhatt, D

    2015-06-01

    To study the impact of catheter-based renal artery denervation (RDN) on change in morning and night systolic BP (SBP) defined by ambulatory BP measurements (ABPM) 6 months post-randomization. SYMPLICITY HTN-3 and SYMPLICITY HTN-Japan are prospective, randomized, controlled trials of RDN for treatment of resistant hypertension. However, SYMPLICITY HTN-3 included a blinded, sham control and HTN-Japan control patients were not blinded and continued medical management alone. Patients in both trials were on a stable antihypertensive regimen of at least 3 drugs including a diuretic before randomization. Average morning SBP (7 am to 9 am), maximum morning SBP (between 6 am and 10 am), average nocturnal SBP (1 am to 6 am), average peak nocturnal SBP (average of 3 highest SBPs between 1 am and 6 am) and average daytime SBP were calculated using pooled patient-level ABPM data. Six-month change in SBP parameters were compared between RDN and control patients. A total of 386 patients (364 from HTN-3 and 22 from Japan) received RDN and 190 patients were in the control group (171 from HTN-3 and 19 from Japan). The average morning SBP was reduced -8.0 ± 22.3 mmHg in the RDN group which was significantly more than the change in the control group (-3.5 ± 22.2 mmHg, p = 0.023). The maximum morning SBP change was -8.6 ± 22.3 mmHg for RDN patients and -4.8 ± 23.8mmHg for controls (p = 0.072). Furthermore, the change in average nocturnal and average peak nocturnal SBP was significantly greater in the RDN patients compared with the control patients; -6.3 ± 18.1 vs -1.7 ± 19.2 mmHg, p = 0.008 for average nocturnal SBP and -6.7 ± 20.0 vs -1.3 ± 20.5 mmHg, p = 0.004 for average peak nocturnal SBP. Average daytime SBP change was not significantly between the RDN and control groups (-7.1 ± 16.0 vs -5.7 ± 18.0 mmHg, p = 0.349). This analysis demonstrated that RDN significantly reduced morning and nighttime SBP compared with

  8. Alanine aminotransferase is associated with an adverse nocturnal blood glucose profile in individuals with normal glucose regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and risk of type 2 diabetes is well-studied, the effects of slightly increased ALT levels within the normal range on the temporal normal glucose profile remains poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 322 Chinese subjects without impaired glucose tolerance or previous diagnoses of diabetes were recruited for study from 10 hospitals in urban areas across China. All subjects wore a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system for three consecutive days. The diurnal (06∶00-20∶00 and nocturnal (20∶00-06∶00 mean blood glucose (MBG levels were calculated. Subjects were stratified by ALT quartile level and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median ALT level was 17 IU/L, and subjects with ALT ≥17 IU/L had higher nocturnal MBG level than those with ALT 0.05. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis of elevated nocturnal MBG identified increased HOMA-IR, elevated ALT levels, and decreased homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function as independent factors (all, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Mildly elevated ALT levels, within the normal range, are associated with unfavorable nocturnal glucose profiles in Chinese subjects with normal glucose regulation.

  9. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Won Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33, aged ≥60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking α-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6% completed the study according to the study protocol (per-protocol group, and 24 dropped out (dropout group. Results: Of the 24 patients in the dropout group, 5 withdrew consent due to side effects or lack of efficacy, 7 were lost to follow-up at 4 weeks, 8 were lost to follow-up at 12 weeks, and 4 dropped out due to failure to complete 3-day frequency volume charts at 12 weeks. In the per-protocol group, there was significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, especially question numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and the quality of life question (P=0.001, P=0.007, P0.33. Considering the high dropout rate of our study due to no implementation of 3-day frequency volume charts, prospective and large-scale studies are needed to confirm our results.

  10. Comparing effects of insulin analogues and human insulin on nocturnal glycaemia in hypoglycaemia-prone people with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P. L.; Tarnow, L.; Bay, C.

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: Treatment with insulin analogue reduces the occurrence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia assessed by nocturnal glucose profiles in people with Type 1 diabetes prone to severe hypoglycaemia. Nocturnal glucose profiles provide a more comprehensive assessment of clinical benefit of insulin regimens......Aims: To assess the difference between analogue and human insulin with regard to nocturnal glucose profiles and risk of hypoglycaemia in people with recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. Methods: A total of 72 people [46 men, mean ± sd age 54 ± 12 years, mean ± sd HbA1c 65 ± 12 mmol/mol (8.1 ± 1.1......%), mean ± sd duration of diabetes 30 ± 14 years], who participated in a 2-year randomized, crossover trial of basal-bolus therapy with insulin detemir/insulin aspart or human NPH insulin/human regular insulin (the HypoAna trial) were studied for 2 nights during each treatment. Venous blood was drawn...

  11. A difference between day and night : protein intake improves after the transition from conventional to frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Vonk, Noortje; de Vries, Jorien M.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Duym, Ellen; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Malnutrition is an important cause of the excessive morbidity and mortality rate of dialysis patients. Frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHHD) has many benefits compared with conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis (CHD), due to the virtual absence of dietary restrictions and a much

  12. Nocturnal levels of chemerin and progranulin in adolescents: influence of sex, body mass index, glucose metabolism and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxer, Johann; Herttrich, Theresa; Zhao, Ying Y; Vogel, Mandy; Hiemisch, Andreas; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Körner, Antje; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Quante, Mirja

    2017-01-01

    Adipokines have been implicated in obesity, insulin resistance and sleep regulation. However, the role of chemerin and progranulin, two recently described adipokines, in the context of sleep remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin levels between overweight/obese and normal-weight adolescents and to assess variations by sex, across different sleep stages and in relation to glucose metabolism. The study sample included 34 overweight/obese and 32 normal-weight adolescents from secondary schools and the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Child study cohort. We obtained longitudinal serum adipokine levels during in-laboratory polysomnography followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Overweight/obese adolescents had significantly higher mean nocturnal serum chemerin area under the curve (AUC) levels (348.2±133.3 vs. 241.7±67.7 vs. ng/mL×h, pprogranulin AUC was found between the groups. However, when assessing sex-specific levels, serum progranulin AUC levels were ~30% higher in overweight/obese males compared to overweight/obese females. Of note, nocturnal serum chemerin and progranulin AUC did not exhibit a correlation with markers of glucose metabolism or sleep stages. Collectively, we report a sexual dimorphism in nocturnal progranulin and chemerin levels, which may help explain underlying differences in energy balance and body composition between males and females in the context of obesity.

  13. NOCTURNAL AIR-FLOW OBSTRUCTION, HISTAMINE, AND THE AUTONOMIC CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC-ASTHMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANAALDEREN, WMC; POSTMA, DS; KOETER, GH; KNOL, K

    A study was carried out to investigate whether an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system or release of histamine, or both, is responsible for the nocturnal increase in airflow obstruction in asthmatic children. The study comprised 18 children with allergic asthma,nine with (group 1) and nine

  14. Effect of nocturnal sound reduction on the incidence of delirium in intensive care unit patients: An interrupted time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Ineke; van Iterson, Mat; Maaskant, Jolanda

    2017-01-01

    Delirium in critically-ill patients is a common multifactorial disorder that is associated with various negative outcomes. It is assumed that sleep disturbances can result in an increased risk of delirium. This study hypothesized that implementing a protocol that reduces overall nocturnal sound

  15. Nocturnal feeding under artificial light conditions by Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in Puerto Madryn harbour (Chubut Province, Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Yorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes nocturnal, marine feeding behaviour in the Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in November 2009. The gulls assembled at night at the end of a long pier, running 800 m offshore into the Golfo Nuevo, at Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Argentina. Powerful lights predictably

  16. The Association of Pediatric Obesity With Nocturnal Non-Dipping on 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macumber, Ian R; Weiss, Noel S; Halbach, Susan M; Hanevold, Coral D; Flynn, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Obesity has been linked with abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure (BP) in adults, which in turn is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. There are few data regarding abnormal dipping status in the obese pediatric population. The goal of this study was to further describe the relationship between obesity and non-dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM) in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a database of patients aged 5-21 years who had undergone 24-hour ABPM at Seattle Children's Hospital from January 2008 through May 2014. Subjects were grouped by body mass index (BMI) into lean (BMI 15th-85th percentile) and obese (BMI >95th percentile) groups. Compared to lean subjects (n = 161), obese subjects (n = 247) had a prevalence ratio (PR) for non-dipping of 2.15, adjusted for race (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-3.42). Increasing severity of obesity was not further associated with nocturnal non-dipping. Nocturnal non-dipping was not associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (PR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.71-1.44). These results suggest that in children, just as in adults, obesity is related to a relatively decreased dipping in nocturnal BP. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of nocturnal grazing and supplementation on diet selection, eating time, forage intake and weight changes of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.Y.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.; Chanono, M.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-four Azawak male calves were used to study the effect of nocturnal grazing (NG) and supplementation (S) in the dry season on forage and water intake, faecal output, eating time and weight changes of cattle in the Sahel. Treatments were factorial combinations of four levels of NG (0, 2, 4 and 6

  18. Prevalence, Incidence, and Resolution of Nocturnal Polyuria in a Longitudinal Community-based Study in Older Men : The Krimpen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Boris; Blanker, Marco H.; Kok, Esther T.; Westers, Paul; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    Background: Nocturnal polyuria (NP) is common in older men and can lead to nocturia. However, no longitudinal data are available on the natural history of NP. Objective: To determine prevalence, incidence, and resolution rates of NP. Design, setting, and participants: A longitudinal, community-based

  19. Comparison of Nocturia Response to Desmopressin Treatment between Patients with Normal and High Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hajdinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare efficacy of desmopressin for treatment of nocturia between patients with normal and high nocturnal bladder capacity index (NBCi. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with desmopressin for nocturia. Patients were analyzed according to high or normal NBCi value before treatment. Results. 55 patients were identified, aged 49–84, 47 males, 8 females, who started desmopressin 0.2 mg nocte between 2009 and 2011. Two groups (N: normal and H: high NBCi were similar regarding number, gender, age, 24 h urine volume, and nocturnal urine volume. On treatment, nocturnal volume decreased by mean of 364 mL. Number of nightly voids decreased in N group from 3.11 to 1.50, in H from 3.96 to 1.44. Nocturnal polyuria and nocturia indices also decreased significantly. NBCi remained the same in N group (0.56 on therapy and in H group decreased to mean 0.63. All on-treatment values were statistically similar in N and H groups. Pretreatment differences were abolished with treatment. NBCi was significantly correlated to nocturia reduction—larger reduction was observed in patients with higher NBCi. In 8/55 patients, hyponatremia was detected, but without clinical consequences. Conclusions. The results indicate that the effectiveness of desmopressin on nocturia is not dependent upon the patient's pretreatment NBCi.

  20. The Association between Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; Drake, Marcus J.; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Purpose: We determined the relationship between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria. Materials and Methods: The PubMed (R) and Embase (R) databases were searched for studies written in English, German, French or Dutch with original data on adult participants in an investigation of the relationship

  1. Clinical benefit of eculizumab in patients with no transfusion history in the International Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, A.M.; Bedrosian, C.; Cole, A.; Muus, P.; Schrezenmeier, H.; Szer, J.; Rosse, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eculizumab reduces intravascular haemolysis and improves disease symptoms in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). AIMS: To characterise, in a real-world setting, the effect of eculizumab in patients with haemolytic PNH (lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) >/= 1.5 upper limit

  2. Periodic limb movements during sleep are associated with a lower quality of life in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne Patrick; Raes, Ann; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan

    2015-07-01

    The study investigates whether cortical arousals and periodic limb movements during sleep are related to daytime psychological functioning in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with associated nocturnal polyuria. Psychological functioning is evaluated on five domains: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-inattentive problems, quality of life, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and executive functioning. This multi-informant (parents, teachers, and children) and multi-method study included overnight video-polysomnography, questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing. Thirty children (7 girls) 6 to 16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were selected in a tertiary enuresis center. A high index of periodic limb movements during sleep was associated with a lower quality of life, according to the child. No significant correlations were found with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-inattentive problems, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and executive functioning. This study clarifies the relationship between sleep parameters and psychological functioning of the children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and associated nocturnal polyuria according to the child, the parents, and the teachers. Periodic limb movements during sleep are associated with a lower quality of life of the child.

  3. The nocturnal thyroid-stimulating hormone surge is absent in overt, present in mild primary and equivocal in central hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, R.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The nocturnal TSH surge was studied in controls, in 34 patients with hypothalamic/pituitary disease and in 21 patients with primary hypothyroidism. It was absent in 5/12 hypothyroid patients and in 5/22 euthyroid patients with hypothalamic/pituitary disease (42% vs 23%, NS). Central hypothyroidism

  4. Methane distributions and transports in the nocturnal boundary layer at a rural station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Zeeman, Matthias; Brosy, Caroline; Münkel, Christoph; Fersch, Benjamin; Mauder, Matthias; Emeis, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the methane distributions and transports, the role of related atmospheric processes by determination of vertical profiles of wind, turbulence, temperature and humidity as well as nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) height and the quantification of methane emissions at local and plot scale the so-called ScaleX-campaign was performed in a pre-alpine observatory in Southern Germany from 01 June until 31 July 2015. The following measurements from the ground up to the free troposphere were performed: layering of the atmosphere by a ceilometer (Vaisala CL51); temperature, wind, turbulence profiles from 50 m up to 500 m by a Radio-Acoustic Sounding System (RASS, Metek GmbH); temperature, humidity profiles in situ by a hexacopter; methane farm emissions by two open-path laser spectrometers (Boreal GasFinder2); methane concentrations in situ (Los Gatos DLT-100) with tubes in 0.3 m agl and 5 sampling heads; and methane soil emissions by a big chamber (10 m length, 2.60 m width, up to 0.61 m height) with a plastic cover. The methane concentrations near the surface show a daily variation with a maximum and a frequent double-peak structure during night-time. Analysis of the variation of the nocturnal methane concentration together with the hexacopter and RASS data indicates that the first peak in the nocturnal methane concentration is probably due to local cooling and stabilization which keeps the methane emissions from the soil near the ground. The second peak seems to be due to advection of methane-enriched air which had formed in the environment of the nearby farm yards. These dairy farm emissions were determined by up-wind and down-wind open-path concentration measurements, turbulence data from an EC station nearby and Backward Lagrangian Simulation (WindTrax software). The methane fluxes at plot scale (big chamber) are characterized by emissions at water saturated grassland patches, by an exponential decrease of these emissions during grassland drying, and by an

  5. Fine-scale differences in diel activity among nocturnal freshwater planarias (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicolani Bruno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most freshwater planarias are well known photonegative organisms, their diel rhythms have never been quantified. Differences in daily activity rhythms may be particularly important for temperate-climate, freshwater planarias, which tend to overlap considerably in spatial distribution and trophic requirements. Methods Activity of stress-free, individually tested young adults of three common planarian species was recorded at 3-h intervals in a 10-d experiment under natural sunlight and photoperiod during autumnal equinox (D:L ~12:12. Individual activity status was averaged over the 10-d experiment, each tested individual thus serving as a true replicate. Twelve individuals per species were tested. Food was provided every 36 h, resulting in alternating day- and nighttime feeding events. Activity during the first post-feeding h was recorded and analyzed separately. Statistical procedures included ANOVAs, correlations, and second-order analyses of angles. Results Dugesia (= Girardia tigrina Girard 1850 exhibited clear nocturnal behavior, Dugesia (= Schmidtea polychroa Schmidt 1861 was predominantly but not exclusively nocturnal, and Polycelis tenuis Ijima 1884 was relatively more active from midnight through noon. Species-specific activity peaks were statistically similar, with peaks at dawn for P. tenuis and just before midnight for the two dugesiids; however, D. tigrina was comparatively more active in the early night hours, while D. polychroa was more active than D. tigrina during daytime. D. tigrina also responded less readily to daytime food addition. P. tenuis remained poorly active and unresponsive throughout the experiment. Individual variability in diel behavior was highest for D. polychroa and lowest for D. tigrina. P. tenuis's general low degree of activity and late activity peak in the experiment may be related to a strong reliance on external stimuli. Conclusions The tested species are mainly nocturnal

  6. [Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis: international evidence based management. Consensus recommendations by French expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Berard, E; Blanc, J-P; Lenoir, G; Liard, F; Lottmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The causes and treatment of isolated primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) are the subject of ongoing controversy. We are proposing consensus practical recommendations, based on a formalised analysis of the literature and validated by a large panel of experts. A task force of six experts based its work on the guide for literature analysis and recommendations and recommendation grading of the French Haute Autorité de Santé (formalized consensus process methodological guidelines) to evaluate the level of scientific proof (grade of 1 to 4) and the strength of the recommendations (grade A, B, C) of the publications on PNE. As a result of this, 223 articles from 2003 on were identified, of which only 127 (57 %) have an evaluable level of proof. This evaluation was then reviewed by a 19-member rating group. Several recommendations, poorly defined by the literature, had to be proposed by a professional agreement resulting from a consultation between the members of the task force and those of the rating group. For its final validation, the document was submitted to a reading group of 21 members working in a wide range of specialist areas and practices but all involved in PNE. The definition of PNE is very specific: intermittent incontinence during sleep, from the age of 5, with no continuous period of continence longer than 6 months, with no other associated symptom, particularly during the day. Its diagnosis is clinical by the exclusion of all other urinary pathologies. Two factors must be identified during the consultation: nocturnal polyuria promoted by excessive fluid intake, inverse secretion of vasopressin, snoring and sleep apnoea. It is sensitive to desmopressin; small bladder capacity evaluated according to a voiding diary and the ICCS formula. It may be associated with diurnal hyperactivity of the detrusor (30 %). It is resistant to desmopressin. Problems associated with PNE are: abnormal arousal threshold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10 %), low

  7. Mercury fluxes over an Australian alpine grassland and observation of nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Howard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the air–surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were undertaken over a 40 ha alpine grassland in Australia's Snowy Mountains region across a 3-week period during the late austral summer. Bi-directional GEM fluxes were observed throughout the study, with overall mean value of 0.2 ± 14.5 ng m−2 h−1 and mean nocturnal fluxes of −1.5 ± 7.8 ng m−2 h−1 compared to diurnal fluxes of 1.8 ± 18.6 ng m−2 h−1. Deposition velocities ranged from −2.2 to 2.9 cm s−1, whilst ambient GEM concentrations throughout the study were 0.59 ± 0.10 ng m−3. Cumulative GEM fluxes correlated well with 24 h running mean soil temperatures, and one precipitation event was shown to have a positive impact on diurnal emission fluxes. The underlying vegetation had largely senesced and showed little stomatal control on fluxes. Nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (NAMDEs were observed concomitant with O3 depletion and dew formation under shallow, stable nocturnal boundary layers. A mass balance box model was able to reproduce ambient GEM concentration patterns during NAMDE and non-NAMDE nights without invoking chemical oxidation of GEM throughout the column, indicating a significant role of surface processes controlling deposition in these events. Surface deposition was enhanced under NAMDE nights, though uptake to dew likely represents less than one-fifth of this enhanced deposition. Instead, enhancement of the surface GEM gradient as a result of oxidation at the surface in the presence of dew is hypothesised to be responsible for a large portion of GEM depletion during these particular events. GEM emission pulses following nights with significant deposition provide evidence for the prompt recycling of 17 % of deposited mercury, with the remaining portion retained in surface sinks. The long-term impacts of any sinks are however likely to be minimal, as

  8. Low levels of nitryl chloride at ground level: nocturnal nitrogen oxides in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Osthoff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal nitrogen oxides, which include the nitrate radical (NO3, dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, and its uptake product on chloride containing aerosol, nitryl chloride (ClNO2, can have profound impacts on the lifetime of NOx ( =  NO + NO2, radical budgets, and next-day photochemical ozone (O3 production, yet their abundances and chemistry are only sparsely constrained by ambient air measurements.Here, we present a measurement data set collected at a routine monitoring site near the Abbotsford International Airport (YXX located approximately 30 km from the Pacific Ocean in the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV on the west coast of British Columbia. Measurements were made from 20 July to 4 August 2012 and included mixing ratios of ClNO2, N2O5, NO, NO2, total odd nitrogen (NOy, O3, photolysis frequencies, and size distribution and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (PM1.At night, O3 was rapidly and often completely removed by dry deposition and by titration with NO of anthropogenic origin and unsaturated biogenic hydrocarbons in a shallow nocturnal inversion surface layer. The low nocturnal O3 mixing ratios and presence of strong chemical sinks for NO3 limited the extent of nocturnal nitrogen oxide chemistry at ground level. Consequently, mixing ratios of N2O5 and ClNO2 were low ( <  30 and  <  100 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv and median nocturnal peak values of 7.8 and 7.9 pptv, respectively. Mixing ratios of ClNO2 frequently peaked 1–2 h after sunrise rationalized by more efficient formation of ClNO2 in the nocturnal residual layer aloft than at the surface and the breakup of the nocturnal boundary layer structure in the morning. When quantifiable, production of ClNO2 from N2O5 was efficient and likely occurred predominantly on unquantified supermicron-sized or refractory sea-salt-derived aerosol. After sunrise, production of Cl radicals from photolysis of ClNO2 was negligible compared to production of OH

  9. Estimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard H.; Omonode, Rex A.

    2018-04-01

    Annual budgets of greenhouse and other trace gases require knowledge of the emissions throughout the year. Unfortunately, emissions into the surface boundary layer during stable, calm nocturnal periods are not measurable using most micrometeorological methods due to non-stationarity and uncoupled flow. However, during nocturnal periods with very light winds, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) frequently accumulate near the surface and this mass accumulation can be used to determine emissions. Gas concentrations were measured at four heights (one within and three above canopy) and turbulence was measured at three heights above a mature 2.5 m maize canopy from 23 July to 10 September 2015. Nocturnal CO2 and N2O fluxes from the canopy were determined using the accumulation of mass within a 6.3 m control volume and out the top of the control volume within the nocturnal surface boundary layer. Diffusive fluxes were estimated by flux gradient method. The total accumulative and diffusive fluxes during near-calm nights (friction velocities CO2 and 0.53 nmol m-2 s-1 N2O. Fluxes were also measured using chambers. Daily mean CO2 fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 90 to 130 % of those determined using soil chambers. Daily mean N2O fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 60 to 80 % of that determined using soil chambers. The better signal-to-noise ratios of the chamber method for CO2 over N2O, non-stationary flow, assumed Schmidt numbers, and anemometer tilt were likely contributing reasons for the differences in chambers versus accumulated nocturnal mass flux estimates. Near-surface N2O accumulative flux measurements in more homogeneous regions and with greater depth are needed to confirm the conclusion that mass accumulation can be effectively used to estimate soil emissions during nearly calm nights.

  10. The Impact of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia on Sleep in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    night visits (one normoglycemic and one hypoglycemic) in randomized order. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were controlled by hyperinsulinemic glucose clamping. On the hypoglycemic night, hypoglycemia was induced after reaching sleep stage N2 by turning off glucose infusion until the PG target of 2......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate the impact of nocturnal hypoglycemia on sleep patterns (assessed by polysomnography) and counterregulatory hormones. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-blinded, crossover trial, 26 subjects with type 2 diabetes attended two experimental.......7-2.8 mmol/L was reached and maintained for 15 min. Thereafter, subjects were brought back to normoglycemia for the rest of the night. On the normoglycemic night, PG was maintained at 5.0-7.0 mmol/L throughout the night. RESULTS: During the first 4 h of sleep (0-4 h; after reaching sleep stage N2...

  11. Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Henrik Øder; Jensen, Tonny; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2016-01-01

    to test if bedtime dosing (BD) versus morning dosing (MD) of the ACE inhibitor enalapril would affect the 24-hour BP profile in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), CAN and non-dipping. SETTING: Secondary healthcare unit in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 normoalbuminuric patients with T1D with CAN...... and non-dipping were included, consisting of mixed gender and Caucasian origin. Mean±SD age, glycosylated haemoglobin and diabetes duration were 60±7 years, 7.9±0.7% (62±7 mmol/mol) and 36±11 years. INTERVENTIONS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study, the patients were......OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and abnormal circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm are independent cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes and associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal BP and coronary artery disease have been demonstrated. We aimed...

  12. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca

    PhotoVoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) panels were used for cooling water through the principle of nocturnal radiative cooling. This water was utilised for discharging Phase Change Material (PCM) which was embedded in ceiling panels in a climate chamber. Three different sets of flow rates were examined...... for the solar and the PCM loops, for five days each. The highest examined water flow rate (210 l/h) in the PCM loop provided the best thermal environment in the climate chamber, namely 92% of the occupancy time was within the range of Category III of Standard EN 15251. Although the lowest examined water flow...... rate (96 l/h) in the solar loop provided the highest average cooling power, due to the significant variations in the weather conditions during the three experimental cases, made it impossible to determine to which extent the difference in the cooling power is due to the different water flow rate...

  13. Anatomical and physiological evidence for polarisation vision in the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Birgit; Cronin, Thomas W; Ribi, Willi A; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2007-06-01

    The presence of a specialised dorsal rim area with an ability to detect the e-vector orientation of polarised light is shown for the first time in a nocturnal hymenopteran. The dorsal rim area of the halictid bee Megalopta genalis features a number of characteristic anatomical specialisations including an increased rhabdom diameter and a lack of primary screening pigments. Optically, these specialisations result in wide spatial receptive fields (Deltarho = 14 degrees ), a common adaptation found in the dorsal rim areas of insects used to filter out interfering effects (i.e. clouds) from the sky. In this specialised eye region all nine photoreceptors contribute their microvilli to the entire length of the ommatidia. These orthogonally directed microvilli are anatomically arranged in an almost linear, anterior-posterior orientation. Intracellular recordings within the dorsal rim area show very high polarisation sensitivity and a sensitivity peak within the ultraviolet part of the spectrum.

  14. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni.......0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  15. Nocturnal electroencephalogram registrations in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtson, I; Gade, J; Rosenfalck, A M

    1991-01-01

    Eight Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with no diabetic complications were studied overnight for two consecutive and one subsequent night with continuous monitoring of electroencephalogram and serial hormone measurements. The aims were: 1) to evaluate the influence of spontaneous...... and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on nocturnal electroencephalogram sleep-patterns and, 2) to evaluate counter-regulatory hormone responses. Spontaneous hypoglycaemia occurred on six nights (38%) with blood glucose concentrations less than 3.0 mmol/l and on four nights less than 2.0 mmol/l. All the patients...... experienced insulin-induced hypoglycaemia with a blood glucose nadir of 1.6 (range 1.4-1.9) mmol/l. The electroencephalogram was analysed by a new method developed for this purpose in contrast to the traditional definition of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta-activity. The blood glucose concentration could...

  16. On the impact of atmospheric thermal stability on the characteristics of nocturnal downslope flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1990-04-01

    The impacts of background (or ambient) and local atmospheric thermal stabilities, and slope steepness, on nighttime thermally induced downslope flow in meso-β domains (i.e., 20 200 km horizontal extent) have been investigated using analytical and numerical model approaches. Good agreement between the analytical and numerical evaluations was found. It was concluded that: (i) as anticipated, the intensity of the downslope flow increases with increased slope steepness, although the depth of the downslope flow was found to be insensitive to slope steepness in the studied situations; (ii) the intensity of the downslope flow is generally independent of background atmospheric thermal stability; (iii) for given integrated nighttime cooling across the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), Q s the local atmospheric thermal stability exerts a strong influence on downslope flow behavior: the downslope flow intensity increases when local atmospheric thermal stability increases; and (iv) the downslope flow intensity is proportional to Q s 1/2.

  17. Nocturia Think Tank: focus on nocturnal polyuria: ICI-RS 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey P; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Drake, Marcus; Dmochowski, Roger R; Hashim, Hashim; Hijaz, Adonis; Johnson, Theodore M; Juul, Kristian Vinter; Nørgaard, Jens Peter; Norton, Peggy; Robinson, Dudley; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip E V; Wein, Alan J

    2012-03-01

    The following is a report of the proceedings of the Nocturia Think Tank sessions of the annual International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society, which took place June 13-15, 2011 in Bristol, UK. The report is organized into sections pertaining to the main topics of discussions having occurred at that meeting, centering on the relationship of nocturnal polyuria (NP) and nocturia but also synthesizing more current evidence advancing our knowledge of the diagnosis and management of nocturia. This article is not meant to be a comprehensive review on the subject of nocturia, a number of which are available in the recent literature. All authors were physically present during, or in a preliminary session just prior to, the meeting in Bristol. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Imai, Mikako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions. Twelve adult volunteers, including 4 bruxism patients, participated in this study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography of the temporal muscle, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' homes. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were observed most frequently, with single short-burst episodes the second most frequent. The frequencies of RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes were significantly higher during decreased esophageal pH episodes than those during other times. Both the electromyography and the decreased esophageal pH episodes were most frequently observed in the supine position. These results suggest that most jaw muscle activities, ie, RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes, occur in relation to gastroesophageal reflux mainly in the supine position.

  19. Association Between Nocturnal Acid Reflux and Sleep Disturbance in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Sheng; Lei, Wei-Yi; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether there is a direct association between subjective sleep quality and esophageal acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We enrolled patients with classic reflux symptoms for endoscopy and ambulatory pH monitoring. The severity of esophageal mucosal injury was assessed by upper endoscopy. Distal esophageal acid exposure was determined by ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring. Sleep disturbance was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In total, 103 patients (53 patients without sleep dysfunction and 50 patients with sleep dysfunction) were studied. Erosive esophagitis was found more in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (45% versus 31%, P = 0.04). Abnormal esophageal pH was found more in patients with dysfunction (22%) than in patients without sleep dysfunction (5.7%, P = 0.03). Recumbent acid contact time (%) was greater in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (3.7 ± 2.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.04). Sleep quality score positively correlated with acid contact time (r = 0.32, P = 0.02), prolonged reflux events (r = 0.45, P = 0.008) and longer reflux event (r = 0.28, P = 0.03) during recumbent period. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease along with sleep dysfunction are characterized with greater nocturnal acid reflux and more erosive esophagitis. Our study suggests that increased nocturnal acid reflux may play a role in inducing sleep disturbance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized trial of a home system to reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahs, David M; Calhoun, Peter; Buckingham, Bruce A; Chase, H Peter; Hramiak, Irene; Lum, John; Cameron, Fraser; Bequette, B Wayne; Aye, Tandy; Paul, Terri; Slover, Robert; Wadwa, R Paul; Wilson, Darrell M; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W

    2014-07-01

    Overnight hypoglycemia occurs frequently in individuals with type 1 diabetes and can result in loss of consciousness, seizure, or even death. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia could be safely reduced by temporarily suspending pump insulin delivery when hypoglycemia was predicted by an algorithm based on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) glucose levels. Following an initial run-in phase, a 42-night trial was conducted in 45 individuals aged 15-45 years with type 1 diabetes in which each night was assigned randomly to either having the predictive low-glucose suspend system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was the proportion of nights in which ≥1 CGM glucose values ≤60 mg/dL occurred. Overnight hypoglycemia with at least one CGM value ≤60 mg/dL occurred on 196 of 942 (21%) intervention nights versus 322 of 970 (33%) control nights (odds ratio 0.52 [95% CI 0.43-0.64]; P 2 h was reduced by 74%. Overnight sensor glucose was >180 mg/dL during 57% of control nights and 59% of intervention nights (P = 0.17), while morning blood glucose was >180 mg/dL following 21% and 27% of nights, respectively (P 250 mg/dL following 6% and 6%, respectively. Morning ketosis was present <1% of the time in each arm. Use of a nocturnal low-glucose suspend system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Incidence of obsessive–compulsive disorder in children with nonmonosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6–17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1–3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale. Results: The difference in compulsion was significant (P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups (P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Conclusion: Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes

  2. Incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children with nonmonosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Salehi, Bahman; Taherahmadi, Hassan; Shariatmadari, Fakhreddin; Ghandi, Yazdan; Alinejad, Saeed; Farhadiruzbahani, Fateme

    2016-01-01

    Enuresis is defined as the repeated voiding of urine into clothes or bed at least twice a week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child who is at least 5 years of age. The behavior is not due exclusively to the direct physiologic effect of a substance or a general medical condition. Diurnal enuresis defines wetting, whereas awake and nocturnal enuresis refers to voiding during sleep. Primary enuresis occurs in children who have never been consistently dry through the night, whereas secondary enuresis refers the resumption of wetting after at least 6 months of dryness. Monosymptomatic enuresis has no associated daytime symptoms, and nonmonosymptomatic enuresis, which is more common, often has at least one subtle daytime symptom. Monosymptomatic enuresis is rarely associated with significant organic underlying abnormalities. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disabling illness characterized by repetitive, ritualistic behaviors over which the patients have little or no control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCD and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE). In this case-control study, we evaluated 186 children aged 6-17 years old who were visited in the pediatric clinics of Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. The control group included 93 healthy children, and the case group included 93 age- and sex-matched children with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Then, the children's behavioral status was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The difference in compulsion was significant ( P = 0.021), whereas the difference in obsession was significant between the two groups ( P = 0.013). The most common symptom in CKD children with compulsion was silent repetition of words. Compulsive and obsessive are more common in NMNE versus healthy children. The observed correlation between compulsive-obsessive and NMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with NMNE.

  3. Racial Differences in Reported Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856

  4. Variation in nocturnality and circadian activity rhythms between photoresponsive F344 and nonphotoresponsive Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Cynthia E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in circadian rhythms and nocturnality may, hypothetically, be related to or independent of genetic variation in photoperiodic mediation of seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. We hypothesized that strain variation in photoperiodism between photoperiodic F344 rats and nonphotoperiodic Harlan Sprague Dawley (HSD rats might be caused by underlying variation in clock function. We predicted that HSD rats would have more activity during the day or subjective day, longer free-running rhythms, poor entrainment to short day length, and shorter duration of activity, traits that have been associated with nonphotoperiodism in other laboratory rodent species, relative to F344 rats. An alternative hypothesis, that differences are due to variation in melatonin secretion or responses to melatonin, predicts either no such differences or inconsistent combinations of differences. Methods We tested these predictions by examining activity rhythms of young male F344 and HSD rats given access to running wheels in constant dark (DD, short day length (L8:D16; SD, and long day length (L16:D8; LD. We compared nocturnality (the proportion of activity during night or subjective night, duration of activity (alpha, activity onset and offset, phase angle of entrainment, and free running rhythms (tau of F344 and HSD rats. Results HSD rats had significantly greater activity during the day, were sometimes arrhythmic in DD, and had significantly longer tau than F344 rats, consistent with predictions. However, HSD rats had significantly longer alpha than F344 rats and both strains entrained to SD, inconsistent with predictions. Conclusion The ability of HSD rats to entrain to SD, combined with longer alpha than F344 rats, suggests that the circadian system of HSD rats responds correctly to SD. These data offer best support for the alternative hypothesis, that differences in photoresponsiveness between F344 and HSD rats are caused by non

  5. Nocturnal serum melatonin levels in sulfur mustard exposed patients with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyedeh Soghra; Vahedi, E; Shohrati, M; Panahi, Y; Parvin, S

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure causes respiratory disorders, progressive deterioration in lung function and mortality in injured victims and poor sleep quality is one of the most common problems among SM-exposed patients. Since melatonin has a critical role in regulation of sleep and awareness, this study aimed to evaluate the serum melatonin levels in SM-injured subjects. A total of 30 SM-exposed male patients and 10 controls was evaluated. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea was determined by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography (PSG) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were also available. Nocturnal serum melatonin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. The mean of PSQI, ESS and STOP-Bang scores in patients (11.76±3.56, 12.6±3.03 and 5.03±1.09, respectively) were significantly (pmelatonin levels in patients (29.78±19.31 pg/mL) was significantly (p=0.005) lower than that in the controls (78.53±34.41 pg/mL). Reduced nocturnal serum melatonin and respiratory disorders can be the reasons for poor sleep quality among these patients. IRCT2015092924267N1, Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Nocturnal Blood Pressure Variability in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynowicz, H; Porębska, I; Poręba, R; Mazur, G; Brzecka, A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common respiratory disorder associated with hypertension and cardiovascular complications. Blood pressure variability may be a sign of risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that severe OSA syndrome is associated with increased blood pressure variability. Based on respiratory polygraphy, 58 patients were categorized into two groups: severe OSA with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) greater than 29 episodes per hour (mean 52.2 ± 19.0/h) and mild-to-moderate OSA with AHI between 5 and 30 episodes per hour (mean 20.2 ± 7.8/h). A 24-h noninvasive blood pressure monitoring was performed. The standard deviation of mean blood pressure was used as the indicator of blood pressure variability. In patients with severe, compared with mild-to-moderate OSA, a higher mean nocturnal systolic blood pressure (133.2 ± 17.4 mmHg vs. 117.7 ± 31.2 mmHg, p variability (12.1 ± 6.0 vs. 7.6 ± 4.3, p variability (10.5 ± 6.1 vs. 7.3 ± 4.0 p variability (9.1 ± 4.9 mmHg vs. 6.8 ± 3.5 mmHg) were detected. The findings of the study point to increased nocturnal systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability as risk factors of cardiovascular complications in patients with severe OSA.

  7. Hyper-cooling in the nocturnal boundary layer: the Ramdas paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukund, V; Ponnulakshmi, V K; Singh, D K; Subramanian, G; Sreenivas, K R

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the interaction between turbulence and radiative processes is necessary for understanding the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer. The subtle nature of the interaction is exemplified in a phenomenon called the 'Ramdas paradox' or the 'lifted temperature minimum' (LTM), involving preferential cooling near the Earth's surface. The prevailing explanation for the LTM (the VSN model, Vasudeva Murthy et al (1993 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 344 183-206)) invokes radiative exchange in a homogeneous nocturnal atmosphere to predict a large cooling of the near-surface air layers. It is shown here that the cooling predicted by the VSN model is spurious, and that any preferential cooling can occur only in a heterogeneous atmosphere. The underlying error is fundamental, and occurs to varying degrees in a wide class of radiative models, in a flux-emissivity formulation, the VSN model being a prominent example. We, for the first time, propose the correct flux-emissivity formulation that eliminates spurious cooling. Results from field observations and laboratory experiments presented here, however, show that the near-surface radiative cooling is real; near-surface cooling rates can be orders of magnitude higher than values elsewhere in the boundary layer. The results presented include the dependence of the LTM on turbulence, the surface emissivity and the thermal inertia of the ground. It is proposed that aerosols provide the heterogeneity needed for the preferential cooling mechanism. Turbulence, by determining the aerosol concentration distribution over the relevant length scales, plays a key role in the phenomenon. Experimental evidence is presented to support this hypothesis.

  8. Hyper-cooling in the nocturnal boundary layer: the Ramdas paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukund, V; Ponnulakshmi, V K; Singh, D K; Subramanian, G; Sreenivas, K R, E-mail: krs@jncasr.ac.in [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore (India)

    2010-12-15

    Characterizing the interaction between turbulence and radiative processes is necessary for understanding the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer. The subtle nature of the interaction is exemplified in a phenomenon called the 'Ramdas paradox' or the 'lifted temperature minimum' (LTM), involving preferential cooling near the Earth's surface. The prevailing explanation for the LTM (the VSN model, Vasudeva Murthy et al (1993 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 344 183-206)) invokes radiative exchange in a homogeneous nocturnal atmosphere to predict a large cooling of the near-surface air layers. It is shown here that the cooling predicted by the VSN model is spurious, and that any preferential cooling can occur only in a heterogeneous atmosphere. The underlying error is fundamental, and occurs to varying degrees in a wide class of radiative models, in a flux-emissivity formulation, the VSN model being a prominent example. We, for the first time, propose the correct flux-emissivity formulation that eliminates spurious cooling. Results from field observations and laboratory experiments presented here, however, show that the near-surface radiative cooling is real; near-surface cooling rates can be orders of magnitude higher than values elsewhere in the boundary layer. The results presented include the dependence of the LTM on turbulence, the surface emissivity and the thermal inertia of the ground. It is proposed that aerosols provide the heterogeneity needed for the preferential cooling mechanism. Turbulence, by determining the aerosol concentration distribution over the relevant length scales, plays a key role in the phenomenon. Experimental evidence is presented to support this hypothesis.

  9. Hyper-cooling in the nocturnal boundary layer: the Ramdas paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukund, V.; Ponnulakshmi, V. K.; Singh, D. K.; Subramanian, G.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Characterizing the interaction between turbulence and radiative processes is necessary for understanding the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer. The subtle nature of the interaction is exemplified in a phenomenon called the 'Ramdas paradox' or the 'lifted temperature minimum' (LTM), involving preferential cooling near the Earth's surface. The prevailing explanation for the LTM (the VSN model, Vasudeva Murthy et al (1993 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 344 183-206)) invokes radiative exchange in a homogeneous nocturnal atmosphere to predict a large cooling of the near-surface air layers. It is shown here that the cooling predicted by the VSN model is spurious, and that any preferential cooling can occur only in a heterogeneous atmosphere. The underlying error is fundamental, and occurs to varying degrees in a wide class of radiative models, in a flux-emissivity formulation, the VSN model being a prominent example. We, for the first time, propose the correct flux-emissivity formulation that eliminates spurious cooling. Results from field observations and laboratory experiments presented here, however, show that the near-surface radiative cooling is real; near-surface cooling rates can be orders of magnitude higher than values elsewhere in the boundary layer. The results presented include the dependence of the LTM on turbulence, the surface emissivity and the thermal inertia of the ground. It is proposed that aerosols provide the heterogeneity needed for the preferential cooling mechanism. Turbulence, by determining the aerosol concentration distribution over the relevant length scales, plays a key role in the phenomenon. Experimental evidence is presented to support this hypothesis.

  10. Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Vanaudenaerde, Bart A; Verleden, Geert M; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E; Sifrim, Daniel; Dupont, Lieven J

    2009-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics may promote aspiration of bile acids into the lungs and may feature as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying lung transplantation (LTx) patients at risk for aspiration. Twenty-four stable LTx recipients were studied 1 year after transplantation. All patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory impedance-pH recording for the detection of acid (pH acidic (pH 4 to 7) reflux. On the same day, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and then analyzed for the presence of bile acids (Bioquant enzymatic assay). Increased GER was detected in 13 patients, of whom 9 had increased acid reflux and 4 had exclusively increased weakly acidic reflux. Sixteen patients had detectable bile acids in the BALF (0.6 [0.4 to 1.5] micromol/liter). The 24-hour esophageal volume exposure was significantly increased in patients with bile acids compared to patients without bile acids in the BALF. Acid exposure and the number of reflux events (total, acid and weakly acidic) were unrelated to the presence of bile acids in the BALF. However, both nocturnal volume exposure and the number of nocturnal weakly acidic reflux events were significantly higher in patients with bile acids in the BALF. Weakly acidic reflux events, especially during the night, are associated with the aspiration of bile acids in LTx recipients and may therefore feature as a potential risk factor for the development of BOS.

  11. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Moving in Dim Light: Behavioral and Visual Adaptations in Nocturnal Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Ajay; Kamhi, J Frances; Ogawa, Yuri

    2017-11-01

    Visual navigation is a benchmark information processing task that can be used to identify the consequence of being active in dim-light environments. Visual navigational information that animals use during the day includes celestial cues such as the sun or the pattern of polarized skylight and terrestrial cues such as the entire panorama, canopy pattern, or significant salient features in the landscape. At night, some of these navigational cues are either unavailable or are significantly dimmer or less conspicuous than during the day. Even under these circumstances, animals navigate between locations of importance. Ants are a tractable system for studying navigation during day and night because the fine scale movement of individual animals can be recorded in high spatial and temporal detail. Ant species range from being strictly diurnal, crepuscular, and nocturnal. In addition, a number of species have the ability to change from a day- to a night-active lifestyle owing to environmental demands. Ants also offer an opportunity to identify the evolution of sensory structures for discrete temporal niches not only between species but also within a single species. Their unique caste system with an exclusive pedestrian mode of locomotion in workers and an exclusive life on the wing in males allows us to disentangle sensory adaptations that cater for different lifestyles. In this article, we review the visual navigational abilities of nocturnal ants and identify the optical and physiological adaptations they have evolved for being efficient visual navigators in dim-light. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Prognostic value of efficiently correcting nocturnal desaturations after one month of non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a retrospective monocentre observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Arnol, Nathalie; Meininger, Vincent; Kraoua, Salah; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Abstract NIV adherence ('quantity' of ventilation) has a prognostic impact in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We hypothesized that NIV effectiveness ('quality') could also have a similar impact. NIV effectiveness was evaluated in 82 patients within the first month (M1) and every three months (symptoms, arterial blood bases, and nocturnal pulsed oxygen saturation - SpO2). Kaplan-Meier survival and risk factors for mortality one year after NIV initiation were evaluated. Forty patients were considered 'correctly ventilated' at M1 (Group 1, less than 5% of nocturnal oximetry time with an SpO2NIV effectiveness to correct nocturnal desaturations is an independent prognostic factor.

  14. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  15. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  16. Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David; Stoyanov, Cristina; Lewold, Clemens; Månsson, Fredrik; Miller, John; Kamanga, Aniset; Shiff, Clive J

    2014-06-13

    Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. In this

  17. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO)

  18. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  19. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  20. Effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced on workdays and weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle-Hinz, Tim; Bamberg, Eva; Dettmers, Jan; Friedrich, Niklas; Keller, Monika

    2014-04-01

    The present study reports the lagged effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced during both workdays and weekends. Fifty employees participated in a diary study. Multilevel and regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between work stress measured at the end of a workday, work-related rumination measured during the evening, and restful sleep measured the following morning. Work stress, measured as the mean of 2 consecutive workdays, was substantially but not significantly related to restful sleep on weekends. Work stress was unrelated to nocturnal heart rate variability. Work-related rumination was related to restful sleep on weekends but not on workdays. Additionally, work-related rumination on weekends was positively related to nocturnal heart rate variability during the night between Saturday and Sunday. No mediation effects of work stress on restful sleep or nocturnal heart rate variability via work-related rumination were confirmed.

  1. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  2. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. Results : In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Conclusion : Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups. PMID:25352924

  3. Self-reported sleep bruxism and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: relationship to gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups.

  4. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethn...

  5. On the mechanisms of blunted nocturnal decline in arterial blood pressure in NIDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Flemming Steen; Rossing, P; Bang, L E

    1995-01-01

    Nondiabetic hypertensive patients lacking the normal nocturnal decline in arterial blood pressure have enhanced cardiovascular complications. Since cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we performed a prospective cross......-sectional case-controlled study comparing the diurnal variation in arterial blood pressure, prevalence of dippers, cardiac autonomic nervous function (beat-to-beat variation during deep breathing), and extracellular fluid volume (51Cr-labeled EDTA) in 55 NIDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy (group 1), 55...... NIDDM patients with normoalbuminuria (group 2), and 22 nondiabetic control subjects (group 3). All antihypertensive treatments were withdrawn at least 2 weeks before the study. The nocturnal blood pressure reduction (daytime-to-nighttime)/daytime (mean +/- SE) was impaired in group 1 (6.6 +/- 1...

  6. Not all trees sleep the same - High temporal resolution terrestrial laser scanning shows differences in nocturnal plant movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, András; Barfod, Anders; Molnár, Bence

    2017-01-01

    Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid...... surveyed a series of 18 full scans over a 12-h night period to measure nocturnal changes in shape simultaneously for an experimental setup of 22 plants representing different species. Resulting point clouds were evaluated by comparing changes in height percentiles of laser scanning points belonging...... to the canopy. Changes in crown shape were observed for all studied trees, but clearly distinguishable sleep movements are apparently rare. Ambient light conditions were continuously dark between sunset (7:30 p.m.) and sunrise (6:00 a.m.), but most changes in movement direction occurred during this period, thus...

  7. ASPIRE In-Home: rationale, design, and methods of a study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of automatic insulin suspension for nocturnal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Bergenstal, Richard M; Garg, Satish K; Bode, Bruce W; Meredith, Melissa; Slover, Robert H; Ahmann, Andrew; Welsh, John B; Lee, Scott W

    2013-07-01

    Nocturnal hypoglycemia is a barrier to therapy intensification efforts in diabetes. The Paradigm® Veo™ system may mitigate nocturnal hypoglycemia by automatically suspending insulin when a prespecified sensor glucose threshold is reached. ASPIRE (Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin REsponse) In-Home (NCT01497938) was a multicenter, randomized, parallel, adaptive study of subjects with type 1 diabetes. The control arm used sensor-augmented pump therapy. The treatment arm used sensor-augmented pump therapy with threshold suspend, which automatically suspends the insulin pump in response to a sensor glucose value at or below a prespecified threshold. To be randomized, subjects had to have demonstrated ≥2 episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia, defined as >20 consecutive minutes of sensor glucose values ≤65 mg/dl starting between 10:00 PM and 8:00 AM in the 2-week run-in phase. The 3-month study phase evaluated safety by comparing changes in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values and evaluated efficacy by comparing the mean area under the glucose concentration time curves for nocturnal hypoglycemia events in the two groups. Other outcomes included the rate of nocturnal hypoglycemia events and the distribution of sensor glucose values. Data from the ASPIRE In-Home study should provide evidence on the safety of the threshold suspend feature with respect to A1C and its efficacy with respect to severity and duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia when used at home over a 3-month period. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Brehm, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Most nocturnal Lepidoptera can be attracted to artificial light sources, particularly to those that emit a high proportion of ultraviolet radiation. Here, I describe a newly developed LED lamp set for the use in the field that is lightweight, handy, robust, and energy efficient. The emitted electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the peak sensitivity in most Lepidoptera eye receptors (ultraviolet, blue and green). Power LEDs with peaks at 368 nm (ultraviolet), 450 nm (blue), 530 nm (green), a...

  9. Systematic review of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria and population-based evidence of their diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Tine Kold; Denys, Marie-Astrid; Vande Walle, Johan; Everaert, Karel

    2018-02-06

    Background Evidence of diagnostic accuracy for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria is currently unclear. Purpose Systematic review to determine population-based evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria based on data from frequency-volume charts. Methods Seventeen pre-specified search terms identified 351 unique investigations published from 1990 to 2016 in BIOSIS, Embase, Embase Alerts, International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Medline, and Cochrane. Thirteen original communications were included in this review based on pre-specified exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from each paper regarding subject age, sex, ethnicity, health status, sample size, data collection methods, and diagnostic discrimination of proposed definitions including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Results The sample size of study cohorts, participant age, sex, ethnicity, and health status varied considerably in 13 studies reporting on the diagnostic performance of seven different definitions of nocturnal polyuria using frequency-volume chart data from 4968 participants. Most study cohorts were small, mono-ethnic, including only Caucasian males aged 50 or higher with primary or secondary polyuria that were compared to a control group of healthy men without nocturia in prospective or retrospective settings. Proposed definitions had poor discriminatory accuracy in evaluations based on data from subjects independent from the original study cohorts with findings being similar regarding the most widely evaluated definition endorsed by ICS. Conclusions Diagnostic performance characteristics for proposed definitions of nocturnal polyuria show poor to modest discrimination and are not based on sufficient level of evidence from representative, multi-ethnic population-based data from both females and males of all adult ages.

  10. Impaired Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway, Self-Reported Emotion, and Erection in Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients With Normal Nocturnal Erection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhuai Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA. However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA.Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection.Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls.Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection.Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion.Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated

  11. Impaired Prefrontal-Amygdala Pathway, Self-Reported Emotion, and Erection in Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients With Normal Nocturnal Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhuai; Chen, Yun; Gao, Qingqiang; Chen, Guotao; Dai, Yutian; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex and amygdala play an important role in sexual arousal (SA). However, little is known about the interactions between the prefrontal and cortex amygdala, which mediate the cognitive regulation of emotion and SA. Objective: We seek to determine whether nocturnal erection of psychogenic erectile dysfunction (pED) patients are normal and whether there are changes of topological organization in the prefrontal-amygdala pathway of brain network in pED. In addition, whether there are correlations between network property changes and self-reported emotion and erection. Design, setting, and participants: We used the RigiScan device to evaluate erectile function of patients and employed diffusion MRI and graph theory to construct brain networks of 21 pED patients and 24 healthy controls. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We considered four nodal metrics and their asymmetry scores, and nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) parameters, to evaluate the topological properties of brain networks of pED and their relationships with the impaired self-reported emotion and erection. Results and limitations: All the pED patients showed normal nocturnal penile erection, however impaired self-reported erection and negative emotion. In addition, patients showed lower connectivity degree and strength in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway. We also found that pED exhibited lower leftward asymmetry in the inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, patients showed more hub regions and fewer pivotal connections. Moreover, the degree of the left amygdala of pED showed significantly negative correlation with the self-reported erection and positive correlation with the self-reported negative emotion. Conclusions: Together, these results suggest normal nocturnal erection in pED. However, abnormalities of brain network organization in pED, particularly in the left prefrontal-amygdala pathway, are associated with the

  12. High Altitude Affects Nocturnal Non-linear Heart Rate Variability: PATCH-HA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Boos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High altitude (HA exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV, which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA.Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m. A disposable cardiac patch monitor was used, to record the nocturnal cardiac inter-beat interval data, over 1 h (0200–0300 h, for offline HRV assessment. Non-linear HRV measures included Sample entropy (SampEn, the short (α1, 4–12 beats and long-term (α2, 13–64 beats detrend fluctuation analysis slope and the correlation dimension (D2. The maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPE, during daily exercise, was assessed using the Borg 6–20 RPE scale.Results: All subjects completed the HA exposure. The average age of included subjects was 31.4 ± 8.1 years. HA led to a significant fall in SpO2 and increase in heart rate, LLS and RPE. There were no significant changes in the ECG-derived respiratory rate or in any of the time domain measures of HRV during sleep. The only notable changes in frequency domain measures of HRV were an increase in LF and fall in HFnu power at the highest altitude. Conversely, SampEn, SD1/SD2 and D2 all fell, whereas α1 and α2 increased (p < 0.05. RPE inversely correlated with SD1/SD2 (r = -0.31; p = 0.002, SampEn (r = -0.22; p = 0.03, HFnu (r = -0.27; p = 0.007 and positively correlated with LF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, LF/HF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, α1 (r = 0.32; p = 0.002 and α2 (r = 0.21; p = 0.04. AMS occurred in 7/16 subjects (43.8% and was very mild in 85.7% of cases. HRV failed to predict AMS.Conclusion: Non-linear HRV is more sensitive to the

  13. Predictive Low-Glucose Insulin Suspension Reduces Duration of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Children Without Increasing Ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Bruce A; Raghinaru, Dan; Cameron, Fraser; Bequette, B Wayne; Chase, H Peter; Maahs, David M; Slover, Robert; Wadwa, R Paul; Wilson, Darrell M; Ly, Trang; Aye, Tandy; Hramiak, Irene; Clarson, Cheril; Stein, Robert; Gallego, Patricia H; Lum, John; Sibayan, Judy; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W

    2015-07-01

    Nocturnal hypoglycemia can cause seizures and is a major impediment to tight glycemic control, especially in young children with type 1 diabetes. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a continuous glucose monitor-based overnight predictive low-glucose suspend (PLGS) system. In two age-groups of children with type 1 diabetes (11-14 and 4-10 years of age), a 42-night trial for each child was conducted wherein each night was assigned randomly to either having the PLGS system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was percent time <70 mg/dL overnight. Median time at <70 mg/dL was reduced by 54% from 10.1% on control nights to 4.6% on intervention nights (P < 0.001) in 11-14-year-olds (n = 45) and by 50% from 6.2% to 3.1% (P < 0.001) in 4-10-year-olds (n = 36). Mean overnight glucose was lower on control versus intervention nights in both age-groups (144 ± 18 vs. 152 ± 19 mg/dL [P < 0.001] and 153 ± 14 vs. 160 ± 16 mg/dL [P = 0.004], respectively). Mean morning blood glucose was 159 ± 29 vs. 176 ± 28 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in the 11-14-year-olds and 154 ± 25 vs. 158 ± 22 mg/dL (P = 0.11) in the 4-10-year-olds, respectively. No differences were found between intervention and control in either age-group in morning blood ketosis. In 4-14-year-olds, use of a nocturnal PLGS system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis, although overnight mean glucose is slightly higher. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Giuseppina Patriciello,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years, and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years. The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725, gender (P = 0.886, z-body mass index (P = 0.149, or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient (P = 0.163. The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M

  15. The effect of nocturnal CPAP therapy on the intraocular pressure of patients with sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yuval; Ben-Mair, Eyal; Rosenzweig, Eyal; Shechter-Amir, Dalia; Solomon, Arieh S

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have documented that nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We re-examined the effect of CPAP therapy on the IOP of OSAS patients. The IOP of two different groups of newly diagnosed OSAS patients was compared at their first sleep lab exam without CPAP treatment (non-CPAP treated group; n = 20) and at the second sleep lab exam with CPAP treatment (CPAP treated group; n = 31). The sleep lab exam (sleep period: from 11:00 p.m. until 6:00 a.m.) included IOP measurements, a complete ophthalmologic exam, and nocturnal hemodynamic recordings. The IOP was measured serially using rebound tonometer (IOP; ICARE® PRO) performed while in sitting and supine positions before, during, and after the sleep period. We compared the difference in IOP of CPAP and non-CPAP groups. The mean IOP of the CPAP and non-CPAP groups measured in sitting position before the sleep period was 13.33 ± 2.04 mmHg and 14.02 ± 2.44 mmHg, respectively (p = 0.9). Assuming a supine position for 1 minute significantly increased the IOP by 1.93 mmHg and 2.13 mmHg for both the non-CPAP and CPAP groups (paired t-test; p = 0.02, p = 0.001 respectively), but this IOP rise showed no difference between the two groups. The IOP increased significantly further after 7 hours of sleep in the supine position, and the mean IOP of the CPAP and non-CPAP groups was 19.2 ± 5.68 mmHg and 19.69 ± 5.61 mmHg respectively (independent t-test; p = 0.74). The rise in IOP for both groups was not correlated with any hemodynamic parameters. Three OSAS patients with glaucoma treated with CPAP had mean IOP of 23.75 mmHg after 7 hours of sleep. OSAS patients have a significant rise in IOP during the sleep period when comparing measurements before and after the sleep period; however, CPAP therapy did not affect the measured

  16. Responses of nocturnal rodents to shrub encroachment in Banni grasslands, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadevan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Shrub encroachment is one of the greatest threats to grasslands globally. These woodlands can strongly influence the behaviour of small mammals adapted to more open habitats, which rely on high visibility for early detection of predators. In semi-arid grasslands, rodents are considered keystone species. Although shrub encroachment is known to negatively affect rodent assemblages, its impact on the foraging behaviour of rodents, which is known to vary in response to risky situations, is unknown. Understanding whether shrub encroachment alters such antipredator behaviour is important as antipredator behaviour can alter the distribution, abundance and ultimately, survival of prey species. In this study, I explored the effects of shrub encroachment on the foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodent communities in the Banni grasslands, India. I examined foraging behaviour, quantified using the giving-up density (GUD) framework and the number of rodent crossings around food patches, in two habitats that differed in the extent of shrub encroachment. Under the GUD framework, the amount of food left behind by a forager in a food patch reflects the costs of feeding at the patch. Higher GUDs imply higher foraging costs. I also investigated how removal of an invasive woody plant, Prosopis juliflora would affect foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodents. High shrub encroachment was associated with higher foraging costs (higher GUDs) and lower activity than the sparsely wooded habitat, likely due to low visibility in the densely wooded habitat. The dense habitat also supported a higher richness and relative abundance of generalist rodents than the sparse habitat, likely due to the increased heterogeneity of the habitat. The tree removal experiment revealed that rodents had lower GUDs (i.e., low foraging costs) after the event of tree cutting. This may be due to the reduction of cover in the habitat, leading to higher visibility and lower predation risk. My results suggest that shrub

  17. Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

  18. Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gesine; Hackemann, Annika; Reusch, Juergen; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Hypoglycemia can be a symptom in patients with Addison's disease. The common regimen of replacement therapy with oral glucocorticoids results in unphysiological low cortisol levels in the early morning, the time of highest insulin sensitivity. Therefore patients with Addison's disease are at risk for unrecognized and potentially severe nocturnal hypoglycemia also because of a disturbed counterregulatory function. Use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help to adjust hydrocortisone treatment and to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia in these patients. Thirteen patients with Addison's disease were screened for hypoglycemia wearing a CGMS for 3-5 days. In one patient we identified a hypoglycemic episode at 3:45 a.m. with a blood glucose level of 46 mg/dL, clearly beneath the 95% tolerance interval of minimal glucose levels between 2 and 4 a.m. (53.84 mg/dL). After the hydrocortisone replacement scheme was changed, the minimum blood glucose level between 2 and 4 a.m. normalized to 87 mg/dL. Continuous glucose monitoring can detect nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and hence prevent in these patients an impaired quality of life and even serious adverse effects.

  19. Treatment of chronic pain associated with nocturnal bruxism with botulinum toxin. A prospective and randomized clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wayli, Hessa

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the treatment of pain associated with nocturnal bruxism. Material and Methods Fifty subjects reporting nocturnal bruxism were recruited for a randomized clinical trial. Twenty five bruxers were injected with botulinum toxin in both masseters, and twenty five were treated with traditional methods of treating bruxism. Patients were evaluated at 3rd week, 2nd and 6th month and one year after injection and then used to calculate bruxism events. Bruxism symptoms were investigated using questionnaires. Results Mean pain score due to Bruxism events in the masseter muscle decreased significantly in the botulinum toxin injection group A (P =0.000, highly significant). However, in the conventional treatment group, mean pain score does not show improvement with time (p>0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that botulinum toxin injection reduced the mean pain score and number of bruxism events, most likely by decreasing the muscle activity of masseter rather than affecting the central nervous system. Key words:Temporomandibular pain, nocturnal bruxism, botulinum toxin. PMID:28149474

  20. Effect of nocturnal sound reduction on the incidence of delirium in intensive care unit patients: An interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Ineke; van Iterson, Mat; Maaskant, Jolanda

    2017-08-01

    Delirium in critically-ill patients is a common multifactorial disorder that is associated with various negative outcomes. It is assumed that sleep disturbances can result in an increased risk of delirium. This study hypothesized that implementing a protocol that reduces overall nocturnal sound levels improves quality of sleep and reduces the incidence of delirium in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. This interrupted time series study was performed in an adult mixed medical and surgical 24-bed ICU. A pre-intervention group of 211 patients was compared with a post-intervention group of 210 patients after implementation of a nocturnal sound-reduction protocol. Primary outcome measures were incidence of delirium, measured by the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and quality of sleep, measured by the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). Secondary outcome measures were use of sleep-inducing medication, delirium treatment medication, and patient-perceived nocturnal noise. A significant difference in slope in the percentage of delirium was observed between the pre- and post-intervention periods (-3.7% per time period, p=0.02). Quality of sleep was unaffected (0.3 per time period, p=0.85). The post-intervention group used significantly less sleep-inducing medication (psound-reduction protocol. However, reported sleep quality did not improve. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Nocturnal Wakefulness Is Associated With Next-Day Suicidal Ideation in Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Vande Voort, Jennifer L; Bernert, Rebecca A; Luckenbaugh, David A; Richards, Erica M; Niciu, Mark J; Furey, Maura L; Duncan, Wallace C; Zarate, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Self-reported sleep disturbances may confer elevated risk for suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death. However, limited research has evaluated polysomnographically determined sleep disturbance as an acute physiologic risk factor for suicidal thoughts. This study sought to investigate the relationship between nocturnal wakefulness in association with next-day suicidal ideation using overnight polysomnography assessment from data collected between 2006 and 2013. Sixty-five participants with DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive disorder or bipolar depression underwent overnight polysomnography monitoring in a sleep laboratory. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was administered the morning after polysomnography recording to assess next-day suicidal ideation, severity of depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep disturbances. Using a generalized linear mixed model, a significant time-by-ideation interaction was found indicating greater nocturnal wakefulness at 4:00 am among participants with suicidal ideation (F4,136 = 3.65, P = .007). Increased time awake during the 4:00 am hour (4:00 to 4:59) was significantly associated with elevated suicidal thoughts the next day (standardized β = 0.31, P = .008). This relationship persisted after controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, and severity of depressive symptoms. Greater nocturnal wakefulness, particularly in the early morning hours, was significantly associated with next-day suicidal thoughts. Polysomnographically documented sleep disruption at specific times of night may represent an acute risk factor of suicidal ideation that warrants additional research. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00024635. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Participatory research to design a novel telehealth system to support the night-time needs of people with dementia: NOCTURNAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2013-12-04

    Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

  3. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  4. Resistance exercise performed with repetitions until failure affects nocturnal blood pressure decreases in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that resistance exercise reduces 24-hour blood pressure to levels below resting values, although this is not a universal finding. The number of repetitions has been shown to influence this response. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effects of resistance exercise performed until failure (UF on 24-hour blood pressure in hypertensive women. Thirteen hypertensive women underwent three experimental sessions in random order: UF, resistance exercise with repetitions before concentric failure (BF and control (C. Prior to and up to 24 hours after the sessions, cardiovascular variables, as well as the nocturnal fall in blood pressure, the morning surge, and the presence or absence of a blood pressure dip pattern were established using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. In both wakefulness and sleep there was no significant difference among the three groups. However, after UF and C fewer patients presented a dip in blood pressure (46% and 38%, respectively compared BF (77%, p=0.047. In conclusion, the UF attenuated blood pressure dips at night in hypertensive patients.

  5. Experimental assessment of the effects of a Neotropical nocturnal piscivore on juvenile native and invasive fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra F. G. N. Santos

    Full Text Available We experimentally examined the predator-prey relationships between juvenile spotted sorubim Pseudoplastystoma corruscans and young-of-the-year invasive and native fish species of the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Three invasive (peacock bass Cichla piquiti, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and two native (yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae and streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus fish species were offered as prey to P. corruscans in 300 L aquaria with three habitat complexity treatments (0%, 50% and 100% structure-covered. Prey survival was variable through time and among species (C. piquiti < O. niloticus < A. altiparanae < P. lineatus < I. punctatus, depending largely on species-specific prey behavior but also on prey size and morphological defenses. Habitat complexity did not directly affect P. corruscans piscivory but some prey species changed their microhabitat use and shoaling behavior among habitat treatments in predator's presence. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans preyed preferentially on smaller individuals of those invasive species with weak morphological defensive features that persisted in a non-shoaling behavior. Overall, our results contrast with those in a companion experiment using a diurnal predator, suggesting that nocturnal piscivores preferentially prey on different (rather diurnal fish species and are less affected by habitat complexity. Our findings suggest that recovering the native populations of P. corruscans might help controling some fish species introduced to the Paraná River basin, particularly C. piquiti and O. niloticus, whose parental care is expected to be weak or null at night.

  6. Self-esteem in 6- to 16-year-olds with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaheswari, Yoganathan; Poulsaeman, Veronica; Chandran, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-10-01

    Childhood nocturnal enuresis (NE) and incontinence has been shown to be associated with increased behavioural problems and reduced self-esteem (SE) in Western populations. The impact on Asian children, however, is not known. This study investigates the relationship between SE and monosymptomatic NE in Malaysian children aged 6 to 16 years. Children with wetting frequency of at least 4 out of 14 nights were recruited with controls matched for age, gender and race. SE scores were obtained using the 'I Think I Am' questionnaire for five domains: body image, talents and skills, psychological well-being, relationship with family and relationship with others. A total of 126 children were recruited; 22 enuretics aged 6-9 years and their matched controls (Group1) and 41 enuretics aged 10-16 years and their matched controls (Group 2). SE scores were similar between the enuretic and controls in Group 1, whereas in Group 2, enuretics had significantly lower scores (P Malaysian children with monosymptomatic NE aged 10 years and above is significantly lower than their peers. This effect is seen particularly among girls, adolescents and those with frequent wetting. In the light of these findings, the 'wait and see' approach by the Malaysian medical profession is no longer appropriate. Treatment should begin before the age of 10 years. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux, asthma and symptoms of OSA: a longitudinal, general population study.

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    Emilsson, Össur I; Bengtsson, Anna; Franklin, Karl A; Torén, Kjell; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Farkhooy, Amir; Weyler, Joost; Dom, Sandra; De Backer, Wilfried; Gislason, Thorarinn; Janson, Christer

    2013-06-01

    Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux (nGOR) is associated with asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Our aim was to investigate whether nGOR is a risk factor for onset of asthma and onset of respiratory and OSA symptoms in a prospective population-based study. We invited 2640 subjects from Iceland, Sweden and Belgium for two evaluations over a 9-year interval. They participated in structured interviews, answered questionnaires, and underwent spirometries and methacholine challenge testing. nGOR was defined by reported symptoms. Subjects with persistent nGOR (n=123) had an independent increased risk of new asthma at follow-up (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9). Persistent nGOR was independently related to onset of respiratory symptoms (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.6). The risk of developing symptoms of OSA was increased in subjects with new and persistent nGOR (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-1.6, and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7, respectively). No significant association was found between nGOR and lung function or bronchial responsiveness. Persistent symptoms of nGOR contribute to the development of asthma and respiratory symptoms. New onset of OSA symptoms is higher among subjects with symptoms of nGOR. These findings provide evidence that nGOR may play a role in the genesis of respiratory symptoms and diseases.

  8. Fear of darkness, the full moon and the nocturnal ecology of African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Craig; Swanson, Alexandra; Ikanda, Dennis; Kushnir, Hadas

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal carnivores are widely believed to have played an important role in human evolution, driving the need for night-time shelter, the control of fire and our innate fear of darkness. However, no empirical data are available on the effects of darkness on the risks of predation in humans. We performed an extensive analysis of predatory behavior across the lunar cycle on the largest dataset of lion attacks ever assembled and found that African lions are as sensitive to moonlight when hunting humans as when hunting herbivores and that lions are most dangerous to humans when the moon is faint or below the horizon. At night, people are most active between dusk and 10:00 pm, thus most lion attacks occur in the first weeks following the full moon (when the moon rises at least an hour after sunset). Consequently, the full moon is a reliable indicator of impending danger, perhaps helping to explain why the full moon has been the subject of so many myths and misconceptions.

  9. Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus in a Zoological Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Lukacs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation was used to measure the activity time budgets of at least one focal animal per observation period. The activity time budgets varied between animals and observation periods. The elephants spent 17-49% of the day (daylight hours standing, 1-9% of the day walking, 19-44% of the day eating, and 1-20% of the day using enrichment items. At night, the elephants spent 29-87% of the observation period standing, 1-19% of the night eating, and 0.1-10% of the night using enrichment items. At night, elephants spent 0-45% of the observation period lying down. Variations in activity time budgets between elephants and observation periods have been observed in other studies of captive and wild elephants. Results of this observational study allow comparison between groups of captive elephants and between captive and wild elephants. Furthermore, results of this study can inform management strategies.

  10. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAYANANDA, Salindra K.; GOODALE, Eben; LEE, Myung-bok; LIU, Jia-Jia; MAMMIDES, Christos; PASION, Bonifacio O.; QUAN, Rui-Chang; SLIK, J. W. Ferry; SREEKAR, Rachakonda; TOMLINSON, Kyle W.; YASUDA, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how ‘location factors’ such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m) within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments. PMID:27265653

  11. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salindra K. DAYANANDA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how ‘location factors’ such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments.

  12. Atomoxetine ameliorates nocturnal enuresis with subclinical attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Yoshiyuki

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that incontinence and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coexist and there is an interaction between them. The treatment for nocturnal enuresis (NE) and ADHD, however, has not been established. At the first visit to the outpatient clinic, physical examination and history taking were carried out in 265 new patients with NE. After excluding the possibility of comorbid ADHD and related disorders, patients with monosymptomatic NE (MNE) were treated with desmopressin and/or alarm, and those with non-monosymptomatic NE (NMNE) were treated with anti-cholinergics and/or alarm. This 12 week treatment did not work in 65 patients, and they were re-assessed for comorbid ADHD. A total of 24 were diagnosed with ADHD, and they were treated with atomoxetine (1.8 mg/kg/day) in addition to ongoing therapy for NE. After 8 weeks of atomoxetine, the average wet nights per months was significantly decreased: 18.5-4.6 in the MNE group (P = 0.001), and 22.1-12.4 in the NMNE group (P = 0.0251). Overall, atomoxetine was beneficial in 19 of 24 patients. Atomoxetine may be a suitable option for refractory NE with comorbid ADHD. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Irrigation enhances local warming with greater nocturnal warming effects than daytime cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-02-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, land is being managed to be more productive using agricultural intensification practices, such as the use of irrigation. Understanding the specific environmental impacts of irrigation is a critical part of using it as a sustainable way to provide food security. However, our knowledge of irrigation effects on climate is still limited to daytime effects. This is a critical issue to define the effects of irrigation on warming related to greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study shows that irrigation led to an increasing temperature (0.002 °C year-1) by enhancing nighttime warming (0.009 °C year-1) more than daytime cooling (-0.007 °C year-1) during the dry season from 1961-2004 over the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of largest irrigated areas in the world. By implementing irrigation processes in regional climate model simulations, the consistent warming effect of irrigation on nighttime temperatures over the NCP was shown to match observations. The intensive nocturnal warming is attributed to energy storage in the wetter soil during the daytime, which contributed to the nighttime surface warming. Our results suggest that irrigation could locally amplify the warming related to GHGs, and this effect should be taken into account in future climate change projections.

  14. Weight loss alters severity of individual nocturnal respiratory events depending on sleeping position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Töyräs, J; Sahlman, J; Seppä, J; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Tuomilehto, H

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of how weight loss affects nocturnal breathing are not fully understood. The severity of OSA is currently estimated by the number of respiratory events per hour of sleep (i.e. apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI). AHI neglects duration and morphology of individual respiratory events, which describe the severity of individual events. In the current paper, we investigate the novel Adjusted-AHI parameter (incorporating individual event severity) and AHI after weight loss in relation to sleeping position. It was hypothesised that there are positional differences in individual event severity changes during weight loss. Altogether, 32 successful (> 5% of weight) and 34 unsuccessful weight loss patients at baseline and after 1 year follow-up were analysed. The results revealed that individual respiratory event severity was reduced differently in supine and non-supine positions during weight loss. During weight loss, AHI was reduced by 54% (p = 0.004) and 74% (p < 0.001), while Adjusted-AHI was reduced by 14% (p = 0.454) and 48% (p = 0.003) in supine and non-supine positions, respectively. In conclusion, the severity of individual respiratory events decreased more in the non-supine position. The novel Adjusted-AHI parameter takes these changes into account and might therefore contribute additional information to the planning of treatment of OSA patients. (paper)

  15. Two new species of nocturnal bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae with keys to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Gonzalez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalopta Smith, 1853, is a Neotropical genus of nocturnal or crepuscular bees. Two subgenera are recognized with most of its nearly 30 species placed in the nominate subgenus. Species of Megalopta s. str. are more commonly collected than species of Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, all presumably parasites of Megalopta s. str. Two new species of Megalopta are described here: M. (Megalopta tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to the Central American species of Megalopta s. str. and the species of the parasitic subgenus Noctoraptor are presented. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1: 255-263. Epub 2010 March 01.Megalopta Smith, 1853, es un género Neotropical de abejas nocturnas o crepusculares. Dos subgéneros son reconocidos con la mayoría de las 30 especies ubicadas en el subgénero nominal. Las especies de Megalopta s. str. son más comúnmente recolectadas que las especies de Noctoraptor Engel et al. 1997, todas probablemente parásitas de Megalopta s. str. Aquí se describen dos especies nuevas de Megalopta: M. (Megalopta tetewana, n. sp., de México y M. (Noctoraptor huaoranii, n. sp., de Ecuador. Se presentan claves de identificación para las especies de Megalopta s. str. de América Central y las especies del subgénero parásito Noctoraptor.

  16. Use of the Grindcare® device in the management of nocturnal bruxism: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, R; Davies, S J

    2013-07-01

    Bruxism may be described as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunction, characterised by clenching, bracing, gnashing or grinding of the teeth and jaws. The aim of the management of bruxism should be to control or reduce the level of activity where possible. A variety of treatment strategies have been employed to achieve this including hypnosis, occlusal equilibration, splint therapy, physiotherapy and acupuncture. A more recent approach is the use of biofeedback. Nineteen consecutive patients were recruited from the temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) clinic at Manchester Dental Hospital, all of whom were known bruxists. They were supplied with the Grindcare® device (Medotech) and instructed to wear it every night over the five-week observation period. By monitoring electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity, the device is able to emit low-voltage electrical impulses as it senses a clenching or grinding episode, bringing about muscle relaxation. Eleven of the nineteen patients (58%) reported a major reduction in the occurrence of headaches and discomfort of the masticatory muscles on waking. Female and younger subjects responded more favourably than male and older subjects respectively. The use of biofeedback could reduce the level of parafunctional activity and bring about meaningful symptomatic improvement. No adverse effects occurred throughout the study period.

  17. The effects of age, metabolic syndrome, nocturnal polyuria and sleep disorders on nocturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Hasan S; Gökkaya, C Serkan; Salar, Remzi; Memiş, Ali; Adsan, Oztuğ

    2013-01-01

    Nocturia, which is especially frequent among older men, adversely affects the individual's quality of life. It is regarded as one of the most bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of the study was to investigate factors contributing to the frequency of nocturia. Men ≥ 40 years with LUTS were enrolled in this study. After medical histories were taken and physical examinations conducted, biochemical tests and measures for LUTS were carried out. Anthropometric measurements were performed and Epworth scores (ES) were examined. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to nocturia: the first group having no nocturia or one incident of nocturia per night, and the second group with two or more nightly incidents of nocturia. The data were analyzed statistically; p polyuria was associated with nocturia, systolic blood pressure and IPSS. Age, nocturnal polyuria, metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbances have been shown to be contributing factors in the frequency of nocturia and LUTS. Therefore, steps taken to alleviate factors that can be altered - such as hypertension, weight gain, sleep disturbances and IPSS - may improve the individual's quality of life.

  18. Sleep fragmentation and periodic limb movements in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Karlien; Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Roels, Sanne Patrick; Raes, Ann; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Hoebeke, Piet; Walle, Johan Vande

    2015-07-01

    Children with nocturnal enuresis (NE) have been found to have sleep fragmentation and a high incidence of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). This study explored the association of monosymptomatic NE and polyuria in relation to fluid intake, bladder volume, number of wet nights, and number of nights with polyuria to the frequency of PLMS and cortical arousals during sleep. Thirty children with monosymptomatic NE and polyuria were enrolled in the study. Enuretic parameters were determined by diaries, forced drinking, uroflow, and ultrasound examination. All subjects participated in one polysomnographic study. The number of cortical arousals and PLMS were compared with those recorded in a former pilot study which included only children with refractory NE. Of the 30 children who participated in the study, the mean age was 10.43 ± 3.08 (range 6-16) years, and 23 were boys. The PLMS index was positively associated with the arousal index and the awakening index (p polyuria, without a significant association with the enuretic parameters. These observations suggest the presence of a comorbid mechanism driven by a common, independent pacemaker. We hypothesize the autonomic system, its sympathetic branch, and the dopaminergic system as candidates for this pacemaker.

  19. Tuning the white light spectrum of light emitting diode lamps to reduce attraction of nocturnal arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Travis; Aldern, Hannah L; Eggers, John F; Flores, Steve; Franco, Lesly; Hirshfield-Yamanishi, Eric; Petrinec, Laina N; Yan, Wilson A; Barroso, André M

    2015-05-05

    Artificial lighting allows humans to be active at night, but has many unintended consequences, including interference with ecological processes, disruption of circadian rhythms and increased exposure to insect vectors of diseases. Although ultraviolet and blue light are usually most attractive to arthropods, degree of attraction varies among orders. With a focus on future indoor lighting applications, we manipulated the spectrum of white lamps to investigate the influence of spectral composition on number of arthropods attracted. We compared numbers of arthropods captured at three customizable light-emitting diode (LED) lamps (3510, 2704 and 2728 K), two commercial LED lamps (2700 K), two commercial compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs; 2700 K) and a control. We configured the three custom LEDs to minimize invertebrate attraction based on published attraction curves for honeybees and moths. Lamps were placed with pan traps at an urban and two rural study sites in Los Angeles, California. For all invertebrate orders combined, our custom LED configurations were less attractive than the commercial LED lamps or CFLs of similar colour temperatures. Thus, adjusting spectral composition of white light to minimize attracting nocturnal arthropods is feasible; not all lights with the same colour temperature are equally attractive to arthropods. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

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    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  1. Nocturnal field use by fall migrating American woodcock in the Delta of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Crossett, Richard; Lehnen, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The American woodcock (Scolopax minor) population has declined since the late 1960s across its range and is now considered a species of special concern. Research on woodcock habitat use during migration and migratory routes through the Central Flyway has been limited. We assessed woodcock phenology, estimated density, and nocturnal habitat use in fields on public lands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley portion of Arkansas during November and December of 2010 and 2011. We used all-terrain vehicles to survey woodcock along transects in 67 fields of 8 field types. We analyzed data using hierarchical distance sampling. We detected woodcock from the first week in November through the third week in December but in low numbers. We did not detect woodcock in millet or rice fields, whereas woodcock had the highest estimated densities in unharvested soybeans. All other crop type-post-harvest management combinations had low woodcock densities. We did not detect woodcock in fields 40 ha. Woodcock in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley may benefit from management for unharvested soybean fields of moderate size (approx. 8-40ha).

  2. The role of the US Great Plains low-level jet in nocturnal migrant behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Horton, Kyle G.

    2016-10-01

    The movements of aerial animals are under the constant influence of atmospheric flows spanning a range of spatiotemporal scales. The Great Plains nocturnal low-level jet is a large-scale atmospheric phenomenon that provides frequent strong southerly winds through a shallow layer of the airspace. The jet can provide substantial tailwind assistance to spring migrants moving northward, while hindering southward migration during autumn. This atmospheric feature has been suspected to play a prominent role in defining migratory routes, but the flight strategies used with respect to these winds are yet to be examined. Using collocated vertically pointing radar and lidar, we investigate the altitudinal selection behavior of migrants over Oklahoma during two spring and two autumn migration seasons. In general, migrants choose to fly within the jet in spring, often concentrating in the favorable wind speed maximum. Autumn migrants typically fly below the jet, although some will rapidly climb to reach altitudes above the inhibiting winds. The intensity of migration was relatively constant throughout the spring due to the predominantly favorable southerly jet winds. Conversely, autumn migrants were more apt to delay departure to wait for the relatively infrequent northerly winds.

  3. Fear of darkness, the full moon and the nocturnal ecology of African lions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Packer

    Full Text Available Nocturnal carnivores are widely believed to have played an important role in human evolution, driving the need for night-time shelter, the control of fire and our innate fear of darkness. However, no empirical data are available on the effects of darkness on the risks of predation in humans. We performed an extensive analysis of predatory behavior across the lunar cycle on the largest dataset of lion attacks ever assembled and found that African lions are as sensitive to moonlight when hunting humans as when hunting herbivores and that lions are most dangerous to humans when the moon is faint or below the horizon. At night, people are most active between dusk and 10:00 pm, thus most lion attacks occur in the first weeks following the full moon (when the moon rises at least an hour after sunset. Consequently, the full moon is a reliable indicator of impending danger, perhaps helping to explain why the full moon has been the subject of so many myths and misconceptions.

  4. Nocturnal Enuresis Is Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2013-01-01

    Objective There are no published prevalence estimates of elimination disorders and their association with disruptive-behavior disorders among children in the Asian region using standardized diagnostic interviews. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of elimination disorders and its association with disruptive-behavior disorders in a representative sample of children in Seoul, Korea. Methods The diagnosis of enuresis and encopresis was derived from parent-reported data for "enuresis and encopresis," collected using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, from a representative sample of 6- to 12-year-old children (n=1,645) who participated in the 2005 Seoul Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey. Prevalence data for attention deficit and disruptive-behavior disorders were collected from the same sample. Results The overall 12-month prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and encopresis was 1.8% and 0.6%, respectively. Enuresis and encopresis prevalence in boys was significantly greater than that in girls. Enuresis and encopresis was most common at 7 to 9 years of age. Enuresis was significantly associated with ADHD (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.9) and conduct disorder (CD; OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.0-22.4). Conclusion Enuresis is significantly associated with ADHD and CD, so these conditions must be assessed together during the evaluation of children with enuresis. PMID:24302948

  5. A Case of Frequent Arousal Following Nocturnal Dyspnea Caused by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

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    Dae Wui Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a common disorder that is associated with many esophageal syndromes and complications. Most cases of reflux event occur during the day, but reflux during sleep can cause not only esophageal problems, but also sleep problems, such as arousal and poor sleep quality. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who had been referred to us with frequent arousal following sudden dyspnea. On polysomnography, no respiratory disturbances and periodic limb movements were found during the sleep study, but frequent events of arousal were reported (arousal index: 12.3/h. On a 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring test, his DeMeester score was 176.43 and the total reflux time was 1120.9 min (76.9%, indicating the presence of significant acid reflux. After treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor, the arousals following nocturnal dyspnea and fatigue in the morning disappeared in the patient. GERD should be considered as a cause of spontaneous arousal or awakening not accompanying respiratory disturbances.

  6. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

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    De-Jia Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day, whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05 the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime.

  7. What makes a good home-based nocturnal seizure detector? A value sensitive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans; van Delden, Hans; van Thiel, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    A device for the in-home detection of nocturnal seizures is currently being developed in the Netherlands, to improve care for patients with severe epilepsy. It is recognized that the design of medical technology is not value neutral: perspectives of users and developers are influential in design, and design choices influence these perspectives. However, during development processes, these influences are generally ignored and value-related choices remain implicit and poorly argued for. In the development process of the seizure detector we aimed to take values of all stakeholders into consideration. Therefore, we performed a parallel ethics study, using "value sensitive design." Analysis of stakeholder communication (in meetings and e-mail messages) identified five important values, namely, health, trust, autonomy, accessibility, and reliability. Stakeholders were then asked to give feedback on the choice of these values and how they should be interpreted. In a next step, the values were related to design choices relevant for the device, and then the consequences (risks and benefits) of these choices were investigated. Currently the process of design and testing of the device is still ongoing. The device will be validated in a trial in which the identified consequences of design choices are measured as secondary endpoints. Value sensitive design methodology is feasible for the development of new medical technology and can help designers substantiate the choices in their design.

  8. Light pollution is greatest within migration passage areas for nocturnally-migrating birds around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Buler, Jeffrey J

    2018-02-19

    Excessive or misdirected artificial light at night (ALAN) produces light pollution that influences several aspects of the biology and ecology of birds, including disruption of circadian rhythms and disorientation during flight. Many migrating birds traverse large expanses of land twice every year at night when ALAN illuminates the sky. Considering the extensive and increasing encroachment of light pollution around the world, we evaluated the association of the annual mean ALAN intensity over land within the geographic ranges of 298 nocturnally migrating bird species with five factors: phase of annual cycle, mean distance between breeding and non-breeding ranges, range size, global hemisphere of range, and IUCN category of conservation concern. Light pollution within geographic ranges was relatively greater during the migration season, for shorter-distance migrants, for species with smaller ranges, and for species in the western hemisphere. Our results suggest that migratory birds may be subject to the effects of light pollution particularly during migration, the most critical stage in their annual cycle. We hope these results will spur further research on how light pollution affects not only migrating birds, but also other highly mobile animals throughout their annual cycle.

  9. I'm sexy and I glow it: female ornamentation in a nocturnal capital breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Juhani; Baudry, Gautier; Candolin, Ulrika; Kaitala, Arja

    2015-10-01

    In many species, males rely on sexual ornaments to attract females. Females, by contrast, rarely produce ornaments. The glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is an exception where wingless females glow to attract males that fly in search of females. However, little is known about the factors that promote the evolution of female ornaments in a sexual selection context. Here, we investigated if the female ornament of the glow-worm is a signal of fecundity used in male mate choice. In support of this, we found brightness to correlate with female fecundity, and males to prefer brighter dummy females. Thus, the glow emitted by females is a reliable sexual signal of female fecundity. It is likely that male preference for the fecundity-indicating ornament has evolved because of large variation among females in fecundity, and because nocturnal males cannot directly assess female size and fecundity. These results indicate that female ornamentation may evolve in capital breeders (i.e. those in which stored resources are invested in reproduction) when females vary significantly in fecundity and this variation cannot be assessed directly by males. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Comparison of nocturia response to desmopressin treatment in elderly men with and without nocturnal polyuria in real-life practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-L; Huang, Y-H; Hung, T-W; Ou, Y-C

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose desmopressin in elderly men with and without nocturnal polyuria (NP) in real-life practice. Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/ benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were≧ 65 years old with refractory nocturia were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively analysed elderly men treated with adding desmopressin to current medications for nocturia according to category of the baseline nocturnal urine volume. The 48-h frequency volume chart (FVC), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL) were initially assessed and re-evaluated 12 weeks later. Serum sodium level was checked 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks after initiation of desmopressin therapy or suspected hyponatremia event. The mean change in numbers of nocturnal voids was evaluated for efficacy of treatment. A total of 136 patients were included with 55 in non-NP group and 81 in NP group. Hypertension was more common in NP group in regard of comorbidities. During treatment period, there were significant reductions of nocturnal voids from 4.22 ± 1.38 to 2.31 ± 0.98 (p < 0.001) in non-NP group and from 4.52 ± 1.23 to 2.07 ± 0.89 (p < 0.001) in NP group. The reduction in nocturnal voids was more significant in NP group (2.44 ± 1.15 vs. 1.91 ± 1.48, p = 0.003). The mean decrease in serum sodium levels were 3.89 ± 1.22 mmol/l (p < 0.001) in non-NP group and 4.69 ± 3.5 mmol/l (p < 0.001) in NP group at the extreme value. Long-term treatment with low-dose desmopressin is safe and effective for nocturia with or without NP in elderly patients with LUTS/BPH during real-life practice. Patients should be well informed about the disease and are closely followed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochen Stutz

    2005-05-24

    Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude

  12. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  13. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  14. Observational assessment of the role of nocturnal residual-layer chemistry in determining daytime surface particulate nitrate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prabhakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses an analysis of combined airborne and ground observations of particulate nitrate (NO3−(p concentrations made during the wintertime DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality study at one of the most polluted cities in the United States – Fresno, CA – in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and focuses on developing an understanding of the various processes that impact surface nitrate concentrations during pollution events. The results provide an explicit case-study illustration of how nighttime chemistry can influence daytime surface-level NO3−(p concentrations, complementing previous studies in the SJV. The observations exemplify the critical role that nocturnal chemical production of NO3−(p aloft in the residual layer (RL can play in determining daytime surface-level NO3−(p concentrations. Further, they indicate that nocturnal production of NO3−(p in the RL, along with daytime photochemical production, can contribute substantially to the buildup and sustaining of severe pollution episodes. The exceptionally shallow nocturnal boundary layer (NBL heights characteristic of wintertime pollution events in the SJV intensify the importance of nocturnal production aloft in the residual layer to daytime surface concentrations. The observations also demonstrate that dynamics within the RL can influence the early-morning vertical distribution of NO3−(p, despite low wintertime wind speeds. This overnight reshaping of the vertical distribution above the city plays an important role in determining the net impact of nocturnal chemical production on local and regional surface-level NO3−(p concentrations. Entrainment of clean free-tropospheric (FT air into the boundary layer in the afternoon is identified as an important process that reduces surface-level NO3−(p and limits buildup during pollution episodes. The influence of dry deposition of HNO

  15. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, J. W.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO) signal injection scheme. Measurements show that the HEB mixer stability is limited by gain fluctuations with a 1/f spectral distribution. In a 60 MHz noise bandwidth this results in an Allan varian...

  16. Insomnia as an expression of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome--the effect of treatment with nocturnal ventilatory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, M Saldanha; dos Santos, J Moutinho

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and insomnia often coexist, and it is estimated that nearly half of those who suffer from the former report symptoms of the latter. The fact that these patients have no other causes of insomnia indicates that it is a sign of OSAS. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal ventilatory support (NVS) in the treatment of insomnia secondary to OSAS. In order to conduct the retrospective study, the authors reviewed the medical records of patients with insomnia and OSAS that had received NVS. Patients with psychiatric disorders, sleep movement disorders, psycho-physiological insomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, inadequate sleep hygiene, use and abuse of hypnotic agents, stimulants, antidepressants, anxiolytics and alcohol, were excluded. For the selected patients, the effects of NVS in terms of clinical signs and symptoms of insomnia, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, and number of sleep hours were analyzed, before and after treatment with NVS. After reviewing 1241 medical records, 56 patients were selected, with a mean age of 60.9±10.0 years. Twenty-two (39.3%) suffered from intermediate insomnia, 19 (33.9%) had initial insomnia, eight (14.3%) had the mixed type, and seven patients (12.5%) had terminal insomnia. The majority of patients (n=48; 85.7%) were treated with auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure (APAP). Forty-four patients (78.6%) overcame insomnia; insomnia symptoms persisted in nine (16.1%), and three (5.4%) patients abandoned during the medical follow-up. There was an association between the type of insomnia and its resolution and, in percentage terms patients with the mixed type did not manage to overcome insomnia symptoms (75%). There was a statistically significant difference between patients that overcame insomnia and those who did not in terms of the average time which elapsed between the initiation of treatment with NVS and compliance

  17. Vertical profiles of nitrous acid in the nocturnal urban atmosphere of Houston, TX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Wong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous acid (HONO often plays an important role in tropospheric photochemistry as a major precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH in early morning hours and potentially during the day. However, the processes leading to formation of HONO and its vertical distribution at night, which can have a considerable impact on daytime ozone formation, are currently poorly characterized by observations and models. Long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS measurements of HONO during the 2006 TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP, near downtown Houston, TX, show nocturnal vertical profiles of HONO, with mixing ratios of up to 2.2 ppb near the surface and below 100 ppt aloft. Three nighttime periods of HONO, NO2 and O3 observations during TRAMP were used to perform model simulations of vertical mixing ratio profiles. By adjusting vertical mixing and NOx emissions the modeled NO2 and O3 mixing ratios showed very good agreement with the observations.

    Using a simple conversion of NO2 to HONO on the ground, direct HONO emissions, as well as HONO loss at the ground and on aerosol, the observed HONO profiles were reproduced by the model for 1–2 and 7–8 September in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL. The unobserved increase of HONO to NO2 ratio (HONO/NO2 with altitude that was simulated by the initial model runs was found to be due to HONO uptake being too small on aerosol and too large on the ground. Refined model runs, with adjusted HONO uptake coefficients, showed much better agreement of HONO and HONO/NO2 for two typical nights, except during morning rush hour, when other HONO formation pathways are most likely active. One of the nights analyzed showed an increase of HONO mixing ratios together with decreasing NO2 mixing ratios that the model was unable to reproduce, most likely due to the impact of

  18. Study of cross-spectra of velocity components and temperature series in a nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Viñas, Carmen; Viana, Samuel; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    needed the correlation function of the time series analysed. Results will be regarding for different Richardson number and turbulent intensities, but always in nocturnal conditions, in order to evaluate the influence of the different turbulent and stratification degrees. References. - Blackman, R.B., and Tukey, J.,W., 1958: The measurement of power spectra from the point of view of communication engineering. Dover Publications, 190 pp. - Cuxart J, Yagüe C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler MR, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen HE, Rees JM, Vilá J, Redondo JM, Cantalapiedra IR and Conangla L (2000) Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (SABLES98): a report. Boundary- Layer Meteorol 96:337-370. - Stull R. B. (1988), An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publisher. 666 pp. - Viana, S Yagüe, C and Maqueda, G (2009) Propagation and effects of a mesoscale gravity wave over a weaklysStratified nocturnal boundary layer during the SABLES2006 field campaign. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 133:165-188

  19. Bright-light exposure during daytime sleeping affects nocturnal melatonin secretion after simulated night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Shunsuke; Osawa, Madoka; Matsuyama, Hiroto; Ohoka, Wataru; Ahn, Aemi; Wakamura, Tomoko

    2018-02-01

    The guidelines for night and shift workers recommend that after night work, they should sleep in a dark environment during the daytime. However, staying in a dark environment during the daytime reduces nocturnal melatonin secretion and delays its onset. Daytime bright-light exposure after night work is important for melatonin synthesis the subsequent night and for maintaining the circadian rhythms. However, it is not clear whether daytime sleeping after night work should be in a dim- or a bright-light environment for maintaining melatonin secretion. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of bright-light exposure during daytime sleeping on nocturnal melatonin secretion after simulated night work. Twelve healthy male subjects, aged 24.8 ± 4.6 (mean ± SD), participated in 3-day sessions under two experimental conditions, bright light or dim light, in a random order. On the first day, the subjects entered the experimental room at 16:00 and saliva samples were collected every hour between 18:00 and 00:00 under dim-light conditions. Between 00:00 and 08:00, they participated in tasks that simulated night work. At 10:00 the next morning, they slept for 6 hours under either a bright-light condition (>3000 lx) or a dim-light condition (night work were compared between the light conditions using paired t-tests. The ANOVA results indicated a significant interaction (light condition and3 day) (p = .006). Post hoc tests indicated that in the dim-light condition, the melatonin concentration was significantly lower on the second day than on the first day (p = .046); however, in the bright-light condition, there was no significant difference in the melatonin concentration between the days (p = .560). There was a significant difference in ΔDLMO between the conditions (p = .015): DLMO after sleeping was advanced by 11.1 ± 17.4 min under bright-light conditions but delayed for 7.2 ± 13.6 min after sleeping under dim-light conditions. No

  20. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBecchetti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs. This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel, DEPD5 (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5, and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex.

  1. Outcomes Associated with In-Center Nocturnal Hemodialysis from a Large Multicenter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiling; Lester, Keith; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, J. Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate epidemiology and outcomes of a large in-center nocturnal hemodialysis (INHD) program. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This case-control study compared patients who were on thrice-weekly INHD from 56 Fresenius Medical Care, North America facilities with conventional hemodialysis patients from 244 facilities within the surrounding geographic area. All INHD cases and conventional hemodialysis control subjects who were active as of January 1, 2007, were followed until December 31, 2007, for evaluation of mortality and hospitalization. Results: As of January 1, 2007, 655 patients had been on INHD for 51 ± 73 d. Patients were younger, there were more male and black patients, and vintage was longer, but they had less diabetes compared with 15,334 control subjects. Unadjusted hazard ratio was 0.59 for mortality and 0.76 for hospitalization. After adjustment for case mix and access type, only hospitalization remained significant. Fewer INHD patients were hospitalized (48 versus 59%) with a normalized rate of 9.6 versus 13.5 hospital days per patient-year. INHD patients had greater interdialytic weight gains but lower BP. At baseline, hemoglobin values were similar, whereas albumin and phosphorus values favored INHD. Mean equilibrated Kt/V was higher in INHD patients related to longer treatment time, despite lower blood and dialysate flow rates. Conclusions: Patients who were on INHD exhibited excellent quality indicators, with better survival and lower hospitalization rates. The relative contributions of patient selection versus effect of therapy on outcomes remain to be elucidated in prospective clinical trials. PMID:19965529

  2. Nocturnal Hypertension and Altered Night-Day BP Profile and Atherosclerosis in Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Rocco; Leonardis, Daniela; Mafrica, Angela; Versace, Maria Carmela; Provenzano, Fabio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2016-10-01

    The clinical relevance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for risk stratification in renal transplant patients still remains poorly defined. We investigated the association between clinic and ABPM with an established biomarker of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness [IMT] by echo-color Doppler) in a large, inclusive survey (n = 172) in renal transplant patients at a single institution. Forty-two patients (24%) were classified as hypertensive by ABPM criteria and 29 (17%) by clinic blood pressure (BP) criteria. Average daytime and nighttime BP was 126 ± 12/78 ± 9 mm Hg and 123 ± 13/74 ± 10 mm Hg, respectively. Forty-five patients (26%) were classified as hypertensive by the daytime criterion (>135/85 mm Hg) and a much higher proportion (n = 119, 69%) by the nighttime criterion (>120/70 mm Hg). Sixty-two patients (36%) had a night-day ratio of 1 or greater, indicating clear-cut nondipping. The average nighttime systolic BP (r = 0.24, P = 0.001) and the night-day systolic BP ratio (r = 0.23, P = 0.002) were directly related to IMT, and these associations were much more robust than the 24-hour systolic BP-IMT relationship (r = 0.16, P = 0.04). Average daytime BP and clinic B were unrelated to IMT. In a multiple regression analysis adjusting for confounders, the night-day systolic BP ratio maintained an independent association with IMT (β = 0.14, P = 0.04). In renal transplant patients, the prevalence of nocturnal hypertension by far exceeds the prevalence of hypertension as assessed by clinic, daytime, and 24-hour ABPM. Nighttime systolic BP and the night-day ratio but no other BP metrics are independently associated with IMT. Blood pressure during nighttime may provide unique information for the assessment of cardiovascular risk attributable to BP burden in renal transplant patients.

  3. A genome sequence resource for the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a nocturnal lemur from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H; Reeves, Darryl; Melsted, Páll; Ratan, Aakrosh; Miller, Webb; Michelini, Katelyn; Louis, Edward E; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Mason, Christopher E; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-coverage draft genome assembly of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual nocturnal primate from Madagascar. Our assembly totals ~3.0 billion bp (3.0 Gb), roughly the size of the human genome, comprised of ~2.6 million scaffolds (N50 scaffold size = 13,597 bp) based on short paired-end sequencing reads. We compared the aye-aye genome sequence data with four other published primate genomes (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus macaque) as well as with the mouse and dog genomes as nonprimate outgroups. Unexpectedly, we observed strong evidence for a relatively slow substitution rate in the aye-aye lineage compared with these and other primates. In fact, the aye-aye branch length is estimated to be ~10% shorter than that of the human lineage, which is known for its low substitution rate. This finding may be explained, in part, by the protracted aye-aye life-history pattern, including late weaning and age of first reproduction relative to other lemurs. Additionally, the availability of this draft lemur genome sequence allowed us to polarize nucleotide and protein sequence changes to the ancestral primate lineage-a critical period in primate evolution, for which the relevant fossil record is sparse. Finally, we identified 293,800 high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms in the donor individual for our aye-aye genome sequence, a captive-born individual from two wild-born parents. The resulting heterozygosity estimate of 0.051% is the lowest of any primate studied to date, which is understandable considering the aye-aye's extensive home-range size and relatively low population densities. Yet this level of genetic diversity also suggests that conservation efforts benefiting this unusual species should be prioritized, especially in the face of the accelerating degradation and fragmentation of Madagascar's forests.

  4. [Nocturnal hypoxemia and arrhythmia in patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases (COLD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarski, K

    1989-05-01

    A decrease in the arterial blood saturation by oxygen in patients with POChP is a frequent phenomenon. It is more serious in patients type blue boaters and less frequent among patients type pink puffers. The aim of the paper was to compare the arterial blood saturation by oxygen in the groups examined during two nights: during the first night the patients breathed atmospheric air whereas during the second night they were given oxygen. The author also studied the influence of oxygenation of an organism on the frequency of cardiac rhythm disorders (ZRS). The author examined a group of 20 patients with the predominance of chronic bronchitis--blue boaters (average VC was 1.95 l, FEV1--0.81 l, PaO2 while breathing atmospheric air 52 mm Hg and 68 mm Hg after giving oxygen, PaCO2 47 and 51 mm Hg respectively) and 20 patients with the predominance of emphysema--pink puffers (average VC--2.30 l, FEV1--0.86 l, PaO2 while breathing atmospheric air 60 mm Hg and 70 mm Hg after giving oxygen, PaCO2 39 and 40 mm respectively). It was found that the patients with heavy hypoxaemia and hypercapnia had worse arterial blood saturation by oxygen during the two nights of investigation in comparison with the other group. The author also found more frequent cardiac rhythm disorders in this group of patients. Giving oxygen improved blood oxygenation in the two groups and lowered the frequency of cardiac rhythm disorders. The results obtained indicate to the need of oxygen therapy in patients with advanced POChP, especially during the night so as to avoid nocturnal hypoxaemia of an organism.

  5. Detection of Nocturnal Slow Wave Sleep Based on Cardiorespiratory Activity in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M; Haakma, Reinder; Rolink, Jerome; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Human slow wave sleep (SWS) during bedtime is paramount for energy conservation and memory consolidation. This study aims at automatically detecting SWS from nocturnal sleep using cardiorespiratory signals that can be acquired with unobtrusive sensors in a home-based scenario. From the signals, time-dependent features are extracted for continuous 30-s epochs. To reduce the measuring noise, body motion artifacts, and/or within-subject variability in physiology conveyed by the features, and thus, enhance the detection performance, we propose to smooth the features over each night using a spline fitting method. In addition, it was found that the changes in cardiorespiratory activity precede the transitions between SWS and the other sleep stages (non-SWS). To this matter, a novel scheme is proposed that performs the SWS detection for each epoch using the feature values prior to that epoch. Experiments were conducted with a large dataset of 325 overnight polysomnography (PSG) recordings using a linear discriminant classifier and tenfold cross validation. Features were selected with a correlation-based method. Results show that the performance in classifying SWS and non-SWS can be significantly improved when smoothing the features and using the preceding feature values of 5-min earlier. We achieved a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.57 (at an accuracy of 88.8%) using only six selected features for 257 recordings with a minimum of 30-min overnight SWS that were considered representative of their habitual sleeping pattern at home. These features included the standard deviation, low-frequency spectral power, and detrended fluctuation of heartbeat intervals as well as the variations of respiratory frequency and upper and lower respiratory envelopes. A marked drop in Kappa to 0.21 was observed for the other nights with SWS time of less than 30 min, which were found to more likely occur in elderly. This will be the future challenge in cardiorespiratory-based SWS detection.

  6. The Clock mutant mouse is a novel experimental model for nocturia and nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Tatsuya; Mitsui, Takahiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Kira, Satoru; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Norifumi; Hirayama, Yuri; Shibata, Keisuke; Shigetomi, Eiji; Shinozaki, Yoichi; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Nakao, Atsuhito; Takeda, Masayuki; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2017-04-01

    The pathophysiologies of nocturia (NOC) and nocturnal polyuria (NP) are multifactorial and their etiologies remain unclear in a large number of patients. Clock genes exist in most cells and organs, and the products of Clock regulate circadian rhythms as representative clock genes. Clock genes regulate lower urinary tract function, and a newly suggested concept is that abnormalities in clock genes cause lower urinary tract symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the voiding behavior of Clock mutant (Clock Δ19/Δ19 ) mice in order to determine the effects of clock genes on NOC/NP. Male C57BL/6 mice aged 8-12 weeks (WT) and male C57BL/6 Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice aged 8 weeks were used. They were bred under 12 hr light/dark conditions for 2 weeks and voiding behavior was investigated by measuring water intake volume, urine volume, urine volume/void, and voiding frequency in metabolic cages in the dark and light periods. No significant differences were observed in behavior patterns between Clock Δ19/Δ19 and WT mice. Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice showed greater voiding frequencies and urine volumes during the sleep phase than WT mice. The diurnal change in urine volume/void between the dark and light periods in WT mice was absent in Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Additionally, functional bladder capacity was significantly lower in Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice than in WT mice. We demonstrated that Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice showed the phenotype of NOC/NP. The Clock Δ19/Δ19 mouse may be used as an animal model of NOC and NP. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1034-1038, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Is Nocturnal Foraging in a Tropical Bee an Escape From Interference Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Kitchen, Shannon M; Toney, Ryan M; Ziegler, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Temporal niche partitioning may result from interference competition if animals shift their activity patterns to avoid aggressive competitors. If doing so also shifts food sources, it is difficult to distinguish the effects of interference and consumptive competition in selecting for temporal niche shift. Bees compete for pollen and nectar from flowers through both interference and consumptive competition, and some species of bees have evolved nocturnality. Here, we use tropical forest canopy towers to observe bees (the night-flying sweat bees Megalopta genalis and M. centralis [Halictidae], honey bees, and stingless bees [Apidae]) visiting flowers of the balsa tree (Ochroma pyramalidae, Malvaceae). Because Ochroma flowers are open in the late afternoon through the night we can test the relative influence of each competition type on temporal nice. Niche shift due to consumptive competition predicts that Megalopta forage when resources are available: from afternoon into the night. Niche shift due to interference competition predicts that Megalopta forage only in the absence of diurnal bees. We found no overlap between diurnal bees and Megalopta in the evening, and only one instance of overlap in the morning, despite the abundance of pollen and nectar in the late afternoon and evening. This supports the hypothesis that Megalopta are avoiding interference competition, but not the hypothesis that they are limited by consumptive competition. We propose that the release from interference competition enables Megalopta to provision cells quickly, and spend most of their time investing in nest defense. Thus, increases in foraging efficiency directly resulting from temporal shifts to escape interference competition may indirectly lead to reduced predation and parasitism. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  9. Experiments on aerosol-induced cooling in the nocturnal boundary layer

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    Sreenivas, K.; Singh, D. K.; Vk, P.; Mukund, V.; Subramanian, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), under calm & clear-sky conditions, radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer & it determines the temperature distribution close to the ground. Radiative processes thus influence the surface energy budget, & play a decisive role in many micro-meteorological processes including the formation of radiation-fog & inversion layer. Here, we report hyper-cooling of air layers close to the ground that has a radiative origin. Resulting vertical temperature distribution has an anomalous profile with an elevated minimum few decimetres above the ground (known as Lifted Temperature Minimum; LTM). Even though the first observation of this type of profile dates back to 1930s, its origin has not been explained till recently. We report field experiments to elucidate effects of emissivity and other physical properties of the ground on the LTM profile. Field observations clearly indicate that LTM-profiles are observed as a rule in the lowest meter of the NBL. We also demonstrate that the air-layer near the ground, rather than the ground itself, leads the post sunset cooling. This fact changes the very nature of the sensible heat-flux boundary condition. A laboratory experimental setup has been developed that can reproduce LTM. Lab-experiments demonstrate that the high cooling rates observed in the field experiments arise from the presence of aerosols & the intensity of cooling is proportional to aerosol concentration (Fig-1). We have also captured penetrative convection cells in the field experiments (Fig-2). Results presented here thus help in parameterizing transport processes in the NBL.

  10. The nocturnal acoustical intensity of the intensive care environment: an observational study.

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    Delaney, Lori J; Currie, Marian J; Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Lopez, Violeta; Litton, Edward; Van Haren, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) environment exposes patients to noise levels that may result in substantial sleep disruption. There is a need to accurately describe the intensity pattern and source of noise in the ICU in order to develop effective sound abatement strategies. The objectives of this study were to determine nocturnal noise levels and their variability and the related sources of noise within an Australian tertiary ICU. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a 24-bed open-plan ICU. Sound levels were recorded overnight during three nights at 5-s epochs using Extech (SDL 600) sound monitors. Noise sources were concurrently logged by two research assistants. The mean recorded ambient noise level in the ICU was 52.85 decibels (dB) (standard deviation (SD) 5.89), with a maximum noise recording at 98.3 dB (A). All recorded measurements exceeded the WHO recommendations. Noise variability per minute ranged from 9.9 to 44 dB (A), with peak noise levels >70 dB (A) occurring 10 times/hour (SD 11.4). Staff were identified as the most common source accounting for 35% of all noise. Mean noise levels in single-patient rooms compared with open-bed areas were 53.5 vs 53 dB ( p  = 0.37), respectively. Mean noise levels exceeded those recommended by the WHO resulting in an acoustical intensity of 193 times greater than the recommended and demonstrated a high degree of unpredictable variability, with the primary noise sources coming from staff conversations. The lack of protective effects of single rooms and the contributing effects that staffs have on noise levels are important factors when considering sound abatement strategies.

  11. Validation of farm-scale methane emissions using nocturnal boundary layer budgets

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    J. Stieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the first experimental validation of Swiss agricultural methane emission estimates at the farm scale. We measured CH4 concentrations at a Swiss farmstead during two intensive field campaigns in August 2011 and July 2012 to (1 quantify the source strength of livestock methane emissions using a tethered balloon system and (2 to validate inventory emission estimates via nocturnal boundary layer (NBL budgets. Field measurements were performed at a distance of 150 m from the nearest farm buildings with a tethered balloon system in combination with gradient measurements at eight heights on a 10 m tower to better resolve the near-surface concentrations. Vertical profiles of air temperature, relative humidity, CH4 concentration, wind speed, and wind direction showed that the NBL was strongly influenced by local transport processes and by the valley wind system. Methane concentrations showed a pronounced time course, with highest concentrations in the second half of the night. NBL budget flux estimates were obtained via a time–space kriging approach. Main uncertainties of NBL budget flux estimates were associated with nonstationary atmospheric conditions and the estimate of the inversion height zi (top of volume integration. The mean NBL budget fluxes of 1.60 ± 0.31 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 (1.40 ± 0.50 and 1.66 ± 0.20 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively were in good agreement with local inventory estimates based on current livestock number and default emission factors, with 1.29 ± 0.47 and 1.74 ± 0.63 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 for 2011 and 2012 respectively. This indicates that emission factors used for the national inventory reports are adequate, and we conclude that the NBL budget approach is a useful tool to validate emission inventory estimates.

  12. Validation of farm-scale methane emissions using nocturnal boundary layer budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, J.; Bamberger, I.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2015-12-01

    This study provides the first experimental validation of Swiss agricultural methane emission estimates at the farm scale. We measured CH4 concentrations at a Swiss farmstead during two intensive field campaigns in August 2011 and July 2012 to (1) quantify the source strength of livestock methane emissions using a tethered balloon system and (2) to validate inventory emission estimates via nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) budgets. Field measurements were performed at a distance of 150 m from the nearest farm buildings with a tethered balloon system in combination with gradient measurements at eight heights on a 10 m tower to better resolve the near-surface concentrations. Vertical profiles of air temperature, relative humidity, CH4 concentration, wind speed, and wind direction showed that the NBL was strongly influenced by local transport processes and by the valley wind system. Methane concentrations showed a pronounced time course, with highest concentrations in the second half of the night. NBL budget flux estimates were obtained via a time-space kriging approach. Main uncertainties of NBL budget flux estimates were associated with nonstationary atmospheric conditions and the estimate of the inversion height zi (top of volume integration). The mean NBL budget fluxes of 1.60 ± 0.31 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 (1.40 ± 0.50 and 1.66 ± 0.20 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively) were in good agreement with local inventory estimates based on current livestock number and default emission factors, with 1.29 ± 0.47 and 1.74 ± 0.63 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 for 2011 and 2012 respectively. This indicates that emission factors used for the national inventory reports are adequate, and we conclude that the NBL budget approach is a useful tool to validate emission inventory estimates.

  13. Characteristics of nocturnal coastal boundary layer in Ahtopol based on averaged SODAR profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barantiev, Damyan; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Novitzky, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The ground-based remote sensing instruments allow studying the wind regime and the turbulent characteristics of the atmosphere with height, achieving new knowledge and solving practical problems, such as air quality assessments, mesoscale models evaluation with high resolution data, characterization of the exchange processes between the surface and the atmosphere, the climate comfort conditions and the risk for extreme events, etc. Very important parameter in such studies is the height of the atmospheric boundary layer. Acoustic remote sensing data of the coastal atmospheric boundary layer were explored based on over 4-years continuous measurements at the meteorological observatory of Ahtopol (Bulgarian Southern Black Sea Coast) under Bulgarian - Russian scientific agreement. Profiles of 12 parameters from a mid-range acoustic sounding instrument type SCINTEC MFAS are derived and averaged up to about 600 m according filtering based on wind direction (land or sea type of night fowls). From the whole investigated period of 1454 days with 10-minute resolution SODAR data 2296 profiles represented night marine air masses and 1975 profiles represented the night flow from land during the months May to September. Graphics of averaged profiles of 12 SODAR output parameters with different availability of data in height are analyzed for both cases. A marine boundary-layer height of about 300 m is identified in the profiles of standard deviation of vertical wind speed (σw), Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) and eddy dissipation rate (EDR). A nocturnal boundary-layer height of about 420 m was identified from the profiles of the same parameters under flows from land condition. In addition, the Buoyancy Production (BP= σw3/z) profiles were calculated from the standard deviation of the vertical wind speed and the height z above ground.

  14. Aberrant whole-brain functional connectivity and intelligence structure in children with primary nocturnal enuresis.

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    Bing Yu

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the potential relationship between intelligence structure abnormalities and whole-brain functional connectivity in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to provide insights into the association between these two seemingly unrelated conditions. METHODS: Intelligence testing and fMRI data were obtained from 133 right-handed children, including 67 PNE children (M/F, 39:28; age, 10.5 ± 1.2 y and 66 age-matched healthy controls (M/F, 37:29; age, 10.1 ± 1.1 y. All intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC. Each subject's full intelligence quotient (FIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ, performance IQ (PIQ, and memory/caution (M/C factor was measured and recorded. Resting state fMRI scans were performed on a 3.0-T MR scanner and post-processed using REST software. Comparisons of z-score correlation coefficients between distinct cerebral regions were used to identify altered functional connectivity in PNE children. RESULTS: The PNE group had normal FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ values, indicating no significant variation from the control group. However, the M/C factor was significantly lower in the PNE group. Compared to the control group, PNE children exhibited overall lower levels of functional connectivity that were most apparent in the cerebello-thalamo-frontal pathway. The M/C factor significantly correlated with z-scores representing connectivity between Cerebellum_Crus1_L and Frontal_Mid_R. CONCLUSION: PNE children exhibit intelligence structure imbalance and attention deficits. Our findings suggest that cerebello-thalamo-frontal circuit abnormalities are likely to be involved in the onset and progression of attention impairment in PNE children.

  15. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  16. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  17. Structural Characteristics of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems in the U.S. Great Plains as Observed During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Torres, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer in the U.S. Great Plains, some of the heaviest precipitation falls from large thunderstorm complexes known as Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). These frequently occurring MCSs are often