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Sample records for noble characters orestes

  1. Intertextuality in Ancient Greek Tragedy: The Case of Euripidean Orestes

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    Blaž Zabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of intertextuality in understanding Euripides’ Orestes, beginning with an overview of intertextuality theories, especially those from the domain of structuralism, i.e. by Julia Kristeva (and Mikhail Bakhtin, Roland Barthes, Michael Riffaterre, and Gérard Genette. The second part of the paper discusses the theoretical implications of intertextuality for classical philology and provides a literature review of intertextuality in Orestes. The concluding part presents three possible objections to Zeitlin’s argument about the intertextuality of Orestes. A discussion of the social context of the tragedy is followed by an account of the structuralists’ understanding of language and rounded off with speculations on the possibility of intertextuality in oral literature.

  2. Orestes Kinetics Model for the Electra KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Kepple, P.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Myers, M. C.; Sethian, J. D.; Petrov, G.; Wolford, M.; Hegeler, F.

    2003-10-01

    Orestes is a first principles simulation code for the electron deposition, plasma chemistry, laser transport, and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in an e-beam pumped KrF laser. Orestes has been benchmarked against results from Nike at NRL and the Keio laser facility. The modeling tasks are to support ongoing oscillator experiments on the Electra laser ( 500 J), to predict performance of Electra as an amplifier, and to develop scaling relations for larger systems such as envisioned for an inertial fusion energy power plant. In Orestes the energy deposition of the primary beam electrons is assumed to be spatially uniform, but the excitation and ionization of the Ar/Kr/F2 target gas by the secondary electrons is determined from the energy distribution function as calculated by a Boltzmann code. The subsequent plasma kinetics of 23 species subject to over 100 reactions is followed with 1-D spatial resolution along the lasing axis. In addition, the vibrational relaxation among excited electronic states of the KrF molecule are included in the kinetics since lasing at 248 nm can occur from several vibrational lines of the B state. Transport of the lasing photons is solved by the method of characteristics. The time dependent ASE is calculated in 3-D using a ``local look-back'' scheme with discrete ordinates and includes specular reflection off the side walls and rear mirror. Gain narrowing is treated by multi-frequency transport of the ASE. Calculations for the gain, saturation intensity, extraction efficiency, and laser output from the Orestes model will be presented and compared with available data from Electra operated as an oscillator. Potential implications for the difference in optimal F2 concentration will be discussed along with the effects of window transmissivity at 248 nm.

  3. Change point analysis: Elision in Euripides' Orestes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Laan, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of detecting multiple changes at unknown times in the mean level of elision in the trimeter sequences of the Orestes, a play written by the Ancient Greek dramatist Euripides (485-406 B.C.). Change-detection statistics proposed by MacNeill (1978) and Jandhayala and

  4. The use of Open Reading frame ESTs (ORESTES for analysis of the honey bee transcriptome

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    Soares Ademilson EE

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing efforts to sequence the honey bee genome require additional initiatives to define its transcriptome. Towards this end, we employed the Open Reading frame ESTs (ORESTES strategy to generate profiles for the life cycle of Apis mellifera workers. Results Of the 5,021 ORESTES, 35.2% matched with previously deposited Apis ESTs. The analysis of the remaining sequences defined a set of putative orthologs whose majority had their best-match hits with Anopheles and Drosophila genes. CAP3 assembly of the Apis ORESTES with the already existing 15,500 Apis ESTs generated 3,408 contigs. BLASTX comparison of these contigs with protein sets of organisms representing distinct phylogenetic clades revealed a total of 1,629 contigs that Apis mellifera shares with different taxa. Most (41% represent genes that are in common to all taxa, another 21% are shared between metazoans (Bilateria, and 16% are shared only within the Insecta clade. A set of 23 putative genes presented a best match with human genes, many of which encode factors related to cell signaling/signal transduction. 1,779 contigs (52% did not match any known sequence. Applying a correction factor deduced from a parallel analysis performed with Drosophila melanogaster ORESTES, we estimate that approximately half of these no-match ESTs contigs (22% should represent Apis-specific genes. Conclusions The versatile and cost-efficient ORESTES approach produced minilibraries for honey bee life cycle stages. Such information on central gene regions contributes to genome annotation and also lends itself to cross-transcriptome comparisons to reveal evolutionary trends in insect genomes.

  5. Obituaries: Oreste Piccioni, 86, a leader in particle physics field

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Oreste Piccioni, a leading scientist in the field of elementary particle physics and emeritus professor at the University of California, San Diego, USA, has died of complications from diabetes and lung cancer. He was 86 (1 page).

  6. An Intuitionistic Multiplicative ORESTE Method for Patients’ Prioritization of Hospitalization

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    Cheng Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The tension brought about by sickbeds is a common and intractable issue in public hospitals in China due to the large population. Assigning the order of hospitalization of patients is difficult because of complex patient information such as disease type, emergency degree, and severity. It is critical to rank the patients taking full account of various factors. However, most of the evaluation criteria for hospitalization are qualitative, and the classical ranking method cannot derive the detailed relations between patients based on these criteria. Motivated by this, a comprehensive multiple criteria decision making method named the intuitionistic multiplicative ORESTE (organísation, rangement et Synthèse dedonnées relarionnelles, in French was proposed to handle the problem. The subjective and objective weights of criteria were considered in the proposed method. To do so, first, considering the vagueness of human perceptions towards the alternatives, an intuitionistic multiplicative preference relation model is applied to represent the experts’ preferences over the pairwise alternatives with respect to the predetermined criteria. Then, a correlation coefficient-based weight determining method is developed to derive the objective weights of criteria. This method can overcome the biased results caused by highly-related criteria. Afterwards, we improved the general ranking method, ORESTE, by introducing a new score function which considers both the subjective and objective weights of criteria. An intuitionistic multiplicative ORESTE method was then developed and further highlighted by a case study concerning the patients’ prioritization.

  7. KENOREST - A new coupled code system based on KENO and OREST for criticality and burnup inventory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, U.; Gmal, B.; Voggenberger, Th.; Baleanu, M.; Langenbuch, S.

    2001-01-01

    The program system KENOREST version 1998 will be presented, which is a useful tool for burnup and reactivity calculations for LWR fuel. The three-dimensional Monte Carlo code KENO-V.a is coupled with the one-dimensional GRS burnup program system OREST-98. The objective is to achieve a better modelling of plutonium and actinide build-up or burnout for advanced heterogeneous fuel assembly designs. Further objectives are directed to reliable calculations of the pin power distributions and of reactor safety parameters including axial and radial rod temperatures for fuel assemblies of modern design. The stand-alone-code KENO-V.a version is used without any changes in the program source. The OREST-98 system was developed to handle multirod problems and additional burnup dependent moderator conditions which can be applied to stretch-out simulations in the reactor. A new interface module RESPEFF between KENO and OREST transforms the 2-d or 3-d KENO flux results to the one-dimensional lattice code OREST in a fully automated manner to maintain reaction rate balance between the codes. First results for assembly multiplication factors, isotope inventories are compared with OECD results. (author)

  8. Leonardo da Vinci maali näidatakse peagi Kadriorus / Gianni Glinni, Orest Kormašov ; intervjueerinud Mart Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glinni, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini 2010. a. Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed ning 6. veebruaril toimub Tallinna Ülikoolis maali analüüse tutvustav konverents. Portree leiti 2008. aastal ühest Lõuna-Itaalia erakogust. TLÜ kunstiosakonna juhataja Orest Kormašov valmistas maali järgi skulptuuri ja EKA tudeng ja graafiline disainer Helen Kokk arvutimudeli. Intervjuus jagavad teemakohaseid selgitusi üks uuringute eestvedaja Gianni Glinni ja Orest Kormašov

  9. Kas tõesti Leonardo da Vinci? / Orest Kormašov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kormašov, Orest, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini 2010 Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed ning 6. veebruaril toimub Tallinna Ülikoolis rahvusvaheline konverents "Võti Leonardo juurde" ("A Key to Leonardo"). Maalist, mille itaalia kunstiajaloolane Nicola Barbatelli leidis 2008. a. ühest erakogust Lõuna-Itaalias. Maali uuringutest, milles osalevad Orest Kormašov ja Helen Kokk, kes on loonud Leonardo da Vinci peast kolmedimensioonilise mudeli

  10. Leonardo da Vinci jõudis Tallinna / Orest Kormašov, Helen Kokk ; intervjueerinud Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kormašov, Orest, 1964-

    2010-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritakse 5.-12. veebruarini 2010. a. Leonardo da Vinci arvatavat autoportreed. Itaalia kunstiajaloolased kaasasid autoportree uurimisse Tallinna Ülikooli maaliosakonna juhataja Orest Kormašovi, kes teostas klassikalise portreeskulptuuri, ja Eesti Kunstiakadeemia graafilise disaini tudengi Helen Koka, kes valmistas arvutiimitatsiooni

  11. Figuras de la tiranía, lo femenino y lo masculino en la Orestía de Esquilo

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    Julián GALLEGO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza la construcción de la imagen del tirano en conjunción con las figuras femeninas y masculinas de la Orestía. Se pondera especialmente la figura de Clitemnestra en sus diversas asociaciones y oposiciones con los demás personajes de la trilogía. Finalmente se destaca la relevancia en la tragedia de las representaciones de los «otros» respecto del cuerpo de varones ciudadanos como modo de configuración de la identidad cívica ateniense.ABSTRACT: The article analyzes the construction of the tyrant's image in conjunction with the feminine and masculine figures of the Oresteia. It is pondered the figure of Clytemnestra especially in its diverse associations and oppositions with the other characters of the trilogy. Finally it stands out the relevance in the tragedy of the representations of those «others» regarding the body of citizen males as way of configuration of the Athenian civic identity.

  12. Orestes bojownikiem ruchu oporu, czyli mit Atrydów w filmie "Podróż komediantów" Theo Angelopoulosa

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    Iga Łomanowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orestes as a resistance fighter, or the myth of the Atreides in Theo Angelopoulos’s film The travelling players The paper examines the use of the Atreides myth in Theo Angelopoulos’s film The travelling players (1975 in the context of the director’s interpretation of the phenomenon of myth. Angelopoulos treated myth as a set of archetypical situations and patterns of conduct constantly reproduced in the history of the world. He intertwined elements of classical stories with the history of Greece and the Byzantine tradition, thus showing their universal character. In The travelling players, Angelopoulos used the story of betrayed and murdered Agamemnon, who is avenged by his children: Orestes and Electra, but he moved it into modern times, setting the film in Greece of the 1940s and 1950s. The myth is reproduced with modulations: the most important events take place as a result of interventions of History, not fate or decisions of the gods. Moreover, the characters’ conflicts are enriched with a political dimension, as Angelopolous portrays the discord between their ideological stances. But the members of the acting company are as helpless in the face of events as the family of the king of Argos.   Orestes bojownikiem ruchu oporu, czyli mit Atrydów w filmie Podróż komediantów Theo Angelopoulosa Artykuł jest analizą sposobu wykorzystania przez Theo Angelopoulosa mitu Atrydów w filmie Podróż komediantów (1975 w kontekście dokonanej przez niego interpretacji zjawiska mitu. Grecki reżyser traktował mit jako zbiór archetypicznych sytuacji i wzorów postępowania odtwarzanych nieustannie w dziejach świata. Elementy antycznych opowieści splatał w filmach z historią Grecji i tradycją bizantyjską, ujawniając ich uniwersalny charakter. W Podróży komediantów wykorzystał historię zdradzonego i zamordowanego Agamemnona, który zostaje pomszczony przez swoje dzieci: Orestesa i Elektrę, ale przeniósł ją w czasy wsp

  13. El mito de Orestes en Les mouches de Jean-Paul Sartre y El pan de todos de Alfonso Sastre: La necesidad de la acción

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    L. Rovecchio Antón L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENIn Les mouches and El pan de todos, Jean-Paul Sartre and Alfonso Sastre speak about the mythological figure of Orestes to reveal the problems of their society. In this article I will focus on the analysis of these two plays and, more specifically, the question of the necessity of the action, which is closely linked with human freedom. A freedom based on choosing a way that leads to direct action or passivity. A choice that, in turn, becomes the essence of human being.Keywords: Jean-Paul Sartre, Alfonso Sastre, Orestes, freedom, action.  ESEn Les mouches y El pan de todos, Jean-Paul Sartre y Alfonso Sastre discurren sobre la figura mitológica de Orestes para revelarnos los problemas de la sociedad que les rodea. En este artículo me centraré en el análisis de estas dos piezas teatrales y, más concretamente, en la cuestión de la necesidad de la acción, que está íntimamente ligada con la libertad del hombre. Una libertad que se basa en la elección de un camino que lleva a la actuación directa o a la pasividad. Una elección que, a su vez, se convierte en la esencia del ser humano.Palabras claves: Jean-Paul Sartre, Alfonso Sastre, Orestes, libertad, acción.

  14. Flameless atomic absorption determination of noble metals after extraction by mixture of di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric acid and n-octylaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhin, Yu.M.; Udalova, T.A.; Tsimbalist, V.G.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Geologii i Geofiziki)

    1985-01-01

    A possibility of using the mixture of di-2-ethylhexyl dithiophosphoric acid (D2EHDTPA) and p-octylaniline (OA) (extractants of acid and basic character) for extraction atomic absorption determination of noble metals is studied. The mixture of D2EHDTPA with OA is shown to extract noble metals from hydrochloric acid solutions with distribution factors > 10 3 . An extraction atomic absorption method for determination of noble metals in copperbearing materials is suggested. The minimum determined contents of noble metals at the initial sample equal to 100 for gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium make up (g/t) 0.0005, 0.0001, 0.015, 0.005, 0.002 and 0.015 respectively. Relative standard deviation constitutes Ssub(r)<0.2

  15. Exotic species with explicit noble metal-noble gas-noble metal linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Norberto; Restrepo, Albeiro; Hadad, C Z

    2018-02-14

    We present a study of the isoelectronic Pt 2 Ng 2 F 4 and [Au 2 Ng 2 F 4 ] 2+ species with noble gas atoms (Ng = Kr, Xe, Rn) acting as links bridging the two noble metal atoms. The stability of the species is investigated using several thermodynamic, kinetic and reactivity indicators. The results are compared against [AuXe 4 ] 2+ , which is thermodynamically unstable in the gas phase but is stabilized in the solid state to the point that it has been experimentally detected as [AuXe 4 ](Sb 2 F 11 ) 2 (S. Seidel and K. Seppelt, Science, 2000, 290, 117-118). Our results indicate that improving upon [AuXe 4 ] 2+ , these exotic combinations between the a priori non-reactive noble metals and noble gases lead to metastable species, and, therefore, they have the possibility of existing in the solid state under adequate conditions. Our calculations include accurate energies and geometries at both the CCSD/SDDALL and MP2/SDDALL levels. We offer a detailed description of the nature of the bonding interactions using orbital and density-based analyses. The computational evidence suggests partially covalent and ionic interactions as the stabilization factors.

  16. Brigand characters in the poetic vision of Tešan Podrugović

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    Baćović Vukašin K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay is about brigand characters by the name of Grujica Novakovic, The Old Man Novak and Lemon the merchant. These epic heroes are representatives of freedom ideas which, in Tesan's poetic vision solve many difficult situations, sometimes even in humorous manner. The opposite sides are Turkish invaders such as Risnjanin Hadzija descript in the poem as ruthless robber and senseless person. Also, this essay makes a retrospective with other characters from Serbian heroic epics. Podrugovic, as the supreme master of spoken word, when creating the character of Grujica Novakovic, makes a wide spectrum of events and characters. Not only that the humour itself has a positive effect, but makes the most quality out of it. Comic culmination is achieved in the scene when brigand Grujca gets hold of Dzafer-beg's treasure. He does not act as a noble person in this situation, but as a brigand. Faced with huge challenge of shining gleam of golden coins, brigand nature could not be hidden. Still, Podrugovic's Grujica is a great man by keeping his word in any kind of situation. He is acting in such a manner even with the beauty Dzafer-begovica. Altogether, every brigand character out of the pen of this Hercegovic's poem writer contain high ethical standards, heroic glory and humour rarely seen in such a high glow. This is the reason his poetry is deeply accepted among common people and his character Grujica, a hero and a brigand outlaw, as an example of highly ethical person, a brigand and a noble hero.

  17. A new species of the Pristimantis orestes group (Amphibia: Strabomantidae) from the high Andes of Ecuador, Reserva Mazar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Arteaga, Alejandro F

    2013-02-21

    We describe a new Pristimantis from La Libertad and Rumiloma, Reserva Mazar, Andes of Southeastern Ecuador, at elevations between 2895-3415 m. This species is assigned to the P. orestes group, from whose members it differs by its small body size (adult males ≤ 18.1 mm; adult females ≤ 23.7 mm), usually reticulated ventral pattern, and visible tympanum. The vocalization of the new species consists of a series of calls; each call is composed by a pulsed, non-modulated note in frequency, and with a dominant frequency of 3122-3171 Hz. A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S shows that the new species is sister to Pristimantis simonbolivari.

  18. Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  19. Methods of integrating Islamic values in teaching biology for shaping attitude and character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listyono; Supardi, K. I.; Hindarto, N.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Learning is expected to develop the potential of learners to have the spiritual attitude: moral strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, as well as the skills needed by themselves, society, and nation. Implementation of role and morale in learning is an alternative way which is expected to answer the challenge. The solution offered is to inject student with religious material Islamic in learning biology. The content value of materials teaching biology includes terms of practical value, religious values, daily life value, socio-political value, and the value of art. In Islamic religious values (Qur'an and Hadith) various methods can touch human feelings, souls, and generate motivation. Integrating learning with Islamic value can be done by the deductive or inductive approach. The appropriate method of integration is the amtsal (analog) method, hiwar (dialog) method, targhib & tarhib (encouragement & warning) method, and example method (giving a noble role model / good example). The right strategy in integrating Islamic values is outlined in the design of lesson plan. The integration of Islamic values in lesson plan will facilitate teachers to build students' character because Islamic values can be implemented in every learning steps so students will be accustomed to receiving the character value in this integrated learning.

  20. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  1. Noble gases in common rocks and their bearing on noble gas occurrences in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazor, E.

    1978-10-01

    The comparison of the noble gases contents in different rocks and in thermal and cold water sources in the French Massif Central was aimed to define the amounts and nature of noble gases contributed by country rocks as opposed to atmospheric noble gases brought in by recharged water. No difference in the noble gas contents was found between waters coming in igneous rocks to those issuing in sedimentary rocks. In both, significant variations in the contents of atmospheric and radiogenic noble gases were found. Radiogenic helium has been found to reveal a positive correlation to the contents of atmospheric Ne, Ar, Kr. This indicates water recharge into the deep part of the systems, mixing with radiogenic He and Ar flushed from igneous and sedimentary rocks and subsequent partial gas loss. Loss of gas is evident from the observed low noble gas contents. These losses have been accompanied by a reversed retention pattern of Ne, Ar, Xc. This reversed retention pattern cannot be an artifact of sampling as well as cannot result by partial steam loss. A similar interpretation for the observed noble gas depletions that agrees with the fact that the observed fractionation patterns are not ''normal'' is given by deuterium and oxygen-18. The stable isotope data seem to exclude partial steam losses

  2. Javanese Character Feature Extraction Based on Shape Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Hendra Wibowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Javanese character is one of Indonesia's noble culture, especially in Java. However, the number of Javanese people who are able to read the letter has decreased so that there need to be conservation efforts in the form of a system that is able to recognize the characters. One solution to these problem lies in Optical Character Recognition (OCR studies, where one of its heaviest points lies in feature extraction which is to distinguish each character. Shape Energy is one of feature extraction method with the basic idea of how the character can be distinguished simply through its skeleton. Based on the basic idea, then the development of feature extraction is done based on its components to produce an angular histogram with various variations of multiples angle. Furthermore, the performance test of this method and its basic method is performed in Javanese character dataset, which has been obtained from various images, is 240 data with 19 labels by using K-Nearest Neighbors as its classification method. Performance values were obtained based on the accuracy which is generated through the Cross-Validation process of 80.83% in the angular histogram with an angle of 20 degrees, 23% better than Shape Energy. In addition, other test results show that this method is able to recognize rotated character with the lowest performance value of 86% at 180-degree rotation and the highest performance value of 96.97% at 90-degree rotation. It can be concluded that this method is able to improve the performance of Shape Energy in the form of recognition of Javanese characters as well as robust to the rotation.

  3. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  4. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  5. Recovery and use of fission product noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, G.A.; Rohmann, C.A.; Perrigo, L.D.

    1980-06-01

    Noble metals in fission products are of strategic value. Market prices for noble metals are rising more rapidly than recovery costs. A promising concept has been developed for recovery of noble metals from fission product waste. Although the assessment was made only for the three noble metal fission products (Rh, Pd, Ru), there are other fission products and actinides which have potential value

  6. Nanoparticles of noble metals in the supergene zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmodik, S. M.; Kalinin, Yu. A.; Roslyakov, N. A.; Mironov, A. G.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Belyanin, D. K.; Nemirovskaya, N. A.; Spiridonov, A. M.; Nesterenko, G. V.; Airiyants, E. V.; Moroz, T. N.; Bul'bak, T. A.

    2012-04-01

    Formation of noble metal nanoparticles is related to various geological processes in the supergene zone. Dispersed mineral phases appear during weathering of rocks with active participation of microorganisms, formation of soil, in aqueous medium and atmosphere. Invisible gold and other noble metals are incorporated into oxides, hydroxides, and sulfides, as well as in dispersed organic and inorganic carbonic matter. Sulfide minerals that occur in bedrocks and ores unaltered by exogenic processes and in cementation zone are among the main concentrators of noble metal nanoparticles. The ability of gold particles to disaggregate is well-known and creates problems in technological and analytical practice. When Au and PGE nanoparticles and clusters occur, these problems are augmented because of their unusual reactions and physicochemical properties. The studied gold, magnetite, titanomagnetite and pyrite microspherules from cementation zone and clay minerals of laterites in Republic of Guinea widen the knowledge of their abundance and inferred formation conditions, in particular, in the contemporary supergene zone. Morphology and composition of micrometer-sized Au mineral spherules were studied with SEM and laser microprobe. The newly formed segregations of secondary gold on the surface of its residual grains were also an object of investigation. The character of such overgrowths is the most indicative for nanoparticles. The newly formed Au particles provide evidence for redistribution of ultradispersed gold during weathering. There are serious prerequisites to state that microorganisms substantially control unusual nano-sized microspherical morphology of gold particles in the supergene zone. This is supported by experiments indicating active absorption of gold by microorganisms and direct evidence for participation of Ralstonia metallidurans bacteria in the formation of peculiar corroded bacteriomorphic surface of gold grains. In addition, the areas enriched in carbon

  7. Comparison of the tensile bond strength of high-noble, noble, and base metal alloys bonded to enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, D; Nayir, E; Pamuk, S

    2000-11-01

    Although the bond strengths of various resin composite luting materials have been reported in the literature, the evaluation of these systems with various cast alloys of different compositions has not been completely clarified. To evaluate the tensile bond strength of sandblasted high-noble, noble, and base metal alloys bonded to etched enamel by 2 different bonding agents of different chemical composition: Panavia-Ex (BIS-GMA) and Super-Bond (4-META acrylic). Flat enamel surfaces were prepared on buccal surfaces of 60 extracted noncarious human incisors. Teeth were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Twenty circular disks of 5 mm diameter were prepared for casting for each group. Group I was cast with a high-noble, group II with a noble, and group III with a base metal alloy. The surfaces of the disks were sandblasted with 250 microm Al(2)O(3). Ten disks of each group were bonded to exposed enamel surfaces with Super-Bond and 10 disks with Panavia-Ex as recommended by the manufacturer. The tensile bond strength was measured with an Instron universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure occurred. Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the results. The differences in bond strengths of Super-Bond and Panavia-Ex with different alloys were not significant. The highest bond strengths were obtained in base metal alloys, followed by noble and high-noble alloys. These results were significant. Panavia-Ex and Super-Bond exhibited comparable tensile bond strengths. For both luting agents, the highest bond strengths were achieved with base metal alloys and the lowest with high-noble alloys.

  8. The failures in the noble virtus of the Calderonian wife-murderers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Tobar Quintanar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The author of this article defends that the dramatic character of the three Calderonian wife-murderers (don Gutierre Alfonso de Solís, don Lope de Almeida and don Juan Roca doesn´t fit to the noble decorum they should have. First the study presents the virtues ideally associated with the nobility in the Golden Age. Afterwards, the detailed analysis of the behaviour of those husbands reveals some failures in their supposed design as perfect heroes: they don´t dominate their violent passions, they judge precipitately the available data and make some mistakes in the application of the honour code. In consequence, they are imperfect nobles who help in a decisive way —but unnoticed for them— to the tragedies they take the chief role in. Resumen:En este trabajo se defiende que el carácter dramático de los tres uxoricidas calderonianos (don Gutierre Alfonso de Solís, don Lope de Almeida y don Juan Roca no se ajusta en diversas ocasiones al decoro nobiliario que cabría esperar en ellos. Primeramente se establece la nómina de virtudes que se asociaba con la nobleza de manera ideal en la época áurea. Posteriormente, el análisis detallado de la conducta de esos maridos revela fallos en su supuesto diseño como héroes intachables: no dominan sus violentas pasiones, juzgan precipitadamente los datos disponibles y cometen errores en la aplicación del código del honor. Se trata, por tanto, de nobles imperfectos que contribuyen de manera decisiva -aunque inadvertida para ellos- a las tragedias que protagonizan.

  9. Muonium formation in noble gases and noble gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.; Casperson, D.E.; Crane, T.W.; Hughes, V.W.; Kaspar, H.F.; Souder, P.; Thompson, P.A.; Orth, H.; zu Putlitz, G.; Denison, A.B.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment is reported to study the behavior of positive muons stopped in He, Ne, and Xe in order to provide a more complete understanding of muonium formation in the noble gases. Free muon and muonium precession are plotted. (U.S.)

  10. Measuring the noble metal and iodine composition of extracted noble metal phase from spent nuclear fuel using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, R.I.; Dayman, K.J.; Landsberger, S.; Biegalski, S.R.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Casella, A.J.; Brady Raap, M.C.; Schwantes, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Masses of noble metal and iodine nuclides in the metallic noble metal phase extracted from spent fuel are measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Nuclide presence is predicted using fission yield analysis, and radionuclides are identified and the masses quantified using neutron activation analysis. The nuclide compositions of noble metal phase derived from two dissolution methods, UO 2 fuel dissolved in nitric acid and UO 2 fuel dissolved in ammonium-carbonate and hydrogen-peroxide solution, are compared. - Highlights: • The noble metal phase was chemically extracted from spent nuclear fuel and analyzed non-destructively. • Noble metal phase nuclides and long-lived iodine were identified and quantified using neutron activation analysis. • Activation to shorter-lived radionuclides allowed rapid analysis of long-lived fission products in spent fuel using gamma spectrometry

  11. Character Education Based on Religious Values: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sukardi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Character education in Indonesia has become a necessity that can not be negotiable. Various cases of crime and moral deviations become evident that the character of most citizens already at alarming stage. Therefore, since the beginning, national education is not only aimed at generating human intelligent and skilled, but also of noble character. This is realized through the introduction of 18 characters excel in school (religious, honest, disciplined, tolerance, and so on. In the Islamic perspective character education paired with akhlak (Islamic ethics education. Among the important characteristics are: it sourced from the Quran Hadith; Prophet Muhammad as a role model; priority-based methods of mental-spiritual (soul management, habituation, exemplary, and healthy environment; are simultaneous in which three education centers, namely schools, families, and communities should play a role in synergy. The government and the mass media also play a role in supporting the education of character.   Pendidikan karakter di Indonesia telah menjadi kebutuhan yang tidak dapat ditawar. Berbagai kasus kejahatan moral dan penyimpangan menjadi jelas bahwa karakter sebagian besar warga sudah pada tahap mengkhawatirkan. Oleh karena itu, sejak awal, pendidikan nasional tidak hanya bertujuan menghasilkan manusia cerdas dan terampil, tetapi juga karakter yang mulia. Hal ini diwujudkan melalui pengenalan 18 karakter berprestasi di sekolah (agama, jujur, disiplin, tolerann, dan sebagainya. Dalam pendidikan karakter perspektif Islam dipasangkan dengan pendidikan akhlak (etika Islam. Di antara karakteristik penting adalah: itu bersumber dari al-Quran Hadis; Nabi Muhammad sebagai panutan; metode berbasis prioritas mental-spiritual (manajemen jiwa, pembiasaan, keteladanan, dan lingkungan yang sehat; yang simultan di mana tiga pusat pendidikan, yaitu sekolah, keluarga, dan masyarakat harus berperan dalam sinergi. Pemerintah dan media massa juga berperan dalam mendukung

  12. Noble Gas signatures of Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Tyne, R. L.; Hillegonds, D.; Byrne, D. J.; Landon, M. K.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Noble gases are powerful tracers of fluids from various oil and gas production activities in hydrocarbon reservoirs and nearby groundwater. Non-radiogenic noble gases are introduced into undisturbed oil and natural gas reservoirs through exchange with formation waters [1-3]. Reservoirs with extensive hydraulic fracturing, injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and/or waste disposal also show evidence for a component of noble gases introduced from air [4]. Isotopic and elemental ratios of noble gases can be used to 1) assess the migration history of the injected and formation fluids, and 2) determine the extent of exchange between multiphase fluids in different reservoirs. We present noble gas isotope and abundance data from casing, separator and injectate gases of the Lost Hills and Fruitvale oil fields in the San Joaquin basin, California. Samples were collected as part of the California State Water Resource Control Board's Oil and Gas Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. Lost Hills (n=7) and Fruitvale (n=2) gases are geochemically distinct and duplicate samples are highly reproducible. Lost Hills casing gas samples were collected from areas where EOR and hydraulic fracturing has occurred in the past several years, and from areas where EOR is absent. The Fruitvale samples were collected from a re-injection port. All samples are radiogenic in their He isotopes, typical of a crustal environment, and show enrichments in heavy noble gases, resulting from preferential adsorption on sediments. Fruitvale samples reflect air-like surface conditions, with higher air-derived noble gas concentrations. Lost Hills gases show a gradation from pristine crustal signatures - indicative of closed-system exchange with formation fluids - to strongly air-contaminated signatures in the EOR region. Pristine samples can be used to determine the extent of hydrocarbon exchange with fluids, whereas samples with excess air can be used to quantify the extent of EOR. Determining noble

  13. Noble magnetic barriers in the ASDEX UG tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Vazquez, Justin

    2010-02-01

    The second-order perturbation method of creating invariant tori inside chaos in Hamiltonian systems (Ali, H.; Punjabi, A. Plasma Phys. Contr. F. 2007, 49, 1565-1582) is applied to the axially symmetric divertor experiment upgrade (ASDEX UG) tokamak to build noble irrational magnetic barriers inside chaos created by resonant magnetic perturbations (m, n)=(3, 2)+(4, 3), with m and n the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers of the Fourier expansion of the magnetic perturbation. The radial dependence of the Fourier modes is ignored. The modes are considered to be locked and have the same amplitude δ. A symplectic mathematical mapping in magnetic coordinates is used to integrate magnetic field line trajectories in the ASDEX UG. Tori with noble irrational rotational transform are the last ones to be destroyed by perturbation in Hamiltonian systems. For this reason, noble irrational magnetic barriers are built inside chaos, and the strongest noble irrational barrier is identified. Three candidate locations for the strongest noble barrier in ASDEX UG are selected. All three candidate locations are chosen to be roughly midway between the resonant rational surfaces ψ32 and ψ43. ψ is the magnetic coordinate of the flux surface. The three candidate surfaces are the noble irrational surfaces close to the surface with q value that is a mediant of q=3/2 and 4/3, q value of the physical midpoint of the two resonant surfaces, and the q value of the surface where the islands of the two perturbing modes just overlap. These q values of the candidate surfaces are denoted by q MED, q MID, and q OVERLAP. The strongest noble barrier close to q MED has the continued fraction representation (CFR) [1;2,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤2.6599×10-4; the strongest noble barrier close to q MID has CFR [1;2,2,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤4.6311×10-4; and the strongest noble barrier close to q OVERLAP has CFR [1;2,2,6,2,1∞] and exists for δ≤1.367770×10-4. From these results, the strongest

  14. Noble-Metal Chalcogenide Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Zibouche

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the stability and the electronic properties of hypothetical noble-metal chalcogenide nanotubes PtS2, PtSe2, PdS2 and PdSe2 by means of density functional theory calculations. Our findings show that the strain energy decreases inverse quadratically with the tube diameter, as is typical for other nanotubes. Moreover, the strain energy is independent of the tube chirality and converges towards the same value for large diameters. The band-structure calculations show that all noble-metal chalcogenide nanotubes are indirect band gap semiconductors. The corresponding band gaps increase with the nanotube diameter rapidly approaching the respective pristine 2D monolayer limit.

  15. 77 FR 70159 - Marble River, LLC v. Noble Clinton Windpark I, LLC, Noble Ellenburg Windpark, LLC, Noble...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-20-000] Marble River... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, Marble River, LLC (Marble River or Complainant.... (NYISO or Respondent), alleging that Noble failed to pay Marble River for headroom created by common...

  16. Structural energetics of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujibur Rahman, S.M.

    1982-06-01

    Structural energetics of the noble metals, namely Cu, Ag, and Au are investigated by employing a single-parameter pseudopotential. The calculations show that the lowest energy for all of these metals corresponds to FCC - their observed crystal structure. The one-electron contribution to the free energy is found to dominate the structural prediction for these metals. The present investigation strongly emphasizes that the effects due to band hybridization and core-core exchange play a significant role on the structural stability of the noble metals. (author)

  17. Primordial Noble Gases from Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Lu, X.; Brodholt, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Recent partitioning experiment suggests helium is more compatible in iron melt than in molten silicates at high pressures (> 10 GPa) (1), thus provide the possibility of the core as being the primordial noble gases warehouse that is responsible for the high primordial/radiogenic noble gas isotopic ratios observed in plume-related basalts. However, the possible transportation mechanism of the noble gases from the core to the overlying mantle is still ambiguous, understanding how this process would affect the noble gas isotopic characteristics of the mantle is critical to validate this core reservoir model. As diffusion is a dominant mass transport process that plays an important role in chemical exchange at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), we have determined the diffusion coefficients of helium, neon and argon in major lower mantle minerals, i.e. periclase (MgO), bridgemanite (MgSiO3-Pv) and post-perovskite (MgSiO3-PPv), by first-principles calculation based on density functional theory (DFT). As expected, the diffusion rate of helium is the fastest at the CMB, which is in the range of 3 × 10-10 to 1 × 10-8 m2/s. The neon diffusion is slightly slower, from 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-9 m2/s. Argon diffuses slowest at the rate from 1 × 10-10 to 2 × 10-10 m2/s. We have further simulated the evolution of noble gas isotopic ratios in the mantle near the CMB. Considering its close relationship with the mantle plumes and very likely to be the direct source of "hot-spot" basalts, we took a close investigation on the large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs). Under reasonable assumptions based on our diffusion parameters, the modelling results indicate that LLSVP is capable of generating all the noble gas isotope signals, e.g., 3He/4He = 55 Ra, 3He/22Ne = 3.1, 3He/36Ar = 0.82, 40Ar/36Ar = 9500, that are in good agreement with the observed values in "hot-spot" basalts (2). Therefore, this core-reservior hypothesis is a self-consistent model that can fits in multiple noble gas

  18. Noble gas atoms as chemical impurities in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.D.; Mudryi, A.V.; Minaev, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of noble gas atoms implanted in silicon is studied by the luminescence method. The energy position of Moessbauer-type luminescence bands with zero-phonon lines 1.0148, 1.0120, 1.0097, 1.0048 eV and others connected with implanted atoms of neon, helium, argon, krypton, respectively, indicates the formation of deep energy levels in the forbidden gap of silicon. Implantation of the noble gas isotopes confirms their participation in formation processes of the luminescence centers in silicon. The temperature range of existence and the symmetry of defects incorporating the noble gas atoms are found. It is noted that noble gas atoms form impurity complexes with deep energy levels and their behaviour in crystals does not differ from that of main doped or residual technological impurity atoms. (author)

  19. Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro V. Baptista

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the use of nanomaterials has been having a great impact in biosensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new biosensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry and high surface-to-volume ratios that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a plethora of biosensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing strategies—from synthesis and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics laboratory.

  20. Noble gases recycled into the mantle through cold subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smye, Andrew J.; Jackson, Colin R. M.; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Hesse, Marc A.; Parman, Steve W.; Shuster, David L.; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of hydrous and carbonated oceanic lithosphere replenishes the mantle volatile inventory. Substantial uncertainties exist on the magnitudes of the recycled volatile fluxes and it is unclear whether Earth surface reservoirs are undergoing net-loss or net-gain of H2O and CO2. Here, we use noble gases as tracers for deep volatile cycling. Specifically, we construct and apply a kinetic model to estimate the effect of subduction zone metamorphism on the elemental composition of noble gases in amphibole - a common constituent of altered oceanic crust. We show that progressive dehydration of the slab leads to the extraction of noble gases, linking noble gas recycling to H2O. Noble gases are strongly fractionated within hot subduction zones, whereas minimal fractionation occurs along colder subduction geotherms. In the context of our modelling, this implies that the mantle heavy noble gas inventory is dominated by the injection of noble gases through cold subduction zones. For cold subduction zones, we estimate a present-day bulk recycling efficiency, past the depth of amphibole breakdown, of 5-35% and 60-80% for 36Ar and H2O bound within oceanic crust, respectively. Given that hotter subduction dominates over geologic history, this result highlights the importance of cooler subduction zones in regassing the mantle and in affecting the modern volatile budget of Earth's interior.

  1. Monitoring of noble gas radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous radionuclides in the effluents of nuclear facilities is an essential requirement in effluent management programs. Since there is no practical way of removing noble gas radioisotopes from air at release pathways, their accurate monitoring is essential for providing appropriate environmental protection. Emitted γ dose-rate is the limiting factor for concentration-time integral of noble gas in gaseous effluents of reactor facilities. The external exposure to the public from a semi-infinite cloud is directly proportional to both the noble gas isotope concentration and the integrated γ energy per disintegration. Both can be directly measured in gaseous effluent pathways with a suitable detector. The capability of NaI(T1), CaF 2 (Eu) and plastic scintillation detectors to measure the γ-Ci.MeV content of noble gas releases was experimentally evaluated. The combination of CaF 2 (Eu) detector in a pressurized through-flow chamber, with a charge integrating scaler well complied with both γ energy response and detection sensitivity requirements. Noble gas source terms and effluent monitoring criteria are discussed, theoretical and experimental results are presented and a practical, on-line noble gas monitoring system is described

  2. Magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy of noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, L.; Uba, S.; Antonov, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    Magneto-optical (MO) response of the noble metals Cu, Ag, and Au in the joint experimental and ab initio theoretical study is reported. The magneto-optical polar Kerr effect (MOKE) spectra of the noble-metal films were measured with the high sensitivity in the applied magnetic field of 1.5 T over the photon energy range 0.74-5.8 eV. Complete set of the optical conductivity tensor elements was determined precisely from the MOKE and the optical spectra measured at the same energy points. The importance of the off-diagonal intraband Drude-type transitions is demonstrated explicitly for each noble metal and found to be a substantial contribution to the observed spectra. It is shown that the first-principles calculations using the spin-polarized fully relativistic Dirac linear-muffin-tin-orbital method with the inclusion of correlation effects by GGA+U approach reproduce well the experimental spectra and allow to explain the microscopic origin of the noble metals' magneto-optical response in terms of interband transitions. Although the energy band structures of Cu, Ag, and Au are very similar, there are some distinctive differences in bandwidths and the energy positions of the bands (especially in X and L symmetry points), mainly due to different spin-orbit splitting and differences in the spatial extent of 3 d , 4 d , and 5 d valence wave functions of noble metals. It was found that the small differences in the band positions lead to significant differences in the MO properties of three noble metals. Although the spin-orbit interaction in Au is about six times larger than in Cu, and approximately two times larger than in Ag, the absolute value of Kerr rotation in Au is of the same magnitude as in Cu and one order of magnitude smaller as compared to Ag. The sharp Kerr effect spectral peak in Ag is not due to the electronic interband transitions, but rather to the plasma-edge splitting. The band-by-band decomposition of the Cu, Ag, and Au MO spectra is presented and the

  3. Determination of natural in vivo noble-gas concentrations in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yama Tomonaga

    Full Text Available Although the naturally occurring atmospheric noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe possess great potential as tracers for studying gas exchange in living beings, no direct analytical technique exists for simultaneously determining the absolute concentrations of these noble gases in body fluids in vivo. In this study, using human blood as an example, the absolute concentrations of all stable atmospheric noble gases were measured simultaneously by combining and adapting two analytical methods recently developed for geochemical research purposes. The partition coefficients determined between blood and air, and between blood plasma and red blood cells, agree with values from the literature. While the noble-gas concentrations in the plasma agree rather well with the expected solubility equilibrium concentrations for air-saturated water, the red blood cells are characterized by a distinct supersaturation pattern, in which the gas excess increases in proportion to the atomic mass of the noble-gas species, indicating adsorption on to the red blood cells. This study shows that the absolute concentrations of noble gases in body fluids can be easily measured using geochemical techniques that rely only on standard materials and equipment, and for which the underlying concepts are already well established in the field of noble-gas geochemistry.

  4. International Conference on LIght Detection in Noble Elements

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the Light Detection in Noble Elements (LIDINE) 2015 conference is to promote discussion between the members of the particle and nuclear physics communities about light and charge collection in detectors based on liquid or gaseous noble elements, xenon and argon being the most common, but neon and helium also in use, and represented at this conference. The neutrino physics, ultra-cold neutron study, dark matter search, and medical physics communities all utilize noble-based detector technologies, recording UV scintillation and/or ionization. Therefore, this will be an interdisciplinary opportunity for information exchange, and a chance for each of these communities enumerated above, in the U.S. as well as abroad, to expand their technical knowledge bases.

  5. Noble gas absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method of removing a noble gas from air comprising the use of activated carbon filters in stages in which absorption and desorption steps in succession are conducted in order to increase the capacity of the filters is described. (U.S.)

  6. Solubility investigations in support of ultrasensitive noble gas detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Andersen, A.; Russ, W.R.; Stuenkel, D.; Valentine, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of Cincinnati (UC) have been developing a new class of ultrasensitive noble gas detectors that are based upon the ANL discovery that corn oil has a high affinity for heavy noble gas absorption at room temperature but releases the noble gases with warming or by other low-energy-input means. Environmental applications for this new class of fluid-based detectors include ultrahigh sensitivity radioxenon detectors for comprehensive test ban treaty surveillance, improved fission gas detectors for enhanced environmental surveillance in the vicinity of US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities, and improved integrating Rn detectors for earthquake prediction. They present the results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the solubility phenomena of heavy noble gases (Rn, Xe, and Kr) in triglyceride oils. They intend for the findings presented herein to be used to guide future selection, development, and refinement of vegetable and other hydrocarbon oils to bring further enhancements to noble gas detection efficiencies

  7. Solubility investigations in support of ultrasensitive noble gas detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of Cincinnati (UC) have been developing a new class of ultrasensitive noble gas detectors that are based upon the ANL discovery that corn oil has a high affinity for heavy noble gas absorption at room temperature, but releases the noble gases with warming or by other low-energy-input means. Environmental applications for this new class of fluid-based detectors include ultrahigh sensitivity radioxenon detectors for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Surveillance, improved fission gas detectors for enhanced environmental surveillance in the vicinity of DOE, DOD, and NRC-licensed facilities, and improved integrating Rn detectors for earthquake prediction. The purpose of the present paper is to present the results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the solubility phenomena of heavy noble gases (Rn, Xe, and Kr) in triglyceride oils. It is the authors' intention that the findings presented herein may be used to guide future selection, development, and refinement of vegetable and other hydrocarbon oils to bring further enhancements to noble gas detection efficiencies

  8. Effect of noble gas ion pre-irradiation on deuterium retention in tungsten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Zhao, Z. H.; De Temmerman, G.; Yuan, Y.; Morgan, T. W.; Guo, L. P.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B. Y.; Zhang, P.; Cao, X. Z.; Lu, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Impurity seeding of noble gases is an effective way of decreasing the heat loads onto the divertor targets in fusion devices. To investigate the effect of noble gases on deuterium retention, tungsten targets have been implanted by different noble gas ions and subsequently exposed to deuterium

  9. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  10. Steady-state ozone concentration in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O 2 and noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10 15 eV.cm -3 .s -1 . The experimental apparatus and proceedure were previously described. The experimentally observed stead-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O 2 discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O 2 -SF 6 mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF 6 addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF 6 addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O 2 discharges

  11. Filamentous fungi associated with natural infection of noble rot on withered grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, M; Simonato, B; Favati, F; Bernardi, P; Sbarbati, A; Zapparoli, G

    2018-05-02

    The effects of noble rot infection of grapes on the characteristics of different types of wine, including Italian passito wine, are well known. Nevertheless, there is still little information on filamentous fungi associated with noble-rotten grapes. In this study, withered Garganega grapes for passito wine production, naturally infected by noble rot, were analyzed and compared to sound grapes. Skin morphology and fungal population on berry surfaces were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed microcracks, germination conidia and branched hyphae on noble-rotten berries. Penicillium, Aureobasidium and Cladosporium were the most frequent genera present. Analysis of single berries displayed higher heterogeneity of epiphytic fungi in those infected by noble-rot than in sound berries. Penicillium adametzoides, Cladosporium cladospoirioides and Coniochaeta polymorpha were recovered. These, to the best of our knowledge, had never been previously isolated from withered grapes and, for C. polymorpha, from grapevine. This study provided novel data on noble rot mycobiota and suggests that fungi that co-habit with B. cinerea could have an important role on grape and wine quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EOSN: A TOUGH2 module for noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Chao; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-03-07

    We developed a new fluid property module for TOUGH2, called EOSN, to simulate transport of noble gases in the subsurface. Currently, users may select any of five different noble gases as well as CO2, two at a time. For the three gas components (air and two user-specified noble gases) in EOSN, the Henry's coefficients and the diffusivities in the gas phase are no longer assumed constants, but are temperature dependent. We used the Crovetto et al. (1982) model to estimate Henry's coefficients, and the Reid et al. (1987) correlations to calculate gas phase diffusivities. The new module requires users to provide names of the selected noble gases, which properties are provided internally. There are options for users to specify any (non-zero) molecular weights and half-lives for the gas components. We provide two examples to show applications of TOUGH2IEOSN. While temperature effects are relatively insignificant for one example problem where advection is dominant, they cause almost an order of magnitude difference for the other case where diffusion becomes a dominant process and temperature variations are relatively large. It appears that thermodynamic effects on gas diffusivities and Henry's coefficients can be important for low-permeability porous media and zones with large temperature variations.

  13. EOSN: A TOUGH2 module for noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    We developed a new fluid property module for TOUGH2, called EOSN, to simulate transport of noble gases in the subsurface. Currently, users may select any of five different noble gases as well as CO2, two at a time. For the three gas components (air and two user-specified noble gases) in EOSN, the Henry's coefficients and the diffusivities in the gas phase are no longer assumed constants, but are temperature dependent. We used the Crovetto et al. (1982) model to estimate Henry's coefficients, and the Reid et al. (1987) correlations to calculate gas phase diffusivities. The new module requires users to provide names of the selected noble gases, which properties are provided internally. There are options for users to specify any (non-zero) molecular weights and half-lives for the gas components. We provide two examples to show applications of TOUGH2IEOSN. While temperature effects are relatively insignificant for one example problem where advection is dominant, they cause almost an order of magnitude difference for the other case where diffusion becomes a dominant process and temperature variations are relatively large. It appears that thermodynamic effects on gas diffusivities and Henry's coefficients can be important for low-permeability porous media and zones with large temperature variations

  14. OREST, LWR Burnup Simulation Using Program HAMMER and ORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, Ulrich; Sieberer, Johann

    2006-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: In OREST, the 1-dimensional lattice code HAMMER and the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN are directly coupled for burnup simulation in light-water reactor fuels (GRS recommended). Additionally heavy water and graphite moderated systems can be calculated. New version differs from the previous version in the following features: An 84-group-library LIB84 for up to 200 isotopes is used to update the 3-group -POISON-XS. LIB84 uses the same energy boundaries as THERMOS and HAMLET in . In this way, high flexibility is achieved in very different reactor models. The coupling factor between THERMOS and HAMLET is now directly transferred from HAMMER to THERES and omits the equation 4 (see page 6 of the manual). Sandwich-reactor fuel reactivity and burnup calculations can be started with NGEOM = 1. Thorium graphite reactivity and burnup calculations can be started with NLIBE = 1. High enriched U-235 heavy water moderated reactivity and burnup calculations can be started. HAMLET libraries in for U-235, U-236, U-238, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, Am-241, Am-243 and Zirconium are updated using resonance parameters. NEA-1324/04: A new version of the module hamme97.f has replaced the old one. 2 - Method of solution: For the user-defined irradiation history, an input data processor generates program loops over small burnup steps for the main codes HAMMER and ORIGEN. The user defined assembly description is transformed to an equivalent HAMMER fuel cell. HAMMER solves the integral neutron transport equation in a four-region cylindrical or sandwiched model with reflecting boundaries and runs with fuel power calculated rod temperatures. ORIGEN runs with HAMMER-calculated cross sections and neutron spectra and calculates isotope concentrations during burnup by solving the buildup-, depletion- and decay-chain equations. An output data processor samples the outputs of the program modules and generates tabular works for the

  15. Overview of the physical-chemical properties of the noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper lists the concentrations of noble gases in the atmosphere and the relative abundance of the stable isotopes. Selected physical properties are tabulated; solubilities of noble gases in water and other liquids, and liquid-vapor equilibria data for binary systems containing a noble gas are presented. Adsorption data are tabulated for illustrative conventional adsorbents and are also presented by a Polanyi correlation. Clathration, biochemical effects, and chemical reactivity are highlighted. Analytical procedures are briefly described. Other relatively non-reactive gases present in the atmosphere in trace quantities are mentioned: methane, carbon tetrafluoride, and sulfur hexafluoride.

  16. Steady-state ozone concentrations in radiation induced noble gas-oxygen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of steady-state ozone concentrations in continuous radiation induced noble gas-O/sub 2/ and noble gas-o/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures has been accomplished. The discharges were created through the bombardment of the gases with energetic particles from the boron-10 (n,α) lithium-7 nuclear reaction. Three noble gases were studied, He, Ne, and Ar at partial pressures of few hundred Torr. The dose rates studied were in the order of 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . s/sup -1/. The experimental apparatus and procedure were previously described. The experimentally observed steady-state ozone concentrations in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges were about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen radiolysis at similar dose rates. These results were physically explained by an enhanced role of negative ionic reactions with ozone causing its destruction. In noble gas-O/sub 2/-SF/sub 6/ mixtures, the steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be significantly higher (3-6 times) than that without the SF/sub 6/ addition. This observation was contrary to only a small increase observed after SF/sub 6/ addition to a few hundred Torr oxygen and is explained by an enhanced rate of electron dissociative attachment of ozone in noble gas-O/sub 2/ discharges

  17. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  18. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-05-07

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  19. First-principles study of noble gas stability in ThO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Kuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Han, Han, E-mail: hanhanfudan@gmail.com [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Hui [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Wang, Chang-Ying; Guo, Yong-Liang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Ren, Cui-Lan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Huai, Ping, E-mail: huaiping@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-07-15

    The stability of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) in thorium dioxide is studied by means of density functional theory. The computations are performed considering insertion sites of ThO{sub 2}, including the interstitial sites, the thorium vacancies, the oxygen-thorium di-vacancy and three types of Schottky defects. Our results show that there is an approximately linear relation between the energies and the atomic radii. As the size of the noble gas atom increases, the noble gas atoms energetically prefer to incorporate into large vacancy defects rather than into interstitial positions. Moreover, the binding energy of Kr or Xe interstitial in a Schottky defect is larger than the formation energy of a Schottky defect, suggesting the Schottky defects are thermodynamically favorable in the presence of these noble gas atoms. The charged defects are also considered for noble gas atoms trapped in Th and O vacancies.

  20. Recovery of noble metals from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenson, G.A.; Platt, A.M.; Mellinger, G.B.; Bjorklund, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    Scoping studies were started in 1979 to develop a cost-effective, waste-management-compatible process to extract noble metals from fission products. The process, involving the reaction with glassmelting chemicals, a metal oxide (PbO), and a reducing agent (charcoal), was demonstrated for recovering noble metals from simulated high-level waste oxides. The process has now been demonstrated on a laboratory scale (100 g) using irradiated fuels. Recoveries in the recovered lead averaged 80% for Pd, 60% for Rh, and 14% Ru. The resulting glass product was homogeneous in appearance, and the chemical durability was comparable to other waste oxides

  1. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebel, B. [Fermilab; Bernard, E. [Yale U.; Faham, C. H. [LBL, Berkeley; Ito, T. M. [Los Alamos; Lundberg, B. [Maryland U.; Messina, M. [Columbia U.; Monrabal, F. [Valencia U., IFIC; Pereverzev, S. P. [LLNL, Livermore; Resnati, F. [Zurich, ETH; Rowson, P. C. [SLAC; Soderberg, M. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U.; Tomas, A. [Imperial Coll., London; Va' vra, J. [SLAC; Wang, H. [UCLA

    2014-08-22

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  2. Metal-organic frameworks for adsorption and separation of noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Staiger, Chad

    2017-05-30

    A method including exposing a gas mixture comprising a noble gas to a metal organic framework (MOF), including an organic electron donor and an adsorbent bed operable to adsorb a noble gas from a mixture of gases, the adsorbent bed including a metal organic framework (MOF) including an organic electron donor.

  3. Ab initio theory of noble gas atoms in bcc transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gao, Yipeng; Gan, Jian

    2018-06-18

    Systematic ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to gain fundamental understanding of the interactions between noble gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar and Kr) and bcc transition metals in groups 5B (V, Nb and Ta), 6B (Cr, Mo and W) and 8B (Fe). Our charge density analysis indicates that the strong polarization of nearest-neighbor metal atoms by noble gas interstitials is the electronic origin of their high formation energies. Such polarization becomes more significant with an increasing gas atom size and interstitial charge density in the host bcc metal, which explains the similar trend followed by the unrelaxed formation energies of noble gas interstitials. Upon allowing for local relaxation, nearby metal atoms move farther away from gas interstitials in order to decrease polarization, albeit at the expense of increasing the elastic strain energy. Such atomic relaxation is found to play an important role in governing both the energetics and site preference of noble gas atoms in bcc metals. Our most notable finding is that the fully relaxed formation energies of noble gas interstitials are strongly correlated with the elastic shear modulus of the bcc metal, and the physical origin of this unexpected correlation has been elucidated by our theoretical analysis based on the effective-medium theory. The kinetic behavior of noble gas atoms and their interaction with pre-existing vacancies in bcc transition metals have also been discussed in this work.

  4. First ECR-Ionized Noble Gas Radioisotopes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Lettry, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The production of light noble gas radioisotopes with high ionization potentials has been hampered by modest ionization efficiencies for standard plasma ion-sources. However, the decay losses are minimal as the lingering time of light noble gases within plasma ion-sources is negligible when compared to its diffusion out of the target material. Previous singly charged ECRIS have shown a higher efficiency but also a lingering time of the order of 1 s and a total weight that prevents remote handling by the ISOLDE robot. The compact MINIMONO efficiently addressed the lingering time and weight issues. In addition, the MINIMONO maintained the high off-line ionization efficiency for light noble gases. This paper describes a standard ISOLDE target unit equipped with a MINIMONO ion-source and the first tests. The ion-source has been tested off-line and equipped with a CaO target for on-line tests. Valuable information was gained about high current (100-500 muA) transport through the ISOLDE mass separators designed for ...

  5. Recent Experimental Advances to Determine (noble) Gases in Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.; Huxol, S.; Mächler, L.; Maden, C.; Vogel, N.; Tomonaga, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In aquatic systems noble gases, radon, and bio-geochemically conservative transient trace gases (SF6, CFCs) are frequently applied to determine water residence times and to reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions. Recent experimental breakthroughs now enable ● to apply the well-established concepts of terrestrial noble gas geochemistry in waters to the minute water amounts stored in sediment pore space and in fluid inclusions (A), ● to determine gas exchange processes on the bio-geochemical relevant time scales of minutes - hours (B), and ● to separate diffusive and advective gas transport in soil air (C). A. Noble-gas analysis in water samples (transport in the pore space and identifying the origin of bio- and geogenic fluids in (un) consolidated sediments [1]. Advanced techniques that combine crushing and sieving speleothem samples in ultra-high-vacuum to a specific grain size allow to separate air and water-bearing fluid inclusions and thus enables noble-gas-based reconstruction of environmental conditions from water masses as small as 1mg [2]. B. The coupling of noble gas analysis with approaches of gas chromatography permits combined analysis of noble gases and other gases species (e.g., SF6, CFCs, O2, N2) from a single water sample. The new method substantially improves ground water dating by SF6 and CFCs as excess air is quantified from the same sample and hence can adequately be corrected for [3]. Portable membrane-inlet mass spectrometers enable the quasi-continuous and real-time analysis of noble gases and other dissolved gases directly in the field, allowing, for instance, quantification of O2 turnover rates on small time scales [4]. C. New technical developments perfect 222Rn analysis in water by the synchronous the determination of the short-lived 220Rn. The combined 220,222Rn analysis sheds light on the emanation behaviour of radon by identifying soil water content to be the crucial control of 220Rn occurrence in the environment

  6. Effective Giromagnetic Ratios in Artifical Nuclear Magnetization Pumping of the Noble Gases Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic of the nuclear magnetization of the two noble gases mix was studied in this research. Nuclear magnetization pumped along the induction of external magnetic field. Vector of nuclear magnetization is given a tilt by the week rotational magnetic field, which makes NMR for noble gases. Interaction between the nuclear magnetic moments of the different noble gases adducted to shifts at the frequency of nuclear moments precession in external magnetic field. Effective gyromagnetic ratios of the nuclear of noble gases is defined and it different from the tabulated value. There is theoretical calculation of effective gyromagnetic ratios in this research.

  7. Noble Estate Self-Government in Russia: Between the State and Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Morozov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to assessing the role of noble self-governance in the history of Russia. According to Boris Mironov, before the Great Reforms of the 1860s, each noble assembly was a part of civil society. This point of view has aroused objections and debate among Russian historians. Morozov analyzed the historiographical aspect of the problem and demonstrated the impact of the socio-political context of their scientific work on Russian historians. In his opinion, from a purely legal point of view, there is reason to conclude that the autonomy of noble assemblies increased in the first half of the 19th century. However, the question of the extent to which these opportunities were realized in practice has been poorly studied. In the literature, there are examples of effective methods of influencing the government at the noble assemblies despite legal restrictions, as well as examples of noble assemblies that did not restrain the arbitrariness of the crown authority, did not protect their members from its abuse, and did not serve as the expression of public opinion. Mironov’s attempt to place in doubt the fact of the widespread presence of absenteeism seems unconvincing to Morozov. However, he agrees with Mironov that after 1861, the nobility really became a part of civil society, because the activity of noble organizations increased substantially in many different directions, including the political. For almost half a century of its history, the noble corporate organization evolved from a traditional institution into a civil one, which retained many features of traditional organization.

  8. Primordial domains in the depleted upper mantle identified by noble gases in MORBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Langmuir, C. H.; Hamelin, C.; Fuentes, J.

    2017-12-01

    The distribution of noble gas isotopic compositions in the mantle provides important constraints on the large-scale mantle evolution, as noble gases can trace the interaction between degassed, or processed, mantle domains and undegassed, or primitive, mantle domains. Data from the radiogenic He, Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic systems have shown that plume-related lavas sample relatively undegassed mantle domains, and the recent identification of isotopic anomalies in the short-lived I-Xe and Hf-W isotopic systems in plume-related lavas further suggests that these domains may be ancient, dating back to Earth's accretion. However, little is known about the potential variability of the heavy noble gas systems and the distribution of undegassed domains in the ambient upper mantle not influenced by plumes. Here, we present new high-precision He, Ne, Ar, and Xe isotopic data for a series of MORBs from a depleted section of the subtropical north Mid-Atlantic Ridge, distant from any known plume influence. Some samples have extremely low (unradiogenic) 4He/3He, 21Ne/22Ne, 40Ar/36Ar, and 129Xe/130Xe ratios, including some of the lowest values ever determined for MORBs. Such unradiogenic compositions are reminiscent of OIBs and plume-influenced E-MORBs, suggesting the presence of a relatively undegassed or primitive reservoir in the source of these depleted MORBs. The He, Ne, and Ar isotopic systems are sensitive to the long-term degassing history, suggesting that this domain in the MORB source is ancient. The 129Xe/130Xe ratio is sensitive to degassing only during the first 100 Ma of Earth history, suggesting that some of the isotopic character of these samples has been preserved since Earth's accretion. Together, these observations suggest that primordial or undegassed material is not only sampled in plumes-related lavas, but also normal, depleted MORBs. Along with data from E-MORBs in the southern EPR (Kurz et al., 2005), southern MAR (Sarda et al., 2000), and equatorial MAR

  9. Noble Gas Concept Of Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    The intent of this document is to provide the reader with an understanding of a general approach to performing the noble gas component of an On Site Inspection or OSI. The authors of this document recognize that owing to the wide range of scenarios that are possible for carrying out an underground nuclear explosion, the diverse sets of information that might be available to the inspection team initially and the potential range of political and physical constraints imposed during the inspection, a satisfactory prescriptive approach to carrying out the noble gas component of an OSI is unlikely. Rather, the authors intend only to aid the reader in understanding what a reasonable course of actions or responses may be as performed by an inspection team (IT) during a general OSI. If this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from this general scenario, it will have achieved its intent.

  10. A novel method for fission product noble gas sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.; Prakash, Vivek; Singh, G.K.; Vinay, Kr.; Awsthi, A.; Bihari, K.; Joyson, R.; Manu, K.; Gupta, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    Noble gases occur to some extent in the Earth's atmosphere, but the concentrations of all but argon are exceedingly low. Argon is plentiful, constituting almost 1 % of the air. Fission Product Noble Gases (FPNG) are produced by nuclear fission and large parts of FPNG is produced in Nuclear reactions. FPNG are b-j emitters and contributing significantly in public dose. During normal operation of reactor release of FPNG is negligible but its release increases in case of fuel failure. Xenon, a member of FPNG family helps in identification of fuel failure and its extent in PHWRs. Due to above reasons it becomes necessary to assess the FPNG release during operation of NPPs. Presently used methodology of assessment of FPNG, at almost all power stations is Computer based gamma ray spectrometry. This provides fission product Noble gases nuclide identification through peak search of spectra. The air sample for the same is collected by grab sampling method, which has inherent disadvantages. An alternate method was developed at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) - 3 and 4 for assessment of FPNG, which uses adsorption phenomena for collection of air samples. This report presents details of sampling method for FPNG and noble gases in different systems of Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  11. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration on Primordial Noble Gases in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Maden, C.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed 32 CM chondrites for their noble gas contents and isotopic compositions and calculated CRE ages. Correlated effects of parent body aqueous alteration with primordial noble gas contents were detected.

  12. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  13. The behavior and effects of the noble metals in the DWPF melter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Smith, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fission-product noble metals have caused severe operating problems in numerous worldwide waste vitrification facilities. These dense, highly conductive noble metals have tended to accumulate on the floor of joule-heated glass melters causing electrical distortions which have, in some occurrences, rendered the melter inoperable. A pilot scale vitrification research facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Laboratory has been operated for more than a year with simulated feed streams containing noble metals. In this paper the behavior of these noble metals in the melter system and final glass product and their effects on the scaled DWPF-type melter are discussed

  14. Effective collision frequency of electrons in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baille, P.; Chang, J.-S.; Claude, A.; Yau, A.W.; Hobson, R.M.; Ogram, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The electron-neutral collision frequency in the noble gases has been calculated using recent numerical results for momentum transfer cross sections by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities. In all these gases, except for argon, good agreement is obtained with most previously published experimental and theoretical data. Mean free path, mobilities and diffusion coefficients are also calculated from the resulting effective collision frequencies. The empirical formulae are presented for an electron temperature dependence of the electron-neutral collision frequency for all noble gases up to Tsub(e) < approximately 25.000 K. (author)

  15. Behavior of shut-down dose rate of recirculation piping of BWR under noble metal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Motomasa; Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Wada, Yoichi; Ishida, Kazushige; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Hettiarachchi, Samson; Weber, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The cause of shut-down dose rate change of the recirculation piping observed in KKM (Kern Kraftwerk Mühleberg) after application of noble metal injection method is analyzed. The plant experienced the sharp decrease of piping dose rate in the cycle just after the application of noble metal(classic NobleChem TM ) and re-buildup of radioactivity in the subsequent several cycles. After the application of online noble metal injection (online NobleChem TM ), gradual decrease of dose rate has been observed. The presence of a certain amount of noble metal on the iron rich oxide film promotes the dissolution of the oxide under hydrogen addition, resulting in a decrease of deposited noble metal on the oxide film surface as well as of radioactive species in the film. Under the condition of lower amount of noble metal on the surface oxides, the oxidant species, especially hydrogen peroxide, slightly increases facilitating the re-growth of iron rich oxides along with re-buildup of radioactivity. After the application of online noble metal injection during each cycle, gradual dissolution of iron rich oxides and gradual decrease of radioactivity in the oxides proceed to decrease the piping dose rate. In the radioactivity decreasing phase, the presence of zinc is considered to assist the suppression of radioactivity buildup in the oxide film. From the analysis, treating piping surface with platinum after chemical decontamination process is expected to work well for suppression of the piping dose rate. (author)

  16. Targets Involved in Cardioprotection by the Non-Anesthetic Noble Gas Helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Nina C.; Smit, Kirsten F.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Research data from the past decade indicate that noble gases like xenon and helium exert profound cardioprotection when applied before, during or after organ ischemia. Of all noble gases, especially helium, has gained interest in the past years because it does not have an anesthetic "side effect"

  17. Structural and plasmonic properties of noble metal doped ZnO nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Trilok K.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Noble metal doped ZnO has been synthesized by the combustion method and the effect of different metals (Ag, Au, Pd) on the structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ZnO had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and the crystallite sizes were affected by the doping. The formation of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectra. The LSPR of the metallic NPs was predicted using Mie theory calculations. The absorption spectra were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk function and the optical bandgap varied from 3.06 to 3.18 eV for the different doping materials. The experimental results suggest that the origin of enhanced emission was due to direct interaction between the laser photons and the noble material NPs which in turn leads to photoemission transfer of electrons from the noble metals NPs to the conduction band of ZnO.

  18. The Inert and the Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. The Inert and the Noble. A G Samuelson. Article-in-a-Box Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp 3-5 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

  19. Experimental studies and model analysis of noble gas fractionation in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Kennedy, B. Mack.; Evans, William C.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The noble gases, which are chemically inert under normal terrestrial conditions but vary systematically across a wide range of atomic mass and diffusivity, offer a multicomponent approach to investigating gas dynamics in unsaturated soil horizons, including transfer of gas between saturated zones, unsaturated zones, and the atmosphere. To evaluate the degree to which fractionation of noble gases in the presence of an advective–diffusive flux agrees with existing theory, a simple laboratory sand column experiment was conducted. Pure CO2 was injected at the base of the column, providing a series of constant CO2 fluxes through the column. At five fixed sampling depths within the system, samples were collected for CO2 and noble gas analyses, and ambient pressures were measured. Both the advection–diffusion and dusty gas models were used to simulate the behavior of CO2 and noble gases under the experimental conditions, and the simulations were compared with the measured depth-dependent concentration profiles of the gases. Given the relatively high permeability of the sand column (5 ´ 10−11 m2), Knudsen diffusion terms were small, and both the dusty gas model and the advection–diffusion model accurately predicted the concentration profiles of the CO2 and atmospheric noble gases across a range of CO2 flux from ?700 to 10,000 g m−2 d−1. The agreement between predicted and measured gas concentrations demonstrated that, when applied to natural systems, the multi-component capability provided by the noble gases can be exploited to constrain component and total gas fluxes of non-conserved (CO2) and conserved (noble gas) species or attributes of the soil column relevant to gas transport, such as porosity, tortuosity, and gas saturation.

  20. On the methodology of radiochemical neutron activation analysis of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, C.F.; Ma, S.L.; Mao, X.Y.; Liao, K.N.; Liu, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    Two different radiochemical procedures were developed: chelate ion resin exchange and amine solvent extraction. Two kinds of new Chinese chelate resins (NANKAI-3926 and BEI-5) and a new long-chain primary amine N 1923 were compared with Srafion NMRR and the tertiary amine N 235 in absorption performance of noble metals, respectively. Influences of various experimental conditions, e.g. sample digestion, acidity, equilibrium time, as well as elution of noble metals, on analytical sensitivity and chemical yield were discussed. Combining with neutron activation, the radiochemical separation procedures developed were used to determine the noble metal contents in the geological samples from Permina/Triassic boundary in South China. (author)

  1. Recovery of noble metals from HLLW using photocatalytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, T.; Uetake, N.; Kawamura, F.; Yusa, H.

    1987-01-01

    In high-level liquid waste (HLLW) from fuel reprocessing plants, noble metals (palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium), which account for ∼ 10 wt% of fission products, exist as ions. These metals are very useful as catalytic material in automobile exhaust systems and other chemical processes, but they are rare in nature, making their recovery from fission products highly desirable. The ions of noble metals in solution have the feature that their reduction potential from ion to metal is relatively high compared with that of other fission product ions, so they can be selectively separated as a metal by a reduction process. The authors think a photoreduction process using a photocatalysts, which functions as photon-electron conversion agent, is suitable for the recovery of noble metals from HLLW for three reasons: (1) this process uses no reduction agents, which usually degrade the nitric acid, so that coprecipitation of other fission products does not occur. (2) The reactions are induced by light, which does not contaminate the reaction system, and in contrast with ordinary photo-redox reactions, the quantum yield is quite high. (3) As the photocatalyst does not change in the reaction, it can be used again and again. The report shows the results of fundamental experiments on the application of photocatalytic reduction to the recovery of noble metal ions in nitric acid solution

  2. Noble Gas Signatures in Groundwater and Rainwater on the Island of Maui, Hawaii - Developing a New Noble Gas Application in Fractured, Volcanic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M. C.; Niu, Y.; Warrier, R. B.; Hall, C. M.; Gingerich, S. B.; Scholl, M. A.; Bouvier, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) in fractured groundwater systems reflect the temperature of the ground surface at the time of infiltration rather than the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) value as commonly assumed in sedimentary systems where NGTs are typically used as indicators of past climate. This suggests that noble gases in fractured areas may record seasonality, and thus, provide information about timing of recharge in addition to location. Calculation of NGTs assumes that rain-derived recharge at the water table is in equilibrium with ground air. Lack of noble gas equilibration with respect to surface conditions, however, was observed in high-altitude springs in the Galapagos Islands and in a rainwater pilot study in Michigan, supporting the NGT seasonality hypothesis. Developing this new NGT application will lead to a better understanding of fractured groundwater flow systems and will contribute to improved water resource management plans. This study, carried out on Maui, Hawaii, is meant to test these hypotheses while improving knowledge of this island's groundwater flow system where limited hydrologic data are available. Here, we present the first results of noble gas analyses from samples collected in springs, groundwater wells and rainwater on northeast Maui. Results show that like most Michigan rainwater samples, rainwater from Maui is in disequilibrium with surface conditions and follows a mass-dependent pattern. Spring samples follow a similar pattern to that of rainwater and suggest that spring water originates directly from rainfall. These findings further support the hypothesis of NGT seasonality. However, while the atmospheric composition of noble gases points to direct supply from rainfall to spring aquifer systems, a direct connection between spring water and deeper aquifer levels or the mantle is apparent from He isotopic ratios which display an almost pure He mantle component in some springs.

  3. Time-dependent behavior of positrons in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadehra, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviors of positrons in several noble gases are reviewed. Our novel procedure for obtaining the time-dependent behavior of various swarm parameters -- such as the positron drift velocity, average positron energy, positron annihilation rate (or equivalently Z eff ) etc. -- for positrons in pure ambient gases subjected to external electrostatic fields is described. Summaries of time-dependent as well as electric field-dependent results for positron swarms in various noble gases are presented. New time-dependent results for positron swarms in neon are also described in detail. 36 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. The prevalent synthesis of one-dimensional noble metal nanostructures based on sulfonated polyaniline at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Youyi

    2011-01-01

    We describe a prevalent method of synthesizing one-dimensional (1D) noble metal nanostructures (silver nanobelts and palladium nanowires) by treatment of corresponding noble metal ions only in the presence of the conductive sulfonated polyaniline without using any other reducing agents or energies. The results show that the sulfonated polyaniline provides the dual reductant and “soft template” roles to promoting noble metal ions to form shape-controlled 1D noble metal nanostructures in high yield. The employed approach may also shed some light on the preparation of other noble metal nanostructure by using conductive polymer.

  5. Development of Non-Noble Metal Ni-Based Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of Methylcyclohexane

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam

    2016-01-01

    to TOL has only been achieved using the noble Pt-based catalysts. The aim of this study is to develop non-noble, cost-effective metal catalysts that can show excellent catalytic performance, mainly maintaining high TOL selectivity achievable by Pt based

  6. A membrane inlet mass spectrometry system for noble gases at natural abundances in gas and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ate; Singleton, Michael J; Hillegonds, Darren J; Velsko, Carol A; Moran, Jean E; Esser, Bradley K

    2013-11-15

    Noble gases dissolved in groundwater can reveal paleotemperatures, recharge conditions, and precise travel times. The collection and analysis of noble gas samples are cumbersome, involving noble gas purification, cryogenic separation and static mass spectrometry. A quicker and more efficient sample analysis method is required for introduced tracer studies and laboratory experiments. A Noble Gas Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (NG-MIMS) system was developed to measure noble gases at natural abundances in gas and water samples. The NG-MIMS system consists of a membrane inlet, a dry-ice water trap, a carbon-dioxide trap, two getters, a gate valve, a turbomolecular pump and a quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electron multiplier. Noble gases isotopes (4)He, (22)Ne, (38)Ar, (84)Kr and (132)Xe are measured every 10 s. The NG-MIMS system can reproduce measurements made on a traditional noble gas mass spectrometer system with precisions of 2%, 8%, 1%, 1% and 3% for He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe, respectively. Noble gas concentrations measured in an artificial recharge pond were used to monitor an introduced xenon tracer and to reconstruct temperature variations to within 2 °C. Additional experiments demonstrated the capability to measure noble gases in gas and in water samples, in real time. The NG-MIMS system is capable of providing analyses sufficiently accurate and precise for introduced noble gas tracers at managed aquifer recharge facilities, groundwater fingerprinting based on excess air and noble gas recharge temperature, and field and laboratory studies investigating ebullition and diffusive exchange. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Noble gas separation with the use of inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.; Christian, J.D.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A noble gas separation process is proposed for application to airborne nuclear fuel reprocessing plant effluents. The process involves the use of inorganic adsorbents for the removal of contaminant gases and noble gas separation through selective adsorption. Water and carbon dioxide are removed with selected zeolites that do not appreciably adsorb the noble gases. Xenon is essentially quantitatively removed with a specially developed adsorbent using conventional adsorption-desorption techniques. Oxygen is removed to low ppM levels by the use of a rapid cycle adsorption technique on a special adsorbent leaving a krypton-nitrogen mixture. Krypton is separated from nitrogen with a special adsorbent operated at about -80 0 C. Because the separation process does not require high pressures and oxygen is readily removed to sufficiently limit ozone formation to insignificant levels, appreciable capital and operating cost savings with this process are possible compared with other proposed processes. In addition, the proposed process is safer to operate

  8. NOBLE - Flexible concept recognition for large-scale biomedical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Eugene; Mitchell, Kevin; Legowski, Elizabeth; Corrigan, Julia; Chavan, Girish; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2016-01-14

    Natural language processing (NLP) applications are increasingly important in biomedical data analysis, knowledge engineering, and decision support. Concept recognition is an important component task for NLP pipelines, and can be either general-purpose or domain-specific. We describe a novel, flexible, and general-purpose concept recognition component for NLP pipelines, and compare its speed and accuracy against five commonly used alternatives on both a biological and clinical corpus. NOBLE Coder implements a general algorithm for matching terms to concepts from an arbitrary vocabulary set. The system's matching options can be configured individually or in combination to yield specific system behavior for a variety of NLP tasks. The software is open source, freely available, and easily integrated into UIMA or GATE. We benchmarked speed and accuracy of the system against the CRAFT and ShARe corpora as reference standards and compared it to MMTx, MGrep, Concept Mapper, cTAKES Dictionary Lookup Annotator, and cTAKES Fast Dictionary Lookup Annotator. We describe key advantages of the NOBLE Coder system and associated tools, including its greedy algorithm, configurable matching strategies, and multiple terminology input formats. These features provide unique functionality when compared with existing alternatives, including state-of-the-art systems. On two benchmarking tasks, NOBLE's performance exceeded commonly used alternatives, performing almost as well as the most advanced systems. Error analysis revealed differences in error profiles among systems. NOBLE Coder is comparable to other widely used concept recognition systems in terms of accuracy and speed. Advantages of NOBLE Coder include its interactive terminology builder tool, ease of configuration, and adaptability to various domains and tasks. NOBLE provides a term-to-concept matching system suitable for general concept recognition in biomedical NLP pipelines.

  9. Quality management for noble gas trace analysis; Qualitaetssicherung bei der Edelgasspurenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, S.; Konrad, M.; Kumberg, T.; Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Freiburg (Germany); Gohla, H. [Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), Vienna International Centre, Vienna (Austria). Preparatory Commission

    2014-01-20

    The Federal Office for Radiation Protection operates measurement systems to determine the activity concentrations of Krypton-85 and Xenon-133 in air samples since the early 70s. Certified standards with stable noble gas admixtures are still missing for quality assurance (certified activity concentrations). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is currently establishing a global noble gas monitoring network for the verification of compliance with the Treaty. In cooperation with CTBTO the BfS currently develops concepts of quality assurance for noble gas measurements. Opportunities for quality assurance without using certified standards are discussed by comparisons between individual laboratories and internal audits. The results from the first CTBTO laboratory intercomparison with synthetic radioxenon samples look very promising.

  10. Calibration of new measuring systems to detect emissions of radioactive noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Kreiner, H.J.

    1977-12-01

    This report describes the calibration of different systems for the integral measurement of radioactive noble gases and the calibration of a measuring chamber for the detection of individual nuclides of radioactive noble gases in the gaseous effluent of nuclear power plants. For these measuring chambers the calibration factors for Kr-85 and Xe-133 are given as well as the detection limits to be obtained with these measuring systems for several radioactive noble gases present in the gaseous effluent at the stack of nuclear power plants. Calibration factors for Kr-85 and Xe-133 and the detection limits of this measuring method for the detections of individual nuclides of radioactive noble gases in air samples are defined taken wirh a high pressure compressor in pressure flasks an measured on a Ge(Li)-semiconductor spectrometer (pressure flask measuring method). A measuring equipment is described and calibrated which allows simultaneous measurement of activity concentration of radioactive noble gases and radioactive aerosols with a sensitivity of 2 x 10 -7 Ci/m 3 for radioactive gases and 1 x 10 -9 Ci/m 3 for radioactive particulates at a background radiation of 1 R/h. This paper is an additional report to our STH-Bericht 3/76, 'Calibration of measuring equipment for monitoring of gaseous effluents from nuclear power plants', which specifies a procedure for the calibration of measuring chambers for monitoring of gaseous radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants /1/. The calibration system used here makes it possible to simultaneously calibrate several noble gas measuring devices. (orig.) [de

  11. Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua

    2000-01-01

    An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

  12. Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Masahiko; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences); Clague, D.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1991-01-10

    The noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea. We find a systematic enrichment in {sup 20}Ne and {sup 21}Ne relative to {sup 22}Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth. (author).

  13. Isotopic mass-dependence of noble gas diffusion coefficients inwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2007-06-25

    Noble gas isotopes are used extensively as tracers inhydrologic and paleoclimatic studies. These applications requireknowledge of the isotopic mass (m) dependence of noble gas diffusioncoefficients in water (D), which has not been measured but is estimatedusing experimental D-values for the major isotopes along with an untestedrelationship from kinetic theory, D prop m-0.5. We applied moleculardynamics methods to determine the mass dependence of D for four noblegases at 298 K, finding that D prop m-beta with beta<0.2, whichrefutes the kinetic theory model underlying all currentapplications.

  14. Noble Gas Release Signal as a Precursor to Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S. J.; Lee, H.; Gardner, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    We present empirical results of rock strain, microfracturing, acoustic emissions, and noble gas release from laboratory triaxial experiments for a granite, basalt, shale and bedded rock salt. Noble gases are released and measured real-time during deformation using mass spectrometry. The gas release represents a precursive signal to macrofracture. Gas release is associated with increased acoustic emissions indicating that microfracturing is required to release gas and create pathways for the gas to be sensed. The gas released depends on initial gas content, pore structure and its evolution during deformation, the deformation amount, matrix permeability, deformation style and the stress/strain history. Gases are released from inter and intracrystalline sites; release rate increases as strain and microfracturing increases. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history and age, fluids present, and radioisotope concentrations that affect radiogenic noble gas isotope (e.g. 4He,40Ar) production. Noble gas emission and its relationship to crustal processes such as seismicity and volcanism, tectonic velocities, qualitative estimates of deep permeability, age dating of groundwater, and a signature of nuclear weapon detonation. Our result show that mechanical deformation of crustal materials is an important process controlling gas release from rocks and minerals, and should be considered in techniques which utilize gas release and/or accumulation. We propose using noble gas release to signal rock deformation in boreholes, mines and waste repositories. We postulate each rock exhibits a gas release signature which is microstructure, stress, strain, and/or permanent deformation dependent. Calibration of such relationships, for example relating gas release per rock unit volume to strain may be used to quantify rock deformation and develop predictive models.Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and

  15. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel; Stiepani, Cristoph; Drechsler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  16. Noble gas enrichment studies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Andrew, P.; Fundamenski, W.; Guo, H.Y.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Horton, L.D.; Matthews, G.F.; Meigs, A.G.; Morgan, P.M.; Stamp, M.F.; Hellermann, M. von

    2001-01-01

    Adequate helium exhaust has been achieved in reactor-relevant ELMy H-mode plasmas in JET performed in the MKII AP and MKII GB divertor geometry. The divertor-characteristic quantities of noble gas compression and enrichment have been experimentally inferred from Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy measurements in the core plasma, and from spectroscopic analysis of a Penning gauge discharge in the exhaust gas. The retention of helium was found to be satisfactory for a next-step device, with enrichment factors exceeding 0.1. The helium enrichment decreases with increasing core plasma density, while the neon enrichment has the opposite behaviour. Analytic and numerical analyses of these plasmas using the divertor impurity code package DIVIMP/NIMBUS support the explanation that the enrichment of noble gases depends significantly on the penetration depth of the impurity neutrals with respect to the fuel atoms. Changes of the divertor plasma configuration and divertor geometry have no effect on the enrichment

  17. Probing the interaction of noble gases with pristine and nitrogen-doped graphene through Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Renato; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Carozo, Victor; Feng, Simin; Lv, Ruitao; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Terrones, Mauricio; Araujo, Paulo T.

    2018-05-01

    The interactions of adsorbates with graphene have received increasing attention due to its importance in the development of applications involving graphene-based coatings. Here, we present a study of the adsorption of noble gases on pristine and nitrogen-doped graphene. Single-layer graphene samples were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids. Several noble gases were allowed to adsorb on the suspended graphene substrate at very low temperatures. Raman spectra show distinct frequency blue shifts in both the 2D and G bands, which are induced by gas adsorption onto high quality single layer graphene (1LG). These shifts, which we associate with compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layers induced by the noble gases, are negligible for nitrogen-doped graphene. Additionally, a thermal depinning transition, which is related to the desorption of a noble gas layer from the graphene surface at low temperatures (ranging from 20 to 35 K), was also observed at different transition temperatures for different noble gases. These transition temperatures were found to be 25 K for argon and 35 K for xenon. Moreover, we were able to obtain values for the compressive biaxial strain in graphene induced by the adsorbed layer of noble gases, using Raman spectroscopy. Ab initio calculations confirmed the correlation between the noble gas-induced strain and the changes in the Raman features observed.

  18. Polarization of stable and radioactive noble gas nuclei by spin exchange with laser pumped alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaprice, F.; Happer, W.; Schreiber, D.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclei of noble gases can be strongly polarized by spin exchange with sufficiently dense optically pumped alkali vapors. Only a small fraction of the spin angular momentum of the alkali atoms is transferred to the nuclear spin of the noble gas. Most of the spin angular momentum is lost to translational angular momentum of the alkali and noble gas atoms about each other. For heavy noble gases most of the angular momentum transfer occurs in alkali-noble-gas van der Waals molecules. The transfer efficiency depends on the formation and breakup rates of the van der Waals molecules in the ambient gas. Experimental methods to measure the spin transfer efficiencies have been developed. Nuclei of radioactive noble gases have been polarized by these methods, and the polarization has been detected by observing the anisotropy of the radioactive decay products. Very precise measurements of the magnetic moments of the radioactive nuclei have been made. 12 references, 9 figures

  19. Near transferable phenomenological n-body potentials for noble metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikis, Vassilis; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Luneville, Laurence; Simeone, David

    2017-09-06

    We present a semi-empirical model of cohesion in noble metals with suitable parameters reproducing a selected set of experimental properties of perfect and defective lattices in noble metals. It consists of two short-range, n-body terms accounting respectively for attractive and repulsive interactions, the former deriving from the second moment approximation of the tight-binding scheme and the latter from the gas approximation of the kinetic energy of electrons. The stability of the face centred cubic versus the hexagonal compact stacking is obtained via a long-range, pairwise function of customary use with ionic pseudo-potentials. Lattice dynamics, molecular statics, molecular dynamics and nudged elastic band calculations show that, unlike previous potentials, this cohesion model reproduces and predicts quite accurately thermodynamic properties in noble metals. In particular, computed surface energies, largely underestimated by existing empirical cohesion models, compare favourably with measured values, whereas predicted unstable stacking-fault energy profiles fit almost perfectly ab initio evaluations from the literature. All together the results suggest that this semi-empirical model is nearly transferable.

  20. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  1. Helium Isotopes and Noble Gas Abundances of Cave Dripping Water in Three Caves in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A. T.; Shen, C. C.; Tan, M.; Li, T.; Uemura, R.; Asami, R.

    2015-12-01

    Paleo-temperature recorded in nature archives is a critical parameter to understand climate change in the past. With advantages of unique inert chemical characteristics and sensitive solubilities with temperature, dissolved noble gases in speleothem inclusion water were recently proposed to retrieve terrestrial temperature history. In order to accurately apply this newly-developed speleothem noble gas temperature (NGT) as a reliable proxy, a fundamental issue about behaviors of noble gases in the karst should be first clarified. In this study, we measured noble gas contents in air and dripping water to evaluate any ratio deviation between noble gases. Cave dripping water samples was collected from three selected caves, Shihua Cave in northern China, Furong Cave in southwestern, and Gyukusen Cave in an island located in the western Pacific. For these caves are characterized by a thorough mixing and long-term storage of waters in a karst aquifer by the absence of seasonal oxygen isotope shifts. Ratios of dripping water noble gases are statistically insignificant from air data. Helium isotopic ratios in the dripping water samples match air value. The results indicate that elemental and isotopic signatures of noble gases from air can be frankly preserved in the epikarst and support the fidelity of NGT techniques.

  2. The predicted effectiveness of noble metal treatment at the Chinshan boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh Tsungkuang; Chu Fang; Chang Ching; Huang Chiashen

    2000-01-01

    The technique of noble metal treatment (NMT) available in a form of noble metal cooling (NMC) or noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), was introduced to enhance effectiveness of hydrogen water chemistry. Since it is technically difficult to gain access to an entire primary heat transport circuit (PHTC) of a BWR and monitor variation on electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), a question whether the NMC technology is indeed effective for lowering the ECP of every location in a BWR is not still well understood at the moment. Then, computer modeling is so far the best tool to help investigate effectiveness of the NMT along PHCT of the BWR. Here was discussed on how the computer model was calibrated by using measured chemistry data obtained from No. 2 unit (BWR) in the Kuosheng Plant. The effect of noble metal treatment coupled with hydrogen water chemistry has been quantitatively molded, on a base of two different sets of ECD enhancement data. It was predicted that No. 1 unit in the Chinshan could be protected by noble metal treatment with lower [H 2 ] FW . In the case of competitive enhancing factors for the ECDs of oxygen reduction, hydrogen peroxide reduction, and hydrogen oxidation reactions, HWC had always to be present for noble metal treatment to be effective for protecting a reactor. Otherwise, according to a model calculation based upon the results from Kim's work, the ECP might instead be increased due to the enhanced reduction reaction rate of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, especially in the near core regions. (G.K.)

  3. Oxidation behaviour of noble-metal inclusions in used UO2 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, R.

    1997-07-01

    The literature on the chemistry of the noble-metal (Mo-Rh-Ru-Pd-Tc) inclusions found in used nuclear fuel has been reviewed. The Mo-Ru-Pd phase diagram is reasonably well understood, and the pseudoternary Mo-(Tc+Ru)-Rh+Pd) system can be used to qualitatively understand the phase chemistry of the noble-metal inclusions. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction are not particularly well understood, but they are of limited applicability to understanding the properties of used fuel. In contrast, it is important to determine the thermodynamic activity of molybdenum in noble-metal inclusions, so that analysis of their molybdenum content can be used as a probe of the local oxygen potential of the used fuel. (author)

  4. Development of detection techniques for the Swedish noble gas sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringbom, A.

    1998-11-01

    A short review on the radioactive properties of noble gas isotopes relevant for monitoring of nuclear activities is given, together with a brief discussion of the existing systems for detection of radioactive noble gases. A 4π detection system to be used in the automatic version of the Swedish noble gas sampling device is described. Monte Carlo calculations of the total gamma and beta efficiency for different detector designs have been performed, together with estimates of the resulting minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The estimated MDC values for detection of the 133g Xe 81 keV and the 135g Xe 250 keV gamma lines are around 0.3 mBq/m 3 in both cases. This is a factor of three lower than the detection limit required for a sampling station in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring network. The possibility to modify the system to detect 85 Kr is also discussed

  5. Development of detection techniques for the Swedish noble gas sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringbom, A

    1998-11-01

    A short review on the radioactive properties of noble gas isotopes relevant for monitoring of nuclear activities is given, together with a brief discussion of the existing systems for detection of radioactive noble gases. A 4{pi} detection system to be used in the automatic version of the Swedish noble gas sampling device is described. Monte Carlo calculations of the total gamma and beta efficiency for different detector designs have been performed, together with estimates of the resulting minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The estimated MDC values for detection of the {sup 133g}Xe 81 keV and the {sup 135g}Xe 250 keV gamma lines are around 0.3 mBq/m{sup 3} in both cases. This is a factor of three lower than the detection limit required for a sampling station in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring network. The possibility to modify the system to detect {sup 85}Kr is also discussed 27 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  6. The interpretation of ellipsometric measurements of ion bombardment of noble gases on semiconductor surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, A.H.M.; Slager, U.C.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1985-01-01

    Low energy noble gas ion bombardment and thermal desorption studies were carried out on Si(111) and analysed, in situ, using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The amorphous layer thickness and implanted noble gas fraction were calculated.

  7. Social and Political Activization of the Don Nobility in the Early 20th Century and “Noble Liberalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratolyubova Mariya Viktorovna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarity of the social, economic and legal status of the Don nobility influenced its political alertness and the opposition character of activity. The liberal wing supported the creation of a new world outlook system which was expected to provide the basis for transforming the political system by means of gradual transition to people’s representatives or constitutional form of government. The liberal landowners insisted on the introduction of zemstvo (district council, the solution of the Cossack issue; they strived for liberalization of the military and bureaucratic control of the Cossack troops and demanded the withdrawal of civil government agencies from the competence of the Military department. The liberal nobility actively supported the change of conditions of service for the Cossacks and pressed for easier draft obligation and releasing the Cossack troops from police duties which clashed with the military dignity. The conservative type of liberalism prevailed within the noble class of the DHR that distanced itself from both the left and the right political forces. The liberalism of the Don nobles was also a reflection of social and cultural peculiarities of the Cossacks. The social basis of the Don liberalism differed from the common Russian analogs. As the Cossack class was rather numerous at the Don, and its representatives made up quite an important part of the regional liberal corporation, they influenced its tactics and the political programming considerably.

  8. The end of a noble narrative?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Murray, Philomena

    2015-01-01

    of the forerunner to the current EU we ask if this noble narrative of war and peace, which is at the heart of European integration, at an end. We argue that this principled account is likely to remain just one of several narratives of European integration, but with its reputation somewhat tarnished. Fresh...

  9. Appraisal of transport and deformation in shale reservoirs using natural noble gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, William Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents efforts to develop the use of in situ naturally-occurring noble gas tracers to evaluate transport mechanisms and deformation in shale hydrocarbon reservoirs. Noble gases are promising as shale reservoir diagnostic tools due to their sensitivity of transport to: shale pore structure; phase partitioning between groundwater, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons; and deformation from hydraulic fracturing. Approximately 1.5-year time-series of wellhead fluid samples were collected from two hydraulically-fractured wells. The noble gas compositions and isotopes suggest a strong signature of atmospheric contribution to the noble gases that mix with deep, old reservoir fluids. Complex mixing and transport of fracturing fluid and reservoir fluids occurs during production. Real-time laboratory measurements were performed on triaxially-deforming shale samples to link deformation behavior, transport, and gas tracer signatures. Finally, we present improved methods for production forecasts that borrow statistical strength from production data of nearby wells to reduce uncertainty in the forecasts.

  10. The Implementation of an MCDM Tool for the Acquisition of Military Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    combined use of two different types of outranking methods PROMETHEE and ORESTE. The choice of all technical parameters is assisted by interactive...the Royal Military Academy to use PROMETHEE or ORESTE outranking methods not only as part of teaching OR (Operation Research) but also as consultants... PROMETHEE considers that all evaluations of criteria are treated as purely quantitative where ORESTE only allows rankings (qualitative criteria). The

  11. Konsep Ma’rifatullah Menurut Al-Ghazali (Suatu Kajian Tentang Implementasi Nilai-Nilai Akhlak al-Karimah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murni Murni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine: (1 knowing Allah as the primary basis noble character education, (2 the method to integrate knowing Allah in nurturing students with noble character, (3 the function of knowing Allah in the formation of noble character, (4 the goal of developing knowing Allah in the improvement of noble character. This study takes the form of literature studies (library research, The findings of the study indicate: (1 knowing Allah as the primary basis of noble character education, to know Allah is the obligation of every human being, as mentioned in al-Qur’an and al-Sunnah, because by knowing Allah then people will know themselves. According to al-Ghazali, a person would not be able to achieve a degree of knowing Allah before he knows himself. Thus, the ability of human to achieve the degree of knowing Allah depends on his ability to know himself. (2 Methods for the integration of noble character in coaching students. First, the coaching. Through the coaching of this character it can be seen how the Islamic attention to the development of the soul should take precedence over physical development, because in this good soul will be born good deeds that in the next step will facilitate to produce goodness and happiness to all human life, both physically and spiritually. Second, the habituation. Al-Ghazali explains that habituation method is performed by repeating the experience in doing something that leaves good impressions in the soul. Third, exemplary. Exemplary method proposed by al-Ghazali is a series of conformity with the concept of educational methods applied by other experts, both in the past and present, and this exemplary method is always relevant and actual to date as well as highly relevant to the method of Islamic education. (3 the function of knowing God in the formation of a noble character. As the science of the most high and noble rank in comparison with the knowledge that exist in this world, then

  12. IBADAH RITUAL DALAM MENANAMKAN AKHLAK REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastolani Kastolani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explained what was viewed as ritual worship; pray  and fasting to embed noble character. The purpose of worship in Islam are: (a to strengthen belief and dedication to Allah; (b to strengthen character, disciplining personality and his role as the agent trusted by  Allah on  earth;  (c to strengthen  friend ship  and affection among  Muslim;  (d to train spiritual and moral. Character occupies crucial role in human’s life, as individual as well as society member. It is because the fall and raise of the nation depends on how its society character.  The  whole  of  worship  system  in  Islam  has  close  relation  with  character founding  and  the  performance  of  ritual  worship  influences  noble  character,  because  good worship performance without having noble character will not useful.

  13. The desorption behaviour of implanted noble gases at low energy on silicon surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, A.H.M.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1987-01-01

    Under UHV conditions, clean crystalline Si(111) surfaces have been bombarded mass-selectively at room temperature with noble gas ions, Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, at normal incidence. By means of stepwise heating up to 1050 K the activation energies and desorbed doses of the noble gases have been straight

  14. Noble gas signatures in the Island of Maui, Hawaii: Characterizing groundwater sources in fractured systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Castro, M. Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Warrier, Rohit B.

    2017-01-01

    Uneven distribution of rainfall and freshwater scarcity in populated areas in the Island of Maui, Hawaii, renders water resources management a challenge in this complex and ill-defined hydrological system. A previous study in the Galapagos Islands suggests that noble gas temperatures (NGTs) record seasonality in that fractured, rapid infiltration groundwater system rather than the commonly observed mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in sedimentary systems where infiltration is slower thus, providing information on recharge sources and potential flow paths. Here we report noble gas results from the basal aquifer, springs, and rainwater in Maui to explore the potential for noble gases in characterizing this type of complex fractured hydrologic systems. Most samples display a mass-dependent depletion pattern with respect to surface conditions consistent with previous observations both in the Galapagos Islands and Michigan rainwater. Basal aquifer and rainwater noble gas patterns are similar and suggest direct, fast recharge from precipitation to the basal aquifer. In contrast, multiple springs, representative of perched aquifers, display highly variable noble gas concentrations suggesting recharge from a variety of sources. The distinct noble gas patterns for the basal aquifer and springs suggest that basal and perched aquifers are separate entities. Maui rainwater displays high apparent NGTs, incompatible with surface conditions, pointing either to an origin at high altitudes with the presence of ice or an ice-like source of undetermined origin. Overall, noble gas signatures in Maui reflect the source of recharge rather than the expected altitude/temperature relationship commonly observed in sedimentary systems.

  15. Noble gases as cardioprotectants - translatability and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Kirsten F.; Weber, Nina C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Several noble gases, although classified as inert substances, exert a tissue-protective effect in different experimental models when applied before organ ischaemia as an early or late preconditioning stimulus, after ischaemia as a post-conditioning stimulus or when given in combination before,

  16. Cucurbit[6]uril: A Possible Host for Noble Gas Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2015-08-27

    Density functional and ab initio molecular dynamics studies are carried out to investigate the stability of noble gas encapsulated cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) systems. Interaction energy, dissociation energy and dissociation enthalpy are calculated to understand the efficacy of CB[6] in encapsulating noble gas atoms. CB[6] could encapsulate up to three Ne atoms having dissociation energy (zero-point energy corrected) in the range of 3.4-4.1 kcal/mol, whereas due to larger size, only one Ar or Kr atom encapsulated analogues would be viable. The dissociation energy value for the second Ar atom is only 1.0 kcal/mol. On the other hand, the same for the second Kr is -0.5 kcal/mol, implying the instability of the system. The noble gas dissociation processes are endothermic in nature, which increases gradually along Ne to Kr. Kr encapsulated analogue is found to be viable at room temperature. However, low temperature is needed for Ne and Ar encapsulated analogues. The temperature-pressure phase diagram highlights the region in which association and dissociation processes of Kr@CB[6] would be favorable. At ambient temperature and pressure, CB[6] may be used as an effective noble gas carrier. Wiberg bond indices, noncovalent interaction indices, electron density, and energy decomposition analyses are used to explore the nature of interaction between noble gas atoms and CB[6]. Dispersion interaction is found to be the most important term in the attraction energy. Ne and Ar atoms in one Ng entrapped analogue are found to stay inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation at 298 K. However, during simulation Ng2 units in Ng2@CB[6] flip toward the open faces of CB[6]. After 1 ps, one Ne atom of Ne3@CB[6] almost reaches the open face keeping other two Ne atoms inside. At lower temperature (77 K), all the Ng atoms in Ngn@CB[6] remain well inside the cavity of CB[6] throughout the simulation time (1 ps).

  17. Noble gas encapsulation into carbon nanotubes: Predictions from analytical model and DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Sree Ganesh; Singh, Devendra; Swathi, R. S., E-mail: swathi@iisertvm.ac.in [School of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram (IISER-TVM), Kerala 695016 (India)

    2014-11-14

    The energetics for the interaction of the noble gas atoms with the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated using an analytical model and density functional theory calculations. Encapsulation of the noble gas atoms, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe into CNTs of various chiralities is studied in detail using an analytical model, developed earlier by Hill and co-workers. The constrained motion of the noble gas atoms along the axes of the CNTs as well as the off-axis motion are discussed. Analyses of the forces, interaction energies, acceptance and suction energies for the encapsulation enable us to predict the optimal CNTs that can encapsulate each of the noble gas atoms. We find that CNTs of radii 2.98 − 4.20 Å (chiral indices, (5,4), (6,4), (9,1), (6,6), and (9,3)) can efficiently encapsulate the He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms, respectively. Endohedral adsorption of all the noble gas atoms is preferred over exohedral adsorption on various CNTs. The results obtained using the analytical model are subsequently compared with the calculations performed with the dispersion-including density functional theory at the M06 − 2X level using a triple-zeta basis set and good qualitative agreement is found. The analytical model is however found to be computationally cheap as the equations can be numerically programmed and the results obtained in comparatively very less time.

  18. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  19. Noble Metal/Ceramic Composites in Flame Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Heiko; Madler, Lutz; Strobel, Reto

    conditions influence the resulting noble metal particles size in those systems [1]. For every specific application the particle size and the metal/metal oxide interaction affect the performance of these nano-composite materials [2]. Recently, aerosol processes have been successfully used to produce platinum...

  20. Imaging with SiPMs in noble-gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahlali, N; González, K; Fernandes, L M P; Garcia, A N C; Soriano, A

    2013-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are photosensors widely used for imaging in a variety of high energy and nuclear physics experiments. In noble-gas detectors for double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, SiPMs are attractive photosensors for imaging. However they are insensitive to the VUV scintillation emitted by the noble gases (xenon and argon). This difficulty is overcome in the NEXT experiment by coating the SiPMs with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) to convert the VUV light into visible light. TPB requires stringent storage and operational conditions to prevent its degradation by environmental agents. The development of UV sensitive SiPMs is thus of utmost interest for experiments using electroluminescence of noble-gas detectors. It is in particular an important issue for a robust and background free ββ0ν experiment with xenon gas aimed by NEXT. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) of UV-enhanced SiPMs provided by Hamamatsu was determined for light in the range 250–500 nm. The PDE of standard SiPMs of the same model (S10362-33-50C), coated and non-coated with TPB, was also determined for comparison. In the UV range 250–350 nm, the PDE of the standard SiPM is shown to decrease strongly, down to about 3%. The UV-enhanced SiPM without window is shown to have the maximum PDE of 44% at 325 nm and 30% at 250 nm. The PDE of the UV-enhanced SiPM with silicon resin window has a similar trend in the UV range, although it is about 30% lower. The TPB-coated SiPM has shown to have about 6 times higher PDE than the non-coated SiPM in the range 250–315 nm. This is however below the performance of the UV-enhanced prototypes in the same wavelength range. Imaging in noble-gas detectors using UV-enhanced SiPMs is discussed.

  1. NOBLE METAL CHEMISTRY AND HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D

    2008-06-25

    Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell vessels were performed with the primary purpose of producing melter feeds for the beaded frit program plus obtaining samples of simulated slurries containing high concentrations of noble metals for off-site analytical studies for the hydrogen program. Eight pairs of 22-L simulations were performed of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. These sixteen simulations did not contain mercury. Six pairs were trimmed with a single noble metal (Ag, Pd, Rh, or Ru). One pair had all four noble metals, and one pair had no noble metals. One supporting 4-L simulation was completed with Ru and Hg. Several other 4-L supporting tests with mercury have not yet been performed. This report covers the calculations performed on SRNL analytical and process data related to the noble metals and hydrogen generation. It was originally envisioned as a supporting document for the off-site analytical studies. Significant new findings were made, and many previous hypotheses and findings were given additional support as summarized below. The timing of hydrogen generation events was reproduced very well within each of the eight pairs of runs, e.g. the onset of hydrogen, peak in hydrogen, etc. occurred at nearly identical times. Peak generation rates and total SRAT masses of CO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen were reproduced well. Comparable measures for hydrogen were reproduced with more variability, but still reasonably well. The extent of the reproducibility of the results validates the conclusions that were drawn from the data.

  2. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  3. Christian Values and Noble Ideas of Rank and their Consequences on Symbolic Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd ALTHOFF

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Middle Ages a Christian system of values met the values of a noble warrior society. Although these two systems had completely different conceptions of norms, they adapted from each other certain values and symbolic forms to express these values.The development of this adaptation is depicted by treating the Christian values misericordia, humilitas and clementia. In which way did the noble warrior society take up these values and how did these norms possibly change?Misericordia, for example, became an essential part of noble behaviour, but the fundamental idea of Christian misericordia was changed. Helping the poor was often motivated by the nobles’ will to prove his mercy, not by personal compassion.Although the value of humilitas implied a sharp contrast to the values of honor and rank, one can find forms of expression, which revealed a noble’s or ruler’s humility. With his humble behaviour one proved one’s qualification and legitimacy. Humility was expressed with symbolic forms of expression like walking barefoot and in penitential clothes or making footfalls. Similarly, these forms were used in inner-secular communication to acknowledge the existing order of rank.The ritual of deditio combines the values humilitas and clementia. The author describes this ritual as a pre-arranged stage-play, in which the one’s humility granted the other’s clemency. These ‘stage-plays’ had only little in common with the original Christian virtues, but this way several elements of the Christian virtue system influenced the noble behaviour pattern.En la edad media el sistema de valores cristiano confluye con el de una sociedad noble guerrera. Aunque ambos sistemas tuvieron dos concepciones de normas completamente diferentes, sin embargo, cada uno de ellos adapto ciertos valores y sus expresiones simbólicas del otro.El desarrollo de esta adaptación es descrito a través de los valores cristianos de misericordia, humilitas y clementia

  4. Organ protection by the noble gas helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate whether helium induces preconditioning in humans, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind this possible protection. First, we collected data regarding organ protective effects of noble gases in general, and of helium in particular (chapters 1-3). In chapter

  5. The efficacy of noble metal alloy urinary catheters in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanood Ahmed Aljohi

    2016-01-01

    Results: A 90% relative risk reduction in the rate of CAUTI was observed with the noble metal alloy catheter compared to the standard catheter (10 vs. 1 cases, P = 0.006. When considering both catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria and CAUTI, the relative risk reduction was 83% (12 vs. 2 cases, P = 0.005. In addition to CAUTI, the risk of acquiring secondary bacteremia was lower (100% for the patients using noble metal alloy catheters (3 cases in the standard group vs. 0 case in the noble metal alloy catheter group, P = 0.24. No adverse events related to any of the used catheters were recorded. Conclusion: Results from this study revealed that noble metal alloy catheters are safe to use and significantly reduce CAUTI rate in ICU patients after 3 days of use.

  6. Natural Death and the Noble Savage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Tony

    1995-01-01

    The belief that dying and grieving are natural processes is widely held in modern bereavement care. Examines four assumption often made in this connection: (1) most primitive cultures deal with death in an accepting way; (2) this way is different than our own; (3) it is a good and noble way; and (4) traditional societies see death as natural. (JBJ)

  7. Selective noble gases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecka, S.; Jancik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.; Kubik, I.; Sevecka, S.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: 88 Kr(67; 22) Bq/m 3 ; 85m Kr(17; 7) Bq/m 3 ; 135m Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m 3 ; 138 Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m 3 . (J.K.)

  8. Selective noble gases monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecka, S; Jancik, O; Kapisovsky, V; Kubik, I; Sevecka, S [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, a.s., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: {sup 88}Kr(67; 22) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 85m}Kr(17; 7) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 135m}Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 138}Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m{sup 3}. (J.K.).

  9. Effects of halogens on interactions between a reduced TiO{sub 2} (110) surface and noble metal atoms: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Kohei, E-mail: k-tada@aist.go.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Research Institute of Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31, Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka, 563-8577 (Japan); Koga, Hiroaki [Element Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, 1-30 Goryo Ohara, Nishikyo, Kyoto, 615-8245 (Japan); Hayashi, Akihide; Kondo, Yudai; Kawakami, Takashi; Yamanaka, Shusuke [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Okumura, Mitsutaka [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Element Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, 1-30 Goryo Ohara, Nishikyo, Kyoto, 615-8245 (Japan)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • We investigated the halogen effect on the interactions of noble metals with TiO{sub 2}. • Halogen atoms inhibit electron transfer from TiO{sub 2} to noble metals. • Iodine stabilizes the adsorption of noble metals especially for Ag and Cu. • Electron transfer from the TiO{sub 2} is effective in anchoring Au and Pt atoms. • Covalent interaction with the support is effective in anchoring Ag and Cu atoms. - Abstract: Using DFT calculation, we investigate the effects of halogens on the interactions between rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) and noble metal atoms (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, and Pd). Fluorine, chlorine, and bromine atoms occupy the oxygen defect sites of TiO{sub 2}, decreasing the stability of noble metal atoms on the surface. This decrease occurs because the halogens inhibit electron transfer from TiO{sub 2} to the noble metal atoms; the electron transfer from reduced TiO{sub 2} to the noble metal atom stabilizes the noble metal atom adsorption. In contrast, iodine strengthens the interactions between TiO{sub 2} and some noble metal atoms, namely Ag and Cu. This stabilization occurs because of the covalent interaction between iodine-doped TiO{sub 2} and the noble metal atom. Therefore, the stabilization is explained well by chemical hardness. This result suggests that iodine-doping of a TiO{sub 2} surface would be an effective method for the preparation of highly stabilized noble metal clusters.

  10. Vida y Obra del científico holguinero: "Orestes Coloma Rodríguez", figura inspiradora y difusora de los Software educativos en Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandy Alí Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace referencia a la Biobibliografía de uno de los más prestigiosos de la informática en Cuba: Orestes Coloma Rodríguez, quien se ha destacado por ser el promotor del software educativo en Holguín, con el propósito de ampliar la formación general en la educación cubana. En el trabajo se analizan los aspectos más trascendentales de su vida y obra, describiendo por año, en la cronología, una fructífera existencia dedicada a la docencia y a la investigación, creador de varias herramientas para el desarrollo de aplicaciones multimedia, elaboración y evaluación de Software Educativo. Presenta además acontecimientos memorables que marcaron la vida del investigado, una bibliografía activa y pasiva por diferentes tipos de portadores, destacándose libros, artículos de revistas, eventos en los que ha participado y diferentes trabajos en soporte digital. Un índice de título y otro de materia que facilita la búsqueda dentro del trabajo, reflejando además los Premios recibidos y las condecoraciones obtenidas.

  11. Mantle Noble Gas Contents Controlled by Subduction of Serpentinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material1, well gases2, MORB, and OIBs3 indicate that noble gases are being recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. However, the path taken by these noble gases is unclear. To estimate the distribution and quantity of Ar, Kr, and Xe in subducting slabs, a model consisting of layers of sediments, altered oceanic crust (AOC), and serpentinite (hydrously altered mantle) has been developed. The noble gas contents of sediments and AOC were calculated using the least air-like and most gas-rich analyses from natural systems4,5, while serpentinite was modelled using both data from natural systems1 and experimentally determined solubilities. Layer thicknesses were assessed over a range of values: 1 to 12 km of sediments, 5 to 9 km of AOC, and 1 to 30 km of serpentinite. In all cases, the serpentinite layer contains at least an order of magnitude more Ar and Kr than the other layers. For realistic layer thicknesses (1 km of sediments, 6 km of AOC, and 3 km of serpentinite), Xe is distributed roughly equally between the three layers. By incorporating global subduction rates6, fluxes of the heavy noble gases into the mantle have been calculated as 4 · 1012 mol/Ma for 36Ar, 6 · 1011 mol/Ma for 84Kr, and 8 · 109 mol/Ma for 130Xe. These fluxes are equivalent to the total 84Kr and 130Xe contents of the depleted and bulk mantle over 1 and 10 Ma7. Similarly, the flux of 36Ar is equivalent over 1 and 100 Ma. Since the Kr and Xe have not been completely overprinted by recycling, the large majority of subducted noble gases must escape in the subduction zone. However, even the small amounts that are subducted deeper have affected the mantle as measured in both MORB and OIBs. 1. Kendrick, M.A. et al., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G. and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Parai, R. and Mukhopadhyay, S., G3, 16, 719-735, 2015 4. Matsuda, J. and Nagao, K., Geochemical Journal, 20, 71-80, 1986

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  13. Synthesis of Zeolite Materials for Noble Gas Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achey, R.; Rivera, O.; Wellons, M.; Hunter, D.

    2017-01-01

    Microporous zeolite adsorbent materials are widely used as a medium for separating gases. Adsorbent gas separation systems can run at ambient temperature and require minimal pressure to flow the input gas stream across the adsorbent bed. This allows for low energy consumption relative to other types of separation systems. Specific zeolites also have a high capacity and selectivity for the gases of interest, leading to compact and efficient separation systems. These characteristics are particularly advantageous for the application of signatures detection for non-proliferation, which often requires portable systems with low power draw. Savannah River National Laboratory currently is the leader in using zeolites for noble gas sampling for non-proliferation detection platforms. However, there is a constant customer need for improved sampling capabilities. Development of improved zeolite materials will lead to improved sampling technology. Microwave-assisted and conventional hydrothermal synthesis have been used to make a variety of zeolites tailored for noble gas separation. Materials characterization data collected in this project has been used to help guide the synthesis of improved zeolite materials. Candidate materials have been down-selected based on highest available surface area, maximum overall capacity for gas adsorption and highest selectivity. The creation of improved adsorbent materials initiated in this project will lead to development of more compact, efficient and effective noble gas collectors and concentrators. The work performed in this project will be used as a foundation for funding proposals for further material development as well as possible industrial applications.

  14. Synthesis of Zeolite Materials for Noble Gas Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achey, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rivera, O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wellons, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-02

    Microporous zeolite adsorbent materials are widely used as a medium for separating gases. Adsorbent gas separation systems can run at ambient temperature and require minimal pressure to flow the input gas stream across the adsorbent bed. This allows for low energy consumption relative to other types of separation systems. Specific zeolites also have a high capacity and selectivity for the gases of interest, leading to compact and efficient separation systems. These characteristics are particularly advantageous for the application of signatures detection for non-proliferation, which often requires portable systems with low power draw. Savannah River National Laboratory currently is the leader in using zeolites for noble gas sampling for non-proliferation detection platforms. However, there is a constant customer need for improved sampling capabilities. Development of improved zeolite materials will lead to improved sampling technology. Microwave-assisted and conventional hydrothermal synthesis have been used to make a variety of zeolites tailored for noble gas separation. Materials characterization data collected in this project has been used to help guide the synthesis of improved zeolite materials. Candidate materials have been down-selected based on highest available surface area, maximum overall capacity for gas adsorption and highest selectivity. The creation of improved adsorbent materials initiated in this project will lead to development of more compact, efficient and effective noble gas collectors and concentrators. The work performed in this project will be used as a foundation for funding proposals for further material development as well as possible industrial applications.

  15. Method to separate fission noble gases from gaseous wastes of a reprocessing plant for nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnez, H.

    1977-01-01

    In order to avoid the high cost expenditure in the separation of fission noble gases from waste gas of the head end, the following economical method is suggested: The fission noble gases released in the solvent - after grinding and burn-up of the nuclear fuel elements and dissolving in HNO 3 - are purified in a known method and collected in an equalizing tank. From here, the fission noble gas quantity necessary as washing gas is recycled into the solvent, so that a part of the fission noble gas quantity flows in a circuit. The quantity of fission noble gas not required for the above is separated from the circuit, compressed and put into a storage container from where it can be put into gas flashs or be recycled in the gas circuit where necessary. Furthermore, the method involves that to separate krypton, the filtered fission noble gas is compressed, cooled and rectified, whereby the krypton mixture taken from the rectification column is stored under high pressure and the gas part containing xenon, occuring as liquid, is at least partly fed back to the solvent. (HPH) [de

  16. Preparation and Heat-Treatment of DWPF Simulants With and Without Co-Precipitated Noble Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, David C.:Eibling, Russel E

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is in the process of investigating factors suspected of impacting catalytic hydrogen generation in the Chemical Process Cell of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation in simulation work constrains the allowable acid addition operating window in DWPF. This constraint potentially impacts washing strategies during sludge batch preparation. It can also influence decisions related to the addition of secondary waste streams to a sludge batch. Noble metals have historically been added as trim chemicals to process simulations. The present study investigated the potential conservatism that might be present from adding the catalytic species as trim chemicals to the final sludge simulant versus co-precipitating the noble metals into the insoluble sludge solids matrix. Parallel preparations of two sludge simulants targeting the composition of Sludge Batch 3 were performed in order to evaluate the impact of the form of noble metals. Identical steps were used except that one simulant had dissolved palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium present during the precipitation of the insoluble solids. Noble metals were trimmed into the other stimulant prior to process tests. Portions of both sludge simulants were held at 97 C for about eight hours to qualitatively simulate the effects of long term storage on particle morphology and speciation. The simulants were used as feeds for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank, SRAT, process simulations. The following conclusions were drawn from the simulant preparation work: (1) The first preparation of a waste slurry simulant with co-precipitated noble metals was successful, based on the data obtained. It appears that 99+% of the noble metals were retained in the simulant. (2) Better control of carbonate, hydroxide, and post-wash trim chemical additions is needed before the new method of simulant preparation will be as reproducible as the old method. (3) The two new

  17. Noble metal behavior during melting of simulated high-level nuclear waste glass feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1994-01-01

    Noble metals and their oxides can settle in waste glass melters and cause electrical shorting. Simulate waste feeds from Hanford, Savannah River, and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C to 1000 degrees C and examined by electron microscopy to determine shapes, sizes, and distribution of noble metal particles as a function of temperature. Individual noble metal particles and agglomerates of rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (RuO 2 ), and palladium (Pd), as well as their alloys, were seen. The majority of particles and agglomerates were generally less than 10 μm; however, large agglomerations (up to 1 mm) were found in the German feed. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Polymer-noble metal nanocomposites: Review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Folarin, OM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available because of their multi-functionality, ease of process-ability, potential for large-scale manufacturing, significantly lighter than metals, ease of synthesis when compared to the oxide/noble metal multi-layers (Gass et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2003.... their easy aggregation arising from their high surface free energy (Lee et al., 2006). In the design of nanocomposites, one must consider the properties of the polymer matrix as well as the stability of the nanoparticles and more importantly...

  19. Techniques for the quantitative analysis of fission-product noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautensleger, A.W.; Hara, F.T.

    1982-08-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium in precursor waste, solvent metal, and final glass waste forms have been developed. Two procedures for the analysis of noble metals in the calcine and glass waste forms are described in this report. The first is a fast and simple technique that combines inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP) and x-ray fluorescence techniques and can only be used on nonradioactive materials. The second procedure is based on a noble metal separation step, followed by an analysis using ICP. This second method is more complicated than the first, but it will work on radioactive materials. Also described is a procedure for the ICP analysis of noble metals in the solvent metal matrix. The only solvent metal addressed in this procedure is lead, but with minor changes the procedure could be applied to any of the solvent metals being considered in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) extraction process. A brief explanation of atomic spectroscopy and the ICP analytical process, as well as of certain aspects of ICP performance (interelement spectral line interferences and certain matrix effects) is given

  20. Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers Decorated with Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Chemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Tang, Yongan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Yan, Fei

    2017-12-01

    The integration of different noble metal nanostructures, which exhibit desirable plasmonic and/or electrocatalytic properties, with electrospun polymer nanofibers, which display unique mechanical and thermodynamic properties, yields novel hybrid nanoscale systems of synergistic properties and functions. This review summarizes recent advances on how to incorporate noble metal nanoparticles into electrospun polymer nanofibers and illustrates how such integration paves the way towards chemical sensing applications with improved sensitivity, stability, flexibility, compatibility, and selectivity. It is expected that further development of this field will eventually make a wide impact on many areas of research.

  1. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions N-CRAFT. System design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP. This can either be due to leakages of the containment or due to a filtered containment venting in order to ensure the overall integrity of the containment. During the containment venting process aerosols and iodine can be retained by the FCVS which prevents long term ground contamination. Noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS. From this it follows that a large amount of radioactive noble gases (e.g. xenon, krypton) might be present in the nearby environment of the plant dominating the activity release, depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. Accident management measures are necessary in case of severe accidents and the prolonged stay of staff inside the main control room (MCR) or emergency response center (ERC) is essential. Therefore, the in leakage and contamination of the MRC and ERC with airborne activity has to be prevented. The radiation exposure of the crises team needs to be minimized. The entrance of noble gases cannot be sufficiently prevented by the conventional air filtration systems such as HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. With the objective to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the MCR/ERC atmosphere by noble gases AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas retention system. The noble gas control room accident filtration system CRAFT is designed for this case and provides supply of fresh air to the MCR/ERC without time limitation. The retention process of the system is based on the dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. These cycles ensure a periodic load and flushing of the delay lines retaining the noble gases from entering the MCR. CRAFT allows a minimization of the dose rate inside MCR/ERC and ensures a low radiation exposure to the staff on shift maintaining

  2. The contribution of 700,000 ORF sequence tags to the definition of the human transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anamaria A.; Samaia, Helena P. B.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Simão, Daniel F.; Migotto, Italo A.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Costa, Fernando F.; Aparecida Nagai, Maria; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zago, Marco A.; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C.; Carrer, Helaine; El-Dorry, Hamza F. A.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gruber, Arthur; Hackel, Christine; Kimura, Edna T.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Marie, Suely K. N.; Martins, Elizabeth A. L.; Nóbrega, Marina P.; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Pardini, Maria Inês M. C.; Pereira, Gonçalo G.; Pesquero, João Bosco; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Rogatto, Silvia R.; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.; Sogayar, Mari C.; Sonati, Maria de Fátima; Tajara, Eloiza H.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Alberto, Fernando L.; Amaral, Maria Elisabete J.; Aneas, Ivy; Arnaldi, Liliane A. T.; de Assis, Angela M.; Bengtson, Mário Henrique; Bergamo, Nadia Aparecida; Bombonato, Vanessa; de Camargo, Maria E. R.; Canevari, Renata A.; Carraro, Dirce M.; Cerutti, Janete M.; Corrêa, Maria Lucia C.; Corrêa, Rosana F. R.; Costa, Maria Cristina R.; Curcio, Cyntia; Hokama, Paula O. M.; Ferreira, Ari J. S.; Furuzawa, Gilberto K.; Gushiken, Tsieko; Ho, Paulo L.; Kimura, Elza; Krieger, José E.; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Majumder, Paromita; Marins, Mozart; Marques, Everaldo R.; Melo, Analy S. A.; Melo, Monica; Mestriner, Carlos Alberto; Miracca, Elisabete C.; Miranda, Daniela C.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.; Nóbrega, Francisco G.; Ojopi, Élida P. B.; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo C.; Pessoa, Luciana G.; Prevedel, Aline C.; Rahal, Paula; Rainho, Claudia A.; Reis, Eduardo M. R.; Ribeiro, Marcelo L.; da Rós, Nancy; de Sá, Renata G.; Sales, Magaly M.; Sant'anna, Simone Cristina; dos Santos, Mariana L.; da Silva, Aline M.; da Silva, Neusa P.; Silva, Wilson A.; da Silveira, Rosana A.; Sousa, Josane F.; Stecconi, Daniella; Tsukumo, Fernando; Valente, Valéria; Soares, Fernando; Moreira, Eloisa S.; Nunes, Diana N.; Correa, Ricardo G.; Zalcberg, Heloisa; Carvalho, Alex F.; Reis, Luis F. L.; Brentani, Ricardo R.; Simpson, Andrew J. G.; de Souza, Sandro J.

    2001-01-01

    Open reading frame expressed sequences tags (ORESTES) differ from conventional ESTs by providing sequence data from the central protein coding portion of transcripts. We generated a total of 696,745 ORESTES sequences from 24 human tissues and used a subset of the data that correspond to a set of 15,095 full-length mRNAs as a means of assessing the efficiency of the strategy and its potential contribution to the definition of the human transcriptome. We estimate that ORESTES sampled over 80% of all highly and moderately expressed, and between 40% and 50% of rarely expressed, human genes. In our most thoroughly sequenced tissue, the breast, the 130,000 ORESTES generated are derived from transcripts from an estimated 70% of all genes expressed in that tissue, with an equally efficient representation of both highly and poorly expressed genes. In this respect, we find that the capacity of the ORESTES strategy both for gene discovery and shotgun transcript sequence generation significantly exceeds that of conventional ESTs. The distribution of ORESTES is such that many human transcripts are now represented by a scaffold of partial sequences distributed along the length of each gene product. The experimental joining of the scaffold components, by reverse transcription–PCR, represents a direct route to transcript finishing that may represent a useful alternative to full-length cDNA cloning. PMID:11593022

  3. The contribution of 700,000 ORF sequence tags to the definition of the human transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, A A; Samaia, H P; Dias-Neto, E; Simão, D F; Migotto, I A; Briones, M R; Costa, F F; Nagai, M A; Verjovski-Almeida, S; Zago, M A; Andrade, L E; Carrer, H; El-Dorry, H F; Espreafico, E M; Habr-Gama, A; Giannella-Neto, D; Goldman, G H; Gruber, A; Hackel, C; Kimura, E T; Maciel, R M; Marie, S K; Martins, E A; Nobrega, M P; Paco-Larson, M L; Pardini, M I; Pereira, G G; Pesquero, J B; Rodrigues, V; Rogatto, S R; da Silva, I D; Sogayar, M C; Sonati, M F; Tajara, E H; Valentini, S R; Alberto, F L; Amaral, M E; Aneas, I; Arnaldi, L A; de Assis, A M; Bengtson, M H; Bergamo, N A; Bombonato, V; de Camargo, M E; Canevari, R A; Carraro, D M; Cerutti, J M; Correa, M L; Correa, R F; Costa, M C; Curcio, C; Hokama, P O; Ferreira, A J; Furuzawa, G K; Gushiken, T; Ho, P L; Kimura, E; Krieger, J E; Leite, L C; Majumder, P; Marins, M; Marques, E R; Melo, A S; Melo, M B; Mestriner, C A; Miracca, E C; Miranda, D C; Nascimento, A L; Nobrega, F G; Ojopi, E P; Pandolfi, J R; Pessoa, L G; Prevedel, A C; Rahal, P; Rainho, C A; Reis, E M; Ribeiro, M L; da Ros, N; de Sa, R G; Sales, M M; Sant'anna, S C; dos Santos, M L; da Silva, A M; da Silva, N P; Silva, W A; da Silveira, R A; Sousa, J F; Stecconi, D; Tsukumo, F; Valente, V; Soares, F; Moreira, E S; Nunes, D N; Correa, R G; Zalcberg, H; Carvalho, A F; Reis, L F; Brentani, R R; Simpson, A J; de Souza, S J; Melo, M

    2001-10-09

    Open reading frame expressed sequences tags (ORESTES) differ from conventional ESTs by providing sequence data from the central protein coding portion of transcripts. We generated a total of 696,745 ORESTES sequences from 24 human tissues and used a subset of the data that correspond to a set of 15,095 full-length mRNAs as a means of assessing the efficiency of the strategy and its potential contribution to the definition of the human transcriptome. We estimate that ORESTES sampled over 80% of all highly and moderately expressed, and between 40% and 50% of rarely expressed, human genes. In our most thoroughly sequenced tissue, the breast, the 130,000 ORESTES generated are derived from transcripts from an estimated 70% of all genes expressed in that tissue, with an equally efficient representation of both highly and poorly expressed genes. In this respect, we find that the capacity of the ORESTES strategy both for gene discovery and shotgun transcript sequence generation significantly exceeds that of conventional ESTs. The distribution of ORESTES is such that many human transcripts are now represented by a scaffold of partial sequences distributed along the length of each gene product. The experimental joining of the scaffold components, by reverse transcription-PCR, represents a direct route to transcript finishing that may represent a useful alternative to full-length cDNA cloning.

  4. Intentions of fast noble gas ions with clean and with oxidized monocrystalline copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, A.G.J. de.

    1979-01-01

    The thesis reports investigations concerning the distorted shape of the energy distribution of scattered noble gas ions, and investigations of angular distributions of these ions where a quantitative interpretation is less hampered by preferential neutralization. Low energy noble gas ion scattering is used to study the interactions between oxygen gas and Cu(110) surfaces. (Auth.)

  5. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  6. Is the thermodynamic behavior of the noble fluids consistent with the principle of corresponding states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulinskii, V.L.; Malomuzh, N.P.; Matvejchuk, O.I.

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of the Principle of Corresponding States (PCS) for the noble fluids is discussed. We give the thermodynamic evidence for the dimerization of the liquid phase in heavy noble gases like argon, krypton etc. which manifests itself in deviations from the PCS. The behavior of the

  7. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao; Xiao, Manda; Bao, Zhihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Jianfang

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Properties and application of noble metal catalysts for heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, G; Frohning, C D; Cornils, B [Ruhrchemie A.G., Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-07-01

    The special properties of the six platinum group elements - ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, platinum - make them useful as active metals for catalytic reactions. Especially valuable is their property of favouring a single reaction even when the possibility of a number of parallel reactions exists under certain reaction conditions. This selectivity of the noble metal catalyst may be directed or enhanced through appropriate choise of the metal, the reaction conditions, the duration of the reaction, the amount of hydrogen etc. Even the physical state of the catalyst - supported or unsupported - is of influence when using noble metal catalysts as described in this report.

  10. Fluorescence emissions from mixtures of Hg with the noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fluorescence emissions from mixtures of Hg with high pressure Xe, Kr, and Ar (approx.1 torr Hg, 10 3 --10 4 torr noble gas) have been studied using a short-pulse relativistic electron beam as an excitation source. Hg--noble gas molecular bands were observed on the red sides of the Hg lines (1849 and 2537 A) as well as on the red sides of the Hg visible lines (7 3 S 1 →6 3 P 0 , 1 , 2 ). Temporal histories and production efficiencies of the molecular emissions were determined and a model was formulated for the time histories of the HgXe 2600 A bands. Possible applications to high power laser systems are discussed

  11. Vitrification of noble metals containing NCAW simulant with an engineering scale melter (ESM): Campaign report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W.; Weisenburger, S.; Weiss, K.; Elliott, M.; Eyler, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    ESM has been designed as a 10th-scale model of the DWPF-type melter, currently the reference melter for nitrification of Hanford double shell tankwaste. ESM and related equipment have been integrated to the existing mockup vitrification plant VA-WAK at KfK. On June 2-July 10, 1992, a shakedown test using 2.61 m{sup 3} of NCAW (neutralized current acid waste) simulant without noble metals was performed. On July 11-Aug. 30, 1992, 14.23 m{sup 3} of the same simulant with nominal concentrations of Ru, Rh, and Pd were vitrified. Objective was to investigate the behavior of such a melter with respect to discharge of noble metals with routine glass pouring via glass overflow. Results indicate an accumulation of noble metals in the bottom area of the flat-bottomed ESM. About 65 wt% of the noble metals fed to the melter could be drained out, whereas 35 wt% accumulated in the melter, based on analysis of glass samples from glass pouring stream in to the canisters. After the melter was drained at the end of the campaign through a bottom drain valve, glass samples were taken from the residual bottom layer. The samples had significantly increased noble metals content (factor of 20-45 to target loading). They showed also a significant decrease of the specific electric resistance compared to bulk glass (factor of 10). A decrease of 10- 15% of the resistance between he power electrodes could be seen at the run end, but the total amount of noble metals accumulated was not yet sufficient enough to disturb the Joule heating of the glass tank severely.

  12. Line emissions from sonoluminescence in aqueous solutions of halide salts without noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jinfu, E-mail: liang.shi2007@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Chen, Weizhong, E-mail: wzchen@nju.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhou, Chao; Cui, Weicheng; Chen, Zhan [The Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institution of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Line emissions of trivalent terbium (Tb{sup 3+}) ion were observed from single-bubble sonoluminescence (SL) in an aqueous solution of terbium chloride (TbCl{sub 3}) that contained no noble gas. In addition, sodium (Na) lines were observed in multi-bubble SL in aqueous solutions of various halide salts that contained no noble gas. These observations show that the halide ions, such as Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, and I{sup −}, help for line emissions as the noble gases. The intensity of a line emission depends on both the chemical species produced by cavitation bubbles and the temperature of SL bubble that responds to the driving ultrasound pressure. With the increase of driving pressure, some line emissions attached to the continuous spectrum may become increasingly clear, while other line emissions gradually become indistinct. - Highlights: • Line emissions of Tb(III) ions were observed without the presence of noble gases. • The halide ions help to generate a line emission during sonoluminescence. • The intensity of a line emission mainly depends on the bubble's temperature. • The definition of a line emission is related to the temperature of caviation bubble and the kind of host liquid.

  13. Noble metal behavior during melting of simulated high-level nuclear waste glass feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Noble metals and their oxides can settle in waste glass melters and cause electrical shorting. Simulated waste feeds from Hanford, Savannah River, and Germany were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C and examined by electron microscopy to determine shapes, sizes, and distribution of noble metal particles as a function of temperature. Individual noble metal particles and agglomerates of rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (RuO 2 ), and palladium (Pd), as well as their alloys, were seen. the majority of particles and agglomerates were generally less than 10 microns; however, large agglomerations (up to 1 mm) were found in the German feed. Detailed particle distribution and characterization was performed for a Hanford waste to provide input to computer modeling of particle settling in the melter

  14. Growth responses of Neurospora crassa to increased partial pressures of the noble gases and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, R G; Schreiner, H R; Doebbler, G F

    1966-02-01

    Buchheit, R. G. (Union Carbide Corp., Tonawanda, N.Y.), H. R. Schreiner, and G. F. Doebbler. Growth responses of Neurospora crassa to increased partial pressures of the noble gases and nitrogen. J. Bacteriol. 91:622-627. 1966.-Growth rate of the fungus Neurospora crassa depends in part on the nature of metabolically "inert gas" present in its environment. At high partial pressures, the noble gas elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) inhibit growth in the order: Xe > Kr> Ar > Ne > He. Nitrogen (N(2)) closely resembles He in inhibitory effectiveness. Partial pressures required for 50% inhibition of growth were: Xe (0.8 atm), Kr (1.6 atm), Ar (3.8 atm), Ne (35 atm), and He ( approximately 300 atm). With respect to inhibition of growth, the noble gases and N(2) differ qualitatively and quantitatively from the order of effectiveness found with other biological effects, i.e., narcosis, inhibition of insect development, depression of O(2)-dependent radiation sensitivity, and effects on tissue-slice glycolysis and respiration. Partial pressures giving 50% inhibition of N. crassa growth parallel various physical properties (i.e., solubilities, solubility ratios, etc.) of the noble gases. Linear correlation of 50% inhibition pressures to the polarizability and of the logarithm of pressure to the first and second ionization potentials suggests the involvement of weak intermolecular interactions or charge-transfer in the biological activity of the noble gases.

  15. Non-noble metal based electro-catalyst compositions for proton exchange membrane based water electrolysis and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, Prashant N.; Kadakia, Karan Sandeep; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg

    2017-02-07

    The invention provides electro-catalyst compositions for an anode electrode of a proton exchange membrane-based water electrolysis system. The compositions include a noble metal component selected from the group consisting of iridium oxide, ruthenium oxide, rhenium oxide and mixtures thereof, and a non-noble metal component selected from the group consisting of tantalum oxide, tin oxide, niobium oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide, molybdenum oxide, yttrium oxide, scandium oxide, cooper oxide, zirconium oxide, nickel oxide and mixtures thereof. Further, the non-noble metal component can include a dopant. The dopant can be at least one element selected from Groups III, V, VI and VII of the Periodic Table. The compositions can be prepared using a surfactant approach or a sol gel approach. Further, the compositions are prepared using noble metal and non-noble metal precursors. Furthermore, a thin film containing the compositions can be deposited onto a substrate to form the anode electrode.

  16. Tracing enhanced oil recovery signatures in casing gases from the Lost Hills oil field using noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Peter H.; Kulongoski, Justin; Landon, Matthew K.; Tyne, R.L.; Gillespie, Janice; Stephens, Michael; Hillegonds, D.J.; Byrne, D.J.; Ballentine, C.J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and hydraulic fracturing practices are commonly used methods to improve hydrocarbon extraction efficiency; however the environmental impacts of such practices remain poorly understood. EOR is particularly prevalent in oil fields throughout California where water resources are in high demand and disposal of high volumes of produced water may affect groundwater quality. Consequently, it is essential to better understand the fate of injected (EOR) fluids in California and other subsurface petroleum systems, as well as any potential effect on nearby aquifer systems. Noble gases can be used as tracers to understand hydrocarbon generation, migration, and storage conditions, as well as the relative proportions of oil and water present in the subsurface. In addition, a noble gas signature diagnostic of injected (EOR) fluids can be readily identified. We report noble gas isotope and concentration data in casing gases from oil production wells in the Lost Hills oil field, northwest of Bakersfield, California, and injectate gas data from the Fruitvale oil field, located within the city of Bakersfield. Casing and injectate gas data are used to: 1) establish pristine hydrocarbon noble-gas signatures and the processes controlling noble gas distributions, 2) characterize the noble gas signature of injectate fluids, 3) trace injectate fluids in the subsurface, and 4) construct a model to estimate EOR efficiency. Noble gas results range from pristine to significantly modified by EOR, and can be best explained using a solubility exchange model between oil and connate/formation fluids, followed by gas exsolution upon production. This model is sensitive to oil-water interaction during hydrocarbon expulsion, migration, and storage at reservoir conditions, as well as any subsequent modification by EOR.

  17. Paleotemperatures derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater and in relation to soil temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stute, M.; Sonntag, C.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe dissolved in groundwater at two sites (Bocholt, Germany, and the Great Hungarian Plain) were taken to prove the reliability of noble gas temperatures as indicators of paleotemperatures. Noble gas temperatures of groundwater of Holocene age were found to reflect the annual mean soil temperature in the recharge are with an accuracy close to the precision of measurement (1σ approx. ±0.5 deg. C). Noble gas temperature data demonstrate the influence of vegetation cover on the soil temperature in the infiltration area. Groundwater formed in forests at the Bocholt site shows noble gas temperatures that are 2.2 deg. C lower than the groundwater formed in fields or meadows. The temperature data obtained from groundwater of the Great Hungarian Plain for the last glaciation are ≥ 8.6 deg. C lower than data from recent groundwater for maximum glaciation (approx. 18,000 years ago) and 4.7 ± 1 deg. C lower for the preceding interstadial (approx. 28,000-35,000 years ago). These data permit independent reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  18. The Role of Noble Metal Addition Methods on BWR Shut Down Dose Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Robert L.; Garcia Susan, E.

    2012-09-01

    Noble metal addition technology was developed for the BWR as a means of establishing low electrochemical corrosion potentials (ECP) on structural materials to mitigate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). When the reactor water molar ratio of H 2 / (O 2 +H 2 O 2 ) is > 2 on noble metal treated surfaces, the resulting ECP is near -500 mV (SHE), well into the mitigation range. This ratio can be achieved in most areas of the reactor with feedwater hydrogen additions in the range of 0.2 mg/kg, a condition that does not increase the radiation level in the main steam, a side effect of conventional hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). The resulting low ECP on the surface of stainless steel piping and components results in a change in form of the stable corrosion film to a spinel structure. Since it is the 60 Co incorporated into the corrosion film that is the primary source term of shutdown dose rates in BWRs, the structure and composition of the film can have a large influence in the resulting dose rates. The results of the first generation of noble metal technology, noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), showed that the reactor water ratio of 60 Co (s)/Zn (s) was a key parameter in determining shut down dose rate values. This paper will review that history and provide mechanistic understanding of how initial post NMCA dose rates are established and change with time. On-line noble metal chemical addition (OLNC) is the second generation of noble metal technology. The method utilizes the on-line injection of dilute Na 2 Pt (OH) 6 into the feedwater over a period of approximately 10 days. The first application of OLNC occurred at a European reactor in July of 2005 and to date over 20 BWRs have applied the technology, with many more applications scheduled. It is expected that OLNC will become the de facto standard because it eliminates 60 hours of outage application time and it addresses the crack flanking concerns that can arise under certain conditions. Because both

  19. Advancing the use of noble gases in fluid inclusions of speleothems as a palaeoclimate proxy. Method and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, L.; Palcsu, L.; Major, Z.; Svingor, E.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Continental carbonates are essential archives of the past geological and climatological occurrences. Recently, fluid inclusions of carbonates have got into focus of palaeoclimate research. A new approach using temperature dependent gas solubilities might be a way that uses only physical laws, e.g. the Henry's law of solubility and gas partitioning models. The so-called noble gas temperature (NGT) can be calculated from the measured noble gas concentrations. This report describes how our first advancing steps towards obtaining NGT's from fluid inclusions and tiny water amounts have been preformed. To extract the water inclusions from the carbonate matrix, the most suitable treatment is to crush the carbonate under vacuum. The water released from the inclusions is then collected in a cold finger by freezing. The amount of the liberated water is measured via its vapour pressure in a certain volume (Fig. 1). The liberated dissolved noble gases which were in the fluid inclusions are separated by a cryo system, and then admitted into the static mode noble gas mass spectrometer sequentially. The calibration of the noble gas mass spectrometric measurements is performed by means of well known air aliquots. To check the reliability of the whole measurement procedure standard water samples have to be measured. As for standard samples, first we have prepared air equilibrated water (AEW) in conditioned circumstances. We fill copper capillaries with AEW. Having completed the copper capillary assemblage, the AEW is letting flow through the capillary (Fig. 2). The error of such a water determination is less than 1% in case of 1 μl of liquid water (Fig. 1) that allows us to determine accurate noble gas concentrations. The reproducibility of 40 Ar measurements is better than 0.6 %, while those of neon, krypton and xenon isotopes are 0.6-1.6 %, 0.9-2.2 % and 0.8-2.0 %, respectively. Theoretically, these precisions for noble gas concentrations

  20. EDO, Doses to Man and Organs from Reactor Operation Noble Gas and Liquid Waste Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas Diago, Jose; Serradell Garcia, Vicente

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EDO evaluates individual and collective doses to man from atmospheric releases of noble gases and other gaseous effluents. 2 - Method of solution: The dose calculations are carried out by following the guide- lines of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. Radiation exposure for maximum individuals and population are estimated within 30 km from the nuclear plant. This area is divided into 160 circular trapezoids, to which computations are referred. Four age groups, seven organs for internal dose and two for external dose have been considered. Dose calculations are done through 14 pathways, 7 for liquid effluents, one for noble gases, and 6 for the rest of gaseous effluents. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The following are the maximum dimension sizes preset in the code: 73 radionuclides (other than noble gases); 15 noble gases; 160 circular trapezoids; 31 chemical elements; 4 types of aquatic foods; 15 points of exposure for shorelines; 15 trapezoids influenced by each point; 4 terrestrial food pathways; 100 centres of population. Some of these limits can be varied

  1. EDO, Doses to Man and Organs from Reactor Operation Noble Gas and Liquid Waste Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas Diago, Jose; Serradell Garcia, Vicente [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica, Camino de Vera 2/n Apartado 2012, Valencia (Spain)

    1983-10-18

    1 - Description of problem or function: EDO evaluates individual and collective doses to man from atmospheric releases of noble gases and other gaseous effluents. 2 - Method of solution: The dose calculations are carried out by following the guide- lines of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. Radiation exposure for maximum individuals and population are estimated within 30 km from the nuclear plant. This area is divided into 160 circular trapezoids, to which computations are referred. Four age groups, seven organs for internal dose and two for external dose have been considered. Dose calculations are done through 14 pathways, 7 for liquid effluents, one for noble gases, and 6 for the rest of gaseous effluents. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The following are the maximum dimension sizes preset in the code: 73 radionuclides (other than noble gases); 15 noble gases; 160 circular trapezoids; 31 chemical elements; 4 types of aquatic foods; 15 points of exposure for shorelines; 15 trapezoids influenced by each point; 4 terrestrial food pathways; 100 centres of population. Some of these limits can be varied.

  2. The Behavior and Effects of the Noble Metals in the DWPF Melter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Bickford, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Governments worldwide have committed to stabilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) by vitrification to a durable glass form for permanent disposal. All of these nuclear wastes contain the fission-product noble metals: ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium. SRS wastes also contain natural silver from iodine scrubbers. Closely associated with the noble metals are the fission products selenium and tellurium which are chemical analogs of sulfur and which combine with noble metals to influence their behavior and properties. Experience has shown that these melt insoluble metals and their compounds tend to settle to the floor of Joule-heated ceramic melters. In fact, almost all of the major research and production facilities have experienced some operational problem which can be associated with the presence of dense accumulations of these relatively conductive metals and/or their compounds. In most cases, these deposits have led to a loss of production capability, in some cases, to the point that melter operation could not continue. HLW nuclear waste vitrification facilities in the United States are the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site, the planned Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) at the Hanford Site and the operating West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) at West Valley, NY. The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is a vitrification test facility at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). It was designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas treatment systems. An extensive noble metals testing program was begun in 1990. The objectives of this task were to explore the effects of the noble metals on the DWPF melter feed preparation and waste vitrification processes. This report focuses on the vitrification portion of the test program

  3. Aroma compounds and characteristics of noble-rot wines of Chardonnay grapes artificially botrytized in the vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Jie; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Wu, Yun; An, Rong-Yan; Yue, Zhuo-Ya

    2017-07-01

    Aroma characteristics and their impact volatile components of noble-rot wines elaborated from artificial botrytized Chardonnay grapes, obtained by spraying Botrytis cinerea suspension in Yuquan vineyard, Ningxia, China, were explored in this work. Dry white wine made from normal-harvested grapes and sweet wine produced from delay-harvested grapes were compared. Wine aromas were analysed by trained sensory panelists, and aroma compounds were determined by SPME-GC-MS. Results indicated that esters, fatty acids, thiols, lactones, volatile phenols and 2-nonanone increased markedly in noble-rot wines. In addition to typical aromas of noble-rot wines, artificial noble-rot wines were found to contain significant cream and dry apricot attributes. Partial Least-Squares Regression models of aroma characteristics against aroma components revealed that non-fermentative odorants were the primary contributor to dry apricot attribute, especially, thiols, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, terpenols and phenolic acid derivatives, while cream attribute was dependent on both fermentative and non-fermentative volatile components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of Hydrophilic Sulfur-Containing Adsorbents for Noble Metals Having Thiocarbonyl Group Based on a Methacrylate Bearing Dithiocarbonate Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Kinemuchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel hydrophilic sulfur-containing adsorbents for noble metals were prepared by the radical terpolymerization of a methacrylate bearing dithiocarbonate moieties (DTCMMA, hydrophilic monomers, and a cross-linker. The resulting adsorbents efficiently and selectively adsorbed noble metals (Au, Ag, and Pd from various multielement aqueous solutions at room temperature owing to the thiocarbonyl group having high affinity toward noble metals. The metal adsorption by the adsorbents was proceeded by simple mixing followed by filtration. The noble metal selectivity of the adsorbent obtained from DTCMMA and N-isopropylacrylamide was higher than that of the adsorbent obtained from DTCMMA and N,N-dimethylacrylamide due to the lower nonspecific adsorption.

  5. PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER DALAM MATA PELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMP 3 PEKALONGAN (Kajian atas Kurikulum dan Proses Pembelajaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Maemonah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though character building as an autonomous subject among student does not exist in secondary school, Islamic Education (PAI, as one of the subjects in school related to character building, has to play its role in building students’ character. This study aims to reveal the problems related to PAI learning process in SMP 3 and its role in building students’ noble character. This study was qualitative using observational case studies. The data were obtained through interviews, questionnaires, and documents and were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques with the inductive approach. The documents were such legal decisions of officials in Educational Ministry, the syllabi, curriculums, and teaching planning (RPP. The result shows that PAI learning has an important role in building students’ noble character if it is supported by competent lecturers, good inputs, adequate materials, and good processes. Character building learning was taught integrated and aimed to shape noble character among the students of SMP 3 Pekalongan. It was accommodated in PAI learning, citizenship learning and local contain subject, such as Javanese language and Cookery Learning. Unfortunately, the sustainability and comprehensiveness of character building learning in PAI curriculum were not seriously attended. Nevertheless, they were taught integrated in pilot project program and evaluated gradually and comprehensively.

  6. Noble Gases in the Hamlet Meteorite (LL4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Sabe, Y.; Shiraishi, T.; Matsuda, J.

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed noble gases in a bulk sample and an HF-HCl residue of Hamlet (LL4). The Xe composition of the residue shows that no diamond is contained in the residue. The 20Ne/22Ne ratio of Hamlet Ne-Q has been determined to be 11.0 ± 0.5.

  7. TiO2 structures doped with noble metals and/or graphene oxide to improve the photocatalytic degradation of dichloroacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribao, Paula; Rivero, Maria J; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2017-05-01

    Noble metals have been used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . Noble metal nanoparticles prevent charge recombination, facilitating electron transport due to the equilibration of the Fermi levels. Furthermore, noble metal nanoparticles show an absorption band in the visible region due to a high localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect, which contributes to additional electron movements. Moreover, systems based on graphene, titanium dioxide, and noble metals have been used, considering that graphene sheets can carry charges, thereby reducing electron-hole recombination, and can be used as substrates of atomic thickness. In this work, TiO 2 -based nanocomposites were prepared by blending TiO 2 with noble metals (Pt and Ag) and/or graphene oxide (GO). The nanocomposites were mainly characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and photocurrent analysis. Here, the photocatalytic performance of the composites was analyzed via oxidizing dichloroacetic acid (DCA) model solutions. The influence of the noble metal load on the composite and the ability of the graphene sheets to improve the photocatalytic activity were studied, and the composites doped with different noble metals were compared. The results indicated that the platinum structures show the best photocatalytic degradation, and, although the presence of graphene oxide in the composites is supposed to enhance their photocatalytic performance, graphene oxide does not always improve the photocatalytic process. Graphical abstract It is a schematic diagram. Where NM is Noble Metal and LSPR means Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance.

  8. Deposition and characterization of noble metal onto surfaces of 304l stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. R.; Aguilar T, J. A.; Medina A, A. L.

    2010-10-01

    Noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) plus hydrogen water chemistry is an industry-wide accepted approach for potential intergranular stress corrosion cracking mitigation of BWR internals components. NMCA is a method of applying noble metal onto BWR internals surfaces using reactor water as the transport medium that causes the deposition of noble metal from the liquid onto surfaces. In this work different platinum concentration solutions were deposited onto pre-oxidized surfaces of 304l steel at 180 C during 48 hr in an autoclave. In order to simulate the zinc water conditions, deposits of Zn and Pt-Zn were also carried out. The solutions used to obtain the deposits were: sodium hexahydroxyplatinate (IV), zinc nitrate hydrate and zinc oxide. The deposits obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Finally, the electrochemical corrosion potential of pre-oxidized samples with Pt deposit were obtained and compared with the electrochemical corrosion potential of only pre-oxidized samples. (Author)

  9. Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) campaign report: The first two noble metals operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Smith, M.E.; Miller, D.H.; Ritter, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) is designed and constructed to provide an engineering-scale representation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and off-gas systems. The facility is the first pilot-scale melter system capable of processing mercury, and flowsheet levels of halides and noble metals. In order to characterize the processing of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru, and Ag) on a large scale, the IDMS will be operated batchstyle for at least nine feed preparation cycles. The first two of these operations are complete. The major observation to date occurred during the second run when significant amounts of hydrogen were evolved during the feed preparation cycle. The runs were conducted between June 7, 1990 and March 8, 1991. This time period included nearly six months of ''fix-up'' time when forced air purges were installed on the SRAT MFT and other feed preparation vessels to allow continued noble metals experimentation

  10. Biomimetic Synthesis of Gelatin Polypeptide-Assisted Noble-Metal Nanoparticles and Their Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaoheng; Wang, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Herein, the generation of gold, silver, and silver-gold (Ag-Au) bimetallic nanoparticles was carried out in collagen (gelatin) solution. It first showed that the major ingredient in gelatin polypeptide, glutamic acid, acted as reducing agent to biomimetically synthesize noble metal nanoparticles at 80°C. The size of nanoparticles can be controlled not only by the mass ratio of gelatin to gold ion but also by pH of gelatin solution. Interaction between noble-metal nanoparticles and polypeptide has been investigated by TEM, UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, and HNMR. This study testified that the degradation of gelatin protein could not alter the morphology of nanoparticles, but it made nanoparticles aggregated clusters array (opposing three-dimensional α-helix folding structure) into isolated nanoparticles stabilized by gelatin residues. This is a promising merit of gelatin to apply in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Therefore, gelatin protein is an excellent template for biomimetic synthesis of noble metal/bimetallic nanoparticle growth to form nanometer-sized device.

  11. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years

  12. One parameter model potential for noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Khwaja, F.A.; Razmi, M.S.K.

    1981-08-01

    A phenomenological one parameter model potential which includes s-d hybridization and core-core exchange contributions is proposed for noble metals. A number of interesting properties like liquid metal resistivities, band gaps, thermoelectric powers and ion-ion interaction potentials are calculated for Cu, Ag and Au. The results obtained are in better agreement with experiment than the ones predicted by the other model potentials in the literature. (author)

  13. Noble gas studies in vapor-growth diamonds: Comparison with shock-produced diamonds and the origin of diamonds in ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junichi; Fukunaga, Kazuya; Ito, Keisuke (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The authors synthesized vapor-trowth diamonds by two kinds of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using microwave (MWCVD) and hot filament (HFCVD) ionization of gases, and examined elemental abundances and isotopic compositions of the noble gases trapped in the diamonds. It is remarkable that strong differences existed in the noble gas concentrations in the two kinds of CVD diamonds: large amounts of noble gases were trapped in the MWCVD diamonds, but not in the HFCVD diamonds. The heavy noble gases (Ar to Xe) in the MWCVD diamonds were highly fractionated compared with those in the ambient atmosphere, and are in good agreement with the calculated fractionation patterns for plasma at an electron temperature of 7,000-9,000 K. These results strongly suggest that the trapping mechanism of noble gases in CVD diamonds is ion implantation during diamond growth. The degrees of fractionation of heavy noble gases were also in good agreement with those in ureilites. The vapor-growth hypothesis is discussed in comparison with the impact-shock hypothesis as a better model for the origin of diamonds in ureilites. The diamond (and graphite, amorphous carbon, too) may have been deposited on early condensates such as Re, Ir, W, etc. This model explains the chemical features of vein material in ureilites; the refractory siderophile elements are enriched in carbon and noble gases and low in normal siderophiles. The vapor-growth model is also compatible with the oxygen isotopic data of ureilites which suggests that nebular processes are primarily responsible for the composition of ureilites.

  14. Noble Gases as tracers of fluid migration in the Haynesville shale and overlying strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, D. J.; Barry, P. H.; Lawson, M.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Noble gases are ideal tracers of physical processes and fluid provenance in crustal systems. Due to their inert nature, they are unaffected by chemical alteration, redox, or biological phenomena that fractionate other geochemical tracers. Noble gas analysis has been used to quantify fluid provenance, interactions, and ages in petroleum systems [1,2], but the effects of hydrocarbon migration on noble gas signatures have not been directly observed. The Haynesville Shale (East Texas & Louisiana), is exploited commercially for unconventional shale gas, but also acts as the source-rock for overlying conventional reservoirs. We present noble gas isotope and abundance data in samples collected from 9 natural gas wells sourced from the Haynesville Shale, as well as 21 from reservoirs in the overlying Cotton Valley (n=7), Travis Peak (n=9), and James (n=5) groups. Using a stratigraphic model, we observe systematic changes in the noble gas signatures as the fluids migrate from the Haynesville source rock to the overlying conventional accumulations. Helium isotope ratios (3He/4He) are strongly radiogenic in the Haynesville and stratigraphically older conventional reservoirs, with the younger reservoirs showing evidence of a mantle helium input. Argon isotope ratios (40Ar/36Ar) are strongly correlated with high 3He/4He, suggesting a similar provenance for radiogenic 40Ar and mantle 3He. Concentrations of groundwater-derived 36Ar are consistently higher in the conventional reservoirs than in the Haynesville shale, reflecting the greater interaction with groundwater during migration. However, 20Ne/36Ar ratios are not significantly different, suggesting that solubility-dependent partitioning is not simply dependent on vertical or horizontal migration distance. Krypton and xenon abundances are higher than expected for groundwater in all samples, a phenomenon that has been observed in many other hydrocarbon accumulations [3]. The excess Xe/Kr ratio is highest in the Haynesville

  15. Optical Properties and Immunoassay Applications of Noble Metal Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.; Zhou, W.

    2010-01-01

    Noble metal, especially gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles exhibit unique and tunable optical properties on account of their surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In this paper, we mainly discussed the theory background of the enhanced optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. Mie theory, transfer matrix method, discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method, and finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method applied brute-force computational methods for different nanoparticles optical properties. Some important nanostructure fabrication technologies such as nanosphere lithography (NSL) and focused ion beam (FIB) are also introduced in this paper. Moreover, these fabricated nanostructures are used in the plasmonic sensing fields. The binding signal between the antibody and antigen, amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs)-potential Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in nano-Moore per liter (nM) concentration level are detected by our designed nanobiosensor. They have many potential applications in the biosensor, environment protection, food security, and medicine safety for health, and so forth, fields.

  16. Optical Properties and Immunoassay Applications of Noble Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Noble metal, especially gold (Au and silver (Ag nanoparticles exhibit unique and tunable optical properties on account of their surface plasmon resonance (SPR. In this paper, we mainly discussed the theory background of the enhanced optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles. Mie theory, transfer matrix method, discrete dipole approximation (DDA method, and finite-difference time domain (FDTD method applied brute-force computational methods for different nanoparticles optical properties. Some important nanostructure fabrication technologies such as nanosphere lithography (NSL and focused ion beam (FIB are also introduced in this paper. Moreover, these fabricated nanostructures are used in the plasmonic sensing fields. The binding signal between the antibody and antigen, amyloid-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs-potential Alzheimer's disease (AD biomarkers, and staphylococcal enterotixn B (SEB in nano-Moore per liter (nM concentration level are detected by our designed nanobiosensor. They have many potential applications in the biosensor, environment protection, food security, and medicine safety for health, and so forth, fields.

  17. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  18. The role of noble metals in electric melting of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    1990-01-01

    Electrical melting of nuclear waste glass in ceramic melters applies Joule heating, with the molten glass acting as the conductive medium. The local energy release inside the melt relieves from the restriction of external heat addition, allowing to scale up the melter to industrial units. Certainly, that principle makes the melter operation susceptible for changes of the electrical properties of the glass melt. Hence, the melt properties are required to be locally uniform and constant with time. Temporary fluctuations in the feed composition, however, are usually attenuated by the high retention times being in the order of a day and more. More essential for the melter operation are segregation effects occurring systematically. This behaviour can be observed in the case of the so-called noble metal elements Ruthenium, Palladium and Rhodium, belonging to the Platinum metal group. The subject of this paper is to describe the behaviour of the noble metals in electric melting and the problems they can contribute to. The discussion is based on detailed knowledge gained from PAMELA's LEWC processing and from large-scale vitrification of commercial-like waste simulate at INE/KfK. Finally, ways are indicated to solve the noble metal problem technically

  19. Electron--noble-gas spin-flip scattering at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.G.; Bonin, K.; Happer, W.

    1987-01-01

    The spin-exchange rates and spin-relaxation rates for thermal electrons colliding with noble-gas atoms are calculated using the orthogonalized-plane-wave approximation and via partial-wave analysis. The two techniques give similar results and are in order-of-magnitude agreement with the experimental rate in Ar

  20. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring for international safeguards at reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of environmental sampling is a major component of the improvements of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards being carried out under Program 93+2. Nonradioactive noble gas isotopic measurements in the effluent stream of large reprocessing facilities may provide useful confirmatory information on the burnup and reactor type of the spent fuel undergoing reprocessing. The authors have taken and analyzed stack samples at an operating facility. The data show clear fission signals. The authors are currently applying a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure to determine the fuel burnup from these data. They anticipate that the general features involved in the table noble gas problem--selection of appropriate signals, measurement of those signals under realistic conditions, and inverse calculation of parameters of interest from the environmental data--will be present in all environmental sampling problems. These methods should therefore be widely applicable

  1. Modeling impurity-assisted chain creation in noble-metal break junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Napoli, S; Thiess, A; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the generalization of the model for chain formation in break junctions, introduced by Thiess et al (2008 Nano Lett. 8 2144), to zigzag transition-metal chains with s and p impurities. We apply this extended model to study the producibility trends for noble-metal chains with impurities, often present in break junction experiments, namely, Cu, Ag and Au chains with H, C, O and N adatoms. Providing the material-specific parameters for our model from systematic full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave first-principles calculations, we find that the presence of such impurities crucially affects the binding properties of the noble-metal chains. We reveal that both the impurity-induced bond strengthening and the formation of zigzag bonds can lead to a significantly enhanced probability for chain formation in break junctions. (paper)

  2. Characterisation and radiolysis of modified lithium orthosilicate pebbles with noble metal impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Zariņš, A.; Valtenbergs, O.

    2017-01-01

    Modified lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) pebbles with additions of titanium dioxide (TiO2) are suggested as an alternative tritium breeding ceramic for the European solid breeder test blanket module. The noble metals – platinum (Pt), gold (Au) and rhodium (Rh), can be introduced into the modified...... Li4SiO4 pebbles during the melt-based process, due to the corrosion of Pt-Rh and Pt-Au alloy crucible components. In this study, the surface microstructure, chemical and phase composition of the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles with different contents of the noble metals was analysed. The influence...

  3. Light-controlled relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum using NOBL-1, a novel nitric oxide releaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Hotta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate whether relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum could be controlled with NOBL-1, a novel, lightcontrollable nitric oxide (NO releaser. Materials and Methods: Fifteen-week-old male Wistar-ST rats were used. The penile corpus cavernosum was prepared and used in an isometric tension study. After noradrenaline (10−5 M achieved precontraction, the penile corpus cavernosum was irradiated by light (470–500 nm with and without NOBL-1 (10−6 M. In addition, we noted rats’ responses to light with vardenafil (10−6 M, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5 inhibitor. Next, responses to light in the presence of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10−5 M, were measured. All measurements were performed in pretreated L-NAME (10−4 M conditions to inhibit endogenous NO production. Results: Corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, was unchanged by light irradiation in the absence of NOBL-1. However, in the presence of NOBL-1, corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, relaxed in response to light irradiation. After blue light irradiation ceased, tension returned. In addition, the light response was obviously enhanced in the presence of a PDE-5 inhibitor. Conclusions: This study showed that rat corpus cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation can be light-controlled using NOBL-1, a novel, light sensitive NO releaser. Though further in vivo studies are needed to investigate possible usefulness, NOBL-1 may be prove to be a useful tool for erectile dysfunction therapy, specifically in the field of penile rehabilitation.

  4. Tuning the Morphology of Li2O2 by Noble and 3d metals: A Planar Model Electrode Study for Li-O2 Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Wu, Nian; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Linfeng; Zeng, Rui; Wang, Yingming; Lu, Juntao; Fu, Lei; Xiao, Li; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-06-14

    In this work, a planar model electrode method has been used to investigate the structure-activity relationship of multiple noble and 3d metal catalysts for the cathode reaction of Li-O 2 battery. The result shows that the battery performance (discharge/charge overpotential) strongly depends not only on the type of catalysts but also on the morphology of the discharge product (Li 2 O 2 ). Specifically, according to electrochemical characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, noble metals (Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, and Au) show excellent battery performance (smaller discharge/charge overpotential), with wormlike Li 2 O 2 particles with size less than 200 nm on their surfaces. On the other hand, 3d metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Mn) offered poor battery performance (larger discharge/charge overpotential), with much larger Li 2 O 2 particles (1 μm to a few microns) on their surfaces after discharging. Further research shows that a "volcano plot" is found by correlating the discharging/charging plateau voltage with the adsorption energy of LiO 2 on different metals. The metals with better battery performance and worm-like-shaped Li 2 O 2 are closer to the top of the "volcano", indicating adsorption energy of LiO 2 is one of the key characters for the catalyst to reach a good performance for the oxygen electrode of Li-O 2 battery, and it has a strong influence on the morphology of the discharge product on the electrode surface.

  5. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  6. Noble gases and the early history of the Earth: Inappropriate paradigms and assumptions inhibit research and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The development of models as tracers of nobel gases through the Earth's evolution is discussed. A new set of paradigms embodying present knowledge was developed. Several important areas for future research are: (1) measurement of the elemental and isotopic compositions of the five noble gases in a large number of terrestrial materials, thus better defining the composition and distribution of terrestrial noble gases; (2) determinations of relative diffusive behavior, chemical behavior, and the distribution between solid and melt of noble gases under mantle conditions are urgently needed; (3) disequilibrium behavior in the nebula needs investigation, and the behavior of plasmas and possible cryotrapping on cold nebular solids are considered.

  7. Electron shell contributions to gamma-ray spectra of positron annihilation in noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Selvam, Lalitha [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Gribakin, Gleb F [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Surko, Clifford M, E-mail: fwang@swin.edu.a [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2010-08-28

    Gamma-ray positron annihilation spectra of the noble gases are simulated using computational chemistry tools for the bound electron wavefunctions and plane-wave approximation for the low-energy positron. The present annihilation line shapes, i.e. the full width at half maximum, {Delta}{epsilon}, of the {gamma}-ray annihilation spectra for He and Ar (valence) agree well with available independent atomic calculations using a different algorithm. For other noble gases they achieve moderate agreement with the experimental measurements. It is found that the contributions of various atomic electron shells to the spectra depend significantly on their principal quantum number n and orbital angular momentum quantum number l. The present study further reveals that the outermost ns electrons of the noble gases exhibit spectral line shapes in close agreement with those measured, indicating (as expected) that the measurements are not due to a simple sum over the momentum densities for all atomic electrons. The robust nature of the present approach makes it possible for us to proceed to more complex molecular systems using the tools of modern computational chemistry.

  8. OntoSIGF - um sistema de informação geográfica baseado em ontologias aplicado à área florestal / OntoSIGF - a geographic information system based on ontologies applied to forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayron Thiengo Quinelato

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento dos sistemas de navegação e posicionamentoglobal, tecnologias web, software, e hardware possibilitaram a rápida expansão do uso de Sistemas de Informação Geográfica (SIG. Ainformação é sempre distribuída e principalmente heterogenia. Contudo,especialistas de domínio usam conceitos e terminologias específi cas e usam diferentes parâmetros para descrever o modelo de um conceito. Estaheterogeneidade semântica das fontes de dados causa sérios problemas, que podem ser resolvidos aplicando o conceito de ontologias. O propósitodeste artigo é o de descrever uma arquitetura baseada em ontologiacapaz de registrar, descrever, organizar e integrar os conhecimentosde um domínio geográfi co fl orestal. Este modelo ontológico descreve os conceitos das informações geográfi cas e suas relações, facilitando o acesso às informações em arquivos e bases de dados, independente de onde essas informações estejam armazenadas

  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting: where are we after NOBLE and EXCEL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Jacqueline H; Shaw, Richard E; Glineur, David; Grau, Juan B

    2017-11-01

    The publication of the NOBLE and EXCEL trials, with seemingly conflicting results, brought into question whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is better for low-risk patients with left main coronary artery stenosis (LMCAS). This review appraises the methods and results of NOBLE and EXCEL, contextualizes them within the literature, and determines how they may affect clinical practice. We appraised the trials and describe differences in methodology and results. NOBLE recruited primarily isolated LMCAS, and found that CABG was superior to PCI. EXCEL's population included patients LMCAS in the context of multivessel CAD, and found PCI and CABG were comparable. Both trials enrolled young patients with few comorbidities, and there was more protocol-mandated consistency in the procedural techniques and medical therapy of patients receiving PCI. The generalizability of these trials is limited by the use of young, healthy patients at highly skilled centres that rarely reflect typical clinical practice. If these studies are to maintain relevance, trialists must address the lack of protocolization of surgical interventions and inconsistent medical therapies. Unfortunately, the limitations of NOBLE and EXCEL mean that we are no closer to answering the question of what is the optimal treatment for patients with LMCAS.

  10. Noble gas confinement for reactor fuel melting accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    In the unlikely event of a fuel melting accident, radioactive material would be released into the reactor room. This radioactive material would consist of particulate matter, iodine, tritium, and the noble gases krypton and xenon. In the case of reactors with containment domes the gases would be contained for subsequent cleanup. For reactors without contaiment the particulates and the iodine can be effectively removed with HEPA and carbon filters of current technology; however, noble gases cannot be easily removed and would be released to the atmosphere. In either case, it would be highly desirable to have a system that could be brought online to treat this contaminated air to minimize the population dose. A low temperature adsorption system has been developed at the Savannah River Laboratory to remove the airborne radioactive material from such a fuel melting accident. Over two dozen materials have been tested in extensive laboratory studies, and hydrogen mordenite and silver mordenite were found to be the most promising adsorbents. A full-scale conceptual design has also been developed. Results of the laboratory studies and the conceptual design are discussed along with plans for further development of this concept

  11. Noble gas confinement for reactor fuel melting accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the unlikely event of a fuel melting accident radioactive material would be released into the reactor room. This radioactive material would consist of particulate matter, iodine, tritium, and the noble gases krypton and xenon. In the case of reactors with containment domes, the gases would be contained for subsequent cleanup. For reactors without containment the particulates and the iodine can be effectively removed with HEPA and carbon filters of current technology; however, noble gases cannot be easily removed and would be released to the atmosphere. In either case, it would be highly desirable to have a system that could be brought online to treat this contaminated air to minimize the population dose. A low temperature adsorption system has been developed at the Savannah River Laboratory to remove the airborne radioactive material from such a fuel melting accident. Over two dozen materials have been tested in extensive laboratory studies, and hydrogen mordensite and silver mordenite were found to be the most promising absorbents. A full-scale conceptual design has also been developed. Results of the laboratory studies and the conceptual design will be discussed along with plans for further development of this concept

  12. Isotopic and noble gas geochemistry in geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B.M.; DePaolo, D.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this program is to provide, through isotopic analyses of fluids, fluid inclusions, and rocks and minerals coupled with improved methods for geochemical data analysis, needed information regarding sources of geothermal heat and fluids, the spatial distribution of fluid types, subsurface flow, water-rock reaction paths and rates, and the temporal evolution of geothermal systems. Isotopic studies of geothermal fluids have previously been limited to the light stable isotopes of H, C, and O. However, other isotopic systems such as the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and reactive elements (e.g. B, N, S, Sr and Pb) are complementary and may even be more important in some geothermal systems. The chemistry and isotopic composition of a fluid moving through the crust will change in space and time in response to varying chemical and physical parameters or by mixing with additional fluids. The chemically inert noble gases often see through these variations, making them excellent tracers for heat and fluid sources. Whereas, the isotopic compositions of reactive elements are useful tools in characterizing water-rock interaction and modeling the movement of fluids through a geothermal reservoir.

  13. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  14. Noble gases in ten stone meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.W.; Schultz, L.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations and isotopic composition of noble gases have been determined in all ten stone meteorites recovered in Antarctica during 1976-1977 by a U.S.-Japanese expedition. From a comparison of spallogenic and radiogenic gas components it is concluded that the chondrites Mt. Baldr (a) and Mt. Baldr (b) belong to the same fall but that all other stone meteorites are individual finds. (orig.)

  15. Attosecond Time Delay in Photoionization of Noble-Gas and Halogen Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Pi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast processes are now accessible on the attosecond time scale due to the availability of ultrashort XUV laser pulses. Noble-gas and halogen atoms remain important targets due to their giant dipole resonance and Cooper minimum. Here, we calculate photoionization cross section, asymmetry parameter and Wigner time delay using the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA, which includes the electron correlation effects. Our results are consistent with experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The asymmetry parameter provides an extra layer of access to the phase information of the photoionization processes. We find that halogen atoms bear a strong resemblance on cross section, asymmetry parameter and time delay to their noble-gas neighbors. Our predicted time delay should provide a guidance for future experiments on those atoms and related molecules.

  16. Volatile elements - water, carbon, nitrogen, noble gases - on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of life-bearing volatile elements (water, carbon, nitrogen) on Earth is a fruitful and debated area of research. In his pioneering work, W.W. Rubey inferred that the terrestrial atmosphere and the oceans formed from degassing of the mantle through geological periods of time. Early works on noble gas isotopes were consistent with this view and proposed a catastrophic event of mantle degassing early in Earth's history. We now have evidence, mainly from noble gas isotopes, that several cosmochemical sources contributed water and other volatiles at different stages of Earth's accretion. Potential contributors include the protosolar nebula gas that equilibrated with magma oceans, inner solar system bodies now represented by chondrites, and comets. Stable isotope ratios suggest volatiles where primarily sourced by planetary bodies from the inner solar system. However, recent measurements by the European Space Agency Rosetta probe on the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko permit to set quantitative constraints on the cometary contribution to the surface of our planet. The surface and mantle reservoirs volatile elements exchanged volatile elements through time, with rates that are still uncertain. Some mantle regions remained isolated from whole mantle convection within the first tens to hundreds million years after start of solar system formation. These regions, now sampled by some mantle plumes (e.g., Iceland, Eifel) preserved their volatile load, as indicated by extinct and extant radioactivity systems. The abundance of volatile elements in the mantle is still not well known. Different approaches, such as high pressure experimental petrology, noble gas geochemistry, modelling, resulted in somewhat contrasted estimates, varying over one order of magnitude for water. Comparative planetology, that is, the study of volatiles on the Moon, Venus, Mars, Vesta, will shed light on the sources and strengths of these elements in the

  17. A review of noble gas geochemistry in relation to early Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most fundamental noble gas constraints on early Earth history is derived from isotopic differences in (129)Xe/(130)Xe between various terrestrial materials. The short half life (17 m.y.) of extinct (129I, parent of (129)Xe, means that these differences must have been produced within the first 100 m.y. after terrestrial accretion. The identification of large anomalies in (129)Xe/(130)Xe in mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), with respect to atmospheric xenon, suggests that the atmosphere and upper mantle have remained separate since that time. This alone is a very strong argument for early catastrophic degassing, which would be consistent with an early fractionation resulting in core formation. However, noble gas isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts show that the mantle cannot necessarily be regarded as a homogeneous system, since there are significant variations in (3)He/(4)He, (40)Ar/(36)Ar, and (129)Xe/(130)Xe. Therefore, the early degassing cannot be considered to have acted on the whole mantle. The specific mechanisms of degassing, in particular the thickness and growth of the early crust, is an important variable in understanding present day noble gas inventories. Another constraint can be obtained from rocks that are thought to be derived from near the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary: ultramafic xenoliths.

  18. Modification of titanium electrodes by a noble metal deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devilliers, D.; Mahe, E. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France). Laboratoire LI2C, UMR CNRS

    2008-07-01

    Titanium is commonly used as a substrate for dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) because it is corrosion-resistant in acid media and because a passive titanium oxide (TiO2) film can be formed on the surface. This paper reported on a study in which titanium substrates were first covered by anodization with a TiO2 layer. The electrochemical properties of the Ti/TiO2 electrodes were investigated. The modification of the substrates by cathodic electrodeposition of a noble metal was described. The reactivity of the Ti/TiO2/Pt structures were illustrated by impedance spectroscopy experiments. The impedance studies performed with Ti/ TiO2 electrodes in the presence of a redox couple in solution (Fe3+/Fe2+ system in sulphuric acid) showed that the electronic transfer is very slow. It was concluded that the deposition of a noble metal coating on Ti/TiO2 substrates leads to modified titanium electrodes that exhibit electrocatalytic behaviour versus specific electrochemical reactions. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  19. Preliminary investigation of a technique to separate fission noble metals from fission-product mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, G.B.; Jensen, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    A variation of the gold-ore fire assay technique was examined as a method for recovering Pd, Rh and Ru from fission products. The mixture of fission product oxides is combined with glass-forming chemicals, a metal oxide such as PbO (scavenging agent), and a reducing agent such as charcoal. When this mixture is melted, a metal button is formed which extracts the noble metals. The remainder cools to form a glass for nuclear waste storage. Recovery depended only on reduction of the scavenger oxide to metal. When such reduction was achieved, no difference in noble metal recovery efficiency was found among the scavengers studied (PbO, SnO, CuO, Bi 2 O 3 , Sb 2 O 3 ). Not all reducing agents studied, however, were able to reduce all scavenger oxides to metal. Only graphite would reduce SnO and CuO and allow noble metal recovery. The scavenger oxides Sb 2 O 3 , Bi 2 O 3 , and PbO, however, were reduced by all of the reducing agents tested. Similar noble metal recovery was found with each. Lead oxide was found to be the most promising of the potential scavengers. It was reduced by all of the reducing agents tested, and its higher density may facilitate the separation. Use of lead oxide also appeared to have no deterimental effect on the glass quality. Charcoal was identified as the preferred reducing agent. As long as a separable metal phase was formed in the melt, noble metal recovery was not dependent on the amount of reducing agent and scavenger oxide. High glass viscosities inhibited separation of the molten scavenger, while low viscosities allowed volatile loss of RuO 4 . A viscosity of approx. 20 poise at the processing temperature offered a good compromise between scavenger separation and Ru recovery. Glasses in which PbO was used as the scavenging agent were homogeneous in appearance. Resistance to leaching was close to that of certain waste glasses reported in the literature. 12 figures. 7 tables

  20. Noble metals in cretaceous/tertiary sediments from El Kef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuslys, M.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1983-01-01

    Sediments from El Kef, Tunisia, were analysed by RNAA for Au, Ir and Os. All three elements show a 10-20 fold enrichment at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. This enrichment must be the result of the addition of material with a high concentration of noble metals. It is plausible that this exotic material has an extra-terrestrial origin. (orig.)

  1. Noble metals in Cretaceous/Tertiary sediments from El Kef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuslys, M.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1983-01-01

    Sediments from El Kef, Tunisia, were analysed by RNAA for Au, Ir and Os. All three elements show a 10-20 fold enrichment at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. This enrichment must be the result of the addition of material with a high concentration of noble metals. It is plausible that this exotic material has an extraterrestrial origin. (orig.)

  2. Rational design of binder-free noble metal/metal oxide arrays with nanocauliflower structure for wide linear range nonenzymatic glucose detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional nanocomposites of metal-oxide and noble metal were expected to present superior performance for nonenzymatic glucose detection due to its good conductivity and high catalytic activity inherited from noble metal and metal oxide

  3. Interaction between Nafion ionomer and noble metal catalyst for PEMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    The implement of polymer impregnation in electrode structure (catalyst layer) decreasing the noble metal catalyst loading by a factor of ten , , is one of the essential mile stones in the evolution of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells’ development among the application of catalyst support and e...

  4. Not so Noble-Radon in the Environment and Associated Health ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 7. Radon: Not so Noble-Radon in the Environment and Associated Health Problems. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 5 Issue 7 July 2000 pp 44-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene analysis indicates a restricted genetic background in Finnish noble crayfish (Astacus astacus stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkonen J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The IUCN Red List indexes the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus as vulnerable, with a declining population trend. The main threats to the species are the crayfish plague caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces astaci and the introduced North American crayfish that act as the carriers of this disease. In Finland, the noble crayfish is considered as a native species, which original distribution area covers the southern part of the country, but the species distribution has been dispersed to cover almost the whole country. The aim of this study was to survey the genetic diversity among the Finnish noble crayfish populations. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI-gene was sequenced from 742 individuals representing 59 populations from Finland and Estonia. As a result, only a single haplotype was found. Based on these results, the genetic diversity of noble crayfish in its Northern distribution range is remarkably low. The observed lack of variation can result from several mechanisms including small size of the founder population and the intense spreading of the species by manmade stockings. The restricted diversity can also be caused by eradication of the original populations due to crayfish plague epidemics and spreading of the invasive crayfish species carrying the crayfish plague. It is also possible that all contemporary Finnish noble crayfish populations originate from stockings with no variation in respect to COI-gene.

  6. A REVIEW: OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  7. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  9. The preparation of primary standard solutions for each of the noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, R.C.; Wall, G.J.; Jones, E.A.; Royal, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A revised method for the preparation of primary standard solutions for each of the noble metals is described. It is now recommended that standard noble-metal solutions should be made from the pure metals and not from salts as previously described. Metals should have a certified purity of 99,95 per cent or better, and the purity should be confirmed by analysis, the techniques of emission spectography or spark-source mass spectrography being used. After the metals have been dissolved, the solutions are made up to volume and the metal content of the standard solutions is checked. For most instrumental techniques for which the standards are intended, the check analysis should be within 0,3 per cent of the certified value

  10. Visible light active TiO2 films prepared by electron beam deposition of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xinggang; Ma Jun; Liu Andong; Li Dejun; Huang Meidong; Deng Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 films prepared by sol-gel method were modified by electron beam deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Ag). Effects of noble metals on the chemical and surface characteristics of the films were studied using XPS, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 films was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye solution under visible light UV irradiation. The result of TEM reveals that most of the surface area of TiO 2 is covered by tiny particles of noble metals with diameter less than 1 nm. Broad red shift of UV-Visible absorption band of modified photocatalysts was observed. The catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions under visible light illumination demonstrates a significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity of these films compared with the un-loaded films. The photocatalytic efficiency of modified TiO 2 films by this method is affected by the concentration of impregnating solution.

  11. Resonance ionization spectroscopy: Counting noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.; Payne, M.G.; Chen, C.H.; Willis, R.D.; Lehmann, B.E.; Kramer, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe new work on the counting of noble gas atoms, using lasers for the selective ionization and detectors for counting individual particles (electrons or positive ions). When positive ions are counted, various kinds of mass analyzers (magnetic, quadrupole, or time-of-flight) can be incorporated to provide A selectivity. We show that a variety of interesting and important applications can be made with atom-counting techniques which are both atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) selective. (orig./FKS)

  12. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  13. Performance evaluation of a biodiesel fuelled transportation engine retrofitted with a non-noble metal catalysed diesel oxidation catalyst for controlling unregulated emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pravesh Chandra; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2018-02-15

    In present study, engine exhaust was sampled for measurement and analysis of unregulated emissions from a four cylinder transportation diesel engine using a state-of-the-art FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) emission analyzer. Test fuels used were Karanja biodiesel blend (B20) and baseline mineral diesel. Real-time emission measurements were performed for raw exhaust as well as exhaust sampled downstream of the two in-house prepared non-noble metal based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and a baseline commercial DOC based on noble metals. Two prepared non-noble metal based DOCs were based on Co-Ce mixed oxide and Lanthanum based perovskite catalysts. Perovskite based DOC performed superior compared to Co-Ce mixed oxide catalyst based DOC. Commercial noble metal based DOC was found to be the most effective in reducing unregulated hydrocarbon emissions in the engine exhaust, followed by the two in-house prepared non-noble metal based DOCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Character Issues: Reality Character Problems and Solutions through Education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidek, Abdul Rahim; Islami, Raisul; Abdoludin

    2016-01-01

    Weak character education raises the problem of corruption, a fight between students, free sex, drugs and rape/abortion indicate that the issue of character education of the nation must be improved and the concern of all parties, the nation's leaders, law enforcement officers, educators, religious leaders, groups and other etc. There are two…

  15. Behaviour of quadrupole mass spectrometer towards noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibullah

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a quadrupole mass spectrometric set-up for noble gas analysis with its potential application to material accountancy at the input accountability tank of a reprocessing facility. Linear dependence of ion source pressure on the inlet pressure was considered to be practicable criterion for the functionality of the instrument. Short term and long term sensitivity variations have also been discussed. No memory effect was observed under the experimental conditions. (author)

  16. Chemical reactivity of the compressed noble gas atoms and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Attempts are made to gain insights into the effect of confinement of noble gas atoms on their various reactivity indices. Systems become harder, less polarizable and difficult to excite as the compression increases. Ionization also causes similar effects. A quantum fluid density functional technique is adopted in order to study ...

  17. The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.

    2001-01-01

    Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic basalts,Ocean island Basalt (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Development of supported noble metal catalyst for U(VI) to U(IV) reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Deepak; Varma, Salil; Bhattacharyya, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Bharadwaj, S.R.; Jain, V.K.; Sahu, Avinash; Vincent, Tessy; Jagatap, B.N.; Wattal, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Uranium-plutonium separation is an essential step in the PUREX process employed in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This partitioning in the PUREX process is achieved by selective reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) using uranous nitrate as reductant and hydrazine as stabilizer. Currently in our Indian reprocessing plants, the requirement of uranous nitrate is met by electrolytic reduction of uranyl nitrate. This process, however, suffers from a major drawback of incomplete reduction with a maximum conversion of ~ 60%. Catalytic reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) is being considered as one of the promising alternatives to the electro-reduction process due to fast kinetics and near total conversion. Various catalysts involving noble metals like platinum (Adams catalyst, Pt/Al 2 O 3 , Pt/SiO 2 etc.) have been reported for the reduction. Sustained activity and stability of the catalyst under harsh reaction conditions are still the issues that need to be resolved. We present here the results on zirconia supported noble metal catalyst that is developed in BARC for reduction of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate. Supported noble metal catalysts with varying metal loadings (0.5 - 2 wt%) were prepared via support precipitation and noble metal impregnation. The green catalysts were reduced either by chemical reduction using hydrazine hydrate or by heating in hydrogen flow or combination of both the steps. These catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as, XRD, SEM, TEM, N 2 adsorption and H 2 chemisorption. Performance of these catalysts was evaluated for U(VI) to U(IV) reduction with uranyl nitrate feed using hydrazine as reductant. The results with the most active catalyst are named as 'BARC-CAT', which was developed in our lab. (author)

  19. Hydration of the Atlantis Massif: Halogen, Noble Gas and In-Situ δ18O Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. J.; Kendrick, M. A.; Rubatto, D.

    2017-12-01

    A combination of halogen (Cl, Br, I), noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and in situ oxygen isotope analysis have been utilized to investigate the fluid-mobile element record of hydration and alteration processes at the Atlantis Massif (30°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge). The sample suite investigated includes serpentinite, talc-amphibole ± chlorite schist and hydrated gabbro recovered by seafloor drilling undertaken at sites on a transect across the Atlantis Massif during IODP Expedition 357. Serpentine mesh and veins analysed in-situ by SHRIMP SI exhibit δ18O from 6‰ down to ≈0‰, suggesting serpentinization temperatures of 150 to >280°C and water/rock ratios >5. Differences of 1.5-2.5‰ are observed between adjacent generations of serpentine, but the δ18O range is similar at each investigated drilling site. Halogen and noble gas abundances in serpentinites, talc-amphibole schist and hydrated gabbro have been measured by noble gas mass spectrometry of both irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Serpentinites contain low abundances of halogens and noble gases (e.g. 70-430 ppm Cl, 4.7-12.2 x 10-14 mol/g 36Ar) relative to other seafloor serpentinites. The samples have systematically different Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios related to their mineralogy. Serpentinites retain mantle-like Br/Cl with a wide variation in I/Cl that stretches toward seawater values. Talc-amphibole schists exhibit depletion of Br and I relative to Cl with increasing Cl abundances, suggesting tremolite exerts strong control on halogen abundance ratios. Serpentinites show no evidence of interaction with halogen-rich sedimentary pore fluids. Iodine abundances are variable across serpentinites, and are decoupled from Br and Cl; iodine enrichment (up to 530 ppb) is observed within relatively oxidised and clay-bearing samples. Serpentinized harzburgites exhibit distinct depletion of Kr and Xe relative to atmospheric 36Ar in seawater. Oxygen isotope compositions and low abundances of both halogens

  20. Noble metals-compatible melter features development Phase 1: Establishing functional and design criteria and design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Siemens, D.H.; Chapman, C.C.

    1996-03-01

    Premature failures have occurred in melters at Japan's Tokai Mockup Facility and at the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) PAMELA plant during processing of feeds with high levels of noble metals. Melter failure was due to the accumulation of an electrically conductive, noble metals-containing precipitates in the glass, that then resulted in short circuiting of the electrodes. A comparison was made of the anticipated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed with the feeds processed in the FRG and Japanese melters. The evaluation showed that comparable levels of noble metals and other potential precipitate-forming components (e.g. Cr/Fe/Ni-spinels) exist in the HWVP feed. As a result, the HWVP project made a decision to modify the present reference melter design to include features to prevent the precipitation and accumulation or otherwise accommodate precipitated phases on a routine basis without loss of production capacity

  1. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokana, Denis

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author) [fr

  2. Scattering of low energy noble gas ions from a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luitjens, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    Reflection of low energy (0.1-10 keV) noble gas ions can be used to analyse a solid surface. To study charge exchange processes, the ion fractions of neon and of argon, scattered from a Cu(100) surface, have been determined. (Auth.)

  3. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  4. Positron scattering from noble gases future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A C L; Caradonna, P; Makochekanwa, C; Slaughter, D S; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mitroy, J, E-mail: acj107@rsphysse.anu.edu.a [Faculty of Education Health and Science, Charles Darwin University, NT (Australia)

    2009-11-01

    Recent results for positron scattering from noble gases over an energy range from 0.5 to 60eV are presented. Measurements include the grand total ({sigma}{sub GT}), Ps formation ({sigma}{sub Ps}) and Grand total - Ps formation (({sigma}{sub GT}-P{sub s}) cross sections. Some preliminary DCS results will also be presented. Work on a formulation of modified effective range theory (MERT) is being undertaken to determine the value of the scattering length which may be useful for identifying a bound state. Plans for experiments on metal atoms will be outlined.

  5. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  6. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sandro J.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Costa, Fernando F.; Nagai, Maria Aparecida; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zago, Marco A.; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C.; Carrer, Helaine; El-Dorry, Hamza F. A.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gruber, Arthur; Hackel, Christine; Kimura, Edna T.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Marie, Suely K. N.; Martins, Elizabeth A. L.; Nóbrega, Marina P.; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Pardini, Maria Inês M. C.; Pereira, Gonçalo G.; Pesquero, João Bosco; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Rogatto, Silvia R.; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.; Sogayar, Mari C.; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Tajara, Eloiza H.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Acencio, Marcio; Alberto, Fernando L.; Amaral, Maria Elisabete J.; Aneas, Ivy; Bengtson, Mário Henrique; Carraro, Dirce M.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Carvalho, Lúcia Helena; Cerutti, Janete M.; Corrêa, Maria Lucia C.; Costa, Maria Cristina R.; Curcio, Cyntia; Gushiken, Tsieko; Ho, Paulo L.; Kimura, Elza; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Maia, Gustavo; Majumder, Paromita; Marins, Mozart; Matsukuma, Adriana; Melo, Analy S. A.; Mestriner, Carlos Alberto; Miracca, Elisabete C.; Miranda, Daniela C.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.; Nóbrega, Francisco G.; Ojopi, Élida P. B.; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo C.; Pessoa, Luciana Gilbert; Rahal, Paula; Rainho, Claudia A.; da Ro's, Nancy; de Sá, Renata G.; Sales, Magaly M.; da Silva, Neusa P.; Silva, Tereza C.; da Silva, Wilson; Simão, Daniel F.; Sousa, Josane F.; Stecconi, Daniella; Tsukumo, Fernando; Valente, Valéria; Zalcberg, Heloisa; Brentani, Ricardo R.; Reis, Luis F. L.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Transcribed sequences in the human genome can be identified with confidence only by alignment with sequences derived from cDNAs synthesized from naturally occurring mRNAs. We constructed a set of 250,000 cDNAs that represent partial expressed gene sequences and that are biased toward the central coding regions of the resulting transcripts. They are termed ORF expressed sequence tags (ORESTES). The 250,000 ORESTES were assembled into 81,429 contigs. Of these, 1,181 (1.45%) were found to match sequences in chromosome 22 with at least one ORESTES contig for 162 (65.6%) of the 247 known genes, for 67 (44.6%) of the 150 related genes, and for 45 of the 148 (30.4%) EST-predicted genes on this chromosome. Using a set of stringent criteria to validate our sequences, we identified a further 219 previously unannotated transcribed sequences on chromosome 22. Of these, 171 were in fact also defined by EST or full length cDNA sequences available in GenBank but not utilized in the initial annotation of the first human chromosome sequence. Thus despite representing less than 15% of all expressed human sequences in the public databases at the time of the present analysis, ORESTES sequences defined 48 transcribed sequences on chromosome 22 not defined by other sequences. All of the transcribed sequences defined by ORESTES coincided with DNA regions predicted as encoding exons by genscan. (http://genes.mit.edu/GENSCAN.html). PMID:11070084

  7. Leading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder In James B Stewart?s Blind Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, Ayu

    2016-01-01

    110705043 The title of this thesis isLeading Character?s Antisocial Personality Disorder in James B Stewart?s Blind Eyethat is research about antisocial personality of leading character in the novel, namely Dr. Michael Swango. The purpose of this thesis is to find out characteristic of Swango that show he has antisocial personality disorder and to know the causes of his disorder. The writer refers to theory antisocial personality disorder that take in a research of APA (American Psychiatri...

  8. Noble gas geochemistry to monitor CO2 geological storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafortune, St.

    2007-11-01

    According to the last IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report, a probability of 90 % can be now established for the responsibility of the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions for the global climate change observed since the beginning of the 20. century. To reduce these emissions and keep producing energy from coal, oil or gas combustions, CO 2 could be stored in geological reservoirs like aquifers, coal beds, and depleted oil or gas fields. Storing CO 2 in geological formations implies to control the efficiency and to survey the integrity of the storages, in order to be able to detect the possible leaks as fast as possible. Here, we study the feasibility of a geochemical monitoring through noble gas geochemistry. We present (1) the development of a new analytical line, Garodiox, developed to extract quantitatively noble gas from water samples, (2) the testing of Garodiox on samples from a natural CO 2 storage analogue (Pavin lake, France) and (3) the results of a first field work on a natural CO 2 accumulation (Montmiral, France). The results we obtain and the conclusions we draw, highlight the interest of the geochemical monitoring we suggest. (author)

  9. Effect of noble metal doping on the structural properties of lanthanum cobaltite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmadhikari, Dipti V.; Athawal, Anjali A.

    2016-01-01

    Pristine and Noble metal (Ag and Pd) doped lanthanum cobaltite samples have been synthesised by Hydrothermal method. Lanthanum in the A-Site and Co at B-site of Lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO 3 ) perovskites were partially doped by silver and palladium (4%). Crystal structure analysis revealed that the hydrothermal synthesis led to the formation of pure nanocrystalline perovskite structure. Morphological analysis of the samples shows that the noble metal doping affects the morphology of the samples. Pristine sample shows spherical to oval shaped particles while the doping results in the formation of irregular shaped, spherical and rod shaped particles. Silver doping results in the agglomeration of particles. The particles were observed to be fused with each other to form rod shaped structures in case of palladium doped samples. (author)

  10. Consistent measurements comparing the drift features of noble gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, U; Fortunato, E M; Kirchner, J; Rosera, K; Uchida, Y

    1999-01-01

    We present a consistent set of measurements of electron drift velocities and Lorentz deflection angles for all noble gases with methane and ethane as quenchers in magnetic fields up to 0.8 T. Empirical descriptions are also presented. Details on the World Wide Web allow for guided design and optimization of future detectors.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IMMIGRANT/FOREIGN CHARACTERS AND NATIONAL/AUTOCHTHONOUS CHARACTERS IN SPANISH TELEVISION FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an empirical research in which it were analysed the interactions between immigrants and national characters in a sample of Spanish television fictional programs broadcasted on prime time. This study is a content analysis of 282 interactions between immigrant/foreign and national characters. Thus, it was found that the largest number of relationships between the characters involved was produced in a working context. Moreover, there was a higher proportion of the use of aggressive humour from the national characters to the immigrant/foreigners than in the reverse way. It was also observed that the immigrant/foreigner characters hardly spoke about their feelings, nor were heard by the nationals when they did it, although there were a high number of interactions in which immigrant characters were expressing their opinions and these were attended by national characters. The analysis of the interactions between immigrant and national characters in television fiction is a very important research issue, because it has been proposed that the parasocial interactions are complementary of the interpersonal interactions taking place in daily life (Müller, 2009; Park, 2012.

  12. THE NEED FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Character education is a national movement creatingschools that foster ethical,responsible and caring young people by modelling and teaching good characterthrough emphasis on universal values that we all share. It is the intentional,proactive effort by schools, districts and states to instil in their students importantcore ethical values such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility and respect forself and others.Good character is not formed automatically; it is developed over time through asustained process of teaching, example, learning and practice. It is developedthrough character education. The intentional teaching of good character isparticularly important in today’s society since ouryouth face many opportunitiesand dangers unknown to earlier generations. They are bombarded with many morenegative influences through the media and other external sources prevalent intoday’s culture. Since children spend about 900 hours a year in school, it isessential that schools resume a proactive role in assisting families andcommunities by developing caring, respectful environments where students learncore, ethical values. When a comprehensive approachto character education isused, a positive moral culture is created in the school—a total school environmentthat supports the values taught in the classroom (Character Education Partnership,2010.The aim of this study is to provide guidelines forthe elements need for effectiveand comprehensive character education. And to emphasize the need of charactereducation to help students develop good character, which includes knowing,caring about and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, responsibility,honesty, fairness and compassion.

  13. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  14. Holistic Processing of Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Chun-Nang Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced holistic processing (obligatory attention to all parts of an object has been associated with different types of perceptual expertise involving faces, cars, fingerprints, musical notes, English words, etc. Curiously Chinese characters are regarded as an exception, as indicated by the lack of holistic processing found for experts (Hsiao and Cottrell, 2009. The ceiling performance of experts, however, may have caused this null effect. We revisit this issue by adopting the often-used face-composite sequential-matching task to two-part Chinese characters. Participants matched the target halves (left or right of two characters while ignoring the irrelevant halves. Both Chinese readers (experts and non-Chinese readers (novices showed holistic processing. Follow-up experiments suggested different origins of the effects for the two groups. For experts, holistic processing was sensitive to the amount of experience with the characters, as it was larger for words than non-words (formed by swapping the two parts of a valid character. Novices, however, showed similar degree of holistic processing to words and non-words, suggesting that their effects were more related to their inefficient decomposition of a complex, character-like pattern into parts. Overall these findings suggest that holistic processing may be a marker of expertise with Chinese characters, contrary to previous claims.

  15. Oxidation of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to alkylpolyglycol carboxylic acids using noble metals as catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagredos, Angelos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of ethoxylated fatty alcohols to the corresponding carboxylic acids through dehydrogenation/ oxidation using noble-metal catalysts has been studied. Ethoxylated primary aliphatic alcohols, ethoxylated random secondary aliphatic alcohols and ethoxylated alkylphenols have been converted to the corresponding acids in the presence of a base. The noble metal catalysts Palladium and Platinum were used without significant degradation of the ethoxyl chain in yields that exceeded 90%. On the other hand, the catalysts Rhodium and Ruthenium gave yields of about 80% and 60% respectively.La conversión de alcoholes grasos etoxilados a los correspondientes ácidos carboxílicos por deshidrogenación/ oxidación con metales nobles como catalizador ha sido estudiada. Alcoholes primarios alifáticos etoxilados, alcoholes alifáticos secundarios etoxilados al azar y alquilfenoles etoxilados han sido convertidos a los correspondientes ácidos en presencia de base. Los catalizadores paladio y platino fueron usados sin degradación significativa de las cadenas etoxiladas con un rendimiento que excedió del 90%. Por otra parte catalizadores de rodio y rutenio produjeron rendimientos del 80 y 60%, respectivamente.

  16. Spatial profiling of ion and neutral excitation in noble gas electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, R.L.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Optical emission from neutrals and ions of several noble gases has been profiled in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. In argon plasmas with a net microwave power of 750 W, the neutral (696.5-nm) and ion (488-nm) emission profiles are slightly center peaked at 0.32 mTorr and gradually shift to a hollow appearance at 2.5 mTorr. Neon profiles show a similar trend from 2.5 to 10.0 mTorr. For the noble gases, transition pressure scales with the ionization potential of the gas, which is consistent with neutral depletion. Studies of noble gas mixtures, however, indicate that neutral depletion is not always dominant in the formation of hollow profiles. For Kr/Ar, Ar/Ne, and Ne/He plasmas, the majority gas tends to set the overall shape of the profile at any given pressure. For the conditions of the current system, plasma density appears to be more dominant than electron temperature in the formation of hollow profiles. The general method described is also a straightforward, inexpensive technique for measuring the spatial distribution of power deposited in plasmas, particularly where absolute scale can be calibrated by some other means

  17. Laser microprobe for the study of noble gases and nitrogen in single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Planetary and Geosciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. ∗e-mail: murty@prl.ernet.in. A laser microprobe capable of analysing nitrogen and noble gases in .... tion properties for light radiation, with some.

  18. Character order processing in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junjuan; Li, Xingshan; Liversedge, Simon P

    2015-02-01

    We explored how character order information is encoded in isolated word processing or Chinese sentence reading in 2 experiments using a masked priming paradigm and a gaze-contingent display-change paradigm. The results showed that response latencies in the lexical decision task and reading times on the target word region were longer in the unrelated condition (the prime or the preview was unrelated with the target word) than the transposed-character condition (the prime or the preview was a transposition of the 2 characters of the target word), which were respectively longer than in the identity condition (the prime or preview was identical to the target word). These results show that character order is encoded at an early stage of processing in Chinese reading, but character position encoding was not strict. We also found that character order encoding was similar for single-morpheme and multiple-morpheme words, suggesting that morphemic status does not affect character order encoding. The current results represent an early contribution to our understanding of character order encoding during Chinese reading.

  19. Spectrochemical determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Carmi, U.; Harrel, A.

    1978-02-01

    A spectrochemical method was developed for the determination of impurities and noble metal traces in carnallite by DC arc excitation. The investigated sample is brought to a standard form of potassium-magnesium sulphate mixed with graphite. Detection limits of 1-10 ppm were determined for 27 elements; the dynamical detection range is 1-400 ppm

  20. Photoemission studies of zinc-noble metal alloys: Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au films on Ru(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Hrbek, J.

    1993-01-01

    Zn and the noble metals alloy when coadsorbed on Ru(001). The properties of Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au alloys have been studied using core- and valence-level photoemission and temperature programmed desorption. Alloy formation induces only small shifts (-0.2 to -0.3 eV) in the position of the Zn 2p, 3s, and 3d levels. In contrast, the core and valence levels of the noble metals show large shifts toward higher binding energy. For small amounts of Cu, Ag, and Au dissolved in Zn multilayers, the shifts in the core levels of the nobel metals follow the sequence: Cu(2p 3/2 ), 0.8 eV∼Ag(3d 5/2 ), 0.8 eV 7/2 ), 1.4 eV. The magnitude of the shift increases as the Pauling electronegativity of the noble metal increases. However, the sign of the shifts for the Cu(2p 3/2 ), Ag(3d 5/2 ), or Au(4f 7/2 ) levels is not directly determined by the direction of charge transfer within the corresponding Zn-noble metal bond

  1. Visible light active TiO{sub 2} films prepared by electron beam deposition of noble metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Xinggang, E-mail: hou226@163.co [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Ma Jun [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liu Andong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Dejun; Huang Meidong; Deng Xiangyun [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2010-03-15

    TiO{sub 2} films prepared by sol-gel method were modified by electron beam deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Ag). Effects of noble metals on the chemical and surface characteristics of the films were studied using XPS, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO{sub 2} films was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye solution under visible light UV irradiation. The result of TEM reveals that most of the surface area of TiO{sub 2} is covered by tiny particles of noble metals with diameter less than 1 nm. Broad red shift of UV-Visible absorption band of modified photocatalysts was observed. The catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions under visible light illumination demonstrates a significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity of these films compared with the un-loaded films. The photocatalytic efficiency of modified TiO{sub 2} films by this method is affected by the concentration of impregnating solution.

  2. Noble gas solubility in silicate melts:a review of experimentation and theory, and implications regarding magma degassing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paonita

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Noble gas solubility in silicate melts and glasses has gained a crucial role in Earth Sciences investigations and in the studies of non-crystalline materials on a micro to a macro-scale. Due to their special geochemical features, noble gases are in fact ideal tracers of magma degassing. Their inert nature also allows them to be used to probe the structure of silicate melts. Owing to the development of modern high pressure and temperature technologies, a large number of experimental investigations have been performed on this subject in recent times. This paper reviews the related literature, and tries to define our present state of knowledge, the problems encountered in the experimental procedures and the theoretical questions which remain unresolved. Throughout the manuscript I will also try to show how the thermodynamic and structural interpretations of the growing experimental dataset are greatly improving our understanding of the dissolution mechanisms, although there are still several points under discussion. Our improved capability of predicting noble gas solubilities in conditions closer to those found in magma has allowed scientists to develop quantitative models of magma degassing, which provide constraints on a number of questions of geological impact. Despite these recent improvements, noble gas solubility in more complex systems involving the main volatiles in magmas, is poorly known and a lot of work must be done. Expertise from other fields would be extremely valuable to upcoming research, thus focus should be placed on the structural aspects and the practical and commercial interests of the study of noble gas solubility.

  3. A radioactive noble gas quantitative analysis of gaseous effluents from NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Georgiev, K.; Mavrodiev, V.; Kikarin, B.

    1993-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes of argon, krypton and xenon comprise a substantial part of the gaseous emission of a NPP. A quantitative determination of their specific activity in the controlled area and the gaseous effluents requires a special sampling technique, as well as measurement method. The zeolites and the activated charcoals have a differentiated behaviour towards radioisotopes of argon, krypton and xenon. The isotope fractionation is often a problem, especially with argon and xenon. Some additional difficulties arise due to the irreproductibility of temperature and atmospheric moisture. The present paper describes a method for a spectrometric determination of radioactive noble gases after the cryogenic sampling developed at the Radiochemical laboratory of the Sofia University. The quality control of the method, as well as some special difficulties in its performing are discussed. The estimated minimum detectable activity is 5-10 Bq/m 3 for radioactive noble gases with half-life > 1 hour and sampling time for (resp. gamma-spectrometry) 1 hour. (author)

  4. Development of Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing technology for laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the aim of enabling it as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation, perfusion, and gas-exchange. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 1BXe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive NMR detection, opening the door to practical MRI with novel, open-access magnet designs at very low magnetic fields (and hence in confined spaces). We are pursuing two specific aims in this technology development program. The first aim is to develop an open-access, low-field (less than 0.01 T) instrument for MRI studies of human gas inhalation as a function of subject orientation, and the second aim is to develop functional imaging of the lung using laser-polarized He-3 and Xe-129.

  5. Application of noble metals on line in Cofrentes NPP and operation experience; Aplicacion de metales nobles en linea en C.N. Cofrentes y experiencia de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Zapata, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Cofrentes NPP implemented in 2010 the Noble Metal Chemistry as a mitigation technique for the Primary System materials protection against IGSCC. the paper describes briefly the technology fundamentals, the implementation of the specific project, the initial application and the operating experience along the last 3 cycles of the plant. (Author)

  6. Concentration of noble metals by sublimation during the analysis of massive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuburkov, Yu.T.; Zhujkov, B.L.; Gehrbish, Sh.; Al'pert, L.K.; Chan Zuj Ty

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of concentrating noble metals from terrestrial samples of various composition by chemical sublimation in an air stream at a temperature of 1000-1200 deg C was examined. It was found that the chemical yields of Au, Pt, Ir, Ru, Os and Re for all the samples increased by introducing solid additives of FeCl 2 , TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 . The concentration technique provides the possibility of determining some noble metals in massive samples (up to 50 g) with widely ranging element contents. By using gamma and neutron activation on a microtron, the detection limits of 3x10 -2 ppm for Pt and Ir and 4x10 -3 ppm for Au were achieved. In the case of X-ray fluorescence analysis, the detection limit for these elements was 0.4 ppm

  7. Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure age of the Sulagiri chondrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant R. Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sulagiri meteorite fell in India on 12 September 2008, LL6 chondrite class is the largest among all the Indian meteorites. Isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and nitrogen in the Sulagiri meteorite and cosmic ray exposure history are discussed. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Nec ratio is consistent with irradiation in a large body. Cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Sulagiri has a 4π cosmic-ray exposure (CRE age of 27.9 ± 3.4 Ma and is a member of the peak of CRE age distribution of LL chondrites. Radiogenic 4He and 40Ar concentrations in Sulagiri yields the radiogenic ages as 2.29 and 4.56 Ga, indicating the loss of He from the meteorite. Xenon and krypton are mixture of Q and spallogenic components.

  8. Noble gases, nitrogen and cosmic ray exposure age of the Sulagiri chondrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramakant R. Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    The Sulagiri meteorite fell in India on 12 September 2008, LL6 chondrite class is the largest among all the Indian meteorites. Isotopic compositions of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and nitrogen in the Sulagiri meteorite and cosmic ray exposure history are discussed. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c ratio is consistent with irradiation in a large body. Cosmogenic noble gases indicate that Sulagiri has a 4πcosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age of 27.9 ± 3.4 Ma and is a member of the peak of CRE age distribution of LL chondrites. Radiogenic 4He and 40Ar concentrations in Sulagiri yields the radiogenic ages as 2.29 and 4.56 Ga, indicating the loss of He from the meteorite. Xenon and krypton are mixture of Q and spallo-genic components.

  9. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Noble Gas Fingerprint in a UK Unconventional Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKavney, Rory; Gilfillan, Stuart; Györe, Domokos; Stuart, Fin

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been an unprecedented expansion in the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have arisen about the effect of this new industry on groundwater quality, particularly focussing on hydraulic fracturing, the technique used to increase the permeability of the targeted tight shale formations. Methane contamination of groundwater has been documented in areas of gas production1 but conclusively linking this to fugitive emissions from unconventional hydrocarbon production has been controversial2. A lack of baseline measurements taken before drilling, and the equivocal interpretation of geochemical data hamper the determination of possible contamination. Common techniques for "fingerprinting" gas from discrete sources rely on gas composition and isotopic ratios of elements within hydrocarbons (e.g. δ13CCH4), but the original signatures can be masked by biological and gas transport processes. The noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) are inert and controlled only by their physical properties. They exist in trace quantities in natural gases and are sourced from 3 isotopically distinct environments (atmosphere, crust and mantle)3. They are decoupled from the biosphere, and provide a separate toolbox to investigate the numerous sources and migration pathways of natural gases, and have found recent utility in the CCS4 and unconventional gas5 industries. Here we present a brief overview of noble gas data obtained from a new coal bed methane (CBM) field, Central Scotland. We show that the high concentration of helium is an ideal fingerprint for tracing fugitive gas migration to a shallow groundwater. The wells show variation in the noble gas signatures that can be attributed to differences in formation water pumping from the coal seams as the field has been explored for future commercial development. Dewatering the seams alters the gas/water ratio and the degree to which noble gases degas from the formation water. Additionally the

  11. Attosecond time delays in the photoionization of noble gas atoms studied in TDLDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We perform time-dependent local density functional calculations of the quantum phase and time delays of valence photoionization of noble gas atoms. Results may be accessed by XUV-IR interferometric metrology. (paper)

  12. Subsurface Noble Gas Sampling Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The intent of this document is to provide information about best available approaches for performing subsurface soil gas sampling during an On Site Inspection or OSI. This information is based on field sampling experiments, computer simulations and data from the NA-22 Noble Gas Signature Experiment Test Bed at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The approaches should optimize the gas concentration from the subsurface cavity or chimney regime while simultaneously minimizing the potential for atmospheric radioxenon and near-surface Argon-37 contamination. Where possible, we quantitatively assess differences in sampling practices for the same sets of environmental conditions. We recognize that all sampling scenarios cannot be addressed. However, if this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from the scenario assumed here, it will have achieved its goal.

  13. Character Development in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Glenn R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored the effects of a program consisting of communication and counseling skills, assertiveness training and moral dilemmas on the character development of high school students. The results demonstrated that the character development of the students in the experimental treatment group was affected significantly over time by the program.…

  14. Characterisation of an ion source on the Helix MC Plus noble gas mass spectrometer - pressure dependent mass discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Characterisation of an ion source on the Helix MC Plusnoble gas mass spectrometer - pressure dependent mass discrimination Xiaodong Zhang* dong.zhang@anu.edu.au Masahiko Honda Masahiko.honda@anu.edu.au Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia To obtain reliable measurements of noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances in a geological sample it is essential that the mass discrimination (instrument-induced isotope fractionation) of the mass spectrometer remain constant over the working range of noble gas partial pressures. It is known, however, that there are pressure-dependent variations in sensitivity and mass discrimination in conventional noble gas mass spectrometers [1, 2, 3]. In this study, we discuss a practical approach to ensuring that the pressure effect in the Helix MC Plus high resolution, multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer is minimised. The isotopic composition of atmospheric Ar was measured under a range of operating conditions to test the effects of different parameters on Ar mass discrimination. It was found that the optimised ion source conditions for pressure independent mass discrimination for Ar were different from those for maximised Ar sensitivity. The optimisation can be achieved by mainly adjusting the repeller voltage. It is likely that different ion source settings will be required to minimise pressure-dependent mass discrimination for different noble gases. A recommended procedure for tuning an ion source to reduce pressure dependent mass discrimination will be presented. References: Honda M., et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 859 -874, 1993. Burnard P. G., and Farley K. A., Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, Volume 1, 2000GC00038, 2000. Mabry J., et al., Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27, 1012 - 1017, 2012.

  15. Origin and Evolution of Reactive and Noble Gases Dissolved in Matrix Pore Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Waber, H. N. [Rock-Water Interaction, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Smellie, J. A.T. [Conterra AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    Reactive and noble gases dissolved in matrix pore water of low permeable crystalline bedrock were successfully extracted and characterized for the first time based on drillcore samples from the Olkiluoto investigation site (SW Finland). Interaction between matrix pore water and fracture groundwater occurs predominately by diffusion. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of gases dissolved in fracture groundwater are transmitted and preserved in the pore water. Absolute concentrations, their ratios and the stable carbon isotope signature of hydrocarbon gases dissolved in pore water give valuable indications about the evolution of these gases in the nearby flowing fracture groundwaters. Inert noble gases dissolved in matrix pore water and their isotopes combined with their in situ production and accumulation rates deliver information about the residence time of pore water. (author)

  16. Social character of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  17. APLIKASI SPOKES-CHARACTERS DALAM KAITAN DENGAN MEREK PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Widjoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement by using spokes-characters have potency to alter the choice of consumer brand with the compared to bigger impact which do not use the spokes-character. A lot of producer which hence spokes-character to increase assess to sell from a product. Spokes-Characters experience of the evolution from time to time keep abreast of the era%2C now emerge the new type of spokes-character and its application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan dengan spokes-characters berpotensi mengubah pilihan merek konsumen dengan dampak lebih besar dibanding yang tidak menggunakan spokes-character. Banyak produsen yang memakai spokes-character untuk meningkatkan nilai jual dari sebuah produk. Spokes-characters mengalami evolusi dari masa ke masa mengikuti perkembangan jaman%2C sekarang muncul jenis baru spokes-character dan aplikasinya. spokes-characters%2C advertising%2C branding.

  18. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...... and utilizing game characters with well-defined personalities and backgrounds, as well as rules-based components. Furthermore, that the game format plays a significant role in the pattern of usage of the character elements. This pattern appears directly linked with variations in the way that the different game...

  19. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  20. Handwritten Sindhi Character Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Ahmed Awan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OCR (OpticalCharacter Recognition is a technology in which text image is used to understand and write text by machines. The work on languages containing isolated characters such as German, English, French and others is at its peak. The OCR and ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition research in Sindhi script is currently at in starting stages and not sufficient work have been cited in this area even though Sindhi language is rich in culture and history. This paper presents one of the initial steps in recognizing Sindhi handwritten characters. The isolated characters of Sindhi script written by thesubjects have been recognized. The various subjects were asked to write Sindhi characters in unconstrained form and then the written samples were collected and scanned through a flatbed scanner. The scanned documents were preprocessedwith the help of binary conversion, removing noise by pepper noise and the lines were segmented with the help of horizontal profile technique. The segmented lines were used to extract characters from scanned pages.This character segmentation was done by vertical projection. The extracted characters have been used to extract features so that the characters can be classified easily. Zoning was used for the feature extraction technique. For the classification, neural network has been used. The recognized characters converted into editable text with an average accuracy of 85%.

  1. Removing radioactive noble gases from nuclear process off-gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofredo, A.

    1977-01-01

    A system is claimed for separating, concentrating and storing radioactive krypton and xenon in the off-gases from a boiling water reactor, wherein adsorption and cryogenic distillation are both efficiently used for rapid and positive separation and removal of the radioactive noble gases, and for limiting such gases in circulation in the system to low inventory at all times, and wherein the system is self-regulating to eliminate operator options or attention

  2. Degraded character recognition based on gradient pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, D. R. Ramesh; Ravishankar, M.; Kumar, Manish; Wadera, Kevin; Raj, Aakash

    2010-02-01

    Degraded character recognition is a challenging problem in the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The performance of an optical character recognition depends upon printed quality of the input documents. Many OCRs have been designed which correctly identifies the fine printed documents. But, very few reported work has been found on the recognition of the degraded documents. The efficiency of the OCRs system decreases if the input image is degraded. In this paper, a novel approach based on gradient pattern for recognizing degraded printed character is proposed. The approach makes use of gradient pattern of an individual character for recognition. Experiments were conducted on character image that is either digitally written or a degraded character extracted from historical documents and the results are found to be satisfactory.

  3. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  4. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  5. The Noble-Abel Stiffened-Gas equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Métayer, Olivier; Saurel, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Hyperbolic two-phase flow models have shown excellent ability for the resolution of a wide range of applications ranging from interfacial flows to fluid mixtures with several velocities. These models account for waves propagation (acoustic and convective) and consist in hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. In this context, each phase is compressible and needs an appropriate convex equation of state (EOS). The EOS must be simple enough for intensive computations as well as boundary conditions treatment. It must also be accurate, this being challenging with respect to simplicity. In the present approach, each fluid is governed by a novel EOS named "Noble Abel stiffened gas," this formulation being a significant improvement of the popular "Stiffened Gas (SG)" EOS. It is a combination of the so-called "Noble-Abel" and "stiffened gas" equations of state that adds repulsive effects to the SG formulation. The determination of the various thermodynamic functions and associated coefficients is the aim of this article. We first use thermodynamic considerations to determine the different state functions such as the specific internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy. Then we propose to determine the associated coefficients for a liquid in the presence of its vapor. The EOS parameters are determined from experimental saturation curves. Some examples of liquid-vapor fluids are examined and associated parameters are computed with the help of the present method. Comparisons between analytical and experimental saturation curves show very good agreement for wide ranges of temperature for both liquid and vapor.

  6. Noble gas, binary mixtures for commercial gas-cooled reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M. S.; Tournier, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial gas cooled reactors employ helium as a coolant and working fluid for the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbo-machines. Helium has the highest thermal conductivity and lowest dynamic viscosity of all noble gases. This paper compares the relative performance of pure helium to binary mixtures of helium and other noble gases of higher molecular weights. The comparison is for the same molecular flow rate, and same operating temperatures and geometry. Results show that although helium is a good working fluid because of its high heat transfer coefficient and significantly lower pumping requirement, a binary gas mixture of He-Xe with M = 15 gm/mole has a heat transfer coefficient that is ∼7% higher than that of helium and requires only 25% of the number stages of the turbo-machines. The binary mixture, however, requires 3.5 times the pumping requirement with helium. The second best working fluid is He-Kr binary mixture with M = 10 gm/mole. It has 4% higher heat transfer coefficient than He and requires 30% of the number of stages in the turbo-machines, but requires twice the pumping power

  7. Noble gas binary mixtures for gas-cooled reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using noble gases and binary mixtures as reactor coolants and direct closed Brayton cycle (CBC) working fluids on the performance of terrestrial nuclear power plants and the size of the turbo-machines. While pure helium has the best transport properties and lowest pumping power requirement of all noble gases and binary mixtures, its low molecular weight increases the number of stages of the turbo-machines. The heat transfer coefficient for a He-Xe binary mixture having a molecular weight of 15 g/mole is 7% higher than that of helium, and the number of stages in the turbo-machines is 24-30% of those for He working fluid. However, for the same piping and heat exchange components design, the loop pressure losses with He-Xe are ∼3 times those with He. Consequently, for the same reactor exit temperature and pressure losses in piping and heat exchange components, the higher pressure losses in the nuclear reactor decrease the net peak efficiency of the plant with He-Xe working fluid (15 g/mole) by a little more than ∼2% points, at higher cycle compression ratio than with He working fluid

  8. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  9. Electrocatalysis of chemically synthesized noble metal nanoparticles on carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ling; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs), such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) NPs are promising catalysts for dioxygen reduction and oxidation of molecules such as formic acid and ethanol in fuel cells. Carbon nanomaterials are ideal supporting materials for electrochemical catalysts due to their good...... by electrochemical SPM. This study offers promise for development of new high-efficiency catalyst types with low-cost for fuel cell technology...

  10. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  11. The Effect of Realistic Appearance of Virtual Characters in Immersive Environments - Does the Character's Personality Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibrek, Katja; Kokkinara, Elena; Mcdonnell, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Virtual characters that appear almost photo-realistic have been shown to induce negative responses from viewers in traditional media, such as film and video games. This effect, described as the uncanny valley, is the reason why realism is often avoided when the aim is to create an appealing virtual character. In Virtual Reality, there have been few attempts to investigate this phenomenon and the implications of rendering virtual characters with high levels of realism on user enjoyment. In this paper, we conducted a large-scale experiment on over one thousand members of the public in order to gather information on how virtual characters are perceived in interactive virtual reality games. We were particularly interested in whether different render styles (realistic, cartoon, etc.) would directly influence appeal, or if a character's personality was the most important indicator of appeal. We used a number of perceptual metrics such as subjective ratings, proximity, and attribution bias in order to test our hypothesis. Our main result shows that affinity towards virtual characters is a complex interaction between the character's appearance and personality, and that realism is in fact a positive choice for virtual characters in virtual reality.

  12. PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER BANGSA SEBAGAI PONDASI GENERASI MUDA DALAM MENGHADAPI ERA KEBEBASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Masrifatin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Education is absolutely needed by every human being as a shaper of world civilization. The higher the education of a group of the more noble civilization anyway. Expected changes in education is a real change in everyday behavior. Moral decline and rampant criminality allegedly caused by the noble philosophy of education that began to fade. So that means educational institutions that are responsible for establishing the ideals (objectives of education, content, and organization of the education system. Character development in schools is a telling step in building a nation of character. He expects that the school can produce quality human resources that are reliable, both faith and piety and science and technology. For the character-based education necessitates the construction of school culture with a solid foundation, which is the character. Character concerns the moral values of religion and intelligence of children who become the main capital in a society and a nation. Key Word: Education, Caracter, Generation

  13. Catalytic Activities of Noble Metal Phosphides for Hydrogenation and Hydrodesulfurization Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Kanda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of a highly active noble metal phosphide (NMXPY-based hydrodesulfurization (HDS catalyst with a high hydrogenating ability for heavy oils was studied. NMXPY catalysts were obtained by reduction of P-added noble metals (NM-P, NM: Rh, Pd, Ru supported on SiO2. The order of activities for the hydrogenation of biphenyl was Rh-P > NiMoS > Pd-P > Ru-P. This order was almost the same as that of the catalytic activities for the HDS of dibenzothiophene. In the HDS of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT, the HDS activity of the Rh-P catalyst increased with increasing reaction temperature, but the maximum HDS activity for the NiMoS catalyst was observed at 270 °C. The Rh-P catalyst yielded fully hydrogenated products with high selectivity compared with the NiMoS catalyst. Furthermore, XRD analysis of the spent Rh-P catalysts revealed that the Rh2P phase possessed high sulfur tolerance and resistance to sintering.

  14. Linear and nonlinear instability theory of a noble gas MHD generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesland, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the stability of the working medium of a seeded noble gas magnetohydrodynamic generator. The aim of the study is to determine the instability mechanism which is most likely to occur in experimental MHD generators and to describe its behaviour with linear and nonlinear theories. In chapter I a general introduction is given. The pertinent macroscopic basic equations are derived in chapter II, viz. the continuity, the momentum and the energy equation for the electrons and the heavy gas particles, consisting of the seed particles and the noble gas atoms. Chapter III deals with the linear plane wave analysis of small disturbances of a homogeneous steady state. The steady state is discussed in chapter IV. The values for the steady state parameters used for the calculations both for the linear analysis as for the nonlinear analysis are made plausible with the experimental values. Based on the results of the linear plane wave theory a nonlinear plane wave model of the electrothermal instability is introduced in chapter V. (Auth.)

  15. Migration of noble gas atoms in interaction with vacancies in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzagalli, L; Charaf-Eddin, A

    2015-01-01

    First principles calculations in combination with the nudged elastic band method have been performed in order to determine the mobility properties of various noble gas species (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) in silicon, a model semiconducting material. We focussed on single impurity, in interstitial configuration or forming a complex with a mono- or a di-vacancy, since the latter are known to be present and to play a key role in the formation of extended defects like bubbles or platelets. We determined several migration mechanisms and associated activation energies and have discussed these results in relation to available experiments. In particular, conflicting measured values of the migration energy of helium are explained by the present calculations. We also predict that helium diffuses solely as an interstitial, while an opposite behaviour is found for heavier species such as Ar, Kr, and Xe, with the prevailing role of complexes in that case. Finally, our calculations indicate that extended defects evolution by Ostwald ripening is possible for helium and maybe neon, but is rather unlikely for heavier noble gas species. (paper)

  16. Geological structure and prospects of noble metal ore mineralization of the Khayrkhan gabbroid massif (Western Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumshieva, K. R.; Gertner, I. F.; Tishin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    An analysis of the distribution of noble metals in zones of sulfide mineralization makes it possible to justify the isolation of four ore-bearing horizons with a specific geochemical zonation. A rise in the gold content relative to palladium and platinum is observed from the bottom upwards along the section of the stratified series of gabbroids. The study of the mineral phases of sulphides and the noble minerals itself indicates the evolution of hydrothermal solutions, which determines the different activity and mobility of the fluid (mercury, tellurium, sulfur) and ore (copper, nickel, iron, platinum, gold and silver) components.

  17. Promoting Character Development through Coach Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, F. Clark; Seroczynski, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Can youth sports build character? Research suggests that the answer to this question leads to 2 further questions: (1) can youth sport coaches be effectively prepared to become character educators, and (2) can character education take place in today's competitive youth sport environment? (Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Power, 2015; Power &…

  18. Braille Character Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Subur, Joko; Sardjono, Tri Arief; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Braille letter is characters designed for the blind, consist of six embossed points, arranged in a standard braille character. Braille letters is touched and read using fingers, therefore the sensitivity of the fingers is important. Those characters need to be memorized, so it is very difficult to be learned. The aim of this research is to create a braille characters recognition system and translate it to alpha-numeric text. Webcam camera is used to capture braille image from braille characte...

  19. Generalizability of EXCEL and NOBLE results to a large registry population with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Kang, Se Hun; Han, Seungbong; Ahn, Jung-Min; Bae, Jae Seok; Lee, Cheol Hyun; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Seung-Jung

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how trial-based findings of EXCEL and NOBLE might be interpreted and generalizable in 'real-world' settings with comparison of data from the large-scaled, all-comer Interventional Research Incorporation Society-Left MAIN Revascularization (IRIS-MAIN) registry. We compared baseline clinical and procedural characteristics and also determined how the relative treatment effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was different in EXCEL and NOBLE, compared with those of the multicenter, IRIS-MAIN registry (n=2481). The primary outcome for between-study comparison was a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. There were between-study differences in patient risk profiles (age, BMI, diabetes, and clinical presentation), lesion complexities, and procedural characteristics (stent type, the use of off-pump surgery, and radial artery); the proportion of diabetes and acute coronary syndrome was particularly lower in NOBLE than in other studies. Although there was interstudy heterogeneity for the protocol definition of MI, the risks for serious composite outcome of death, MI, or stroke were similar between PCI and CABG in EXCEL [hazard ratio (HR): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.26; P=0.98] and in the matched cohort of IRIS-MAIN (HR: 1.08; 95%CI: 0.85-1.38; P=0.53), whereas it was significantly higher after PCI than after CABG in NOBLE (HR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.06-2.05; P=0.02), which was driven by more common MI and stroke after PCI. In the comparison of a large-sized, all-comer registry, the EXCEL trial might represent better generalizability with respect to baseline characteristics and observed clinical outcomes compared with the NOBLE trial.

  20. Defense by-products production and utilization program: noble metal recovery screening experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, R.F.; Jensen, G.A.; Raney, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Isotopes of the platinum metals (rutheium, rhodium, and palladium) are produced during uranium fuel fission in nuclear reactors. The strategic values of these noble metals warrant considering their recovery from spent fuel should the spent fuel be processed after reactor discharge. A program to evaluate methods for ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium recovery from spent fuel reprocessing liquids was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the work reported in this docuent was to evaluate several recovery processes revealed in the patent and technical literature. Beaker-scale screening tests were initiated for three potential recovery processes: precipitation during sugar denitration of nitric acid reprocessing solutions after plutonium-uranium solvent extraction, adsorption using nobe metal selective chelates on active carbon, and reduction forming solid noble metal deposits on an amine-borane reductive resin. Simulated reprocessing plant solutions representing typical nitric acid liquids from defense (PUREX) or commercial fuel reprocessing facilities were formulated and used for evaluation of the three processes. 9 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Noble gas bond and the behaviour of XeO3 under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunju; Wang, Xianlong; Botana, Jorge; Miao, Maosheng

    2017-10-18

    Over the past few decades, the concept of hydrogen bonds, in which hydrogen is electrophilic, has been extended to halogen bonds, chalcogen bonds and pnicogen bonds. Herein, we show that such a non-covalent bonding also exists in noble gas compounds. Using first principles calculations, we illustrate the OXe-O bond in molecular crystal XeO 3 and its effect on the behavior of this compound under pressure. Our calculations show that the covalent Xe-O bond lengths were elongated with increasing pressure and correspondingly the Xe-O stretching vibration frequencies were red shifted, which is similar to the change of H-bonds under pressure. The OXe-O bond and related hopping of O between neighboring Xe sites also correspond to the structural changes in the XeO 3 compounds at about 2 GPa. Our study extends the concept of hydrogen bonding to include all p-block elements and show a new bonding type for Noble gas elements in which it acts as an electrophilic species.

  2. H3(+) as a trap for noble gases-3: multiple trapping of neon, argon, and krypton in X(n)H3(+) (n = 1-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzat, F; Ellinger, Y; Pilmé, J; Mousis, O

    2009-05-07

    Recent studies on the formation of XH(3)(+) noble gas complexes have shown strategic implications for the composition of the atmospheres of the giant planets as well as for the composition of comets. One crucial factor in the astrophysical process is the relative abundances of the noble gases versus H(3)(+). It is the context in which the possibility for clustering with more than one noble gas (X(n)H(3)(+) up to n = 3) has been investigated for noble gases X ranging from neon to krypton. In order to assert our results, a variety of methods have been used including ab initio coupled cluster CCSD and CCSD(T), MP2, and density functional BH&HLYP levels of theory. All complexes with one, two, and three noble gases are found to be stable in the Ne, Ar, and Kr families. These stable structures are planar with the noble gases attached to the apices of the H(3)(+) triangle. The binding energy of the nth atom, defined as the X(n)H(3)(+) --> X(n-1)H(3)(+) + X reaction energy, increases slightly with n varying from 1 to 3 in the neon series, while it decreases in the argon series and shows a minimum for n = 2 in the krypton series. The origin of this phenomenon is to be found in the variations in the respective vibrational energies. A topological analysis of the electron localization function shows the importance of the charge transfer from the noble gases toward H(3)(+) as a driving force in the bonding along the series. It is also consistent with the increase in the atomic polarizabilities from neon to krypton. Rotational constants and harmonic frequencies are reported in order to provide a body of data to be used for the detection in laboratory prior to space observations. This study strongly suggests that the noble gases could be sequestered even in an environment where the H(3)(+) abundance is small.

  3. Noble Metal Catalysts Supported on Nanofibrous Polymeric Membranes for Environmental Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Topka, Pavel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Petráš, D.; Valeš, V.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 236, NOV 1 (2014), s. 3-11 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP106/11/P459; GA ČR GP13-24186P Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : electrospinning * noble metals * catalytic oxidation * volatile organic compoundas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  4. A Study of Character among Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Jill D.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that sport builds character has been around for a long time. However, sports may not build the type of character once thought. Character of athletes was defined based on differing views held by sport scholars, coaches, athletes, and sport enthusiast. Sport scholars tend to view character of athletes from a moral perspective. Coaches,…

  5. On the difference in oscillator strengths of inner shell excitations in noble gases and their alkali neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Baltenkov, A.S.; Zhuravleva, G.I.

    1995-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the oscillator strength of resonant inner-shell excitation in a noble gas atom is considerably smaller than that in its alkali neighbor because in the latter case the effective charge acting upon excited electron is much bigger. With increase of the excitation's principal quantum number the difference between line intensities in noble gases and their alkali neighbors rapidly disappears. The calculations are performed in the Hartree-Fock approximation and with inclusion of rearrangement effects due to inner vacancy creation and its Auger decay. A paper has been submitted for publication

  6. Fabrication and magnetic-induced aggregation of Fe3O4–noble metal composites for superior SERS performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Zibao; Zhao, Aiwu; Zhang, Maofeng; Wang, Dapeng; Guo, Hongyan; Tao, Wenyu; Gao, Qian; Mao, Ranran; Liu, Erhu

    2013-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal composites were obtained by combining Au, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 NPs. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates the obtained Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal composites inherit the typical surface plasmon resonance bands of Au, Ag at 533 and 453 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements also indicated that the superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal composites have excellent magnetic response behavior. A magnetic-induced idea was introduced to change their aggregated states and take full advantage of their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances. Under the induction of an external magnetic field, the bifunctional Fe 3 O 4 –noble metal aggregates exhibit the unique superiority in SERS detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), compared with the naturally dispersed Au, Ag NPs. Especially, the detection limit of the Fe 3 O 4 –Ag aggregates for R6G is as low as 10 −14  M, and the calculated EF reaches up to 1.2 × 10 6 , which meets the requirements for trace detection of analytes. Furthermore, the superiority could be extended to sensitive detection of other organic molecules, such as 4-mercaptopyridine. This work provides a new insight for active adjustment of the aggregated states of SERS substrates and the optimization of SERS performances

  7. IMAGE PROCESSING BASED OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION USING MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dalal*1 & Sumiran Daiya2

    2018-01-01

    Character recognition techniques associate a symbolic identity with the image of character. In a typical OCR systems input characters are digitized by an optical scanner. Each character is then located and segmented, and the resulting character image is fed into a pre-processor for noise reduction and normalization. Certain characteristics are the extracted from the character for classification. The feature extraction is critical and many different techniques exist, each having its strengths ...

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Noble Gas Laboratory’s standard operating procedures for the measurement of dissolved gas in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-08-12

    This report addresses the standard operating procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Noble Gas Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., for the measurement of dissolved gases (methane, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) and noble gas isotopes (helium-3, helium-4, neon-20, neon-21, neon-22, argon-36, argon-38, argon-40, kryton-84, krypton-86, xenon-103, and xenon-132) dissolved in water. A synopsis of the instrumentation used, procedures followed, calibration practices, standards used, and a quality assurance and quality control program is presented. The report outlines the day-to-day operation of the Residual Gas Analyzer Model 200, Mass Analyzer Products Model 215–50, and ultralow vacuum extraction line along with the sample handling procedures, noble gas extraction and purification, instrument measurement procedures, instrumental data acquisition, and calculations for the conversion of raw data from the mass spectrometer into noble gas concentrations per unit mass of water analyzed. Techniques for the preparation of artificial dissolved gas standards are detailed and coupled to a quality assurance and quality control program to present the accuracy of the procedures used in the laboratory.

  9. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  10. NOBLE MORALITY”: THE 18TH ḤADĪTH OF IMAM AN-NAWAWI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This paper proposes a strategy for change in Nigeria from an Islamic perspective. The .... the state and the populace as well as in the corporate world, it should be ..... This study discusses the idea of change by exploring the noble approach.

  11. Backfitting of existing nuclear power plants with particulate, iodine and noble gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.R.; Geiger, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    A stand-alone microcomputer complete with hardware and software to measure airborne particulate iodine and noble gases is described. This system meets the need at power plants and effluent monitoring. The equipment will accommodate up to 192 channels of input

  12. Neutron activation analysis for noble metals in matte leach residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the neutron activation analysis technique as a method for rapid and precise determinations of platinum group metals in matte leach residues depends on obtaining a method for effecting complete and homogeneous sample dilution. A simple method for solid dilution of metal samples is outlined in this study, which provided a basis for the accurate determination of all the noble metals by the Neutron Activation Analysis technique

  13. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  14. Spectrophotometric methods for determining noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur'eva, R.F.; Savvin, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    The main trends of the development of spectrophotometric methods for determining noble metals (NMs) including ruthenium are considered. One of these trends is the synthesis and study of new, highly sensitive and selective organic reagents for determining NMs in solutions and solid phase. Another trend is the search for and developing of new methodological approaches (techniques) and color reactions, including those that involve modified and immobilized reagents. The third trend includes the improvement of equipment and automation. It is shown that the present-day spectrophotometry can provide the determination of NMs in samples with concentrations from several to 10 -4 % (photometry and differential photometry) and down to 10 -7 % (test and sorption-spectroscopic methods based on photometry and diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy, including the use of chromaticity functions) [ru

  15. Liquid state properties of certain noble and transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, G.M.; Rahman, A.; Khaleque, M.A.; Rashid, R.I.M.A.; Mujibur Rahman, S.M.

    1998-07-01

    Certain structural, thermodynamic and atomic transport properties of a number of liquid noble and transition metals are reported. The underlying theory combines together a simple form of the N-body potential and the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquid. The static structure factors calculated by using the VMHNC resemble the hard sphere (HS) values. Consequently the HS model is used to calculate the thermodynamic properties viz. specific heat, entropy, isothermal compressibility and atomic transport properties. (author)

  16. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  17. A comparative study of the broadening effect on rotational lines by methane and noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircz, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    Line broadening measurements for the mixtures HCl-CH 4 and HCl-CD 4 have been performed and the results of these experiments are reported. Current theoretical models for the systems studied are briefly discussed. In order to identify specific effects the authors have tried to find a generalisation for linewidth cross-sections for the HCl-noble gas systems. This is done in the spirit of the well known corresponding state treatment in statistical mechanics in an attempt to find, in terms of reduced variables, a generalised intermolecular potential for these systems. Extensive calculations on the HCl-Ar and HCl-Kr intermolecular potentials, as derived from linewidth measurements, are reported in an attempt to extract a more exact potential for these systems. The results are compared with other recent results from the literature. The use of a semi-empirical method for the evaluation of the experimental data is described. This empirical method has been used in a comparison between the HCl-noble gas experiments and the present experiments of HCl-methane. The possibility of splitting the observed data into a 'noble gas' part and a 'extra' part due to the intermolecular interactions which result from the coupling of the HCl rotations with the internal degrees of freedom of the methane molecules is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  19. Noble gases in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.; Burdine, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Radioactive noble gases have made a significant contribution to diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the area of regional assessment of pulmonary function, 133 Xe has had its greatest clinical impact. Following a breath of 133 Xe gas, pulmonary ventilation can be measured using a scintillation camera or other appropriate radiation detector. If 133 Xe dissolved in saline is injected intravenously, both pulmonary capillary perfusion and ventilation can be measured since 90 percent of the highly insoluble xenon escapes into the alveoli during the first passage through the lungs. Radionuclide pulmonary function tests provide the first qualitative means of assessing lung ventilation and blood flow on a regional basis, and have recently been extended to include quantification of various parameters of lung function by means of a small computer interfaced to the scintillation camera. 133 Xe is also used in the measurement of organ blood flow following injection into a vessel leading into an organ such as the brain, heart kidneys, or muscles

  20. Prospects of Optical Single Atom Detection in Noble Gas Solids for Measurements of Rare Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep; Bailey, Kevin G.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Xu, Chen-Yu; Tang, Xiaodong

    2013-04-01

    Optical detection of single atoms captured in solid noble gas matrices provides an alternative technique to study rare nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics. I will describe the prospects of applying this approach for cross section measurements of the ^22Ne,,),25Mg reaction, which is the crucial neutron source for the weak s process inside of massive stars. Noble gas solids are a promising medium for the capture, detection, and manipulation of atoms and nuclear spins. They provide stable and chemically inert confinement for a wide variety of guest species. Because noble gas solids are transparent at optical wavelengths, the guest atoms can be probed using lasers. We have observed that ytterbium in solid neon exhibits intersystem crossing (ISC) which results in a strong green fluorescence (546 nm) under excitation with blue light (389 nm). Several groups have observed ISC in many other guest-host pairs, notably magnesium in krypton. Because of the large wavelength separation of the excitation light and fluorescence light, optical detection of individual embedded guest atoms is feasible. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Modeling the transport and fate of radioactive noble gases in very dry desert alluvium: Realistic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    US DOE Order 5820.2A (1988) requires that a performance assessment of all new and existing low-level radioactive waste management sites be made. An integral part of every performance assessment is the mathematical modeling of the transport and fate of noble gas radionuclides in the gas phase. Current in depth site characterization of the high desert alluvium in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is showing that the alluvium is very very dry all the way to the water table (240 meters below land surface). The potential for radioactive noble gas (e.g. Rn-220 and Rn-222) transport to the atmosphere from shallow land burial of Thorium and Uranium waste is very high. Objectives of this modeling effort include: Construct a physics based sits specific noble gas transport model; Include induced advection due to barometric pressure changes at the atmospheric boundary layer (thin) - dry desert alluvium interface; User selected option for use of NOAA barometric pressure or a ''home brewed'' barometric pressure wave made up of up to 15 sinusoids and cosinusoids; Use the model to help make engineering decisions on the design of the burial pits and associated closure caps

  2. ABOUT THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF HYDROCARBON LAKES IN THE ORIGIN OF TITAN'S NOBLE GAS ATMOSPHERIC DEPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, D.; Mousis, O.; Lunine, J. I.; Lebonnois, S.; Lavvas, P.; Lobo, L. Q.; Ferreira, A. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    An unexpected feature of Titan's atmosphere is the strong depletion in primordial noble gases revealed by the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer aboard the Huygens probe during its descent on 2005 January 14. Although several plausible explanations have already been formulated, no definitive response to this issue has yet been found. Here, we investigate the possible sequestration of these noble gases in the liquid contained in lakes and wet terrains on Titan and the consequences for their atmospheric abundances. Considering the atmosphere and the liquid existing on the soil as a whole system, we compute the abundance of each noble gas relative to nitrogen. To do so, we make the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and the atmosphere, the abundances of the different constituents being determined via regular solution theory. We find that xenon's atmospheric depletion can be explained by its dissolution at ambient temperature in the liquid presumably present on Titan's soil. In the cases of argon and krypton, we find that the fractions incorporated in the liquid are negligible, implying that an alternative mechanism must be invoked to explain their atmospheric depletion.

  3. Transparent and conductive electrodes by large-scale nano-structuring of noble metal thin-films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jes; Runge Walther, Anders; Wolff, Christian

    2018-01-01

    grid, and nano-wire thin-films. The indium and carbon films do not match the chemical stability nor the electrical performance of the noble metals, and many metal films are not uniform in material distribution leading to significant surface roughness and randomized transmission haze. We demonstrate...... solution-processed masks for physical vapor-deposited metal electrodes consisting of hexagonally ordered aperture arrays with scalable aperture-size and spacing in an otherwise homogeneous noble metal thin-film that may exhibit better electrical performance than carbon nanotube-based thin-films...... for equivalent optical transparency. The fabricated electrodes are characterized optically and electrically by measuring transmittance and sheet resistance. The presented methods yield large-scale reproducible results. Experimentally realized thin-films with very low sheet resistance, Rsh = 2.01 ± 0.14 Ω...

  4. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...

  5. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  6. Building innovative and creative character through mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Hardi; Suyitno, Amin

    2018-03-01

    21st century is predicted as the century with rapid development in all aspects of life. People require creative and innovative character to exist. Specifically, mathematics has been given to students from the kindergarten until the middle school. Thus, building character through mathematics should begin since the early age. The problem is how to build creative and innovative character through mathematics education? The goal expected from this question is to build innovative and creative characters to face the challenges of the 21st century. This article discusses the values of mathematics, the values in mathematics education, innovative and creative character, and the integration of these values in teaching mathematics that support the innovative and creative character building, and applying the values in structurely programmed, measurable, and applicable learning activities.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodson, Boyd McLean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodson, Boyd M.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI

  9. Social Values Reflected in "Batu Dara Muning" An Oral Literature of Dayak Keninjal Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martono Martono

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral literature has an important function in life because it can reflect people's lives and instil a sense of love for their own culture. Oral literature is a cultural heritage of the region passed down from generation to generation which is narrated from mouth to mouth and has a noble value. The noble value contained in oral literature reflects the local culture of the tribe. Certain noble values must be continuously preserved and implemented in the life of society and state. The noble value as a form of character education, such as social values. Therefore, positive social values must be maintained. The social values as many ancestral riches are also found in Dayak Keninjal oral literature titled Batu Dara Muning. The social value that can be found in oral literature entitled Batu Dara Muning is the value of a mother's love for a child, obedient to parents, forbidden marriage, obedience to customs. To analyze oral literature Batu Dara Muning used an approach of a sociology of literature. The reason literature is a mirror of the lives of the people who own the story. Stories or events expressed in oral literature are sourced from events in society with the narrator's imagination. The character used in oral literature is not the name of the character in his tribe, but the name made by the narrator.

  10. Analysis of noble gas recycling at a fusion plasma divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    Near-surface recycling of neon and argon atoms and ions at a divertor has been studied using impurity transport and surface interaction codes. A fixed background deuterium endash tritium plasma model is used corresponding to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [ITER EDA Agreement and Protocol 2, ITER EDA Documentation Series No. 5 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1994)] radiative plasma conditions (T e ≤10 eV). The noble gas transport depends critically on the divertor surface material. For low-Z materials (Be and C) both neon and argon recycle many (e.g., ∼100) times before leaving the near-surface region. This is also true for an argon on tungsten combination. For neon on tungsten, however, there is low recycling. These variations are due to differences in particle and energy reflection coefficients, mass, and ionization rates. In some cases a high flux of recycling atoms is ionized within the magnetic sheath and this can change local sheath parameters. Due to inhibited backflow, high recycling, and possibly high sputtering, noble gas seeding (for purposes of enhancing radiation) may be incompatible with Be or C surfaces, for fusion reactor conditions. On the other hand, neon use appears compatible with tungsten. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Graphene–Noble Metal Nano-Composites and Applications for Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Basu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based nano-composites are relatively new materials with excellent mechanical, electrical, electronic and chemical properties for applications in the fields of electrical and electronic devices, mechanical appliances and chemical gadgets. For all these applications, the structural features associated with chemical bonding that involve other components at the interface need in-depth investigation. Metals, polymers, inorganic fibers and other components improve the properties of graphene when they form a kind of composite structure in the nano-dimensions. Intensive investigations have been carried out globally in this area of research and development. In this article, some salient features of graphene–noble metal interactions and composite formation which improve hydrogen gas sensing properties—like higher and fast response, quick recovery, cross sensitivity, repeatability and long term stability of the sensor devices—are presented. Mostly noble metals are effective for enhancing the sensing performance of the graphene–metal hybrid sensors, due to their superior catalytic activities. The experimental evidence for atomic bonding between metal nano-structures and graphene has been reported in the literature and it is theoretically verified by density functional theory (DFT. Multilayer graphene influences gas sensing performance via intercalation of metal and non-metal atoms through atomic bonding.

  12. Dispersion forces and small-angle neutron scattering from liquid noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    Maggs and Ashcroft [Phys. Rev. letts., 59,113 (1987)] have re-opened the question of the analogy between the cohesion of a molecular crystal, in which dispersion forces play a major role, and that in a metal crystal with polarizable ion cores. It is pointed out that small-angle neutron scattering from liquid noble metals could be used to test their predictions. (author)

  13. Virtual Character Personality Influences Participant Attitudes and Behavior - An Interview with a Virtual Human Character about Her Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.

  14. Artificial Neural Network Based Optical Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Shrivastava; Navdeep Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition deals in recognition and classification of characters from an image. For the recognition to be accurate, certain topological and geometrical properties are calculated, based on which a character is classified and recognized. Also, the Human psychology perceives characters by its overall shape and features such as strokes, curves, protrusions, enclosures etc. These properties, also called Features are extracted from the image by means of spatial pixel-...

  15. Size versus polarizability in protein-ligand interactions: binding of noble gases within engineered cavities in phage T4 lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, M L; Breyer, W A; Griswold, I J; Matthews, B W

    2000-09-29

    To investigate the relative importance of size and polarizability in ligand binding within proteins, we have determined the crystal structures of pseudo wild-type and cavity-containing mutant phage T4 lysozymes in the presence of argon, krypton, and xenon. These proteins provide a representative sample of predominantly apolar cavities of varying size and shape. Even though the volumes of these cavities range up to the equivalent of five xenon atoms, the noble gases bind preferentially at highly localized sites that appear to be defined by constrictions in the walls of the cavities, coupled with the relatively large radii of the noble gases. The cavities within pseudo wild-type and L121A lysozymes each bind only a single atom of noble gas, while the cavities within mutants L133A and F153A have two independent binding sites, and the L99A cavity has three interacting sites. The binding of noble gases within two double mutants was studied to characterize the additivity of binding at such sites. In general, when a cavity in a protein is created by a "large-to-small" substitution, the surrounding residues relax somewhat to reduce the volume of the cavity. The binding of xenon and, to a lesser degree, krypton and argon, tend to expand the volume of the cavity and to return it closer to what it would have been had no relaxation occurred. In nearly all cases, the extent of binding of the noble gases follows the trend xenon>krypton>argon. Pressure titrations of the L99A mutant have confirmed that the crystallographic occupancies accurately reflect fractional saturation of the binding sites. The trend in noble gas affinity can be understood in terms of the effects of size and polarizability on the intermolecular potential. The plasticity of the protein matrix permits repulsion due to increased ligand size to be more than compensated for by attraction due to increased ligand polarizability. These results have implications for the mechanism of general anesthesia, the migration

  16. Contributions to the determination of the noble metals gold, iridium, palladium, platinum, rhodium and application to environmentally relevant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zischka, M.

    1998-11-01

    The concentrations of noble metals in the environment are still very low (low ng/g and sub ng/g range), although they are emitted to an increasing extent as components of catalytic exhaust emission converters into the environment. The determination of these elements can be error prone even when the determinations are carried out by use of highly sensitive methods in combination with high performance sample preparation techniques. Accurate data with smallest possible measurement uncertainties are a prerequisite for the interpretation of the distribution of noble metals in the environment and their possible toxicological effects. Difficulties related to the determination of the noble metals could be the incomplete recovery after sample preparation, sample digestion and interferences arising in subsequent instrumental determination methods. For this reason two different sample decomposition methods in combination with powerful instrumental techniques are checked for suitability for the determination of the noble metals in environmentally relevant samples. Digestion methods under evaluation are the NiS fire assay and the leaching with aqua regia in closed vessels under high pressure and high temperature. The NiS fire assay provides pre-concentration of the noble-metals and matrix separation of most of the remaining matrix elements. Disadvantages of this method are the need for experienced analysts, the awkward handling and the time-consuming procedure. On the other hand leaching with aqua regia under high pressure at high temperatures is easy to handle and not time-consuming with the crucial disadvantage that neither a pre-concentration of the noble metals nor a matrix separation can be achieved. Investigated instrumental techniques are the ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) with an axially arranged plasma either with a cross-flow or with an ultrasonic nebulizer, the quadrupole ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and the

  17. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  18. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  19. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  20. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  1. A noble additive cum compatibilizer for dispersion of nanoclay into ethylene octene elastomer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mondal, S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a poly(ethylene-co-octene)-poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) double network hybrid as a noble additive cum compatibilizer for poly(ethylene-co-octene) (POE). The addition of only 0.5 mass% of the hybrid into POE has raised...

  2. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  3. Surface noble metal modified PdM/C (M = Ru, Pt, Au) as anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Han; Huang, Tao; Yu, Aishui

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we studied the surface noble metal modification on Pd nanoparticles, other than the homogeneous or core-shell structure. The surface modification will lead to the uneven constitution within the nanoparticles and thus more obvious optimization effect toward the catalyst brought by the lattice deformation. The surface of the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles was modified with Ru, Pt or Au by a moderate and green approach, respectively. XPS results confirm the interactive electron effects between Pd and the modified noble metal. Electrochemical measurements show that the surface noble metal modified catalysts not only show higher catalytic activity, but also better stability and durability. The PdM/C catalysts all exhibit good dispersion and very little agglomeration after long-term potential cycles toward ethanol oxidation. With only 10% metallic atomic ratio of Au, PdAu/C catalyst shows extraordinary catalytic activity and stability, the peak current reaches 1700 mA mg"−"1 Pd, about 2.5 times that of Pd/C. Moreover, the PdAu/C maintains 40% of the catalytic activity after 4500 potential cycles. - Highlights: • Pd-based catalysts with complicated exposed facets. • Much enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability with about 10% noble metal M (M = Ru, Pt, Au) on Pd nanoparticles. • The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of PdAu/C towards ethanol oxidation after the Au modification.

  4. Surface noble metal modified PdM/C (M = Ru, Pt, Au) as anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Han; Huang, Tao, E-mail: huangt@fudan.edu.cn; Yu, Aishui, E-mail: asyu@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-08-15

    In this article, we studied the surface noble metal modification on Pd nanoparticles, other than the homogeneous or core-shell structure. The surface modification will lead to the uneven constitution within the nanoparticles and thus more obvious optimization effect toward the catalyst brought by the lattice deformation. The surface of the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles was modified with Ru, Pt or Au by a moderate and green approach, respectively. XPS results confirm the interactive electron effects between Pd and the modified noble metal. Electrochemical measurements show that the surface noble metal modified catalysts not only show higher catalytic activity, but also better stability and durability. The PdM/C catalysts all exhibit good dispersion and very little agglomeration after long-term potential cycles toward ethanol oxidation. With only 10% metallic atomic ratio of Au, PdAu/C catalyst shows extraordinary catalytic activity and stability, the peak current reaches 1700 mA mg{sup −1} Pd, about 2.5 times that of Pd/C. Moreover, the PdAu/C maintains 40% of the catalytic activity after 4500 potential cycles. - Highlights: • Pd-based catalysts with complicated exposed facets. • Much enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability with about 10% noble metal M (M = Ru, Pt, Au) on Pd nanoparticles. • The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of PdAu/C towards ethanol oxidation after the Au modification.

  5. Update on the use of dissolved oxygen addition to monitor the effectiveness of noble metal applications in external manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, J.A.; Huie, H.H.; Seeman, R.A.; Bourne, C.M.; Odell, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) measurements in a Mitigation Monitoring System (MMS) ECP manifold have historically been a primary indicator of the effectiveness of an On-Line NobleChem™ (OLNC) application, with the MMS ECP intended to measure the catalytic effect of noble metal deposited on the ECP manifold surface. In some plants ECP measurements made on untreated surfaces prior to an OLNC application were significantly lower than what would be expected for stainless steel under reactor bulk chemistry conditions. This is due to the consumption and depletion of bulk liquid dissolved oxygen (DO) in the lines supplying reactor water to these external ECP measurement locations. This phenomenon degrades the ability to use these external manifolds to confirm noble metal deposition. Previous papers have described how the injection of an oxygen-rich stream to the MMS supply stream (DO Addition) can be used to re-establish the capability of external ECP measurements to monitor the catalytic behavior of platinum deposited during an OLNC injection. This paper will provide an update of how this method is being successfully used in operating BWRs to monitor OLNC injections. The paper will outline the overall approach used to characterize the catalytic behavior of external ECP manifolds before and after the noble metal application and present plant data collected during DO Additions performed under various conditions. (author)

  6. Character, attitude and disposition

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...

  7. Noble Cantor sets acting as partial internal transport barriers in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misguich, J.H.; Reuss, J.D.; Constantinescu, D.; Steinbrecher, G.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Weyssow, B.; Balescu, R.

    2002-03-01

    In hot laboratory plasmas, Internal Transport Barriers (ITB) have recently been observed, localized in the radial profile 'around' rational values of the winding number ω(r)=1/q(r). Such barriers are obviously related to the perturbed magnetic structure, described by a 1+1/2 Hamiltonian in presence of a perturbation. From the point of view of non-linear Hamiltonian dynamical systems this experimental result appears highly paradoxical since rational q-values generally correspond to the less robust tori. We have studied the appearance of chaos of toroidal magnetic lines by a discrete area-preserving map named 'tokamap'. By increasing the perturbation, we have observed in a wide chaotic sea the destruction of the last confining Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) surfaces, broken and transformed into permeable Cantor sets (Cantori). The flux across a Cantorus has been computed by using refined mathematical techniques due to MacKay, Mather and Aubry. We have proved that the ITB observed in the tokamap is actually composed of two permeable Cantori with 'noble' values of ω (in the definition of Percival). More generally, between the dominant chains of rational islands q = m/m-1, the most resistant barriers between q = m+2/m+1 and m+1/m have been checked (Green, MacKay and Stark) to be localized on the 'most irrational' numbers in these Farey intervals, i.e. on the noble numbers N(1,m)≡ 1+[1/(m+1/G)] (where G is the Golden number) defined by their continuous fraction expansion N(i,m) = [i,m,(1) ∞ ]. In conclusion, the study of the tokamap mapping allowed us to predict on mathematical basis that ITB can occur in tokamak plasmas not only 'around' rational magnetic surfaces but more precisely on noble q-values of irrational surfaces, and to localize them by the Fibonacci series of their convergent. (authors)

  8. Transparent and conductive electrodes by large-scale nanostructuring of noble metal thin-films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jes; Runge Walther, Anders; Wolff, Christian

    grid, and nano-wire thin-films [1]. The indium and carbon films do not match the chemical stability nor the electrical performance of the noble metals, and many metal films are not uniform in material distribution leading to significant surface roughness and randomized transmission haze. We demonstrate...

  9. NOBLE and EXCEL: The debate for excellence in dealing with left main stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindi, Hamood Al; Samaan, Amir; Hosny, Hatem

    2018-03-14

    Left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) has always been the standard revascularization strategy for this group of patients. However, with the recent developments in stents design and medical therapy over the past decade, several trials have been designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an alternative to CABG surgery in patients with LMCA disease. Recently, the results of two major trials, EXCEL and NOBLE, comparing CABG versus PCI in this patient population have been released. In fact, the results of both trials might appear contradictory at first glance. While the EXCEL trial showed that PCI was non-inferior to CABG surgery, the NOBLE trial suggested that CABG surgery is a better option. In the following review, we will discuss some of the similarities and contrasts between these two trials and conclude with lessons to be learned to our daily practice.

  10. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  11. Optical character recognition based on nonredundant correlation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunecker, B; Hauck, R; Lohmann, A W

    1979-08-15

    The essence of character recognition is a comparison between the unknown character and a set of reference patterns. Usually, these reference patterns are all possible characters themselves, the whole alphabet in the case of letter characters. Obviously, N analog measurements are highly redundant, since only K = log(2)N binary decisions are enough to identify one out of N characters. Therefore, we devised K reference patterns accordingly. These patterns, called principal components, are found by digital image processing, but used in an optical analog computer. We will explain the concept of principal components, and we will describe experiments with several optical character recognition systems, based on this concept.

  12. Leadership, character and its development: A qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn de Braine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore (1 what organisational leaders consider to be character elements of leaders within the workplace, (2 what influences leaders’ character development, and (3 how an organisation can continue the process of character development. The literature review and findings revealed that leadership, integrity, industriousness, empathy, loyalty, optimism, fairness and compassion are the most sought after character elements within leaders in the workplace. Leadership and integrity were found to be the most supported character elements. The findings also indicate that work environmental factors, a person’s own efforts, and the daily experiences of work life contribute towards character development.

  13. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Electrical resistivity of noble-metal alloys: Roles of pseudopotential refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujibar Rahman, S.M.

    1983-08-01

    The electrical resistivity of liquid noble-metal alloys i.e. CuAu and AgAu is calculated as a function of concentration. The calculations employ transition-metal-pseudopotentials that include nonlocal effects, hybridization and corrections due to orthogonalization hole and use the hard-sphere structure factors; the optimal values of the hard-sphere diameters are being determined by variational calculations. The calculated resistivities are comparable to the experimental values and to the available theoretical results. (author)

  15. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  16. Screening metal-organic frameworks for selective noble gas adsorption in air: effect of pore size and framework topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Marie V; Staiger, Chad L; Perry, John J; Allendorf, Mark D; Greathouse, Jeffery A

    2013-06-21

    The adsorption of noble gases and nitrogen by sixteen metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was investigated using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. The MOFs were chosen to represent a variety of net topologies, pore dimensions, and metal centers. Three commercially available MOFs (HKUST-1, AlMIL-53, and ZIF-8) and PCN-14 were also included for comparison. Experimental adsorption isotherms, obtained from volumetric and gravimetric methods, were used to compare krypton, argon, and nitrogen uptake with the simulation results. Simulated trends in gas adsorption and predicted selectivities among the commercially available MOFs are in good agreement with experiment. In the low pressure regime, the expected trend of increasing adsorption with increasing noble gas polarizabilty is seen. For each noble gas, low pressure adsorption correlates with several MOF properties, including free volume, topology, and metal center. Additionally, a strong correlation exists between the Henry's constant and the isosteric heat of adsorption for all gases and MOFs considered. Finally, we note that the simulated and experimental gas selectivities demonstrated by this small set of MOFs show improved performance compared to similar values reported for zeolites.

  17. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  18. Laser-polarized noble gases: a powerful probe for biology, medicine, and subatomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    For over a decade, laser-polarized noble gases such as ^3He and ^129Xe have proven useful for a wide range of scientific inquiries. These include investigations of pulmonary disease using the polarized gas as a signal source for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), measurements of various aspects of nucleon structure, and tests of fundamental symmetries. Early efforts were often limited by expensive and bulky laser systems, but ongoing advancements in solid-state lasers have enabled increasingly large volumes of polarized gas to be produced with steadily improved polarization. Equally important have been advances in the fundamental understanding of spin exchange. This has led, for example, to the introduction of hybrid mixtures of alkali metals that can increase the efficiency of spin exchange by an order of magnitude. As a consequence of these advances, the figure of merit for polarized nuclear targets has increased by roughly three orders of magnitude in comparison to early accelerator-based experiments. And in MRI applications, it has become possible to pursue increasingly sophisticated imaging protocols that provide a wide range of diagnostic information. Even the earliest noble-gas MR images of the gas space of the human lung provided unprecedented resolution. More recent work includes the use of diffusion-sensitizing pulse sequences to study lung microstructure, and tagging techniques that enable the visualization (in real-time MRI movies) of gas flow during breathing. The range of applications of laser-polarized noble gases is continuing to grow, and it is notable that with an improved understanding of the underlying physics, it is quite likely that the capabilities of this useful technology will expand for some time to come.

  19. Methane oxidation over noble metal catalysts as related to controlling natural gas vehicle exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Mitchell, P.J.; Siewert, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas has considerable potential as an alternative automotive fuel. This paper reports on methane, the principal hydrocarbon species in natural-gas engine exhaust, which has extremely low photochemical reactivity but is a powerful greenhouse gas. Therefore, exhaust emissions of unburned methane from natural-gas vehicles are of particular concern. This laboratory reactor study evaluates noble metal catalysts for their potential in the catalytic removal of methane from natural-gas vehicle exhaust. Temperature run-up experiments show that the methane oxidation activity decreases in the order Pd/Al 2 O 3 > Rh/Al 2 O 3 > Pt/Al 2 O 3 . Also, for all the noble metal catalysts studied, methane conversion can be maximized by controlling the O 2 concentration of the feedstream at a point somewhat rich (reducing) of stoichiometry

  20. Factorized combinations of Virasoro characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsko, A.G.; Fring, A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate linear combinations of characters for minimal Virasoro models which are representable as a product of several basic blocks. Our analysis is based on consideration of asymptotic behaviour of the characters in the quasi-classical limit. In particular, we introduce a notion of the secondary effective central charge. We find all possible cases for which factorization occurs on the base of the Gauss-Jacobi or the Watson identities. Exploiting these results, we establish various types of identities between different characters. In particular, we present several identities generalizing the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. Applications to quasi-particle representations, modular invariant partition functions, super-conformal theories and conformal models with boundaries are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  1. Detection of low-level environmental exposure rates due to noble gas releases from the Muehleberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.; Volkle, H.; Pretre, S.

    1980-01-01

    The increase of radiation doses in the vicinity of the Swiss Nuclear Power Stations due to airborne releases is generally expected to be below one mrem/year (about one percent of the natural radiation dose). To prove this expected rate, long term measurements with pressure ionization chambers in the vicinity of the Muhleberg plant (BWR) were conducted. Two of these chambers were installed at places where the greatest dose rates from the noble gas plumes were expected in the two prevailing wind directions. The local dose rates were continuously registered on magnetic tape to allow minicomputer evaluation. After the fuel change in the summer of 1976 the noble gas releases from Muhleberg dropped considerably. From that time the noble gas releases consisted of a very low continuous component and some rare short-time spike compoments resulting from turbine and reactor trips. The dose due to the low continuous component was determined by correlating the dose rates at the measuring points with the release measure--ments at the stack and with weather conditions, and by subtracting the natural background. The short noble gas spikes lasted from minutes to some hours and caused small dose rate increases which were easily measured with the ionization chambers, and usually amounted to doses of some microroentgens. By further correlating these dose peaks with wind direction and stack emission measurements, determination of short time atmospheric dilution factors for existing weather situations became possible. By this process, the very low annual environmental doses in the range of 1 mrem per year were determined. (author)

  2. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  3. Wide range noble gas radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, H.S. III; Wyvill, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention contemplates providing a sample system for effluent from a nuclear process wherein the effluent in a first mode passes through a sample chamber whose noble gases are quantitatively detected. The sample of the first mode is continued until the detector count rate reaches a predetermined maximum. The detector establishes a control signal which is applied to terminate the first mode effluent flow to the chamber, evacuate the chamber to a predetermined value of vacuum and connect the effluent into the sample chamber with a predetermined mode of flow rate different from the rate of the first mode to establish a sample concentration in the chamber within the range of the detector. A subsequent predetermined minimum rate will generate a signal to reconnect the sample chamber to the first mode connection and thereby cycle the system back to its first mode of operation

  4. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  5. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  6. The electron energy distribution function of noble gases with flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karditsas, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The treatment of the Boltzmann equation by several investigators, for the determination of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in noble gases was restricted to static discharges. It is of great interest to magnetoplasmadynamic power generation to develop the Boltzmann equation to account for the effect of the bulk fluid flow on the EEDF. The two term expansion of the Boltzmann equation, as given, results in additional terms introduced to the equations due to the bulk fluid flow, with velocity u

  7. On the information content of discrete phylogenetic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewich, Magnus; Deutschmann, Ina Maria; Fischer, Mareike; Kasbohm, Elisa; Semple, Charles; Steel, Mike

    2017-12-16

    Phylogenetic inference aims to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of different species based on genetic (or other) data. Discrete characters are a particular type of data, which contain information on how the species should be grouped together. However, it has long been known that some characters contain more information than others. For instance, a character that assigns the same state to each species groups all of them together and so provides no insight into the relationships of the species considered. At the other extreme, a character that assigns a different state to each species also conveys no phylogenetic signal. In this manuscript, we study a natural combinatorial measure of the information content of an individual character and analyse properties of characters that provide the maximum phylogenetic information, particularly, the number of states such a character uses and how the different states have to be distributed among the species or taxa of the phylogenetic tree.

  8. Binary-collision-approximation-based simulation of noble gas irradiation to tungsten materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Seiki; Takayama, Arimichi; Ito, Atsushi M.; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    To reveal the possibility of fuzz formation of tungsten material under noble gas irradiation, helium, neon, and argon atom injections into tungsten materials are performed by binary-collision-approximation-based simulation. The penetration depth is strongly depends on the structure of the target material. Therefore, the penetration depth for amorphous and bcc crystalline structure is carefully investigated in this paper

  9. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)-thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)-thiolates form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    that it is the noble character of gold and nanoparticle surfaces that destabilizes Au(I)-thiolates. Bonding results from large van der Waals forces, influenced by covalent bonding induced through s-d hybridization and charge polarization effects that perturbatively mix in some Au(I)-thiolate character. A simple method...

  10. Which "Character" Should Sport Develop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Andy

    2005-01-01

    For years, strong claims have been made that sport builds character. Despite such claims, a "winning at all cost" mentality can frequently be seen within all of sport. The reason for this paradox may relate to confusion around what it means to demonstrate character. The purpose of this article is to show that there are indeed two distinct types of…

  11. 77 FR 10707 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... indigenous population; (4) the lack of any established shipping fairways, fueling and supply storage... location of the DRILLSHIP NOBLE DISCOVERER on the Outer Continental Shelf and its distance from both land...

  12. THE CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF GLEN HANSARD IN ONCE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Rosnani Thamrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the characterization of talented actor named Glen Hansard in Once film. This study employed a descriptive qualitative research design based on theories of Rahardjo (1985, Robert (1965, and Card (1988. Primary data sources were whole Once scenes film directed by John Carney which had low-budgeting production with two stars, Glen Hansard and Irglova, while secondary data sources were collected from the articles related to this study. This research mainly investigated two aspects involved two character analyses of the main actor, Hansard. The first one was the construction of Hansard’s characters and the second one was the effect between his character and another actors’ character. The study showed that Hansard’s characters were constructed by five factors: from what the character did and said, what the other characters said about him, how the appearance and its milieu were, influencing one and another.The study also found that he had struggle, visionary, ambitious, introvert, sensitive, straightforward and curious characters, but more characters that showed strong characters of his were struggle, visionary and ambitious, because the scenes reflected them more.

  13. Rational design of binder-free noble metal/metal oxide arrays with nanocauliflower structure for wide linear range nonenzymatic glucose detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenzhen

    2015-06-12

    One-dimensional nanocomposites of metal-oxide and noble metal were expected to present superior performance for nonenzymatic glucose detection due to its good conductivity and high catalytic activity inherited from noble metal and metal oxide respectively. As a proof of concept, we synthesized gold and copper oxide (Au/CuO) composite with unique one-dimensional nanocauliflowers structure. Due to the nature of the synthesis method, no any foreign binder was needed in keeping either Au or CuO in place. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt in combining metal oxide and noble metal in a binder-free style for fabricating nonenzymatic glucose sensor. The Au/CuO nanocauliflowers with large electrochemical active surface and high electrolyte contact area would promise a wide linear range and high sensitive detection of glucose with good stability and reproducibility due to its good electrical conductivity of Au and high electrocatalytic activity of CuO.

  14. Modeling of noble gas injection into tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, D.Kh.; Yurchenko, E.I.; Lukash, V.E.; Baronova, E.O.; Rozhansky, V.A.; Senichenkov, I.Yu.; Veselova, I.Yu.; Schneider, R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas injection for mitigation of the disruption in DIII-D is simulated. The simulation of the first two stages is performed: of the neutral gas jet penetration through the background plasmas, and of the thermal quench. In order to simulate the first stage the 1.5-dimensional numerical code LLP with improved radiation model for noble gas is used. It is demonstrated that the jet remains mainly neutral and thus is able to penetrate to the central region of the tokamak in accordance with experimental observations. Plasma cooling at this stage is provided by the energy exchange with the jet. The radiation is relatively small, and the plasma thermal energy is spent mainly on the jet expansion. The magnetic surfaces in contact with the jet are cooled significantly. The cooling front propagates towards the plasma center. The simulations of the plasma column dynamics in the presence of moving jet is performed by means of the free boundary transport modeling DINA code. It has been shown that the cooling front is accompanied by strongly localized 'shark fin-like' perturbation in toroidal current density profile. After few milliseconds the jet (together with the current perturbation) achieves the region where safety factor is slightly higher than unity and a new type of the non-local kink mode develops. The unstable kink perturbation is non-resonant for any magnetic surface, both inside the plasma column, and in the vacuum space. The mode disturbs mainly the core region. The growth time of the 'shark fin-like' mode is higher than the Alfven time by a factor of 100 for DIII-D parameters. Hence, the simulation describes the DIII-D experimental results, at least, qualitatively. (author)

  15. Autoradiographic techniques to determine noble metal distribution in automotive catalyst substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of noble metals in the ceramic substrates of automotive catalytic converter systems is important to the functional characteristics of the systems. A radiotracer technique involving microtomy of bead substrate samples and autoradiography using the resultant thin sections was developed to produce detailed images of the metal distributions. The method is particularly valuable to determine the distribution of one metal in the presence of another to aid in the development of more efficient systems

  16. The character of free topological groups II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nickolas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis is made of the character of the free and free abelian topological groups on metrizable spaces and compact spaces, and on certain other closely related spaces. In the first case, it is shown that the characters of the free and the free abelian topological groups on X are both equal to the “small cardinal” d if X is compact and metrizable, but also, more generally, if X is a non-discrete k!-space all of whose compact subsets are metrizable, or if X is a non-discrete Polish space. An example is given of a zero-dimensional separable metric space for which both characters are equal to the cardinal of the continuum. In the case of a compact space X, an explicit formula is derived for the character of the free topological group on X involving no cardinal invariant of X other than its weight; in particular the character is fully determined by the weight in the compact case. This paper is a sequel to a paper by the same authors in which the characters of the free groups were analysed under less restrictive topological assumptions.

  17. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  18. The role of van der Waals interactions in the adsorption of noble gases on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De-Li; Al-Saidi, W A; Johnson, J Karl

    2012-10-03

    Adsorption of noble gases on metal surfaces is determined by weak interactions. We applied two versions of the nonlocal van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) to compute adsorption energies of Ar, Kr, and Xe on Pt(111), Pd(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) metal surfaces. We have compared our results with data obtained using other density functional approaches, including the semiempirical vdW corrected DFT-D2. The vdW-DF results show considerable improvements in the description of adsorption energies and equilibrium distances over other DFTbased methods, giving good agreement with experiments. We have also calculated perpendicular vibrational energies for noble gases on the metal surfaces using vdWDF data and found excellent agreement with available experimental results. Our vdW-DF calculations show that adsorption of noble gases on low-coordination sites is energetically favored over high-coordination sites, but only by a few meV. Analysis of the 2-dimensional potential energy surface shows that the high-coordination sites are local maxima on the 2-dimensional potential energy surface and therefore unlikely to be observed in experiments, which provides an explanation of the experimental observations. The DFT-D2 approach with the standard parameterization was found to overestimate the dispersion interactions, and to give the wrong adsorption site preference for four of the nine systems we studied.

  19. Investigation of noble metal deposition behaviour in boiling water reactors. The NORA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Stefan; Karastoyanov, Vasil; Abolhassani-Dadras, Sousan; Guenther-Leopold, Ines; Kivel, Niko

    2010-01-01

    NobleChem trademark is a technology developed by General Electric to reduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in reactor internals and recirculation pipes of boiling water reactors (BWRs) while preventing the negative side effects of classic hydrogen water chemistry. Noble metals (Pt, Rh) acting as electrocatalysts for the recombination of O 2 and H 2 O 2 with H 2 to H 2 O and thus reducing the corrosion potential more efficiently are injected into the feedwater during reactor shutdown (classic method) or on-line during power operation. They are claimed to deposit as very fine metallic particles on all water-wetted surfaces, including the most critical regions inside existing cracks, and to stay electrocatalytic over long periods of time. The effectiveness of this technology in plants still remains to be demonstrated. Based on highly credible laboratory experiments down to the sub-μg . kg -1 Pt concentration range, SCC mitigation may be expected, provided that a stoichiometric excess of H 2 and a sufficient surface coverage with very fine Pt particles exist simultaneously at the critical locations [1]. Very little is known about the deposition and (re-)distribution behaviour of the Pt in the reactor. For the validation of this technique the research project NORA (noble metal deposition behaviour in BWRs) has been started at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) with two main objectives: (i) to gain phenomenological insights and a better basic understanding of the Pt distribution and deposition behaviour in BWRs; (ii) to develop and qualify a non-destructive technique to characterise the size and distribution of the Pt particles and the local concentration of Pt on reactor components. This paper presents the objectives of the project, the planned work and a brief description of the status of the project. (orig.)

  20. Green synthesis of noble nanometals (Au, Pt, Pd) using glycerol under microwave irradiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newer application of glycerol in the field of nanomaterials synthesis has been developed from both the economic and environmental points of view. Glycerol can act as a reducing agent for the fabrication of noble nanometals, such as Au, Pt, and Pd, under microwave irradiation. T...

  1. Transparent and conductive electrodes by large-scale nano-structuring of noble metal thin-films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jes; Runge Walther, Anders; Wolff, Christian

    2018-01-01

    grid, and nano-wire thin-films. The indium and carbon films do not match the chemical stability nor the electrical performance of the noble metals, and many metal films are not uniform in material distribution leading to significant surface roughness and randomized transmission haze. We demonstrate...

  2. Gravity effects on a gliding arc in four noble gases: from normal to hypergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potocnakova, L.; Sperka, J.; Zikan, P.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Beckers, J.; Kudrle, V.

    2015-01-01

    A gliding arc in four noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) has been studied under previously unexplored conditions of varying artificial gravity, from normal 1 g gravity up to 18 g hypergravity. Significant differences, mainly the visual thickness of the plasma channel, its maximum elongation and general

  3. Small angle elastic scattering of electrons by noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, measurements are carried out to obtain small angle elastic differential cross sections in order to check the validity of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for electrons scattered by noble gas atoms. First, total cross sections are obtained for argon, krypton and xenon. Next, a parallel plate electrostatic energy analyser for the simultaneous measurement of doubly differential cross section for small angle electron scattering is described. Also absolute differential cross sections are reported. Finally the forward dispersion relation for electron-helium collisions is dealt with. (Auth.)

  4. Exploring methods for compositional and particle size analysis of noble metal nanoparticles in Daphnia manga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, P.W.; Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The identification and quantification of the bioaccumulation of noble metal engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by aquatic organisms is of great relevance to understand the exposure and potential toxicity mechanisms of nanoscale materials. Four analytical scenarios were investigated in relation to

  5. μ+ thermalization and muonium formation in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Mikula, R.J.; Garner, D.M.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1981-01-01

    One energy loss mechanism in μ + thermalization (in gases) is that due to charge exchange, in which muonium is repeatedly formed and lost in a series of charge-exchange cycles μ + +e - reversible Mu, a process which depends on the ionization potential of the moderator gas but one in which no depolarization of the μ + is expected at approx. 1 atm. pressure. However, if the time between collisions in a given energy regime can be made sufficiently long then additional depolarization may occur, which can provide further information on the charge-exchange process itself. Extensive data showing this effect has been found in gases; results for the noble gases are presented. (orig.)

  6. DIALOGUE AND CHARACTER CLASSIFICATION IN WOLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    position, level of education, character and habits of a character are reflected in the speech .... Dictators are averse to any form of ... breaks out shouting slogans of praises of himself. ..... Task easier if I can get all the Obas settled before our.

  7. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  8. Long-range interactions of excited He atoms with ground-state noble-gas atoms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.; Qian, Ying; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Yan, Z.-C.

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion coefficients C6, C8, and C10 for long-range interactions of He(n1,3S) and He(n1,3P), 2≤n≤10, with the ground-state noble-gas atoms Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated by summing over the reduced matrix elements of multipole transition

  9. Evaluation of HWVP feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- Fiscal year 1993: Effect of noble metals concentration on offgas generation and ammonia formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.; Bell, R.D.; Smith, H.D.; Williford, R.E.; Clemmer, R.G.

    1995-03-01

    The High-Level Waste Vitrification Program is developing technology for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic wastes as glass for permanent disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting laboratory-scale melter feed preparation studies using a HWVP simulated waste slurry, Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW). A FY 1993 laboratory-scale study focused on the effects of noble metals (Pd, Rh, and Ru) on feed preparation offgas generation and NH 3 production. The noble metals catalyze H 2 and NH 3 production, which leads to safety concerns. The information gained from this study is intended to be used for technology development in pilot scale testing and design of the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility. Six laboratory-scale feed preparation tests were performed as part of the FY 1993 testing activities using nonradioactive NCAW simulant. Tests were performed with 10%, 25%, 50% of nominal noble metals content. Also tested were 25% of the nominal Rh and a repeat of 25% nominal noble metals. The results of the test activities are described. 6 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Evaluation of HWVP feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- Fiscal year 1993: Effect of noble metals concentration on offgas generation and ammonia formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patello, G.K.; Wiemers, K.D.; Bell, R.D.; Smith, H.D.; Williford, R.E.; Clemmer, R.G.

    1995-03-01

    The High-Level Waste Vitrification Program is developing technology for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic wastes as glass for permanent disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting laboratory-scale melter feed preparation studies using a HWVP simulated waste slurry, Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW). A FY 1993 laboratory-scale study focused on the effects of noble metals (Pd, Rh, and Ru) on feed preparation offgas generation and NH{sub 3} production. The noble metals catalyze H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} production, which leads to safety concerns. The information gained from this study is intended to be used for technology development in pilot scale testing and design of the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility. Six laboratory-scale feed preparation tests were performed as part of the FY 1993 testing activities using nonradioactive NCAW simulant. Tests were performed with 10%, 25%, 50% of nominal noble metals content. Also tested were 25% of the nominal Rh and a repeat of 25% nominal noble metals. The results of the test activities are described. 6 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  12. Composition of lunar noble gases traped 2.5 AE and 3.5 AE ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugster, O.

    1986-01-01

    The times when the soils 74001 and 73261 were exposed on the lunar surface were determined by the U-235 - Xe-136 dating method. The isotopic composition of the trapped noble gases in these two soils is compared with that of the surface correlated noble gases in the young soils 12001 and in the present day solar wind. The surface correlated trapped gases are a mixture of implanted solar wind particles and retrapped lunar atmospheric gases. The observed changes are interpreted as a result of decreasing outgassing of radiogenic Ar-40 and perhaps He-4 and of fissiogenic Xe from the lunar crust. The old soils probably also contain surface correlated Kr-80 and Kr-82 produced by secondary cosmic ray neutron capture of adsorbed or retrapped bromine. To some extent the isotopic composition of the trapped gases in old lunar soil may also have been altered due to diffusion loss from material of low retentivity

  13. Tailoring the supercapacitive performances of noble metal oxides, porous carbons and their composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panić Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous electrochemical supercapacitive materials, as an important type of new-generation energy storage devices, require a detailed analysis and knowledge of their capacitive performances upon different charging/discharging regimes. The investigation of the responses to dynamic perturbations of typical representatives, noble metal oxides, carbonaceous materials and RuO2-impregnated carbon blacks, by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is presented. This presentation follows a brief description of supercapacitive behavior and origin of pseudocapacitive response of noble metal oxides. For all investigated materials, the electrical charging/discharging equivalent of the EIS response was found to obey the transmission line model envisaged as so-called „resistor/capacitor (RC ladder“. The ladder features are correlated to material physicochemical properties, its composition and the composition of the electrolyte. Fitting of the EIS data of different supercapacitive materials to appropriate RC ladders enables the in-depth profiling of the capacitance and pore resistance of their porous thin-layers and finally the complete revelation of capacitive energy storage issues. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172060

  14. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.

  15. Diverging effects of isotopic fractionation upon molecular diffusion of noble gases in water: mechanistic insights through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto de Magalhães, Halua; Brennwald, Matthias S; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-03-22

    Atmospheric noble gases are routinely used as natural tracers to analyze gas transfer processes in aquatic systems. Their isotopic ratios can be employed to discriminate between different physical transport mechanisms by comparison to the unfractionated atmospheric isotope composition. In many applications of aquatic systems molecular diffusion was thought to cause a mass dependent fractionation of noble gases and their isotopes according to the square root ratio of their masses. However, recent experiments focusing on isotopic fractionation within a single element challenged this broadly accepted assumption. The determined fractionation factors of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes revealed that only Ar follows the prediction of the so-called square root relation, whereas within the Ne, Kr and Xe elements no mass-dependence was found. The reason for this unexpected divergence of Ar is not yet understood. The aim of our computational exercise is to establish the molecular-resolved mechanisms behind molecular diffusion of noble gases in water. We make the hypothesis that weak intermolecular interactions are relevant for the dynamical properties of noble gases dissolved in water. Therefore, we used ab initio molecular dynamics to explicitly account for the electronic degrees of freedom. Depending on the size and polarizability of the hydrophobic particles such as noble gases, their motion in dense and polar liquids like water is subject to different diffusive regimes: the inter-cavity hopping mechanism of small particles (He, Ne) breaks down if a critical particle size achieved. For the case of large particles (Kr, Xe), the motion through the water solvent is governed by mass-independent viscous friction leading to hydrodynamical diffusion. Finally, Ar falls in between the two diffusive regimes, where particle dispersion is propagated at the molecular collision time scale of the surrounding water molecules.

  16. Tracing ancient hydrogeological fracture network age and compartmentalisation using noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Oliver; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Fellowes, Jonathan; Sutcliffe, Chelsea N.; McDermott, Jill M.; Holland, Greg; Mabry, Jennifer C.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2018-02-01

    We show that fluid volumes residing within the Precambrian crystalline basement account for ca 30% of the total groundwater inventory of the Earth (> 30 million km3). The residence times and scientific importance of this groundwater are only now receiving attention with ancient fracture fluids identified in Canada and South Africa showing: (1) microbial life which has existed in isolation for millions of years; (2) significant hydrogen and hydrocarbon production via water-rock reactions; and (3) preserving noble gas components from the early atmosphere. Noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) abundance and isotopic compositions provide the primary evidence for fluid mean residence time (MRT). Here we extend the noble gas data from the Kidd Creek Mine in Timmins Ontario Canada, a volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit formed at 2.7 Ga, in which fracture fluids with MRTs of 1.1-1.7 Ga were identified at 2.4 km depth (Holland et al., 2013); to fracture fluids at 2.9 km depth. We compare here the Kidd Creek Mine study with noble gas compositions determined in fracture fluids taken from two mines (Mine 1 & Mine 2) at 1.7 and 1.4 km depth below surface in the Sudbury Basin formed by a meteorite impact at 1.849 Ga. The 2.9 km samples at Kidd Creek Mine show the highest radiogenic isotopic ratios observed to date in free fluids (e.g. 21Ne/22Ne = 0.6 and 40Ar/36Ar = 102,000) and have MRTs of 1.0-2.2 Ga. In contrast, resampled 2.4 km fluids indicated a less ancient MRT (0.2-0.6 Ga) compared with the previous study (1.1-1.7 Ga). This is consistent with a change in the age distribution of fluids feeding the fractures as they drain, with a decreasing proportion of the most ancient end-member fluids. 129Xe/136Xe ratios for these fluids confirm that boreholes at 2.4 km versus 2.9 km are sourced from hydrogeologically distinct systems. In contrast, results for the Sudbury mines have MRTs of 0.2-0.6 and 0.2-0.9 Ga for Mines 1 and 2 respectively. While still old compared to almost all

  17. Noble Metal Nanoparticles Applications in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Conde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has prompted new and improved materials for biomedical applications with particular emphasis in therapy and diagnostics. Special interest has been directed at providing enhanced molecular therapeutics for cancer, where conventional approaches do not effectively differentiate between cancerous and normal cells; that is, they lack specificity. This normally causes systemic toxicity and severe and adverse side effects with concomitant loss of quality of life. Because of their small size, nanoparticles can readily interact with biomolecules both at surface and inside cells, yielding better signals and target specificity for diagnostics and therapeutics. This way, a variety of nanoparticles with the possibility of diversified modification with biomolecules have been investigated for biomedical applications including their use in highly sensitive imaging assays, thermal ablation, and radiotherapy enhancement as well as drug and gene delivery and silencing. Here, we review the available noble metal nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with particular focus on those already being translated into clinical settings.

  18. The effect of dielectric constants on noble metal/semiconductor SERS enhancement: FDTD simulation and experiment validation of Ag/Ge and Ag/Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Zhaoshun; Liao, Fan; Cai, Qian; Li, Yanqing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Shao, Mingwang

    2014-02-11

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was employed to simulate the electric field distribution for noble metal (Au or Ag)/semiconductor (Ge or Si) substrates. The simulation showed that noble metal/Ge had stronger SERS enhancement than noble metal/Si, which was mainly attributed to the different dielectric constants of semiconductors. In order to verify the simulation, Ag nanoparticles with the diameter of ca. 40 nm were grown on Ge or Si wafer (Ag/Ge or Ag/Si) and employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates to detect analytes in solution. The experiment demonstrated that both the two substrates exhibited excellent performance in the low concentration detection of Rhodamine 6G. Besides, the enhancement factor (1.3 × 10(9)) and relative standard deviation values (less than 11%) of Ag/Ge substrate were both better than those of Ag/Si (2.9 × 10(7) and less than 15%, respectively), which was consistent with the FDTD simulation. Moreover, Ag nanoparticles were grown in-situ on Ge substrate, which kept the nanoparticles from aggregation in the detection. To data, Ag/Ge substrates showed the best performance for their sensitivity and uniformity among the noble metal/semiconductor ones.

  19. Growth and yield of a managed 30-year-old noble fir plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall D. Murray

    1988-01-01

    A thinned and fertilized noble fir plantation produced 3,450 cubic feet per acre 30 years after it was planted in western Washington. More than half of this volume was in trees with diameter at breast height of 10 inches and larger. Current annual increment the last 6 years was 295 cubic feet per acre. Ornamental boughs have been harvested annually for about a 15-year...

  20. Determination of noble metals in geological materials by radiochemical neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Ahmad, S.; Morris, D.F.C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the determination of platinum, palladium, gold and iridium in geological materials following activation with thermal neutrons is described. Radionuclides formed from the elements are separated by a scheme based largely on liquid-liquid extractions. The procedure has been applied to the analysis of US Geological Survey standard rocks and to studies of the distribution of the noble metals in lateritic nickel ores. (author)

  1. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  2. Dynamic Obstacle Clearing for Real-time Character Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Glardon, Pascal; Boulic, Ronan; Thalmann, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method to control virtual characters in dynamic environments. A virtual character is animated by a locomotion and jumping engine, enabling production of continuous parameterized motions. At any time during runtime, flat obstacles (e.g. a puddle of water) can be created and placed in front of a character. The method first decides whether the character is able to get around or jump over the obstacle. Then the motion parameters are accordingly modified. The transition...

  3. Character feature integration of Chinese calligraphy and font

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Jia, Wenhua; Xu, Canhui

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed in this paper to effectively generate a new hybrid character type by means of integrating local contour feature of Chinese calligraphy with structural feature of font in computer system. To explore traditional art manifestation of calligraphy, multi-directional spatial filter is applied for local contour feature extraction. Then the contour of character image is divided into sub-images. The sub-images in the identical position from various characters are estimated by Gaussian distribution. According to its probability distribution, the dilation operator and erosion operator are designed to adjust the boundary of font image. And then new Chinese character images are generated which possess both contour feature of artistical calligraphy and elaborate structural feature of font. Experimental results demonstrate the new characters are visually acceptable, and the proposed framework is an effective and efficient strategy to automatically generate the new hybrid character of calligraphy and font.

  4. Properties of noble gases and binary mixtures for closed Brayton Cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel P.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2008-01-01

    A review is conducted of the properties of the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon, and their binary mixtures at pressures from 0.1 to 20 MPa and temperatures up to 1400 K. An extensive database of experimental measurements is compiled and used to develop semi-empirical properties correlations. The correlations accurately account for the effects of pressure and temperature on the thermodynamic and transport properties of these gases for potential uses in space (∼2 MPa and up to 1400 K) and terrestrial (∼7.0 MPa and up to 1200 K) applications of Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC). The developed correlations are based on the Chapman-Enskog kinetic theory for dilute gases, and on the application of the law of corresponding states to account for the dependence of properties on pressure. The correlations use the critical temperature and density of the gases as scaling parameters, and their predictions are compared with the compiled database. At temperatures ≥400 K and pressures ≤2 MPa in CBC space power systems, He and Ne, and the binary mixtures of He-Xe and He-Kr with molecular weights ≤40 g/mole behave essentially like a perfect gas, and the error of neglecting the effect of pressure on their compressibility factor, specific heats and transport properties is ≤1%. At a typical operating pressure of 7.0 MPa and up to 1200 K in terrestrial CBC power plants, neglecting the effect of pressure can result in ∼4% error in the properties of noble gases and the binary mixtures of He-Xe and He-Kr with molecular weights ≤40 g/mole, and as much as 20% error for pure argon. Therefore, when operating at pressures >2.0 MPa and/or using noble gases or binary mixtures with molecular weights > 40 g/mole, the present correlations should be used to accurately predict the thermodynamic and transport properties

  5. Fabrication and magnetic-induced aggregation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites for superior SERS performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zibao; Zhao, Aiwu, E-mail: awzhao@iim.ac.cn; Zhang, Maofeng; Wang, Dapeng; Guo, Hongyan; Tao, Wenyu; Gao, Qian; Mao, Ranran; Liu, Erhu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China)

    2013-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites were obtained by combining Au, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy demonstrates the obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites inherit the typical surface plasmon resonance bands of Au, Ag at 533 and 453 nm, respectively. Magnetic measurements also indicated that the superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal composites have excellent magnetic response behavior. A magnetic-induced idea was introduced to change their aggregated states and take full advantage of their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performances. Under the induction of an external magnetic field, the bifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–noble metal aggregates exhibit the unique superiority in SERS detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), compared with the naturally dispersed Au, Ag NPs. Especially, the detection limit of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–Ag aggregates for R6G is as low as 10{sup −14} M, and the calculated EF reaches up to 1.2 × 10{sup 6}, which meets the requirements for trace detection of analytes. Furthermore, the superiority could be extended to sensitive detection of other organic molecules, such as 4-mercaptopyridine. This work provides a new insight for active adjustment of the aggregated states of SERS substrates and the optimization of SERS performances.

  6. Character education in perspective of chemistry pre-service teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna

    2017-12-01

    As one of the pre-service teacher education programs, Chemistry Education Department Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) is committed to providing quality education. It is an education that can produce competent and characteristic chemistry pre-service teacher. The focus of research is to describe the perception of students as a potential teacher of chemistry on character education and achievement of character education. The research instruments include questionnaires and observation sheets. Research data show that students have understood the importance of character education and committed to organizing character education later in schools. Students have understood the ways in which character education can be used. The students stated that Chemistry Education Department has tried to equip students with character education. The observation result shows that students generally have character as a pre-service teacher.

  7. Noble Metal Arsenides and Gold Inclusions in Northwest Africa 8186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; McCubbin, F. M.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.; Agee, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are a highly thermally altered group of carbonaceous chondrites, experiencing temperatures ranging between approximately 576-867 degrees Centigrade. Additionally, the mineralogy of the CK chondrites record the highest overall oxygen fugacity of all chondrites, above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. Me-tallic Fe-Ni is extremely rare in CK chondrites, but magnetite and Fe,Ni sulfides are commonly observed. Noble metal-rich inclusions have previously been found in some magnetite and sulfide grains. These arsenides, tellurides, and sulfides, which contain varying amounts of Pt, Ru, Os, Te, As, Ir, and S, are thought to form either by condensation from a solar gas, or by exsolution during metamorphism on the chondritic parent body. Northwest Africa (NWA) 8186 is a highly metamorphosed CK chondrite. This meteorite is predominately composed of NiO-rich forsteritic olivine (Fo65), with lesser amounts of plagioclase (An52), augite (Fs11Wo49), magnetite (with exsolved titanomagnetite, hercynite, and titanohematite), monosulfide solid solution (with exsolved pentlandite), and the phosphate minerals Cl-apatite and merrillite. This meteorite contains coarse-grained, homogeneous silicates, and has 120-degree triple junctions between mineral phases, which indicates a high degree of thermal metamorphism. The presence of NiO-rich olivine, oxides phases all bearing Fe3 plus, and the absence of metal, are consistent with an oxygen fugacity above the FMQ buffer. We also observed noble metal-rich phases within sulfide grains in NWA 8186, which are the primary focus of the present study.

  8. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Jambon, A.; Gamo, T.; Nishio, Y.; Sano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R atm of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4±0.3 R atm ), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06±0.35 R atm in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of 20 Ne and 21 Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between 3 He/ 4 He and 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess 129 Xe is observed in the sample which also shows 20 Ne and 21 Ne excesses. Observed δ 13 C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO 2 / 3 He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... impact on the reliability of the U.S. electric power supply system. Copies of this application will be... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket Nos. EA-363 and EA-364] Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability...

  10. Josephinite. A terrestrial alloy with radiogenic xenon-129 and the noble gas imprint of iron meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, R G; Hennecke, E W; Manuel, O K [Missouri Univ., Rolla (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-12-01

    Analyses of noble gases released by stepwise heating of Josephinite reveal two radiogenic components, radiogenic /sup 129/Xe asymptotically equals 1 x 10/sup -12/ ccSTP/g and radiogenic /sup 40/Ar asymptotically equals 1 x 10/sup -6/ cc STP/g, and the following components of trapped noble gases: He with /sup 3/He//sup 4/He asymptotically equals 4 x 10/sup -5/, Ne with /sup 20/Ne//sup 22/Ne=10.5, Ar with /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar=3 x 10/sup 2/, and Kr and Xe with isotopic compositions similar to those observed in iron meteorites. The excess of /sup 40/Ar and literature values of K in bulk Josephinite yield and apparent K-Ar age of asymptotically equals 4.6 x 10/sup 9/ years.

  11. Use of state-dependent pair potentials in describing the structural and thermodynamic properties of noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakse, Noel; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Theorie de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Metz, 1 Boulevard FD Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2003-12-08

    Understanding the interatomic interactions in noble gases remains one of the fundamental problems not completely solved to date. From small-angle neutron scattering experiments it is well-known that three-body forces exist and cannot be neglected. On the theoretical side, semi-analytic and simulation methods have been used to reveal the nature of these many-body interactions. The purpose of the present work is to provide an overview of the different three-body contributions to the interactions and their relative importance in describing the structural and thermodynamic properties for noble gases by means of the integral equation theory and molecular dynamics simulations. We examine the relevance of the effective state-dependent pair potential in this framework, as well as the self-consistency problem that we are faced with in the integral equation theory.

  12. Synthesis, fabrication, and spectroscopy of nano-scale photonic noble metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shunji

    Nanometer is an interesting scale for physicists, chemists, and materials scientists, in a sense that it lies between the macroscopic and the atomic scales. In this regime, materials exhibit distinct physical and chemical properties that are clearly different from those of atoms or macroscopic bulk. This thesis is concerned about both physics and chemistry of noble metal nano-structures. Novel chemical syntheses and physical fabrications of various noble metal nano-structures, and the development of spectroscopic techniques for nano-structures are presented. Scanning microscopy/spectroscopy techniques inherently perturbs the true optical responses of the nano-structures. However, by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as the nanometer-confined excitation source of surface plasmons in the samples, and subsequently collecting the signals in the Fourier space, it is shown that the tip-perturbed part of the signals can be deconvoluted. As a result, the collected signal in this approach is the pure response of the sample. Coherent light is employed to study the optical response of nano-structures, in order to avoid complication from tip-perturbation as discussed above. White-light super-continuum excites the nano-structure, the monolayer of Au nanoparticles self-assembled on silicon nitride membrane substrates. The coherent excitation reveals asymmetric surface plasmon resonance in the nano-structures. One of the most important issues in nano-scale science is to gain control over the shape, size, and assembly of nanoparticles. A novel method is developed to chemically synthesize ligand-passivated atomic noble metal clusters in solution phase. The method, named thermal decomposition method, enables facile yet robust synthesis of fluorescent atomic clusters. Thus synthesized atomic clusters are very stable, and show behaviors of quantum dots. A novel and versatile approach for creation of nanoparticle arrays is developed. This method is different from the

  13. Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition Using Several Artificial Neural Network Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Javanese characters are traditional characters that are used to write the Javanese language. The Javanese language is a language used by many people on the island of Java, Indonesia. The use of Javanese characters is diminishing more and more because of the difficulty of studying the Javanese characters themselves. The Javanese character set consists of basic characters, numbers, complementary characters, and so on. In this research we have developed a system to recognize Javanese characters. Input for the system is a digital image containing several handwritten Javanese characters. Preprocessing and segmentation are performed on the input image to get each character. For each character, feature extraction is done using the ICZ-ZCZ method. The output from feature extraction will become input for an artificial neural network. We used several artificial neural networks, namely a bidirectional associative memory network, a counterpropagation network, an evolutionary network, a backpropagation network, and a backpropagation network combined with chi2. From the experimental results it can be seen that the combination of chi2 and backpropagation achieved better recognition accuracy than the other methods.

  14. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  15. Character & Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  16. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  17. Non-noble metal graphene oxide-copper (II) ions hybrid electrodes for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Muralikrishna, S.; Ravishankar, T.N.; Ramakrishnappa, T.; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.; Krishna Pai, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    Non-noble metal and inexpensive graphene oxide-copper (II) ions (GO-Cu2+) hybrid catalysts have been explored for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We were able to tune the binding abilities of GO toward the Cu2+ ions and hence their catalytic

  18. CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL- BASED SMA AMANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Herdiana Abdurrahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe findings of the study in pesantren-based SMA Amanah covering: 1 the principal policy in developing character education, 2 the methods used in developing character education, 3 students’ characteristics as the result of the character education process, 4 the problems encountered in the implementation of character education and the efforts made in addressing the implementation of character education at the school. This study applied qualitative method using descriptive technique. The data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The findings of study showed that: 1 the principal’s policy in developing character education was carried out by implementing government policies in line with the school’s vision, mission, and programs; 2 the methods used in the process of character education were through role-modelling, assignments and nurturing, habituation, training programs, and  students’ participation in various types of activities, as well as the application of rewards and punishments; 3 the student's characteristics resulted from the character  education process were piousness and devotion as well as being able to apply their knowledge and piety in everyday life; 4 problems encountered in the implementation of character education  were different values and norms students brought from home; imbalance of facilities compared to the number of students; as well as teachers’ readiness to actually implement the new program, which  was character education. Meanwhile the efforts made to overcome those problems were namely developing personal, family, neighborhood or community characters, and making commitment of all related parties/stakeholdres of SMA Amanah.

  19. Potential Energy Curves and Associated Line Shape of Alkali-Metal and Noble-Gas Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    work. The ab initio calculations for M + Ng molecular combina- tions are reported and discussed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses both pedagogical ...mass of the noble-gas atom decreases. These barriers at R = rb are accompanied by shallow wells at R = rmin2 and, together with the shallow wells

  20. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  1. The International Monitoring System's Noble Gas Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a unique global network for surveillance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A major component of the IMS is the radionuclide monitoring network since, among all IMS technologies, it can provide the most unequivocal evidence for a nuclear explosion. The radionuclide monitoring component is unprecedented in its combination of global coverage, sensitivity, network density and temporal resolution. In particular for the detection of underground or underwater nuclear tests, forty of the eighty radionuclide stations will eventually be equipped with sensors to measure the Xenon isotopes Xe-131m (τ 1/2 = 11:8 d), Xe-133 (τ 1/2 = 5:25 d), Xe-133m (τ 1/2 = 2:2 d) and Xe-135 (τ 1/2 = 9:14 h). These are among the isotopes with the highest yields in fission of uranium or plutonium with half-lives long enough to be detected at large distances from the point of emission. As of today, 31 noble gas systems have been installed and are sending data to the International Data Centre. The noble gas systems installed at the stations are automated and sample Xenon continuously from atmospheric air for 12 or 24 hours at an air flow of 0.5 to several m 3 /h by absorption of Xenon on activated charcoal. Detection of the Xenon isotopes is either by high resolution gamma spectrometry or by beta-gamma coincidence spectrometry. With the currently available equipment, detection limits of 0.2 mBq/m 3 can be achieved. An overview on the existing technology and future developments as well as on the interpretation of measurement results is given. (author)

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of wheat bran for hydrocarbons production in the presence of zeolites and noble-metals by using TGA-FTIR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazdovica, K; Liepina, L; Kampars, V

    2016-05-01

    Pyrolysis of wheat bran with or without catalysts was investigated using TGA-FTIR method in order to determine the influence of zeolite and noble metal catalysts on the evolution profile and relative yield of the volatile compounds. The addition of all catalysts decreased the volatile matter of wheat bran from 76.3% to 75.9%, 73.9%, 73.5%, 69.7% and increased the solid residue from 18.0% to 18.4%, 20.4%, 20.8%, 24.6% under the catalyst of ZSM-5, 5% Pd/C, MCM-41, and 5% Pt/C. Noble-metal catalysts had higher activity for deoxygenation of compounds containing carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups than zeolites. Degradation of nitrogen containing compounds atom proceeded better in presence of zeolites. Noble-metal catalysts promoted formation of aromatics and changed the profiles of evolved compounds whereas zeolites advanced formation of aliphatics and olefins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  4. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  5. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  6. Mechanisms of disruptions caused by noble gas injection into tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, D.Kh.; Yurchenko, E.I.; Lukash, V.E.; Baronova, E.O.; Pozdnyakov, Yu.I.; Rozhansky, V.A.; Senichenkov, I.Yu.; Veselova, I.Yu.; Schneider, R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas injection for disruption mitigation in DIII-D is simulated. The simulation of the first two stages of the disruption is performed: the first one is the neutral gas jet penetration through the background plasmas, and the second one is the instability growth. In order to simulate the first stage, the MHD pellet code LLP with improved radiation model for noble gas is used. Plasma cooling at this stage is provided by the energy exchange with the jet. The opacity effects in radiation losses are found to be important in the energy balance calculations. The magnetic surfaces in contact with the jet are cooled significantly; however, the temperature as well as the electric conductivity, remains high. The cooling front propagates towards the plasma centre. It has been shown that the cooling front is accompanied by strongly localized 'shark fin-like' perturbation in toroidal current density profile. The simplified cylindrical model shows that the cooling front is able to produce the internal kink-like mode with growth rate significantly higher than the tearing mode. The unstable kink perturbation obtained is non-resonant for any magnetic surface, both inside the plasma column, and in the vacuum space outside the separatrix. The mode disturbs mainly the core region. The growth time of the 'shark fin-like' mode is higher than the Alfven time by a factor of 10-100 for DIII-D parameters

  7. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  8. First Course in Japanese: Character Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tamako

    This character workbook is an introduction to Japanese writing designed to be used in conjunction with Parts One and Two of this introductory course in Japanese. All the "hiragana", several "katakana", and 88 Japanese characters are introduced in this text. The workbook, consisting of 30 lessons, is divided into three parts.…

  9. Do Rural Schools Need Character Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Janice Carner

    Studies suggest that the challenge of violence in public schools can be met through character education, whether by providing a school culture in which core values are practiced or some form of moral training (indoctrination). To assess the need for character education in rural schools, small-school superintendents and board members in central…

  10. Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Piazza, Jared; Rozin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    What sorts of trait information do people most care about when forming impressions of others? Recent research in social cognition suggests that "warmth," broadly construed, should be of prime importance in impression formation. Yet, some prior research suggests that information about others' specifically moral traits--their moral "character"--may be a primary dimension. Although warmth and character have sometimes been conceived of as interchangeable, we argue that they are separable, and that across a wide variety of contexts, character is usually more important than warmth in impression formation. We first showed that moral character and social warmth traits are indeed separable (Studies 1 and 2). Further studies that used correlational and experimental methods showed that, as predicted, in most contexts, moral character information is more important in impression formation than is warmth information (Studies 2-6). Character information was also more important than warmth information with respect to judgments of traits' perceived fundamentalness to identity, their uniquely human quality, their context-independence, and their controllability (Study 2). Finally, Study 7 used an archival method to show that moral character information appears more prominently than warmth information in obituaries, and more strongly determines the impressions people form of the individuals described in those obituaries. We discuss implications for current theories of person perception and social cognition.

  11. Submarine Alkalic Lavas Around the Hawaiian Hotspot; Plume and Non-Plume Signatures Determined by Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D. A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T. J.; Davies, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from the Kauai Channel between Oahu and Kauai, north of Molokai, northwest of Niihau, Southwest Oahu, South Arch and North Arch volcanic fields. Sites located downstream from the center of the hotspot have 3He/4He ratios close to MORB at about 8 Ra, demonstrating that the magmas erupted at these sites had minimum contribution of volatiles from a mantle plume. In contrast, the South Arch, located upstream of the hotspot on the Hawaiian Arch, has 3He/4He ratios between 17 and 21 Ra, indicating a strong plume influence. Differences in noble gas isotopic characteristics between alkalic volcanism downstream and upstream of the hotspot imply that upstream volcanism contains incipient melts from an upwelling mantle plume, having primitive 3He/4He. In combination with lithophile element isotopic data, we conclude that the most likely source of the upstream magmatism is depleted asthenospheric mantle that has been metasomatised by incipient melt from a mantle plume. After major melt extraction from the mantle plume during production of magmas for the shield stage, the plume material is highly depleted in noble gases and moderately depleted in lithophile elements. Partial melting of the depleted mantle impregnated by melts derived from this volatile depleted plume source may explain the isotopic characteristics of the downstream alkalic magmatism.

  12. Cultivating characters (moral value) through internalization strategy in science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M.; Abadi

    2018-01-01

    It is still in a crucial debate that characters play an important learning outcome to be realized by design. So far, most people think that characters were reached as nurturance effect with the assumption that students who are knowledgeable and skillful will have good characters automatically. Lately, obtained evidence that this assumption is not true. Characters should be taught deliberately or by design. This study was designed to culture elementary school students’ characters through science classroom. The teaching-learning process was conducted to facilitate and bridge the students from the known (concrete images: Science phenomena) to the unknown (abstract ideas: characters: care, and tolerance. Characters were observed five weeks before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed from observation of 24 students in internalization strategy-based courses. Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that the internalization strategy that use of science phenomena to represent abstract ideas (characters) in science classroom positively cultivating characters.

  13. Noble gases in basalt glasses from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge topographic high at 14deg N - geodynamic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudacher, T.; Sarda, P.; Richardson, S.H.; Allegre, C.J.; Sagna, I.; Dmitriev, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    We present a complete noble gas study of mid-oceanic ridge basalt glasses (MORB) from a small ridge segment, centered on an along-strike topographic elevation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at about 14deg N. We have found the highest 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio ever observed for a MORB glass, i.e. 28,150±330 for sample 2ΠD40, correlated with high 129 Xe/ 130 Xe ratios and the highest noble gas concentrations in a so-called popping-rock, labeled 2ΠD43. The latter sample displays a 4 He/ 40 Ar * ratio of 2.0-2.7, which is close to the production ratio in the mantle due to the radioactive decay of U, Th and K. Hence, this sample probably best represents the elemental noble gas ratios in the mantle, from which we have computed the 4 He concentration in the mantle source of MORB to be 1.5x10 -5 cm 3 STP g -1 . High 4 He/ 3 He ratios in two of the samples from the summit of the topographic high indicate the presence of a U, Th-rich component in the mantle source, possibly old subducted oceanic crust and/or sediments, which could originate in the so-called mesosphere boundary layer. (orig.)

  14. Potential energy surfaces for alkali plus noble gas pairs: a systematic comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, L. Aaron; Kedziora, Gary S.; Weeks, David E.

    2010-02-01

    Optically Pumped Alkali Lasers (OPAL) involve interactions of alkali atoms with a buffer gas typically consisting of a noble gas together with C2H4. Line broadening mechanisms are of particular interest because they can be used to match a broad optical pumping source with relatively narrow alkali absorption spectra. To better understand the line broadening processes at work in OPAL systems we focus on the noble gas collisional partners. A matrix of potential energy surfaces (PES) has been generated at the multi-configurational self consistent field (MCSCF) level for M + Ng, where M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Ng=He, Ne, Ar. The PES include the X2Σ ground state surface and the A2II, B2Σ excited state surfaces. In addition to the MCSCF surfaces, PES for Li+He have been calculated at the multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) level with spin-orbit splitting effects included. These surfaces provide a way to check the qualitative applicability of the MCSCF calculations. They also exhibit the avoided crossing between the B2Σ and A2II1/2 surfaces that is partially responsible for collision induced relaxation from the 2P3/2 to the 2P1/2 atomic levels.

  15. Character combinations, convergence and diversification in ectoparasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Different lineages of organisms diversify over time at different rates, in part as a consequence of the characteristics of the species in these lineages. Certain suites of traits possessed by species within a clade may determine rates of diversification, with some particular combinations of characters acting synergistically to either limit or promote diversification; the most successful combinations may also emerge repeatedly in different clades via convergent evolution. Here, the association between species characters and diversification is investigated amongst 21 independent lineages of arthropods ectoparasitic on vertebrate hosts. Using nine characters (each with two to four states) that capture general life history strategy, transmission mode and host-parasite interaction, each lineage was described by the set of character states it possesses. The results show, firstly, that most possible pair-wise combinations of character states have been adopted at least once, sometimes several times independently by different lineages; thus, ectoparasitic arthropods have explored most of the life history character space available to them. Secondly, lineages possessing commonly observed combinations of character states are not necessarily the ones that have experienced the highest rates of diversification (measured as a clade's species-per-genus ratio). Thirdly, some specific traits are associated with higher rates of diversification. Using more than one host per generation, laying eggs away from the host and intermediate levels of fecundity are features that appear to have promoted diversification. These findings indicate that particular species characters may be evolutionary drivers of diversity, whose effects could also apply in other taxa.

  16. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people’s malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument. We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger’s character cube comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger’s “light” character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people’s dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals’ dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software (http://www.ropstat.com. Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high

  17. Skipping of Chinese characters does not rely on word-based processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Angele, Bernhard; Hua, Huimin; Shen, Wei; Zhou, Junyi; Li, Xingshan

    2018-02-01

    Previous eye-movement studies have indicated that people tend to skip extremely high-frequency words in sentence reading, such as "the" in English and "/de" in Chinese. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain how this frequent skipping happens in Chinese reading: one assumes that skipping happens when the preview has been fully identified at the word level (word-based skipping); the other assumes that skipping happens whenever the preview character is easy to identify regardless of whether lexical processing has been completed or not (character-based skipping). Using the gaze-contingent display change paradigm, we examined the two hypotheses by substituting the preview of the third character of a four-character Chinese word with the high-frequency Chinese character "/de", which should disrupt the ongoing word-level processing. The character-based skipping hypothesis predicts that this manipulation will enhance the skipping probability of the target character (i.e., the third character of the target word), because the character "/de" has much higher character frequency than the original character. The word-based skipping hypothesis instead predicts a reduction of the skipping probability of the target character because the presence of the character "/de" is lexically infelicitous at word level. The results supported the character-based skipping hypothesis, indicating that in Chinese reading the decision of skipping a character can be made before integrating it into a word.

  18. Genetic characterization of Western European noble crayfish populations (Astacus astacus) for advanced conservation management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrimpf, A.; Piscione, M.; Cammaerts, R.; Collas, M.; Herman, D.; Jung, A.; Ottburg, F.; Roessink, I.; Rollin, X.; Schulz, R.; Theissinger, K.

    2017-01-01

    One central goal of conservation biology is to conserve the genetic diversity of species in order to protect their adaptive potential. The main objective of this study was to identify management units (MUs) for the threatened noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) in Western Europe by utilizing

  19. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vilhelmsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera.

  20. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  1. Stimulated forces demonstrated: Why the trouton-noble experiment failed and how to make it succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Patrick; Naudin, Jean-Louis; Szames, Alexandre

    1999-01-01

    At the turn of the 20th century, Frederick T. Trouton and Henry R. Noble (TN) performed a little known æther drift experiment which came to be known as the electrostatic analogue of Michelson-Morley's famous experiment. If the æther were real, they said, a capacitor charged with ``high'' voltage should exhibit a ``jerk'' and a subsequent ``spontaneous'' torque, thus demonstrating the existence of an æther wind. Trouton and Noble failed to observe the torque and paved the way to the special theory of relativity. We have replicated the TN experiment. We obtained positive results: the principle of relativity is disproved. Other TN-like experiments allowed us to observe the stimulated rotational motions (TN's long-sought effect), the stimulated translational motions (Biefeld-Brown effect), and the sustained rotation of charged, suspended capacitors. Video movies are presented at the conference. TN's failure is analyzed. The concept of stimulated forces is explained in light of its relevance to the future of space locomotion.

  2. Investigation of the noble metal deposition behaviour in boiling water reactors - the NORA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.; Karastoyanov, V.; Abolhassani-Dadras, S.; Guenther-Leopold, I.; Kivel, N.

    2010-01-01

    NobleChem™ is a technology developed by General Electric to reduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in reactor internals and recirculation pipes of boiling water reactors (BWRs) while preventing the negative side effects of classical hydrogen water chemistry. Noble metals (Pt, Rh) acting as electrocatalysts for the recombination of O 2 and H 2 O 2 with H 2 to H 2 O and thus reducing the corrosion potential more efficiently are injected into the feed water during reactor shut-down (classical method) or on-line during power operation. They are claimed to deposit as very fine metallic particles on all water-wetted surfaces including the most critical regions inside existing cracks and to stay electrocatalytic over long periods of time. The effectiveness of this technology in plants remains still to be demonstrated. Based on highly credible laboratory experiments down to the sub-ppb Pt concentration range, SCC mitigation may be expected, provided that a stoichiometric excess of H 2 and a sufficient surface coverage with very fine Pt particles exist simultaneously at the critical locations. Very little is known about the deposition and (re-)distribution behaviour of the Pt in the reactor. For the validation of this technique the research project NORA (noble metal deposition behaviour in BWRs) has been started at PSI with two main objectives: (i) to gain phenomenological insights and a better basic understanding of the Pt distribution and deposition behaviour in BWRs; (ii) to develop and qualify a non-destructive technique to characterise the size and distribution of the Pt particles and its local concentration on reactor components. This paper presents the objectives of the project, the planned work and a brief description of the status of the project. (author)

  3. Noble metal alloys for metal-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J

    1985-10-01

    A review of the comparative characteristics and properties of noble metal alloys used for metal-ceramic restorations has been presented. Selection of an alloy for one's practice should be based on long-term clinical data, physical properties, esthetic potential, and laboratory data on metal-ceramic bond strength and thermal compatibility with commercial dental porcelains. Although gold-based alloys, such as the Au-Pt-Pd, Au-Pd-Ag, and Au-Pd classes, may appear to be costly compared with the palladium-based alloys, they have clearly established their clinical integrity and acceptability over an extended period of time. Other than the relatively low sag resistance of the high gold-low silver content alloys and the potential thermal incompatibility with some commercial porcelain products, few clinical failures have been observed. The palladium-based alloys are less costly than the gold-based alloys. Palladium-silver alloys require extra precautions to minimize porcelain discoloration. Palladium-copper and palladium-cobalt alloys may also cause porcelain discoloration, as copper and cobalt are used as colorants in glasses. The palladium-cobalt alloys are least susceptible to high-temperature creep compared with all classes of noble metals. Nevertheless, insufficient clinical data exist to advocate the general use of the palladium-copper and palladium-cobalt alloys at the present time. One should base the selection and use of these alloys in part on their ability to meet the requirements of the ADA Acceptance Program. A list of acceptable or provisionally acceptable alloys is available from the American Dental Association and is published annually in the Journal of the American Dental Association. Dentists have the legal and ethical responsibility for selection of alloys used for cast restorations. This responsibility should not be delegated to the dental laboratory technician. It is advisable to discuss the criteria for selection of an alloy with the technician and the

  4. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...... combinatorial determinant formulae for submatrices of the character table and Cartan matrices with respect to basic sets; we observe that similar phenomena occur for the transition matrices between power sum symmetric functions to bounded partitions and the k-Schur functions dened by Lapointe and Morse...

  5. Light Noble Gases and a Cosmic Ray Exposure Age for the Bunburra Rockhole Meteorite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meier, M.M.M.; Bland, P.A.; Welten, K.C.; Spurný, Pavel; Baur, H.; Wieler, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, Supplement (2009), A138-A138 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /72./. Nancy, 13.06.2009-18.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Bunburra Rockhole * light noble gas * concentration Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  6. Visual Antipriming Effect: Evidence from Chinese Character Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marsolek et al. (2006 have differentiated antipriming effects from priming effects, by adopting a novel priming paradigm comprised of four phases that include a baseline measurement. The general concept of antipriming supports the overlapping representation theory of knowledge. This study extended examination of the Marsolek et al. (2006 paradigm by investigating antipriming and priming effects in a series of Chinese character identification tasks. Results showed that identification accuracy of old characters was significantly higher than baseline measurements (i.e., the priming effect, while identification accuracy of novel characters was significantly lower than baseline measurements (i.e., the antipriming effect. This study demonstrates for the first time the effect of visual antipriming in Chinese character identification. It further provides new evidence for the overlapping representation theory of knowledge, and supports generalizability of the phenomenon to Chinese characters.

  7. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  8. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  9. Influence of a Character-Based App on Children's Learning of Nutritional Information: Should Apps Be Served with a Side of Media Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Richmond, Elana M; Brunick, Kaitlin L; Wright, Charlotte A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a health issue in the United States, associated with marketing practices in which media characters are often used to sell unhealthy products. This study examined exposure to a socially contingent touch-screen gaming app, which replied immediately, reliably, and accurately to children's actions. Children's recall of nutritional content and their liking of the character were assessed. Four- and five-year-old children (N = 114) received no-exposure, single-exposure, or repeated-exposure to a character-based iPad app rewarding healthy and penalizing unhealthy behaviors. Children reported how much they liked the character and recalled healthy and unhealthy items from the app. An ordinary least squares regression was conducted on how much children liked the character by condition. Poisson regressions were conducted on the number of items recalled by condition alone, and in an interacted model of treatment condition by liking the character. Children liked the character more in the repeated app-exposure condition than in the control group (P = 0.018). Children in the repeated and single app-exposure conditions recalled more healthy (P < 0.001) and unhealthy (P < 0.001) items than the control group. Within treatment conditions, liking the character increased recall of healthy items in the single app-exposure compared to the repeated app-exposure condition (P = 0.005). Results revealed that repeated exposure increased children's learning of nutritional information and liking of the character. The results contribute to our understanding of how to deliver effective nutrition information to young children in a new venue, a gaming app.

  10. Photoionization of the outer electrons in noble gas endohedral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a prominent modification of the outer shell photoionization cross section in noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG-C n under the action of the electron shell of fullerene C n . This shell leads to two important effects: a strong enhancement of the cross section due to fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and to prominent oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of a photoelectron from the NG by the fullerene shell. Both factors lead to powerful maxima in the outer shell ionization cross sections of NG-C n , which we call giant endohedral resonances. The oscillator strength reaches a very large value in the atomic scale, 25. We consider atoms of all noble gases except He. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed in terms of the total photoabsorption cross section of the fullerene. The photoelectron reflection is taken into account in the framework of the so-called bubble potential, which is a spherical δ-type potential. It is assumed in the derivations that the NG is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed, in accordance with the existing experimental data, that the fullerene radius R C is much larger than the atomic radius r A and the thickness Δ C of the fullerene shell. As was demonstrated recently, these assumptions allow us to represent the NG-C n photoionization cross section as a product of the NG cross section and two well-defined calculated factors

  11. Noble Gases in Insoluble Organic Matter in the Very Primitive Meteorites Bells, EET 92042 and GRO 95577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Nittler, L. R.; Wieler, R.

    2008-03-01

    Noble gas carrier phase Q in several primitive meteorites is not attacked by Pyridine, in contrast to Orgueil, as reported previously. IOM in CR chondrites does not indicate high-temperature alteration in the nebula.

  12. Bioactivity of noble metal nanoparticles decorated with biopolymers and their application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Gupta, Indarchand; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-30

    The unique properties of nanomaterials can be applied to solve different problems including new ways of drug delivery. Noble metal nanoparticles are most promising because they have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient time. It is evident from the past studies that the metallic nanoparticles are much more effective against various microorganisms when compared to their conventional counterparts. However, decoration of such nanoparticles with biomaterials add more advantages to their antimicrobial activity. Decoration of metal nanoparticles with biopolymers is a quite new area of research. Studies performed hitherto shown that nanoparticles of noble metals like silver, gold and platinum demonstrated better antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities when conjugated with biopolymers. The development of such technology has potential to develop materials that are more effective in the field of health science. Considering the importance and uniqueness of this concept, the present review aims to discuss the use of biopolymer-decorated metal nanoparticles for combating various diseases caused by microbial pathogens. Moreover, the nanotoxicity aspect has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatiles (H, C, N, O, noble gases) in comets as tracers of early solar system events (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles (H, C, N, O, noble gases) present the largest variations in their relative abundances and, importantly, in their isotopic ratios, among solar system elements. The original composition of the protosolar nebula has been investigated through the measurements of primitive meteorites and of in-situ (e.g. Galileo probe analysis of the Jupiter's atmosphere) and sample-return (Genesis, recovery and analysis of solar wind) missions. The protosolar gas was poor in deuterium, in 15N and in 17,18O. Variations among solar system reservoir reach several hundreds of percents for the D/H and 15N/14N ratios. These variations are possibly : (i) due to interactions between XUV photons of the proto-Sun and the-dust, (ii) result from low temperature ion-molecule reactions, or (iii) constitute an heritage on interstellar volatiles trapped in dust (e.g., organics). Likewise, noble gases are elementally and isotopically (1% per amu for xenon) fractionated with respect to the composition of the solar wind (our best proxy for the protosolar nebula composition). Cometary matter directly measured on coma, or in Stardust material, or in IDPs, seems to present among the largest heterogeneities in their stable isotope compositions but knowledge on their precise compositions of the different phases and species is partial and mosty lacking. Among the several important issues requiring a better knowledge of cometary volatiles are the origin(s) of volatile elements on Earth and Moon, on Mars and on Venus, understanding large scale circulation of matter between hot and frozen zones, and the possibility of interstellar heritage for organics. Critical measurements to be made by the next cometary missions include the value of the D/H ratio in water ice, in NH3 and organics. Nitrogen is particularly interesting as cometary HCN and CN are rich in 15N, but an isotoppe mass balance will require to measure the main host species (N2 ?). Noble gases are excellent tracers of physical processes

  14. A first-principles study on the interaction of biogas with noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated nitrogen doped graphene as a gas sensor: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunjiang; Wu, Huarui

    2018-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate the adsorption characteristics of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen (N2), and oxygen (O2) on the surface of pyridine-like nitrogen doped graphene (PNG) as well as noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG to elaborate their potentials as gas sensors. The adsorption intensities of biogas on noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG are in the order of O2> H2S> N2> CH4> CO2> H2, which are corresponded to the order of their sensitivity on surface. Compared with biogas adsorption on pristine PNG, there exist higher adsorption ability, higher charge transfer and higher orbital hybridization upon adsorption on noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG. Consequently, the noble metal (Rh, Pt, Pd) decorated PNG can transform the existence of CH4, CO2, H2, H2S, N2, and O2 molecules into electrical signal and they could potentially be used as ideal sensors for detection of biogas in ambient situation.

  15. The Implementation of Character Education at Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analyzing the implementation of character education at Senior High School in Sumedang Regency, West Java, Indonesia. A content analysis method was employed to collect the data with interviews with six teachers from six different senior high schools, which represent the rural, transitional, and urban areas. The findings revealed that: (1 not all teachers understand the concept of character education; (2 the character education has not been done systematically or has not had the specific design/model for the teaching and learning process. Most teachers embedded the character values during the teaching and learning process as a form of character education. For example, through Qur’an recitation, learning tasks, group discussion, lecture, socio-drama, observation and admonition, and even through teachers’ model. Meanwhile, outside the class, character education was implemented through competition and extracurricular activities; (3 the evaluation of character education was relatively varied, such as an observation followed by admonition, group guidance, and also focusing on behavior and affective assessment in the classroom learning process. This research implied that it is needed to make a policy on a program development through the Bureau of Education to improve Senior High School teachers’ knowledge and skills in implementing the character education.

  16. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  17. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  18. Animated Character Analysis and Costume Design with Structured Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım Artaç, Berna; Ağaç, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    In various genres, costumes complement fictional characters and not onlyconstitute the external appearance of the fictional character, but are alsoused for purposes of fun or style by fans who dress up as the character andinternalize that character’s state of mind. This phenomenon is calledcosplay. A literature review of the field has revealed no study made previouslyon the cosplay costume design process according to character analysis. Thepresent study emphasizes the link between an...

  19. Protonated ions as systemic trapping agents for noble gases: From electronic structure to radiative association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurel, O; Pauzat, F; Pilmé, J; Ellinger, Y; Bacchus-Montabonel, M-C; Mousis, O

    2017-10-07

    The deficiencies of argon, krypton, and xenon observed in the atmosphere of Titan as well as anticipated in some comets might be related to a scenario of sequestration by H 3 + in the gas phase at the early evolution of the solar nebula. The chemical process implied is a radiative association, evaluated as rather efficient in the case of H 3 + , especially for krypton and xenon. This mechanism of chemical trapping might not be limited to H 3 + only, considering that the protonated ions produced in the destruction of H 3 + by its main competitors present in the primitive nebula, i.e., H 2 O, CO, and N 2 , might also give stable complexes with the noble gases. However the effective efficiency of such processes is still to be proven. Here, the reactivity of the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe, with all protonated ions issued from H 2 O, CO, and N 2 , expected to be present in the nebula with reasonably high abundances, has been studied with quantum simulation method dynamics included. All of them give stable complexes and the rate coefficients of their radiative associations range from 10 -16 to 10 -19 cm 3 s -1 , which is reasonable for such reactions and has to be compared to the rates of 10 -16 to 10 -18 cm 3 s -1 , obtained with H 3 + . We can consider this process as universal for all protonated ions which, if present in the primitive nebula as astrophysical models predict, should act as sequestration agents for all three noble gases with increasing efficiency from Ar to Xe.

  20. Atmospheric noble gases in Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts: Identification of atmospheric contamination processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinet, Claire; Moreira, Manuel A.

    2018-02-01

    Noble gases in oceanic basalts always show the presence in variable proportions of a component having elemental and isotopic compositions that are similar to those of the atmosphere and distinct from the mantle composition. Although this component could be mantle-derived (e.g. subduction of air or seawater-derived noble gases trapped in altered oceanic crust and sediments), it is most often suggested that this air component is added after sample collection and probably during storage at ambient air, although the mechanism remains unknown. In an attempt to reduce this atmospheric component observed in MORBs, four experimental protocols have been followed in this study. These protocols are based on the hypothesis that air can be removed from the samples, as it appears to be sheltered in distinct vesicles compared to those filled with mantle gases. All of the protocols involve a glove box filled with nitrogen, and in certain cases, the samples are stored under primary vacuum (lower than 10-2 mbar) to pump air out or, alternatively, under high pressure of N2 to expel atmospheric noble gases. In all protocols, three components are observed: atmospheric, fractionated atmospheric and magmatic. The fractionated air component seems to be derived from the non-vitreous part of the pillow-lava, which has cooled more slowly. This component is enriched in Ne relative to Ar, reflecting a diffusive process. This contaminant has already been observed in other studies and thus seems to be relatively common. Although it is less visible, unfractionated air has also been detected in some crushing steps, which tends to indicate that despite the experiments, air is still present in the vesicles. This result is surprising, since studies have demonstrated that atmospheric contamination could be limited if samples were stored under nitrogen quickly after their recovery from the seafloor. Thus, the failure of the protocols could be explained by the insufficient duration of these protocols or

  1. The nature and role of the gold-krypton interactions in small neutral gold clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Luis A; Benoit, David M

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the nature and role of krypton embedding in small neutral gold clusters. For some of these clusters, we observe a particular site-dependent character of the Kr binding that does not completely follow the criterion of binding at low-coordinated sites, widely accepted for interaction of a noble gas with closed-shell metal systems such as metal surfaces. We aim at understanding the effect of low dimensionality and open-shell electronic structure of the odd-numbered clusters on the noble gas-metal cluster interaction. First, we investigate the role of attractive and repulsive forces, and the frontier molecular orbitals. Second, we investigate the Au-Kr interaction in terms of reactivity and bonding character. We use a reactivity index derived from Fukui formalism, and criteria provided by the electron localization function (ELF), in order to classify the type of bonding. We carry out this study on the minimum energy structures of neutral gold clusters, as obtained using pseudo potential plane-wave density functional theory (DFT). A model is proposed that includes the effect of attractive electrostatic, van der Waals and repulsive forces, together with effects originating from orbital overlap. This satisfactorily explains minimum configurations of the noble gas-gold cluster systems, the site preference of the noble gas atoms, and changes in electronic properties.

  2. Del Colegio de caciques al Colegio de Granada: la educación problemática de un noble descendiente de los Incas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DU COLLÈGE DES CACIQUES AU COLLÈGE DE GRENADE : L’ÉDUCATION PROBLÉMATIQUE D’UN DESCENDANT DES INCAS En 1792 Charles IV, fonde de manière prématurée et afin de contenir le mécontentement croissant des créoles, un collège en Espagne pour les nobles américains. Le décret n’exclut pas les nobles indigènes et l’un d’eux, D. Bartolomé Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, homme cultivé et actif, sollicite l’inscription de son cousin Don Santiago Phelipe Camilo Tupac Yupanqui dont la candidature n’est pas retenue. Ses démarches et ses dissimulations, son opiniâtreté ainsi que les faux arguments du vice-roi laissent percevoir le climat de suspicion réciproque qui régnait dans la société péruvienne encore marquée par la révolte indienne de 1780, en même temps que se révèle la véritable nature de la parole royale. En 1792 Carlos IV funda de forma algo prematura con el fin de controlar el descontento creciente de los criollos, un colegio en España para educar a los nobles americanos. La cédula no excluye a los nobles indígenas. Uno de ellos, D. Bartolomé Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, solicita una beca para su primo Don Santiago Phelipe Camilo Túpac Yupanqui, beca que no le otorga el virrey. Sus diligencias y sus disimulaciones, su terquedad así como los falsos argumentos del virrey dejan ver la atmósfera de recíproca suspición de aquella sociedad peruana todavía marcada por la rebelión indígena de 1780, al mismo tiempo que revela la índole de la palabra real. FROM THE COLLEGE OF CACIQUES TO THE COLLEGE OF GRANADA: THE PROBLEMATICAL EDUCATION OF A NOBLE DESCENDANT OF THE INCAS In 1792, Charles IV founded a college in Spain for educating noble Americans. This somewhat premature move aimed at curbing the growing discontent of the criollos. The royal decree did not exclude indigenous nobles. One of them, D. Bartolome Mesa Tupac Yupanqui, asked for a scholarship for his cousin, D. Santiago Phelipe Camilo Tupac Yupanqui. However this

  3. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  4. The genetic and environmental structure of the character sub-scales of the temperament and character inventory in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Nigel; Garcia, Danilo; Lundström, Sebastian; Brändström, Sven; Råstam, Maria; Kerekes, Nóra; Nilsson, Thomas; Cloninger, C Robert; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The character higher order scales (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence) in the temperament and character inventory are important general measures of health and well-being [Mens Sana Monograph 11:16-24 (2013)]. Recent research has found suggestive evidence of common environmental influence on the development of these character traits during adolescence. The present article expands earlier research by focusing on the internal consistency and the etiology of traits measured by the lower order sub-scales of the character traits in adolescence. The twin modeling analysis of 423 monozygotic pairs and 408 same sex dizygotic pairs estimated additive genetics (A), common environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) influences on twin resemblance. All twins were part of the on-going longitudinal Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). The twin modeling analysis suggested a common environmental contribution for two out of five self-directedness sub-scales (0.14 and 0.23), for three out of five cooperativeness sub-scales (0.07-0.17), and for all three self-transcendence sub-scales (0.10-0.12). The genetic structure at the level of the character lower order sub-scales in adolescents shows that the proportion of the shared environmental component varies in the trait of self-directedness and in the trait of cooperativeness, while it is relatively stable across the components of self-transcendence. The presence of this unique shared environmental effect in adolescence has implications for understanding the relative importance of interventions and treatment strategies aimed at promoting overall maturation of character, mental health, and well-being during this period of the life span.

  5. How jurors use and misuse character evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jennifer S; Budesheim, Thomas Lee

    2004-04-01

    The Federal Rules of Evidence allow defendants to offer testimony about their good character, but that testimony can be impeached with cross-examination or a rebuttal witness. It is assumed that jurors use the defense's character evidence (CE) to form guilt and conviction judgments but use impeachment evidence only to assess the character witness's credibility. Two experiments tested these assumptions by presenting mock jurors with various forms of CE and impeachment. Participants made trait ratings for the character witness and defendant and guilt and conviction judgments. Positive CE did not affect guilt or conviction judgments, but cross-examination caused a backlash in which judgments were harsher than when no CE was given. Using path analysis, the authors tested a model of the process by which CE and impeachment affect defendant and witness impressions and guilt and conviction judgments. Implications for juror decision making are discussed.

  6. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  7. Discharges in the inlet region of a noble gas MHD generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this work the onset of the development of the non-equilibrium conductivity in the entrance region of a noble gas MHD generator is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. At low electron densities the discharge seems to be affected by a non-Maxwellian electron distribution. In Chapter II a self-consistent model of a stationary discharge in an Ar-Cs mixture at atmospheric pressure, is set up. It includes the possibility of deviations from a Maxwellian electron energy distribution. The model allows to calculate at what discharge parameters deviations from the Maxwellian electron distribution will become important. In Chapter III the relaxation of the plasma to a new equilibrium situation following a sudden change in the electron thermal energy is calculated by a model which can take radiation and a non-Maxwellian distribution into account. In Chapter IV an Ar-Cs discharge experiment is described with plasma parameters similar to those present in the entrance region of the generator. The ionization relaxation process in a noble gas MHD generator is experimentally studied and described in Chapter V. In this chapter the relaxation ionization region with and without pre-ionization is investigated. Current voltage characteristics are obtained by varying the applied voltage or the external load. The results are confronted with the theoretical results of the non-Maxwellian model developed in Chapter II. Conclusions of this work are drawn in Chapter VI. (Auth.)

  8. Optical and structural properties of noble-metal nanoparticles; Optische und strukturelle Eigenschaften von Edelmetallnanopartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, C

    2006-06-23

    Noble-metal nanoparticles exhibit rich optical behavior, such as resonant light scattering and absorption and non-linear signal enhancement. This makes them attractive for a multitude of physical, chemical, and biophysical applications. For instance, recent biomedical experiments demonstrate the suitability of noble-metal nanoparticles for selective photothermal apoptosis by heat transport by laser irradiation. The applications of nanoparticles largely exploit that plasmons, i. e. collective oscillations of the conduction electrons, can be optically excited in these nanoparticles. In optical spectroscopy, these are seen as pronounced resonances. In the first part of this work, model calculations are employed to elucidate how radiation damping in noble-metal nanoparticles, i. e. the transformation of plasmons into photons, depends on particle size, particle shape, and on electromagnetic coupling between individual particles. Exact electrodynamic calculations are carried out for individual spheroidal particles and for pairs of spherical particles. These calculations for spheroidal particles demonstrate for the first time that radiative plasmon decay is determined by both the particle volume and the particle shape. Model calculations for pairs of large spherical particles reveal that the electromagnetic fields radiated by the particles mediate electromagnetic coupling at interparticle distances in the micrometer range. This coupling can lead to immense modulations of the plasmonic linewidth. The question whether this coupling is sufficiently strong to mediate extended, propagating, plasmon modes in nanoparticle arrays is addressed next. Detailed analysis reveals that this is not the case; instead, for the particle spacings regarded here, a non-resonant, purely diffractive coupling is observed, which is identified by steplike signatures in reflection spectra of the particle arrays. In the second part of this work, structural and optical properties of noble

  9. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  10. Technical guide for monitoring selected conditions related to wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres; Steve Boutcher; Liese Dean; Troy Hall; Tamara Blett; Terry Carlson; Ann Mebane; Carol Hardy; Susan Rinehart; Linda Merigliano; David N. Cole; Andy Leach; Pam Wright; Deb Bumpus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of monitoring wilderness character is to improve wilderness stewardship by providing managers a tool to assess how selected actions and conditions related to wilderness character are changing over time. Wilderness character monitoring provides information to help answer two key questions about wilderness character and wilderness stewardship: 1. How is...

  11. Variations of color with alloying elements in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Takanobu; Takuma, Yasuko; Miura, Eri; Fujita, Takeshi; Hisatsune, Kunihiro

    2007-01-01

    The effects of alloying addition of a small amount of base metals (In, Sn, Fe, Zn) on color variations in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys were investigated in terms of rectilinear and polar color coordinates. The ternary Au-Pt-X (X = In, Sn, Fe, Zn) and quaternary Au-Pt-In-Y (Y = Sn, Fe, Zn) alloys were prepared from high purity component metals. The amount of alloying base metals, X and Y, were restricted up to 2 at.%. The alloying addition of a small amount of Fe, In, Sn, to a binary Au-10 at.% Pt alloy (referred to as AP10) effectively increased chroma, C *. On the other hand, the addition of Zn to the parent alloy AP10 did not change color coordinates greatly. The increase in chroma in the present Au-Pt-based high noble alloys was attributed to the increase in the slope of spectral reflectance curve at its absorption edge near 515 nm. It was found that the addition of a small amount of Fe to the parent alloy AP10 markedly increased lightness, L *, and the addition of Sn gave a very light tint of red to the parent alloy. Although red-green chromaticity index a * contributed to chroma to some extent, contribution of yellow-blue chromaticity index b * was much greater in determining chroma in this Pd-free Au-Pt-based multi-component alloys. The present results are expected to be valuable in case color is to be taken into account in designing Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

  12. Variations of color with alloying elements in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Takanobu [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan)]. E-mail: siraisi@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Takuma, Yasuko [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Miura, Eri [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Fujita, Takeshi [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Hisatsune, Kunihiro [Department of Dental and Biomedical Materials Science, Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of alloying addition of a small amount of base metals (In, Sn, Fe, Zn) on color variations in Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys were investigated in terms of rectilinear and polar color coordinates. The ternary Au-Pt-X (X = In, Sn, Fe, Zn) and quaternary Au-Pt-In-Y (Y = Sn, Fe, Zn) alloys were prepared from high purity component metals. The amount of alloying base metals, X and Y, were restricted up to 2 at.%. The alloying addition of a small amount of Fe, In, Sn, to a binary Au-10 at.% Pt alloy (referred to as AP10) effectively increased chroma, C *. On the other hand, the addition of Zn to the parent alloy AP10 did not change color coordinates greatly. The increase in chroma in the present Au-Pt-based high noble alloys was attributed to the increase in the slope of spectral reflectance curve at its absorption edge near 515 nm. It was found that the addition of a small amount of Fe to the parent alloy AP10 markedly increased lightness, L *, and the addition of Sn gave a very light tint of red to the parent alloy. Although red-green chromaticity index a * contributed to chroma to some extent, contribution of yellow-blue chromaticity index b * was much greater in determining chroma in this Pd-free Au-Pt-based multi-component alloys. The present results are expected to be valuable in case color is to be taken into account in designing Pd-free Au-Pt-based high noble dental alloys.

  13. A fast cost-assessment method for boiler equipment made of noble materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreard, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The method is aimed at assessing equipment costs for preliminary technical-economic studies or succinct project evaluation. Advantages and disadvantages of nobles metals such as nickel, tantalum, titanium, zirconium ... are reviewed. The economic evaluation method is based on a combination of parametric techniques and statistical results, and allows for the assessment of the various cost components as a function of mass, design and manufacturing complexity in the context of industrial specific operating constraints. 3 figs., 6 tabs., 2 refs

  14. A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia; Rizzo, Antonio; Rikken, Geert L. J. A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes

  15. 75 FR 5782 - Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Marketing and Trade Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corporation's application for market- based rate... electronic submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http...

  16. Self-consistent meta-generalized gradient approximation study of adsorption of aromatic molecules on noble metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Madsen, Georg Kent Hellerup; Hammer, Bjørk

    2011-01-01

    aromatic molecules considered. The adsorption of pentacene is studied on Au, Ag, and Cu surfaces. In agreement with experiment, the adsorption energies are found to increase with decreasing nobleness, but the dependency is underestimated. We point out how the kinetic energy density can discriminate between...

  17. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emine; Kalkan; Akcay; Fatih; Canan; Huseyin; Simavli; Derya; Dal; Hacer; Yalniz; Nagihan; Ugurlu; Omer; Gecici; Nurullah; Cagil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality.METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors(17 with myopia,12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants.Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness,cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness,cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion(P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.05, and P <0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

  18. Glyph Identification and Character Recognition for Sindhi OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISAR AHMEDMEMON

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A computer can read and write multiple languages and today?s computers are capable of understanding various human languages. A computer can be given instructions through various input methods but OCR (Optical Character Recognition and handwritten character recognition are the input methods in which a scanned page containing text is converted into written or editable text. The change in language text available on scanned page demands different algorithm to recognize text because every language and script pose varying number of challenges to recognize text. The Latin language recognition pose less difficulties compared to Arabic script and languages that use Arabic script for writing and OCR systems for these Latin languages are near to perfection. Very little work has been done on regional languages of Pakistan. In this paper the Sindhi glyphs are identified and the number of characters and connected components are identified for this regional language of Pakistan. A graphical user interface has been created to perform identification task for glyphs and characters of Sindhi language. The glyphs of characters are successfully identified from scanned page and this information can be used to recognize characters. The language glyph identification can be used to apply suitable algorithm to identify language as well as to achieve a higher recognition rate.

  19. Character, Social-Emotional, and Academic Outcomes among Underachieving Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of a character assessment scale (the Character Assessment for School Age Children; CASAC) based on 6 pillars of character (Josephson Institute, 2009). Many youth development and character education programs utilize some, if not all, of the pillars of character explicitly or…

  20. Santa Lucia (2008) (L6) Chondrite, a Recent Fall: Composition, Noble Gases, Nitrogen and Cosmic Ray Exposure Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ramakant R.; Varela, Maria Eugenia; Joron, Jean Louis

    2016-04-01

    The Santa Lucia (2008)—one the most recent Argentine meteorite fall, fell in San Juan province, Argentina, on 23 January 2008. Several masses (total ~6 kg) were recovered. Most are totally covered by fusion crust. The exposed interior is of light-grey colour. Chemical data [olivine (Fa24.4) and low-Ca pyroxene (En77.8 Fs20.7 Wo1.6)] indicate that Santa Luica (2008) is a member of the low iron L chondrite group, corresponding to the equilibrated petrologic type 6. The meteorite name was approved by the Nomenclature Committee (NomCom) of the Meteoritical Society (Meteoritic Bulletin, no. 97). We report about the chemical composition of the major mineral phases, its bulk trace element abundance, its noble gas and nitrogen data. The cosmic ray exposure age based on cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar around 20 Ma is comparable to one peak of L chondrites. The radiogenic K-Ar age of 2.96 Ga, while the young U, Th-He are of 1.2 Ga indicates that Santa Lucia (2008) lost radiogenic 4He more recently. Low cosmogenic (22Ne/21Ne)c and absence of solar wind noble gases are consistent with irradiation in a large body. Heavy noble gases (Ar/Kr/Xe) indicated trapped gases similar to ordinary chondrites. Krypton and neon indicates irradiation in large body, implying large pre-atmospheric meteoroid.

  1. A Japanese logographic character frequency list for cognitive science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamatsu, N; Yokoyama, S; Nozaki, H; Long, E; Fukuda, S

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a Japanese logographic character (kanji) frequency list, which is based on an analysis of the largest recently available corpus of Japanese words and characters. This corpus comprised a full year of morning and evening editions of a major newspaper, containing more than 23 million kanji characters and more than 4,000 different kanji characters. This paper lists the 3,000 most frequent kanji characters, as well as an analysis of kanji usage and correlations between the present list and previous Japanese frequency lists. The authors believe that the present list will help researchers more accurately and efficiently control the selection of kanji characters in cognitive science research and interpret related psycholinguistic data.

  2. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  3. On character amenability of semigroup algebras | Maepa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We study the character amenability of semigroup algebras. We work on general semigroups and certain semigroups such as inverse semigroups with a nite number of idempotents, inverse semigroups with uniformly locally nite idempotent set, Brandt and Rees semigroup and study the character amenability of the ...

  4. The Strategies for Character Building through Sports Participation

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Omar-Fauzee; Mohd Nizam Nazarudin; Yudha M. Saputra; Nina Sutresna; Duangkrai Taweesuk; Wipoj Chansem; Rozita Abd. Latif; Soh Kim Geok

    2012-01-01

    The sport participation has been a major part of our life in the societies. Studies on sports participation have found that sports have both positive and negative influence on character buildings. It has been on-going debate on whether ‘sports build character’ but through literature analysis, author had found that ‘with the intention, sports do build character.’ Therefore, strategies of building character through sports are suggested in this paper.

  5. Determining the source and genetic fingerprint of natural gases using noble gas geochemistry: a northern Appalachian Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Silurian and Devonian natural gas reservoirs present within New York state represent an example of unconventional gas accumulations within the northern Appalachian Basin. These unconventional energy resources, previously thought to be noneconomically viable, have come into play following advances in drilling (i.e., horizontal drilling) and extraction (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) capabilities. Therefore, efforts to understand these and other domestic and global natural gas reserves have recently increased. The suspicion of fugitive mass migration issues within current Appalachian production fields has catalyzed the need to develop a greater understanding of the genetic grouping (source) and migrational history of natural gases in this area. We introduce new noble gas data in the context of published hydrocarbon carbon (C1,C2+) (13C) data to explore the genesis of thermogenic gases in the Appalachian Basin. This study includes natural gases from two distinct genetic groups: group 1, Upper Devonian (Marcellus shale and Canadaway Group) gases generated in situ, characterized by early mature (13C[C1  C2][13C113C2]: –9), isotopically light methane, with low (4He) (average, 1  103 cc/cc) elevated 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar (where the asterisk denotes excess radiogenic or nucleogenic production beyond the atmospheric ratio), and a variable, atmospherically (air-saturated–water) derived noble gas component; and group 2, a migratory natural gas that emanated from Lower Ordovician source rocks (i.e., most likely, Middle Ordovician Trenton or Black River group) that is currently hosted primarily in Lower Silurian sands (i.e., Medina or Clinton group) characterized by isotopically heavy, mature methane (13C[C1 – C2] [13C113C2]: 3), with high (4He) (average, 1.85  103 cc/cc) 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar near crustal production levels and elevated crustal noble gas content (enriched 4He,21Ne, 40Ar). Because the release of each crustal noble gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar

  6. Total Moral Quality: A New Approach for Character Education in Pesantren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Baharun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of character education in pesantren which gives valuable contributions to the success of moral development for students. It also offers a different paradigm in developing the concept of character building in educational institution. This article is inspired by the lack of effective character learning in a variety of formal educational institutions. Hence, the schools which succeed in instilling character education can be used as a reference to develop character education. This study focuses on character education model developed by pesantren and offers an alternative perspective of the development of character education in Indonesia. This study adopts a qualitative research approach and uses a case study design. The study shows that the model of character education in pesantren is carried out through a multi-disciplinary approach so as to provide maximum results for the development of character education. This study suggests that the Total Moral Quality (TMQ is the further development of Thomas Lickona’s concept of character education of moral modeling, moral knowing, moral feeling and moral habituation and is applicable in the school.

  7. Character context: a shape descriptor for Arabic handwriting recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhsh, Mohammed; Almodfer, Rolla; Duan, Pengfei; Xiong, Shengwu

    2017-11-01

    In the handwriting recognition field, designing good descriptors are substantial to obtain rich information of the data. However, the handwriting recognition research of a good descriptor is still an open issue due to unlimited variation in human handwriting. We introduce a "character context descriptor" that efficiently dealt with the structural characteristics of Arabic handwritten characters. First, the character image is smoothed and normalized, then the character context descriptor of 32 feature bins is built based on the proposed "distance function." Finally, a multilayer perceptron with regularization is used as a classifier. On experimentation with a handwritten Arabic characters database, the proposed method achieved a state-of-the-art performance with recognition rate equal to 98.93% and 99.06% for the 66 and 24 classes, respectively.

  8. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Schröter; Jan-Noël Thon

    2014-01-01

    This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experien...

  9. Fireworks in noble gas clusters a first experiment with the new "free-electron laser"

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    An international group of scientists has published first experiments carried out using the new soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) at the research center DESY in Hamburg, Germany. Using small clusters of noble gas atoms, for the first time, researchers studied the interaction of matter with intense X-ray radiation from an FEL on extremely short time scales (1 page).

  10. On the effect of oxygen flooding on the detection of noble gas ions in a SIMS instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, P.; Franzreb, K.; Sobers Jr., R. C.; Lorinčík, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 268, 17-18 (2010), s. 2758-2765 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : SIMS * noble gases * uranium Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.042, year: 2010

  11. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  12. Crystal phase-based epitaxial growth of hybrid noble metal nanostructures on 4H/fcc Au nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qipeng; Wang, An-Liang; Gong, Yue; Hao, Wei; Cheng, Hongfei; Chen, Junze; Li, Bing; Yang, Nailiang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yifu; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Ye; Fan, Zhanxi; Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Jun; Li, Shuzhou; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    Crystal-phase engineering offers opportunities for the rational design and synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials with unusual crystal phases that normally do not exist in bulk materials. However, it remains a challenge to use these materials as seeds to construct heterometallic nanostructures with desired crystal phases and morphologies for promising applications such as catalysis. Here, we report a strategy for the synthesis of binary and ternary hybrid noble metal nanostructures. Our synthesized crystal-phase heterostructured 4H/fcc Au nanowires enable the epitaxial growth of Ru nanorods on the 4H phase and fcc-twin boundary in Au nanowires, resulting in hybrid Au-Ru nanowires. Moreover, the method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Rh, Ru-Rh and Ru-Pt nanorods on the 4H/fcc Au nanowires to form unique hybrid nanowires. Importantly, the Au-Ru hybrid nanowires with tunable compositions exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance towards the hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline media.

  13. Noble Gas Inventory of Micrometeorites Collected at the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) and Indications for Their Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, U.; Baecker, B.; Folco, L.; Cordier, C.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of processes have been considered possibly contributing the volatiles including noble gases to the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets (e.g., [1-3]). Special consideration has been given to the concept of accretion of volatile-rich materials by the forming planets. This might include infalling planetesimals and dust, and could include material from the outer asteroid belt, as well as cometary material from the outer solar system. Currently, the dominant source of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth is represented by micrometeorites (MMs) with sizes mostly in the 100-300 micron range [3, 4]). Their role has been assessed by [3], who conclude that accretion of early micrometeorites played a major role in the formation of the terrestrial atmosphere and oceans. We have therefore set out to investigate in more detail the inventory of noble gases in MMs. Here we summarize some of our results obtained on MMs collected in micrometeorite traps of the Transantarctic Mountains [5].

  14. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  15. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...... filters to support faster query operations. Experimental results are presented, evaluating the effect of the indexing on query performance....

  16. Photoionization of the subvalent subshells of noble gas endohedrals: interference of three resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Baltenkov, A S; Chernysheva, L V

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate strong interference patterns in the photoionization cross-section of the subvalent subshells of noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG at F. This interference is a result of common action of three factors: the effect of neighbouring atomic subshells, reflection of photoelectron waves by the fullerene F shell and resonance modification of the incoming photon beam by the complex effect under the action of the F electrons. We have considered the outer ns-subshells for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe noble gas atoms. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed via the F total photoabsorption cross-section. The photoelectron reflection from the static F potential is taken into account in the frame of the so-called bubble potential which is a spherical δ-type potential. It is assumed that the NG atom is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed in accordance with the available experimental data that the fullerene radius is much bigger than the atomic radius and the thickness of the fullerene shell. These assumptions permit the NG at F photoionization cross-section to be presented as a product of the NG atomic cross-section and two calculated factors that account for polarization of the F electron shell and reflection of photoelectrons by the fullerene static potential

  17. Photoionization of the subvalent subshells of noble gas endohedrals: interference of three resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Baltenkov, A S [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan); Chernysheva, L V [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St.-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: amusia@vms.huji.ac.il

    2008-08-28

    We demonstrate strong interference patterns in the photoionization cross-section of the subvalent subshells of noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG at F. This interference is a result of common action of three factors: the effect of neighbouring atomic subshells, reflection of photoelectron waves by the fullerene F shell and resonance modification of the incoming photon beam by the complex effect under the action of the F electrons. We have considered the outer ns-subshells for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe noble gas atoms. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed via the F total photoabsorption cross-section. The photoelectron reflection from the static F potential is taken into account in the frame of the so-called bubble potential which is a spherical {delta}-type potential. It is assumed that the NG atom is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed in accordance with the available experimental data that the fullerene radius is much bigger than the atomic radius and the thickness of the fullerene shell. These assumptions permit the NG at F photoionization cross-section to be presented as a product of the NG atomic cross-section and two calculated factors that account for polarization of the F electron shell and reflection of photoelectrons by the fullerene static potential.

  18. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  19. Personality, temperament and character in Erich Fromm's theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of the man is the substitute for instincts that animals have. In reality characters are not found in pure form, as specified orientation, but as a mixture of types. The social character of Fromm has an ethical and heuristic importance. Human passions are rooted in character and are a way to give meaning to existence, to respond to the human existential situation. If we are not able to respond through the love, then, in the absence of, we turn to destructiveness. According to Fromm, the most important goal of society should be human development. He lays down a rational belief in critical thought coupled with love of life. Although the development of personality is largely determined by social structure, Fromm concludes it is not entirely passive, that a man has the opportunity, space and power to use his mind to react to the alienation and inhumane living conditions. Through analysis of the social character From is giving a kind of critique of modern, market-oriented society, based on the principles of humanistic ethics. .

  20. Membangun Karakter Anak Usia Dini melalui Pembelajaran Math Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Faridatun Nisa’

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penerapan pembelajaran math character untuk membangun karakter Anak Usia Dini (AUD dan kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam penerapan pembelajaran math character. Target penelitian ini adalah terbentuknya karakter anak usia dini melalui pembelajaran math character. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan metode penelitian kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan informasi penelitian ini dengan metode observasi dan wawancara. Analisis data penelitian ini menggunakan analisis deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan pembelajaran math character dapat membangun delapan belas nilai-nilai karakter AUD. Kesulitan-kesulitan yang dialami guru dalam pembentukan karakter AUD melalui pembelajaran math character meliputi tema yang digunakan termasuk tema baru, siswa belum terbiasa dengan pembelajaran berbasis sentra, usia siswa bervariasi, dan adanya ikut campur wali siswa dalam kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas sehingga siswa menjadi kurang mandiri.

  1. Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yudian; Lu, Tongwei; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-03-01

    As an important application in the field of text line recognition and office automation, Chinese character recognition has become an important subject of pattern recognition. However, due to the large number of Chinese characters and the complexity of its structure, there is a great difficulty in the Chinese character recognition. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of printed Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and Convolution Neural Network(CNN). The main steps are preprocessing, feature extraction, training classification. First, the gray-scale Chinese character image is binarized and normalized to reduce the redundancy of the image data. Second, each image is convoluted with Gabor filter with different orientations, and the feature map of the eight orientations of Chinese characters is extracted. Third, the feature map through Gabor filters and the original image are convoluted with learning kernels, and the results of the convolution is the input of pooling layer. Finally, the feature vector is used to classify and recognition. In addition, the generalization capacity of the network is improved by Dropout technology. The experimental results show that this method can effectively extract the characteristics of Chinese characters and recognize Chinese characters.

  2. Mixed noble gas effect on cut green peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L. V.; Zhang, M.; Karangwa, E.; Chesereka, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing attempts at using gas which leads to hydrate formation as a preservative tool in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have been reported. In this study, changes in some physical and biochemical properties of fresh-cut green peppers under compressed noble gas treatments were examined. Mixed argonkrypton and argon treatments were performed before cold storage at 5°C for 15 days. Mass loss and cell membrane permeability were found to be the lowest in mixed argon-krypton samples. Besides, a lower CO2 concentration and vitamin C loss were detected in gastreated samples compared to untreated samples (control). While the total phenol degradation was moderately reduced, the effect of the treatment on polyphenoloxidase activity was better at the beginning of the storage period. The minimum changes in quality observed in cut peppers resulted from both mixed and gas treatment alone.

  3. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of fluorescence-labelled silica core-shell and noble metal-decorated ceria nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Herrmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review article covers work done in the cluster NPBIOMEM in the DFG priority programme SPP 1313 and focuses on synthesis and characterization of fluorescent silica and ceria nanoparticles. Synthetic methods for labelling of silica and polyorganosiloxane/silica core–shell nanoparticles with perylenediimide derivatives are described, as well as the modification of the shell with thiol groups. Photometric methods for the determination of the number of thiol groups and an estimate for the number of fluorescent molecules per nanoparticles, including a scattering correction, have been developed. Ceria nanoparticles decorated with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh are models for the decomposition products of automobile catalytic converters which appear in the exhaust gases and finally interact with biological systems including humans. The control of the degree of agglomeration of small ceria nanoparticles is the basis for their synthesis. Almost monodisperse agglomerates (40 ± 4–260 ± 40 nm diameter can be prepared and decorated with noble metal nanoparticles (2–5 nm diameter. Fluorescence labelling with ATTO 647N gave the model particles which are now under biophysical investigation.

  5. A Chinese character teaching system using structure theory and morphing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linjia; Liu, Min; Hu, Jiajia; Liang, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Chinese character teaching system by using the Chinese character structure theory and the 2D contour morphing technology. This system, including the offline phase and the online phase, automatically generates animation for the same Chinese character from different writing stages to intuitively show the evolution of shape and topology in the process of Chinese characters teaching. The offline phase builds the component models database for the same script and the components correspondence database for different scripts. Given two or several different scripts of the same Chinese character, the online phase firstly divides the Chinese characters into components by using the process of Chinese character parsing, and then generates the evolution animation by using the process of Chinese character morphing. Finally, two writing stages of Chinese characters, i.e., seal script and clerical script, are used in experiment to show the ability of the system. The result of the user experience study shows that the system can successfully guide students to improve the learning of Chinese characters. And the users agree that the system is interesting and can motivate them to learn.

  6. A Chinese character teaching system using structure theory and morphing technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjia Sun

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Chinese character teaching system by using the Chinese character structure theory and the 2D contour morphing technology. This system, including the offline phase and the online phase, automatically generates animation for the same Chinese character from different writing stages to intuitively show the evolution of shape and topology in the process of Chinese characters teaching. The offline phase builds the component models database for the same script and the components correspondence database for different scripts. Given two or several different scripts of the same Chinese character, the online phase firstly divides the Chinese characters into components by using the process of Chinese character parsing, and then generates the evolution animation by using the process of Chinese character morphing. Finally, two writing stages of Chinese characters, i.e., seal script and clerical script, are used in experiment to show the ability of the system. The result of the user experience study shows that the system can successfully guide students to improve the learning of Chinese characters. And the users agree that the system is interesting and can motivate them to learn.

  7. Character Education of the Most Developed Countries in ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Character education into an international issue, especially in developing countries. More specifically in Indonesia, character education is a major issue in the 2012's to the present. What kind of education that may build character? To be able to answer this question, we need a broad and deep research. Research simpler related to character…

  8. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha

    2013-01-01

    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  9. Ab initio molecular orbital studies of the vibrational spectra of the van der Waals complexes of boron trifluoride with the noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas A

    2005-05-01

    The molecular structures, interaction energies, charge transfer properties and vibrational spectra of the van der Waals complexes formed between boron trifluoride and the noble gases neon, argon, krypton and xenon have been computed using second and fourth order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL2DZ basis set. The complexes are all symmetric tops, with the noble gas atom acting as a sigma electron donor along the C3 axis of the BF3 molecule. The interaction energies are all vanishingly small, and the amount of charge transferred in each case is of the order of 0.01e. The directions of the wavenumber shifts of the symmetric bending (nu2) and antisymmetric stretching (nu3) modes of the BF3 fragment confirm those determined experimentally, and the shifts are shown to correlate well with the polarizability of the noble gas atom and the inverse sixth power of the intermonomer separation. The nu2 mode is substantially more sensitive to complexation than the nu3 vibration.

  10. [Studies on high temperature oxidation of noble metal alloys for dental use. (III) On high temperature oxidation resistance of noble metal alloys by adding small amounts of alloying elements. (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, H

    1976-11-01

    The previous report pointed out the undesirable effects of high temperature oxidation on the casting. The influence of small separate additions of Zn, Mg, Si, Be and Al on the high temperature oxidation of the noble metal alloys was examined. These alloying elements were chosen because their oxide have a high electrical resistivity and they have much higher affinity for oxygen than Cu. The casting were oxidized at 700 degrees C for 1 hour in air. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The Cu oxides are not observed on the as-cast surface of noble metal alloys containing small amounts of Zn, Mg, Si, Be, and Al. The castings have gold- or silver-colored surface. 2. After heating of the unpolished and polished castings, the additions of Si, Be and Al are effective in preventing oxidation of Cu in the 18 carats gold alloys. Especially the golden surface is obtained by adding Be and Al. But there is no oxidation-resistance on the polished castings in the alloys containing Zn and Mg. 3. The zinc oxide film formed on the as-cast specimen is effective in preventing of oxidation Cu in 18 carats gold alloys. 4. It seems that the addition of Al is most available in dental application.

  11. Relationships between Character Education and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaburk, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between character education and school climate based on the lived experiences and beliefs of teachers. The research was conducted in a public middle school to explore understandings and beliefs of teachers about character education and its perceived impact on school climate. Social…

  12. Three-dimensional noble-metal nanostructure: A new kind of substrate for sensitive, uniform, and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Cui-Feng; You Hong-Jun; Fang Ji-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful vibrational spectroscopy technique for highly sensitive structural detection of low concentration analyte. The SERS activities largely depend on the topography of the substrate. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in SERS substrate, especially focusing on the three-dimensional (3D) noble-metal substrate with hierarchical nanostructure. Firstly, we introduce the background and general mechanism of 3D hierarchical SERS nanostructures. Then, a systematic overview on the fabrication, growth mechanism, and SERS property of various noble-metal substrates with 3D hierarchical nanostructures is presented. Finally, the applications of 3D hierarchical nanostructures as SERS substrates in many fields are discussed. (invited review — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  13. Noble gas separation from nuclear reactor effluents using selective adsorption with inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive waste gas treatment system utilizing selective adsorption on inorganic adsorbents is described for application to PWRs. The system operates at near ambient pressure, does not require a hydrogen recombiner, has low radioactive gas inventories, and is cost competitive with existing treatment systems. The proposed technique is also applicable for recovery of noble gases from the containment building of a nuclear reactor after an accident. A system design for this application is also presented

  14. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  15. Marginal discrepancy of noble metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis frameworks fabricated by conventional and digital technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ahmed; Haney, Stephan; Verrett, Ronald; Mansueto, Michael; Cray, James; Johnson, Russell

    2018-02-01

    Studies evaluating the marginal adaptation of available computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) noble alloys for metal-ceramic prostheses are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the vertical marginal adaptation of cast, milled, and direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) noble metal-ceramic 3-unit fixed partial denture (FDP) frameworks before and after fit adjustments. Two typodont teeth were prepared for metal-ceramic FDP abutments. An acrylic resin pattern of the prepared teeth was fabricated and cast in nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy. Each specimen group (cast, milled, DMLS) was composed of 12 casts made from 12 impressions (n=12). A single design for the FDP substructure was created on a laboratory scanner and used for designing the specimens in the 3 groups. Each specimen was fitted to its corresponding cast by using up to 5 adjustment cycles, and marginal discrepancies were measured on the master Ni-Cr model before and after laboratory fit adjustments. The milled and DMLS groups had smaller marginal discrepancy measurements than those of the cast group (PDMLS and cast groups (F=30.643, P<.001). Metal-ceramic noble alloy frameworks fabricated by using a CAD-CAM workflow had significantly smaller marginal discrepancies compared with those with a traditional cast workflow, with the milled group demonstrating the best marginal fit among the 3 test groups. Manual refining significantly enhanced the marginal fit of all groups. All 3 groups demonstrated marginal discrepancies within the range of clinical acceptability. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Yeast strains role on the sulphur dioxyde combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarède

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of four industrial and indigenous yeast strains on the sulphur dioxide combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes is studied in different growth of the Sauternes area and one growth in the Jurançon area. The analysis of ketonic compounds (pyruvic acid and 2-oxo-glutaric acid, acetaldehyde and PC50 on the wines clearly showed significant statistical difference between the yeast strains for the sulphur dioxide combination. By adding the same dosage of sulphiting, the free SO2 levels are variable depending on the yeast strain used. One strain (Zymaflore ST, isolated from a spontaneous fermentation of a botrytised must, giving wines with low PC50 values, is well adapted for the noble rot must vinification. The choice of the yeast strain is a parameter of importance to limit the sulphur dioxide amount in the wines.

  17. Integrating Character Education In Teaching Speaking For Business Administration Students

    OpenAIRE

    Woro Prastiwi, Chyntia Heru

    2016-01-01

    Globalization along with the advancement of information and communication technology has brought tremendous effects on students' character. Education field as a place of community has to contribute in developing students' character traits. Integrating character education in curriculum is the key for qualified education. This research aimed to describe the way to integrate character education in teaching speaking for Business Administration students. The data was obtained from teaching and lea...

  18. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  19. Applications of UV/Vis Spectroscopy in Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Fabricated in Responsive Polymer Microgels: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Robina; Farooqi, Zahoor H; Naseem, Khalida; Ali, Faisal; Batool, Madeeha; Xiao, Jianliang; Irfan, Ahmad

    2018-11-02

    Noble metal nanoparticles loaded smart polymer microgels have gained much attention due to fascinating combination of their properties in a single system. These hybrid systems have been extensively used in biomedicines, photonics, and catalysis. Hybrid microgels are characterized by using various techniques but UV/Vis spectroscopy is an easily available technique for characterization of noble metal nanoparticles loaded microgels. This technique is widely used for determination of size and shape of metal nanoparticles. The tuning of optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles under various stimuli can be studied using UV/Vis spectroscopic method. Time course UV/Vis spectroscopy can also be used to monitor the kinetics of swelling and deswelling of microgels and hybrid microgels. Growth of metal nanoparticles in polymeric network or growth of polymeric network around metal nanoparticle core can be studied by using UV/Vis spectroscopy. This technique can also be used for investigation of various applications of hybrid materials in catalysis, photonics, and sensing. This tutorial review describes the uses of UV/Vis spectroscopy in characterization and catalytic applications of responsive hybrid microgels with respect to recent research progress in this area.

  20. Cross-Calibration of Secondary Electron Multiplier in Noble Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santato, Alessandro; Hamilton, Doug; Deerberg, Michael; Wijbrans, Jan; Kuiper, Klaudia; Bouman, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    The latest generation of multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometers has decisively improved the precision in isotopic ratio analysis [1, 2] and helped the scientific community to address new questions [3]. Measuring numerous isotopes simultaneously has two significant advantages: firstly, any fluctuations in signal intensity have no effect on the isotope ratio and secondly, the analysis time is reduced. This particular point becomes very important in static vacuum mass spectrometry where during the analysis, the signal intensity decays and at the same time the background increases. However, when multi-collector analysis is utilized, it is necessary to pay special attention to the cross calibration of the detectors. This is a key point in order to have accurate and reproducible isotopic ratios. In isotope ratio mass spectrometry, with regard to the type of detector (i.e. Faraday or Secondary Electron Multiplier, SEM), analytical technique (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS or IRMS) and isotope system of interest, several techniques are currently applied to cross-calibrate the detectors. Specifically, the gain of the Faraday cups is generally stable and only the associated amplifier must be calibrated. For example, on the Thermo Scientific instrument control systems, the 1011 and 1012 ohm amplifiers can easily be calibrated through a fully software controlled procedure by inputting a constant electric signal to each amplifier sequentially [4]. On the other hand, the yield of the SEMs can drift up to 0.2% / hour and other techniques such as peak hopping, standard-sample bracketing and multi-dynamic measurement must be used. Peak hopping allows the detectors to be calibrated by measuring an ion beam of constant intensity across the detectors whereas standard-sample bracketing corrects the drift of the detectors through the analysis of a reference standard of a known isotopic ratio. If at least one isotopic pair of the sample is known, multi-dynamic measurement can be used; in this