WorldWideScience

Sample records for noaa polar orbiters

  1. NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) Radiometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) series offers the advantage of daily global coverage, by making nearly polar orbits 14 times per day...

  2. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Design and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, F.

    2008-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system - the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD and will provide continuity for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). This poster will provide an overview of the NPOESS architecture, which includes four segments. The space segment includes satellites in two orbits that carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the Earth, atmosphere, and near-Earth space environment. The NPOESS design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPOESS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government as well as to remote terminal users. The Launch Support Segment completes the four segments that make up NPOESS that will enhance the connectivity between research and operations and provide critical operational and scientific environmental measurements to military, civil, and scientific users until 2026.

  3. Environmental Satellites. Polar-orbiting Satellite Acquisition Faces Delays; Decisions Needed on Whether and How to Ensure Climate Data Continuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is a triagency acquisition managed by the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  4. Environmental Satellites: Polar-orbiting Satellite Acquisition Faces Delays; Decisions Needed on Whether and How to Ensure Climate Data Continuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is a triagency acquisition managed by the Department of Commerce s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  5. NOAA-L satellite arrives at Vandenberg AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Outside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., a crated National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite is lowered to the ground before being moved inside. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) Cryosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) product. APP is a fundamental CDR comprised of calibrated and navigated AVHRR channel...

  6. Developing NOAA's Climate Data Records From AVHRR and Other Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privette, J. L.; Bates, J. J.; Kearns, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the provisional NOAA Climate Service, NOAA is providing leadership in the development of authoritative, measurement-based information on climate change and variability. NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) recently initiated a satellite Climate Data Record Program (CDRP) to provide sustained and objective climate information derived from meteorological satellite data that NOAA has collected over the past 30+ years - particularly from its Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) program. These are the longest sustained global measurement records in the world and represent billions of dollars of investment. NOAA is now applying advanced analysis methods -- which have improved remarkably over the last decade -- to the POES AVHRR and other instrument data. Data from other satellite programs, including NASA and international research programs and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), are also being used. This process will unravel the underlying climate trend and variability information and return new value from the records. In parallel, NCDC will extend these records by applying the same methods to present-day and future satellite measurements, including the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and Jason-3. In this presentation, we will describe the AVHRR-related algorithm development activities that CDRP recently selected and funded through open competitions. We will particularly discuss some of the technical challenges related to adapting and using AVHRR algorithms with the VIIRS data that should become available with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite in early 2012. We will also describe IT system development activities that will provide data processing and reprocessing, storage and management. We will also outline the maturing Program framework, including the strategies for coding and development standards, community reviews, independent program oversight, and research-to-operations algorithm

  7. NOAA-L satellite is mated to Apogee Kick Motor at Vandenberg AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Inside the B16-10 spacecraft processing hangar at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., workers oversee the mating of the Apogee Kick Motor (below) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite above. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The launch of the NOAA-L satellite is scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12 aboard a Lockheed Martin Titan II rocket. NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System's (JPSS) Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program - Bringing JPSS Science into Support of Key NOAA Missions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, W.; McWilliams, G.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will focus on the continuity of the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program's Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) and key activities of the PGRR Initiatives. The PGRR Program was established in 2012, following the launch of the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The JPSS Program Office has used two PGRR Project Proposals to establish an effective approach to managing its science and algorithm teams in order to focus on key NOAA missions. The presenter will provide details of the Initiatives and the processes used by the initiatives that have proven so successful. Details of the new 2017 PGRR Call-for-Proposals and the status of project selections will be discussed.

  8. The Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP): Continuing NASA Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Gleason, James; Jedlovec, Gary; Coronado, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite was successfully launched into a polar orbit on October 28, 2011 carrying 5 remote sensing instruments designed to provide data to improve weather forecasts and to increase understanding of long-term climate change. SNPP provides operational continuity of satellite-based observations for NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and continues the long-term record of climate quality observations established by NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. In the 2003 to 2011 pre-launch timeframe, NASA's SNPP Science Team assessed the adequacy of the operational Raw Data Records (RDRs), Sensor Data Records (SDRs), and Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from the SNPP instruments for use in NASA Earth Science research, examined the operational algorithms used to produce those data records, and proposed a path forward for the production of climate quality products from SNPP. In order to perform these tasks, a distributed data system, the NASA Science Data Segment (SDS), ingested RDRs, SDRs, and EDRs from the NOAA Archive and Distribution and Interface Data Processing Segments, ADS and IDPS, respectively. The SDS also obtained operational algorithms for evaluation purposes from the NOAA Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Testing and Evaluation (GRAVITE). Within the NASA SDS, five Product Evaluation and Test Elements (PEATEs) received, ingested, and stored data and performed NASA's data processing, evaluation, and analysis activities. The distributed nature of this data distribution system was established by physically housing each PEATE within one of five Climate Analysis Research Systems (CARS) located at either at a NASA or a university institution. The CARS were organized around 5 key EDRs directly in support of the following NASA Earth Science focus areas: atmospheric sounding, ocean, land, ozone, and atmospheric composition products. The PEATES provided

  9. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Extended (APP-X) Cryosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of the extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) cryosphere contains 19 geophysical variables over the Arctic and Antarctic for the...

  10. Relativity mission with two counter-orbiting polar satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Patten, R.A.; Everitt, C.W.F.

    1975-01-01

    In 1918, J. Lense and H. Thirring calculated that a moon in orbit around a massive rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. An experiment to measure this effect with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit is described. For a 2 1 / 2 year experiment, the measurement accuracy should approach 1 percent. In addition to precision tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken at points of passing near the poles. New geophysical information on both earth harmonics and tidal effects is inherent in the polar ranging data. (auth)

  11. NOAA Climate Data Record of Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) Mean Layer Temperature, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains three channel-based, monthly gridded atmospheric layer temperature Climate Data Records generated by merging nine MSU NOAA polar orbiting...

  12. Interrogation of orbital structure by elliptically polarized intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation and present investigations of the imprint of the orbital angular node in photoelectron momentum distributions of an aligned atomic p-type orbital following ionization by an intense elliptically polarized laser pulse of femtosecond duration. We investigate the role of light ellipticity and the alignment angle of the major polarization axis of the external field relative to the probed orbital by studying radial and angular momentum distributions, the latter at a fixed narrow interval of final momenta close to the peak of the photoelectron momentum distribution. In general only the angular distributions carry a clear signature of the orbital symmetry. Our study shows that circular polarization gives the most clear imprints of orbital nodes. These findings are insensitive to pulse duration.

  13. Orbit Correction for the Newly Developed Polarization-Switching Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obina, Takashi; Honda, Tohru; Shioya, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    A new scheme of undulator magnet arrangements has been proposed and developed as a polarization-switching radiation source, and its test-stand was installed in the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring) in order to investigate the effects on the beam orbit. The closed orbit distortion (COD) over 200 μm was produced in a vertical direction when we switched the polarization of the radiation from the test-stand. In a horizontal direction, the COD was less than 50μm. The results agreed well with the predictions from the magnetic-field measurement on the bench. In order to suppress the CODs and realize a stable operation of the ring with the polarization-switching, we developed an orbit correction system which consists of an encoder to detect motion of magnets, a pair of beam position monitors (BPMs), signal processing parts, and a pair of steering magnets. We succeeded in suppressing the CODs to the level below 3μm using the system even when we switch the polarization at a maximum frequency of 0.8 Hz.

  14. New Developments in NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-Data Stewardship System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Morris, J. S.; Carter, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) is part of the NOAA strategic goal of Climate Adaptation and Mitigation that gives focus to the building and sustaining of key observational assets and data archives critical to maintaining the global climate record. Since 2002, CLASS has been NOAA's enterprise solution for ingesting, storing and providing access to a host of near real-time remote sensing streams such as the Polar and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (POES and GOES) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Since October, 2011 CLASS has also been the dedicated Archive Data Segment (ADS) of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). As the ADS, CLASS receives raw and processed S-NPP records for archival and distribution to the broad user community. Moving beyond just remote sensing and model data, NOAA has endorsed a plan to migrate all archive holdings from NOAA's National Data Centers into CLASS while retiring various disparate legacy data storage systems residing at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). In parallel to this data migration, CLASS is evolving to a service-oriented architecture utilizing cloud technologies for dissemination in addition to clearly defined interfaces that allow better collaboration with partners. This evolution will require implementation of standard access protocols and metadata which will lead to cost effective data and information preservation.

  15. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) System Architecture: Suomi-NPP to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgerson, J.; Layns, A.; Feeley, J. H.; Griffin, A.; Trumbower, G.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). NOAA has overall responsibility for the system including funding and requirements while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite was launched on 28 October, 2011, and is a pathfinder for JPSS and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system. S-NPP and the follow-on JPSS satellites will operate in the 1330 LTAN orbit. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in early 2017. NASA is developing the Common Ground System which will process JPSS data and has the flexibility to process data from other satellites. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for S-NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes S-NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to U.S. and international partners as well as remote terminal users throughout the world.

  16. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS

  17. Lesions to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex selectively impair reasoning about emotional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Lam, Elaine; Smith, Kathleen W; Goel, Amit; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2017-05-01

    While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks. We tested patients with circumscribed, focal lesions largely confined to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11) (N=17) on logical reasoning tasks involving neutral and emotional content, and compared their performance to that of an age and education-matched normal control group (N=22) and a posterior lesion control group (N=24). Our results revealed a significant group by content interaction driven by a selective impairment in the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex group compared to healthy normal controls and to the parietal patient group, in the emotional content reasoning trials. Subsequent analyses of congruent and incongruent reasoning trials indicated that this impairment was driven by the poor performance of patients with polar/orbital lesions in the incongruent trials. We conclude that the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in filtering emotionally charged content from the material before it is passed on to the reasoning system in lateral/dorsal regions of prefrontal cortex. Where unfiltered content is passed to the reasoning engine, either as a result of pathology (as in the case of our patients) or as a result of individual differences, reasoning performance suffers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Circular-Polarization-Selective Transmission Induced by Spin-Orbit Coupling in a Helical Tape Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahong; Guo, Qinghua; Liu, Hongchao; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Yang, Biao; Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuang; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Spin-orbit coupling of light, describing the interaction between the polarization (spin) and spatial degrees of freedom (orbit) of light, plays an important role in subwavelength scale systems and leads to many interesting phenomena, such as the spin Hall effect of light. Here, based on the spin-orbit coupling, we design and fabricate a helical tape waveguide (HTW), which can realize a circular-polarization-selective process. When the incident circularly polarized wave is of the same handedness as the helix of the HTW, a nearly complete transmission is observed; in contrast, a counterrotating circular polarization of incident wave results in a much lower transmission or is even totally blocked by the HTW. Indeed, both simulations and experiments reveal that the blocked component of power leaks through the helical aperture of the HTW and forms a conical beam analogous to helical Cherenkov radiation due to the conversion from the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum. Our HTW structure demonstrates its potential as a polarization selector in a broadband frequency range.

  1. Current-induced spin polarization in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.

  2. Ionic Potential and Band Narrowing as a Source of Orbital Polarization in Nickelate/Insulator Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandru B.; Disa, Ankit S.; Kumah, Divine P.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    Nickelate interfaces display complex, interacting electronic properties such as thickness dependent metal-insulator transitions. One large body of effort involving nickelates has aimed to split the energies of the Ni 3d orbitals (orbital polarization) to make the resulting band structure resemble that of cuprate superconductors. The most commonly studied interfacial system involves superlattices of alternating nickelate and insulating perovksite-structure layers; the resulting orbital polarization at the nickelate-insulator interface is understood as being due to confinement or structural symmetry breaking. By using first principles theory on the NdNiO3/NdAlO3 superlattice, we show that another important source of orbital polarization stems from electrostatic effects: the more ionic nature of the cations in the insulator (when compared to the nickelate) can shift the relative orbital energies of the Ni. We use density functional theory (DFT) and add electronic correlations via slave-bosons to describe the effect of correlation-induced band narrowing on the orbital polarization. Work supported by NSF Grant MRSEC DMR-1119826.

  3. Interrogation of orbital structure by elliptically polarized intense femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation and present investigations of the imprint of the orbital angular node in photoelectron momentum distributions of an aligned atomic p-type orbital following ionization by an intense elliptically polarized laser pulse of femtosecond...

  4. Preparing for Operational Use of High Priority Products from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) in Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S.; Layns, A. L.; Goldberg, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Ling, Y.; Collard, A.; Grumbine, R. W.; Sapper, J.; Ignatov, A.; Yoe, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    This work describes end to end operational implementation of high priority products from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) operational polar-orbiting satellite constellation, to include Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System series initial satellite (JPSS-1), into numerical weather prediction and earth systems models. Development and evaluation needed for the initial implementations of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDR) for Sea Surface Temperature ingestion in the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (RTG) and Polar Winds assimilated in the National Weather Service (NWS) Global Forecast System (GFS) is presented. These implementations ensure continuity of data in these models in the event of loss of legacy sensor data. Also discussed is accelerated operational implementation of Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) Temperature Data Records (TDR) and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) Sensor Data Records, identified as Key Performance Parameters by the National Weather Service. Operational use of SNPP after 28 October, 2011 launch took more than one year due to the learning curve and development needed for full exploitation of new remote sensing capabilities. Today, ATMS and CrIS data positively impact weather forecast accuracy. For NOAA's JPSS initial satellite (JPSS-1), scheduled for launch in late 2017, we identify scope and timelines for pre-launch and post-launch activities needed to efficiently transition these capabilities into operations. As part of these alignment efforts, operational readiness for KPPs will be possible as soon as 90 days after launch. The schedule acceleration is possible because of the experience with S-NPP. NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellite constellation provides continuity and enhancement of earth systems observations out to 2036. Program best practices and lessons learned will inform future implementation for follow-on JPSS-3 and -4

  5. Spin-polarized spin-orbit-split quantum-well states in a metal film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varykhalov, Andrei; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Gudat, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rader, Oliver [BESSY Berlin (Germany); Shikin, Alexander M. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Elements with high atomic number Z lead to a large spin-orbit coupling. Such materials can be used to create spin-polarized electronic states without the presence of a ferromagnet or an external magnetic field if the solid exhibits an inversion asymmetry. We create large spin-orbit splittings using a tungsten crystal as substrate and break the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that quantum-well states forming in the gold film are spin-orbit split and spin polarized up to a thickness of at least 10 atomic layers. This is a considerable progress as compared to the current literature which reports spin-orbit split states at metal surfaces which are either pure or covered by at most a monoatomic layer of adsorbates.

  6. After 10 years of service, NOAA retires GOES-12 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA HOME WEATHER OCEANS FISHERIES CHARTING SATELLITES CLIMATE RESEARCH COASTS CAREERS National oceans. In addition to GOES, NOAA also operates the polar operational environmental satellite (POES spacecraft. NOAA's mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment, from the depths

  7. Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Polarization Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Waluschka, Eugene; Wang, Menghua

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of five instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite that launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on October 28, 2011. It is a whiskbroom radiometer that provides +/-56.28deg scans of the Earth view. It has 22 bands, among which 14 are reflective solar bands (RSBs). The RSBs cover a wavelength range from 410 to 2250 nm. The RSBs of a remote sensor are usually sensitive to the polarization of incident light. For VIIRS, it is specified that the polarization factor should be smaller than 3% for 410 and 862 nm bands and 2.5% for other RSBs for the scan angle within +/-45deg. Several polarization sensitivity tests were performed prelaunch for SNPP VIIRS. The first few tests either had large uncertainty or were less reliable, while the last one was believed to provide the more accurate information about the polarization property of the instrument. In this paper, the measured data in the last polarization sensitivity test are analyzed, and the polarization factors and phase angles are derived from the measurements for all the RSBs. The derived polarization factors and phase angles are band, detector, and scan angle dependent. For near-infrared bands, they also depend on the half-angle mirror side. Nevertheless, the derived polarization factors are all within the specification, although the strong detector dependence of the polarization parameters was not expected. Compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on both Aqua and Terra satellites, the polarization effect on VIIRS RSB is much smaller.

  8. Polar Motion Studies and NOAA's Legacy of International Scientific Cooperation: Ukiah and Gaithersburg Latitude Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamise, D. J., II; Stone, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1895, the International Geodetic Association invited the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) to join in an unprecedented international effort to observe and measure the earth's polar motion. This effort was in response to the American astronomer Seth C. Chandler Jr. announcing his 1891 discovery that the earth's axis of rotation—and hence the direction of true north—wobbles within the earth with a period of about 14 months, varying latitude everywhere on the globe. In 1899, two astro-geodetic observatories were built in Gaithersburg, Maryland and Ukiah, California with three others in Caloforte, Italy; Kitab, Russia (now Uzbekistan); and Mizusawa, Japan. (A sixth station was located and operated at an astronomical observatory in Cincinnati, Ohio until 1916 using instruments loaned by USC&GS). All five observatories were located along the same parallel - approximately 35 degrees - 8 minutes. The observatories were decommissioned in 1982, and subsequently, NOAA deeded the two remaining U.S. observatories to the cities of Gaithersburg and Ukiah. The observatories and adjacent property were to be used as parkland. Both cities have restored the observatories and opened public parks. Recently, Gaithersburg (Ukiah in progress) has had its latitude observatory dedicated as a National Historic Landmark. In 2014-15, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS, the present-day NOAA successor to the USC&GS) loaned the original zenith telescopes to the communities, returning the observatories to their original configuration. The contribution of NOAA observers and the data collected is still important to astronomers and geophysicists and has practical applications in spacecraft navigation and geospatial positioning. This poster will bring to fruition this multiyear effort among partners by providing examples of NOAA's mission and contribution to science, service, and stewardship at both geodetic observatories, through programs and historic exhibits for students and the

  9. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Current Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Panas, M.; Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture is being upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to "operationalize" S-NPP, leverage lessons learned to date in multi-mission support, take advantage of more reliable and efficient technologies, and satisfy new requirements and constraints in the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 49 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 10 categories, such as data latency, operational availability and scalability. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 10 TPM categories listed above. We will provide updates on how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  10. Electrical polarization and orbital magnetization: the modern theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resta, Raffaele

    2010-01-01

    Macroscopic polarization P and magnetization M are the most fundamental concepts in any phenomenological description of condensed media. They are intensive vector quantities that intuitively carry the meaning of dipole per unit volume. But for many years both P and the orbital term in M evaded even a precise microscopic definition, and severely challenged quantum-mechanical calculations. If one reasons in terms of a finite sample, the electric (magnetic) dipole is affected in an extensive way by charges (currents) at the sample boundary, due to the presence of the unbounded position operator in the dipole definitions. Therefore P and the orbital term in M-phenomenologically known as bulk properties-apparently behave as surface properties; only spin magnetization is problemless. The field has undergone a genuine revolution since the early 1990s. Contrary to a widespread incorrect belief, P has nothing to do with the periodic charge distribution of the polarized crystal: the former is essentially a property of the phase of the electronic wavefunction, while the latter is a property of its modulus. Analogously, the orbital term in M has nothing to do with the periodic current distribution in the magnetized crystal. The modern theory of polarization, based on a Berry phase, started in the early 1990s and is now implemented in most first-principle electronic structure codes. The analogous theory for orbital magnetization started in 2005 and is partly work in progress. In the electrical case, calculations have concerned various phenomena (ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and lattice dynamics) in several materials, and are in spectacular agreement with experiments; they have provided thorough understanding of the behaviour of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. In the magnetic case the very first calculations are appearing at the time of writing (2010). Here I review both theories on a uniform ground in a density functional theory (DFT) framework, pointing out

  11. Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2013-06-01

    The Rashba effect in quasi two-dimensional materials, such as noble metal surfaces and semiconductor heterostructures, has been investigated extensively, while interest in real two-dimensional systems has just emerged with the discovery of graphene. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te). In contrast to the non-polar systems with X = Y, in the polar systems with X ≠ Y the Rashba splitting at the Γ-point for the uppermost valence band is caused by the broken mirror symmetry. An enhancement of the splitting can be achieved by increasing the spin-orbit coupling and/or the potential gradient. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.

  12. Spin-orbit controlled capacitance of a polar heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Kevin; Kopp, Thilo [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Loder, Florian [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, EP VI and TP III, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Oxide heterostructures with polar films display special electronic properties, such as the electronic reconstruction at their internal interfaces with the formation of two-dimensional metallic states. Moreover, the electrical field from the polar layers is inversion-symmetry breaking and may generate a strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) in the interfacial electronic system. We investigate the capacitance of a heterostructure in which a strong RSOC at a metallic interface is controlled by the electric field of a surface electrode. Such a structure is for example given by a LaAlO{sub 3} film on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate which is gated by a top electrode. We find that due to a strong RSOC the capacitance can be larger than the classical geometric value.

  13. NOAA Interest in Small Satellite Solutions for Mitigation of Data Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, M.; Tewey, K.; John, P.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is undertaking a strategy to achieve satellite constellation robustness by 2023 to maintain continuity of polar satellite observations, which are central to NOAA's weather forecast capability. NOAA's plans include mitigation activities in the event of a loss of polar observations. In 2017, NOAA will begin development of the Earth Observing Nanosatellite - Microwave (EON-MW). EON-MW is a miniature microwave sounder that approximates the atmospheric profiling capabilities of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instrument on the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). NOAA is collaborating with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory (MIT / LL) on EON-MW, which includes 2 years of risk reduction efforts to further define the EON-MW mission and identify and manage key technical risks. These studies will refine designs and evaluate system trades for operational earth observations from a U-class satellite platform, as well as examine microwave sensor concepts and investigated payload architecture to support microwave frequencies for atmospheric remote sensing. Similar to EON-MW, NOAA is also investigating the potential to mitigate against the loss of the JPSS Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) data with a CubeSat based mid-wave Infrared sounder. NOAA is collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to design the Earth Observation Nanosatellite-Infrared (EON-IR). EON-IR will leverage the NASA-JPL CubSat based infrared sounder CubSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) mission. In FY 2015 NOAA funded a study to analyze the feasibility of meeting the essential requirements of the CrIS from a CubeSat platform and began exploring the basic design of the EON-IR payload and bus. NOAA will continue to study EON-IR in 2016 by examining ways to modify the CIRAS design to better meet NOAA's observational and operational needs. These modifications will aim to increase mission

  14. Recent Enhancements in NOAA's JPSS Land Product Suite and Key Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Yu, Y.; Zhan, X.; Vargas, M.; Ek, M. B.; Zheng, W.; Wu, Y.; Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Ahmadov, R.; James, E.; Grell, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of operational land products has been produced as part of NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program to support a wide range of operational applications in environmental monitoring, prediction, disaster management and mitigation, and decision support. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and the operational JPSS satellite series forms the basis of six fundamental and multiple additional added-value environmental data records (EDRs). A major recent improvement in the land-based VIIRS EDRs has been the development of global gridded products, providing a format and science content suitable for ingest into NOAA's operational land surface and coupled numerical weather prediction models. VIIRS near-real-time Green Vegetation Fraction is now in the process of testing for full operational use, while land surface temperature and albedo are under testing and evaluation. The operational 750m VIIRS active fire product, including fire radiative power, is used to support emission modeling and air quality applications. Testing the evaluation for operational NOAA implementation of the improved 375m VIIRS active fire product is also underway. Added-value and emerging VIIRS land products include vegetation health, phenology, near-real-time surface type and surface condition change, and other biogeophysical variables. As part of the JPSS program, a global soil moisture data product has also been generated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor on the GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1) satellite since July 2012. This product is included in the blended NESDIS Soil Moisture Operational Products System, providing soil moisture data as a critical input for land surface modeling.

  15. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.

  16. SST, NOAA POES AVHRR, GAC, 0.1 degrees, Global, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  17. Medical Implications of Space Radiation Exposure Due to Low-Altitude Polar Orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Auñon-Chancellor, Serena M; Charles, John

    2018-01-01

    Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity. In this study, we have modeled the nominal and off-nominal radiation environment that a MOL-like spacecraft vehicle would be exposed to during a 30-d mission using high performance, multicore computers. Projected doses from a historically large SPE (e.g., the August 1972 solar event) have been analyzed in the context of the MOL orbit profile, providing an opportunity to study its impact to crew health and subsequent contingencies. It is reasonable to presume that future commercial, government, and military spaceflight missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) will have vehicles with similar shielding and orbital profiles. Studying the impact of cosmic radiation to the mission's operational integrity and the health of MOL crewmembers provides an excellent surrogate and case-study for future commercial and military spaceflight missions.Chancellor JC, Auñon-Chancellor SM, Charles J. Medical implications of space radiation exposure due to low-altitude polar orbits. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):3-8.

  18. Temperature, All Surface, NOAA POES AVHRR, LAC, 0.0125 degrees, West US, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides surface temperature products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data is provided at high resolution...

  19. SST, NOAA POES AVHRR, LAC, 0.0125 degrees, West US, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data is provided at high...

  20. Effect of Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Couplings on Electron Spin Polarization in a Hybrid Magnetic-Electric Barrier Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Peng; Lu, Mao-Wang; Huang, Xin-Hong; Tang, Qiang; Zhou, Yong-Long

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on the spin-dependent electron transport in a hybrid magnetic-electric barrier nanostructure with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic strip and a Schottky metal strip on top of a semiconductor heterostructure. The spin-orbit coupling-dependent transmission coefficient, conductance, and spin polarization are calculated by solving the Schrödinger equation exactly with the help of the transfer-matrix method. We find that both the magnitude and sign of the electron spin polarization vary strongly with the spin-orbit coupling strength. Thus, the degree of electron spin polarization can be manipulated by properly adjusting the spin-orbit coupling strength, and such a nanosystem can be employed as a controllable spin filter for spintronics applications.

  1. Polar2Grid 2.0: Reprojecting Satellite Data Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoese, D.; Strabala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Polar-orbiting multi-band meteorological sensors such as those on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite pose substantial challenges for taking imagery the last mile to forecast offices, scientific analysis environments, and the general public. To do this quickly and easily, the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin has created an open-source, modular application system, Polar2Grid. This bundled solution automates tools for converting various satellite products like those from VIIRS and MODIS into a variety of output formats, including GeoTIFFs, AWIPS compatible NetCDF files, and NinJo forecasting workstation compatible TIFF images. In addition to traditional visible and infrared imagery, Polar2Grid includes three perceptual enhancements for the VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB), as well as providing the capability to create sharpened true color, sharpened false color, and user-defined RGB images. Polar2Grid performs conversions and projections in seconds on large swaths of data. Polar2Grid is currently providing VIIRS imagery over the Continental United States, as well as Alaska and Hawaii, from various Direct-Broadcast antennas to operational forecasters at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) offices in their AWIPS terminals, within minutes of an overpass of the Suomi NPP satellite. Three years after Polar2Grid development started, the Polar2Grid team is now releasing version 2.0 of the software; supporting more sensors, generating more products, and providing all of its features in an easy to use command line interface.

  2. NOAA History - NOAA Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA History Banner gold bar divider home - takes you to index page about the site contacts noaa formed agency. The documents in this section include information on the history of the formation of NOAA . agency history noaa seal NOAA Historical background information on NOAA as an agency of the Department of

  3. Modification of the method of polarized orbitals for electron--alkali-metal scattering: Application to e-Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.K.; Temkin, A.; Silver, A.; Sullivan, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    The method of polarized orbitals is modified to treat low-energy scattering of electrons from highly polarizable systems, specifically alkali-metal atoms. The modification is carried out in the particular context of the e-Li system, but the procedure is general; it consists of modifying the polarized orbital, so that when used in the otherwise orthodox form of the method, it gives (i) the correct electron affinity of the negative ion (in this case Li - ), (ii) the proper (i.e., Levinson-Swan) number of nodes of the associated zero-energy scattering orbital, and (iii) the correct polarizability. A procedure is devised whereby the scattering length can be calculated from the (known) electron affinity without solving the bound-state equation. Using this procedure we adduce a 1 S scattering length of 8.69a 0 . (The 3 S scattering length is -9.22a 0 .) The above modifications can also be carried out in the (lesser) exchange adiabatic approximation. However, they lead to qualitatively incorrect 3 S phase shifts. The modified polarized-orbital phase shifts are qualitatively similar to close-coupling and elaborate variational calculations. Quantitative differences from the latter calculations, however, remain; they are manifested most noticeably in the very-low-energy total and differential spin-flip cross sections

  4. Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G

    2008-01-01

    We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons

  5. Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G

    2008-03-19

    We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons.

  6. Polarized atomic orbitals for linear scaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghold, Gerd; Parrinello, Michele; Hutter, Jürg

    2002-02-01

    We present a modified version of the polarized atomic orbital (PAO) method [M. S. Lee and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9085 (1997)] to construct minimal basis sets optimized in the molecular environment. The minimal basis set derives its flexibility from the fact that it is formed as a linear combination of a larger set of atomic orbitals. This approach significantly reduces the number of independent variables to be determined during a calculation, while retaining most of the essential chemistry resulting from the admixture of higher angular momentum functions. Furthermore, we combine the PAO method with linear scaling algorithms. We use the Chebyshev polynomial expansion method, the conjugate gradient density matrix search, and the canonical purification of the density matrix. The combined scheme overcomes one of the major drawbacks of standard approaches for large nonorthogonal basis sets, namely numerical instabilities resulting from ill-conditioned overlap matrices. We find that the condition number of the PAO overlap matrix is independent from the condition number of the underlying extended basis set, and consequently no numerical instabilities are encountered. Various applications are shown to confirm this conclusion and to compare the performance of the PAO method with extended basis-set calculations.

  7. A planet in a polar orbit of 1.4 solar-mass star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although more than a thousand transiting extrasolar planets have been discovered, only very few of them orbit stars that are more massive than the Sun. The discovery of such planets is interesting, because they have formed in disks that are more massive but had a shorter life time than those of solar-like stars. Studies of planets more massive than the Sun thus tell us how the properties of the proto-planetary disks effect the formation of planets. Another aspect that makes these planets interesting is that they have kept their original orbital inclinations. By studying them we can thus find out whether the orbital axes planets are initially aligned to the stars rotational axes, or not. Here we report on the discovery of a planet of a 1.4 solar-mass star with a period of 5.6 days in a polar orbit made by CoRoT. This new planet thus is one of the few known close-in planets orbiting a star that is substantially more massive than the Sun.

  8. Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates of rotating polar molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; You, L.; Yi, S.

    2018-05-01

    An experimental proposal for realizing spin-orbit (SO) coupling of pseudospin 1 in the ground manifold 1Σ (υ =0 ) of (bosonic) bialkali polar molecules is presented. The three spin components are composed of the ground rotational state and two substates from the first excited rotational level. Using hyperfine resolved Raman processes through two select excited states resonantly coupled by a microwave, an effective coupling between the spin tensor and linear momentum is realized. The properties of Bose-Einstein condensates for such SO-coupled molecules exhibiting dipolar interactions are further explored. In addition to the SO-coupling-induced stripe structures, the singly and doubly quantized vortex phases are found to appear, implicating exciting opportunities for exploring novel quantum physics using SO-coupled rotating polar molecules with dipolar interactions.

  9. Joint Polar Satellite System: the United States New Generation Civilian Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the Nation's advanced series of polar-orbiting environmental satellites. JPSS represents significant technological and scientific advancements in observations used for severe weather prediction and environmental monitoring. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) is providing state-of-the art atmospheric, oceanographic, and environmental data, as the first of the JPSS satellites while the second in the series, J-1, is scheduled to launch in October 2017. The JPSS baseline consists of a suite of four instruments: an advanced microwave and infrared sounders which are critical for weather forecasting; a leading-edge visible and infrared imager critical to data sparse areas such as Alaska and needed for environmental assessments such as snow/ice cover, droughts, volcanic ash, forest fires and surface temperature; and an ozone sensor primarily used for global monitoring of ozone and input to weather and climate models. The same suite of instruments that are on JPSS-1 will be on JPSS-2, 3 and 4. The JPSS-2 instruments are well into their assembly and test phases and are scheduled to be completed in 2018. The JPSS-2 spacecraft critical design review (CDR) is scheduled for 2Q 2018 with the launch in 2021. The sensors for the JPSS-3 and 4 spacecraft have been approved to enter into their acquisition phases. JPSS partnership with the US National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) continues to provide a strong foundation for the program's success. JPSS also continues to maintain its important international relationships with European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). JPSS works closely with its user community through the Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program to identify opportunities to maximize the operational application of current JPSS capabilities. The PGRR Program also helps identify and evaluate the use of JPSS

  10. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H.

    The tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO) is responsible for managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS will replace the current military and civilian operational polar-orbiting ``weather'' satellites. The Northrop Grumman Space Technology - Raytheon team was competitively selected in 2002 as the Acquisition and Operations contractor team to develop, integrate, deploy, and operate NPOESS satellites to meet the tri-agency user requirements for NPOESS over the 10-year (2009-2018) operational life of the program. Beginning in 2009, NPOESS spacecraft will be launched into three orbital planes to provide significantly improved operational capabilities and benefits to satisfy critical civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving operational ``weather'' satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land, and the space environment. In recent years, the operational weather forecasting and climate science communities have levied more rigorous requirements on space-based observations of the Earth's system that have significantly increased demands on performance of the instruments, spacecraft, and ground systems required to deliver NPOESS data, products, and information to end users. The ``end-to-end'' system consists of: the spacecraft; instruments and sensors on the spacecraft; launch support capabilities; the command, control, communications, and data routing infrastructure; and data processing hardware and software. NPOESS will observe significantly more phenomena simultaneously from space than its operational predecessors. NPOESS is expected to deliver large volumes of more accurate measurements at higher spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal resolution at much higher data

  11. Diagnosing low earth orbit satellite anomalies using NOAA-15 electron data associated with geomagnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nizam; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Djamaluddin, Thomas; Usui, Hideyuki; Miyake, Yohei

    2018-05-01

    A satellite placed in space is constantly affected by the space environment, resulting in various impacts from temporary faults to permanent failures depending on factors such as satellite orbit, solar and geomagnetic activities, satellite local time, and satellite construction material. Anomaly events commonly occur during periods of high geomagnetic activity that also trigger plasma variation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. In this study, we diagnosed anomalies in LEO satellites using electron data from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-15 satellite. In addition, we analyzed the fluctuation of electron flux in association with geomagnetic disturbances 3 days before and after the anomaly day. We selected 20 LEO anomaly cases registered in the Satellite News Digest database for the years 2000-2008. Satellite local time, an important parameter for anomaly diagnosis, was determined using propagated two-line element data in the SGP4 simplified general perturbation model to calculate the longitude of the ascending node of the satellite through the position and velocity vectors. The results showed that the majority of LEO satellite anomalies are linked to low-energy electron fluxes of 30-100 keV and magnetic perturbations that had a higher correlation coefficient ( 90%) on the day of the anomaly. The mean local time calculation for the anomaly day with respect to the nighttime migration of energetic electrons revealed that the majority of anomalies (65%) occurred on the night side of Earth during the dusk-to-dawn sector of magnetic local time.

  12. KEPLER-63b: A GIANT PLANET IN A POLAR ORBIT AROUND A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John Asher; Torres, Guillermo; Carter, Joshua A.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Geary, John C.; Campante, Tiago L.; Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Lund, Mikkel N.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Everett, Mark E.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery and characterization of a giant planet orbiting the young Sun-like star Kepler-63 (KOI-63, m Kp = 11.6, T eff = 5576 K, M * = 0.98 M ☉ ). The planet transits every 9.43 days, with apparent depth variations and brightening anomalies caused by large starspots. The planet's radius is 6.1 ± 0.2 R ⊕ , based on the transit light curve and the estimated stellar parameters. The planet's mass could not be measured with the existing radial-velocity data, due to the high level of stellar activity, but if we assume a circular orbit, then we can place a rough upper bound of 120 M ⊕ (3σ). The host star has a high obliquity (ψ = 104°), based on the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and an analysis of starspot-crossing events. This result is valuable because almost all previous obliquity measurements are for stars with more massive planets and shorter-period orbits. In addition, the polar orbit of the planet combined with an analysis of spot-crossing events reveals a large and persistent polar starspot. Such spots have previously been inferred using Doppler tomography, and predicted in simulations of magnetic activity of young Sun-like stars

  13. KEPLER-63b: A GIANT PLANET IN A POLAR ORBIT AROUND A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Torres, Guillermo; Carter, Joshua A.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Geary, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Campante, Tiago L.; Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lund, Mikkel N. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Buchhave, Lars A. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); and others

    2013-09-20

    We present the discovery and characterization of a giant planet orbiting the young Sun-like star Kepler-63 (KOI-63, m{sub Kp} = 11.6, T{sub eff} = 5576 K, M{sub *} = 0.98 M{sub ☉}). The planet transits every 9.43 days, with apparent depth variations and brightening anomalies caused by large starspots. The planet's radius is 6.1 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊕}, based on the transit light curve and the estimated stellar parameters. The planet's mass could not be measured with the existing radial-velocity data, due to the high level of stellar activity, but if we assume a circular orbit, then we can place a rough upper bound of 120 M{sub ⊕} (3σ). The host star has a high obliquity (ψ = 104°), based on the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and an analysis of starspot-crossing events. This result is valuable because almost all previous obliquity measurements are for stars with more massive planets and shorter-period orbits. In addition, the polar orbit of the planet combined with an analysis of spot-crossing events reveals a large and persistent polar starspot. Such spots have previously been inferred using Doppler tomography, and predicted in simulations of magnetic activity of young Sun-like stars.

  14. Lessons Learned in the Flight Qualification of the S-NPP and NOAA-20 Solar Array Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Daniel; Sexton, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Deployable solar arrays are the energy source used on almost all Earth orbiting spacecraft and their release and deployment are mission-critical; fully testing them on the ground is a challenging endeavor. The 8 meter long deployable arrays flown on two sequential NASA weather satellites were each comprised of three rigid panels almost 2 meters wide. These large panels were deployed by hinges comprised of stacked constant force springs, eddy current dampers, and were restrained through launch by a set of four releasable hold-downs using shape memory alloy release devices. The ground qualification testing of such unwieldy deployable solar arrays, whose design was optimized for orbital operations, proved to be quite challenging and provides numerous lessons learned. A paperwork review and follow-up inspection after hardware storage determined that there were negative torque margins and missing lubricant, this paper will explain how these unexpected issues were overcome. The paper will also provide details on how the hinge subassemblies, the fully-assembled array, and mechanical ground support equipment were subsequently improved and qualified for a follow-on flight with considerably less difficulty. The solar arrays built by Ball Aerospace Corp. for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1) satellite (now NOAA-20) were both successfully deployed on-obit and are performing well.

  15. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key

  16. Evolution of the JPSS Ground Project Calibration and Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patrick; Chander, Gyanesh; Jain, Peyush

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation operational Earth observation Program that acquires and distributes global environmental data from multiple polar-orbiting satellites. The JPSS Program plays a critical role to NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in weather, climate, oceans, coasts, and space environments, which supports the Nation's economy and protection of lives and property. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is acquiring and implementing the JPSS, comprised of flight and ground systems, on behalf of NOAA. The JPSS satellites are planned to fly in the afternoon orbit and will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. To support the JPSS Calibration and Validation (CalVal) node Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) services facilitate: Algorithm Integration and Checkout, Algorithm and Product Operational Tuning, Instrument Calibration, Product Validation, Algorithm Investigation, and Data Quality Support and Monitoring. GRAVITE is a mature, deployed system that currently supports the SNPP Mission and has been in operations since SNPP launch. This paper discusses the major re-architecture for Block 2.0 that incorporates SNPP lessons learned, architecture of the system, and demonstrates how GRAVITE has evolved as a system with increased performance. It is now a robust, stable, reliable, maintainable, scalable, and secure system that supports development, test, and production strings, replaces proprietary and custom software, uses open source software, and is compliant with NASA and NOAA standards.

  17. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  18. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMaken, Tyler C. [National Solar Observatory REU Program, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Petrie, Gordon J. D., E-mail: tmcmaken@gmail.com, E-mail: gpetrie@noao.edu [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, 3rd Floor, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  19. The Great Solar Active Region NOAA 12192: Helicity Transport, Filament Formation, and Impact on the Polar Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Gordon; McMaken, Tyler C.

    2017-08-01

    The solar active region (AR), NOAA 12192, appeared in 2014 October as the largest AR in 24 years. Here we examine the counterintuitive nature of two diffusion-driven processes in the region: the role of helicity buildup in the formation of a major filament, and the relationship between the effects of supergranular diffusion and meridional flow on the AR and on the polar field. Quantitatively, calculations of current helicity and magnetic twist from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) vector magnetograms indicate that, though AR 12192 emerged with negative helicity, positive helicity from subsequent flux emergence, consistent with the hemispheric sign-preference of helicity, increased over time within large-scale, weak-field regions such as those near the polarity inversion line (PIL). Morphologically, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of filament barbs, sigmoidal patterns, and bases of Fe xii stalks initially exhibited signatures of negative helicity, and the long filament that subsequently formed had a strong positive helicity consistent with the helicity buildup along the PIL. We find from full-disk HMI magnetograms that AR 12192's leading positive flux was initially closer to the equator but, owing either to the region’s magnetic surroundings or to its asymmetric flux density distribution, was transported poleward more quickly on average than its trailing negative flux, contrary to the canonical pattern of bipole flux transport. This behavior caused the AR to have a smaller effect on the polar fields than expected and enabled the formation of the very long neutral line where the filament formed.

  20. The cosmic ray and solar flare isotope experiments in the CRRES, NOAA-I and ''Ulysses'' satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.

    1990-01-01

    The ONR-604 instrument has been designed to measure the energy spectra and the isotopic composition at 1 AU of the elements Hydrogen to Nickel in the energy range 40--500 MeV/n and will be carried by the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to be launched July, 1990 in a highly eccentric orbit between a low perigee and a synchronous orbit point. It will measure galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and trapped and pseudo-trapped particles in the Earth magnetosphere. Also at 1 AU, the Energetic Heavy Ion Composition (EHIC) instrument, designed to study mainly the elemental and isotopic composition of solar energetic particles over the charge range H to Ni, in the energy range 0.5 to 200 MeV/n, will be placed in a Sun-synchronous circular polar orbit of 833 or 870 km altitude by a NOAA-I satellite scheduled to be launched late 1990 or early 1991. The University of Chicago High Energy Telescope (HET) experiment which is part of the COSPIN consortium on the ''Ulysses'' mission will measure the energy spectra and the isotopic composition of the elments Hydrogen to Nickel in the energy interval 20--450 MeV/n in the heliosphere, both the ecliptic plane and at high heliographic latitudes in an orbit around the Sun that will have an aphelion near a Jupiter orbit point and a perhelion of about 1.4 AU. It will be launched October 1990

  1. Current Operational Use of and Future Needs for Microwave Imagery at NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.; McWilliams, G.; Chang, P.

    2017-12-01

    There are many applications of microwave imagery served by NOAA's operational products and services. They include the use of microwave imagery and derived products for monitoring precipitation, tropical cyclones, sea surface temperature under all weather conditions, wind speed, snow and ice cover, and even soil moisture. All of NOAA's line offices including the National Weather Service, National Ocean Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, and Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research rely on microwave imagery. Currently microwave imagery products used by NOAA come from a constellation of satellites that includes Air Force's Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), the Japanese Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR), the Navy's WindSat, and NASA's Global Precipitation Monitoring (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI). Follow-on missions for SSMIS are very uncertain, JAXA approval for a follow-on to AMSR2 is still pending, and GMI is a research satellite (lacking high-latitude coverage) with no commitment for operational continuity. Operational continuity refers to a series of satellites, so when one satellite reaches its design life a new satellite is launched. EUMETSAT has made a commitment to fly a microwave imager in the mid-morning orbit. China and Russia have demonstrated on-orbit microwave imagers. Of utmost importance to NOAA, however, is the quality, access, and latency of the data This presentation will focus on NOAA's current requirements for microwave imagery data which, for the most part, are being fulfilled by AMSR2, SSMIS, and WindSat. It will include examples of products and applications of microwave imagery at NOAA. We will also discuss future needs, especially for improved temporal resolution which hopefully can be met by an international constellation of microwave imagers. Finally, we will discuss what we are doing to address the potential gap in imagery.

  2. NOAA Administrative Order 216-115: Strengthening NOAA's Research and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee Directives Management System NOAA Administrative Orders NOAA Circulars NOAA Delegations support NOAA in addressing critical science challenges, particularly those requiring integrated, holistic Quality Act (2001), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-11 (OMB, 2009a), the Open

  3. Magnetic-field fluctuations from 0 to 26 Hz observed from a polar-orbiting satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The polar orbit of the Viking satellite provides a unique opportunity to obtain observations of magnetic fluctuations at mid-altitudes on the dayside of the magnetosphere and in the polar-cusp region. One type of magnetic-field fluctuation, observed in the dayside magnetosphere, was Pc 1 waves. Pc 1 waves are in the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron mode and are generated by anisotropies in energetic ion distributions. The waves are thought to be generated near the equator and to propagate large distances along magnetic-field lines. Most observations of Pc 1 waves have been obtained near the equator using geosynchronous satellites and on the surface of the earth. The Viking observations provide an opportunity to observe Pc 1 waves at mid-latitudes above the ionosphere and to determine the spectral structure and polarization of the waves. ULF/ELF broadband noise represents a second type of magnetic fluctuation acquired by Viking. This type of magnetic fluctuation was observed at high latitudes near the polar cusp and may be useful in the identification of polar-cusp boundaries. Thirdly, electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves have also been observed in the polar-cusp region. These waves occur only during an unusually high level of magnetic activity and appear to be generated locally

  4. Ejectile polarization and nuclear orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Maruyama, T.; Horiuchi, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ejectile polarization phenomena are studied by the use of 'Quantum Molecular Dynamics plus external mean field' model. It is shown that the far-side contribution increases as the incident energy increases or the target charge decreases. The incident energy and the target dependence of ejectile polarization data is reproduced qualitatively. The near- and far-side contributions themselves are calculated to be almost monotone functions of ejectile momentum as is predicted in a simple projectile fragmentation scheme without the assumption that the linear and angular momentum transfers are negligible, and their statistical average results in various shapes in ejectile polarization

  5. Energy spectrum, the spin polarization, and the optical selection rules of the Kronig-Penney superlattice model with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui

    2018-02-01

    The Kronig-Penney model, an exactly solvable one-dimensional model of crystal in solid physics, shows how the allowed and forbidden bands are formed in solids. In this paper, we study this model in the presence of both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman field. We analytically obtain four transcendental equations that represent an implicit relation between the energy and the Bloch wave vector. Solving these four transcendental equations, we obtain the spin-orbital bands exactly. In addition to the usual band gap opened at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, a much larger spin-orbital band gap is also opened at some special sites inside the Brillouin zone. The x component of the spin-polarization vector is an even function of the Bloch wave vector, while the z component of the spin-polarization vector is an odd function of the Bloch wave vector. At the band edges, the optical transition rates between adjacent bands are nonzero.

  6. Perfect tuning of spin-polarization in a ring-shaped multiple-quantum-dot nanostructure in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, L., E-mail: Leslami@iust.ac.ir; Chaghari, Z.; Faizabadi, E.

    2013-09-02

    Spin-dependent electronic transport through an open multiple-quantum-dot ring threaded by a magnetic flux is theoretically investigated by using the single particle Green's function method. By introducing local Rashba spin–orbit interaction on an individual quantum dot and local magnetic moments on two of other quantum dots, we calculate the spin-polarization in the output lead. We find the spin-polarization can be tuned by manipulating magnetic moments, adjusting magnetic flux and setting the Rashba spin–orbit strength. It is also shown the system can operate as an efficient spin-inverter when the structure is adjusted properly. The analysis can be utilized in designing optimized nanodevices.

  7. NOAA History - Main Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA History Banner gold bar divider home - takes you to index page about the site contacts noaa americas science and service noaa legacy 1807 - 2007 NOAA History is an intrinsic part of the history of Initiative scroll divider More NOAA History from Around the Nation scroll divider drawing of a tornado NOAA

  8. NOAA budget would boost satellite funding but cut some key areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The White House's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), announced on 13 February, looks favorable at first glance. The administration's request calls for $5.1 billion, an increase of $153 million (3.1%) above the FY 2012 estimated budget. However, the increase for NOAA satellites is $163 million, which means that other areas within the agency would be slated for decreased funding, including programs within the National Ocean Service (NOS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Weather Service (NWS), and some NOAA education programs. The proposed overall budget for the agency “reflects the overarching importance of weather satellites to public safety, to national security, and to the economy,” NOAA director Jane Lubchenco said at a 16 February briefing, noting that difficult choices were made regarding the budget. “Due to significant resources required for our weather satellites and the economic conditions in the country, other parts of our budget have been reduced, in some cases quite significantly,” she said. She added that the imperative to fund both the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and geostationary satellites in FY 2013 “imposes serious constraints on the rest of NOAA's budget.”

  9. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.

    2002-01-01

    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...... to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning.......8-0.9) is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electro-jet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring...

  10. The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Byrne, Shane; Sun, Wenbo; Titus, Timothy N.; Colaprete, Anthony; Wolff, Michael J.; Videen, Gorden; Grund, Christian J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the scientific case to build a multiple-wavelength, active, near-infrared (NIR) instrument to measure the reflected intensity and polarization characteristics of backscattered radiation from planetary surfaces and atmospheres. We focus on the ability of such an instrument to enhance, potentially revolutionize, our understanding of climate, volatiles and astrobiological potential of modern-day Mars. Such an instrument will address the following three major science themes, which we address in this paper: Science Theme 1. Surface. This would include global, night and day mapping of H 2 O and CO 2 surface ice properties. Science Theme 2. Ice Clouds. This would including unambiguous discrimination and seasonal mapping of CO 2 and H 2 O ice clouds. Science Theme 3. Dust Aerosols. This theme would include multiwavelength polarization measurements to infer dust grain shapes and size distributions. - Highlights: • We present the scientific rationale for a multi-wavelength, polarization sensitive lidar to be placed in orbit around Mars. • Scientific questions focus on the Martian climate and modern-day interactions between surface, ice clouds and dust aerosols. • What we would learn about volatile transport and deposition has implications for past, present and future life on Mars

  11. Tunable ferroelectric polarization and its interplay with spin-orbit coupling in tin iodide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroppa, Alessandro; di Sante, Domenico; Barone, Paolo; Bokdam, Menno; Kresse, Georg; Franchini, Cesare; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Picozzi, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Ferroelectricity is a potentially crucial issue in halide perovskites, breakthrough materials in photovoltaic research. Using density functional theory simulations and symmetry analysis, we show that the lead-free perovskite iodide (FA)SnI3, containing the planar formamidinium cation FA, (NH2CHNH2)+, is ferroelectric. In fact, the perpendicular arrangement of FA planes, leading to a ‘weak’ polarization, is energetically more stable than parallel arrangements of FA planes, being either antiferroelectric or ‘strong’ ferroelectric. Moreover, we show that the ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ ferroelectric states with the polar axis along different crystallographic directions are energetically competing. Therefore, at least at low temperatures, an electric field could stabilize different states with the polarization rotated by π/4, resulting in a highly tunable ferroelectricity appealing for multistate logic. Intriguingly, the relatively strong spin-orbit coupling in noncentrosymmetric (FA)SnI3 gives rise to a co-existence of Rashba and Dresselhaus effects and to a spin texture that can be induced, tuned and switched by an electric field controlling the ferroelectric state.

  12. Height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivity patterns inferred from the TIROS-NOAA satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller-Rowell, T.J.; Evans, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The series of polar-orbiting National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration spacecraft TIROS, NOAA 6, and NOAA 7 have been monitoring the particle influx into the atmosphere since late 1978. This data base has been used to construct statistical global patterns of height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivities for a discrete set of auroral activity ranges. The observations of energy influx and ''characteristic electron energy'' have been binned in a 1 0 latitude and 2 0 magnetic local time grid and ordered by an auroral activity index. This index is an estimate of the energy deposited into a single hemisphere by incident particles, a parameter generated directly from the particle observations and, therefore, internally consistent with the statistical patterns that are constructed. An average electron spectrum is associated with each characteristic energy, which enables a height profile of ionization rate in the upper atmosphere to be determined. The use of a pressure coordinate system insures that the normalized ionization rate profiles are independent of atmospheric model parameters. To create the statistical pattern of height-integrated conductivities, however, vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and composition are assumed, and the ion density enhancements are evaluated from a chemical balance between ion production and recombination based on an ''effective'' recombination coefficient. The data base can also provide the statistical pattern of particle heating rates and ionization rates over a three-dimensional grid suitable as input to more sophisticated ionospheric and neutral thermospheric codes. copyright American Geophysical Union

  13. The effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on spin-polarized transport in hexagonal graphene nano-rings and flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghaei, M.; Heidari Semiromi, E.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum transport properties and spin polarization in hexagonal graphene nanostructures with zigzag edges and different sizes were investigated in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). The nanostructure was considered as a channel to which two semi-infinite armchair graphene nanoribbons were coupled as input and output leads. Spin transmission and spin polarization in x, y, and z directions were calculated through applying Landauer-Buttiker formalism with tight binding model and the Green's function to the system. In these quantum structures it is shown that changing the size of system, induce and control the spin polarized currents. In short, these graphene systems are typical candidates for electrical spintronic devices as spin filtering.

  14. Orbit Determination from Tracking Data of Artificial Satellite Using the Method of Differential Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Sun Lee

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The differential correction process determining osculating orbital elements as correct as possible at a given instant of time from tracking data of artificial satellite was accomplished. Preliminary orbital elements were used as an initial value of the differential correction procedure and iterated until the residual of real observation(O and computed observation(C was minimized. Tracking satellite was NOAA-9 or TIROS-N series. Two types of tracking data were prediction data precomputed from mean orbital elements of TBUS and real data obtained from tracking 1.707GHz HRPT signal of NOAA-9 using 5 meter auto-track antenna in Radio Research Laboratory. According to tracking data either Gauss method or Herrick-Gibbs method was applied to preliminary orbit determination. In the differential correction stage we used both of the Escobal(1975's analytical method and numerical ones are nearly consistent. And the differentially corrected orbit converged to the same value in spite of the differences between preliminary orbits of each time span.

  15. In-orbit verification of MHS spectral channels co-registration using the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    In-orbit verification of the co-registration of channels in a scanning microwave or infrared radiometer can in principle be done during normal in-orbit operation, by using the regular events of lunar intrusion in the instrument cold space calibration view. A technique of data analysis based on best fit of data across lunar intrusions has been used to check the mutual alignment of the spectral channels of the MHS instrument. MHS (Microwave Humidity Sounder) is a cross-track scanning radiometer in the millimetre-wave range flying on EUMETSAT and NOAA polar satellites, used operationally for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters in numerical weather prediction and nowcasting. This technique does not require any special operation or manoeuvre and only relies on analysis of data from the nominal scanning operation. The co-alignment of sounding channels and window channels can be evaluated by this technique, which would not be possible by using earth landmarks, due to the absorption effect of the atmosphere. The analysis reported in this paper shows an achievable accuracy below 0.5 mrad against a beam width at 3dB and spatial sampling interval of about 20 mrad. In-orbit results for the MHS instrument on Metop-B are also compared with the pre-launch instrument characterisation, showing a good correlation.

  16. Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling induced spin-polarization and resonance-split in n-well semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Chengzhi; Xue Rui; Nie, Y.-H.; Liang, J.-Q.

    2009-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, we investigate the electron transmission over multiple-well semiconductor superlattices with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in the potential-well regions. The superlattice structure enhances the effect of spin polarization in the transmission spectrum. The minibands of multiple-well superlattices for electrons with different spin can be completely separated at the low incident energy, leading to the 100% spin polarization in a broad energy windows, which may be an effective scheme for realizing spin filtering. Moreover, for the transmission over n-quantum-well, it is observed that the resonance peaks in the minibands split into n-folds or (n-1)-folds depending on the well-width and barrier-thickness, which is different from the case of tunneling through n-barrier structure

  17. Bringing Experience from the Field into the Classroom with the NOAA Teacher at Sea and PolarTREC Teacher Research Experience Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, E. D.; Kohin, S.; Oberbauer, S.

    2008-12-01

    As a participant of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Teacher at Sea (2007) and the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S., PolarTREC (2008) programs, I have had the opportunity to participate in hands-on research with leading scientific researchers from the tropics to the Arctic. These Teacher Researcher Experiences (TRE's) and the resulting relationships that have developed with the scientific community have been an asset to my professional development and have greatly enhanced my students' learning. The opportunity to participate in data collection and hands-on research with a NOAA researcher, Dr. Kohin, helped me bring shark, ocean, and ship science from my expedition onboard the NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan in the Channel Island region into my classroom. The new knowledge, experiences, and resources that I brought back allowed me to create lesson plans and host Shark Month--an activity that involved all 300 students in my school. My students were able to link real data regarding the location of sharks to practical application and still meet state standards. Likewise, the scientist from my PolarTREC expedition, Dr. Oberbauer, is assisting me in a long-term plan to incorporate his data into my classroom curricula. Already, my experiences from Barrow, Alaska, have been shared through webinars with my community and as a keynote speaker to over 600 Palm Beach County science teachers. We are also working together to develop a yearlong curriculum, in which my entire school of 300 students will discover interdisciplinary polar science. Participation in TRE's has been beneficial for my students and my community, but what is the return on the investment for the scientists who invited me to participate in their research? Both scientists have transferred their knowledge out of the laboratory and made a link between their research and a different generation--our future scientists. They become instrumental science leaders in a community of young

  18. SBUV2/NOAA-09 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV/2 NOAA-9 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  19. SBUV2/NOAA-16 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV/2 NOAA-16 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  20. POLARIZED BEAMS: 2 - Partial Siberian Snake rescues polarized protons at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haixin

    1994-01-01

    To boost the level of beam polarization (spin orientation), a partial 'Siberian Snake' was recently used to overcome imperfection depolarizing resonances in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This 9-degree spin rotator recently permitted acceleration with no noticeable polarization loss. The intrinsic AGS depolarizing resonances (which degrade the polarization content) had been eliminated by betatron tune jumps, but the imperfection resonances were compensated by means of harmonic orbit corrections. However, at high energies these orbit corrections are difficult and tedious and a Siberian Snake became an attractive alternative

  1. NOAA FOIA Reading Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports NOAA Organizational Chart [Back to Top] Major Information Systems NOAA Online Library The NOAA Library maintains publications on microfiche, microfilm, compact discs, and databases that support publications can be accessed from this link. NOAA's mission statement, strategic plan, organizational structure

  2. Warm and hot electron distribution in the inner magnetosphere and the plasmasheet region related to the magnetospheric indices and the solar wind parameters: a statistical study form the NOAA POES TED and MEPED data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscher, Daniel; Rochel Grimald, Sandrine

    2013-04-01

    Using DMSP satellites, low altitude measurements has demonstrated to give a good picture of the plasmasheet population. The NOAA POES satellites are a constellation of five spacecraft orbiting in a polar orbit between 800 and 850 km and covering a wide L-shell range. They provide fourteen years of data without interruption which allow to make statistical study of the inner magnetosphere and the plasmasheet population. Moreover, since 2002, three of the NOAA POES satellites are located at different local times allowing to deduce the plasmasheet properties, even for huge magnetic activity. This paper present a statistical study of the warm and hot electron density over an energy range [0.16 ; 300] keV and between 1 and 12 Re. We present here maps in Mac Ilwain L paramater / MLT and we use the magnetic indices and solar wind parameter to classify our observations. The results show a clear motion of the plasmapause when Kp increase, which is in agreement with previous results, but it also show changes of the plasmapause shape and strong density variations in the night side sector. Moreover, a clear link between the solar wind parameters, in particular Bz, and the density distribution has been established. Unexpected distributions have been observed in the dayside and will be discussed here.

  3. Jpss System Architecture Npp to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgerson, J.; Trumbower, G.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system, named the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) serves as the acquisition and development agent. JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA in the 1330 local time of ascending node (LTAN) orbit. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) was launched into the 1330 LTAN orbit on October 28, 2011, and carries advanced sensors which will be featured on JPSS. It serves as a bridge mission and provides continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System and the POES. JPSS-1 is scheduled to launch in 2017. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD is operating in the 1730 LTAN orbit. The DoD is developing the Defense Weather Satellite Follow-on (WSF) system which will continue in the 1730 orbit. NASA is developing the Common Ground System (CGS) with the capability to process data from both the JPSS and WSF constellations. The CGS will be operated by NOAA. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the JPSS system architecture. The space segment carries a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and climatological observations of the earth and atmosphere. The system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPP/JPSS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPP/JPSS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers as well as remote terminal users.

  4. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  5. Useful lower limits to polarization contributions to intermolecular interactions using a minimal basis of localized orthogonal orbitals: theory and analysis of the water dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, R Julian; Horn, Paul Richard; Sundstrom, Eric Jon; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2013-02-28

    The problem of describing the energy-lowering associated with polarization of interacting molecules is considered in the overlapping regime for self-consistent field wavefunctions. The existing approach of solving for absolutely localized molecular orbital (ALMO) coefficients that are block-diagonal in the fragments is shown based on formal grounds and practical calculations to often overestimate the strength of polarization effects. A new approach using a minimal basis of polarized orthogonal local MOs (polMOs) is developed as an alternative. The polMO basis is minimal in the sense that one polarization function is provided for each unpolarized orbital that is occupied; such an approach is exact in second-order perturbation theory. Based on formal grounds and practical calculations, the polMO approach is shown to underestimate the strength of polarization effects. In contrast to the ALMO method, however, the polMO approach yields results that are very stable to improvements in the underlying AO basis expansion. Combining the ALMO and polMO approaches allows an estimate of the range of energy-lowering due to polarization. Extensive numerical calculations on the water dimer using a large range of basis sets with Hartree-Fock theory and a variety of different density functionals illustrate the key considerations. Results are also presented for the polarization-dominated Na(+)CH4 complex. Implications for energy decomposition analysis of intermolecular interactions are discussed.

  6. Spin-orbit beams for optical chirality measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Suna, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement of chirality is essential for the advancement of natural and pharmaceutical sciences. We report here a method to measure chirality using non-separable states of light with geometric phase-gradient in the circular polarization basis, which we refer to as spin-orbit beams. A modified polarization Sagnac interferometer is used to generate spin-orbit beams wherein the spin and orbital angular momentum of the input Gaussian beam are coupled. The out-of-phase interference between counter-propagating Gaussian beams with orthogonal spin states and lateral-shear or/and linear-phase difference between them results in spin-orbit beams with linear and azimuthal phase gradient. The spin-orbit beams interact efficiently with the chiral medium, inducing a measurable change in the center-of-mass of the beam, using the polarization rotation angle and hence the chirality of the medium are accurately calculated. Tunable dynamic range of measurement and flexibility to introduce large values of orbital angular momentum for the spin-orbit beam, to improve the measurement sensitivity, highlight the techniques' versatility.

  7. Spatiotemporal polarization gradients in phase-bearing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembessis, V. E.; Babiker, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown how the interference of two circularly polarized laser beams endowed with orbital angular momentum can give rise to spatial and temporal polarization gradients, displaying axial as well as angular symmetry properties. Illustrations are given with reference to circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams as typical light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  8. NOAA History - About This Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA History Banner gold bar divider home - takes you to index page about the site contacts noaa - takes you to the noaa home page search this site white divider about this site The NOAA History site is the result of the work of many individuals throughout 3d history page NOAA who have been inspired by

  9. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR16 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR17 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  11. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR17 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR16 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  13. Orbital parameters of extrasolar planets derived from polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluri, D. M.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2010-03-01

    Context. Polarimetry of extrasolar planets becomes a new tool for their investigation, which requires the development of diagnostic techniques and parameter case studies. Aims: Our goal is to develop a theoretical model which can be applied to interpret polarimetric observations of extrasolar planets. Here we present a theoretical parameter study that shows the influence of the various involved parameters on the polarization curves. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the fitting procedure. We focus on the diagnostics of orbital parameters and the estimation of the scattering radius of the planet. Methods: We employ the physics of Rayleigh scattering to obtain polarization curves of an unresolved extrasolar planet. Calculations are made for two cases: (i) assuming an angular distribution for the intensity of the scattered light as from a Lambert sphere and for polarization as from a Rayleigh-type scatterer; and (ii) assuming that both the intensity and polarization of the scattered light are distributed according to the Rayleigh law. We show that the difference between these two cases is negligible for the shapes of the polarization curves. In addition, we take the size of the host star into account, which is relevant for hot Jupiters orbiting giant stars. Results: We discuss the influence of the inclination of the planetary orbit, the position angle of the ascending node, and the eccentricity on the linearly polarized light curves both in Stokes Q/I and U/I. We also analyze errors that arise from the assumption of a point-like star in numerical modeling of polarization as compared to consistent calculations accounting for the finite size of the host star. We find that errors due to the point-like star approximation are reduced with the size of the orbit, but still amount to about 5% for known hot Jupiters. Recovering orbital parameters from simulated data is shown to be very robust even for very noisy data because the polarization curves react

  14. NOAA Miami Regional Library > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Collections Open Access Resources Research Tools E-resources NOAA S. and NOAA N.E. Library Institutional Repository DIVE INTO About the Library | Collections | Research Tools | Library Services & NOAA Miami Regional Library @ AOML & NHC NOAA Miami Regional Library at National Hurricane

  15. Conductance and spin polarization for a quantum wire with the competition of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xi; Chen Zeshun; Zhong Feng; Zhou Guanghui

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin transport of a quantum wire (QW) with weak Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) nonadiabatically connected to two normal leads. Using scattering matrix method and Landauer-Buettiker formula within effective free-electron approximation, we have calculated spin-dependent conductances G ↑ and G ↓ , total conductance G and spin polarization P z for a hard-wall potential confined QW. It is demonstrated that, the SOCs induce the splitting of G ↑ and G ↓ and form spin polarization P z . Moreover, the conductances present quantized plateaus, the plateaus and P z show oscillation structures near the subband edges. Furthermore, with the increase of QW width a strong spin polarization (P z ∼1) gradually becomes weak, which can be used to realize a spin filter. When the two SOCs coexist, the total conductance presents an isotropy transport due to the Rashba and Dresselhaus Hamiltonians being fixed, and the alteration of two SOCs strength ratio changes the sign of spin polarization. This may provide a way of realizing the expression of unit information by tuning gate voltage.

  16. AVHRR CoastWatch Hawaii Regional Node Data, October 1990-March 2004 (NODC Accession 0121319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea surface temperature (SST) products were derived from NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) for the coastal United States and...

  17. Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) /Jason-2: Orbital Information (NODC Accession 0044985)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the descriptions for the OSTM/Jason-2 orbital information, which is served through the NOAA/NESDIS Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship...

  18. Stable low-altitude orbits around Ganymede considering a disturbing body in a circular orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, J.; Carvalho, J. P. S.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2014-10-01

    Some missions are being planned to visit Ganymede like the Europa Jupiter System Mission that is a cooperation between NASA and ESA to insert the spacecraft JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Ganymedes orbit. This comprehension of the dynamics of these orbits around this planetary satellite is essential for the success of this type of mission. Thus, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around Ganymede. An emphasis is given in polar orbits and it can be useful in the planning of space missions to be conducted around, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of artificial satellites around Ganymede under the influence of the third-body (Jupiter's gravitational attraction) and the polygenic perturbations like those due to non-uniform distribution of mass (J_2 and J_3) of the main body. A simplified dynamic model for these perturbations is used. The Lagrange planetary equations are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite. The equations of motion are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. The results show the argument of pericenter circulating. However, low-altitude (100 and 150 km) polar orbits are stable. Another orbital elements behaved variating with small amplitudes. Thus, such orbits are convenient to be applied to future space missions to Ganymede. Acknowledgments: FAPESP (processes n° 2011/05671-5, 2012/12539-9 and 2012/21023-6).

  19. NOAA ENC Direct to GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Electronic Navigational Charts (NOAA ENCs) have been developed to support the marine transportation infrastructure and coastal management. The NOAA ENCs are...

  20. Mid-Latitude versus Polar-Latitude Transitional Impact Craters: Geometric Properties from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Observations and Viking Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A.; Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    1998-01-01

    One intriguing aspect of martian impact crater morphology is the change of crater cavity and ejecta characteristics from the mid-latitudes to the polar regions. This is thought to reflect differences in target properties such as an increasing presence of ice in the polar regions. Previous image-based efforts concerning martian crater morphology has documented some aspects of this, but has been hampered by the lack of adequate topography data. Recent Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic profiles provide a quantitative perspective for interpreting the detailed morphologies of martian crater cavities and ejecta morphology. This study is a preliminary effort to quantify the latitude-dependent differences in morphology with the goal of identifying target-dependent and crater modification effects from the combined of images and MOLA topography. We combine the available MOLA profiles and the corresponding Viking Mars Digital Image Mosaics (MDIMS), and high resolution Viking Orbiter images to focus on two transitional craters; one on the mid-latitudes, and one in the North Polar region. One MOLA pass (MGS Orbit 34) traverses the center of a 15.9 km diameter fresh complex crater located at 12.8degN 83.8degE on the Hesperian ridge plains unit (Hvr). Viking images, as well as MOLA data, show that this crater has well developed wall terraces and a central peak with 429 m of relative relief. Three MOLA passes have been acquired for a second impact crater, which is located at 69.5degN 41degE on the Vastitas Borealis Formation. This fresh rampart crater lacks terraces and central peak structures and it has a depth af 579 m. Correlation between images and MOLA topographic profiles allows us to construct basic facies maps of the craters. Eight main units were identified, four of which are common on both craters.

  1. Detecting Canopy Water Status Using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance Data From Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    -based canopy water status detection from geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data as compared to polar orbiting environmental satellite (POES)-based moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The EO-based SWIR water stress index...... (SIWSI) is evaluated against in situ measured canopy water content indicators at a semi-arid grassland savanna site in Senegal 2008. Daily SIWSI from both MODIS and SEVIRI data show an overall inverse relation to Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) throughout the growing season. SIWSI...... for SWIR-based canopy water status and stress monitoring in a semi-arid environment....

  2. Optically induced rotation of Rayleigh particles by vortex beams with different states of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortex beams carry optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) and can induce an orbital motion of trapped particles in optical trapping. We show that the state of polarization (SOP) of vortex beams will affect the details of this optically induced orbital motion to some extent. Numerical results demonstrate that focusing the vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations can induce a uniform orbital motion on a trapped Rayleigh particle, while in the focal field of the vortex beam with linear polarization the particle experiences a non-uniform orbital motion. Among the formers, the vortex beam with circular polarization induces a maximum optical torque on the particle. Furthermore, by varying the topological charge of the vortex beams, the vortex beam with circular polarization gives rise to an optimum torque superior to those given by the other three vortex beams. These facts suggest that the circularly polarized vortex beam is more suitable for rotating particles. - Highlights: • States of polarization of vortex beams affect the optically induced orbital motion of particles. • The dependences of the force and orbital torque on the topological charge, the size and the absorptivity of particles were calculated. • Focused vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations induce a uniform orbital motion on particles. • Particles experience a non-uniform orbital motion in the focused linearly polarized vortex beam. • The circularly polarized vortex beam is a superior candidate for rotating particles.

  3. Spin tune dependence on closed orbit in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Bai, M.; Roser, T.

    2010-01-01

    Polarized proton beams are accelerated in RHIC to 250 GeV energy with the help of Siberian Snakes. The pair of Siberian Snakes in each RHIC ring holds the design spin tune at 1/2 to avoid polarization loss during acceleration. However, in the presence of closed orbit errors, the actual spin tune can be shifted away from the exact 1/2 value. It leads to a corresponding shift of locations of higher-order ('snake') resonances and limits the available betatron tune space. The largest closed orbit effect on the spin tune comes from the horizontal orbit angle between the two snakes. During RHIC Run in 2009 dedicated measurements with polarized proton beams were taken to verify the dependence of the spin tune on the local orbits at the Snakes. The experimental results are presented along with the comparison with analytical predictions.

  4. Chaos and its control in the pitch motion of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in polar elliptic orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain)], E-mail: manuel.inarrea@unirioja.es

    2009-05-30

    We study the pitch attitude dynamics of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in a polar almost circular orbit under the influence of a gravity gradient torque. The spacecraft is perturbed by the small eccentricity of the elliptic orbit and by a small magnetic torque generated by the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the spacecraft. Under both perturbations, we show that the pitch motion exhibits heteroclinic chaotic behavior by means of the Melnikov method. Numerical methods applied to simulations of the pitch motion also confirm the chaotic character of the spacecraft attitude dynamics. Finally, a linear time-delay feedback method for controlling chaos is applied to the governing equations of the spacecraft pitch motion in order to remove the chaotic character of initially irregular attitude motions and transform them into periodic ones.

  5. Chaos and its control in the pitch motion of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in polar elliptic orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inarrea, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    We study the pitch attitude dynamics of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in a polar almost circular orbit under the influence of a gravity gradient torque. The spacecraft is perturbed by the small eccentricity of the elliptic orbit and by a small magnetic torque generated by the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the spacecraft. Under both perturbations, we show that the pitch motion exhibits heteroclinic chaotic behavior by means of the Melnikov method. Numerical methods applied to simulations of the pitch motion also confirm the chaotic character of the spacecraft attitude dynamics. Finally, a linear time-delay feedback method for controlling chaos is applied to the governing equations of the spacecraft pitch motion in order to remove the chaotic character of initially irregular attitude motions and transform them into periodic ones.

  6. NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click to look up weather forecast by City, State Active Weather Alerts Home NOAA Corporate Finance and NOAA Corporate Finance and Administrative Services Offices Sapelo Island Lighthouse. Sapelo Island . NOAA Corporate Finance and Administrative Services offices strive to deliver quality services to NOAA's

  7. Differential roles of polar orbital prefrontal cortex and parietal lobes in logical reasoning with neutral and negative emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimontaite, Iveta; Goel, Vinod; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Schindler, Igor; Grafman, Jordan

    2018-05-14

    To answer the question of how brain pathology affects reasoning about negative emotional content, we administered a disjunctive logical reasoning task involving arguments with neutral content (e.g. Either there are tigers or women in NYC, but not both; There are no tigers in NYC; There are women in NYC) and emotionally laden content (e.g. Either there are pedophiles or politicians in Texas, but not both; There are politicians in Texas; There are no pedophiles in Texas) to 92 neurological patients with focal lesions to various parts of the brain. A Voxel Lesion Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analysis identified 16 patients, all with lesions to the orbital polar prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11), as being selectively impaired in the emotional reasoning condition. Another 17 patients, all with lesions to the parietal cortex, were identified as being impaired in the neutral content condition. The reasoning scores of these two patient groups, along with 23 matched normal controls, underwent additional analysis to explore the effect of belief bias. This analysis revealed that the differences identified above were largely driven by trials where there was an incongruency between the believability of the conclusion and the validity of the argument (i.e. valid argument /false conclusion or invalid argument /true conclusion). Patients with lesions to polar orbital prefrontal cortex underperformed in incongruent emotional content trials and over performed in incongruent neutral content trials (compared to both normal controls and patients with parietal lobe lesions). Patients with lesions to parietal lobes underperformed normal controls (at a trend level) in neutral trials where there was a congruency between the believability of the conclusion and the validity of the argument (i.e. valid argument/true conclusion or invalid argument/false conclusion). We conclude that lesions to the polar orbital prefrontal cortex (i) prevent these patients from enjoying any emotionally induced cognitive

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) over Global Oceans, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product is the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.63 micron, which is retrieved from NOAA PATMOS-x level-2B orbital radinace and cloud CDR products. The...

  9. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  10. Climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale recorded by the Guliya ice core in Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 徐柏青; 蒲健辰

    2001-01-01

    Based on ice core records in the Tibetan Plateau and Greenland, the features and possible causes of climatic changes on orbital and sub-orbital time scale were discussed. Orbital time scale climatic change recorded in ice core from the Tibetan Plateau is typically ahead of that from polar regions, which indicates that climatic change in the Tibetan Plateau might be earlier than polar regions. The solar radiation change is a major factor that dominates the climatic change on orbital time scale. However, climatic events on sub-orbital time scale occurred later in the Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic Region, indicating a different mechanism. For example, the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events took place earlier in Greenland ice core record than in Guliya ice core record. It is reasonable to propose the hypothesis that these climatic events were affected possibly by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Therefore, ice sheet is critically important to climatic change on sub-orbital time scale in some ice ages.

  11. Estimation of land-atmosphere energy transfer over the Tibetan Plateau by a combination use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Land-atmosphere energy transfer is of great importance in land-atmosphere interactions and atmospheric boundary layer processes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The energy fluxes have high temporal variability, especially in their diurnal cycle, which cannot be acquired by polar-orbiting satellites alone because of their low temporal resolution. Therefore, it's of great practical significance to retrieve land surface heat fluxes by a combination use of geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. In this study, a time series of the hourly LST was estimated from thermal infrared data acquired by the Chinese geostationary satellite FengYun 2C (FY-2C) over the TP. The split window algorithm (SWA) was optimized using a regression method based on the observations from the Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) of the Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet) and Tibetan observation and research platform (TORP), the land surface emissivity (LSE) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the water vapor content from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) project. The 10-day composite hourly LST data were generated via the maximum value composite (MVC) method to reduce the cloud effects. The derived LST was validated by the field observations of CAMP/Tibet and TORP. The results show that the retrieved LST and in situ data have a very good correlation (with root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias (MB), mean absolute error (MAE) and correlation coefficient (R) values of 1.99 K, 0.83 K, 1.71 K, and 0.991, respectively). Together with other characteristic parameters derived from polar-orbiting satellites and meteorological forcing data, the energy balance budgets have been retrieved finally. The validation results showed there was a good consistency between estimation results and in-situ measurements over the TP, which prove the robustness of the proposed estimation

  12. Space environment monitoring by low-altitude operational satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehl, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The primary task of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is the acquisition of meteorological data in the visual and infrared spectral regions. The Air Weather Service operates two satellites in low-altitude, sun-synchronous, polar orbits at 850 km altitude, 98.7 deg inclination, 101.5 minute period and dawn-dusk or noon-midnight equatorial crossing times. Special DMSP sensors of interest to the space science community are the precipitating electron spectrometer, the terrestrial noise receiver, and the topside ionosphere plasma monitor. Data from low-altitude, meteorological satellites can be used to build empirical models of precipitating electron characteristics of the auroral zone and polar cap. The Tiros-NOAA satellite program complements the DMSP program. The orbital elements are the same as DMSP's, except for the times of equatorial crossing, and the tilt of the orbital plane. The Tiros-NOAA program meets the civilian community's needs for meteorological data as the DMSP program does for the military

  13. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Polar Winds from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the Level 3 Polar Winds Northern and Southern Hemisphere datasets. The Level 3 Polar Winds data from VIIRS for the Arctic and Antarctic from 65...

  14. Dimensional crossover of effective orbital dynamics in polar distorted He 3 -A : Transitions to antispacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissinen, J.; Volovik, G. E.

    2018-01-01

    Topologically protected superfluid phases of He 3 allow one to simulate many important aspects of relativistic quantum field theories and quantum gravity in condensed matter. Here we discuss a topological Lifshitz transition of the effective quantum vacuum in which the determinant of the tetrad field changes sign through a crossing to a vacuum state with a degenerate fermionic metric. Such a transition is realized in polar distorted superfluid He 3 -A in terms of the effective tetrad fields emerging in the vicinity of the superfluid gap nodes: the tetrads of the Weyl points in the chiral A-phase of He 3 and the degenerate tetrad in the vicinity of a Dirac nodal line in the polar phase of He 3 . The continuous phase transition from the A -phase to the polar phase, i.e., the transition from the Weyl nodes to the Dirac nodal line and back, allows one to follow the behavior of the fermionic and bosonic effective actions when the sign of the tetrad determinant changes, and the effective chiral spacetime transforms to antichiral "anti-spacetime." This condensed matter realization demonstrates that while the original fermionic action is analytic across the transition, the effective action for the orbital degrees of freedom (pseudo-EM) fields and gravity have nonanalytic behavior. In particular, the action for the pseudo-EM field in the vacuum with Weyl fermions (A-phase) contains the modulus of the tetrad determinant. In the vacuum with the degenerate metric (polar phase) the nodal line is effectively a family of 2 +1 d Dirac fermion patches, which leads to a non-analytic (B2-E2)3/4 QED action in the vicinity of the Dirac line.

  15. The Carter constant for inclined orbits about a massive Kerr black hole: I. Circular orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorowski, P G; Valluri, S R; Houde, M, E-mail: pkomorow@uwo.c, E-mail: valluri@uwo.c, E-mail: mhoude2@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-11-21

    In an extreme binary black hole system, an orbit will increase its angle of inclination ({iota}) as it evolves in Kerr spacetime. We focus our attention on the behaviour of the Carter constant (Q) for near-polar orbits, and develop an analysis that is independent of and complements radiation-reaction models. For a Schwarzschild black hole, the polar orbits represent the abutment between the prograde and retrograde orbits at which Q is at its maximum value for given values of the latus rectum ({tilde l}) and the eccentricity (e). The introduction of spin ({tilde S}={vert_bar}J{vert_bar}/M{sup 2}) to the massive black hole causes this boundary, or abutment, to be moved towards greater orbital inclination; thus, it no longer cleanly separates prograde and retrograde orbits. To characterize the abutment of a Kerr black hole (KBH), we first investigated the last stable orbit (LSO) of a test-particle about a KBH, and then extended this work to general orbits. To develop a better understanding of the evolution of Q we developed analytical formulae for Q in terms of {tilde l}, e and {tilde S} to describe elliptical orbits at the abutment, polar orbits and LSOs. By knowing the analytical form of {partial_derivative}Q/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} at the abutment, we were able to test a 2PN flux equation for Q. We also used these formulae to numerically calculate the {partial_derivative}{iota}/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} of hypothetical circular orbits that evolve along the abutment. From these values we have determined that {partial_derivative}{iota}/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} = -(122.7{tilde S} - 36{tilde S}{sup 3}){tilde l}{sup -11/2} - (63/2 {tilde S} + 35/4 {tilde S}{sup 3}){tilde l}{sup -9/2} - 15/2 {tilde S}{tilde l}{sup -7/2} - 9/2 {tilde S}{tilde l}{sup -5/2}. By taking the limit of this equation for {tilde l} {yields} {infinity}, and comparing it with the published result for the weak-field radiation reaction, we found the upper limit on

  16. NOAA Workforce Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management Fellows (PMFs) Program Coordination Office - Leadership Development Program (PCO-LDP) Employee (NRAP) Presidential Management Fellows (PMFs) Program Coordination Office - Leadership Development ) NOAA Leadership Seminar (NLS) NOAA Rotational Assignment Program (NRAP) Presidential Management Fellows

  17. 75 FR 5566 - NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA Research Facilities in the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...-02] NOAA Cooperative Institutes (CIs): (1) A CI To Support NOAA Research Facilities in the Pacific..., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; extension... Research (OAR) published a notice of availability of funds to establish three new NOAA cooperative...

  18. Long-period polar rain variations, solar wind and hemispherically symmetric polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, K.; Meng, C.

    1987-01-01

    On the basic of electron data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F2 satellite the long-period variations of the polar rain flux are examined for four consecutive solar rotations. It is clearly demonstrated that the asymmetric enhancement of the polar rain flux is strongly controlled by the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, the orbit-to-orbit and day-to-day variations of the polar rain flux are detected even during a very stable sector period, and the polar rain flux does not have any clear relationship to the magnitude of the IMF B/sub x/ or B/sub y/. Thus the polarity of B/sub x/ controls only the accessibility of a polar region. It is also noticed that the intensity of polar rain fluxes does not show any relationship to the density of the solar wind, suggesting that the origin of the polar rain electrons is different from the commonly observed part of the solar wind electron distribution function. In addition to the asymmetric polar rain distribution, increasing polar rain fluxes of similar high intensity are sometimes detected over both polar caps. An examination of more than 1 year's data from the DMSP F2 and F4 satellites shows that simultaneous intense uniform precipitations (>10 7 electrons/cm 2 s sr) over both polar caps are not coincidental; it also shows that the spectra are similar. The occurrence of hemispherically symmetric events is not common. They generally are observed after an IMF sector transition period, during unstable periods in the sector structure, and while the solar wind density is high. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  19. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  20. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a non-equilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known equilibrium polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  1. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a nonequilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known “equilibrium” polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  2. Correcting orbital drift signal in the time series of AVHRR derived convective cloud fraction using rotated empirical orthogonal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR instruments onboard the series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites offer the longest available meteorological data records from space. These satellites have drifted in orbit resulting in shifts in the local time sampling during the life span of the sensors onboard. Depending upon the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of the geophysical parameters derived, orbital drift may cause spurious trends in their time series. We investigate tropical deep convective clouds, which show pronounced diurnal cycle amplitude, to estimate an upper bound of the impact of orbital drift on their time series. We carry out a rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis (REOF and show that the REOFs are useful in delineating orbital drift signal and, more importantly, in subtracting this signal in the time series of convective cloud amount. These results will help facilitate the derivation of homogenized data series of cloud amount from NOAA satellite sensors and ultimately analyzing trends from them. However, we suggest detailed comparison of various methods and rigorous testing thereof applying final orbital drift corrections.

  3. Polarization effects in hadron fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednicky, R.

    1984-01-01

    Hadron polarization (spin alignment) and polarization asymmetry are discussed in terms of the quark recombination model with the spin-orbit interaction taken into account. It is shown that predictions of this model are at least in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Various polarization mechanisms in terms of this model and the possibility of their checking are also discussed

  4. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  5. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moretto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly in the auroral electrojets. First, we examine the results during a recent geomagnetic storm. The currents derived from two satellites at different altitudes are in very good agreement, which verifies good stability of the method. Further, a very high degree of correlation (correlation coefficients of 0.8–0.9 is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electrojet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring. A specific advantage of the satellite observations over the ground-based magnetic measurements is their coverage of the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the Northern. We utilize this in an investigation of the ionospheric currents observed in both polar regions during a period of unusually steady interplanetary magnetic field with a large negative Y-component. A pronounced asymmetry is found between the currents in the two hemispheres, which indicates real inter-hemispheric differences beyond the mirror-asymmetry between hemispheres that earlier studies have revealed. The method is also applied to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning of the magnetosphere (history of the interplanetary magnetic field is seen to play an important role, and in the winther hemisphere, it seems to be harder to

  6. NOAA Workforce Management Office - About Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agency's mission. The WFMO provides NOAA-wide leadership to workforce management functions including * WorkLife Center * WebTA * New Employee Info * Separation Info Workforce Management Office (WFMO) Serving accomplishment of the NOAA mission and the Nation's interests. The NOAA Workforce Management Office (WFMO

  7. Optical Passive Sensor Calibration for Satellite Remote Sensing and the Legacy of NOAA and NIST Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Raju; Weinreb, Michael; Rice, Joseph; Johnson, B Carol; Shirley, Eric; Cao, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the cooperative efforts of scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to improve the calibration of operational satellite sensors for remote sensing of the Earth's land, atmosphere and oceans. It gives a chronological perspective of the NOAA satellite program and the interactions between the two agencies' scientists to address pre-launch calibration and issues of sensor performance on orbit. The drive to improve accuracy of measurements has had a new impetus in recent years because of the need for improved weather prediction and climate monitoring. The highlights of this cooperation and strategies to achieve SI-traceability and improve accuracy for optical satellite sensor data are summarized.

  8. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humi, Mayer

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  9. Linear Magnetoelectric Effect by Orbital Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaramucci, A.; Bousquet, E.; Fechner, M.; Mostovoy, M.; Spaldin, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We use symmetry analysis and first-principles calculations to show that the linear magnetoelectric effect can originate from the response of orbital magnetic moments to the polar distortions induced by an applied electric field. Using LiFePO4 as a model compound we show that spin-orbit coupling

  10. Explicit polarization (X-Pol) potential using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lingchun; Han, Jaebeom; Lin, Yen-lin; Xie, Wangshen; Gao, Jiali

    2009-10-29

    The explicit polarization (X-Pol) method has been examined using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory. The X-Pol potential was designed to provide a novel theoretical framework for developing next-generation force fields for biomolecular simulations. Importantly, the X-Pol potential is a general method, which can be employed with any level of electronic structure theory. The present study illustrates the implementation of the X-Pol method using ab initio Hartree-Fock theory and hybrid density functional theory. The computational results are illustrated by considering a set of bimolecular complexes of small organic molecules and ions with water. The computed interaction energies and hydrogen bond geometries are in good accord with CCSD(T) calculations and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ optimizations.

  11. The status of polarization studies at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boege, M.

    1993-01-01

    In August 1992 a vertical electron beam polarization of nearly 60% at 26.7 GeV (spin tune=60.5) was obtained at HERA. This was achieved by optimizing the energy and orbit tunes and by applying harmonic corrections to the closed orbit. The polarization level was reproducible from fill to fill and the calibration of the Compton polarimeter was confirmed by measuring the polarization build up curve. The polarization measurements were made with currents of one to two milliamps. Much higher currents are expected for the 1993 luminosity run (∼ 30 mA were obtained in May 1993). The high polarization level was reproduced at high current. Further polarization studies in parallel with e-p operation are planned. In 1993/94 a pair of spin rotators will be installed in the East straight section so that longitudinal polarization is available at the East interaction point. Simulations with the spin tracking program SITROS are in qualitative agreement with the measurements. Calculations with SITROS show that longitudinal polarizations of up to 50% could then still be achieved

  12. Globally Polarized Quark-gluon Plasma in Non-central A+ACollisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2004-10-01

    Produced partons have large local relative orbital angular momentum along the direction opposite to the reaction plane in the early stage of non-central heavy-ion collisions. Parton scattering is shown to polarize quarks along the same direction due to spin-orbital coupling.Such global quark polarization will lead to many observable consequences,such as left-right asymmetry of hadron spectra, global transverse polarization of thermal photons, dileptons and hadrons. Hadrons from the decay of polarized resonances will have azimuthal asymmetry similar to the elliptic flow. Global hyperon polarization is predicted with indifferent hadronization scenarios and can be easily tested.

  13. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  14. Spin-polarization and spin-flip in a triple-quantum-dot ring by using tunable lateral bias voltage and Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi, Mohamad, E-mail: Mo_molavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizabadi, Edris, E-mail: Edris@iust.ac.ir [School of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter. - Highlights: • The effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots. • In the situation that the QDs have non-zero on-site energies, the system can demonstrate the full spin-polarization. • By tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength and magnetic flux encountered by the ring the system operates as a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  15. Early Assessment of VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Support Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwofu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Oudrari, Hassan; Wu, Aisheng; Schwaller, Mathew; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, formally the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), provides a bridge between current and future low-Earth orbiting weather and environmental observation satellite systems. The NASA s NPP VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) is designed to assess the long term geometric and radiometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the S-NPP spacecraft and to support NPP Science Team Principal Investigators (PI) for their independent evaluation of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDRs). This paper provides an overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration activities and examples of sensor initial on-orbit performance. It focuses on the radiometric calibration support activities and capabilities provided by the NASA VCST.

  16. Orbit Determination from Tracking Data of Artificial Satellite Using the Method of Differential Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Byoung-Sun Lee; Jung-Hyun Jo; Sang-Young Park; Kyu-Hong Choi; Chun-Hwey Kim

    1988-01-01

    The differential correction process determining osculating orbital elements as correct as possible at a given instant of time from tracking data of artificial satellite was accomplished. Preliminary orbital elements were used as an initial value of the differential correction procedure and iterated until the residual of real observation(O) and computed observation(C) was minimized. Tracking satellite was NOAA-9 or TIROS-N series. Two types of tracking data were prediction data precomputed fro...

  17. Spin Polarization Oscillations without Spin Precession: Spin-Orbit Entangled Resonances in Quasi-One-Dimensional Spin Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Berman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.

  18. Spin polarization, orbital occupation and band gap opening in vanadium dioxide: The effect of screened Hartree-Fock exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2014-07-01

    The metal-insulator transition of VO2 so far has evaded an accurate description by density functional theory. The screened hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof leads to reasonable solutions for both the low-temperature monoclinic and high-temperature rutile phases only if spin polarization is excluded from the calculations. We explore whether a satisfactory agreement with experiment can be achieved by tuning the fraction of Hartree Fock exchange (α) in the density functional. It is found that two branches of locally stable solutions exist for the rutile phase for 12.5%≤α≤20%. One is metallic and has the correct stability as compared to the monoclinic phase, the other is insulating with lower energy than the metallic branch. We discuss these observations based on the V 3d orbital occupations and conclude that α=10% is the best possible choice for spin-polarized VO2 calculations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  20. NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis (NOSIA): development and support to the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining, R. C.; Cantrell, L. E., Jr.; Helms, D.; LaJoie, M.; Pratt, A. S.; Ries, V.; Taylor, J.; Yuen-Murphy, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a deep relationship between NOSIA-II and the Federal Earth Observation Assessment (EOA) efforts (EOA 2012 and 2016) chartered under the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, NASA, NOAA, and USGS. NOSIA-1, which was conducted with a limited scope internal to NOAA in 2010, developed the methodology and toolset that was adopted for EOA 2012, and NOAA staffed the team that conducted the data collection, modeling, and analysis effort for EOA 2012. EOA 2012 was the first-ever integrated analysis of the relative impact of 379 observing systems and data sources contributing to the key objectives identified for 13 Societal Benefit Areas (SBA) including Weather, Climate, Disasters, Oceans and Coastal Resources, and Water Resources. This effort culminated in the first National Plan for Civil Earth Observations. NOAA conducted NOSIA-II starting in 2012 to extend the NOSIA methodology across all of NOAA's Mission Service Areas, covering a representative sample (over 1000) of NOAA's products and services. The detailed information from NOSIA-II is being integrated into EOA 2016 to underpin a broad array of Key Products, Services, and (science) Objectives (KPSO) identified by the inter-agency SBA teams. EOA 2016 is expected to provide substantially greater insight into the cross-agency impacts of observing systems contributing to a wide array of KPSOs, and by extension, to societal benefits flowing from these public-facing products. NOSIA-II is being adopted by NOAA as a corporate decision-analysis and support capability to inform leadership decisions on its integrated observing systems portfolio. Application examples include assessing the agency-wide impacts of planned decommissioning of ships and aircraft in NOAA's fleet, and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative space-based architectures in the post-GOES-R and JPSS era

  1. NOAA Electronic Navigational Charts (ENC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Coast Survey (OCS) has been involved in the development of a NOAA Electronic Navigational Chart (NOAA ENC) suite to support the marine transportation...

  2. Quantifying the importance of orbital over spin correlations in delta-Pu within density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderlind, P

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure of plutonium is studied within the density-functional theory (DFT) model. Key features of the electronic structure are correctly modeled and bonding, total energy, and electron density of states are all consistent with measure data, although the prediction of magnetism is not consistent with many observations. Here we analyze the contributions to the electronic structure arising from spin polarization, orbital polarization, and spin-orbit interaction. These effects give rise to spin and orbital moments that are of nearly equal magnitude, but anti-parallel, suggesting a magnetic-moment cancellation with a zero total moment. Quantifying the spin versus orbital effects on the bonding, total energy, and electron spectra it becomes clear that the spin polarization is much less important than the orbital correlations. Consequently, a restricted DFT approach with a non-spin polarized electronic structure can produce reasonable equation-of-state and electron spectra for (delta)-Pu when the orbital effects are accounted for. Hence, we present two non-magnetic models. One in which the spin moment is canceled by the orbital moment and another in which the spin moment (and therefore the orbital moment) is restricted to zero

  3. Cygnus X-1: Discovery of variable circular polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Swedlund, J.B.; Stokes, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cyg X-1, has been observed for circular polarization during 1974. Observations in five colors suggest that circular polarization results from an interstellar effect. Measurements of the blue polarization reveal circular polarization variations synchronous with the 5)./sub /6 orbital period. The circular polarization variation appears to be similar to the blue intensity variation

  4. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere is associated with large-scale currents in the ionosphere at polar latitudes that flow along magnetic field lines (Birkeland currents) and horizontally. These current systems are tightly linked, but their global behaviors are rarely...... analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal...... and toroidal parts of the magnetic disturbance field, represented in magnetic apex coordinates. The use of apex coordinates reduces effects of longitudinal and hemispheric variations in the Earth’s main field. We present global currents from both hemispheres during different sunlight conditions. The results...

  5. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Technical Performance Measures of the Block 2 Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Panas, M.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA and NASA are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS replaced the afternoon orbit component and ground processing of NOAA's old POES system. JPSS satellites carry sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture has been upgraded to Block 2.0 to satisfy several key objectives, including: "operationalizing" the first satellite, Suomi NPP, which originally was a risk reduction mission; leveraging lessons learned in multi-mission support, taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies and satisfying constraints due of the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 48 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 9 categories: Data Availability, Data Latency, Operational Availability, Margin, Scalability, Situational Awareness, Transition (between environments and sites), WAN Efficiency, and Data Recovery Processing. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 9 TPM categories listed above. We will describe how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  6. 15 CFR 995.28 - Use of NOAA emblem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of NOAA emblem. 995.28 Section 995... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTORS OF NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS Requirements for Certified Distributors and Value Added Distributors of NOAA ENC Products...

  7. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  8. Spin-Orbit Coupling for Photons and Polaritons in Microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use coupled micropillars etched out of a semiconductor microcavity to engineer a spin-orbit Hamiltonian for photons and polaritons in a microstructure. The coupling between the spin and orbital momentum arises from the polarization-dependent confinement and tunneling of photons between adjacent micropillars arranged in the form of a hexagonal photonic molecule. It results in polariton eigenstates with distinct polarization patterns, which are revealed in photoluminescence experiments in the regime of polariton condensation. Thanks to the strong polariton nonlinearities, our system provides a photonic workbench for the quantum simulation of the interplay between interactions and spin-orbit effects, particularly when extended to two-dimensional lattices.

  9. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Joint Polar Satellite System satellite will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the Joint Polar Satellite System is known as the Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Department of Defense processing centers operated by the United States government. The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Environmental Data Records beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System programs. Under the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental

  10. Catalystlike effect of orbital angular momentum on the conversion of transverse to three-dimensional spin states within tightly focused radially polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-05-01

    We report on the catalystlike effect of orbital angular momentum (OAM) on local spin-state conversion within the tightly focused radially polarized beams associated with optical spin-orbit interaction. It is theoretically demonstrated that the incident OAM can lead to a conversion of purely transverse spin state to a three-dimensional spin state on the focal plane. This conversion can be conveniently manipulated by altering the sign and value of the OAM. By comparing the total OAM and spin angular momentum (SAM) on the incident plane to those on the focal plane, it is indicated that the incident OAM have no participation in the angular momentum intertransfer, and just play a role as a catalyst of local SAM conversion. Such an effect of OAM sheds new light on the optical spin-orbit interaction in tight-focusing processes. The resultant three-dimensional spin states may provide more degrees of freedom in optical manipulation and spin-dependent directive coupling.

  11. Lidar Orbital Angular Momentum Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recognition in recent decades that electromagnetic fields have angular momentum (AM) in the form of not only polarization (or spin AM) but also orbital (OAM) has...

  12. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  13. Direct measurement of discrete valley and orbital quantum numbers in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B M; Li, J I A; Zibrov, A A; Wang, L; Taniguchi, T; Watanabe, K; Hone, J; Dean, C R; Zaletel, M; Ashoori, R C; Young, A F

    2017-10-16

    The high magnetic field electronic structure of bilayer graphene is enhanced by the spin, valley isospin, and an accidental orbital degeneracy, leading to a complex phase diagram of broken symmetry states. Here, we present a technique for measuring the layer-resolved charge density, from which we directly determine the valley and orbital polarization within the zero energy Landau level. Layer polarization evolves in discrete steps across 32 electric field-tuned phase transitions between states of different valley, spin, and orbital order, including previously unobserved orbitally polarized states stabilized by skew interlayer hopping. We fit our data to a model that captures both single-particle and interaction-induced anisotropies, providing a complete picture of this correlated electron system. The resulting roadmap to symmetry breaking paves the way for deterministic engineering of fractional quantum Hall states, while our layer-resolved technique is readily extendable to other two-dimensional materials where layer polarization maps to the valley or spin quantum numbers.The phase diagram of bilayer graphene at high magnetic fields has been an outstanding question, with orders possibly between multiple internal quantum degrees of freedom. Here, Hunt et al. report the measurement of the valley and orbital order, allowing them to directly reconstruct the phase diagram.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Chinese GF-3 SAR Quad-Polarization Measurements to Extract Winds in Each Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the noise equivalent sigma zero (NESZ and ocean wind sensitivity for Chinese C-band Gaofen-3 (GF-3 quad-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR measurements to facilitate further operational wind extraction from GF-3 data. Data from the GF-3 quad-polarization SAR and collocated winds from both NOAA/NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS atmospheric model and National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys were used in the analysis. For NESZ, the co-polarization was slightly higher compared to the cross-polarization. Regarding co-polarization and cross-polarization, NESZ was close to RadarSAT-2 and Sentinel-1 A. Wind sensitivity was analyzed by evaluating the dependence on winds in terms of normalized radar cross-sections (NRCS and polarization combinations. The closest geophysical model function (GMF and the polarization ratio (PR model to GF-3 data were determined by comparing data and the model results. The dependence of co-polarized NRCS on wind speed and azimuth angle was consistent with the proposed GMF models. The combination of CMOD5 and CMOD5.N was considered to be the closest GMF in co-polarization. The cross-polarized NRCS exhibited a strong linear relationship with moderate wind speeds higher than 4 m·s−1, but a weak correlation with the azimuth angle. The proposed model was considered as the closest GMF in cross-polarization. For polarization combinations, PR and polarization difference (PD were considered. PR increased only with the incidence angle, whereas PD increased with wind speed and varied with azimuth angle. There were three very close PR models and each can be considered as the closest. Preliminary results indicate that GF-3 quad-polarization data are valid and have the ability to extract winds in each polarization.

  15. Polarization transfer from polarized nuclear spin to μ- spin in muonic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka; Nagamine, Kanetada; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-02-01

    A theoretical study of polarization transfer from an initially-polarized nuclear spin to a μ - spin in a muonic atom is given. The switching of the hyperfine interaction at excited muonic states as well as at the ground 1s state is taken into account. The upper state of hyperfine doublet at the muonic 1s state is considered to proceed down to the lower state. It is found that as the hyperfine interaction becomes effective at higher excited muonic orbitals, a less extent of polarization is transferred from the nuclear spin to the μ - spin. The theoretical values obtained are compared with the recent experiment of μ - repolarization in a polarized 209 Bi target. (author)

  16. Sentinel-5: the new generation European operational atmospheric chemistry mission in polar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Albiñana, Abelardo; Erdmann, Matthias; Wright, Norrie; Martin, Didier; Melf, Markus; Bartsch, Peter; Seefelder, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Sentinel-5 is an Earth Observation instrument to be flown on the Metop Second Generation (Metop-SG) satellites with the fundamental objective of monitoring atmospheric composition from polar orbit. The Sentinel-5 instrument consists of five spectrometers to measure the solar spectral radiance backscattered by the earth atmosphere in five bands within the UV (270nm) to SWIR (2385nm) spectral range. Data provided by Sentinel-5 will allow obtaining the distribution of important atmospheric constituents such as ozone, on a global daily basis and at a finer spatial resolution than its precursor instruments on the first generation of Metop satellites. The launch of the first Metop-SG satellite is foreseen for 2021. The Sentinel-5 instrument is being developed by Airbus DS under contract to the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-5 mission is part of the Space Component of the Copernicus programme, a joint initiative by ESA, EUMETSAT and the European Commission. The Preliminary Design Review (PDR) for the Sentinel-5 development was successfully completed in 2015. This paper provides a description of the Sentinel-5 instrument design and data calibration.

  17. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  18. The second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted for mating at the launch tower, Vandenberg AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the launch tower, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., the second stage of a Titan II rocket is lifted to vertical. The Titan will power the launch of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-L) satellite scheduled no earlier than Sept. 12. NOAA-L is part of the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) program that provides atmospheric measurements of temperature, humidity, ozone and cloud images, tracking weather patterns that affect the global weather and climate. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  19. Advancing NOAA NWS Arctic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M. C.; Meyers, J. C.; Churma, M.; Thoman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic require changes in the way the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) delivers hydrological and meteorological information to prepare the region's societies and indigenous population for emerging challenges. These challenges include changing weather patterns, changes in the timing and extent of sea ice, accelerated soil erosion due to permafrost decline, increasing coastal vulnerably, and changes in the traditional food supply. The decline in Arctic sea ice is opening new opportunities for exploitation of natural resources, commerce, tourism, and military interest. These societal challenges and economic opportunities call for a NOAA integrated approach for delivery of environmental information including climate, water, and weather data, forecasts, and warnings. Presently the NOAA Arctic Task Force provides leadership in programmatic coordination across NOAA line offices. National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide the foundational operational hydro-meteorological products and services in the Arctic. Starting in 2016, NOAA's NWS will work toward improving its role in programmatic coordination and development through assembling an NWS Arctic Task Team. The team will foster ties in the Arctic between the 11 NWS national service programs in climate, water, and weather information, as well as between Arctic programs in NWS and other NOAA line offices and external partners. One of the team outcomes is improving decision support tools for the Arctic. The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) currently has more than 1100 registered users, including NOAA staff and technical partners. The tool has been available online since 2013 (http://nws.weather.gov/lcat/ ). The tool links trusted, recommended NOAA data and analytical capabilities to assess impacts of climate variability and climate change at local levels. A new capability currently being developed will

  1. A Dual Polarization, Active, Microstrip Antenna for an Orbital Imaging Radar System Operating at L-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kenneth C.; Huang, John

    2000-01-01

    A highly successful Earth orbiting synthetic antenna aperture radar (SAR) system, known as the SIR-C mission, was carried into orbit in 1994 on a U.S. Shuttle (Space Transportation System) mission. The radar system was mounted in the cargo bay with no need to fold, or in any other way reduce the size of the antennas for launch. Weight and size were not limited for the L-Band, C-Band, and X-Band radar systems of the SIR-C radar imaging mission; the set of antennas weighed 10,500 kg, the L-Band antenna having the major share of the weight. This paper treats designing an L-Band antenna functionally similar to that used for SIR-C, but at a fraction of the cost and at a weight in the order of 250 kg. Further, the antenna must be folded to fit into the small payload shroud of low cost booster rocket systems. Over 31 square meters of antenna area is required. This low weight, foldable, electronic scanning antenna is for the proposed LightSAR radar system which is to be placed in Earth orbit on a small, dedicated space craft at the lowest possible cost for an efficient L- Band radar imaging system. This LightSAR spacecraft radar is to be continuously available for at least five operational years, and have the ability to map or repeat-map any area on earth within a few days of any request. A microstrip patch array, with microstrip transmission lines heavily employed in the aperture and in the corporate feed network, was chosen as the low cost approach for this active dual-polarization, 80 MHz (6.4%) bandwidth antenna design.

  2. 15 CFR 911.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and subsequent transmission of data via the NOAA DCS. Those devices which are used in conjunction with..., via the Argos Operations Committee, for the Argos DCS. (b) Argos DCS means the system which collects... platforms, the Argos French instrument on the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and...

  3. NOAA Seamless Raster Navigational Charts (RNC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Seamless Raster Chart Server provides a seamless collarless mosaic of the NOAA Raster Navigational Charts (RNC). The RNC are a collection of approximately...

  4. Valley polarization in magnetically doped single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate that valley polarization can be induced and controlled in semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides by magnetic doping, which is important for spintronics, valleytronics, and photonics devices. As an example, we investigate Mn-doped MoS2 by first-principles calculations. We study how the valley polarization depends on the strength of the spin orbit coupling and the exchange interaction and discuss how it can be controlled by magnetic doping. Valley polarization by magnetic doping is also expected for other honeycomb materials with strong spin orbit coupling and the absence of inversion symmetry.

  5. Assessing Sahelian vegetation and stress from seasonal time series of polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard

    that short term variations in anomalies from seasonally detrended time series of indices could carry information on vegetation stress was examined and confirmed. However, it was not found sufficiently robust on pixel level to be implemented for monitoring vegetation water stress on a per-pixel basis...... provide good sensitivity to canopy water content, which can make vegetation stress detection possible. Furthermore, the high frequency observations in the optical spectrum now available from geostationary instruments have the potential for detection of changes in vegetation related surface properties...... on short timescales, which are challenging from polar orbiting instruments. Geostationary NDVI and the NIR and SWIR based Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI) indices are compared with extensive field data from the Dahra site, supplemented by data from the Agoufou and Demokeya sites. The indices...

  6. Polar Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These three images were taken on three different orbits over the north polar cap in April 1999. Each shows a different part of the same ice-free trough. The left and right images are separated by a distance of more than 100 kilometers (62 miles). Note the similar layers in each image.

  7. A Fast Response Capability within NOAA/NOS/CO-OPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A Fast Response Capability within NOAA/NOS/CO-OPS P. B. Burke NOAA/National Ocean Service/CO-OPS 1305 East-West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910...USA pat.burke@noaa.gov T. Graff NOAA/National Ocean Service/CO-OPS 1305 East-West Hwy. Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA tammy.graff@noaa.gov... flotation hull, an instrumentation tower mounted atop the hull and a current meter mount with a mooring attachment. The triangular tower housed two

  8. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  9. 75 FR 69920 - (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory... Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Science... Administration (NOAA) science programs are of the highest quality and provide optimal support to resource...

  10. 78 FR 16254 - (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory... Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Science... Administration (NOAA) science programs are of the highest quality and provide optimal support to resource...

  11. NOAA's Big Data Partnership and Applications to Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    New opportunities for the distribution of NOAA's oceanographic and other environmental data are being explored through NOAA's Big Data Partnership (BDP) with Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Platform, IBM, Microsoft Corp. and the Open Cloud Consortium. This partnership was established in April 2015 through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, and is seeking new, financially self-sustaining collaborations between the Partners and the federal government centered upon NOAA's data and their potential value in the information marketplace. We will discuss emerging opportunities for collaboration among businesses and NOAA, progress in making NOAA's ocean data more widely accessible through the Partnerships, and applications based upon this access to NOAA's data.

  12. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  13. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  14. Characteristics of anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic, extrinsic, and external electric-field induced spin—orbit couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Song; Yan Yu-Zhen; Hu Liang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    The various competing contributions to the anomalous Hall effect in spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of both intrinsic, extrinsic and external electric-field induced spin—orbit coupling were investigated theoretically. Based on a unified semiclassical theoretical approach, it is shown that the total anomalous Hall conductivity can be expressed as the sum of three distinct contributions in the presence of these competing spin—orbit interactions, namely an intrinsic contribution determined by the Berry curvature in the momentum space, an extrinsic contribution determined by the modified Bloch band group velocity and an extrinsic contribution determined by spin—orbit-dependent impurity scattering. The characteristics of these competing contributions are discussed in detail in the paper. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  15. Optimizing the degree of polarization in PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, H.D.; Kewisch, J.; Lewin, H.C.; Mais, H.; Rossmanith, R.; Schmidt, R.; Barber, D.P.

    1982-05-01

    A method is described for compensating the depolarizing effects caused by vertical orbit distortions. The technique has been successfully applied during measurements of beam polarization at PETRA and reproducible polarizations of 70 to 80% have been obtained both in single beam and colliding beam operation. (orig.)

  16. Modelling and prediction of crop losses from NOAA polar-orbiting operational satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weather-related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers, governments, traders, and policy-makers for the purpose of balanced food supply/demands, trade, and distribution of aid to the nations in need. Among weather disasters, drought plays a major role in large-scale crop losses. This paper discusses utility of operational satellite-based vegetation health (VH indices for modelling cereal yield and for early warning of drought-related crop losses. The indices were tested in Saratov oblast (SO, one of the principal grain growing regions of Russia. Correlation and regression analysis were applied to model cereal yield from VH indices during 1982–2001. A strong correlation between mean SO's cereal yield and VH indices were found during the critical period of cereals, which starts two–three weeks before and ends two–three weeks after the heading stage. Several models were constructed where VH indices served as independent variables (predictors. The models were validated independently based on SO cereal yield during 1982–2012. Drought-related cereal yield losses can be predicted three months in advance of harvest and six–eight months in advance of official grain production statistic is released. The error of production losses prediction is 7%–10%. The error of prediction drops to 3%–5% in the years of intensive droughts.

  17. PALOMA: A Magnetic CV between Polars and Intermediate Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Arti; Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Agrawal, P. C.

    2016-10-01

    We present analyses of archival X-ray data obtained from the XMM-Newton satellite and optical photometric data obtained from 1 m class telescopes of ARIES, Nainital of a magnetic cataclysmic variable (MCV) Paloma. Two persistent periods at 156 ± 1 minutes and 130 ± 1 minutes are present in the X-ray data, which we interpret as the orbital and spin periods, respectively. These periods are similar to those obtained from the previous as well as new optical photometric observations. The soft-X-ray excess seen in the X-ray spectrum of Paloma and the averaged X-ray spectra are well fitted by two-temperature plasma models with temperatures of {0.10}-0.01+0.02 and {13.0}-0.5+0.5 keV with an Fe Kα line and an absorbing column density of 4.6 × 1022 cm-2. This material partially covers 60 ± 2% of the X-ray source. We also present the orbital and spin-phase-resolved spectroscopy of Paloma in the 0.3{--}10.0 {keV} energy band and find that the X-ray spectral parameters show orbital and spin-phase dependencies. New results obtained from optical and X-ray studies of Paloma indicate that it belongs to a class of a few magnetic CVs that seem to have the characteristics of both the polars and the intermediate polars.

  18. Transition of NOAA's GPS-Met Data Acquisition and Processing System to the Commercial Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. E.; Holub, K.; Callahan, W.; Blatt, S.

    2014-12-01

    In April of 2014, NOAA/OAR/ESRL Global Systems Division (GSD) and Trimble, in collaboration with Earth Networks, Inc. (ENI) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to transfer the existing NOAA GPS-Met Data Acquisition and Processing System (GPS-Met DAPS) technology to a commercial Trimble/ENI partnership. NOAA's GPS-Met DAPS is currently operated in a pseudo-operational mode but has proven highly reliable and running at over 95% uptime. The DAPS uses the GAMIT software to ingest dual frequency carrier phase GPS/GNSS observations and ancillary information such as real-time satellite orbits to estimate the zenith-scaled tropospheric (ZTD) signal delays and, where surface MET data are available, retrieve integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV). The NOAA data and products are made available to end users in near real-time. The Trimble/ENI partnership will use the Trimble Pivot™ software with the Atmosphere App to calculate zenith tropospheric (ZTD), tropospheric slant delay, and integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV). Evaluation of the Trimble software is underway starting with a comparison of ZTD and PWV values determined from GPS stations located near NOAA Radiosonde Observation (Upper-Air Observation) launch sites. A success metric was established that requires Trimble's PWV estimates to match ESRL/GSD's to within 1.5 mm 95% of the time, which corresponds to a ZTD uncertainty of less than 10 mm 95% of the time. Initial results indicate that Trimble/ENI data meet and exceed the ZTD metric, but for some stations PWV estimates are out of specification. These discrepancies are primarily due to how offsets between MET and GPS stations are handled and are easily resolved. Additional test networks are proposed that include low terrain/high moisture variability stations, high terrain/low moisture variability stations, as well as high terrain/high moisture variability stations. We will present results from further testing along with a timeline

  19. The effects of Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions on the electron tunneling in a non-magnetic heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianduo; Li Jianwen

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron transport properties in a non-magnetic heterostructure with both Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit interactions. The detailed-numerical results show that (1) the large spin polarization can be achieved due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings induced splitting of the resonant level, although the magnetic field is zero in such a structure, (2) the Rashba spin-orbit coupling plays a greater role on the spin polarization than the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction does, and (3) the transmission probability and the spin polarization both periodically change with the increase of the well width.

  20. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  1. NOAA's operational path forward: Developing the Coyote UASonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cione, J.; Twining, K.; Silah, M.; Brescia, T.; Kalina, E.; Farber, A.; Troudt, C.; Ghanooni, A.; Baker, B.; Dumas, E. J.; Hock, T. F.; Smith, J.; French, J.; Fairall, C. W.; deBoer, G.; Bland, G.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2009, NOAA has shown an interest in using the air-deployed Coyote Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) for low-altitude hurricane reconnaissance. In September of 2014, NOAA conducted two successful missions into Hurricane Edouard using this innovative observing tool. Since then, NOAA has continued to invest time and resources into the Coyote platform. These efforts include plans to release up to 7 additional Coyote UAS into tropical cyclones using NOAA's P-3 Hurricane Hunter manned aircraft in 2016. A longer-term goal for this multi-institutional partnership will be to modify the existing UAS design such that the next generation platform will be capable of conducting routine observations in direct support of a wide array of NOAA operations that extend beyond hurricane surveillance. The vision for this potentially transformative platform, dubbed the Coyote UASonde, will be to heavily leverage NOAA's existing capabilities, incorporate significant upgrades to the existing payload and employ an expert navigation and data communication system that utilizes artificial intelligence. A brief summary of Coyote successes to date as well as a future roadmap that leads NOAA towards an operationally-viable Coyote UASonde will be presented.

  2. NOAA Education Partnerships 2013 Portfolio Review. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Diana L.; Baek, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    This Partnerships Working Group (PWG) study responds to recommendations from the National Research Council's (NRC) NOAA's Education Program: Review and Critique (2010) for NOAA to better understand how NOAA Education partnerships are formed, fostered, sustained, and evaluated. The NRC report noted that while partnerships were mentioned as a means…

  3. Discovery of highly spin-polarized conducting surface states in the strong spin-orbit coupling semiconductor Sb2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shekhar; Sirohi, Anshu; Kumar Gupta, Gaurav; Kamboj, Suman; Vasdev, Aastha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Guptasarma, Prasenjit; Das, Tanmoy; Sheet, Goutam

    2018-06-01

    Majority of the A2B3 -type chalcogenide systems with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC), such as Bi2Se3,Bi2Te3 , and Sb2Te3 , etc., are topological insulators. One important exception is Sb2Se3 where a topological nontrivial phase was argued to be possible under ambient conditions, but such a phase could be detected to exist only under pressure. In this paper, we show that Sb2Se3 like Bi2Se3 displays a generation of highly spin-polarized current under mesoscopic superconducting point contacts as measured by point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy. In addition, we observe a large negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance of the mesoscopic metallic point contacts formed on Sb2Se3 . Our band-structure calculations confirm the trivial nature of Sb2Se3 crystals and reveal two trivial surface states one of which shows large spin splitting due to Rashba-type SOC. The observed high spin polarization and related phenomena in Sb2Se3 can be attributed to this spin splitting.

  4. Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokell, E.; Zamith, S.; Bouchene, M.A.; Girard, B.

    2000-01-01

    The precession of orbital and spin angular momentum vectors has been observed in a pump-probe study of the 4P fine-structure states of atomic potassium. A femtosecond pump pulse prepared a coherent superposition of the two fine-structure components. A time-delayed probe pulse then ionized the system after it had been allowed to evolve freely. Oscillations recorded in the ion signal reflect the evolution of the orientation of the orbital and spin angular momentum due to spin-orbit coupling. This interpretation gives physical insight into the cause of the half-period phase shift observed when the relative polarizations of the laser pulses were changed from parallel to perpendicular. Finally, it is shown that these changes in the orientation of the spin momentum vector of the system can be utilized to produce highly spin-polarized free electrons on the femtosecond scale. (author)

  5. The NOAA Big Data Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a Big Data producer, generating tens of terabytes per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. These data are of critical importance and value for NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts. In order to facilitate extracting additional value from this information, NOAA has established Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with five Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers — Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Open Cloud Consortium — to determine whether hosting NOAA data in publicly-accessible Clouds alongside on-demand computational capability stimulates the creation of new value-added products and services and lines of business based on the data, and if the revenue generated by these new applications can support the costs of data transmission and hosting. Each IaaS provider is the anchor of a "Data Alliance" which organizations or entrepreneurs can join to develop and test new business or research avenues. This presentation will report on progress and lessons learned during the first 6 months of the 3-year CRADAs.

  6. Polarized beams in high energy storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, B W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1984-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable advance in understanding the spin motion of particles in storage rings and accelerators. The survey presented here outlines the early historical development in this field, describes the basic ideas governing the kinetics of polarized particles in electromagnetic fields and shows how these have evolved into the current description of polarized beam behaviour. Orbital motion of particles influences their spin precession, and depolarization of a beam can result from excitation of spin resonances by orbit errors and oscillations. Electrons and positrons are additionally influenced by the quantized character of synchrotron radiation, which not only provides a polarizing mechanism but also enhances depolarizing effects. Progress in the theoretical formulation of these phenomena has clarified the details of the physical processes and suggested improved methods of compensating spin resonances. Full use of polarized beams for high-energy physics with storage rings requires spin rotators to produce longitudinal polarization in the interaction regions. Variants of these schemes, dubbed Siberian snakes, provide a curious precession topology which can substantially reduce depolarization in the high-energy range. Efficient polarimetry is an essential requirement for implementing polarized beams, whose utility for physics can be enhanced by various methods of spin manipulation.

  7. Solar Effects of Low-Earth Orbit objects in ORDEM 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P.; Kelley, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Variances in atmospheric density are directly related to the variances in solar flux intensity between 11- year solar cycles. The Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0) uses a solar flux table as input for calculating orbital lifetime of intact and debris objects in Low-Earth Orbit. Long term projections in solar flux activity developed by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) extend the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Environment Center (NOAA/SEC) daily historical flux values with a 5-year projection. For purposes of programmatic scheduling, the Q2 2009 solar flux table was chosen for ORDEM 3.0. Current solar flux activity shows that the current solar cycle has entered a period of lower solar flux intensity than previously forecasted in 2009. This results in a deviation of the true orbital debris environment propagation in ORDEM 3.0. In this paper, we present updated orbital debris populations in LEO using the latest solar flux values. We discuss the effects on recent breakup events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test and the Iridium 33 / Cosmos 2251 accidental collision. Justifications for chosen solar flux tables are discussed.

  8. Electron spin polarization in high-energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    In a high energy storage ring, a single photon emission has relatively little effect on the orbital motion, but it can produce a relatively large change in the electron spin state. Hence the unperturbed orbital motion can be satisfactorily described using classical mechanics, but the spin must be treated quantum mechanically. The electron motion is therefore treated semi-classically in this thesis. It is explained how to diagonalize the unperturbed Hamiltonian to the leading order in Planck's constant. The effects of perturbations are then included, and the relevant time-scales and ensemble averages are elucidated. The Derbenev-Kondratenko formula for the equilibrium degree of polarization is rederived. Mathematical details of the rederivation are given. Since the original authors used a different formalism, a proof is offered of the equivalence between their method and the one used in this thesis. An algorithm is also presented to evaluate the equilibrium polarization. It has a number of new features, which enable the polarization to be calculated to a higher degree of approximation than has hitherto been possible. This facilitates the calculation of so-called spin resonances, which are points at which the polarization almost vanishes. A computer program has been written to implement the above algorithm, in the approximation of linear orbital dynamics, and sample results are presented

  9. Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

  10. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  11. Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum of unsupported silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podsiadły-Paszkowska, A., E-mail: agata.podsiadly@gmail.com; Krawiec, M., E-mail: mariusz.krawiec@umcs.pl

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Effects of spin–orbit interaction and atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic properties have been studied. • Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum has been revealed. • Two different AFM phases have been obtained. - Abstract: We study effects of the spin–orbit interaction and the atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic spectrum. As an example we consider unsupported silicene pulled off from Pb(111) substrate. Using first principles density functional theory we show that the inversion symmetry broken arrangement of atoms and the spin–orbit interaction generate a spin-polarized electronic spectrum with an energy gap in the Dirac cone. These findings are particularly interesting in view of the quantum anomalous and quantum valley Hall effects and should be observable in weakly interacting silicene-substrate systems.

  12. Instrumentation with polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Muenzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3 He polarizers and the reflectivity of large-m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

  13. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  14. 15 CFR 911.5 - NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NOAA Data Collection Systems Use... POLICIES AND PROCEDURES CONCERNING USE OF THE NOAA SPACE-BASED DATA COLLECTION SYSTEMS § 911.5 NOAA Data Collection Systems Use Agreements. (a)(1) In order to use a NOAA DCS, each user must have an agreement with...

  15. Dynamic Precursors of Flares in Active Region NOAA 10486

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsós, M. B.; Gyenge, N.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2015-03-01

    Four different methods are applied here to study the precursors of flare activity in the Active Region NOAA 10486. Two approaches track the temporal behaviour of suitably chosen features (one, the weighted hori- zontal gradient W G M , is the generalized form of the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, G M ; the other is the sum of the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, G S , for all sunspot pairs). W G M is a photospheric indicator, that is a proxy measure of magnetic non-potentiality of a specific area of the active region, i.e., it captures the temporal variation of the weighted horizontal gradient of magnetic flux summed up for the region where opposite magnetic polarities are highly mixed. The third one, referred to as the separateness parameter, S l- f , considers the overall morphology. Further, G S and S l- f are photospheric, newly defined quick-look indicators of the polarity mix of the entire active region. The fourth method is tracking the temporal variation of small X-ray flares, their times of succession and their energies observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager instrument. All approaches yield specific pre-cursory signatures for the imminence of flares.

  16. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.

  17. Validation and Demonstration of the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) in Support of User Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, N. R.; Gambacorta, A.; Tan, C.; Iturbide, F.; Barnet, C. D.; Reale, A.; Sun, B.; Liu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation overviews the performance of the operational SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) environmental data record (EDR) products. The SNPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (CrIS/ATMS) suite, the first of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program, is one of NOAA's major investments in our nation's future operational environmental observation capability. The NUCAPS algorithm is a world-class NOAA-operational IR/MW retrieval algorithm based upon the well-established AIRS science team algorithm for deriving temperature, moisture, ozone and carbon trace gas to provide users with state-of-the-art EDR products. Operational use of the products includes the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), along with numerous science-user applications. NUCAPS EDR product assessments are made with reference to JPSS Level 1 global requirements, which provide the definitive metrics for assessing that the products have minimally met predefined global performance specifications. The NESDIS/STAR NUCAPS development and validation team recently delivered the Phase 4 algorithm which incorporated critical updates necessary for compatibility with full spectral-resolution (FSR) CrIS sensor data records (SDRs). Based on comprehensive analyses, the NUCAPS Phase 4 CrIS-FSR temperature, moisture and ozone profile EDRs, as well as the carbon trace gas EDRs (CO, CH4 and CO2), are shown o be meeting or close to meeting the JPSS program global requirements. Regional and temporal assessments of interest to EDR users (e.g., AWIPS) will also be presented.

  18. Interaction between subdaily Earth rotation parameters and GPS orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panafidina, Natalia; Seitz, Manuela; Hugentobler, Urs

    2013-04-01

    In processing GPS observations the geodetic parameters like station coordinates and ERPs (Earth rotation parameters) are estimated w.r.t. the celestial reference system realized by the satellite orbits. The interactions/correlations between estimated GPS orbis and other parameters may lead to numerical problems with the solution and introduce systematic errors in the computed values: the well known correlations comprise 1) the correlation between the orbital parameters determining the orientation of the orbital plane in inertial space and the nutation and 2) in the case of estimating ERPs with subdaily resolution the correlation between retrograde diurnal polar motion and nutation (and so the respective orbital elements). In this contribution we study the interaction between the GPS orbits and subdaily model for the ERPs. Existing subdaily ERP model recommended by the IERS comprises ~100 terms in polar motion and ~70 terms in Universal Time at diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periods. We use a long time series of daily normal equation systems (NEQ) obtaine from GPS observations from 1994 till 2007 where the ERPs with 1-hour resolution are transformed into tidal terms and the influence of the tidal terms with different frequencies on the estimated orbital parameters is considered. We found that although there is no algebraic correlation in the NEQ between the individual orbital parameters and the tidal terms, the changes in the amplitudes of tidal terms with periods close to 24 hours can be better accmodated by systematic changes in the orbital parameters than for tidal terms with other periods. Since the variation in Earth rotation with the period of siderial day (23.93h, tide K1) in terrestrial frame has in inertial space the same period as the period of revolution of GPS satellites, the K1 tidal term in polar motion is seen by the satellites as a permanent shift. The tidal terms with close periods (from ~24.13h to ~23.80h) are seen as a slow rotation of the

  19. Orbital angular momentum of general astigmatic modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Jorrit; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We present an operator method to obtain complete sets of astigmatic Gaussian solutions of the paraxial wave equation. In case of general astigmatism, the astigmatic intensity and phase distribution of the fundamental mode differ in orientation. As a consequence, the fundamental mode has a nonzero orbital angular momentum, which is not due to phase singularities. Analogous to the operator method for the quantum harmonic oscillator, the corresponding astigmatic higher-order modes are obtained by repeated application of raising operators on the fundamental mode. The nature of the higher-order modes is characterized by a point on a sphere, in analogy with the representation of polarization on the Poincare sphere. The north and south poles represent astigmatic Laguerre-Gaussian modes, similar to circular polarization on the Poincare sphere, while astigmatic Hermite-Gaussian modes are associated with points on the equator, analogous to linear polarization. We discuss the propagation properties of the modes and their orbital angular momentum, which depends on the degree of astigmatism and on the location of the point on the sphere

  20. Report on workshop "Study of the polar atmosphere and cryosphere using satellite data with surface validation observations including unmanned one"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kanzawa

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The workshop was organized to discuss algorithms to derive parameters of the polar atmosphere and cryosphere using satellite data received mainly at Syowa Station (69°S, 40°E, Antarctica, i.e., the data from NOAA, MOS (Marine Observation Satellite-1,ERS (European Remote Sensing Satellite-1,JERS (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 with validation data at the surface. It was held on 16 March 1993 at the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR, total number of participants being about 40. The contents of the workshop are as follows : The present status of receipt and utilization of the satellite data of NOAA, MOS-1,ERS-1,JERS-1; The Atmosphere; Sea ice; The Cryosphere; Introduction to the satellite data analysis system at the Information Science Center at NIPR.

  1. Weights assessment for orbit-on-demand vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Martin, J. A.; Breiner, C. A.; Cerro, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Future manned, reusable earth-to-orbit vehicles may be required to reach orbit within hours or even minutes of a mission decision. A study has been conducted to consider vehicles with such a capability. In the initial phase of the study, 11 vehicles were sized for deployment of 5000 lbs to a polar orbit. From this matrix, two of the most promising concepts were resized for a modified mission and payload. A key feature of the study was the use of consistent mass estimating techniques for a broad range of concepts, allowing direct comparisons of sizes and weights.

  2. 15 CFR 996.30 - Use of the NOAA emblem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the NOAA emblem. 996.30 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR NOAA HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Other Quality Assurance Program Matters § 996.30 Use of the...

  3. 78 FR 26616 - Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan for Public Review. SUMMARY: NOAA's draft Five Year Research and Development...

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) sensors onboard nine polar orbiting satellites...

  5. NPOESS System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, F.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD and will provide continuity for the NASA Earth Observation System with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project. This poster will provide a top level status update of the program, as well as an overview of the NPOESS system architecture, which includes four segments. The space segment includes satellites in two orbits that carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The NPOESS system design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users through a Command, Control, and Communication Segment (C3S). The data processing for NPOESS is accomplished through an Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS)/Field Terminal Segment (FTS) that processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government as well as remote terminal users. The Launch Support Segment completes the four segments that make up the NPOESS system that will enhance the connectivity between research and operations and provide critical operational and scientific environmental measurements to military, civil, and scientific users until 2026.

  6. The EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation (EPS-SG) micro-wave imaging (MWI) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkov, B. R.; Accadia, C.; Klaes, D.; Canestri, A.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    The EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) will be followed by a second generation system called EPS-SG. This new family of missions will contribute to the Joint Polar System being jointly set up with NOAA in the timeframe 2020-2040. These satellites will fly, like Metop (EPS), in a sun synchronous, low earth orbit at 830 km altitude and 09:30 local time descending node, providing observations over the full globe with revisit times of 12 hours. EPS-SG consists of two different satellites configurations, the EPS-SGa series dedicated to IR and MW sounding, and the EPS-SGb series dedicated to microwave imaging and scatterometry. The EPS-SG family will consist of three successive launches of each satellite-type. The Microwave Imager (MWI) will be hosted on Metop-SGb series of satellites, with the primary objective of supporting Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at regional and global scales. Other applications will be observation of surface parameters such as sea ice concentration and hydrology applications. The 18 MWI instrument frequencies range from 18.7 GHz to 183 GHz. All MWI channels up to 89 GHz will measure V- and H polarizations. The MWI was also designed to provide continuity of measurements for select heritage microwave imager channels (e.g. SSM/I, AMSR-E). The additional sounding channels such as the 50-55 and 118 GHz bands will provide additional cloud and precipitation information over sea and land. This combination of channels was successfully tested on the NPOESS Aircraft Sounder Testbed - Microwave Sounder (NAST-M) airborne radiometer, and it is the first time that will be implemented in a conical scanning configuration in a single instrument. An overview of the EPS-SG programme and the MWI instrument will be presented.

  7. Dissemination of Earth Remote Sensing Data for Use in the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Camp, Parks; McGrath, Kevin; Bell, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    The National Weather Service has developed the Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT), an application for smartphones and tablets that allows for the collection, geolocation, and aggregation of various damage indicators that are collected during storm surveys. The DAT supports the often labor-intensive process where meteorologists venture into the storm-affected area, allowing them to acquire geotagged photos of the observed damage while also assigning estimated EF-scale categories based upon their observations. Once the data are collected, the DAT infrastructure aggregates the observations into a server that allows other meteorologists to perform quality control and other analysis steps before completing their survey and making the resulting data available to the public. In addition to in-person observations, Earth remote sensing from operational, polar-orbiting satellites can support the damage assessment process by identifying portions of damage tracks that may be missed due to road limitations, access to private property, or time constraints. Products resulting from change detection techniques can identify damage to vegetation and the land surface, aiding in the survey process. In addition, higher resolution commercial imagery can corroborate ground-based surveys by examining higher-resolution commercial imagery. As part of an ongoing collaboration, NASA and NOAA are working to integrate near real-time Earth remote sensing observations into the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit. This presentation will highlight recent developments in a streamlined approach for disseminating Earth remote sensing data via web mapping services and a new menu interface that has been integrated within the DAT. A review of current and future products will be provided, including products derived from MODIS and VIIRS for preliminary track identification, along with conduits for higher-resolution Landsat, ASTER, and commercial imagery as they become available. In addition to tornado damage

  8. JPSS CGS Tools For Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. C.; Grant, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process NPOESS Preparatory Project, Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. Under NPOESS, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization was responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. For JPSS, that responsibility has transferred to NOAA's Center for Satellite Applications & Research (STAR). As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent JPSS and DWSS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and

  9. Anomalous Hall conductivity: Local orbitals approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2010), 045115/1-045115/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * Berry phase correction * orbital polarization momentum Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  10. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  11. Summary of the Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after Seven Years in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; hide

    2016-01-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  12. Terahertz radiation by subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrent originating from Dirac electrons in a Rashba-type polar semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuto; Kida, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    The spin-splitting energy bands induced by the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solids provide a new opportunity to manipulate the spin-polarized electrons on the subpicosecond timescale. Here, we report one such example in a bulk Rashba-type polar semiconductor BiTeBr. Strong terahertz electromagnetic waves are emitted after the resonant excitation of the interband transition between the Rashba-type spin-splitting energy bands with a femtosecond laser pulse circularly polarized. The phase of the emitted terahertz waves is reversed by switching the circular polarization. This suggests that the observed terahertz radiation originates from the subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrents, which are generated by the asymmetric depopulation of the Dirac state. Our result provides a way for the current-induced terahertz radiation and its phase control by the circular polarization of incident light without external electric fields.

  13. Objectives of a prospective Ukrainian orbiter mission to the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Lytvynenko, L. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Kislyulk, V. S.

    2003-06-01

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to lunar orbit. A future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and future missions like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical photopolarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface at a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are a synthetic aperture imaging radar, ground-penetrating radar, and imaging UV-spectropolarimeter. The main purpose of the synthetic aperture imaging radar experiment is to study with high-resolution (50 m) permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential for resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for long-term manned bases on the Moon. Radar and optical imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequency, multi-polarization sounding of the lunar surface with ground-penetrating radar can provide data about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. The ground-penetrating radar can be used for measuring megaregolith properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. Modest spatial resolution (50 m) of the imaging UV-spectropolarimeter should provide total coverage (or coverage of a large portion) of the lunar surface in oblique viewing at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional experiments could use the synthetic aperture

  14. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  15. A comparison of field-aligned current signatures simultaneously observed by the MAGSAT and TIROS/NOAA spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Evans, D.S.; Cain, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    In order to examine the relative locations of auroral particle fluxes and field-aligned currents and to identify the main charge carriers of the field-aligned currents at auroral latitudes, nearly simultaneous data from the vector magnetometers on MAGSAT and of precipitating electrons with energies between 300 eV and 20 keV observed by TIROS-N and NOAA-6 are compared. For more than fifty cases, MAGSAT and TIROS and/or NOAA orbits occurred within two minutes (mostly within one minute) of each other in the dawn/dusk sectors, during the time the IMS meridian chains of ground magnetometers were operating from November, 1979 through January, 1980. The latitudinal boundaries of precipitating electrons are found to line up within 1 0 with those of the field-aligned current region. Major portions of the upward field-aligned currents in the poleward half of the evening-sector auroral oval and in the equatorward half of the morining-sector auroral oval appear to be carried by the precipitating keV electrons. (author)

  16. Efficient spin filtering in a disordered semiconductor superlattice in the presence of Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayatzadeh Mahani, Mohammad Reza; Faizabadi, Edris

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling on spin polarization by tunneling through a disordered semiconductor superlattice was investigated. The Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling causes the spin polarization of the electron due to transmission possibilities difference between spin up and spin down electrons. The electron tunneling through a zinc-blende semiconductor superlattice with InAs and GaAs layers and two variable distance In x Ga (1-x) As impurity layers was studied. One hundred percent spin polarization was obtained by optimizing the distance between two impurity layers and impurity percent in disordered layers in the presence of Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. In addition, the electron transmission probability through the mentioned superlattice is too much near to one and an efficient spin filtering was recommended

  17. Design and "As Flown" Radiation Environments for Materials in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; McWilliams, Brett; Altstatt, Richard; Koontz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    the ISS flight trajectory including variations in altitude due to decay of the vehicle orbit and periodic reboosts to higher altitudes. In addition, an estimate of the AE-8 model to predict low Earth orbit electron flux (because the radiation dose for thin materials is dominated by the electron component of the radiation environment) is presented based on comparisons of the AE-8 model to measurements of electron integral flux at approximately 850 km from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on board the NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellite.

  18. Photo-Induced Electron Spin Polarization in a Narrow Band Gap Semiconductor Nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-01-01

    Photo-induced spin dependent electron transmission through a narrow gap InSb/InGa x Sb 1−x semiconductor symmetric well is theoretically studied using transfer matrix formulism. The transparency of electron transmission is calculated as a function of electron energy for different concentrations of gallium. Enhanced spin-polarized photon assisted resonant tunnelling in the heterostructure due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling induced splitting of the resonant level and compressed spin-polarization are observed. Our results show that Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is dominant for the photon effect and the computed polarization efficiency increases with the photon effect and the gallium concentration

  19. Evidence for a new geomagnetic reversal from lava flows in Idaho: discussion of short polarity reversals in the Brunhes and late Matuyama Polarity Chrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, D.E.; Lanphere, M.A.; Kuntz, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    K-Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for basalt samples from a new core hole (site E) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) indicate that the age of the reversed polarity event recorded in Snake River Plain lavas is older than 465 ?? 50 ka (1000 years before present) reported previously by Champion et al. (1981). A review of data documenting short reversal records from volcanic and sedimentary rocks shows that there is evidence for eight polarity subchrons in the Brunhes and two besides the Jaramillo in the late Matuyama. These 10 short subchrons begin to indicate the many short events that Cox (1968) hypothesized must exist if polarity interval lengths have a Poisson distribution. The mean sustained polarity interval length since late Matuyama Chron time is 90 000 years. The similarity of this number with the 105-year period of the Earth's orbital eccentricity suggests anew that linkage between geomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and possible underlying Earth orbital parameters should be evaluated. -from Authors

  20. Polarization of photoelectrons produced from atoms by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, V.W.; Lu, D.C.; Huang, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    The polarization of photoelectrons from stoms has proved to be an important tool for studying correlation effects in atoms, as well as relativistic effects such as the spin-orbit interaction. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have been made of the Fano effect, which is the production of polarized electrons by photoionization of unpolarized atoms by circularly polarized light. The experiments have dealt mostly with alkali atoms and with photon energies slightly above the ionization thresholds. Measurements that could be made to utilize polarized radiation are discussed

  1. Proposed NOAA Budget Includes Hefty Increase for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with $5.55 billion, which represents a total increase of $806.1 million, or 17% above the FY 2010 budget enacted by Congress. At a February briefing about the budget, NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco said the budget is a very good package for the agency and that it reflects the administration's commitment to the environment, science, public safety, and job creation. Noting that the agency's budget remained essentially flat between FY 2005 and FY 2008 during the George W. Bush administration, Lubchenco said, “the increasing demand for NOAA's services, coupled with a static budget, created a major challenge for NOAA in delivering on expectations.” She said the funding picture for the agency improved with the FY 2009 and FY 2010 enacted budgets. Lubchenco noted that the proposed budget would include $949 million for research and development, an $82 million increase, adding, “Our 2011 request for each line office [within NOAA] is higher than it was in 2010, and we are better aligned with congressional funding levels than in previous budgets.”

  2. EVOLUTION OF CURRENTS OF OPPOSITE SIGNS IN THE FLARE-PRODUCTIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Bhattacharyya, R.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of a time series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms of the active region NOAA 10930 available from the Solar Optical Telescope SpectroPolarimeter on board Hinode revealed that there is a mixture of upward and downward currents in the two footpoints of an emerging flux rope. The flux emergence rate is almost the same in both the polarities. We observe that along with an increase in magnetic flux, the net current in each polarity increases initially for about three days after which it decreases. This net current is characterized by having exactly opposite signs in each polarity while its magnitude remains almost the same most of the time. The decrease of the net current in both the polarities is due to the increase of current having a sign opposite to that of the net current. The dominant current, with the same sign as the net current, is seen to increase first and then decreases during the major X-class flares. Evolution of non-dominant current appears to be a necessary condition for flare initiation. The above observations can be plausibly explained in terms of the superposition of two different force-free states resulting in a non-zero Lorentz force in the corona. This Lorentz force then pushes the coronal plasma and might facilitate the magnetic reconnection required for flares. Also, the evolution of the net current is found to follow the evolution of magnetic shear at the polarity inversion line.

  3. Verification of possible asymmetry of polarization of thermal neutrons reflected by a mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, A.I.; Runov, V.V.; Gukasov, A.G.; Shchebetov, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments with a polarizing neutron guide do not confirm the neutron polarization asymmetry observed previously by Berndorfer for neutrons traversing a polarizing neutron guide. In connection with the spin-orbit effects a verification is carried out on single reflection of neutrons by magnetic or nonmagnetic mirrors. With an accuracy of 10 -4 -10 -3 no polarization asymmetry is observed

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AMSU-A Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) sensors onboard six polar orbiting...

  5. NOAA's Undergraduate Scholarship Program Outcomes and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.; Jabanoski, K.; Christenson, T.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA supports about 115 - 150 undergraduates per year through the Ernest F. Hollings Scholarship and the Educational Partnership Program Undergraduate Scholarship. These programs provide tuition support and paid summer internships at NOAA to exceptional students majoring in the geosciences. Multiple methods were used to evaluate program outcomes and track the career trajectories, including mining LinkedIn data and conducting evaluation surveys of recipients as well as students who applied but did not receive the award. Results show more than 75% of scholars continued on to graduate school, primarily in a NOAA mission fields. This compared to only 56% of nonrecipients. More than 60% of alumni had at least one professional record, with the most alumni working in private industry, followed by nongovernmental organizations and federal, state and local government. The evaluation identified 77 other scholarship programs applied to by NOAA scholarship recipients. The most commonly reported program was the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) for which 20% of scholars applied and 46% of applications were successful. Other common scholarships included the Goldwater Scholarship (received by 5% of NOAA scholars) and the Udall Scholarship (received by 4% of scholars). In the most recent class of 118 undergraduate scholars, 24% reported having another research experience by the time they arrived for orientation at the end of their sophomore year. These results suggest coordination across scholarship opportunities may be useful to engage and retain students in geoscience fields.

  6. Geometric phase due to orbit-orbit interaction: rotating LP11 modes in a two-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Chakravarthy, T.; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-10-01

    Accumulation of geometric phase due to non-coplanar propagation of higher-order modes in an optical fiber is experimentally demonstrated. Vertically-polarized LP11 fiber mode, excited in a horizontally-held, torsion-free, step-index, two-mode optical fiber, rotates due to asymmetry in the propagating k-vectors, arising due to off-centered beam location at the fiber input. Perceiving the process as due to rotation of the fiber about the off-axis launch position, the orbital Berry phase accumulation upon scanning the launch position in a closed-loop around the fiber axis manifests as rotational Doppler effect, a consequence of orbit-orbit interaction. The anticipated phase accumulation as a function of the input launch position, observed through interferometry is connected to the mode rotation angle, quantified using the autocorrelation method.

  7. Post-launch performance evaluation of the OMPS Nadir Mapper and Nadir Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhuis, Michael G.; Wu, Xiangqian; Flynn, Larry; Beach, Eric; Niu, Jianguo; Yu, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) represents the latest generation of polar-orbiting satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first in the JPSS series of satellites, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft was launched in November 2011 to bridge the gap between the current Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the future JPSS-1. The Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) is a suite of hyperspectral instruments onboard the Suomi NPP spacecraft designed to continue atmospheric ozone records through both atmospheric profiles and global distribution mapping. OMPS will also be included on the future JPSS payloads. In order to properly extend measurements from previous ozone instruments, including the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument on POES, proper OMPS calibration is necessary. In this study, the postlaunch performance of the OMPS Nadir Mapper (NM) and Nadir Profiler (NP) are evaluated through their Sensor Data Records (SDRs), which validates their end-to-end calibration. This is achieved through stability monitoring and intercomparison.

  8. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  9. Effects of finite coverage on global polarization observables in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shaowei; Lin, Zi-Wei; Shi, Shusu; Sun, Xu

    2018-05-01

    In non-central relativistic heavy ion collisions, the created matter possesses a large initial orbital angular momentum. Particles produced in the collisions could be polarized globally in the direction of the orbital angular momentum due to spin-orbit coupling. Recently, the STAR experiment has presented polarization signals for Λ hyperons and possible spin alignment signals for ϕ mesons. Here we discuss the effects of finite coverage on these observables. The results from a multi-phase transport and a toy model both indicate that a pseudorapidity coverage narrower than | η | value for the extracted ϕ-meson ρ00 parameter; thus a finite coverage can lead to an artificial deviation of ρ00 from 1/3. We also show that a finite η and pT coverage affect the extracted pH parameter for Λ hyperons when the real pH value is non-zero. Therefore proper corrections are necessary to reliably quantify the global polarization with experimental observables.

  10. Jupiter's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere after Juno's First 8 Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Oliversen, R. J.; Espley, J. R.; Gruesbeck, J.; Kotsiaros, S.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Joergensen, J. L.; Joergensen, P. S.; Merayo, J. M. G.; Denver, T.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Malinnikova Bang, A.; Bloxham, J.; Moore, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Gershman, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft entered polar orbit about Jupiter on July 4, 2016, embarking upon an ambitious mission to map Jupiter's magnetic and gravitational potential fields and probe its deep atmosphere, in search of clues to the planet's formation and evolution. Juno is also instrumented to conduct the first exploration of the polar magnetosphere and to acquire images and spectra of its polar auroras and atmosphere. Juno's 53.5-day orbit trajectory carries her science instruments from pole to pole in approximately 2 hours, with a closest approach to within 1.05 Rj of the center of the planet (one Rj = 71,492 km, Jupiter's equatorial radius), just a few thousand km above the clouds. Repeated periapsis passes will eventually encircle the planet with a dense net of observations equally spaced in longitude (magnetometer sensor suites, located 10 and 12 m from the center of the spacecraft at the end of one of Juno's three solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, providing accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. We present an overview of the magnetometer observations obtained during Juno's first year in orbit in context with prior observations and those acquired by Juno's other science instruments.

  11. Isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis has been made of experimental data on level spectra, single-nucleon transfer reactions near closed shells, and data on polarization effects in charge-exchange (p, n) reactions between isoanalogous states of nuclei with even A. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the spin-orbit splittings of neutrons and protons in identical orbitals. This conclusion is confirmed in the frame work of different theoretical approaches [ru

  12. Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-06-21

    Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall

  13. NOAA Emergency Response Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...

  14. Bell’s measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We perform Bell’s measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell’s inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally. PMID:26369424

  15. 75 FR 30383 - NOAA's Arctic Vision and Strategy; Comment Period Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT64 NOAA's Arctic.... ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA wishes to ensure its Arctic Vision and Strategy document..., and coastal communities. Though NOAA has numerous and diverse capabilities that support these emerging...

  16. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  17. South Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    4 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polgyon-cracked surface, into which deep, somewhat kidney-bean-shaped pits have formed. These are landscapes of the martian south polar residual cap. This view was captured during May 2005. Location near: 86.9oS, 5.1oW Image width: 1.5 km (0.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season Southern Spring

  18. Calculations of spin-polarized Goos-Hänchen displacement in magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mao-Wang; Chen, Sai-Yan; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Huang, Xin-Hong

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically investigate Goos-Hänchen (GH) displacement by modelling the spin transport in an archetypal device structure—a magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Both Rashba and Dresselhaus SOCs are taken into account. The degree of spin-polarized GH displacement can be tuned by Rashba or Dresselhaus SOC, i.e. interfacial confining electric field or strain engineering. Based on such a semiconductor nanostructure, a controllable spatial spin splitter can be proposed for spintronics applications.

  19. Calculations of spin-polarized Goos-Hänchen displacement in magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mao-Wang; Chen, Sai-Yan; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Huang, Xin-Hong

    2018-04-11

    We theoretically investigate Goos-Hänchen (GH) displacement by modelling the spin transport in an archetypal device structure-a magnetically confined GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As nanostructure modulated by spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Both Rashba and Dresselhaus SOCs are taken into account. The degree of spin-polarized GH displacement can be tuned by Rashba or Dresselhaus SOC, i.e. interfacial confining electric field or strain engineering. Based on such a semiconductor nanostructure, a controllable spatial spin splitter can be proposed for spintronics applications.

  20. Electron spin polarization in realistic trajectories around the magnetic node of two counter-propagating, circularly polarized, ultra-intense lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Seipt, D.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    It has recently been suggested that two counter-propagating, circularly polarized, ultra-intense lasers can induce a strong electron spin polarization at the magnetic node of the electromagnetic field that they setup (Del Sorbo et al 2017 Phys. Rev. A 96 043407). We confirm these results by considering a more sophisticated description that integrates over realistic trajectories. The electron dynamics is weakly affected by the variation of power radiated due to the spin polarization. The degree of spin polarization differs by approximately 5% if considering electrons initially at rest or already in a circular orbit. The instability of trajectories at the magnetic node induces a spin precession associated with the electron migration that establishes an upper temporal limit to the polarization of the electron population of about one laser period.

  1. Electrically tunable spin polarization in silicene: A multi-terminal spin density matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Son-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Recent realized silicene field-effect transistor yields promising electronic applications. Using a multi-terminal spin density matrix approach, this paper presents an analysis of the spin polarizations in a silicene structure of the spin field-effect transistor by considering the intertwined intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit couplings, gate voltage, Zeeman splitting, as well as disorder. Coexistence of the stagger potential and intrinsic spin–orbit coupling results in spin precession, making any in-plane polarization directions reachable by the gate voltage; specifically, the intrinsic coupling allows one to electrically adjust the in-plane components of the polarizations, while the Rashba coupling to adjust the out-of-plan polarizations. Larger electrically tunable ranges of in-plan polarizations are found in oppositely gated silicene than in the uniformly gated silicene. Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably in weak disorder regime, while independent of the phases, stronger disorder leads to a saturation value. - Highlights: • Density matrix with spin rotations enables multi-terminal arbitrary spin injections. • Gate-voltage tunable in-plane polarizations require intrinsic SO coupling. • Gate-voltage tunable out-of-plane polarizations require Rashba SO coupling. • Oppositely gated silicene yields a large tunable range of in-plan polarizations. • Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably only in weak disorder.

  2. NOAA Form 370 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information from submitted NOAA Form 370s, also known as the Fisheries Certificate of Origin, for imported shipments of frozen and/or processed...

  3. NOAA Office of Exploration and Research > Exploration > Systematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel (E/V) Nautilus in real-time on Internet 2 and the Internet. A legacy of high quality imagery, high . Contact Information for OER Okeanos Explorer Program: Craig Russell NOAA/OAR/OER 7600 Sand Point Way NE | Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | FOIA | Web Accessibility Statement | Information Quality Copyright NOAA 2013

  4. 76 FR 55362 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Customer Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Customer Surveys AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing effort..., (301) 628-5751 or [email protected]noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This request is for...

  5. Polar Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-outlined polygons on a frost-covered surface in the south polar region of Mars. In summer, this surface would not be bright and the polygons would not have dark outlines--these are a product of the presence of seasonal frost. Location near: 77.2oS, 204.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  6. Access High Quality Imagery from the NOAA View Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisut, D.; Powell, A. M.; Loomis, T.; Goel, V.; Mills, B.; Cowan, D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA curates a vast treasure trove of environmental data, but one that is sometimes not easily accessed, especially for education, outreach, and media purposes. Traditional data portals in NOAA require extensive knowledge of the specific names of observation platforms, models, and analyses, along with nomenclature for variable outputs. A new website and web mapping service (WMS) from NOAA attempts to remedy such issues. The NOAA View data imagery portal provides a seamless entry point into data from across the agency: satellite, models, in-situ analysis, etc. The system provides the user with ability to browse, animate, and download high resolution (e.g., 4,000 x 2,000 pixel) imagery, Google Earth, and even proxy data files. The WMS architecture also allows the resources to be ingested into other software systems or applications.

  7. Strong electron correlation in photoionization of spin-orbit doublets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Manson, S.T.; Msezane, A.M.; Radojevic, V.

    2002-01-01

    A new and explicitly many-body aspect of the 'leveraging' of the spin-orbit interaction is demonstrated, spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling, which can significantly alter the photoionization cross section of a spin-orbit doublet. As an example, it is demonstrated via a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange, that a recently observed unexplained structure in the Xe 3d 5/2 photoionization cross section [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2000)] is entirely due to this effect. Similar features are predicted for Cs 3d 5/2 and Ba 3d 5/2

  8. The nuclear spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.; Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleon-nucleon scattering around 100 MeV has determined the spin-orbit coupling part of the two-body scattering matrix at that energy, and a reasonable extrapolation to lower energies is possible. This scattering amplitude has been used, in the spirit of Brueckner's nuclear model, to estimate the resultant single-body spin-orbit coupling for a single nucleon interacting with a large nucleus. This resultant potential has a radial dependence approximately proportional to r -1 d ρ /dr, and with a magnitude in good agreement with that required to explain the doublet splittings in nuclei and the polarization of nucleons scattered elastically off nuclei. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs

  9. Transition of NOAA's GPS-Met Data Acquisition and Processing System to the Commercial Sector: Inital Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Blatt, Stephan; Holub, Kirk

    2015-04-01

    In April of 2014, NOAA/OAR/ESRL Global Systems Division (GSD) and Trimble, in collaboration with Earth Networks, Inc. (ENI) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to transfer the existing NOAA GPS-Met Data Acquisition and Processing System (GPS-Met DAPS) technology to a commercial Trimble/ENI partnership. NOAA's GPS-Met DAPS is currently operated in a pseudo-operational mode but has proven highly reliable and running at over 95% uptime. The DAPS uses the GAMIT software to ingest dual frequency carrier phase GPS/GNSS observations and ancillary information such as real-time satellite orbits to estimate the zenith-scaled tropospheric (ZTD) signal delays and, where surface MET data are available, retrieve integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV). The NOAA data and products are made available to end users in near real-time. The Trimble/ENI partnership will use the Trimble Pivot™ software with the Atmosphere App to calculate zenith tropospheric (ZTD), tropospheric slant delay, and integrated precipitable water vapor (PWV). Evaluation of the Trimble software is underway starting with a comparison of ZTD and PWV values determined from four sub networks of GPS stations located 1. near NOAA Radiosonde Observation (Upper-Air Observation) launch sites; 2. Stations with low terrain/high moisture variability (Gulf Coast); 3. Stations with high terrain/low moisture variability (Southern California); and 4. Stations with high terrain/high moisture variability (high terrain variability elev. > 1000m). For each network GSD and T/ENI run the same stations for 30 days, compare results, and perform an evaluation of the long-term solution accuracy, precision and reliability. Metrics for success include T/ENI PWV estimates within 1.5 mm of ESRL/GSD's estimates 95% of the time (ZTD uncertainty of less than 10 mm 95% of the time). The threshold for allowable variations in ZTD between NOAA GPS-Met and T/ENI processing are 10mm. The CRADA 1&2 Trimble processing

  10. Land and cryosphere products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Christopher O; Román, Miguel O; Csiszar, Ivan; Vermote, Eric F; Wolfe, Robert E; Hook, Simon J; Friedl, Mark; Wang, Zhuosen; Schaaf, Crystal B; Miura, Tomoaki; Tschudi, Mark; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy K; Lyapustin, Alexei I; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Davidson, Carol; Masuoka, Edward J

    2013-09-16

    [1] The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). The VIIRS instrument was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA- and NOAA-funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and generate land and cryosphere products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs, and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper presents to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS land and cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization. The study concludes that, for MODIS data product continuity and earth system science, an enhanced suite of land and cryosphere products and associated data system capabilities are needed beyond the EDRs currently available from the VIIRS.

  11. NPOESS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Route, G.; Grant, K. D.; Hughes, B.; Reed, B.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes both NPP and NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. As the Calibration and Validation activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent NPOESS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity.

  12. 77 FR 32572 - (NOAA) National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate... (OAR), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION... page http:// www.nesdis.noaa.gov/NCADAC/ [[Page 32573

  13. Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling effects on tunnelling through two-dimensional magnetic quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wen; Guo Yong

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling interactions on tunnelling through two-dimensional magnetic quantum systems. It is showed that not only Rashba spin-orbit coupling but also Dresselhaus one can affect spin tunnelling properties greatly in such a quantum system. The transmission possibility, the spin polarization and the conductance are obviously oscillated with both coupling strengths. High spin polarization, conductance and magnetic conductance of the structure can be obtained by modulating either Rashba or Dresselhaus coupling strength

  14. SEL monitoring of the earth's energetic particle radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Environment Laboratory (SEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maintains instruments on board the GOES series of geostationary satellites, and aboard the NOAA/TIROS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellites, which provide monitoring of the energetic particle radiation environment as well as monitoring the geostationary magnetic field and the solar x-ray flux. The data are used by the SEL Space Environment Services Center (SESC) to help provide real-time monitoring and forecasting of the state of the near earth environment and its disturbances, and to maintain a source of reliable information to research and operational activities of a variety of users

  15. Developing Vocabularies to Improve Understanding and Use of NOAA Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis project (NOSIA II), is an attempt to capture and tell the story of how valuable observing systems are in producing products and services that are required to fulfill the NOAA's diverse mission. NOAA's goals and mission areas cover a broad range of environmental data; a complexity exists in terms and vocabulary as applied to the creation of observing system derived products. The NOSIA data collection focused first on decomposing NOAA's goals in the creation and acceptance of Mission Service Areas (MSAs) by NOAA senior leadership. Products and services that supported the MSAs were then identified through the process of interviewing product producers across NOAA organization. Product Data inputs including models, databases and observing system were also identified. The NOSIA model contains over 20,000 nodes each representing levels in a network connecting products, datasources, users and desired outcomes. An immediate need became apparent that the complexity and variety of the data collected required data management to mature the quality and the content of the NOSIA model. The NOSIA Analysis Database (ADB) was developed initially to improve consistency of terms and data types to allow for the linkage of observing systems, products and NOAA's Goals and mission. The ADB also allowed for the prototyping of reports and product generation in an easily accessible and comprehensive format for the first time. Web based visualization of relationships between products, datasources, users, producers were generated to make the information easily understood This includes developing ontologies/vocabularies that are used for the development of users type specific products for NOAA leadership, Observing System Portfolio mangers and the users of NOAA data.

  16. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  17. Spin Polarization Inversion at Benzene-Absorbed Fe4N Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qian; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Wang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    We report a first-principle study on electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy graphic of a benzene/Fe4N interface. Fe4N is a compound ferromagnet suitable for many spintronic applications. We found that, depending on the particular termination schemes and interface configurations, the spin polarization on the benzene surface shows a rich variety of properties ranging from cosine-type oscillation to polarization inversion. Spin-polarization inversion above benzene is resulting from the hybridizations between C pz and the out-of-plane d orbitals of Fe atom.

  18. Spin Polarization Inversion at Benzene-Absorbed Fe4N Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qian

    2015-05-27

    We report a first-principle study on electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy graphic of a benzene/Fe4N interface. Fe4N is a compound ferromagnet suitable for many spintronic applications. We found that, depending on the particular termination schemes and interface configurations, the spin polarization on the benzene surface shows a rich variety of properties ranging from cosine-type oscillation to polarization inversion. Spin-polarization inversion above benzene is resulting from the hybridizations between C pz and the out-of-plane d orbitals of Fe atom.

  19. Spin and charge controlled by antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling in a triangular-triple-quantum-dot Kondo system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.

    2018-05-01

    We study a local antisymmetric spin-orbit (ASO) coupling effect on a triangular-triple-quantum-dot (TTQD) system as a theoretical proposal for a new application of the Kondo physics to nanoscale devices. The electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect is strongly correlated with the spin configurations and molecular orbital degrees of freedom in the TTQD. In particular, an abrupt sign reversal of the emergent electric polarization is associated with a quantum critical point in a magnetic field, which can also be controlled by the ASO coupling that changes the mixing weight of different orbital components in the TTQD ground state.

  20. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    robotic and human surface bases. Sunlight is nearly ... orientation and precession of its spin axis rela- tive to its orbit ... atoms, most likely hydrogen, that many people immediately .... to find out the real meaning of the excess polar hydrogen.

  1. Non-perturbative calculation of equilibrium polarization of stored electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoya, Kaoru.

    1992-05-01

    Stored electron/positron beams polarize spontaneously owing to the spin-flip synchrotron radiation. In the existing computer codes, the degree of the equilibrium polarization has been calculated using perturbation expansions in terms of the orbital oscillation amplitudes. In this paper a new numerical method is presented which does not employ the perturbation expansion. (author)

  2. 75 FR 59686 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Space-Based Data Collection System (DCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected] ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... Environmental Satellite (GOES) DCS and the Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) DCS, also... Collection Submittal include Internet, facsimile transmission and postal mailing of paper forms. III. Data...

  3. 15 CFR 971.802 - Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... received by NOAA. 971.802 Section 971.802 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Miscellaneous § 971.802 Public disclosure of documents received by NOAA. (a) Purpose. This section provides a... assure that NOAA has a complete and proper basis for determining the legality and appropriateness of...

  4. Tsunami.gov: NOAA's Tsunami Information Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the new Tsunami.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of tsunami information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called Tsunami Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest tsunami alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based tsunami messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The Tsunami.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective tsunami warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand Tsunami.gov to encompass tsunami-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA Tsunami Website, National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger Tsunami Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into

  5. Sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, N.; Greeley, R.

    1990-01-01

    Data from studies of the cross-sectional area of terrestrial transverse dunes have been combined with maps of dune morphometry derived from Viking orbiter images to generate new estimates of sediment thickness and dune sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars. A relationship between dune spacing and equivalent sediment thickness (EST) was developed from field data on Namibian and North American dunes and was applied to data on dune spacing and dune cover measured on Viking orbiter images to generate maps of dune sediment thickness for Martian north polar sand seas. There are four major sand seas in the north polar region of Mars, covering an area of 6.8 x 10 5 km 2 . Equivalent sediment thickness ranges between 0.5 and 6.1 m with a mean of 1.8 m. The sand seas contain a total of 1158 km 3 of dune sediment, which may have been derived by erosion of polar layered deposits and concentrated in its present location by winds that change direction seasonally

  6. NOAA NDBC SOS - waves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have waves data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for data...

  7. Enhanced optical spin current injection in the hexagonal lattice with intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jianfei, E-mail: zoujianfei@hhu.edu.cn; Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Aimei

    2017-04-04

    We study the photo-induced spin current injection in a hexagonal lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions which is irradiated by a polarized light beam. It is found that the spin current injection rate could be enhanced as the graphene lattice is in the topological insulator state. Furthermore, the spin current injection rate could be remarkably modulated by the degree of polarization of light and its frequency. - Highlights: • The optical spin current could be enhanced by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. • The optical spin current could be modulated by the degree of polarization of light. • The maximum of the spin current injection rate is obtained.

  8. Solar radio proxies for improved satellite orbit prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Philippe; Hecker, Louis; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Fèvre, Clémence Le; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-12-01

    Specification and forecasting of solar drivers to thermosphere density models is critical for satellite orbit prediction and debris avoidance. Satellite operators routinely forecast orbits up to 30 days into the future. This requires forecasts of the drivers to these orbit prediction models such as the solar Extreme-UV (EUV) flux and geomagnetic activity. Most density models use the 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 index) as a proxy for solar EUV. However, daily measurements at other centimetric wavelengths have also been performed by the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (Japan) since the 1950's, thereby offering prospects for improving orbit modeling. Here we present a pre-operational service at the Collecte Localisation Satellites company that collects these different observations in one single homogeneous dataset and provides a 30 days forecast on a daily basis. Interpolation and preprocessing algorithms were developed to fill in missing data and remove anomalous values. We compared various empirical time series prediction techniques and selected a multi-wavelength non-recursive analogue neural network. The prediction of the 30 cm flux, and to a lesser extent that of the 10.7 cm flux, performs better than NOAA's present prediction of the 10.7 cm flux, especially during periods of high solar activity. In addition, we find that the DTM-2013 density model (Drag Temperature Model) performs better with (past and predicted) values of the 30 cm radio flux than with the 10.7 flux.

  9. Solar radio proxies for improved satellite orbit prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specification and forecasting of solar drivers to thermosphere density models is critical for satellite orbit prediction and debris avoidance. Satellite operators routinely forecast orbits up to 30 days into the future. This requires forecasts of the drivers to these orbit prediction models such as the solar Extreme-UV (EUV flux and geomagnetic activity. Most density models use the 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 index as a proxy for solar EUV. However, daily measurements at other centimetric wavelengths have also been performed by the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (Japan since the 1950's, thereby offering prospects for improving orbit modeling. Here we present a pre-operational service at the Collecte Localisation Satellites company that collects these different observations in one single homogeneous dataset and provides a 30 days forecast on a daily basis. Interpolation and preprocessing algorithms were developed to fill in missing data and remove anomalous values. We compared various empirical time series prediction techniques and selected a multi-wavelength non-recursive analogue neural network. The prediction of the 30 cm flux, and to a lesser extent that of the 10.7 cm flux, performs better than NOAA's present prediction of the 10.7 cm flux, especially during periods of high solar activity. In addition, we find that the DTM-2013 density model (Drag Temperature Model performs better with (past and predicted values of the 30 cm radio flux than with the 10.7 flux.

  10. Precise Orbital and Geodetic Parameter Estimation using SLR Observations for ILRS AAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present results of precise orbital geodetic parameter estimation using satellite laser ranging (SLR observations for the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS associate analysis center (AAC. Using normal point observations of LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, ETALON-1, and ETALON-2 in SLR consolidated laser ranging data format, the NASA/ GSFC GEODYN II and SOLVE software programs were utilized for precise orbit determination (POD and finding solutions of a terrestrial reference frame (TRF and Earth orientation parameters (EOPs. For POD, a weekly-based orbit determination strategy was employed to process SLR observations taken from 20 weeks in 2013. For solutions of TRF and EOPs, loosely constrained scheme was used to integrate POD results of four geodetic SLR satellites. The coordinates of 11 ILRS core sites were determined and daily polar motion and polar motion rates were estimated. The root mean square (RMS value of post-fit residuals was used for orbit quality assessment, and both the stability of TRF and the precision of EOPs by external comparison were analyzed for verification of our solutions. Results of post-fit residuals show that the RMS of the orbits of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 1.20 and 1.12 cm, and those of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 1.02 and 1.11 cm, respectively. The stability analysis of TRF shows that the mean value of 3D stability of the coordinates of 11 ILRS core sites is 7.0 mm. An external comparison, with respect to International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS 08 C04 results, shows that standard deviations of polar motion Xp and Yp are 0.754 milliarcseconds (mas and 0.576 mas, respectively. Our results of precise orbital and geodetic parameter estimation are reasonable and help advance research at ILRS AAC.

  11. Light-induced spin polarizations in quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joibari, F.K.; Blanter, Y.M.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Nonresonant circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can exert torques on magnetizations by the inverse Faraday effect (IFE). Here, we discuss the enhancement of IFE by spin-orbit interactions. We illustrate the principle by studying a simple generic model system, i.e., the

  12. Comparative DMFT study of the eg-orbital Hubbard model in thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, Andreas; Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Gull, Emanuel; Fiete, Gregory A.

    2014-02-01

    Heterostructures of transition-metal oxides have emerged as a new route to engineer electronic systems with desired functionalities. Motivated by these developments, we study a two-orbital Hubbard model in a thin-film geometry confined along the cubic [001] direction using the dynamical mean-field theory. We contrast the results of two approximate impurity solvers (exact diagonalization and one-crossing approximation) to the results of the numerically exact continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo solver. Consistent with earlier studies, we find that the one-crossing approximation performs well in the insulating regime, while the advantage of the exact-diagonalization-based solver is more pronounced in the metallic regime. We then investigate various aspects of strongly correlated eg-orbital systems in thin-film geometries. In particular, we show how the interfacial orbital polarization dies off quickly a few layers from the interface and how the film thickness affects the location of the interaction-driven Mott transition. In addition, we explore the changes in the electronic structure with varying carrier concentration and identify large variations of the orbital polarization in the strongly correlated regime.

  13. Four Years on Orbit at the Moon with LOLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    After four years of near-continuous operation at the Moon, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) continues to collect altimetry, surface roughness, slope and normal reflectance data. Although the instrument is beginning to show the effects of tens of thousands of thermal cycles and the natural process of the aging of the laser transmitters, LOLA continues to acquire data on the sunlit portion of every orbit on all 5 laser beams when below 100-km altitude. LOLA has acquired over 6x10^9 altimeter measurements, all geodetically controlled to the center-of-mass of the Moon with a radial precision of around 10 cm and an accuracy of about 1 meter. The position of the measurements on the lunar surface is primarily limited by the knowledge of the position of the spacecraft in orbit; in the last year the LRO orbit accuracy has improved significantly as a result of the availability of an accurate gravity model of the Moon from the GRAIL Discovery mission. Our present estimate of positional accuracy is less than 10 m rms but is only achievable with a GRAIL gravity model to at least degree and order 600 because of the perturbing gravitational effect of the Moon's surface features. Significant improvements in the global shape and topography have assisted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) stereo mapping program, and the identification of potential lunar landing sites for ESA and Russia, particularly in the high-latitude polar regions where 5- and 10-meter average horizontal resolution has been obtained. LOLA's detailed mapping of the polar regions has improved the delineation of permanently-shadowed areas and assisted in the understanding of the LEND neutron data and its relationship to surface slopes. Recently, a global, calibrated LOLA normal albedo dataset at 1064 nm has been developed and is being combined with analysis and modeling by the Diviner team for the identification of the coldest locations in the polar regions.

  14. Cassini UVIS Observations of Saturn during the Grand Finale Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, W. R.; Esposito, L. W.; West, R. A.; Jouchoux, A.; Radioti, A.; Grodent, D. C.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Gustin, J.; Lamy, L.; Badman, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016 and 2017, the Cassini Saturn orbiter executed a final series of high inclination, low-periapsis orbits ideal for studies of Saturn's polar regions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) obtained an extensive set of auroral images, some at the highest spatial resolution obtained during Cassini's long orbital mission (2004-2017). In some cases, two or three spacecraft slews at right angles to the long slit of the spectrograph were required to cover the entire auroral region to form auroral images. We will present selected images from this set showing narrow arcs of emission, more diffuse auroral emissions, multiple auroral arcs in a single image, discrete spots of emission, small scale vortices, large-scale spiral forms, and parallel linear features that appear to cross in places like twisted wires. Some shorter features are transverse to the main auroral arcs, like barbs on a wire. UVIS observations were in some cases simultaneous with auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) that will also be presented. UVIS polar images also contain spectral information suitable for studies of the auroral electron energy distribution. The long wavelength part of the UVIS polar images contains a signal from reflected sunlight containing absorption signatures of acetylene and other Saturn hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon spatial distribution will also be examined.

  15. NOAA Workforce Management Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assault and Harassment Prevention and Response Policy NOAA Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Helpline Classification System How to Develop a Specialty Descriptor Request form for an addition to the ACS Workplace Program (PCO-LDP) Workplace Resources Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Employee Assistance Program

  16. 75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...-02] RIN 0648-ZC05 NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Projects. SUMMARY...

  17. Tunnelling of orbital angular momentum in parallel optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C N; Fadeyeva, T A; Yavorsky, M A; Boklag, N A

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of circularly polarized optical vortices (OVs) in the system of two coupled few-mode optical fibres. We demonstrate that upon propagation OVs tunnel into the adjacent fibre as a complex superposition of OVs that comprise also OVs of opposite polarization and topological charge. The initial OV may tunnel into the other fibre as the same vortex state of lesser energy. The evolution of the orbital angular momentum in coupled fibres is studied

  18. Data management in NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, William M.

    1993-01-01

    The NOAA archives contain 150 terabytes of data in digital form, most of which are the high volume GOES satellite image data. There are 630 data bases containing 2,350 environmental variables. There are 375 million film records and 90 million paper records in addition to the digital data base. The current data accession rate is 10 percent per year and the number of users are increasing at a 10 percent annual rate. NOAA publishes 5,000 publications and distributes over one million copies to almost 41,000 paying customers. Each year, over six million records are key entered from manuscript documents and about 13,000 computer tapes and 40,000 satellite hardcopy images are entered into the archive. Early digital data were stored on punched cards and open reel computer tapes. In the late seventies, an advanced helical scan technology (AMPEX TBM) was implemented. Now, punched cards have disappeared, the TBM system was abandoned, most data stored on open reel tapes have been migrated to 3480 cartridges, many specialized data sets were distributed on CD ROM's, special archives are being copied to 12 inch optical WORM disks, 5 1/4 inch magneto-optical disks were employed for workstation applications, and 8 mm EXABYTE tapes are planned for major data collection programs. The rapid expansion of new data sets, some of which constitute large volumes of data, coupled with the need for vastly improved access mechanisms, portability, and improved longevity are factors which will influence NOAA's future systems approaches for data management.

  19. An interstellar origin for Jupiter's retrograde co-orbital asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namouni, F.; Morais, M. H. M.

    2018-06-01

    Asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 was discovered recently in Jupiter's co-orbital region with a retrograde motion around the Sun. The known chaotic dynamics of the outer Solar system have so far precluded the identification of its origin. Here, we perform a high-resolution statistical search for stable orbits and show that asteroid (514107) 2015 BZ509 has been in its current orbital state since the formation of the Solar system. This result indicates that (514107) 2015 BZ509 was captured from the interstellar medium 4.5 billion years in the past as planet formation models cannot produce such a primordial large-inclination orbit with the planets on nearly coplanar orbits interacting with a coplanar debris disc that must produce the low-inclination small-body reservoirs of the Solar system such as the asteroid and Kuiper belts. This result also implies that more extrasolar asteroids are currently present in the Solar system on nearly polar orbits.

  20. Influence of the Choice of Lunar Gravity Model on Orbit Determination for Lunar Orbiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rok Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the influence of the lunar gravity model on the orbit determination (OD of a lunar orbiter operating in a 100 km high, lunar polar orbit. Doppler and sequential range measurements by three Deep Space Network antennas and one Korea Deep Space Antenna were used. For measurement simulation and OD analysis, STK11 and ODTK6 were utilized. GLGM2, LP100K, LP150Q, GRAIL420A, and GRAIL660B were used for investigation of lunar gravity model selection effect. OD results were assessed by position and velocity uncertainties with error covariance and an external orbit comparison using simulated true orbit. The effect of the lunar gravity models on the long-term OD, degree and order level, measurement-acquisition condition, and lunar altitude was investigated. For efficiency verification, computational times for the five lunar gravity models were compared. Results showed that significant improvements to OD accuracy are observed by applying a GRAIL-based model; however, applying a full order and degree gravity modeling is not always the best strategy, owing to the computational burden. Consequently, we consider that OD using GRAIL660B with 70 × 70 degree and order is the most efficient strategy for mission preanalysis. This study provides useful guideline for KPLO OD analysis during nominal mission operation.

  1. NOAA Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Training and Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    conferences held by OIP on topical issues related to improving transparency. For more information, please Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) HOME CoNtact Search NOAA in your State Budget Information Emergency Information for NOAA Employees Items of Interest for

  2. 76 FR 4091 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Certification Requirements for NOAA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Certification Requirements for NOAA's Hydrographic Product Quality Assurance Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... and instructions should be directed to David B. Enabnit, (301) 713-2770 x132, [email protected]noaa.gov...

  3. Creating a More Inclusive Talent Pool for the GeoSciences in NOAA Mission Fields:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.; Trotman, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Educational Partnership Program (EPP) with Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) is recognized as a model federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, (STEM) education investment. The EPP has a premier goal of increasing the numbers of students, especially from underrepresented communities, who are trained and awarded degrees in NOAA mission-relevant STEM fields. This goal is being achieved through awards to support undergraduate and graduate level student scholarships and to enhance NOAA mission-relevant education, research and internships at EPP Cooperative Science Centers located at MSIs. The internships allow undergraduate students to gain technical experience in STEM fields while gaining an understanding of a science mission agency such as NOAA. EPP has built evidence supporting the value of internships with its Undergraduate Scholarship Program (USP). Program metrics are used to refine and improve the internship to ensure student success. Scholarships are competitively awarded and requires applicants to submit a personal statement detailing the NOAA-relevant professional experience the applicant seeks to acquire, and gauges the depth of understanding of the work of NOAA.A focus is the EPP USP Student Internship at NOAA, which has two training phases. The first occurs at NOAA HQ in Maryland and incorporates exposure to NOAA professional culture including mentoring and professional development for scholarship recipients. The second occurs at NOAA facilities in the 50 states and US Territories. The internship projects are conducted under the supervision of a NOAA mentor and allow the scholars to: acquire increased science and technology skills: be attached to a research group and participate in a research activity as part of the team; and, acquire practical experience and knowledge of the day-to-day work of the NOAA facility. EPP has recently initiated the Experiential Research and Training

  4. The orbital inclination of A0620 - 00 measured polarimetrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.

    1989-01-01

    The mass of the degenerate primary in A0620 - 00 is inferred from its spectroscopic mass function to be not less than 3.2 solar masses, making it an excellent candidate for a black hole. The exact value of the mass depends on the orbital inclination. The inclination of a binary system can be determined from the shape of its Stokes parameter light curves if the linear polarization of the system varies as a function of orbital phase. A0620 - 00 over one 8-hour binary period was observed with the 4.5-m equivalent MMT. Its polarization in the visible is variable with orbital phase. The standard theory of Brown et al. (1978) was used to derive an orbital inclination of i = 57 deg (+20 deg, -50 deg), where the error is the 90-percent confidence interval. An inclination of i = 57 deg corresponds to a mass of the compact primary of 6.6 solar masses, but the large uncertainty in the measured value of the inclination allows the derived mass of A0620 - 00 to be as low as 3.8 solar masses. If this is taken to be the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole, then the mass of A0620 - 00 is still not well enough determined to conclude that it must be a black hole. 21 refs

  5. NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Land Cover and Change Data, UTM NAD83 Zone 15, NOAA (2006) [landcover_la_noaa_2005.tif

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a final classification. It is ready for distribution pending review by NOAA-CSC staff. This data set is the pre-hurricane Katrina 2005-era classification of...

  6. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2013-02-21

    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  7. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang; Manchon, Aurelien; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2013-01-01

    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  8. Tide Predictions, California, 2014, NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The predictions from the web based NOAA Tide Predictions are based upon the latest information available as of the date of the user's request. Tide predictions...

  9. NOAA's Hydrographic Surveys and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data to support the compilation of nautical charts and...

  10. Reliable retrieval of atmospheric and aquatic parameters in coastal and inland environments from polar-orbiting and geostationary platforms: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamnes, Knut; Li, Wei; Lin, Zhenyi; Fan, Yongzhen; Chen, Nan; Gatebe, Charles; Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Wonkook; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-04-01

    Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties by means of inverse techniques based on a coupled atmosphere-surface radiative transfer model, neural networks, and optimal estimation can yield considerable improvements in retrieval accuracy in complex aquatic environments compared with traditional methods. Remote sensing of such environments represent specific challenges due (i) the complexity of the atmosphere and water inherent optical properties, (ii) unique bidirectional dependencies of the water-leaving radiance, and (iii) the desire to do retrievals for large solar zenith and viewing angles. We will discuss (a) how challenges related to atmospheric gaseous absorption, absorbing aerosols, and turbid waters can be addressed by using a coupled atmosphere-surface radiative transfer (forward) model in the retrieval process, (b) how the need to correct for bidirectional effects can be accommodated in a systematic and reliable manner, (c) how polarization information can be utilized, (d) how the curvature of the atmosphere can be taken into account, and (e) how neural networks and optimal estimation can be used to obtain fast yet accurate retrievals. Special emphasis will be placed on how information from existing and future sensors deployed on polar-orbiting and geostationary platforms can be obtained in a reliable and accurate manner. The need to provide uncertainty assessments and error budgets will also be discussed.

  11. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  12. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  13. NOAA's Scientific Data Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The NOAA mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet the Nation's economic, social and environmental needs. NOAA has responsibility for long-term archiving of the United States environmental data and has recently integrated several data management functions into a concept called Scientific Data Stewardship. Scientific Data Stewardship a new paradigm in data management consisting of an integrated suite of functions to preserve and exploit the full scientific value of NOAA's, and the world's, environmental data These functions include careful monitoring of observing system performance for long-term applications, the generation of authoritative long-term climate records from multiple observing platforms, and the proper archival of and timely access to data and metadata. NOAA has developed a conceptual framework to implement the functions of scientific data stewardship. This framework has five objectives: 1) develop real-time monitoring of all satellite observing systems for climate applications, 2) process large volumes of satellite data extending up to decades in length to account for systematic errors and to eliminate artifacts in the raw data (referred to as fundamental climate data records, FCDRs), 3) generate retrieved geophysical parameters from the FCDRs (referred to as thematic climate data records TCDRs) including combining observations from all sources, 4) conduct monitoring and research by analyzing data sets to uncover climate trends and to provide evaluation and feedback for steps 2) and 3), and 5) provide archives of metadata, FCDRs, and TCDRs, and facilitate distribution of these data to the user community. The term `climate data record' and related terms, such as climate data set, have been used for some time, but the climate community has yet to settle on a concensus definition. A recent United States National Academy of Sciences report recommends using the

  14. Polarization in free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Polarization of electromagnetic radiation is required very often in numerous scientific and industrial applications: studying of crystals, molecules and intermolecular interaction high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors and their transitions, polymers and liquid crystals. Using polarized radiation allows to obtain important data (otherwise inaccessible) in astrophysics, meteorology and oceanology. It is promising in chemistry and biology for selective influence on definite parts of molecules in chain synthesis reactions, precise control of various processes at cell and subcell levels, genetic engineering etc. Though polarization methods are well elaborated in optics, they can fail in far-infrared, vacuum-ultraviolet and X-ray regions because of lack of suitable non-absorbing materials and damaging of optical elements at high specific power levels. Therefore, it is of some interest to analyse polarization of untreated FEL radiation obtained with various types of undulators, with and without axial magnetic field. The polarization is studied using solutions for electron orbits in various cases: plane or helical undulator with or without axial magnetic field, two plane undulators, a combination of right- and left-handed helical undulators with equal periods, but different field amplitudes. Some examples of how a desired polarization (elliptical circular or linear) can be obtained or changed quickly, which is necessary in many experiments, are given.

  15. NOAA Composite Shoreline - Vectorized Shoreline Derived From NOAA-NOS Coastal Survey Maps and Aerial Photographs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Composite Shoreline is primarily intended for high-resolution cartographic representation of the shoreline. It is a high-resolution vector shoreline based...

  16. Creating intense polarized electron beam via laser stripping and spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.; Ptitsyn, V.; Gorlov, T.

    2010-01-01

    The recent advance in laser field make it possible to excite and strip electrons with definite spin from hydrogen atoms. The sources of hydrogen atoms with orders of magnitude higher currents (than that of the conventional polarized electron cathods) can be obtained from H - sources with good monochromatization. With one electron of H - stripped by a laser, the remained electron is excited to upper state (2P 3/2 and 2P 1/2 ) by a circular polarization laser light from FEL. Then, it is excited to a high quantum number (n=7) with mostly one spin direction due to energy level split of the states with a definite direction of spin and angular momentum in an applied magnetic field and then it is stripped by a strong electric field of an RF cavity. This paper presents combination of lasers and fields to get high polarization and high current electron source.

  17. Mineralogy and Iron Content of the Lunar Polar Regions Using the Kaguya Spectral Profiler and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Trang, D.; Jha, K.

    2016-12-01

    The lunar polar regions are of high scientific interest, but the extreme lighting conditions have made quantitative analyses using reflectance spectra difficult; some regions are in permanent shadow, and flat surfaces are difficult to correct photometrically due to the extreme grazing incidence and low signal available. Thus, most mineral maps derived from visible and near infrared reflectance spectra have been constrained to within 50° in latitude. The mineralogy of the polar regions, or 44% of the lunar surface, is almost entirely unknown. A few studies have provided compositional analysis based on the spectral shape (where strong absorption bands were present) of lithologies dominated by one or two minerals. In this study, we take a novel approach and use strong signal and well-calibrated reflectance acquired by two different instruments, the Kaguya Spectra Profiler (SP) and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), in order to derive the first FeO and mineral maps of the polar regions at a spatial resolution of 1 km per pixel. We use reflectance ratios from SP and calibrated reflectance data from LOLA to derive the first polar maps of FeO, which are within 2 wt.% of the FeO measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray spectrometer up to 85° in latitude. We then use the reflectance data from SP and Hapke radiative transfer model to compute the abundance of olivine, low-calcium pyroxene, high-calcium pyroxene and plagioclase, using FeO as a constraint. The radiative transfer model yields an error in mineral abundances of 9 wt.%. We use the mineral maps to study the composition of 27 central peaks and 5 basin rings in the polar regions, and relate their composition to their depth of origin in the lunar crust. We find that the central peaks and basin rings in Feldspathic Highlands Terrane are mostly anorthositic in composition, with modal plagioclase content ranging between 66 and 92 wt.%. The central peaks and basin rings in the South Pole-Aitken basin are noritic

  18. Incorporation of quality updates for JPSS CGS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Grant, K. D.; Ibrahim, W.; Brueske, K. F.; Smit, P.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. This paper will discuss both the theoretical basis and the actual practices used to date to identify, test and incorporate algorithm updates into the CGS processing baseline. To provide a basis for this support, Raytheon developed a theoretical analysis framework, and the application of derived engineering processes, for the maintenance of consistency and integrity of remote sensing operational algorithm outputs. The framework is an abstraction of the operationalization of the science-grade algorithm (Sci2Ops) process used throughout the JPSS program. By combining software and systems engineering controls, manufacturing disciplines to detect and reduce defects, and a standard process to control analysis, an environment to maintain operational algorithm maturity is achieved. Results of the use of this approach to implement algorithm changes into operations will also be detailed.

  19. Methods and Tools for Product Quality Maintenance in JPSS CGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Smit, P.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. This paper will discuss both the theoretical basis and the actual practices used to date to identify, test and incorporate algorithm updates into the CGS processing baseline. To provide a basis for this support, Raytheon developed a theoretical analysis framework, and the application of derived engineering processes, for the maintenance of consistency and integrity of remote sensing operational algorithm outputs. The framework is an abstraction of the operationalization of the science-grade algorithm (Sci2Ops) process used throughout the JPSS program. By combining software and systems engineering controls, manufacturing disciplines to detect and reduce defects, and a standard process to control analysis, an environment to maintain operational algorithm maturity is achieved. Results of the use of this approach to implement algorithm changes into operations will also be detailed.

  20. Education Strategic Plan 2015-2035: Advancing NOAA's Mission through Education. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Strategic Plan provides a framework to guide collaboration across the NOAA education community and a structure in which to track and report progress. Congress recognized the importance of NOAA's education programs with the passage of the America COMPETES Act. The America COMPETES…

  1. Role of spin polarization in FM/Al/FM trilayer film at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Webb, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of electronic transport in diffusive FM/normal metal/FM trilayer film are performed at temperature ranging from 2K to 300K to determine the behavior of the spin polarized current in normal metal under the influence of quantum phase coherence and spin-orbital interaction. Ten samples of Hall bar with length of 200 micron and width of 20 micron are fabricated through e-beam lithography followed by e-gun evaporation of Ni0.8Fe0.2, aluminum and Ni0.8Fe0.2 with different thickness (5nm to 45nm) in vacuum. At low temperature of 4.2K, coherent backscattering, Rashba spin-orbital interaction and spin flip scattering of conduction electrons contribute to magnetoresistance at low field. Quantitative analysis of magnetoresistance shows transition between weak localization and weak anti-localization for samples with different thickness ratio, which indicates the spin polarization actually affects the phase coherence length and spin-orbital scattering length. However, at temperature between 50K and 300K, only the spin polarization dominates the magnetoresistance.

  2. 77 FR 35271 - Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; NOAA Vessel Rueben Lasker Launch, Marinette, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... during the launching of the NOAA vessel, Rueben Lasker, on June 16, 2012. This temporary safety zone is... preceding paragraph, a 30 day notice period would also be impractical. B. Basis and Purpose The NOAA vessel...

  3. NOAA & Academia Partnership Building Conference. Highlights (3rd, Washington, DC, November 14-15, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Silver Spring, MD.

    In November 2001 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hosted the third NOAA and Academia Partnership to evaluate, maintain, and expand on efforts to optimize NOAA-university cooperation. Close partnership between the NOAA and U.S. universities has produced many benefits for the U.S. economy and the environment. Based on the…

  4. NOAA Raster Navigational Charts (RNC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA, National Ocean Service, Office of Coast Survey, Marine Chart Division is responsible to build and maintain a suite of more than 1000 nautical charts that are...

  5. Polarization dependent effects in photo-fragmentation dynamics of free molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocellin, A.; Marinho, R.R.T.; Coutinho, L.H.; Burmeister, F.; Wiesner, K.; Naves de Brito, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present multicoincidence spectra of nitrogen, formic acid and methyl methacrylate. We demonstrate how to probe the local symmetry of molecular orbitals from molecules core excited with linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The intensity distribution of the photoelectron photo-ion photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectrum reflects the selectivity and localization of core excitation by polarized light. By simulating the spectra the angular dependence of the fragmentation is determined

  6. Polarization dependent effects in photo-fragmentation dynamics of free molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocellin, A.; Marinho, R.R.T.; Coutinho, L.H.; Burmeister, F.; Wiesner, K.; Naves de Brito, A

    2003-04-01

    We present multicoincidence spectra of nitrogen, formic acid and methyl methacrylate. We demonstrate how to probe the local symmetry of molecular orbitals from molecules core excited with linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The intensity distribution of the photoelectron photo-ion photo-ion coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectrum reflects the selectivity and localization of core excitation by polarized light. By simulating the spectra the angular dependence of the fragmentation is determined.

  7. Spin-polarized photoemission from SiGe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A.; Bottegoni, F.; Isella, G.; Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Finazzi, M.; Ciccacci, F. [LNESS-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-04

    We apply the principles of Optical Orientation to measure by Mott polarimetry the spin polarization of electrons photoemitted from different group-IV heterostructures. The maximum measured spin polarization, obtained from a Ge/Si{sub 0.31}Ge{sub 0.69} strained film, undoubtedly exceeds the maximum value of 50% attainable in bulk structures. The explanation we give for this result lies in the enhanced band orbital mixing between light hole and split-off valence bands as a consequence of the compressive strain experienced by the thin Ge layer.

  8. Classifying spaces of degenerating polarized Hodge structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In 1970, Phillip Griffiths envisioned that points at infinity could be added to the classifying space D of polarized Hodge structures. In this book, Kazuya Kato and Sampei Usui realize this dream by creating a logarithmic Hodge theory. They use the logarithmic structures begun by Fontaine-Illusie to revive nilpotent orbits as a logarithmic Hodge structure. The book focuses on two principal topics. First, Kato and Usui construct the fine moduli space of polarized logarithmic Hodge structures with additional structures. Even for a Hermitian symmetric domain D, the present theory is a refinem

  9. Ground receiving station (GRS) of UMS - receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave data from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)

  10. 75 FR 55541 - NOAA Regional Ocean Partnership Funding Program-FY2011 Funding Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ...-01] RIN 0648-ZC20 NOAA Regional Ocean Partnership Funding Program--FY2011 Funding Competition AGENCY: National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce...-profit organizations (requirements described in full announcement) that NOAA is soliciting proposals for...

  11. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  12. The polarized electron beam at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.; Drachenfels, W. von; Frommberger, F.; Gowin, M.; Hillert, W.; Husmann, D.; Keil, J.; Helbing, K.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Speckner, T.; Zeitler, G.

    2001-01-01

    The future medium energy physics program at the electron stretcher accelerator ELSA of Bonn University mainly relies on experiments using polarized electrons in the energy range from 1 to 3.2 GeV. To provide a polarized beam with high polarization and sufficient intensity a dedicated source has been developed and set into operation. To prevent depolarization during acceleration in the circular accelerators several depolarizing resonances have to be corrected for. Intrinsic resonances are compensated using two pulsed betatron tune jump quadrupoles. The influence of imperfection resonances is successfully reduced applying a dynamic closed orbit correction in combination with an empirical harmonic correction on the energy ramp. In order to minimize beam depolarization, both types of resonances and the correction techniques have been studied in detail. It turned out that the polarization in ELSA can be conserved up to 2.5 GeV and partially up to 3.2 GeV which is demonstrated by measurements using a Moeller polarimeter installed in the external GDH1-beamline

  13. Land, Cryosphere, and Nighttime Environmental Products from Suomi NPP VIIRS: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument was launched in October 2011 as part of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP: http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/). VIIRS was designed to improve upon the capabilities of the operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and provide observation continuity with NASA's Earth Observing System's (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Since the VIIRS first-light images were received in November 2011, NASA and NOAA funded scientists have been working to evaluate the instrument performance and derived products to meet the needs of the NOAA operational users and the NASA science community. NOAA's focus has been on refining a suite of operational products known as Environmental Data Records (EDRs), which were developed according to project specifications under the former National Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The NASA S-NPP Science Team has focused on evaluating the EDRs for science use, developing and testing additional products to meet science data needs and providing MODIS data product continuity. This paper will present to-date findings of the NASA Science Team's evaluation of the VIIRS Land and Cryosphere EDRs, specifically Surface Reflectance, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo, Vegetation Indices, Surface Type, Active Fires, Snow Cover, Ice Surface Temperature, and Sea Ice Characterization (http://viirsland.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.html). The paper will also discuss new capabilities being developed at NASA's Land Product Evaluation and Test Element (http://landweb.nascom.nasa.gov/NPP_QA/); including downstream data and products derived from the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB).

  14. NPP/NPOESS Tools for Rapid Algorithm Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Route, G.; Grant, K. D.; Hughes, R.

    2010-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes both NPP and NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the Environmental Data Records (EDRs), including their quality aspects. As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent NPOESS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and Northrop Grumman have developed tools and processes to enable changes to be evaluated, tested, and moved into the operational baseline in a rapid and efficient manner. This presentation will provide an overview of the tools available to the Cal/Val teams to ensure rapid and accurate assessment of algorithm changes, along with the processes in place to ensure baseline integrity.

  15. Depolarization of the electron spin in storage rings by nonlinear spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewisch, J.

    1985-10-01

    Electrons and positrons which circulate in the storage ring are polarized at the emission of synchrotron radiation by the so called Sokolov-Ternov effect. This polarization is on the one hand of large interest for the study of the weak interaction, on the other hand it can be used for the accurate measurement of the beam energy and by this of the mass of elementary particles. The transverse and longitudinal particle vibrations simultaneously excited by the synchrotron radiation however can effect that this polarization is destroyed. This effect is called spin-orbit coupling. For the calculation of the spin-orbit coupling the computer program SITROS was written. This program is a tracking program: The motion of some sample particles and their spin vectors are calculated for some thousand circulations. From this the mean depolarization and by extrapolation the degree of polarization of the equilibrium state is determined. Contrarily to the known program SLIM which is based on perturbational calculations in SITROS the nonlinear forces in the storage ring can be regarded. By this the calculation of depolarizing higher order resonances is made possible. In this thesis the equations of motion for the orbital and spin motion of the electrons are derived which form the base for the program SITROS. The functions of the program and the approximations necessary for the saving of calculational time are explained. The comparison of the SITROS results with the measurement results obtained at the PETRA storage ring shows that the SITROS program is a useful means for the planning and calculation of storage rings with polarized electron beams. (orig.) [de

  16. Progress in measurement and understanding of beam polarization in electron positron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Bremer, H.D.; Kewisch, J.; Lewin, H.C.; Limberg, T.; Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Rossmanith, R.; Schmidt, R.

    1983-07-01

    A report is presented on the status of attempts to obtain and measure spin polarization in electron-positron storage rings. Experimental results are presented and their relationship to predictions of calculations discussed. Examples of methods for decoupling orbital and spin motion and thus improving polarization are discussed. (orig.)

  17. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  18. 78 FR 37795 - Draft NOAA Procedures for Government to Government Consultation With Federally Recognized Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC726 Draft NOAA... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA announces the availability of and request for comments on the Draft NOAA Procedures for Government...

  19. A plasma solenoid driven by an Orbital Angular Momentum laser beam

    OpenAIRE

    Nuter, R.; Korneev, Ph.; Thiele, I.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2018-01-01

    A tens of Tesla quasi-static axial magnetic field can be produced in the interaction of a short intense laser beam carrying an Orbital Angular Momentum with an underdense plasma. Three-dimensional "Particle In Cell" simulations and analytical model demonstrate that orbital angular momentum is transfered from a tightly focused radially polarized laser beam to electrons without any dissipative effect. A theoretical model describing the balistic interaction of electrons with laser shows that par...

  20. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have wind data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use only*...

  1. Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Tahir, Muhammad; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    . We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te

  2. Possible experiment with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites to obtain a new test of Einstein's general theory of relativity and improved measurements in geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Patten, R.A.; Everitt, C.W.F.

    1976-01-01

    In 1918, Lense and Thirring calculated that a moon orbiting a rotating planet would experience a nodal dragging effect due to general relativity. We describe an experiment to measure this effect to 1% with two counter-orbiting drag-free satellites in polar earth orbit. In addition to tracking data from existing ground stations, satellite-to-satellite Doppler ranging data are taken near the poles. New geophysical information is inherent in the polar data

  3. Coulomb-free and Coulomb-distorted recolliding quantum orbits in photoelectron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, A. S.; Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

    2018-06-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the different types of orbits in the Coulomb quantum orbit strong-field approximation (CQSFA), ranging from direct to those undergoing hard collisions. We show that some of them exhibit clear counterparts in the standard formulations of the strong-field approximation for direct and rescattered above-threshold ionization, and show that the standard orbit classification commonly used in Coulomb-corrected models is over-simplified. We identify several types of rescattered orbits, such as those responsible for the low-energy structures reported in the literature, and determine the momentum regions in which they occur. We also find formerly overlooked interference patterns caused by backscattered Coulomb-corrected orbits and assess their effect on photoelectron angular distributions. These orbits improve the agreement of photoelectron angular distributions computed with the CQSFA with the outcome of ab initio methods for high energy phtotoelectrons perpendicular to the field polarization axis.

  4. Detection of Earth-rotation Doppler shift from Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Cross-Track Infrared Sounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Han, Yong; Weng, Fuzhong

    2013-09-01

    The Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Satellite is a Fourier transform spectrometer and provides a total of 1305 channels for sounding the atmosphere. Quantifying the CrIS spectral accuracy, which is directly related to radiometric accuracy, is crucial for improving its data assimilation in numerical weather prediction. In this study, a cross-correlation method is used for detecting the effect of Earth-rotation Doppler shift (ERDS) on CrIS observations. Based on a theoretical calculation, the ERDS can be as large as about 1.3 parts in 10(6) (ppm) near Earth's equator and at the satellite scan edge for a field of regard (FOR) of 1 or 30. The CrIS observations exhibit a relative Doppler shift as large as 2.6 ppm for a FOR pair of 1 and 30 near the equator. The variation of the ERDS with latitude and scan position detected from CrIS observations is similar to that derived theoretically, which indicates that the spectral stability of the CrIS instrument is very high. To accurately calibrate CrIS spectral accuracy, the ERDS effect should be removed. Since the ERDS is easily predictable, the Doppler shift is correctable in the CrIS spectra.

  5. Case study of a magnetic transient in NOAA 11429 observed by SDO/HMI during the M7.9 flare on 2012 march 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Brian J.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.

    2013-01-01

    NOAA 11429 was the source of an M7.9 X-ray flare at the western solar limb (N18° W63°) on 2012 March 13 at 17:12 UT. Observations of the line-of-sight magnetic flux and the Stokes I and V profiles from which it is derived were carried out by the Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) with a 45 s cadence over the full disk, at a spatial sampling of 0.''5. During flare onset, a transient patch of negative flux can be observed in SDO/HMI magnetograms to rapidly appear within the positive polarity penumbra of NOAA 11429. We present here a detailed study of this magnetic transient and offer interpretations as to whether this highly debated phenomenon represents a 'real' change in the structure of the magnetic field at the site of the flare, or is instead a product of instrumental/algorithmic artifacts related to particular SDO/HMI data reduction techniques.

  6. The HERA polarimeter and the first observation of electron spin polarization at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Bremer, H.D.; Boege, M.; Brinkmann, R.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kaiser, H.; Klanner, R.; Lewin, H.C.; Meyners, N.; Vogel, W.; Brueckner, W.; Buescher, C.; Dueren, M.; Gaul, H.G.; Muecklich, A.; Neunreither, F.; Rith, K.; Scholz, C.; Steffens, E.; Veltri, M.; Wander, W.; Zapfe, K.; Zetsche, F.; Chapman, M.; Milner, R.; Coulter, K.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Haeusser, O.; Henderson, R.; Levy, P.; Vetterli, M.; Gressmann, H.; Janke, T.; Micheel, B.; Westphal, D.; Kaiser, R.; Losev, L.; Nowak, W.D.

    1992-10-01

    Electron spin polarizations of about 8% were observed at HERA in November 1991. In runs during 1992 utilizing special orbit corrections, polarization values close to 60% have been achieved. In this paper the polarimeter, the machine conditions, the data analysis, the first results and plans for future measurements are described. (orig.)

  7. QED effects on individual atomic orbital energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł, Karol; Aucar, Gustavo A.

    2018-04-01

    Several issues, concerning QED corrections, that are important in precise atomic calculations are presented. The leading QED corrections, self-energy and vacuum polarization, to the orbital energy for selected atoms with 30 ≤ Z ≤ 118 have been calculated. The sum of QED and Breit contributions to the orbital energy is analyzed. It has been found that for ns subshells the Breit and QED contributions are of comparative size, but for np and nd subshells the Breit contribution takes a major part of the QED+Breit sum. It has also, been found that the Breit to leading QED contributions ratio for ns subshells is almost independent of Z. The Z-dependence of QED and Breit+QED contributions per subshell is shown. The fitting coefficients may be used to estimate QED effects on inner molecular orbitals. We present results of our calculations for QED contributions to orbital energy of valence ns-subshell for group 1 and 11 atoms and discuss about the reliability of these numbers by comparing them with experimental first ionization potential data.

  8. Mesoscopic rings with spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berche, Bertrand; Chatelain, Christophe; Medina, Ernesto, E-mail: berche@lpm.u-nancy.f [Statistical Physics Group, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS No 7198, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2010-09-15

    A didactic description of charge and spin equilibrium currents on mesoscopic rings in the presence of spin-orbit interaction is presented. Emphasis is made on the non-trivial construction of the correct Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions and the symmetries of the ground-state properties. Spin currents are derived following an intuitive definition, and then a more thorough derivation is built upon the canonical Lagrangian formulation that emphasizes the SU(2) gauge structure of the transport problem of spin-1/2 fermions in spin-orbit active media. The quantization conditions that follow from the constraint of single-valued Pauli spinors are also discussed. The targeted students are those of a graduate condensed matter physics course.

  9. Marine and Anadromous Fish :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation Commission bocaccio Bocaccio (Sebastes paucispinis) Photo: NOAA sand tiger shark Sand Tiger Shark Updated: June 29, 2017 Fisheries Service Home Information Quality Exit Disclaimer Linking Policy Privacy

  10. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS...

  11. DC slice ion imaging study of atomic orbital orientation and alignment in photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Kyoung

    A complete study of atomic photofragment polarization has been achieved by using DC slice imaging, a recently developed approach directly providing the central slice of the full 3D product distribution without any mathematical transformation. In this dissertation, the quantum mechanical treatment adapted for the sliced images has been derived to extract the angular momentum polarization anisotropy parameters for any recoil speeds. The important photodissociation dynamics of small polyatomic molecules has been presented based on the thorough interpretation of the observed orientation and alignment. The first demonstration of DC slice imaging of orbital polarization was a study of the 193 nm photodissociation of ethylene sulfide, followed by detailed investigation in ozone and OCS. In ozone, the speed-dependent orientation was measured for O(1D2) atom produced from photodissociation in the 248--285 nm region. The results show negligible orbital orientation following dissociation by circularly polarized light but strong recoil speed-dependent orientation following photolysis by linearly polarized light at all wavelengths studied. The origin of this polarization is ascribed to nonadiabatic transitions at avoided crossings and at long range. The atomic orbital alignment and orientation, including the higher order moments (K = 3, 4), has been carried out for the photodissociation of OCS at 193 nm. The observed speed-dependent beta and polarization parameters of S(1D2) atom support the interpretation that there are two main dissociation processes: a simultaneous two-surface excitation and the initial single-surface excitation followed by the nonadiabatic crossing to the ground state. The angle- and speed-dependent density matrix can be constructed containing the higher order contributions for circularly-polarized dissociation light. It was shown in one case that the higher order contributions should not be overlooked for an accurate picture of the dissociation dynamics in

  12. 75 FR 82377 - NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) Strategic Plan FY 2011-FY 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) NOAA's Office of... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. SUMMARY: NOAA's...: Yvette Jefferson. Mail: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), ATTN: OER Plan Comments...

  13. NOAA Surveys; Stabalizing Economy and Ecology on The U.S. Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, L. L.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA TEACHER AT SEA: LISHA LANDER HYLTON ONBOARD NOAA SHIP: DELAWARE II JUNE 29TH -JULY 11TH, 2008 MISSION: The mission of my trip with NOAA was to provide me (a teacher of third grade students) an extraordinary opportunity to take part in genuine-world experiences being conducted by NOAA in order for me to achieve a clearer insight into our ocean planet and a superior perceptive of NOAA-related careers. With the knowledge that I obtained on-board THE DELAWAREII - I am now able to teach the lesson plans created on my field study to my students, giving them insight as to how much power they have on their lives and this world we live in. My students are able to play a part in maritime activities as we study together, valuing the work and expertise that is required to sustain oceanic and atmospheric research. The students' enthusiasm, inquisitiveness and yearning to learn is only heightened with the hands-on, motivational activities that I gained from my research with this NOAA team. As a Part of this NOAA team, on-board we conducted clam surveys at various stations along the northeastern coast of the United States. I learned that clams are a very important part of economy and ecology in this region. Surveying clams and other marine species was performed on my field study with NOAA for the purpose of conserving marine life. NOAA realizes the importance of the fishing industry and conducts fishery surveys in order to stabilize fishery industries without destroying the marine ecosystems completely. Clams play a very important part in marine fishery; therefore these surveys are helping to maintain stability in the economy and ecology of The United States. By comparing past and present fishery surveys, our team made conclusions regarding the stability of these marine populations. After dredging, collecting, sorting, counting, measuring and weighing (clams with shells and shucked clam meat only) - the data was obtained and recorded then entered into computers filed under

  14. Toward a Unified View of the Moon's Polar Volatiles from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific basis for the possibility of water and other volatiles in the cold traps of the lunar polar regions was developed in the 1960's and '70's [1,2], only recently have the data become available to test the theories in detail. Furthermore, comparisons with other planetary bodies, particularly Mercury, have revealed surprising differences that may point to inconsistencies or holes in our understanding of the basic processes involving volatiles on airless bodies [3]. Addressing these gaps in understanding is critical to the future exploration of the Moon, for which water is an important scientific and engineering resource [4]. Launched in 2009, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been acquiring data from lunar orbit for more than six years. All seven of the remote sensing instruments on the payload have now contributed significantly to advancing understanding of volatiles on the Moon. Here we present results from these investigations, and discuss attempts to synthesize the disparate information to create a self-consistent model for lunar volatiles. In addition to the LRO data, we must take into account results from earlier missions [5,6], ground-based telescopes [7], and sample analyses [8]. The results from these inter-comparisons show that water is likely available in useful quantities, but key additional measurements may be required to resolve remaining uncertainties. [1] Watson, K., Murray, B. C., & Brown, H. (1961), J. Geophys. Res., 66(9), 3033-3045. [2] Arnold, J. R. (1979), J. Geophys. Res. (1978-2012), 84(B10), 5659-5668. [3] Paige, D. A., Siegler, M. A., Harmon, J. K., Neumann, G. A., Mazarico, E. M., Smith, D. E., ... & Solomon, S. C. (2013), Science, 339(6117), 300-303. [4] Hayne, P. O., et al. (2014), Keck Inst. Space Studies Report. [5] Nozette, S., Lichtenberg, C. L., Spudis, P., Bonner, R., Ort, W., Malaret, E., ... & Shoemaker, E. M. (1996), Science, 274(5292), 1495-1498. [6] Pieters, C. M., Goswami, J. N., Clark, R. N

  15. Techniques of production and analysis of polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the unique polarization properties of synchrotron radiation in the hard x-ray spectral region (E>3 KeV) is becoming increasingly important to many synchrotron radiation researchers. The radiation emitted from bending magnets and conventional (planar) insertion devices (IDs) is highly linearly polarized in the plane of the particle's orbit. Elliptically polarized x-rays can also be obtained by going off axis on a bending magnet source, albeit with considerable loss of flux. The polarization properties of synchrotron radiation can be further tailored to the researcher's specific needs through the use of specialized insertion devices such as helical and crossed undulators and asymmetrical wigglers. Even with the possibility of producing a specific polarization, there is still the need to develop x-ray optical components which can manipulate the polarization for both analysis and further modification of the polarization state. A survey of techniques for producing and analyzing both linear and circular polarized x-rays will be presented with emphasis on those techniques which rely on single crystal optical components

  16. Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...

  17. Monitoring natural vegetation in Southern Greenland using NOAA AVHRR and field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf

    1991-01-01

    vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI......vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI...

  18. Resonant x-ray scattering in manganites: study of the orbital degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Sumio; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2002-01-01

    The orbital degree of freedom of electrons and its interplay with spin, charge and lattice degrees of freedom are some of the central issues in colossal magnetoresistive manganites. The orbital degree of freedom has until recently remained hidden, since it does not couple directly to most experimental probes. Development of synchrotron light sources has changed the situation; by the resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) technique the orbital ordering has successfully been observed. In this article, we review progress in the recent studies of RXS in manganites. We start with a detailed review of the RXS experiments applied to the orbital-ordered manganites and other correlated electron systems. We derive the scattering cross section of RXS, where the tensor character of the atomic scattering factor (ASF) with respect to the x-ray polarization is stressed. Microscopic mechanisms of the anisotropic tensor character of the ASF are introduced and numerical results of the ASF and the scattering intensity are presented. The azimuthal angle scan is a unique experimental method to identify RXS from the orbital degree of freedom. A theory of the azimuthal angle and polarization dependence of the RXS intensity is presented. The theoretical results show good agreement with the experiments in manganites. Apart from the microscopic description of the ASF, a theoretical framework of RXS to relate directly to the 3d orbital is presented. The scattering cross section is represented by the correlation function of the pseudo-spin operator for the orbital degree of freedom. A theory is extended to the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and methods to observe excitations of the orbital degree of freedom are proposed. (author)

  19. Contributions of the NOAA Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program to the Geosciences Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2005, the NOAA Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program has provided tuition support and paid summer internship opportunities at NOAA to exceptional students majoring in the geosciences. The purpose of the scholarship program is to train students in NOAA mission fields. Multiple methods were used to track the career trajectories of Hollings alumni, including mining LinkedIn data, conducting an impact analysis based on a professionally developed web-based evaluation survey, and a web-based alumni update system. At least one postgraduate record was recorded for 80% of Hollings Scholarship alumni. Of the alumni reached, more than 75% continued on to graduate school in a NOAA mission field, and 86% of those graduate degrees were in a NOAA mission field or other STEM field. More than 60% of alumni had at least one professional record, with the most alumni working in private industry, followed by nongovernmental organizations and federal, state and local government.

  20. Determination of the orientation of the white dwarf's magnetic axis from X-ray orbital light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, I.L.

    1986-01-01

    The directional pattern of soft X-ray radiation produced in a ''polar cap'' on the white dwarf's surface is calculated taking into account the absorption in the axially symmetrical accretion column, homogeneous along its height. An algorithm for the determination of orientation of the magnetic axis of a compact star from orbital curves of soft X-ray flux, is suggested. The values of the orbital inclination i (51 deg <=i<64 deg) and the angle between the rotational and magnetic axes σ (30 deg <=σ<=34 deg) were calculated for the polar AM Herculis for different values of model parameters

  1. Stability of orbits around planetary satellites considering a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit: Applications to Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    Europa and Ganymede are two of the four Jupiter’s moons which compose the Galilean satellite. These ones are planetary satellites of greater interest at the present moment among the scientific community. There are some missions being planned to visit them and and the Jovian system. One of them is the cooperation between NASA and ESA for the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). In this mission are planned the insertion of the spacecrafts JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Europa and Ganymede’s orbit. Thus, there is a great necessity for having a better comprehension of the dynamics of the orbits around this planetary satellite. This comprehension is essential for the success of this type of mission. In this context, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around these planetary satellites. An emphasis is given in polar orbits. These orbits can be useful in the planning of aerospace activities to be conducted around this planetary satellite, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of an artificial satellite around Europa and Ganymede under the influence of the third-body perturbation (the gravitational attraction of Jupiter) and the polygenic perturbations. These last ones occur due to forces such as the non-uniform distribution of mass (J2 and J3) of the main (central) body. A simplified dynamic model for polygenic perturbations is used. A new model for the third-body disturbance is presented considering it in an elliptical orbit. The Lagrange planetary equations, which compose a system of nonlinear differential equations, are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite around Ganymede. The equations showed here are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in inclination and eccentricity.

  2. Assessment of NOAA NUCAPS upper air temperature profiles using COSMIC GPS radio occultation and ARM radiosondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, M. L.; Borg, L.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.; Gambacorta, A.

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently began operational processing to derive vertical temperature profiles from two new sensors, Cross-Track Infrared Sounder and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, which were developed for the next generation of U.S. weather satellites. The NOAA-Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) has been developed by NOAA to routinely process data from future Joint Polar Satellite System operational satellites and the preparatory Suomi-NPP satellite. This paper assesses the NUCAPS vertical temperature profile product from the upper troposphere into the middle stratosphere using radiosonde and GPS radio occultation (RO) data. Radiosonde data from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program are=] compared to both the NUCAPS and GPS RO temperature products to evaluate bias and RMS errors. At all three fixed ARM sites for time periods investigated the NUCAPS temperature in the 100-40 hPa range is found to have an average bias to the radiosondes of less than 0.45 K and an RMS error of less than 1 K when temperature averaging kernels are applied. At a 95% confidence level, the radiosondes and RO were found to agree within 0.4 K at the North Slope of Alaska site and within 0.83 K at Southern Great Plains and Tropical Western Pacific. The GPS RO-derived dry temperatures, obtained from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission, are used as a common reference for the intercomparison of NUCAPS temperature products to similar products produced by NASA from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and by European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites from MetOp-B Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). For seasonal and zonal scales, the NUCAPS agreement with AIRS and IASI is less than 0.5 K after application of averaging kernels.

  3. A Lookup-Table-Based Approach to Estimating Surface Solar Irradiance from Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Incoming surface solar irradiance (SSI is essential for calculating Earth’s surface radiation budget and is a key parameter for terrestrial ecological modeling and climate change research. Remote sensing images from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites provide an opportunity for SSI estimation through directly retrieving atmospheric and land-surface parameters. This paper presents a new scheme for estimating SSI from the visible and infrared channels of geostationary meteorological and polar-orbiting satellite data. Aerosol optical thickness and cloud microphysical parameters were retrieved from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES system images by interpolating lookup tables of clear and cloudy skies, respectively. SSI was estimated using pre-calculated offline lookup tables with different atmospheric input data of clear and cloudy skies. The lookup tables were created via the comprehensive radiative transfer model, Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (SBDART, to balance computational efficiency and accuracy. The atmospheric attenuation effects considered in our approach were water vapor absorption and aerosol extinction for clear skies, while cloud parameters were the only atmospheric input for cloudy-sky SSI estimation. The approach was validated using one-year pyranometer measurements from seven stations in the SURFRAD (SURFace RADiation budget network. The results of the comparison for 2012 showed that the estimated SSI agreed with ground measurements with correlation coefficients of 0.94, 0.69, and 0.89 with a bias of 26.4 W/m2, −5.9 W/m2, and 14.9 W/m2 for clear-sky, cloudy-sky, and all-sky conditions, respectively. The overall root mean square error (RMSE of instantaneous SSI was 80.0 W/m2 (16.8%, 127.6 W/m2 (55.1%, and 99.5 W/m2 (25.5% for clear-sky, cloudy-sky (overcast sky and partly cloudy sky, and all-sky (clear-sky and cloudy-sky conditions, respectively. A comparison with other state

  4. Progress and Challenges in Assessing NOAA Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2016-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produces large volumes of environmental data from a great variety of observing systems including satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, buoys, and other platforms. These data are irreplaceable assets that must be properly managed to ensure they are discoverable, accessible, usable, and preserved. A policy framework has been established which informs data producers of their responsibilities and which supports White House-level mandates such as the Executive Order on Open Data and the OSTP Memorandum on Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research. However, assessing the current state and progress toward completion for the many NOAA datasets is a challenge. This presentation will discuss work toward establishing assessment methodologies and dashboard-style displays. Ideally, metrics would be gathered though software and be automatically updated whenever an individual improvement was made. In practice, however, some level of manual information collection is required. Differing approaches to dataset granularity in different branches of NOAA yield additional complexity.

  5. Big Data Discovery and Access Services through NOAA OneStop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K. S.; Neufeld, D.; Ritchey, N. A.; Relph, J.; Fischman, D.; Baldwin, R.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA OneStop Project was created as a pathfinder effort to to improve the discovery of, access to, and usability of NOAA's vast and diverse collection of big data. OneStop is led by the NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), and is seen as a key NESDIS contribution to NOAA's open data and data stewardship efforts. OneStop consists of an entire framework of services, from storage and interoperable access services at the base, through metadata and catalog services in the middle, to a modern user interface experience at the top. Importantly, it is an open framework where external tools and services can connect at whichever level is most appropriate. Since the beta release of the OneStop user interface at the 2016 Fall AGU meeting, significant progress has been made improving and modernizing many NOAA data collections to optimize their use within the framework. In addition, OneStop has made progress implementing robust metadata management and catalog systems at the collection and granule level and improving the user experience with the web interface. This progress will be summarized and the results of extensive user testing including professional usability studies will be reviewed. Key big data technologies supporting the framework will be presented and a community input sought on the future directions of the OneStop Project.

  6. Mafic Materials in Scott Crater? A Test for Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Clementine 750 nm and multispectral ratio data, along with Lunar Orbiter and radar data, were used to study the crater Scott in the lunar south polar region. The multispectral data provide evidence for mafic materials, impact melts, anorthositic materials, and a small pyroclastic deposit. High-resolution radar data and Lunar Orbiter photography for this area show differences in color and surface texture that correspond with the locations of the hypothesized mafic and anorthositic areas on the crater floor. This region provides a test case for the upcoming Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Verification of the existence of a mafic deposit at this location is relevant to future lunar resource utilization planning.

  7. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Mohammad M.; Satpathy, S.

    2018-03-01

    Chiral order in magnetic structures is currently an area of considerable interest and leads to skyrmion structures and domain walls with certain chirality. The chiral structure originates from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction caused by broken inversion symmetry and the spin-orbit interaction. In addition to the Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions, there may also exist substantial spin polarization in magnetic thin films. Here, we study the exchange interaction between two localized magnetic moments in the spin-polarized electron gas with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction present. Analytical expressions are found in certain limits in addition to what is known in the literature. The stability of the Bloch and Néel domain walls in magnetic thin films is discussed in light of our results.

  8. Land Surface Temperature- Comparing Data from Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyn-Platt, E.; Remedios, J. J.; Good, E. J.; Ghent, D.; Saunders, R.

    2012-04-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a vital parameter in Earth climate science, driving long-wave radiation exchanges that control the surface energy budget and carbon fluxes, which are important factors in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and the monitoring of climate change. Satellites offer a convenient way to observe LST consistently and regularly over large areas. A comparison between LST retrieved from a Geostationary Instrument, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), and a Polar Orbiting Instrument, the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) is presented. Both sensors offer differing benefits. AATSR offers superior precision and spatial resolution with global coverage but given its sun-synchronous platform only observes at two local times, ~10am and ~10pm. SEVIRI provides the high-temporal resolution (every 15 minutes) required for observing diurnal variability of surface temperatures but given its geostationary platform has a poorer resolution, 3km at nadir, which declines at higher latitudes. A number of retrieval methods are applied to the raw satellite data: First order coefficient based algorithms provided on an operational basis by the LandSAF (for SEVIRI) and the University of Leicester (for AATSR); Second order coefficient based algorithms put forward by the University of Valencia; and an optimal estimation method using the 1DVar software provided by the NWP SAF. Optimal estimation is an iterative technique based upon inverse theory, thus is very useful for expanding into data assimilation systems. The retrievals are assessed and compared on both a fine scale using in-situ data from recognised validation sites and on a broad scale using two 100x100 regions such that biases can be better understood. Overall, the importance of LST lies in monitoring daily temperature extremes, e.g. for estimating permafrost thawing depth or risk of crop damage due to frost, hence the ideal dataset would use a combination of observations

  9. Improper ferroelectric polarization in a perovskite driven by intersite charge transfer and ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Tin; Wang, Chin-Wei; Wu, Hung-Cheng; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Yang, Hung-Duen; Simonov, Arkadiy; Senn, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    It is of great interest to design and make materials in which ferroelectric polarization is coupled to other order parameters such as lattice, magnetic, and electronic instabilities. Such materials will be invaluable in next-generation data storage devices. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in understanding improper ferroelectric coupling mechanisms that arise from lattice and magnetic instabilities. However, although theoretically predicted, a compact lattice coupling between electronic and ferroelectric (polar) instabilities has yet to be realized. Here we report detailed crystallographic studies of a perovskite HgAMn3A'Mn4BO12 that is found to exhibit a polar ground state on account of such couplings that arise from charge and orbital ordering on both the A'- and B-sites, which are themselves driven by a highly unusual MnA '-MnB intersite charge transfer. The inherent coupling of polar, charge, orbital, and hence magnetic degrees of freedom make this a system of great fundamental interest, and demonstrating ferroelectric switching in this and a host of recently reported hybrid improper ferroelectrics remains a substantial challenge.

  10. 77 FR 40341 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department... and instructions should be directed to Eric Johnson, (301) 713-7727 or [email protected]noaa.gov...

  11. Accelerating polarized beams in Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper, we will examine the totality of equipment, manpower and cost necessary to obtain a polarized proton beam in the Tevatron. We will not, however, be concerned with the acquisition and acceleration of polarized /bar p/ beams. Furthermore we will consider only a planar main ring without overpass, although it is expected that Siberian snake schemes could be made to apply equally well to non-planar machines. In addition to not wanting to tackle here the task of reformulating the theory for a non-planar closed orbit, we also anticipate that as part of the Tevatron upgrade the main ring will in the not too distant future, be replaced by a planar main injector situated in a separate tunnel. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  12. Spin motion at and near orbital resonance in storage rings with Siberian snakes I. At orbital resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.

    2006-12-01

    Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)

  13. Prospects for polarization at RHIC and SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    In low to medium energy accelerators, betatron tune jumps and vertical orbit harmonic correction methods have been used to overcome the intrinsic and imperfection resonances. At high energy accelerators, snakes are needed to preserve polarization. We analyze the effects of snake resonances, snake imperfections overlapping resonances on the spin depolarization. We discuss also results of recent snake experiments at the IUCF Cooler Ring. The snake can overcome various kinds of spin depolarization resonances. These experiments pointed out further that partial snake can be used to cure the imperfection resonances in low to medium energy accelerators. We also examine various snake designs. A new generalized snake concept allows for two possible configurations. The compact configuration offers the advantages of shorter total snake length and smaller horizontal orbit displacement. The split snake configuration allows for dual functions of a snake and a 90 degree spin rotator at the mid-section of the snake, which provides helicity state collisions. The requirements for obtaining high luminosity polarized protons at high energy colliders, such as RHIC and SSC, are reviewed

  14. Generation of radio vortex beams with designable polarization using anisotropic frequency selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Hui Feng; Zhao, Jie; Dai, Jun Yan; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Liu Xi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2018-05-01

    We propose a strategy to convert a linearly polarized wave from a single point source to an orbital angular momentum (OAM) wave by arbitrary polarization via an anisotropic frequency selective surface (FSS) in the microwave frequency. By tailoring the geometries of FSS elements, reflection-phases in x and y polarizations are engineered and encoded independently, which allows us to design the eventual polarization state of the generated OAM vortex beam by elaborately selecting individual coding sequences for each polarization. Two types of FSSs are designed and experimentally characterized to demonstrate the capability of OAM generation with circular and linear polarizations, respectively, showing excellent performance in a wide bandwidth from 14 to 16 GHz. This method provides opportunities for polarization multiplexing in microwave OAM communication systems.

  15. Accuracy assessment of NOAA gridded daily reference evapotranspiration for the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Jerry; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Hobbins, Michael; Senay, Gabriel; Paul, George; Marek, Thomas; Porter, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference evapotranspiration (ETref) maps for the contiguous United States using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large-scale spatial representation of ETref, which is essential for regional scale water resources management. Data used in the development of NOAA daily ETref maps are derived from observations over surfaces that are different from short (grass — ETos) or tall (alfalfa — ETrs) reference crops, often in nonagricultural settings, which carries an unknown discrepancy between assumed and actual conditions. In this study, NOAA daily ETos and ETrs maps were evaluated for accuracy, using observed data from the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network. Daily ETos, ETrs and the climatic data (air temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation) used for calculating ETref were extracted from the NOAA maps for TXHPET locations and compared against ground measurements on reference grass surfaces. NOAA ETrefmaps generally overestimated the TXHPET observations (1.4 and 2.2 mm/day ETos and ETrs, respectively), which may be attributed to errors in the NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed, to which reference ETref is most sensitive. Therefore, a bias correction to NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed data, or adjustment to the resulting NOAA ETref, may be needed to improve the accuracy of NOAA ETref maps.

  16. NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is a merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (formerly known as MLOST) (link is external). It is...

  17. NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climatological data archived at NCDC. The...

  18. A model of quasi-free scattering with polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodoro, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation, based on a simple model for spin-free coplanar and asymmetric reaction in 16 O, for 215 MeV incoming polarized protons confirms the use of the strong effective polarization of the knocked-out proton by the spin-orbit coupling and of the strong dependence of free, medium energy, proton-proton cross section on the relative orientation of the proton spins. Effective polarizations, momentum distributions and correlation cross sections have been calculated for the 1p sub(1/2), 1 p sub(3/2) and 1s sub(1/2) states in 16 O, using protons totally polarized orthogonal to the scattering plane. Harmonic oscillator and square wells have been used to generate the bound state wave functions, whereas the optical potentials have been taken spin-independent and purely imaginary [pt

  19. Spin-polarized currents in a two-terminal double quantum ring driven by magnetic fields and Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, E.; Khoshnoud, D. Sanavi; Naeimi, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate spin transportation in double quantum ring (DQR). We developed an array of DQR to measure the transmission coefficient and analyze the spin transportation through this system in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and magnetic flux estimated using S-matrix method. In this article, we compute the spin transport and spin-current characteristics numerically as functions of electron energy, angles between the leads, coupling constant of the leads, RSOI, and magnetic flux. Our results suggest that, for typical values of the magnetic flux (ϕ /ϕ0) and Rashba constant (αR), such system can demonstrates many spintronic properties. It is possible to design a new geometry of DQR by incoming electrons polarization in a way to optimize the system to work as a spin-filtering and spin-inverting nano-device with very high efficiency. The results prove that the spin current will strongly modulate with an increase in the magnetic flux and Rashba constant. Moreover it is shown that, when the lead coupling is weak, the perfect spin-inverter does not occur.

  20. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  1. Titanium magnetic polarization at the Fe/BaTiO3 interfaces: An effect of ferroelectric polarization discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amitesh; Zheng, Jian-Guo; Aoki, Toshihiro

    2017-10-01

    The exotic magnetic phenomena and the associated functionalities have attracted extensive scientific interest in fundamental physics and cater to the purpose of the novel material search. In this article, with a combination of the electron energy-loss spectroscopy and the X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have investigated the interfacial Fe atoms and the induced ferromagnetic moment of Ti atoms in Fe/BaTiO3 (BTO) heterostructures. The samples were grown with two different BTO thicknesses, thus resulting in two different states of distorted oxygen environments or different electrostatic potentials. We demonstrate that in these systems, the electronic and magnetic proximity effects remain coupled as the ferroelectric polar discontinuity is held responsible for an induced transfer of the interface electrons. These electrons migrate from the Fe2+ layers to the Ti(4+)-δ layers with the hybridization via O-2p oxide orbitals into Ti orbitals to screen the ferroelectric polarization. These findings, in charge neutral BaO-TiO2 and FeO layers or nonpolar/nopolar interface, essentially underline the central role of the covalent bonding in defining the spin-electronic properties.

  2. NOAA's Strategy to Improve Operational Weather Prediction Outlooks at Subseasonal Time Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T.; Toepfer, F.; Stajner, I.; DeWitt, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA is planning to extend operational global numerical weather prediction to sub-seasonal time range under the auspices of its Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) and Extended Range Outlook Programs. A unification of numerical prediction capabilities for weather and subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescales is underway at NOAA using the Finite Volume Cubed Sphere (FV3) dynamical core as the basis for the emerging unified system. This presentation will overview NOAA's strategic planning and current activities to improve prediction at S2S time-scales that are ongoing in response to the Weather Research and Forecasting Innovation Act of 2017, Section 201. Over the short-term, NOAA seeks to improve the operational capability through improvements to its ensemble forecast system to extend its range to 30 days using the new FV3 Global Forecast System model, and by using this system to provide reforecast and re-analyses. In parallel, work is ongoing to improve NOAA's operational product suite for 30 day outlooks for temperature, precipitation and extreme weather phenomena.

  3. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  4. Spin Interference in Rectangle Loop Based on Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia-Ting, Ni; Bin, Chen; Xiao-Wan, Liang; Koga, T.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the amplitude and spin polarization of AAS oscillation changing with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Dresselhaus SOI. The amplitude and spin polarization of AB oscillation changing with Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI are demonstrated as well. The ideal quasi-one-dimensional square loop does not exist in reality, therefore to match the experiment better we should consider the shape of the rectangle loop in theory

  5. Monitoring volcanic ash cloud top height through simultaneous retrieval of optical data from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zakšek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash cloud-top height (ACTH can be monitored on the global level using satellite remote sensing. Here we propose a photogrammetric method based on the parallax between data retrieved from geostationary and polar orbiting satellites to overcome some limitations of the existing methods of ACTH retrieval. SEVIRI HRV band and MODIS band 1 are a good choice because of their high resolution. The procedure works well if the data from both satellites are retrieved nearly simultaneously. MODIS does not retrieve the data at exactly the same time as SEVIRI. To compensate for advection we use two sequential SEVIRI images (one before and one after the MODIS retrieval and interpolate the cloud position from SEVIRI data to the time of MODIS retrieval. The proposed method was tested for the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. The parallax between MODIS and SEVIRI data can reach 30 km, which implies an ACTH of approximately 12 km at the beginning of the eruption. At the end of April eruption an ACTH of 3–4 km is observed. The accuracy of ACTH was estimated to be 0.6 km.

  6. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  7. The role of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in valley-dependent transport of Dirac fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanirok, Kobra; Mohammadpour, Hakimeh

    2017-01-01

    At this work, spin- and valley-dependent electron transport through graphene and silicene layers are studied in the presence of Rashba spin- orbit coupling. We find that the transport properties of the related ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic structure depend on the relevant parameters. A fully valley- and spin- polarized current is obtained. As another result, Rashba spin-orbit interaction plays important role in controlling the transmission characteristics.

  8. NPOESS Interface Data Processing Segment Product Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The NPOESS design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process environmental data products beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Within the overall NPOESS processing environment, the IDPS must process a data volume nearly 1000 times the size of current systems -- in one-quarter of the time. Further, it must support the calibration, validation, and data quality improvement initiatives of the NPOESS program to ensure the production of atmospheric and environmental products that meet strict requirements for accuracy and precision. This paper will describe the architecture approach that is necessary to meet these challenging, and seemingly exclusive, NPOESS IDPS design requirements, with a focus on the processing relationships required to generate the NPP products.

  9. NPOESS Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W. J.; Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2008-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The NPOESS design allows centralized mission management and delivers high quality environmental products to military, civil and scientific users. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. IDPS will process environmental data products beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Within the overall NPOESS processing environment, the IDPS must process a data volume several orders of magnitude the size of current systems -- in one-quarter of the time. Further, it must support the calibration, validation, and data quality improvement initiatives of the NPOESS program to ensure the production of atmospheric and environmental products that meet strict requirements for accuracy and precision. This poster will illustrate and describe the IDPS HW architecture that is necessary to meet these challenging design requirements. In addition, it will illustrate the expandability features of the architecture in support of future data processing and data distribution needs.

  10. Design and construction of the POLAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produit, N.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvich, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kramert, R.; Li, L.; Liu, J. T.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Rapin, D.; Rybka, D.; Rutczynska, A.; Shi, H. L.; Socha, P.; Sun, J. C.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Traseira, I.; Xiao, H. L.; Wang, R. J.; Wen, X.; Wu, B. B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zwolinska, A.

    2018-01-01

    The POLAR detector is a space based Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) polarimeter with a wide field of view, which covers almost half the sky. The instrument uses Compton scattering of gamma rays on a plastic scintillator hodoscope to measure the polarization of the incoming photons. The instrument has been successfully launched on board of the Chinese space laboratory Tiangong 2 on September 15, 2016. The construction of the instrument components is described in this article. Details are provided on problems encountered during the construction phase and their solutions. Initial performance of the instrument in orbit is as expected from ground tests and Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the TOGA Area - Pacific from 1979-04-23 to 1982-05-21 (NODC Accession 9000293)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected as part of Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies from NOAA Ship Discoverer and NOAA Ship Oceanographer. The...

  12. Polarization-induced renormalization of molecular levels at metallic and semiconducting surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; Rostgaard, Carsten; Rubio, A.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of first-principles G0W0 calculations we systematically study how the electronic levels of a benzene molecule are renormalized by substrate polarization when physisorbed on different metallic and semiconducting surfaces. The polarization-induced reduction in the energy gap between oc...... find that error cancellations lead to remarkably good agreement between the G0W0 and Kohn-Sham energies for the occupied orbitals of the adsorbed molecule....

  13. NOAA NDBC SOS, 2007-present, currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have currents data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for...

  14. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  15. Hurricane Havoc - Mapping the Mayhem with NOAA's National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, G. R.; Stone, M.

    2017-12-01

    With Hurricane Irene as an example, this work demonstrates the versatility of NOAA's new National Water Model (NWM) as a tool for analyzing hydrologic hazards before, during, and after events. Hurricane Irene made landfall on the coast of North Carolina on August 27, 2011, and made its way up the East Coast over the next 3 days. This storm caused widespread flooding across the Northeast, where rain totals over 20" and wind speeds of 100mph were recorded, causing loss of life and significant damage to infrastructure. Large portions of New York and Vermont were some of the hardest hit areas. This poster will present a suite of post-processed products, derived from NWM output, that are currently being developed at NOAA's National Water Center in Tuscaloosa, AL. The National Water Model is allowing NOAA to expand its water prediction services to the approximately 2.7 million stream reaches across the U.S. The series of forecasted and real-time analysis products presented in this poster will demonstrate the strides NOAA is taking to increase preparedness and aid response to severe hydrologic events, like Hurricane Irene.

  16. IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3: A DEEPLY ECLIPSING INTERMEDIATE POLAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aungwerojwit, A.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Wheatley, P. J.; Pyrzas, S.; Staels, B.; Krajci, T.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present time-resolved photometry of a cataclysmic variable discovered in the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey of the northern galactic plane, IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3, and classify the system as the fourth deeply eclipsing intermediate polar known with an orbital period of P orb = 8.16 hr and a spin period of P spin = 2210 s. The system shows mild variations of its brightness that appear to be accompanied by a change in the amplitude of the spin modulation at optical wavelengths and a change in the morphology of the eclipse profile. The inferred magnetic moment of the white dwarf is μ wd ∼ (6-7) × 10 33 G cm 3 , and in this case IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3 will evolve either into a short-period EX Hya-like intermediate polar with a large P spin /P orb ratio or, perhaps more likely, into a synchronized polar. Swift observations show that the system is an ultraviolet and X-ray source, with a hard X-ray spectrum that is consistent with those seen in other intermediate polars. The ultraviolet light curve shows orbital modulation and an eclipse, while the low signal-to-noise ratio X-ray light curve does not show a significant modulation on the spin period. The measured X-ray flux is about an order of magnitude lower than would be expected from scaling by the optical fluxes of well-known X-ray-selected intermediate polars.

  17. Martian North Polar Water-Ice Clouds During the Viking Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Bass, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Viking Orbiters determined that the surface of Mars' northern residual cap consists of water ice. Observed atmospheric water vapor abundances in the equatorial regions have been related to seasonal exchange between reservoirs such as the polar caps, the regolith and between different phases in the atmosphere. Kahn modeled the physical characteristics of ice hazes seen in Viking Orbiter imaging limb data, hypothesizing that ice hazes provide a method for scavenging water vapor from the atmosphere and accumulating it into ice particles. Given that Jakosky found that these particles had sizes such that fallout times were of order one Martian sol, these water-ice hazes provided a method for returning more water to the regolith than that provided by adsorption alone. These hazes could also explain the rapid hemispheric decrease in atmospheric water in late northern summer as well as the increase during the following early spring. A similar comparison of water vapor abundance versus polar cap brightness has been done for the north polar region. They have shown that water vapor decreases steadily between L(sub s) = 100-150 deg while polar cap albedo increases during the same time frame. As a result, they suggested that late summer water-ice deposition onto the ice cap may be the cause of the cap brightening. This deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or to snowfall. Thus, an examination of north polar waterice clouds could lend insight into the fate of the water vapor during this time period. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. NOAA NDBC SOS, 2006-present, winds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have winds data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for data...

  19. NOAA Weather Radio - EAS Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Emergency Alert System (EAS) List of EAS Event Codes NWS EAS fact sheet What Management Agency (FEMA) and the NWS, implements the EAS at the federal level. The EAS is the nation's public

  20. TIROA/NOAA (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites space environment monitor archive tape documentation: 1988 update. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.J.; Evans, D.S.; Sauer, H.H.

    1988-05-01

    TIROS/NOAA satellite archive tapes containing data obtained with the Medium-Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), High-Energy Proton and Alpha-Particle Detector (HEPAD), and Total-Energy Detector (TED) are described. Descriptions of the data include orbital and housekeeping details and the information needed to decode and understand the data. Specifications of the data channels are supplied, with the timing information needed to convert the data to usable information. Description of the archive tape format gives the information needed to read the tape and unpack the data. Appendices supply the retrieval routines used by the Space Environment Services Center in Boulder

  1. Workforce and graduate school outcomes of NOAA's Educational Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, T.; Kaplan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Underrepresented groups, including Black, Hispanic, Native American, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Island professionals remain underrepresented in STEM fields generally, and in the ocean and atmospheric sciences specifically. NOAA has tried to address this disparity through a number of initiatives under the Educational Partnership Program with Minority Serving Institutions (EPP MSI) which currently has two components: four Cooperative Science Centers (CSCs) aligned with NOAA's mission areas; and an Undergraduate Scholarship Program (USP), both established in 2001. In order to determine the outcomes for the program participants and the impacts of these programs on degree completions and on the workforce, the EPP MSI undertook a multi-pronged effort to identify career and education achievements for 80% of the approximately 1750 EPP MSI alumni, 75% of whom are from underrepresented groups. This was accomplished through 1) searching online resources (e.g. professional web pages, LinkedIn, etc.), 2) personal communication with program-associated faculty, 3) National Student Clearinghouse, 4) a survey of former scholars conducted by Insight Policy Research, and 5) self-reporting though NOAA's Voluntary Alumni Update System. Results show that 60% of CSC alumni currently hold an advanced degree in a STEM field with another 8% currently working toward one. 66% of EPP Undergraduate Scholars go to graduate school. 72% of CSC and USP alumni are currently employed in or pursuing a graduate degree in a NOAA-related* field. More than 70 CSC graduates currently work for NOAA as contractors or federal employees while more than 240 work for other government agencies. More than 400 are employed in the private sector. Of more than 225 PhD graduates, 66 have completed or currently hold post-doctoral positions in NOAA mission fields; 71 have held faculty positions at major universities. However, one challenge is retaining diverse STEM talent within the Geosciences in light

  2. NOAA predicts active 2013 Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    (discussion) El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion National Hurricane Preparedness Week in both English and Spanish, featuring NOAA hurricane experts and the FEMA administrator at

  3. The NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Bibliography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1983 through 1992, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) compiled a comprehensive, computerized...

  4. Interfacial B-site atomic configuration in polar (111) and non-polar (001) SrIrO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Zhou, H.; Xie, L.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Patzner, J. J.; Ryu, S.; Pan, X. Q.; Eom, C. B.

    2017-09-01

    The precise control of interfacial atomic arrangement in ABO3 perovskite heterostructures is paramount, particularly in cases where the subsequent electronic properties of the material exhibit geometrical preferences along polar crystallographic directions that feature inevitably complex surface reconstructions. Here, we present the B-site interfacial structure in polar (111) and non-polar (001) SrIrO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. The heterostructures were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron-based coherent Bragg rod analysis. Our results reveal the preference of B-site intermixing across the (111) interface due to the polarity-compensated SrTiO3 substrate surface prior to growth. By comparison, the intermixing at the non-polar (001) interface is negligible. This finding suggests that the intermixing may be necessary to mitigate epitaxy along heavily reconstructed and non-stoichiometric (111) perovskite surfaces. Furthermore, this preferential B-site configuration could allow the geometric design of the interfacial perovskite structure and chemistry to selectively engineer the correlated electronic states of the B-site d-orbital.

  5. Interfacial B-site atomic configuration in polar (111 and non-polar (001 SrIrO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Anderson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise control of interfacial atomic arrangement in ABO3 perovskite heterostructures is paramount, particularly in cases where the subsequent electronic properties of the material exhibit geometrical preferences along polar crystallographic directions that feature inevitably complex surface reconstructions. Here, we present the B-site interfacial structure in polar (111 and non-polar (001 SrIrO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. The heterostructures were examined using scanning transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron-based coherent Bragg rod analysis. Our results reveal the preference of B-site intermixing across the (111 interface due to the polarity-compensated SrTiO3 substrate surface prior to growth. By comparison, the intermixing at the non-polar (001 interface is negligible. This finding suggests that the intermixing may be necessary to mitigate epitaxy along heavily reconstructed and non-stoichiometric (111 perovskite surfaces. Furthermore, this preferential B-site configuration could allow the geometric design of the interfacial perovskite structure and chemistry to selectively engineer the correlated electronic states of the B-site d-orbital.

  6. CTD data from CTD casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 1985-06-03 to 1988-09-21 (NODC Accession 8900194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected from CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from 03 June 1985 to 21 September 1988. Data...

  7. Investigation of Current Induced Spin Polarization in III-V Semiconductor Epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, Marta

    In the development of a semiconductor spintronics device, a thorough understanding of spin dynamics in semiconductors is necessary. In particular, electrical control of electron spins is advantageous for its compatibility with present day electronics. In this thesis, we will discuss the electrical modification of the electron g-factor, which characterizes the strength of the interaction between a spin and a magnetic field, as well as investigate electrically generated spin polarizations as a function of various material parameters. We report on the modification of the electron g-factor by an in-plane electric field in an InGaAs epilayer. We performed external magnetic field scans of the Kerr rotation of the InGaAs film in order to measure the g-factor independently of the spin-orbit fields. The g-factor increases from -0.4473(0.0001) at 0 V/cm to -0.4419( 0.0001) at 50 V/cm applied along the [110] crystal axis. A comparison of temperature and voltage dependent photoluminescence measurements indicate that minimal channel heating occurs at these voltages. Possible explanations for this g-factor modification are discussed, including an increase in the electron temperature that is independent of the lattice temperature and the modification of the donor-bound electron wave function by the electric field. The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InGaAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the spin polarization mechanism is extrinsic. Temperature-dependent measurements of the spin dephasing rates and mobilities were used to characterize the relative strengths of the intrinsic D

  8. Realization of optimized quantum controlled-logic gate based on the orbital angular momentum of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Tao; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-18

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimized setup to implement quantum controlled-NOT operation using polarization and orbital angular momentum qubits. This device is more adaptive to inputs with various polarizations, and can work both in classical and quantum single-photon regime. The logic operations performed by such a setup not only possess high stability and polarization-free character, they can also be easily extended to deal with multi-qubit input states. As an example, the experimental implementation of generalized three-qubit Toffoli gate has been presented.

  9. Measurement of product rotational alignment in associative-ionization collisions between polarized Na(3p) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.; de Vries, M.S.; Weiner, J.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effect of reactant Na(3p) polarization on the rotational angular momentum alignment of product Na 2 + ions arising from associative-ionization (AI) collisions. Our results show that sensitivity of the AI rate constant to initial atomic polarization persists even when all hyperfine states are populated with broadband (3 cm -1 ) pulsed laser excitation of Na( 2 P/sub 3/2/) and that the spatial distribution of product rotational angular momentum vectors is anisotropic. We discuss a qualitative description of the collision process consistent with our measurements which indicates that sigma-orbital symmetry is preferred to π-orbital symmetry as the colliding partners approach

  10. Polarized single crystal neutron diffraction study of the zero-magnetization ferromagnet Sm1 -xGdxAl2 (x =0.024 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, T.; Stunault, A.; Brown, P. J.

    2018-02-01

    We have determined the temperature evolution of the spin and orbital moments in the zero-magnetization ferromagnet Sm1 -xGdxAl2 (x = 0.024) by combining polarized and unpolarized single crystal neutron diffraction data. The sensitivity of the polarized neutron technique has allowed the moment values to be determined with a precision of ≈0.1 μB . Our results clearly demonstrate that, when magnetized by a field of 8 T, the spin and orbital moments in Sm1 -xGdxAl2 are oppositely directed, so that the net magnetization is very small. Below 60 K the contributions from spin and orbital motions are both about 2 μB , with that due to orbital motion being slightly larger than that due to spin. Between 60 and 65 K the contributions of each to the magnetization fall rapidly and change sign at Tcomp ≈67 K , above which the aligned moments recover but with the orbital magnetization still slightly higher than the spin one. These results imply that above Tcomp the small resultant magnetization of the Sm3 + ion is oppositely directed to the magnetizing field. It is suggested that this anomaly is due to polarization of conduction electron spin associated with the doping Gd3 + ions.

  11. Polar cap absorption events of November 2001 at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Polar cap absorption (PCA events recorded during November 2001 are investigated by observations of ionospheric absorption of a 30MHz riometer installed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica, and of solar proton flux, monitored by the NOAA-GOES8 satellite in geo-synchronous orbit. During this period three solar proton events (SPE on 4, 19 and 23 November occurred. Two of these are among the dozen most intense events since 1954 and during the current solar cycle (23rd, the event of 4 November shows the greatest proton flux at energies >10MeV. Many factors contribute to the peak intensity of the two SPE biggest events, one is the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME speed, other factors are the ambient population of SPE and the shock front due to the CME. During these events absorption peaks of several dB (~20dB are observed at Terra Nova Bay, tens of minutes after the impact of fast halo CMEs on the geomagnetic field.

    Results of a cross-correlation analysis show that the first hour of absorption is mainly produced by 84–500MeV protons in the case of the 4 November event and by 15–44MeV protons for the event of 23 November, whereas in the entire event the contribution to the absorption is due chiefly to 4.2–82MeV (4 November and by 4.2–14.5MeV (23 November. Good agreement is generally obtained between observed and calculated absorption by the empirical flux-absorption relationship for threshold energy E0=10MeV. From the residuals one can argue that other factors (e.g. X-ray increases and geomagnetic disturbances can contribute to the ionospheric absorption.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Polar Ionosphere, Particle precipitation – Solar physics (Flares and mass ejections

  12. Circularly polarized zero-phonon transitions of vacancies in diamond at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, D.; Glaser, E. R.; Kennedy, T. A.; Bayer, M.; Debus, J.

    2018-05-01

    We study the circularly polarized photoluminescence of negatively charged (NV-) and neutral (NV0) nitrogen-vacancy ensembles and neutral vacancies (V0) in diamond crystals exposed to magnetic fields of up to 10 T. We determine the orbital and spin Zeeman splitting as well as the energetic ordering of their ground and first-excited states. The spin-triplet and -singlet states of the NV- are described by an orbital Zeeman splitting of about 9 μ eV /T , which corresponds to a positive orbital g -factor of gL=0.164 under application of the magnetic field along the (001) and (111) crystallographic directions, respectively. The zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the NV- singlet is defined as a transition from the 1E' states, which are split by gLμBB , to the 1A1 state. The energies of the zero-phonon triplet transitions show a quadratic dependence on intermediate magnetic field strengths, which we attribute to a mixing of excited states with nonzero orbital angular momentum. Moreover, we identify slightly different spin Zeeman splittings in the ground (gs) and excited (es) triplet states, which can be expressed by a deviation between their spin g -factors: gS ,es=gS ,gs+Δ g with values of Δ g =0.014 and 0.029 in the (001) and (111) geometries, respectively. The degree of circular polarization of the NV- ZPLs depends significantly on the temperature, which is explained by an efficient spin-orbit coupling of the excited states mediated through acoustic phonons. We further demonstrate that the sign of the circular polarization degree is switched under rotation of the diamond crystal. A weak Zeeman splitting similar to Δ g μBB measured for the NV- ZPLs is also obtained for the NV0 zero-phonon lines, from which we conclude that the ground state is composed of two optically active states with compensated orbital contributions and opposite spin-1/2 momentum projections. The zero-phonon lines of the V0 show Zeeman splittings and degrees of the circular polarization with opposite

  13. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  14. Sistem Receiver Satelit NOAA pada Frekuensi 137,9 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhung Suleman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Radio cuaca yang diusulkan terdiri atas rangkaian radio penerima, perangkat lunak untuk translasi data cuaca dari satelit menjadi data cuaca yang mudah dibaca oleh pengguna (nelayan disimpan dalam EPROM yang dapat diintegrasikan pada radio cuaca. Radio cuaca yang diusulkan juga memiliki sistem deteksi penerimaan data satelit cuaca NOAA melalui program aplikasi pewaktu (timer yang dapat mengaktifkan radio cuaca sekitar 5 menit sebelum waktu satelit NOAA melintasi Indonesia. Karena perangkat lunak/aplikasi disimpan dalam EPROM maka tidak diperlukan komputer untuk mengoperasikan radio cuaca.

  15. Nonequilibrium Spin Dynamics in a Trapped Fermi Gas with Effective Spin-Orbit Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, Tudor D.; Zhang Chuanwei; Galitski, Victor

    2007-01-01

    We consider a trapped atomic system in the presence of spatially varying laser fields. The laser-atom interaction generates a pseudospin degree of freedom (referred to simply as spin) and leads to an effective spin-orbit coupling for the fermions in the trap. Reflections of the fermions from the trap boundaries provide a physical mechanism for effective momentum relaxation and nontrivial spin dynamics due to the emergent spin-orbit coupling. We explicitly consider evolution of an initially spin-polarized Fermi gas in a two-dimensional harmonic trap and derive nonequilibrium behavior of the spin polarization. It shows periodic echoes with a frequency equal to the harmonic trapping frequency. Perturbations, such as an asymmetry of the trap, lead to the suppression of the spin echo amplitudes. We discuss a possible experimental setup to observe spin dynamics and provide numerical estimates of relevant parameters

  16. NOAA declares string of seal deaths in New England an unusual mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A virus found in these animals. Seals, like other marine mammals (dolphins, whales, and sea lions Information for NOAA Employees Related Links Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Events Marine Mammal Health and Rowles, National Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program Coordinator, NOAA Fisheries Service

  17. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  18. Radiation environment measurements and single event upset observations in sun-synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J.; Farren, J.; Stephen, J.; Underwood, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on analysis of data from the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment (CREDO) carried in sun-synchronous polar orbit on UoSat-3 which shows the influence of cosmic rays, trapped protons and solar particles and allows comparison with device behavior

  19. The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ChunMin; Zhu, HuaChun; Zhao, Baochang

    2011-05-09

    A space-based tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer (TSMPAMI) is described. It uses the relative movement between the TSMPAMI and the measured target to change optical path difference. The acquisition method of interferogram is presented. The atmospheric temperatures and horizontal winds can be derived from the optical observations. The measurement errors of the winds and temperatures are discussed through simulations. In the presence of small-scale structures of the atmospheric fields, the errors are found to be significantly influenced by the mismatch of the scenes observed by the adjacent CCD sub-areas aligned along the orbiter's track during successive measurements due to the orbital velocity and the exposure time. For most realistic conditions of the orbit and atmosphere, however, the instrument is proven suitable for measuring the atmospheric parameters. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  1. Spin-orbit interaction in quantum dots and quantum wires of correlated electrons - a way to spintronics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, Jens Eiko

    2008-01-01

    We study the influence of the spin-orbit interaction on the electronic transport through quantum dots and quantum wires of correlated electrons. Starting with a one-dimensional infinite continuum model without Coulomb interaction, we analyze the interplay of the spin-orbit interaction, an external magnetic field, and an external potential leading to currents with significant spin-polarization in appropriate parameter regimes. Since lattice models are known to often be superior to continuum models in describing the experimental situation of low-dimensional mesoscopic systems, we construct a lattice model which exhibits the same low-energy physics in terms of energy dispersion and spin expectation values. Confining the lattice to finite length and connecting it to two semi-infinite noninteracting Fermi liquid leads, we calculate the zero temperature linear conductance using the Landauer-Bttiker formalism and show that spin-polarization effects also evolve for the lattice model by adding an adequate potential structure and can be controlled by tuning the overall chemical potential of the system (quantum wire and leads). Next, we allow for a finite Coulomb interaction and use the functional renormalization group (fRG) method to capture correlation effects induced by the Coulomb interaction. The interacting system is thereby transformed into a noninteracting system with renormalized system parameters. For short wires (∝100 lattice sites), we show that the energy regime in which spin polarization is found is strongly affected by the Coulomb interaction. For long wires (>1000 lattice sites), we find the power-law suppression of the total linear conductance on low energy scales typical for inhomogeneous Luttinger liquids while the degree of spin polarization stays constant. Considering quantum dots which consist of two lattice sites, we observe the well-known Kondo effect and analyze, how the Kondo temperature is affected by the spin-orbit interaction. Moreover, we show

  2. Theory of Covalent Adsorbate Frontier Orbital Energies on Functionalized Light-Absorbing Semiconductor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Doak, Peter; Tamblyn, Isaac; Neaton, Jeffrey B

    2013-05-16

    Functional hybrid interfaces between organic molecules and semiconductors are central to many emerging information and solar energy conversion technologies. Here we demonstrate a general, empirical parameter-free approach for computing and understanding frontier orbital energies - or redox levels - of a broad class of covalently bonded organic-semiconductor surfaces. We develop this framework in the context of specific density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory calculations, within the GW approximation, of an exemplar interface, thiophene-functionalized silicon (111). Through detailed calculations taking into account structural and binding energetics of mixed-monolayers consisting of both covalently attached thiophene and hydrogen, chlorine, methyl, and other passivating groups, we quantify the impact of coverage, nonlocal polarization, and interface dipole effects on the alignment of the thiophene frontier orbital energies with the silicon band edges. For thiophene adsorbate frontier orbital energies, we observe significant corrections to standard DFT (∼1 eV), including large nonlocal electrostatic polarization effects (∼1.6 eV). Importantly, both results can be rationalized from knowledge of the electronic structure of the isolated thiophene molecule and silicon substrate systems. Silicon band edge energies are predicted to vary by more than 2.5 eV, while molecular orbital energies stay similar, with the different functional groups studied, suggesting the prospect of tuning energy alignment over a wide range for photoelectrochemistry and other applications.

  3. SeaTrack: Ground station orbit prediction and planning software for sea-viewing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kenneth S.; Gregg, Watson W.; Hoisington, Charles M.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1993-01-01

    An orbit prediction software package (Sea Track) was designed to assist High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations in the acquisition of direct broadcast data from sea-viewing spacecraft. Such spacecraft will be common in the near future, with the launch of the Sea viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) in 1994, along with the continued Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) series on NOAA platforms. The Brouwer-Lyddane model was chosen for orbit prediction because it meets the needs of HRPT tracking accuracies, provided orbital elements can be obtained frequently (up to within 1 week). Sea Track requires elements from the U.S. Space Command (NORAD Two-Line Elements) for the satellite's initial position. Updated Two-Line Elements are routinely available from many electronic sources (some are listed in the Appendix). Sea Track is a menu-driven program that allows users to alter input and output formats. The propagation period is entered by a start date and end date with times in either Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or local time. Antenna pointing information is provided in tabular form and includes azimuth/elevation pointing angles, sub-satellite longitude/latitude, acquisition of signal (AOS), loss of signal (LOS), pass orbit number, and other pertinent pointing information. One version of Sea Track (non-graphical) allows operation under DOS (for IBM-compatible personal computers) and UNIX (for Sun and Silicon Graphics workstations). A second, graphical, version displays orbit tracks, and azimuth-elevation for IBM-compatible PC's, but requires a VGA card and Microsoft FORTRAN.

  4. Asynchronous Processing of a Constellation of Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Satellites for Fire Detection and Smoke Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Peterson, D. A.; Curtis, C. A.; Schmidt, C. C.; Hoffman, J.; Prins, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) system converts satellite observations of thermally anomalous pixels into spatially and temporally continuous estimates of smoke release from open biomass burning. This system currently processes data from a constellation of 5 geostationary and 2 polar-orbiting sensors. Additional sensors, including NPP VIIRS and the imager on the Korea COMS-1 geostationary satellite, will soon be added. This constellation experiences schedule changes and outages of various durations, making the set of available scenes for fire detection highly variable on an hourly and daily basis. Adding to the complexity, the latency of the satellite data is variable between and within sensors. FLAMBE shares with many fire detection systems the goal of detecting as many fires as possible as early as possible, but the FLAMBE system must also produce a consistent estimate of smoke production with minimal artifacts from the changing constellation. To achieve this, NRL has developed a system of asynchronous processing and cross-calibration that permits satellite data to be used as it arrives, while preserving the consistency of the smoke emission estimates. This talk describes the asynchronous data ingest methodology, including latency statistics for the constellation. We also provide an overview and show results from the system we have developed to normalize multi-sensor fire detection for consistency.

  5. User Driven Data Mining, Visualization and Decision Making for NOAA Observing System and Data Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) observing system enterprise represents a $2.4B annual investment. Earth observations from these systems are foundational to NOAA's mission to describe, understand, and predict the Earth's environment. NOAA's decision makers are charged with managing this complex portfolio of observing systems to serve the national interest effectively and efficiently. The Technology Planning & Integration for Observation (TPIO) Office currently maintains an observing system portfolio for NOAA's validated user observation requirements, observing capabilities, and resulting data products and services. TPIO performs data analytics to provide NOAA leadership business case recommendations for making sound budgetary decisions. Over the last year, TPIO has moved from massive spreadsheets to intuitive dashboards that enable Federal agencies as well as the general public the ability to explore user observation requirements and environmental observing systems that monitor and predict changes in the environment. This change has led to an organizational data management shift to analytics and visualizations by allowing analysts more time to focus on understanding the data, discovering insights, and effectively communicating the information to decision makers. Moving forward, the next step is to facilitate a cultural change toward self-serve data sharing across NOAA, other Federal agencies, and the public using intuitive data visualizations that answer relevant business questions for users of NOAA's Observing System Enterprise. Users and producers of environmental data will become aware of the need for enhancing communication to simplify information exchange to achieve multipurpose goals across a variety of disciplines. NOAA cannot achieve its goal of producing environmental intelligence without data that can be shared by multiple user communities. This presentation will describe where we are on this journey and will provide examples of

  6. Cassini ISS Observation of Saturn from Grand Finale Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, J. J.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Dyudina, U.; Ewald, S. P.; McCabe, R. M.; Garland, J.; Gunnarson, J.; Gallego, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present images captured during Cassini's Grand Finale orbits, and their preliminary analyses. During the final 22 orbits of the mission, the spacecraft is in orbits that have 6.5 day period at an inclination of 62 degrees, apoapsis altitude of about 1,272,000 km, and periapsis altitudes of about 2,500 km. Images captured during periapsis passes show Saturn's atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution. We present preliminary analyses of these images, including the final images captured before the end of the mission when the spacecraft enters Saturn's atmosphere on September 15th, 2017. Prominent features captured during the final orbits include the north polar vortex and other vortices as well as very detailed views of the "popcorn clouds" that reside between the Hexagon and the north pole. In the cloud field between zonal jets, clouds either resemble linear streaks suggestive of cirrus-like clouds or round shapes suggestive of vortices or cumulus anvil. The presence of linear streaks that follow lines of constant latitudes suggests that meridional mixing is inhibited at those latitudes. The size of vortices may reflect latitudinal variation in the atmospheric deformation radius. We also compare the new images to those captured earlier in the Cassini mission to characterize the temporal evolution such as changes in the zonal jet speeds, and prevalence and colors of vortices. A particular focus of our interest is the long-term change in the color of the hexagon, the evolution of the wind speeds in the jetstream that blows eastward at the boundary of the hexagon, and the morphology of the north polar vortex. Our work has been supported by NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NSF AAG 1212216, and NASA NESSF NNX15AQ70H.

  7. 75 FR 60085 - NOAA Proposed Policy on Prohibited and Authorized Uses of the Asset Forfeiture Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ29 NOAA Proposed... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request... Secretary of Commerce through NOAA to pay certain enforcement related costs from sums received as fines...

  8. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) satellite systems. When calculating the protection areas for a NOAA...

  9. The Effect of Electrical Polarization on Electronic Structure in LSM Electrodes: An Operando XAS, RIXS and XES Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; Carvalho, H.W.P.; Zielke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    in the Mn K edge energy towards lower energies. The shift is assigned to a decrease in the average Mn oxidation state, which based on Kβ XES changes from 3.4 at open circuit voltage to 3.2 at −800 mV applied potential. Furthermore, RIXS rendered pronounced changes in the population of the Mn 3d orbitals...... (RIXS) at the Mn K-edge. The study of polarization induced changes in the electronic properties and structure has been carried out at 500°C in 10–20% O2 with electrical polarization applied in the range from −850 mV to 800 mV. Cathodic polarizations in the range −600 mV to −850 mV induced a shift......, due to filling of the Mn d-orbitals during the cathodic polarization. Overall, the study experimentally links the electrical polarization of LSM electrodes to the structural and electronic properties of Mn - these properties are expected to be of major importance for the electrocatalytic performance...

  10. NOAA's Big Data Partnership at the National Centers for Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    In April of 2015, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced NOAA's Big Data Partnership (BDP) with Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Platform, IBM, Microsoft Corp., and the Open Cloud Consortium through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements. Recent progress on the activities with these Partners at the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) will be presented. These activities include the transfer of over 350 TB of NOAA's archived data from NCEI's tape-based archive system to BDP cloud providers; new opportunities for data mining and investigation; application of NOAA's data maturity and stewardship concepts to the BDP; and integration of both archived and near-realtime data streams into a synchronized, distributed data system. Both lessons learned and future opportunities for the environmental data community will be presented.

  11. High Power Microwave Emission of Large and Small Orbit Gyrotron Devices in Rectangular Interaction Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, J. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Jaynes, R. L.; Rintamaki, J. I.; Luginsland, J. W.; Lau, Y. Y.; Spencer, T. A.

    1996-11-01

    Experiments utilize large and small orbit e-beam gyrotron devices in a rectangular-cross-section (RCS) gyrotron. This device is being explored to examine polarization control. Other research issues include pulse shortening, and mode competition. MELBA generates electron beams with parameters of: -800kV, 1-10kA diode current, and 0.5-1.0 μ sec pulselengths. The small orbit gyrotron device is converted to a large orbit experiment by running MELBA's annular electron beam through a magnetic cusp. Initial experiments showed an increase in beam alpha (V_perp/V_par) of a factor of ~ 4 between small and large orbit devices. Experimental results from the RCS gyrotron will be compared for large-orbit and small-orbit electron beams. Beam transport data and frequency measurements will be presented. Computer modeling utilizing the MAGIC and E-gun codes will be shown.

  12. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  13. Remote Monitoring of the Polarized Target's Control for E1039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, David; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The 1039 experiment at FNAL will further our understanding of spin structure by measuring the contribution that sea quarks orbital angular momentum provide to overall nucleon spin. It is accepted that the valence-quarks of nucleons only provide 30% of the total nucleon spin. To study the nucleon's sea quark contribution, E1039 will use the Drell-Yan process by colliding 120 GeV un-polarized beam protons with polarized ammonia targets of hydrogen and deuterium. The asymmetric spin distributions of resulting dimuons will be measured. These asymmetries are sensitive, among other effects, to the orbital angular momentum contribution of the sea quarks. The polarized target requires a multi-stage vacuum pump located near the target. Since access to its present controls will not be possible during running, remote control and monitoring upgrades were required. A secondary control panel was purchased and tested. Information from the programmable logic controller (PLC) must be fed into our data stream to enable remote monitoring and to signal possible alarm conditions. This solution and the program created using explicit TCP/IP messaging to extract data tags from the PLC and log it within our databases will be presented. Supported by U.S. D.O.E. Medium Energy Nuclear Physics under Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  14. Verifying black hole orbits with gravitational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drasco, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves from test masses bound to geodesic orbits of rotating black holes are simulated, using Teukolsky's black hole perturbation formalism, for about ten thousand generic orbital configurations. Each binary radiates power exclusively in modes with frequencies that are integer-linear combinations of the orbit's three fundamental frequencies. General spectral properties are found with a survey of orbits about a black hole taken to be rotating at 80% of the maximal spin. The orbital eccentricity is varied from 0.1 to 0.9. Inclination ranges from 20 deg. to 160 deg. and comes to within 20 deg. of polar. Semilatus rectum is varied from 1.2 to 3 times the value at the innermost stable circular orbits. The following general spectral properties are found: (i) 99% of the radiated power is typically carried by a few hundred modes, and at most by about a thousand modes, (ii) the dominant frequencies can be grouped into a small number of families defined by fixing two of the three integer frequency multipliers, and (iii) the specifics of these trends can be qualitatively inferred from the geometry of the orbit under consideration. Detections using triperiodic analytic templates modeled on these general properties would constitute a verification of radiation from an adiabatic sequence of black hole orbits and would recover the evolution of the fundamental orbital frequencies. In an analogy with ordinary spectroscopy, this would compare to observing the Bohr model's atomic hydrogen spectrum without being able to rule out alternative atomic theories or nuclei. The suitability of such a detection technique is demonstrated using snapshots computed at 12-hour intervals throughout the last three years before merger of a kludged inspiral. The system chosen is typical of those thought to occur in galactic nuclei and to be observable with space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Because of circularization, the number of excited modes decreases as the binary

  15. Variations in the polar cap area during two substorm cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study employs observations from several sources to determine the location of the polar cap boundary, or open/closed field line boundary, at all local times, allowing the amount of open flux in the magnetosphere to be quantified. These data sources include global auroral images from the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI instrument on board the Polar spacecraft, SuperDARN HF radar measurements of the convection flow, and low altitude particle measurements from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites, and the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST spacecraft. Changes in the open flux content of the magnetosphere are related to the rate of magnetic reconnection occurring at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail, allowing us to estimate the day- and nightside reconnection voltages during two substorm cycles. Specifically, increases in the polar cap area are found to be consistent with open flux being created when the IMF is oriented southwards and low-latitude magnetopause reconnection is ongoing, and decreases in area correspond to open flux being destroyed at substorm breakup. The polar cap area can continue to decrease for 100 min following the onset of substorm breakup, continuing even after substorm-associated auroral features have died away. An estimate of the dayside reconnection voltage, determined from plasma drift measurements in the ionosphere, indicates that reconnection can take place at all local times along the dayside portion of the polar cap boundary, and hence presumably across the majority of the dayside magnetopause. The observation of ionospheric signatures of bursty reconnection over a wide extent of local times supports this finding.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere – Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  16. 76 FR 53883 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Satellite Ground Station Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NOAA Satellite Ground Station Customer Questionnaire AGENCY: National Oceanic... asks people who operate ground receiving stations that receive data from NOAA satellites to complete a...

  17. The low earth orbit radiation environment and its evolution from measurements using the CREAM and CREDO experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J.; Truscott, P.R.; Farren, J.; Underwood, C.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained from Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors carried on Shuttle missions during 1991/92, as well as on the polar orbiting microsatellite UOSAT-3 since April 1990, show the long term trends in the cosmic-ray and trapped proton environments responsible for single event phenomena. Cosmic-ray fluxes have increased by a factor of two since June 1991, while the solar flare event of Much 1991 created an additional region of trapped radiation which intersects high inclination Shuttle and polar orbits and, although decaying, was still present in December 1992. Deployment at a variety of shielding depths on Shuttle enables the influence of shielding to be explored and shows the influence of secondaries

  18. Probing in-medium spin–orbit interaction with intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating for the first time both the spin and isospin degrees of freedom explicitly in transport model simulations of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, we observe that a local spin polarization appears during collision process. Most interestingly, it is found that the nucleon spin up–down differential transverse flow is a sensitive probe of the spin–orbit interaction, providing a novel approach to probe both the density and isospin dependence of the in-medium spin–orbit coupling that is important for understanding the structure of rare isotopes and synthesis of superheavy elements

  19. A New Model of Jupiter's Magnetic Field from Juno's First Nine Orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Kotsiaros, S.; Oliversen, R. J.

    2018-01-01

    A spherical harmonic model of the magnetic field of Jupiter is obtained from vector magnetic field observations acquired by the Juno spacecraft during its first nine polar orbits about the planet. Observations acquired during eight of these orbits provide the first truly global coverage of Jupiter...... currents. Partial solution of the underdetermined inverse problem using generalized inverse techniques yields a model (“Juno Reference Model through Perijove 9”) of the planetary magnetic field with spherical harmonic coefficients well determined through degree and order 10, providing the first detailed...

  20. Orbital angular momentum of a high-order Bessel light beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volke-Sepulveda, K; Garces-Chavez, V; Chavez-Cerda, S; Arlt, J; Dholakia, K

    2002-01-01

    The orbital angular momentum density of Bessel beams is calculated explicitly within a rigorous vectorial treatment. This allows us to investigate some aspects that have not been analysed previously, such as the angular momentum content of azimuthally and radially polarized beams. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally the mechanical transfer of orbital angular momentum to trapped particles in optical tweezers using a high-order Bessel beam. We set transparent particles of known dimensions into rotation, where the sense of rotation can be reversed by changing the sign of the singularity. Quantitative results are obtained for rotation rates. This paper's animations are available from the Multimedia Enhancements page

  1. Illumination Conditions of the Lunar Polar Regions Using LOLA Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    We use high-resolution altimetry data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to characterize present illumination conditions in the polar regions of the Moon. Compared to previous studies, both the spatial and temporal extent of the simulations are increased significantly, as well as the coverage (fill ratio) of the topographic maps used, thanks to the 28 Hz firing rate of the five-beam instrument. We determine the horizon elevation in a number of directions based on 240 m-resolution polar digital elevation models reaching down to 75 latitude. The illumination of both polar regions extending to 80 can be calculated for any geometry from those horizon longitudinal profiles. We validated our modeling with recent Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide-Angle Camera images. We assessed the extent of permanently shadowed regions (PSRs, defined as areas that never receive direct solar illumination), and obtained total areas generally larger than previous studies (12,866 and 16,055 km2, in the north and south respectively). We extended our direct illumination model to account for singly-scattered light, and found that every PSR does receive some amount of scattered light during the year. We conducted simulations over long periods (several 18.6-years lunar precession cycles) with a high temporal resolution (6 h), and identified the most illuminated locations in the vicinity of both poles. Because of the importance of those sites for exploration and engineering considerations, we characterized their illumination more precisely over the near future. Every year, a location near the Shackleton crater rim in the south polar region is sunlit continuously for 240 days, and its longest continuous period in total darkness is about 1.5 days. For some locations small height gains ( 10 m) can dramatically improve their average illumination and reduce the night duration, rendering some of those particularly attractive energy-wise as

  2. Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Z.; Lanzara, A.

    2011-06-22

    High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.

  3. Cloud-based opportunities in scientific computing: insights from processing Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Direct Broadcast data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S.

    2013-12-01

    The cloud is proving to be a uniquely promising platform for scientific computing. Our experience with processing satellite data using Amazon Web Services highlights several opportunities for enhanced performance, flexibility, and cost effectiveness in the cloud relative to traditional computing -- for example: - Direct readout from a polar-orbiting satellite such as the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) requires bursts of processing a few times a day, separated by quiet periods when the satellite is out of receiving range. In the cloud, by starting and stopping virtual machines in minutes, we can marshal significant computing resources quickly when needed, but not pay for them when not needed. To take advantage of this capability, we are automating a data-driven approach to the management of cloud computing resources, in which new data availability triggers the creation of new virtual machines (of variable size and processing power) which last only until the processing workflow is complete. - 'Spot instances' are virtual machines that run as long as one's asking price is higher than the provider's variable spot price. Spot instances can greatly reduce the cost of computing -- for software systems that are engineered to withstand unpredictable interruptions in service (as occurs when a spot price exceeds the asking price). We are implementing an approach to workflow management that allows data processing workflows to resume with minimal delays after temporary spot price spikes. This will allow systems to take full advantage of variably-priced 'utility computing.' - Thanks to virtual machine images, we can easily launch multiple, identical machines differentiated only by 'user data' containing individualized instructions (e.g., to fetch particular datasets or to perform certain workflows or algorithms) This is particularly useful when (as is the case with S-NPP data) we need to launch many very similar machines to process an unpredictable number of

  4. Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address

  5. Rotatable spin-polarized electron source for inverse-photoemission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, S. D.; Wortelen, H.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a ROtatable Spin-polarized Electron source (ROSE) for the use in spin- and angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (SR-IPE) experiments. A key feature of the ROSE is a variable direction of the transversal electron beam polarization. As a result, the inverse-photoemission experiment becomes sensitive to two orthogonal in-plane polarization directions, and, for nonnormal electron incidence, to the out-of-plane polarization component. We characterize the ROSE and test its performance on the basis of SR-IPE experiments. Measurements on magnetized Ni films on W(110) serve as a reference to demonstrate the variable spin sensitivity. Moreover, investigations of the unoccupied spin-dependent surface electronic structure of Tl/Si(111) highlight the capability to analyze complex phenomena like spin rotations in momentum space. Essentially, the ROSE opens the way to further studies on complex spin-dependent effects in the field of surface magnetism and spin-orbit interaction at surfaces

  6. Orbital momentum distribution and binding energies for the complete valence shell of molecular bromine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Grisogono, A.M.; Weigold, E.

    1987-08-01

    The binding energy spectrum of Br 2 has been recorded in both the outer and inner valence regions using electron momentum spectroscopy. The measurements are compared with the results of several Green's function calculations using different approximations and based on both polarized and unpolarized wave functions. The inner valence region, observed for the first time, is found to exhibit complex structure that is shown to be due to many-body effects, thus indicating a breakdown of the simple MO picture for ionization in this region. Momentum distributions for the three outer valence orbitals are also measured and compared with spherically averaged calculations using the target Hartree-Fock and plane wave impulse approximations. The effect of polarization functions in the basis set is investigated. Orbital density maps in both momentum and position space have been calculated and compared with the experimental measurements

  7. Geometrical Optics of Beams with Vortices: Berry Phase and Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed

  8. Geometrical optics of beams with vortices: Berry phase and orbital angular momentum Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu

    2006-07-28

    We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed.

  9. NPOESS Environmental Data Record (EDR) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R.; Grant, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. Together, IDPS and A&DP must support the calibration, validation, and data quality improvement initiatives of the NPOESS program to ensure the production of atmospheric and environmental products that meet strict requirements for accuracy and precision. In support of this activity, A&DP and IDPS continually updates the estimated performance of the NPOESS system with respect to both latency and data quality, using the latest operational implementation of the data processing software and information from instrument test activities. This presentation will illustrate and describe the processing chains that create the data products, as well as describe the

  10. Effective stability around the Cassini state in the spin-orbit problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansottera, Marco; Lhotka, Christoph; Lemaître, Anne

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the long-time stability in the neighborhood of the Cassini state in the conservative spin-orbit problem. Starting with an expansion of the Hamiltonian in the canonical Andoyer-Delaunay variables, we construct a high-order Birkhoff normal form and give an estimate of the effective stability time in the Nekhoroshev sense. By extensively using algebraic manipulations on a computer, we explicitly apply our method to the rotation of Titan. We obtain physical bounds of Titan's latitudinal and longitudinal librations, finding a stability time greatly exceeding the estimated age of the Universe. In addition, we study the dependence of the effective stability time on three relevant physical parameters: the orbital inclination, , the mean precession of the ascending node of Titan orbit, , and the polar moment of inertia,.

  11. How to Get Data from NOAA Environmental Satellites: An Overview of Operations, Products, Access and Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, N.; Graumann, A.; McNamara, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight access and availability of NOAA satellite data for near real time (NRT) and retrospective product users. The presentation includes an overview of the current fleet of NOAA satellites and methods of data distribution and access to hundreds of imagery and products offered by the Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC) and the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In particular, emphasis on the various levels of services for current and past observations will be presented. The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is dedicated to providing timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources. In special cases, users are authorized direct access to NESDIS data distribution systems for environmental satellite data and products. Other means of access include publicly available distribution services such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS), NOAA satellite direct broadcast services and various NOAA websites and ftp servers, including CLASS. CLASS is NOAA's information technology system designed to support long-term, secure preservation and standards-based access to environmental data collections and information. The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is responsible for the ingest, quality control, stewardship, archival and access to data and science information. This work will also show the latest technology improvements, enterprise approach and future plans for distribution of exponentially increasing data volumes from future NOAA missions. A primer on access to NOAA operational satellite products and services is available at http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Organization/About/access.html. Access to post-operational satellite data and assorted products is available at http://www.class.noaa.gov

  12. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1902-present, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  13. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1902-present, Conductivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have conductivity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  14. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: History of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The atmospheric water cycle at the present epoch involves summertime sublimation of water from the north polar cap, transport of water through the atmosphere, and condensation on one or both winter CO2 caps. Exchange with the regolith is important seasonally, but the water content of the atmosphere appears to be controlled by the polar caps. The net annual transport through the atmosphere, integrated over long timescales, must be the driving force behind the long-term evolution of the polar caps; clearly, this feeds back into the evolution of the layered terrain. We have investigated the behavior of the seasonal water cycle and the net integrated behavior at the pole for the last 10 exp 7 years. Our model of the water cycle includes the solar input, CO2 condensation and sublimation, and summertime water sublimation through the seasonal cycles, and incorporates the long-term variations in the orbital elements describing the Martian orbit.

  15. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  16. High-energy polarized proton beams a modern view

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffstaetter, Georg Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This monograph begins with a review of the basic equations of spin motion in particle accelerators. It then reviews how polarized protons can be accelerated to several tens of GeV using as examples the preaccelerators of HERA, a 6.3 km long cyclic accelerator at DESY / Hamburg. Such techniques have already been used at the AGS of BNL / New York, to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV. But for acceleration to energies of several hundred GeV as in RHIC, TEVATRON, HERA, LHC, or a VLHC, new problems can occur which can lead to a significantly diminished beam polarization. For these high energies, it is necessary to look in more detail at the spin motion, and for that the invariant spin field has proved to be a useful tool. This is already widely used for the description of high-energy electron beams that become polarized by the emission of spin-flip synchrotron radiation. It is shown that this field gives rise to an adiabatic invariant of spin-orbit motion and that it defines the maximum time average polarizat...

  17. 75 FR 13259 - NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Is Hosting a Series of Informational Webinars for Individuals and Organizations To Learn About the Proposed NOAA Climate Service AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  18. NOAA/NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) Atmospheric Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) numerical weather...

  19. NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series provides continuous measurements of the atmosphere and surface over the Western Hemisphere....

  20. Cryogenic implications of orbit selection of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Brooke, W.F.; Maa, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) which completed the first all sky survey in the infrared demonstrated the tremendous advantage of space-based infrared astronomy. The ability to cool the telescope optics and focal plane to liquid helium temperatures and the absence of atmospheric disturbances which cause ''seeing'' effects resulted in the discovery of 250,000 IR sources and many interesting phenomena including dust clouds around Vega and the infrared ''cirrus'' at 100 μm. To realize the true benefit of space infrared astronomy, NASA is now studying the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, a long-life space-based observatory, to follow up on the survey results of IRAS. The choice of orbits is a critical program decision. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of an all superfluid helium SIRTF system in the two possible orbit inclinations, polar orbit (99 0 ) and the low inclination orbit (28.5 0 )

  1. Spin-polarized electron gas in Co2MSi/SrTiO3(M= Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2016-06-08

    Spin-polarized density functional theory is used to study the TiO2 terminated interfaces between the magnetic Heusler alloys Co2Si (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe) and the non-polar band insulator SrTiO3. The structural relaxation at the interface turns out to depend systematically on the lattice mis- match. Charge transfer from the Heusler alloys (mainly the M 3d orbitals) to the Ti dxy orbitals of the TiO2 interface layer is found to gradually grow from M = Ti to Fe, resulting in an electron gas with increasing density of spin-polarized charge carriers. (© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  2. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset, Version 4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Global Surface Temperature Dataset (NOAAGlobalTemp) is derived from two independent analyses: the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)...

  5. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Services Portal: A New Centralized Resource for Distributed Climate Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, J.; Baldwin, R.; Herring, D.; Lott, N.; Boyd, J.; Handel, S.; Niepold, F.; Shea, E.

    2010-09-01

    With the rapid rise in the development of Web technologies and climate services across NOAA, there has been an increasing need for greater collaboration regarding NOAA's online climate services. The drivers include the need to enhance NOAA's Web presence in response to customer requirements, emerging needs for improved decision-making capabilities across all sectors of society facing impacts from climate variability and change, and the importance of leveraging climate data and services to support research and public education. To address these needs, NOAA (during fiscal year 2009) embarked upon an ambitious program to develop a NOAA Climate Services Portal (NCS Portal). Four NOAA offices are leading the effort: 1) the NOAA Climate Program Office (CPO), 2) the National Ocean Service's Coastal Services Center (CSC), 3) the National Weather Service's Climate Prediction Center (CPC), and 4) the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service's (NESDIS) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Other offices and programs are also contributing in many ways to the effort. A prototype NCS Portal is being placed online for public access in January 2010, http://www.climate.gov. This website only scratches the surface of the many climate services across NOAA, but this effort, via direct user engagement, will gradually expand the scope and breadth of the NCS Portal to greatly enhance the accessibility and usefulness of NOAA's climate data and services.

  6. 75 FR 10755 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2010 NOAA Engagement Survey Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... instrument will be used by NOAA's Office of Education and the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaboration Team to... Koch, Director, NOAA Office of Education, (202) 482-2563 or [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY... public goods used in public and private sectors, science institutions and households around the world...

  7. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) to provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) to provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contributions of hereditary terms (tails, tails-of-tails and memory integrals) up to 3PN order. The end results are given for both the complete plus and cross polarizations and the separate spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes

  8. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  9. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  10. POGO satellite orbit corrections: an opportunity to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmann, Reto; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We present an attempt to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) satellite missions in the late 1960s. Inaccurate satellite positions are believed to be a major source of errors for using the magnetic observations for field...... modelling. To improve the data, we use aniterative approach consisting of two main parts: one is a main field modelling process to obtain the radial fieldgradient to perturb the orbits and the other is the state-of-the-art GPS orbit modelling software BERNESE to calculatenew physical orbits. We report....... With this approach, weeliminate the orbit discontinuities at midnight but only tiny quality improvements could be achieved forgeomagnetically quiet data. We believe that improvements to the data are probably still possible, but it would require the original tracking observations to be found....

  11. Tunneling conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisongmuang, B.; Ka-oey, A.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically studied the spin-dependent charge transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (DSOC) and metal junctions. It is shown that the DSOC energy can be directly measured from the tunneling conductance spectrum. We found that spin polarization of the conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from the DSOC system. We also considered the effect of the interfacial scattering barrier (both spin-flip and non-spin-flip scattering) on the overall conductance and the spin polarization of the conductance. It is found that the increase of spin-flip scattering can enhance the conductance under certain conditions. Moreover, both types of scattering can increase the spin polarization below the branches crossing of the energy band. - Highlights: → DSOC energy can be directly measured from tunneling conductance spectrum. → Spin polarization of conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from DSOC system. → Both types of scattering can increase spin polarization.

  12. Latitudinal variation of the polar cusp during a geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.

    1982-01-01

    Large amplitude latitudinal variation of the polar cusp position was observed during the intense geomagnetic storm of 15--16 February 1980. The observation of the polar cusp, identified as the region of intense but extremely soft electron precipitation, was made by two nearly noon-midnight orbit DMSP satellites over both northern and southern hemispheres. The latitudinal shift of the polar cusp is observed to be related to the intensity variation of the ring current indicated by the hourly Dst values. The polar cusp region moved from its normal location at approx.76 0 gm lat down to approx.62 0 gm lat at the peak of this storm. This movement took about 5 hours and was detected over both hemispheres. A drastic variation in the width of the cusp region was also observed; it is very narrow (approx.1 0 ) during the equatorial shift and expands to > or approx. =5 0 during the poleward recovery. Variation of the polar cusp latitude with that of the Dst index was also seen during the period before the intense storm

  13. Spin-polarization and spin-dependent logic gates in a double quantum ring based on Rashba spin-orbit effect: Non-equilibrium Green's function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, Leila; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Spin-dependent electron transport in an open double quantum ring, when each ring is made up of four quantum dots and threaded by a magnetic flux, is studied. Two independent and tunable gate voltages are applied to induce Rashba spin-orbit effect in the quantum rings. Using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effects of electron-electron interaction on spin-dependent electron transport and show that although the electron-electron interaction induces an energy gap, it has no considerable effect when the bias voltage is sufficiently high. We also show that the double quantum ring can operate as a spin-filter for both spin up and spin down electrons. The spin-polarization of transmitted electrons can be tuned from −1 (pure spin-down current) to +1 (pure spin-up current) by changing the magnetic flux and/or the gates voltage. Also, the double quantum ring can act as AND and NOR gates when the system parameters such as Rashba coefficient are properly adjusted

  14. Successive X-class Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Shearing Motion and Sunspot Rotation in Active Region NOAA 12673

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. L.; Wang, J. C.; Pan, G. M.; Kong, D. F.; Xue, Z. K.; Yang, L. H.; Li, Q. L.; Feng, X. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present a clear case study on the occurrence of two successive X-class flares, including a decade-class flare (X9.3) and two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) triggered by shearing motion and sunspot rotation in active region NOAA 12673 on 2017 September 6. A shearing motion between the main sunspots with opposite polarities began on September 5 and lasted even after the second X-class flare on September 6. Moreover, the main sunspot with negative polarity rotated around its umbral center, and another main sunspot with positive polarity also exhibited a slow rotation. The sunspot with negative polarity at the northwest of the active region also began to rotate counterclockwise before the onset of the first X-class flare, which is related to the formation of the second S-shaped structure. The successive formation and eruption of two S-shaped structures were closely related to the counterclockwise rotation of the three sunspots. The existence of a flux rope is found prior to the onset of two flares by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on the vector magnetograms observed by Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Image. The first flux rope corresponds to the first S-shaped structures mentioned above. The second S-shaped structure was formed after the eruption of the first flux rope. These results suggest that a shearing motion and sunspot rotation play an important role in the buildup of the free energy and the formation of flux ropes in the corona that produces solar flares and CMEs.

  15. Plasma balance equations based on orbit theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1982-01-01

    A set of plasma balance equations is proposed which is based on orbit theory and the particle distribution function, to provide means for theoretical analysis of a number of finite Larmor radius (FLR) phenomena without use of the Vlasov equation. Several important FLR effects originate from the inhomogeneity of an electric field in the plasma. The exact solution of a simple case shows that this inhomogeneity introduces fundamental changes in the physics of the particle motion. Thus, the periodic Larmor motion (gyration) is shifted in frequency and becomes elliptically polarized. Further, the non-periodic guiding-centre drift obtains additional components, part of which are accelerated such as to make the drift orbits intersect the equipotential surfaces of a static electric field. An attempt is finally made to classify the FLR effects, also with the purpose of identifying phenomena which have so far not been investigated. (author)

  16. A technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter in SAEF-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter which is scheduled to launch on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. The Mars Climate Orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  17. CLIMATE PATTERNS OF HABITABLE EXOPLANETS IN ECCENTRIC ORBITS AROUND M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuwei; Hu, Yongyun [Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 China (China); Tian, Feng, E-mail: yyhu@pku.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-10

    Previous studies show that synchronous rotating habitable exoplanets around M dwarfs should have an ''eyeball'' climate pattern—a limited region of open water on the day side and ice on the rest of the planet. However, exoplanets with nonzero eccentricities could have spin-orbit resonance states different from the synchronous rotation state. Here, we show that a striped-ball climate pattern, with a global belt of open water at low and middle latitudes and ice over both polar regions, should be common on habitable exoplanets in eccentric orbits around M dwarfs. We further show that these different climate patterns can be observed by future exoplanet detection missions.

  18. NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, NOAA launched the Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Program to develop a consistent data base on the distribution, relative abundance, and life...

  19. Internuclear Separation Dependent Ionization of the Valence Orbitals of I2 by Strong Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Tagliamonti, V.; Gibson, G. N.

    2012-11-01

    Using a pump-dump-probe technique and Fourier-transform spectroscopy, we study the internuclear separation R dependence and relative strength of the ionization rates of the π and σ electrons of I2, whose valence orbitals are σg2πu4πg4σu0. We find that ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-2 (σg) has a strong dependence on R while the HOMO and HOMO-1 do not. Surprisingly, the ionization rate of the HOMO-2 exceeds the combined ionization rate of the less bound orbitals and this branching ratio increases with R. Since our technique produces target molecules that are highly aligned with the laser polarization, the σ orbitals will be preferentially ionized and undergo enhanced ionization at larger R compared to the π orbitals. Nevertheless, it is highly unusual that an inner orbital provides the dominant strong field ionization pathway in a small molecule.

  20. First-Principles Study of the Polar TiC/Ti Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin LIU; Shaoqing WANG; Hengqiang YE

    2003-01-01

    The interface structure, work of adhesion, and bonding character of the polar TiC/Ti interface have been examined by the first-principles density functional plane-wave pseudopotential calculations. Both Ti- and C-terminated interfaces including six different interface structures were calculated, which present quite different features. For the Ti-terminated interface, the interfacial Ti-Ti bond has a strong metallic and weak covalent character; while for the C-terminated interface, the interfacial bond is a strong polar covalent interaction between the Ti-3d and C-2p orbital.The work of adhesion of C-terminated interface is nearly 9 J/m2 stronger than that of the Ti-terminated. It is found that each termination has relatively large work of adhesion, which is consistent with other polar interfaces.

  1. Monochromatic Measurements of the JPSS-1 VIIRS Polarization Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Waluschka, Eugene; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Polarization sensitivity is a critical property that must be characterized for spaceborne remote sensing instruments designed to measure reflected solar radiation. Broadband testing of the first Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite System (JPSS-1) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) showed unexpectedly large polarization sensitivities for the bluest bands on VIIRS (centered between 400 and 600 nm). Subsequent ray trace modeling indicated that large diattenuation on the edges of the bandpass for these spectral bands was the driver behind these large sensitivities. Additional testing using the National Institute of Standards and Technologies Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations Using Uniform Sources was added to the test program to verify and enhance the model. The testing was limited in scope to two spectral bands at two scan angles; nonetheless, this additional testing provided valuable insight into the polarization sensitivity. Analysis has shown that the derived diattenuation agreed with the broadband measurements to within an absolute difference of about0.4 and that the ray trace model reproduced the general features of the measured data. Additionally, by deriving the spectral responsivity, the linear diattenuation is shown to be explicitly dependent on the changes in bandwidth with polarization state.

  2. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  3. Advances of NOAA Training Program in Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2002, NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) has offered numerous training opportunities to NWS staff. After eight-years of development, the training program offers three instructor-led courses and roughly 25 online (distance learning) modules covering various climate topics, such as: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, and NWS national / local climate products (tools, skill, and interpretation). Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows for the delivery of the most advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. The emerging NOAA Climate Service (NCS) requires a well-trained, climate-literate workforce at the local level capable of delivering NOAA's climate products and services as well as providing climate-sensitive decision support. NWS Weather Forecast Offices and River Forecast Centers presently serve as local outlets for the NCS climate services. Trained NWS climate service personnel use proactive and reactive approaches and professional education methods in communicating climate variability and change information to local users. Both scientifically-sound messages and amiable communication techniques are important in developing an engaged dialog between the climate service providers and users. Several pilot projects have been conducted by the NWS CSD this past year that apply the program's training lessons and expertise to specialized external user group training. The technical user groups included natural resources managers, engineers, hydrologists, and planners for transportation infrastructure. Training of professional user groups required tailoring instructions to the potential applications for each group of users. Training technical users identified the following critical issues: (1) knowledge of target audience expectations, initial knowledge status, and potential use of climate information; (2) leveraging

  4. Von Neumann entropy in a Rashba-Dresselhaus nanodot; dynamical electronic spin-orbit entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaiee, Rosa; Golshan, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of the present article is to report the characteristics of von Neumann entropy, thereby, the electronic hybrid entanglement, in the heterojunction of two semiconductors, with due attention to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. To this end, we cast the von Neumann entropy in terms of spin polarization and compute its time evolution; with a vast span of applications. It is assumed that gate potentials are applied to the heterojunction, providing a two dimensional parabolic confining potential (forming an isotropic nanodot at the junction), as well as means of controlling the spin-orbit couplings. The spin degeneracy is also removed, even at electronic zero momentum, by the presence of an external magnetic field which, in turn, leads to the appearance of Landau states. We then proceed by computing the time evolution of the corresponding von Neumann entropy from a separable (spin-polarized) initial state. The von Neumann entropy, as we show, indicates that electronic hybrid entanglement does occur between spin and two-dimensional Landau levels. Our results also show that von Neumann entropy, as well as the degree of spin-orbit entanglement, periodically collapses and revives. The characteristics of such behavior; period, amplitude, etc., are shown to be determined from the controllable external agents. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the phenomenon of collapse-revivals' in the behavior of von Neumann entropy, equivalently, electronic hybrid entanglement, is accompanied by plateaus (of great importance in quantum computation schemes) whose durations are, again, controlled by the external elements. Along these lines, we also make a comparison between effects of the two spin-orbit couplings on the entanglement (von Neumann entropy) characteristics. The finer details of the electronic hybrid entanglement, which may be easily verified through spin polarization measurements, are also accreted and discussed. The novel results of the present

  5. High-precision broad-band linear polarimetry of early-type binaries. II. Variable, phase-locked polarization in triple Algol-type system λ Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Sakanoi, T.; Kagitani, M.; Yoneda, M.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. To study the binary geometry of the classic Algol-type triple system λ Tau, we have searched for polarization variations over the orbital cycle of the inner semi-detached binary, arising from light scattering in the circumstellar material formed from ongoing mass transfer. Phase-locked polarization curves provide an independent estimate for the inclination i, orientation Ω, and the direction of the rotation for the inner orbit. Methods: Linear polarization measurements of λ Tau in the B, V , and R passbands with the high-precision Dipol-2 polarimeter have been carried out. The data have been obtained on the 60 cm KVA (Observatory Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain) and Tohoku 60 cm (Haleakala, Hawaii, USA) remotely controlled telescopes over 69 observing nights. Analytic and numerical modelling codes are used to interpret the data. Results: Optical polarimetry revealed small intrinsic polarization in λ Tau with 0.05% peak-to-peak variation over the orbital period of 3.95 d. The variability pattern is typical for binary systems showing strong second harmonic of the orbital period. We apply a standard analytical method and our own light scattering models to derive parameters of the inner binary orbit from the fit to the observed variability of the normalized Stokes parameters. From the analytical method, the average for three passband values of orbit inclination i = 76° + 1°/-2° and orientation Ω = 15°(195°) ± 2° are obtained. Scattering models give similar inclination values i = 72-76° and orbit orientation ranging from Ω = 16°(196°) to Ω = 19°(199°), depending on the geometry of the scattering cloud. The rotation of the inner system, as seen on the plane of the sky, is clockwise. We have found that with the scattering model the best fit is obtained for the scattering cloud located between the primary and the secondary, near the inner Lagrangian point or along the Roche lobe surface of the secondary facing the primary. The inclination i

  6. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Galveston, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  7. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 950 - Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NOAA Environmental Data A Appendix A to Part 950 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to..., App. A Appendix A to Part 950—Schedule of User Fees for Access to NOAA Environmental Data Name of product/data/publication/information/service Current fee New fee NOAA National Data Centers Standard User...

  8. Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-01-25

    The electronic properties of silicene are distinct from both the conventional two dimensional electron gas and the famous graphene due to strong spin orbit interaction and the buckled structure. Silicene has the potential to overcome limitations encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address the longitudinal conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We show that the combination of an electric field with intrinsic spin orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state. Silicene constitutes a model system for exploring the spin and valley physics not accessible in graphene due to the small spin orbit interaction.

  9. NOAA's Data Catalog and the Federal Open Data Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengren, M. J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 Open Data Policy Presidential Directive requires Federal agencies to create and maintain a 'public data listing' that includes all agency data that is currently or will be made publicly-available in the future. The directive requires the use of machine-readable and open formats that make use of 'common core' and extensible metadata formats according to the best practices published in an online repository called 'Project Open Data', to use open licenses where possible, and to adhere to existing metadata and other technology standards to promote interoperability. In order to meet the requirements of the Open Data Policy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has implemented an online data catalog that combines metadata from all subsidiary NOAA metadata catalogs into a single master inventory. The NOAA Data Catalog is available to the public for search and discovery, providing access to the NOAA master data inventory through multiple means, including web-based text search, OGC CS-W endpoint, as well as a native Application Programming Interface (API) for programmatic query. It generates on a daily basis the Project Open Data JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) file required for compliance with the Presidential directive. The Data Catalog is based on the open source Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN) software and runs on the Amazon Federal GeoCloud. This presentation will cover topics including mappings of existing metadata in standard formats (FGDC-CSDGM and ISO 19115 XML ) to the Project Open Data JSON metadata schema, representation of metadata elements within the catalog, and compatible metadata sources used to feed the catalog to include Web Accessible Folder (WAF), Catalog Services for the Web (CS-W), and Esri ArcGIS.com. It will also discuss related open source technologies that can be used together to build a spatial data infrastructure compliant with the Open Data Policy.

  10. Innovating Data Discovery In NOAA OneStop By Integrating With Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakositz, A.; McQuinn, E.; Delk, Z.; Shapiro, J.; Partee, R.; Richerson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tasked with improving discovery of and access to NOAA data, the OneStop project has to consider a broad array of data types and end-users in the overall design. While work on the OneStop web interface and backend API is of utmost importance for enabling a variety of users to explore available NOAA data, the challenge of bringing those users to the OneStop portal in the first place remains. In this presentation, we highlight the benefits of using social media - namely YouTube - to attract users to both the data and tools existing in the NOAA realm. Furthermore, we discuss the ways in which varying data types can be discovered from the same portal, triggering different views (for instance, a streaming video), based on maintaining consistent metadata standards.

  11. Non-equilibrium study of spin wave interference in systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Chin; Su, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Son-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    We study the electron spin transport in two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbital coupling (SOC). We assume spatial behavior of spin precession in the non-equilibrium transport regime, and study also quantum interference induced by non-Abelian spin-orbit gauge field. The method we adopt in this article is the non-equilibrium Green's function within a tight binding framework. We consider one ferromagnetic lead which injects spin polarized electron to a system with equal strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) SOC, and we observe the persistent spin helix property. We also consider two ferromagnetic leads injecting spin polarized electrons into a pure Dresselhaus SOC system, and we observe the resultant spin wave interference pattern

  12. The fluxgate magnetometer of the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Heyner, D.; Okrafka, K.; Carr, C.; Berghofer, G.; Anderson, B. J.; Balogh, A.; Baumjohann, W.; Cargill, P.; Christensen, U.; Delva, M.; Dougherty, M.; Fornaçon, K.-H.; Horbury, T. S.; Lucek, E. A.; Magnes, W.; Mandea, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Matsushima, M.; Motschmann, U.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; O'Brien, H.; Richter, I.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Shibuya, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Sotin, C.; Stoll, B.; Tsunakawa, H.; Vennerstrom, S.; Vogt, J.; Zhang, T.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetometer (MAG) on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the joint European-Japanese BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury is a low-noise, tri-axial, dual-sensor, digital fluxgate instrument with its sensors mounted on a 2.8-m-long boom. The primary MPO/MAG science objectives are to determine the spatial and temporal structure of the magnetic field in the Hermean system, in particular the structure and origin of the intrinsic magnetic field of Mercury. MPO/MAG has a dynamic measurement range of ±2000nT with a resolution of 2 pT during operation along the near-polar orbit of the MPO spacecraft around Mercury. MPO/MAG is designed to provide measurements with rates between 0.5 and 128 vectors/s. In cooperation with its sister magnetometer instrument, MMO/MGF on board the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), MPO/MAG will be able to distinguish between temporal and spatial magnetic field variations in the magnetically closely coupled Hermean system.

  13. THE EFFECT OF GRAVITATION ON THE POLARIZATION STATE OF A LIGHT RAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Tanay; Sen, A. K. [Department of Physics Assam University, Silchar-788011, Assam (India)

    2016-12-10

    In the present work, detailed calculations have been carried out on the rotation of the polarization vector of an electromagnetic wave due to the presence of a gravitational field of a rotating body. This has been done using the general expression of Maxwell’s equation in curved spacetime. Considering the far-field approximation (i.e., the impact parameter is greater than the Schwarzschild radius and rotation parameter), the amount of rotation of the polarization vector as a function of impact parameter has been obtained for a rotating body (considering Kerr geometry). The present work shows that the rotation of the polarization vector cannot be observed in the case of Schwarzschild geometry. This work also calculates the rotational effect when considering prograde and retrograde orbits for the light ray. Although the present work demonstrates the effect of rotation of the polarization vector, it confirms that there would be no net polarization of an electromagnetic wave due to the curved spacetime geometry in a Kerr field.

  14. Analysis of the Effect of UTI-UTC to High Precision Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongseok; Kwak, Sunghee; Kim, Tag-Gon

    1999-12-01

    As the spatial resolution of remote sensing satellites becomes higher, very accurate determination of the position of a LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite is demanding more than ever. Non-symmetric Earth gravity is the major perturbation force to LEO satellites. Since the orbit propagation is performed in the celestial frame while Earth gravity is defined in the terrestrial frame, it is required to convert the coordinates of the satellite from one to the other accurately. Unless the coordinate conversion between the two frames is performed accurately the orbit propagation calculates incorrect Earth gravitational force at a specific time instant, and hence, causes errors in orbit prediction. The coordinate conversion between the two frames involves precession, nutation, Earth rotation and polar motion. Among these factors, unpredictability and uncertainty of Earth rotation, called UTI-UTC, is the largest error source. In this paper, the effect of UTI-UTC on the accuracy of the LEO propagation is introduced, tested and analzed. Considering the maximum unpredictability of UTI-UTC, 0.9 seconds, the meaningful order of non-spherical Earth harmonic functions is derived.

  15. Rich Support for Heterogeneous Polar Data in RAMADDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J.; Crosby, C. J.; Griffith, P. C.; Khalsa, S.; Lazzara, M. A.; Weber, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    VE Science Definition Team and Project Office. See: http://above.nasa.gov - UNAVCO Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS): UNAVCO's Polar program provides support for terrestrial laser scanning field projects. We are using RAMADDA to archive these field projects, with over 40 projects ingested to date. - NASA-IceBridge: As part of the NASA LiDAR Access System (NLAS) project, RAMADDA supports numerous airborne and satellite LiDAR data sets - GLAS, LVIS, ATM, Paris, McORDS, etc. - Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC): Satellite and surface observation network - Support for numerous other data from AON-ACADIS, Greenland GC-Net, NOAA-GMD, AmeriFlux, etc. In this talk we will discuss some of the challenges that Polar data brings to geoinformatics and describe the approaches we have taken to address these challenges in RAMADDA.

  16. Trajectory Design for the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Dunham, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The presented trajectory was designed for the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper (LunaH-Map) 6U CubeSat, which was awarded a ride on NASAs Space Launch System (SLS) with Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) via NASAs 2015 SIMPLEX proposal call. After deployment from EM-1s upper stage (which is planned to enter heliocentric space via a lunar flyby), the LunaH-Map CubeSat will alter its trajectory via its low-thrust ion engine to target a lunar flyby that yields a Sun-Earth-Moon weak stability boundary transfer to set up a ballistic lunar capture. Finally, the orbit energy is lowered to reach the required quasi-frozen science orbit with periselene above the lunar south pole.

  17. Topological induced valley polarization in bilayer graphene/Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Leonardo; Idrobo, Juan C.

    2015-03-01

    Novel electronic devices relay in our ability to control internal quantum degrees of freedom of the electron e.g., its spin. The valley number degree of freedom is a pseudospin that labels degenerate eigenstates at local maximum/minimum on the valence/conduction band. Valley polarization, that is, selective electronic localization in a momentum valley and its manipulation can be achieved by means of circular polarized light (CPL) in a system with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this talk, we will show theoretically that despite the fact that neither graphene or BN have a strong SOC, a bilayer of graphene on BN oriented at a twist angle has different absorption for right- and left- CPL. This induced polarization occurs due to band folding of the electronic bands, i.e., it has a topological origin. This research was supported EPN multidisciplinary grant and by DOE SUFD MSED.

  18. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Barometric Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have barometric pressure data. *These services are for testing and...

  19. An Empirical Algorithm for Wave Retrieval from Co-Polarization X-Band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed an empirical algorithm for significant wave height (SWH retrieval from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM (TS-X/TD-X X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR co-polarization (vertical-vertical (VV and horizontal-horizontal (HH images. As the existing empirical algorithm at X-band, i.e., XWAVE, is applied for wave retrieval from HH-polarization TS-X/TD-X image, polarization ratio (PR has to be used for inverting wind speed, which is treated as an input in XWAVE. Wind speed encounters saturation in tropical cyclone. In our work, wind speed is replaced by normalized radar cross section (NRCS to avoiding using SAR-derived wind speed, which does not work in high winds, and the empirical algorithm can be conveniently implemented without converting NRCS in HH-polarization to NRCS in VV-polarization by using X-band PR. A total of 120 TS-X/TD-X images, 60 in VV-polarization and 60 in HH-polarization, with homogenous wave patterns, and the coincide significant wave height data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis field at a 0.125° grid were collected as a dataset for tuning the algorithm. The range of SWH is from 0 to 7 m. We then applied the algorithm to 24 VV and 21 HH additional SAR images to extract SWH at locations of 30 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA National Data Buoy Center (NDBC buoys. It is found that the algorithm performs well with a SWH stander deviation (STD of about 0.5 m for both VV and HH polarization TS-X/TD-X images. For large wave validation (SWH 6–7 m, we applied the empirical algorithm to a tropical cyclone Sandy TD-X image acquired in 2012, and obtained good result with a SWH STD of 0.3 m. We concluded that the proposed empirical algorithm works for wave retrieval from TS-X/TD-X image in co-polarization without external sea surface wind information.

  20. Mitigating the Effect of an Orbit Kink on Vertical Emittance and Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Koop, I

    2015-01-01

    Orbit kinks in FCC tunnel are under discussions for they can help to reduce the depth of few shafts [1]. Still two unwanted effects could make their use completely forbidden. The vertical emittance growth due to vertical bending and vertical dispersion is one of these concerns [2]. Another concern is the need to somehow compensate strong distortions of spin motion [3]. Here I present an idea of how we can simultaneously solve both these problems.

  1. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have air temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  2. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Water Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  3. NOAA Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) Flight Level Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA AOC WP-3D Research Flight Data is digital data set DSI-6420, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This data set is meteorological data gathered...

  4. NOAA Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill - Protecting Oceans, Coasts and Fisheries (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2010-12-01

    As the nation’s leading scientific resource for oil spills, NOAA has been on the scene of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill from the start, providing coordinated scientific weather and biological response services to federal, state and local organizations. NOAA has mobilized experts from across the agency to help contain the spreading oil spill and protect the Gulf of Mexico’s many marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, shellfish and other endangered marine life. NOAA spill specialists advised the U.S. Coast Guard on cleanup options as well as advising all affected federal, state and local partners on sensitive marine resources at risk in this area of the Gulf of Mexico. As a major partner in the federal response to this incident, NOAA provided the necessary coastal and marine expertise required for sound, timely decision-making and helped protect the affected Gulf Coast communities and coastal marine environment and will continue to do so for ongoing restoration efforts.

  5. Lateral spin-orbit coupling and the Kondo effect in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernek, Edson; Ngo, Anh; Ulloa, Sergio

    2010-03-01

    We present studies of the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes of transport of a quantum dot connected to current leads through spin-polarizing quantum point contacts (QPCs) [1]. This configuration, arising from the effect of lateral spin-orbit fields, results in spin-polarized currents even in the absence of external magnetic fields and greatly affects the correlations in the dot. Using an equation-of-motion technique and numerical renormalization group calculations we obtain the conductance and spin polarization for this system under different parameter regimes. Our results show that both the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes exhibit non-zero spin-polarized conductance. We analyze the role that the spin-dependent tunneling amplitudes of the QPC play in determining the charge and net magnetic moment in the dot. We find that the Kondo regime exhibits a strongly dependent Kondo temperature on the QPC polarizability. These effects, controllable by lateral gate voltages, may provide a new approach for exploring Kondo correlations, as well as possible spin devices. Supported by NSF DMR-MWN and PIRE. [1] P. Debray et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 759 (2009).

  6. Vorticity and particle polarization in heavy ion collisions (experimental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin Sergei A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent measurements of the global polarization and vector meson spin alignment along the system orbital momentum in heavy ion collisions are briefly reviewed. A possible connection between the global polarization and the chiral anomalous effects is discussed along with possible experimental checks. Future directions, in particular those aimed on the detailed mapping of the vorticity fields, are outlined. The Blast Wave model is used for an estimate of the anisotropic flow effect on the vorticity component along the beam direction. We also point to a possibility of a circular pattern in the vorticity field in asymmetric, e.g. Cu+Au, central collisions.

  7. Orbital-dependent Rashba coupling in bulk BiTeCl and BiTeI

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2013-02-06

    By all-electron ab initio calculations, the layered polar semiconductor BiTeCl is shown to host giant bulk Rashba spin splitting, similar to the recently reported compound BiTeI. In both materials, the standard Rashba–Bychkov model is no longer applicable, because of huge band extrema shifts even in the absence of spin–orbit coupling and a strong momentum dependence of the Rashba coupling constant (αR). By assuming αR to be orbital dependent, a phenomenological extension of the Rashba–Bychkov model is proposed which explains the splitting behavior of states with small in-plane momentum.

  8. Orbital-dependent Rashba coupling in bulk BiTeCl and BiTeI

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    By all-electron ab initio calculations, the layered polar semiconductor BiTeCl is shown to host giant bulk Rashba spin splitting, similar to the recently reported compound BiTeI. In both materials, the standard Rashba–Bychkov model is no longer applicable, because of huge band extrema shifts even in the absence of spin–orbit coupling and a strong momentum dependence of the Rashba coupling constant (αR). By assuming αR to be orbital dependent, a phenomenological extension of the Rashba–Bychkov model is proposed which explains the splitting behavior of states with small in-plane momentum.

  9. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER from 1989-05-13 to 1989-12-08 (NODC Accession 9100142)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRDIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 13...

  10. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1853-present, Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  11. NOAA NDBC SOS, 2006-present, sea_water_temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_temperature data. Because of the nature of SOS requests,...

  12. Spin-polarized transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with interdigital-ferromagnetic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.-M.; Nitta, Junsaku; Jensen, Ane

    2001-01-01

    Ferromagnetic contacts on a high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a narrow gap semiconductor with strong spin-orbit interaction are used to investigate spin-polarized electron transport. We demonstrate the use of magnetized contacts to preferentially inject and detect specific spi...

  13. Statistical Validation of Calibrated Wind Data Collected From NOAA's Hurricane Hunter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K.; Sears, I. T.; Holmes, M.; Henning, R. G.; Damiano, A. B.; Parrish, J. R.; Flaherty, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining accurate in situ meteorological measurements from the NOAA G-IV Hurricane Hunter Aircraft currently requires annual wind calibration flights. This project attempts to demonstrate whether an alternate method to wind calibration flights can be implemented using data collected from many previous hurricane, winter storm, and surveying flights. Wind derivations require using airplane attack and slip angles, airplane pitch, pressure differentials, dynamic pressures, ground speeds, true air speeds, and several other variables measured by instruments on the aircraft. Through the use of linear regression models, future wind measurements may be fit to past statistical models. This method of wind calibration could replace the need for annual wind calibration flights, decreasing NOAA expenses and providing more accurate data. This would help to ensure all data users have reliable data and ultimately contribute to NOAA's goal of building of a Weather Ready Nation.

  14. A novel orbiter mission concept for venus with the EnVision proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marta R. R.; Gil, Paulo J. S.; Ghail, Richard

    2018-07-01

    In space exploration, planetary orbiter missions are essential to gain insight into planets as a whole, and to help uncover unanswered scientific questions. In particular, the planets closest to the Earth have been a privileged target of the world's leading space agencies. EnVision is a mission proposal designed for Venus and competing for ESA's next launch opportunity with the objective of studying Earth's closest neighbor. The main goal is to study geological and atmospheric processes, namely surface processes, interior dynamics and atmosphere, to determine the reasons behind Venus and Earth's radically different evolution despite the planets' similarities. To achieve these goals, the operational orbit selection is a fundamental element of the mission design process. The design of an orbit around Venus faces specific challenges, such as the impossibility of choosing Sun-synchronous orbits. In this paper, an innovative genetic algorithm optimization was applied to select the optimal orbit based on the parameters with more influence in the mission planning, in particular the mission duration and the coverage of sites of interest on the Venusian surface. The solution obtained is a near-polar circular orbit with an altitude of 259 km that enables the coverage of all priority targets almost two times faster than with the parameters considered before this study.

  15. Comparison between linear and nonlinear trends in NOAA-15 AMSU-A brightness temperatures during 1998-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Z. [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Center of Data Assimilation for Research and Application, Nanjing (China); Zou, X. [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Center of Data Assimilation for Research and Application, Nanjing (China); Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Weng, F. [NOAA/NESDIS, Center for Satellite Applications and Research, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Brightness temperature observations from Microwave Sounding Unit and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) on board National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites have been widely utilized for estimating the global climate trend in the troposphere and stratosphere. A common approach for deriving the trend is linear regression, which implicitly assumes the trend being a straight line over the whole length of a time series and is often highly sensitive to the data record length. This study explores a new adaptive and temporally local data analysis method - Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) - for estimating the global trends. In EEMD, a non-stationary time series is decomposed adaptively and locally into a sequence of amplitude-frequency modulated oscillatory components and a time-varying trend. The AMSU-A data from the NOAA-15 satellite over the time period from October 26, 1998 to August 7, 2010 are employed for this study. Using data over Amazon rainforest areas, it is shown that channel 3 is least sensitive to the orbital drift among four AMSU-A surface sensitive channels. The decadal trends of AMSU-A channel 3 and other eight channels in the troposphere and stratosphere are deduced and compared using both methods. It is shown that the decadal climate trends of most AMSU-A channels are nonlinear except for channels 3-4 in Northern Hemisphere only and channels 12-13. Although the decadal trend variation of the global average brightness temperature is no more than 0.2 K, the regional decadal trend variation could be more (less) than 3 K (-3 K) in high latitudes and over high terrains. (orig.)

  16. NOAA Satellite and Information Service's International and Interagency

    Science.gov (United States)

    : To meet the challenge of understanding and predicting changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts Affaris Division Skip to main content NOAA HOME NESDIS HOME WEATHER OCEANS & COASTS FISHERIES CHARTING SATELLITES CLIMATE RESEARCH CAREERS Satellite and Data Policy Developing Partnerships

  17. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  20. NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature dataset derived from the International...