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Sample records for no-observed effect level

  1. CORAL: model for no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Pizzo, Fabiola; Lombardo, Anna; Gadaleta, Domenico; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-08-01

    The in vivo repeated dose toxicity (RDT) test is intended to provide information on the possible risk caused by repeated exposure to a substance over a limited period of time. The measure of the RDT is the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) that is the dose at which no effects are observed, i.e., this endpoint indicates the safety level for a substance. The need to replace in vivo tests, as required by some European Regulations (registration, evaluation authorization and restriction of chemicals) is leading to the searching for reliable alternative methods such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Considering the complexity of the RDT endpoint, for which data quality is limited and depends anyway on the study design, the development of QSAR for this endpoint is an attractive task. Starting from a dataset of 140 organic compounds with NOAEL values related to oral short term toxicity in rats, we developed a QSAR model based on optimal descriptors calculated with simplified molecular input-line entry systems and the graph of atomic orbitals by the Monte Carlo method, using CORAL software. Three different splits into the training, calibration, and validation sets are studied. The mechanistic interpretation of these models in terms of molecular fragment with positive or negative contributions to the endpoint is discussed. The probabilistic definition for the domain of applicability is suggested.

  2. Determination of no-observed effect level (NOEL-biomarker equivalents to interpret biomonitoring data for organophosphorus pesticides in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Michèle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure to organophosphorus pesticides has been characterized in various populations, but interpretation of these data from a health risk perspective remains an issue. The current paper proposes biological reference values to help interpret biomonitoring data related to an exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in children for which measurements of alkylphosphate metabolites are available. Methods Published models describing the kinetics of malathion and chlorpyrifos in humans were used to determine no-observed effect level – biomarker equivalents for methylphosphates and ethylphosphates, respectively. These were expressed in the form of cumulative urinary amounts of alkylphosphates over specified time periods corresponding to an absorbed no-observed effect level dose (derived from a published human exposure dose and assuming various plausible exposure scenarios. Cumulative amounts of methylphosphate and ethylphosphate metabolites measured in the urine of a group of Quebec children were then compared to the proposed biological reference values. Results From a published no-observed effect level dose for malathion and chlorpyrifos, the model predicts corresponding oral biological reference values for methylphosphate and ethylphosphate derivatives of 106 and 52 nmol/kg of body weight, respectively, in 12-h nighttime urine collections, and dermal biological reference values of 40 and 32 nmol/kg of body weight. Out of the 442 available urine samples, only one presented a methylphosphate excretion exceeding the biological reference value established on the basis of a dermal exposure scenario and none of the methylphosphate and ethylphosphate excretion values were above the obtained oral biological reference values, which reflect the main exposure route in children. Conclusion This study is a first step towards the development of biological guidelines for organophophorus pesticides using a toxicokinetic modeling

  3. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for nutraceutical application based upon toxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Gwak, Hyo-Min; Park, Hyun Jong; Roh, Taehyun; Shin, Min Kyung; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Aloe has been used in versatile herbal medications and nutraceuticals throughout history. Aloe is widely considered to be generally safe for humans and used globally. The effectiveness and pharmacological properties of aloe are dependent upon when the plant is collected. However, little is known about the toxicology of whole-body aloe collected within less than 1 yr. Based upon widespread exposure to aloe, it is important to determine a daily intake level of this chemical to ensure its safety for humans. To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for clinical application, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated orally for 4 wk with 4 different concentrations: 0, 0.125, 0.5, and 2 g/kg body weight (bw). In this study, no significant or dose-dependent toxicological effects of BAP were observed in biochemical or hematological parameters, urinalysis, clinical signs, body weight, and food and water consumption. There were changes in some biomarkers in certain treated groups compared to controls; however, all values were within their reference ranges and not dose-dependent. Based on these results, the NOAEL of BAP was estimated to be greater than 2 g/kg bw in male and 2 g/kg bw in female SD rats. Collectively, these data suggest that BAP used in this study did not produce any marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 2 g/kg bw, and thus use in nutraceuticals and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications at a concentration of >2 g/kg is warranted.

  4. A proposal for calculating the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for organic compounds responsible for liver toxicity based on their physicochemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Jakubowski; Sławomir Czerczak

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Both environmental and occupational exposure limits are based on the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) or benchmark dose (BMD) deriving from epidemiological and experimental studies. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent the NOAEL values for organic compounds responsible for liver toxicity calculated based on their physicochemical properties could be used for calculating occupational exposure limits. Material an...

  5. Acute Oral Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin in Mice: Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL

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    Paula Abal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is starting to appear in molluscs from the European waters and is a hazard to seafood consumers. This toxin blocks sodium channels resulting in neuromuscular paralysis and even death. As a part of the risk assessment process leading to a safe seafood level for TTX, oral toxicity data are required. In this study, a 4-level Up and Down Procedure was designed in order to determine for the first time the oral lethal dose 50 (LD50 and the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL in mice by using an accurate well-characterized TTX standard.

  6. Acute Oral Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin in Mice: Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abal, Paula; Louzao, M. Carmen; Antelo, Alvaro; Alvarez, Mercedes; Cagide, Eva; Vilariño, Natalia; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is starting to appear in molluscs from the European waters and is a hazard to seafood consumers. This toxin blocks sodium channels resulting in neuromuscular paralysis and even death. As a part of the risk assessment process leading to a safe seafood level for TTX, oral toxicity data are required. In this study, a 4-level Up and Down Procedure was designed in order to determine for the first time the oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) and the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) in mice by using an accurate well-characterized TTX standard. PMID:28245573

  7. Effect of atrazine and fenitrothion at no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on amphibian and mammalian corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2014-11-01

    This study determines the effect of atrazine and fenitrothion no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on the binding of corticosterone (B) to corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG) in an amphibian and a mammal. Plasma from five cane toads and five Wistar rats was exposed to atrazine and fenitrothion at the NOEL approved for Australian fresh water residues and by the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration required to displace 50% (IC50) of B binding to CBG was determined by a competitive microdialysis protein assay. Competition studies showed that both atrazine and fenitrothion at NOEL are able to compete with B for CBG binding sites in toad and rat plasma. The IC50 levels for atrazine in toads and rats were 0.004 nmol/l and 0.09 nmol/l respectively. In the case of fenitrothion the IC50 level found in toads was 0.007 nmol/l, and 0.025 nmol/l in rats. Plasma dilution curves showed parallelism with the curve of B, demonstrating that these agro-chemicals are competitively inhibiting binding to CBG. The displacement of B by atrazine and fenitrothion would affect the total:free ratio of B and consequently disrupt the normal stress response. This is the first time that the potential disruptive effect of atrazine and fenitrothion on B-CBG interaction at the NOELs has been demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian models.

  8. A proposal for calculating the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL for organic compounds responsible for liver toxicity based on their physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jakubowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Both environmental and occupational exposure limits are based on the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL, lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL or benchmark dose (BMD deriving from epidemiological and experimental studies. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent the NOAEL values for organic compounds responsible for liver toxicity calculated based on their physicochemical properties could be used for calculating occupational exposure limits. Material and Methods: The distribution coefficients from air to the liver (log Kliver were calculated according to the Abraham solvation equation. NOAEL and LOAEL values for early effects in the liver were obtained from the literature data. The descriptors for Abraham's equation were found for 59 compounds, which were divided into 2 groups: "non-reactive" (alcohols, ketones, esters, ethers, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, amides and "possibly reactive" (aldehydes, allyl compounds, amines, benzyl halides, halogenated hydrocarbons, acrylates. Results: The correlation coefficients between log-log K and log NOAEL for non-reactive and reactive compounds amounted to r = -0.8123 and r = -0.8045, respectively, and were statistically significant. It appears that the Abraham equation could be used to predict the NOAEL values for compounds lacking information concerning their liver toxicity. Conclusions: In view of the tendency to limit animal testing procedures, the method proposed in this paper can improve the practice of setting exposure guidelines for the unstudied compounds.

  9. No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Allanah J.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Bach, Lennart T.; Boxhammer, Tim; Czerny, Jan; Haunost, Mathias; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Stuhr, Annegret; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fixation by filamentous cyanobacteria supplies significant amounts of new nitrogen (N) to the Baltic Sea. This balances N loss processes such as denitrification and anammox, and forms an important N source supporting primary and secondary production in N-limited post-spring bloom plankton communities. Laboratory studies suggest that filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacteria growth and N2-fixation rates are sensitive to ocean acidification, with potential implications for new N supply to the Baltic Sea. In this study, our aim was to assess the effect of ocean acidification on diazotroph growth and activity as well as the contribution of diazotrophically fixed N to N supply in a natural plankton assemblage. We enclosed a natural plankton community in a summer season in the Baltic Sea near the entrance to the Gulf of Finland in six large-scale mesocosms (volume ˜ 55 m3) and manipulated fCO2 over a range relevant for projected ocean acidification by the end of this century (average treatment fCO2: 365-1231 µatm). The direct response of diazotroph growth and activity was followed in the mesocosms over a 47 day study period during N-limited growth in the summer plankton community. Diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria abundance throughout the study period and N2-fixation rates (determined only until day 21 due to subsequent use of contaminated commercial 15N-N2 gas stocks) remained low. Thus estimated new N inputs from diazotrophy were too low to relieve N limitation and stimulate a summer phytoplankton bloom. Instead, regeneration of organic N sources likely sustained growth in the plankton community. We could not detect significant CO2-related differences in neither inorganic nor organic N pool sizes, or particulate matter N : P stoichiometry. Additionally, no significant effect of elevated CO2 on diazotroph activity was observed. Therefore, ocean acidification had no observable impact on N cycling or biogeochemistry in this N-limited, post-spring bloom

  10. No Observed Effect of Landscape Fragmentation on Pathogen Infection Prevalence in Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the Northeastern United States.

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    Christine P Zolnik

    Full Text Available Pathogen prevalence within blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 tends to vary across sites and geographic regions, but the underlying causes of this variation are not well understood. Efforts to understand the ecology of Lyme disease have led to the proposition that sites with higher host diversity will result in lower disease risk due to an increase in the abundance of inefficient reservoir species relative to the abundance of species that are highly competent reservoirs. Although the Lyme disease transmission cycle is often cited as a model for this "dilution effect hypothesis", little empirical evidence exists to support that claim. Here we tested the dilution effect hypothesis for two pathogens transmitted by the blacklegged tick along an urban-to-rural gradient in the northeastern United States using landscape fragmentation as a proxy for host biodiversity. Percent impervious surface and habitat fragment size around each site were determined to assess the effect of landscape fragmentation on nymphal blacklegged tick infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Our results do not support the dilution effect hypothesis for either pathogen and are in agreement with the few studies to date that have tested this idea using either a landscape proxy or direct measures of host biodiversity.

  11. Toxicological investigation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in rats. The determination of a no-observed-effect-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Ham WA; Dormans JAMA; van Apeldoorn ME; van Leeuwen FXR

    1992-01-01

    Two animal experiments are described in which male rats have been exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) for 2 and 4 weeks. Besides morphometric analysis using both light and electron microscopy, a number of enzyme parameters in liver homogenates have been determined which have a relation with

  12. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) from the 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgheroni, Anna; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-02-01

    Acute systemic toxicity is one of the areas of particular concern due to the 2009 deadline set by the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC), which introduces a testing and marketing ban of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals. The scientific community is putting considerable effort into developing and validating non-animal alternatives in this area. However, it is unlikely that validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods and/or strategies will be available in March 2009. Following the initiatives undertaken in the pharmaceutical industry to waive the acute oral toxicity testing before going to clinical studies by using information from other in vivo studies, we proposed an approach to identify non-toxic compounds (LD50>2000mg/kg) using information from 28 days repeated dose toxicity studies. Taking into account the high prevalence of non-toxic substances (87%) in the New Chemicals Database, it was possible to set a NOAEL threshold of 200mg/kg that allowed the correct identification of 63% of non-toxic compounds, while testing of cosmetic ingredients.

  13. Application of no observed effect concentration in the research of pesticides chronic toxicity on Trichogramma spp.%无可观察效应浓度在赤眼蜂慢性毒性研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 赵丹丹; 姚蓉; 袁善奎; 张燕; 高聪芬

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探索无可观察效应浓度(NOEC)作为评价农药慢性毒性影响指标的可行性,为制定农药对赤眼蜂慢性毒性影响试验准则奠定基础.[方法]用药膜法对3种赤眼蜂(稻螟赤眼蜂、亚洲玉米螟赤眼蜂及松毛虫赤眼蜂)进行急性毒性试验,并在此基础上采用卵卡浸渍法进行慢性毒性试验,探索5种农药(25~400 mg·L-1乐果、10~160 mg· L-1吡虫啉、5 000mg·L-1氟铃脲、4000 mg·L-1毒氟磷及2 000 mg·L-1恶唑砜)对药剂敏感性较强的不同虫态赤眼蜂羽化率、寄生率及成蜂存活时间的影响.[结果]乐果和吡虫啉的NOEC分别为200和20 mg·L-1,高于二者防治水稻飞虱和螟虫田间最高推荐剂量,在应用时应避开赤眼蜂生防时期.5 000 mg·L-1氟铃脲对松毛虫赤眼蜂、4000 mg·L-1毒氟磷和2 000 mg·L-1恶唑砜对稻螟赤眼蜂卵期、幼虫期、预蛹期和蛹期是安全的.[结论]NOEC作为评价慢性毒性影响指标具有可行性,可作为农药对赤眼蜂慢性毒性影响的重要考察指标.%[Objectives] This research was carried out to explore the feasibility of no observed effect concentration (NOEC) used as an index to evaluate the chronic toxicity of pesticides,which can provide a technical character on formulating the guideline for chronic toxicity of pesticides to Trichogramma spp.[Methods] Glass-vial method was used on acute toxicity to Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead,T.ostriniae Pang et Chen and T.dendrolimi,and host egg exposure method was adopted in the chronic toxicity experiment to explore the chronic effects of five pesticides(25-400 mg· L-1 dimethoate,10-160 mg· L-1 imidacloprid,5 000 mg· L-1 hexaflumuron,4 000 mg·L-1 dufulin and 2 000 mg·L-1 ezuofeng)on the different development stage of Trichogramma spp.,such as emergence,parasitism,and longevity.[Results] The NOEC of dimethoate and imidacloprid are 200 and 20 mg· L-1,respectively,which are significantly higher than the maximum recommended

  14. Level Width Broaden Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2004-01-01

    In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.

  15. High level binocular rivalry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eWolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry (BR occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: 1 BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low levels have access to utrocular information. 2 All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. 3 Rivalry is affected by low level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. 4 There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high level mechanism: 1 Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. 2 Attention affects alternations. 3 Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI regarding cortical level(s of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution.We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other nonwords and find significantly longer dominance durations for nonwords. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that Binocular Rivalry has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level

  16. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  17. Effect of Latitude on Vitamin D Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Patrick F; Zamfirova, Ina; Au, Johnathan; McCracken, Ward H

    2017-07-01

    Vitamin D levels have been linked to bone health and to numerous diseases; however, an element that lacks substantial direct data and limits the evidence basis regarding whom to screen for vitamin D deficiency is the effect of latitude on vitamin D levels. To determine whether latitude influences vitamin D levels and to investigate the influence of other factors that may affect vitamin D levels, including sex, race, skin type, and body mass index. Osteopathic medical students were recruited from campuses in Bradenton, Florida, and Erie, Pennsylvania. Surveys were administered to obtain demographic information, and blood samples were drawn to measure total vitamin D levels. Two-sample t tests, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression was used to assess differences in total vitamin D levels between the 2 locations. A total of 359 medical students (aged 22-57 years) were included in the study, 194 at the Bradenton campus and 214 at the Erie campus. The mean (SD) vitamin D level was 34.5 (11.8) ng/mL among participants in Bradenton and 28.1 (12.4) ng/mL among participants in Erie. Logistic regression models revealed an adjusted OR of 3.3 (95% CI, 1.73-6.4) for deficient total vitamin D among Erie students. Non-white race, male sex, and high body mass index were also statistically significant risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in regression models (P<.05). Latitude was found to be a statistically significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. Additionally, the findings suggest that persons with darker skin tone and, to a lesser degree, men and persons who are overweight or obese are also at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Physicians should be cognizant of these risk factors when deciding whom to screen.

  18. Effective geoscience pedagogy at the undergraduate level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Kelsey

    This investigation used constructivist pedagogical methods within the framework of an introductory level undergraduate geoscience course to gauge both the changes in attitude and cognition of students. Pedagogy was modified in the laboratory setting, but maintained in the lecture setting and homework. Curriculum was also maintained in the lecture, but was changed in the laboratory to emphasize the large concepts and systems stressed in Earth Science Literacy Principles. Student understanding of these concepts and systems was strengthened by factual knowledge, but recall and memorization were not the goal of the laboratory instruction. The overall goal of the study was to build student understanding more effectively than in previous semesters such that the students would become Earth Science literate adults. We hypothesized that a healthy comprehension of the connections between the human population and Earth's systems would lead to improved cognition and attitude toward Earth Science. This was tested using pre- and post-testing of attitudes via an anonymous survey on the first and last days of the laboratory, student responses to the end-of-course evaluations, and student performance on early-semester and late-semester content testing. The results support the hypotheses.

  19. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  20. Relativistic Effects at the Freshman Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, M. Salim

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes the content of a lecture in which relativistic effects in chemistry are introduced through a calculation that illustrates these effects on the s and p electrons and that can be verified by photoelectron spectroscopy data. (JN)

  1. Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.

    1977-01-01

    Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…

  2. Multivariate Term Structure Models with Level and Heteroskedasticity Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces and estimates a multivariate level-GARCH model for the long rate and the term-structure spread where the conditional volatility is proportional to the ãth power of the variable itself (level effects) and the conditional covariance matrix evolves according to a multivariate...... GARCH process (heteroskedasticity effects). The long-rate variance exhibits heteroskedasticity effects and level effects in accordance with the square-root model. The spread variance exhibits heteroskedasticity effects but no level effects. The level-GARCH model is preferred above the GARCH model...... and the level model. GARCH effects are more important than level effects. The results are robust to the maturity of the interest rates. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...

  3. Effective Packet-level FEC Software Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an effective software-based FEC redundant packets generating algorithm. The algorithm is based on Reed-Solomon coding over Galois Field. By operating on words of packets and performing polynomial multiplication via lookup tables, software coding efficiency is achieved to satisfy the needs of most of computer network applications. The approach to generate lookup tables is detailed.

  4. The Effects of High Level Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    mid* It noceeey mind identify by block numb~t) DD I 04, 147 3 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CL ASIFICATION Of THIS PAGE (When Datai ffntermo...34Low Frequency Threshold Effects." Proceedings of Fall Meeting of British Acoustical Society 71.103, Nov 1971. 4. Kobrak, H. G., "Construction Material

  5. Multivariate Term Structure Models with Level and Heteroskedasticity Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces and estimates a multivariate level-GARCH model for the long rate and the term-structure spread where the conditional volatility is proportional to the ãth power of the variable itself (level effects) and the conditional covariance matrix evolves according to a multivariate GA...... and the level model. GARCH effects are more important than level effects. The results are robust to the maturity of the interest rates. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...

  6. Influence of Machine Exploitation Effectiveness on Furniture Production Quality Level

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    Stasiak-Betlejewska Renata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the company‘s capacity to produce high quality products is the level of machinery operation effectiveness. Companies having modern machinery are characterized by high productivity. To obtain a high quality product, the equipment should be properly used, without any failure, which contributes significantly to the exploitation level increase. The modernity level and the exploitation effectiveness level for chosen machine producing furniture components in relation to the product quality level were analysed in the paper. As a result of the research findings analysis, proposals for corrective actions with regard to machinery maintenance and production processes were presented.

  7. The effects of music sound levels on restaurant customer's behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Geerdes, Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Restaurant attributes influence the perceptions and behaviors of restaurant customers. Among these attributes are music and its sound level. Sound level has been known to affect people's behaviors and judgments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music sound level on customers in a restaurant, specifically, where they sit and how long they stay. The study took place in a restaurant where customers seat themselves and music sound levels vary across ta...

  8. Influence of the Probability Level on the Framing Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Damnjanovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research of the framing effect of risky choice mostly applies to the tasks where the effect of only one probability or risk level on the choice of non-risky or risky options was examined. The conducted research was aimed to examine the framing effect in the function of probability level in the outcome of a risk option in three decision-making domains: health, money and human lives. It has been confirmed that the decision-making domain moderates the framing effect. In the monetary domain, the general risk aversion has been confirmed as registered in earlier research. At high probability levels, the framing effect is registered in both frames, while no framing effect is registered at lower probability levels. In the domain of decision-making about human lives, the framing effect is registered at medium high and medium low probability levels. In the domain of decision-making about health, the framing effect is registered almost in the entire probability range while this domain differs from the former two. The results show that the attitude to risk is not identical at different probability levels, that the dynamics of the attitude to risk influences the framing effect, and that the framing effect pattern is different in different decision-making domains. In other words, linguistic manipulation representing the frame in the tasks affects the change in the preference order only when the possibility of gain (expressed in probability is estimated as sufficiently high.

  9. 'The effect of different genres of music on the stress levels of kennelled dogs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2017-03-15

    Classical music has been shown to reduce stress in kennelled dogs; however, rapid habituation of dogs to this form of auditory enrichment has also been demonstrated. The current study investigated the physiological and behavioural response of kennelled dogs (n=38) to medium-term (5days) auditory enrichment with five different genres of music including Soft Rock, Motown, Pop, Reggae and Classical, to determine whether increasing the variety of auditory stimulation reduces the level of habituation to auditory enrichment. Dogs were found to spend significantly more time lying and significantly less time standing when music was played, regardless of genre. There was no observable effect of music on barking, however, dogs were significantly (z=2.2, PRock and Reggae, with a lesser effect observed when Motown, Pop and Classical genres were played. Relative to the silent period prior to auditory enrichment, urinary cortisol:creatanine (UCCR) values were significantly higher during Soft Rock (t=2.781, P<0.01) and the second silent control period following auditory enrichment (t=2.46, P<0.05). Despite the mixed response to different genres, the physiological and behavioural changes observed remained constant over the 5d of enrichment suggesting that the effect of habituation may be reduced by increasing the variety of auditory enrichment provided.

  10. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  11. Hexagon POPE: effective particles and tree level resummation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    We present the resummation of the full Pentagon Operator Product Expansion series of the hexagon Wilson loop in planar N=4 SYM at tree level. We do so by considering the one effective particle states formed by a fundamental flux tube excitation and an arbitrary number of the so called small fermions which are then integrated out. We derive the one effective particle measures at finite coupling. By evaluating these measures at tree level and summing over all one effective particle states we reproduce the full 6 point tree level amplitude.

  12. Hexagon POPE: effective particles and tree level resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Córdova, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    We present the resummation of the full Pentagon Operator Product Expansion series of the hexagon Wilson loop in planar $\\mathcal N=4$ SYM at tree level. We do so by considering the one effective particle states formed by a fundamental flux tube excitation and an arbitrary number of the so called "small fermions" which are then integrated out. We present our proposals for the one effective particle measures at finite coupling. By evaluating these measures at tree level and summing over all one effective particle states we reproduce the full 6 point tree level amplitude.

  13. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  14. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... case study. Underground waters of ... part of this study is to determine the effect of population and level of ... mental means were compared using the DUNCAN new multiple range test ..... Mortality of nitrate fertilizer workers.

  15. School level conditions affecting the effectiveness of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, B.P.M.; Reezigt, G.J.

    In this article, the current status of school level factors, as they appear in research reviews and in school effectiveness models is criticised both from a theoretical and from an empirical perspective. School level factors are often related to student achievement without taking into account the

  16. THE EFFECT OF LIPASE INGESTION UPON BLOOD LIPID LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    levels. The optical density and hence lipid levels of the blood plasmas were lowered in all subjects when sufficient lipase was ingested . The total...obtain this effect. The blood cholesterol values of normal subjects were not affected, nor was that of a hyperlipemic subject who ingested the lipase

  17. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  18. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Van Dung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  19. Effects of hemodialysis on serum fetuin-A levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safranek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetuin-A is a calcification inhibitor, negative acute phase response marker and cardiovascular mortality predictor in hemodialysis patients. Low levels of fetuin-A are associated with malnutrition, inflammation, decreased bone mass density, low-turnover bone and use of high calcium concentration dialysate. Hemodialysis procedure (HD has been shown to decrease fetuin-A levels by 20%, probably due to HD-induced inflammation or acute changes in calcium metabolism. The aim of our study was to investigate effects of HD on serum fetuin-A levels. Forty clinically and hemodynamically stable hemodialysis patients (21 females, 68 (38-85 years underwent routine bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration with polysulfone dialyzer. On consecutive HD dialysis solution with different calcium concentration with/without citric acid was used to assess influence of calcium shifts and parathyroid activity on fetuin-A changes during HD. All other parameters of HD were kept constant. Serum fetuin-A, calcium, phosphorus, iPTH, CRP and other biochemical parameters were measured before and after each HD. Our data show that predialysis serum fetuin-A levels have positive correlation with iPTH levels (p<0.05 and tendency to decrease with higher CRP levels. There was no change in fetuin-A levels during HD: 206 (167.1; 231.9 ug/ml before and 208.9 (170.3; 246.3 ug/ml after HD; respectively. When corrected for haemoconcentration, decrease in fetuin-A was only 2.8% (p<0.05. There was also no difference between effect of hemodialysis and hemodia-filtration procedure. The use of different calcium dialysate concentrations had distinct effect on iPTH levels during and after HD, however, we observed no associated changes in fetuin-A levels. The use of dialysate solution with citric acid had no effect on fetuin-A levels. In conclusion, standard bicarbonate HD with polysulfone dialyser and ultrapure dialysate induces only minor changes in fetuin-A and no changes in hsCRP levels

  20. Homocysteine Levels in Parkinson’s Disease: Is Entacapone Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Kocer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma homocysteine (Hcy levels may increase in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD as a consequence of levodopa methylation via catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Results from previous studies that assessed the effect of COMT inhibitors on levodopa-induced hyperhomocysteinemia are conflicting. We aimed to evaluate the effects of levodopa and entacapone on plasma Hcy levels. A hundred PD patients were enrolled to the study and divided into three treatment groups (group I: levodopa and/or dopamine agonists; group II: levodopa, entacapone, and/or a dopamine agonist; and group III: dopamine agonist alone. We measured the serum B12, folic acid, and Hcy levels in all patients. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of modified Hoehn and Yahr stages, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale II/III, Standardized Mini-Mental Test scores, and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Plasma median Hcy levels were found above the normal laboratory values in groups I and II, but they were normal in group III. However, there was no statistically significant difference in plasma Hcy levels between groups. Our results showed that levodopa treatment may cause a slight increase in the Hcy levels in PD compared with dopamine agonists and that COMT inhibitors may not have a significant effect on preventing hyperhomocysteinemia.

  1. Effects of clinical practice focusing on level-3 OSCE items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sugiura, Yoshito; Motoya, Ikuo; Wada, Yosuke; Yamada, Masayuki; Tomita, Masao; Tanabe, Shigeo; Koyama, Soichiro; Teranishi, Toshio; Sawa, Syunji; Okanishi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of clinical training focusing on level-3 OSCE (analytical and therapeutic skills) items, and compared the achievement levels of physical (PT) and occupational (OT) therapist students. [Subjects] A total of 282 (165 PT and 117 OT) students enrolled at our university between 2008 and 2010 were studied. [Methods] OSCE scores were compared between before and after clinical training focusing on level-3 OSCE items, and between PT and OT students. [Results] Scores for 5 out of the 6 level-3a items were significantly higher after than before clinical training. Increases in scores of 2 or 3 level-3b and -3c items were also observed after clinical training. There were no marked differences between PT and OT students in scores for level-3a, -3b, and -3c items before clinical training. In contrast, after clinical training, OT students' scores for 3a and 3c items related to dressing were higher than those of PT students, and the latter's scores for 3b items related to transfer were higher than those of the former. [Conclusion] The results suggest level-3 OSCE items are effectively taught during clinical training.

  2. Hamiltonian Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: Effect of Landau Level Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Ganpathy; Shankar, R.

    2002-01-01

    We derive an effective hamiltonian in the Lowest Landau Level (LLL) that incorporates the effects of Landau-level mixing to all higher Landau levels to leading order in the ratio of interaction energy to the cyclotron energy. We then transcribe the hamiltonian to the composite fermion basis using our hamiltonian approach and compute the effect of LL mixing on transport gaps.

  3. Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Weisner, Stefan E B; Ehde, Per Magnus; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-04-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes.

  4. The effect of high altitude on nasal nitric oxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Cingi, Cemal; Tekeli, Hakan; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels change in relation to high altitude in a natural setting where the weather conditions were favorable. The present study included 41 healthy volunteers without a history of acute rhinosinusitis within 3 weeks and nasal polyposis. The study group consisted of 31 males (76 %) and 10 females (24 %) and the mean age of the study population was 38 ± 10 years. The volunteers encamped for 2 days in a mountain village at an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level (masl) and proceeded to highlands at an altitude of 2,200 masl throughout the day. The measurements of nNO were done randomly, either first at the mountain village or at sea level. Each participant had nNO values both at sea level and at high altitude at the end of the study. The nNO values of sea level and high altitude were compared to investigate the effect of high altitude on nNO levels. The mean of average nNO measurements at the high altitude was 74.2 ± 41 parts-per-billion (ppb) and the mean of the measurements at sea level was 93.4 ± 45 ppb. The change in nNO depending on the altitude level was statistically significant (p high altitude even if the weather conditions were favorable, such as temperature, humidity, and wind.

  5. The Effect of Spillovers on R & D Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Li Chu-lin; Lu Jia-hua

    2003-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the effect of spillovers on R&D (Research and Development) level. When competing firms have spillovers to each other in R&D, cooperation will always increase firms' profits. Only if the positive spillover is large enough, the cooperative R&D level will be larger than the non-cooperative R&D level. The cooperative level will be smaller than the non-cooperative level if the positive spillover is small enough. However, the cooperative level is always smaller than the non-cooperative level while there're negative spillovers to each other. R&D levels are the function of the spillover and will change with the spillover. The changing regularity is related to the sign of spillover and to whether they're cooperative or not. Spillovers made by the competing firms are usually different. When spillovers are small enough, the larger the spillover obtained from the other, the smaller the firm will invest in R&D; inversely, when the spillover is large enough, the larger spillovers obtains from the other, the larger the firm will invest in R&D.

  6. Fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, D N; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Sun, Kai; Sheng, L

    2011-07-12

    It is well known that the topological phenomena with fractional excitations, the fractional quantum Hall effect, will emerge when electrons move in Landau levels. Here we show the theoretical discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels in an interacting fermion model. The non-interacting part of our Hamiltonian is the recently proposed topologically non-trivial flat-band model on a checkerboard lattice. In the presence of nearest-neighbouring repulsion, we find that at 1/3 filling, the Fermi-liquid state is unstable towards the fractional quantum Hall effect. At 1/5 filling, however, a next-nearest-neighbouring repulsion is needed for the occurrence of the 1/5 fractional quantum Hall effect when nearest-neighbouring repulsion is not too strong. We demonstrate the characteristic features of these novel states and determine the corresponding phase diagram.

  7. Hormesis [Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (Belle)] and Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Haw-Yueh; Maibach, Howard I.

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis, or biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE), is characterized by nonmonotonic dose response which is biphasic, displaying opposite effects at low and high dose. Its occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models and diverse type of exposure. Since hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon in many areas, the objective of this review is to explore its occurrence related to dermatology and its public health and risk assessment implication....

  8. Estimation of Potential Population Level Effects of Contaminants on Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.

    2001-06-11

    The objective of this project is to provide DOE with improved methods to assess risks from contaminants to wildlife populations. The current approach for wildlife risk assessment consists of comparison of contaminant exposure estimates for individual animals to literature-derived toxicity test endpoints. These test endpoints are assumed to estimate thresholds for population-level effects. Moreover, species sensitivities to contaminants is one of several criteria to be considered when selecting assessment endpoints (EPA 1997 and 1998), yet data on the sensitivities of many birds and mammals are lacking. The uncertainties associated with this approach are considerable. First, because toxicity data are not available for most potential wildlife endpoint species, extrapolation of toxicity data from test species to the species of interest is required. There is no consensus on the most appropriate extrapolation method. Second, toxicity data are represented as statistical measures (e.g., NOAEL s or LOAELs) that provide no information on the nature or magnitude of effects. The level of effect is an artifact of the replication and dosing regime employed, and does not indicate how effects might increase with increasing exposure. Consequently, slight exceedance of a LOAEL is not distinguished from greatly exceeding it. Third, the relationship of toxic effects on individuals to effects on populations is poorly estimated by existing methods. It is assumed that if the exposure of individuals exceeds levels associated with impaired reproduction, then population level effects are likely. Uncertainty associated with this assumption is large because depending on the reproductive strategy of a given species, comparable levels of reproductive impairment may result in dramatically different population-level responses. This project included several tasks to address these problems: (1) investigation of the validity of the current allometric scaling approach for interspecies extrapolation

  9. Effect of the diet components on adiponectin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. G. Reis

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, which requires nutritional interventions for its effective control. Adiponectin has antiinflammatory capacity, improves glucose tolerance and presents decreased plasma expression and concentration in obese individuals. Studies with animals reveal improvement in insulin resistance after the infusion of adiponectin; in humans, caloric restriction increases its levels. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of dietary components on gene expression and plasma concentration of adiponectin. Sixteen articles were found following a literature review -seven with interventions in animal models and nine in human. The results in animal models demonstrate that the consumption of hyperlipidemic diets, rich in saturated fat, reduces the levels of adiponectin, while the diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and supplementation with omega-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid increase its gene expression and plasma levels. In humans, the consumption of a healthy and Mediterranean diet are positively associated with adiponectin levels, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Due to the importance of adiponectin in preventing metabolic diseases and reducing cardiovascular risk, more research are needed on food strategies to promote the increase of adiponectin levels. Therefore, studies must be carried out to evaluate the response to different sources and levels of various dietary components and the safety of the supplementation of specific nutrients.

  10. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Milani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough preparation. AFs levels in flour, dough, and bread were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that maximum reduction in aflatoxin levels observed during first proof while the least decline was seen for the baking stage. The order of AFs reduction in bread making process was AFB1>AFB2>AFG1. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most effective yeast for AFs reduction was instant dry yeast.

  11. Effect of Landau level mixing on braiding statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven H

    2008-03-21

    We examine the effect of Landau level mixing on the braiding statistics of quasiparticles of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. While path dependent geometric phases can perturb the Abelian part of the statistics, we find that the non-Abelian properties remain unchanged to an accuracy that is exponentially small in the distance between quasiparticles.

  12. Leadership Styles and Effectiveness among C-Level Healthcare Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhoon-Walker, Etta J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is essential to circumnavigating the numerous obstacles confronting the healthcare industry. In addition, the current health system is suffering from a proficient leadership gap. However, identifying and developing executives with the greatest potential to become strong, up-and-coming healthcare C-level executive leaders can…

  13. Effect of the bread-making process on zearalenone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Sara; Milani, Jafar; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for the fermentation of dough. ZEA levels in flour, dough and bread were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. The highest reduction in levels of ZEA was found in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest reduction was observed in the baking stage. In addition, the results showed that compressed yeast had the maximum reduction potential on ZEA levels even at the baking stage.

  14. Osho Dynamic Meditation’s Effect on Serum Cortisol Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. Aim To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. Materials and Methods An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1st March 2015 to 21st March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21st day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Results Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21st day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (pstress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas. Thus, dynamic meditation could be recommended for the amelioration of stress and stress related physical and mental disorders. More clinical studies should be done on dynamic meditation to prove its efficacy and become an approved

  15. Effect of Level and Downhill Running on Breathing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0% and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%, matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen ( and carbon dioxide (. Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest, one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1 and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9% were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6 and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9 were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05 than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.

  16. Effect of mechanization level on manpower needs in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błuszkowska Urszula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High work consumption in forest operations is above all the result of the character and task realization mode in works undertaken in forestry. Development of mechanization in forest management activities allows to considerably decrease manpower needs. In the present study, there were analyzed the possibilities of reduction of work consumption by improving the mechanization level of forest works. The method was developed to consider the following assessments: 1 variant W1 - basic option comprising factual work consumption values in works carried out on the area administered by the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP; 2 W2 - showing the effect of 25% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 3 W3 - showing the effect of 50% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 4 W4 - comprising analogous calculations to those in variant W1 , but work consumption upgrading was 75%. Simulation calculations revealed considerable differences in needs for labor of different categories of forest workers. On the other hand, with increasing mechanization level, there increase the demands concerning worker qualifications, e.g. a harvester operator must be trained for about 2 years, and the training has to include both simulator exercises (first using software and next - harvester simulator and field work under supervision to gain sufficient experience. The introduction of higher levels of mechanization into forest operations, and hence considerable reduction of jobs for unqualified workers who are replaced by qualified employees, can help decreasing work consumption in forest operations.

  17. Search for isospin effects on nuclear level density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucarelli F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the isospin dependence of the level density have been recently reported in the literature for nuclei with 20 ≤ A ≤ 110. Corrections to the level density have been deduced which would imply a significant reduction of this quantity for nuclei far from the valley of stability. Isospin effects on the level density are also expected through the symmetry energy contribution to the nuclear masses, which is predicted to increase with the temperature. According to these findings, we have implemented the statistical model in order to account for isospin effects on the level density parameter a and on the temperature-dependent symmetry energy. We present the results of calculations for the decay of a variety of neutron-rich composite systems. We found that isospin produces sizable eïňĂects on difierent observables, this result being promising for future experiments with the second generation RIB facilities SPES and SPIRAL2. We report the results of a first experiment aimed at searching for isospin effects in the decay of 139 Eu composite nuclei produced by a stable beam at E x =90 MeV.

  18. All Inclusive Education Secondary Education Level Effects Of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tolay

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of tourism education at secondary level were investigated for all-inclusive system (AIS that is applying to the tourism sector in Turkey. For this purpose, two questionnaire surveys were conducted over two groups. A negative prediction about the all-inclusive system is concluded due to research of trainer stuff that can not educate on quality competency-based personal. But it is understood that students that are directly or indirectly into to this system are not participating at the same rate level.

  19. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  20. Effect of symmetry breaking on level curvature distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, M S; Pato, M P

    2002-01-01

    An exact general formalism is derived that expresses the eigenvector and the eigenvalue dynamics as a set of coupled equations of motion in terms of the matrix elements dynamics. Combined with an appropriate model Hamiltonian, these equations are used to investigate the effect of the presence of a discrete symmetry in the level curvature distribution. It is shown that this distribution exhibits a nontrivial behavior that explains the recent data regarding frequencies of acoustic vibrations of quartz block.

  1. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING MARGIN LEVELS ON FUTURES OPTIONS PRICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanling GU; Juan LI

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies the effects of changing margin levels on the price of futures options and how to organize a market maker's position. Black model (1976) becomes a special case of this paper.The paper prices futures options by duplicating them and adopting the theory of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs for short). Furthermore, the price of a futures option is the unique solution to a nonlinear BSDE.

  3. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  4. Acute effect of smoking on plasma Obestatin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroglou Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and smoking cessation are considered to be associated with weight changes. We have recently shown that smoking acutely increases plasma levels of ghrelin, a known orexigenic hormone. Obestatin is a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, which opposes ghrelin effects on food intake. We conducted a study in adult volunteers measuring plasma levels of obestatin immediately after initiation of smoking. Methods 31 volunteers (mean age 32.2 ± 9.2 years and mean BMI 25.7 ± 4.1, 17 smokers and 14 non-smokers, were enrolled in our study. The 2 groups were matched in age and BMI. Plasma obestatin concentrations were determined at baseline (T0, 2 (T2, 5 (T5, 15 (T15, and 60 (T60 minutes after the initiation of smoking. Results In all 31 subjects, no significant difference in the mean values of plasma obestatin levels was observed from baseline at T2, T5, T15 and T60 after initiation of smoking (overall p = 0.15. However, a trend for higher obestatin levels was noted in smokers vs non-smokers (overall p = 0.069, which was not related to the pack-years. Conclusion On the contrary with ghrelin's response after smoking initiation, there is no such an acute response of plasma obestatin levels.

  5. Effect of nonphytate phosphorus and phytase levels on broiler femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Martins Schaly

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of nonphytate phosphorus (NPP and phytase levels on the weight, morphometry and weight/length index (WLI of broiler femurs at 21 and 42 days of age. One thousand, two hundred chicks were allocated in a completely randomized design and 4 x 3 factorial arrangement (NPP x phytase levels, with four replicates. The NPP levels, at each phase were of 0.45, 0.37, 0.29 and 0.21% in the initial phase, 0.41, 0.33, 0.25 and 0.17% in the growth phase, and of 0.37, 0.29, 0.21 and 0.13% in the final phase. The phytase levels used were 0, 500 and 1000U/kg of diet. At 21 and 42 days of age, 48 birds were sacrificed for femur collection. At 21 days, there was no effect (P > 0.05 of NPP x phytase interaction on bone parameters, but the NPP reduction decreased (P < 0.05 the weight, length and WLI of the femurs, and the inclusion of 500U/kg of phytase improved (P < 0.05 the weight and WLI of the bones. At 42 days of age, NPP x phytase interaction was significant (P < 0.05 for the weight and length, and birds fed diets with no phytase had femurs that were lighter and shorter when the lowest NPP levels were evaluated. However, the inclusion of 500 or 1000U/kg of phytase produced weights and lengths similar to those produced by treatment with recommended NPP levels, and the lower NPP levels evaluated caused a reduction (P < 0.05 in the diameter and WLI of femurs. It was concluded that diets with 0.29, 0.25 or 0.21% of NPP, with 500 U/kg of phytase, could be used with no negative effect on the femur quality in broilers from one to 42 days of age.

  6. Effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana do Socorro da Silva Dias Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To gather and clarify the actual effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing and its most effective ways of application in human and veterinary medicine.METHODS: We searched original articles published in journals between the years 2000 and 2011, in Spanish, English, French and Portuguese languages, belonging to the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, PubMed and Bireme; Tey should contain the methodological description of the experimental design and parameters used.RESULTS: doses ranging from 3 to 6 J/cm2 appear to be more effective and doses 10 above J/cm2 are associated with deleterious effects. The wavelengths ranging from 632.8 to 1000 nm remain as those that provide more satisfactory results in the wound healing process.CONCLUSION: Low-level laser can be safely applied to accelerate the resolution of cutaneous wounds, although this fact is closely related to the election of parameters such as dose, time of exposure and wavelength.

  7. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  8. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies.

  9. Effect of yogic exercise on superoxide dismutase levels in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapure Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims: This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30 and control (10 groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises and Pranayamas (breathing exercises along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Methods and Material: Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe′s posthoc test. Results: The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.

  10. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  11. Effects of exercise on plasma adiponectin levels in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which releases biologically active adipokines. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein structurally similar to complement 1q, plays a significant role in metabolic disorders, due to its insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, mediate the metabolic actions of adiponectin by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- alpha (PPAR-α which leads to an increase in fatty acid combustion and energy consumption, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in myocytes and reduces gluconeogenesis and thus leads to increased insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin level is affected by multiple factors: gender (females have higher plasma adiponectin levels, obesity-linked diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis are associated with lower adiponectin levels, lifestyle -including exercise. Yet, to date, little is known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in population of athletes. The aim of this review is to overview the published evidence for the effects of exercise on adiponectin levels in athletes. Adiponectin concentration presents a delayed increase (30 min after short-term intense performance, by athletes, both male and female. It seems that adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to long-term exercise. No significant difference was found in total adiponectin and/or high-molecular weight (HMW oligomers in long-term effects of high physical training in athletes. Adiponectin can serve to monitor training loads and the establishment of individual limit values of training loads. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.

  12. Novel electric field effects on Landau levels in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Vinu; Shankar, R; Baskaran, G

    2007-03-16

    A new effect in graphene in the presence of crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields is predicted. Landau levels are shown to be modified in an unexpected fashion by the electric field, leading to a collapse of the spectrum, when the value of electric to magnetic field ratio exceeds a certain critical value. Our theoretical results, strikingly different from the standard 2D electron gas, are explained using a "Lorentz boost," and as an "instability of a relativistic quantum field vacuum." It is a remarkable case of emergent relativistic type phenomena in nonrelativistic graphene. We also discuss few possible experimental consequence.

  13. Expert elicitation of population-level effects of disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  14. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  15. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  16. Effects of pitch, level, and tactile cues on speech segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drullman, Rob; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2003-04-01

    Sentence intelligibility for interfering speech was investigated as a function of level difference, pitch difference, and presence of tactile support. A previous study by the present authors [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2432-2433 (2002)] had shown a small benefit of tactile support in the speech-reception threshold measured against a background of one to eight competing talkers. The present experiment focused on the effects of informational and energetic masking for one competing talker. Competing speech was obtained by manipulating the speech of the male target talker (different sentences). The PSOLA technique was used to increase the average pitch of competing speech by 2, 4, 8, or 12 semitones. Level differences between target and competing speech ranged from -16 to +4 dB. Tactile support (B&K 4810 shaker) was given to the index finger by presenting the temporal envelope of the low-pass-filtered speech (0-200 Hz). Sentences were presented diotically and the percentage of correctly perceived words was measured. Results show a significant overall increase in intelligibility score from 71% to 77% due to tactile support. Performance improves monotonically with increasing pitch difference. Louder target speech generally helps perception, but results for level differences are considerably dependent on pitch differences.

  17. Effectiveness of low-level laser on carpal tunnel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Xin-Long; Tian, Peng; Huang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been applied in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for an extended period of time without definitive consensus on its effectiveness. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser in the treatment of mild to moderate CTS using a Cochrane systematic review. Methods: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed (1966–2015.10), Medline (1966–2015.10), Embase (1980–2015.10), and ScienceDirect (1985–2015.10), using the terms “carpal tunnel syndrome” and “laser” according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually to identify studies that might have been missed in the database search. Only randomized clinical trials were included, and the quality assessments were performed according to the Cochrane systematic review method. The data extraction and analyses from the included studies were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the continuous outcomes. Results: Seven randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria; there were 270 wrists in the laser group and 261 wrists in the control group. High heterogeneity existed when the analysis was conducted. Hand grip (at 12 weeks) was stronger in the LLLT group than in the control group (MD = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.08–3.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 62%), and there was better improvement in the visual analog scale (VAS) (at 12 weeks) in the LLLT group (MD = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.84–1.11; P 95% in the calculation of these 3 parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that low-level laser improve hand grip, VAS, and SNAP after 3 months of follow-up for mild to moderate CTS. More high-quality studies using the same laser intervention protocol are needed to

  18. Compounding effects of sea level rise and fluvial flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhari, Hamed R; Salvadori, Gianfausto; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sanders, Brett F; Matthew, Richard A

    2017-09-12

    Sea level rise (SLR), a well-documented and urgent aspect of anthropogenic global warming, threatens population and assets located in low-lying coastal regions all around the world. Common flood hazard assessment practices typically account for one driver at a time (e.g., either fluvial flooding only or ocean flooding only), whereas coastal cities vulnerable to SLR are at risk for flooding from multiple drivers (e.g., extreme coastal high tide, storm surge, and river flow). Here, we propose a bivariate flood hazard assessment approach that accounts for compound flooding from river flow and coastal water level, and we show that a univariate approach may not appropriately characterize the flood hazard if there are compounding effects. Using copulas and bivariate dependence analysis, we also quantify the increases in failure probabilities for 2030 and 2050 caused by SLR under representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Additionally, the increase in failure probability is shown to be strongly affected by compounding effects. The proposed failure probability method offers an innovative tool for assessing compounding flood hazards in a warming climate.

  19. The levels of processing effect under nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Wendy; Hobbs, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that inert gas (nitrogen) narcosis affects free recall but not recognition memory in the depth range of 30 to 50 meters of sea water (msw), possibly as a result of narcosis preventing processing when learned material is encoded. The aim of the current research was to test this hypothesis by applying a levels of processing approach to the measurement of free recall under narcosis. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of depth (0-2 msw vs. 37-39 msw) and level of processing (shallow vs. deep) on free recall memory performance in 67 divers. When age was included as a covariate, recall was significantly worse in deep water (i.e., under narcosis), compared to shallow water, and was significantly higher in the deep processing compared to shallow processing conditions in both depth conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this effect was not simply due to the different underwater environments used for the depth conditions in Experiment 1. It was concluded memory performance can be altered by processing under narcosis and supports the contention that narcosis affects the encoding stage of memory as opposed to self-guided search (retrieval).

  20. Effect Of Vibration Amplitude Level On Seated Occupant Reaction Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzar Azizan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen the rapid development of vibration comfort in the automotive industry. However little attention has been paid to vibration drowsiness. Eighteen male volunteers were recruited for this experiment. Before commencing the experiment total transmitted acceleration measured at interfaces between the seat cushion and seatback to human body was adjusted to become 0.2 ms-2 r.m.s and 0.4 ms-2 r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude for 20-minutes in separate days. For the purpose of drowsiness measurement volunteers were asked to complete 10-minutes PVT test before and after vibration exposure and rate their subjective drowsiness by giving score using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale KSS before vibration every 5-minutes interval and following 20-minutes of vibration exposure. Strong evidence of drowsiness was found as there was a significant increase in reaction time and number of lapse following exposure to vibration in both conditions. However the effect is more apparent in medium vibration amplitude. A steady increase of drowsiness level can also be observed in KSS in all volunteers. However no significant differences were found in KSS between low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude. The results of this investigation suggest that exposure to vibration has an adverse effect on human alertness level and more pronounced at higher vibration amplitude. Taken together these findings suggest a role of vibration in promoting drowsiness especially at higher vibration amplitude.

  1. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Animal experiment. This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7(th) day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  2. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  3. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  4. Effects of frequency and level on auditory stream segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M M; Moore, B C

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the effect of center frequency and level on the perceptual grouping of rapid tone sequences. The sequence ABA-ABA-...was used, where A and B represent sinusoidal tone bursts (10-ms rise/fall, 80-ms steady state, 20-ms interval between tones) and - represents a silent interval of 120 ms. In experiment 1, tone A was fixed in frequency at 62, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, or 8000 Hz. Both tones had a level of approximately 40 dB SL. Tone B started with a frequency well above that of tone A, and its frequency was swept toward that of tone A so that the frequency separation between them decreased in an exponential manner. Subjects were required to indicate when they could no longer hear the tones A and B as two separate streams, but heard only a single stream with a "gallop" rhythm. This changeover point between percepts is called the fission boundary. The separation between tones A and B at the fission boundary was roughly independent of the frequency of tone A when expressed as the difference in number of equivalent rectangular bandwidths (ERBs) between A and B, but varied more with frequency when the difference was expressed in barks or cents. In experiment 2, the center frequency was fixed at 250, 1000, or 4000 Hz, and the level of the A and B tones was 40, 55, 70, or 85 dB SPL. The frequency separation of the A and B tones at the fission boundary tended to increase slightly with increasing level, in a manner consistent with the broadening of the auditory filter with increasing level. The results support the "peripheral channeling" explanation of stream segregation advanced by Hartmann and Johnson [Music Percept. 9, 155-184 (1991)], and indicate that the perception of fusion or fission in alternating-tone sequences depends partly upon the degree of overlap of the excitation patterns evoked by the successive sounds in the cochlea, as assumed in the theory of Beauvois and Meddis [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2270-2280 (1996)].

  5. The Hanle effect and level-crossing spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Strumia, Franco

    1991-01-01

    I am most pleased and, in a way, I feel honored to write the Foreword for the book The Hanle Effect and Level-Crossing Spectroscopy, which covers such a very wide range of applications not only in the initial areas of atomic and molecular physics, but also in solid state physics, solar physics, laser physics, and gravitational metrology. To link these fields together in a coherent way has been the merit of the editors of the book, who attracted most distinguished authors for writing the chapters. In retrospect to Hanle's discovery of quantum mechanical coherence between two quantum states about 65 years ago, this book demonstrates the enormous impact and central importance the effect has had, and most vividly still has, on modern physics. On the other hand, the concept of quantum mechanical coherence, which is an outgrowth of the linear super­ position principle of quantum states, has been evident through a consider­ able number of experimental methods beyond the original Hanle effect; some of these methods...

  6. Effects of interaural level differences on the externalization of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Distant sound sources in our environment are perceived as externalized and are thus properly localized in both direction and distance. This is due to the acoustic filtering by the head, torso, and external ears, which provides frequency-dependent shaping of binaural cues such as interaural level...... differences (ILDs) and interaural time differences (ITDs). In rooms, the sound reaching the two ears is further modified by reverberant energy, which leads to increased fluctuations in short-term ILDs and ITDs. In the present study, the effect of ILD fluctuations on the externalization of sound...... was investigated. A psychoacoustic experiment was performed in a standard IEC 268-13 listening room by normal-hearing listeners. Individual binaural room impulse responses were used to simulate a distant speech source delivered via headphones. The speech signal was then processed such that the naturally occurring...

  7. The effect of low-level laser therapy on hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Shawn S; Bentler, Ruth A; Dittberner, Andrew; Mertes, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    One purported use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is to promote healing in damaged cells. The effects of LLLT on hearing loss and tinnitus have received some study, but results have been equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine if LLLT improved hearing, speech understanding, and/or cochlear function in adults with hearing loss. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, subjects were assigned to a treatment, placebo, or control group. The treatment group was given LLLT, which consisted of shining low-level lasers onto the outer ear, head, and neck. Each laser treatment lasted approximately five minutes. Three treatments were applied within the course of one week. A battery of auditory tests was administered immediately before the first treatment and immediately after the third treatment. The battery consisted of pure-tone audiometry, the Connected Speech Test, and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions. Data were analyzed by comparing pre- and posttest results. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for any of the auditory tests. Additionally, no clinically significant differences were found in any individual subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01820416).

  8. Effects of Landau level mixing on the fractional quantum Hall effect in monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael R; Nayak, Chetan

    2014-08-22

    We report results of exact diagonalization studies of the spin- and valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall effect in the N = 0 and N = 1 Landau levels in graphene. We use an effective model that incorporates Landau level mixing to lowest order in the parameter κ = ((e(2)/εℓ)/(ħv(F)/ℓ)) = (e(2)/εv(F)ħ), which is magnetic field independent and can only be varied through the choice of substrate. We find Landau level mixing effects are negligible in the N = 0 Landau level for κ ≲ 2. In fact, the lowest Landau level projected Coulomb Hamiltonian is a better approximation to the real Hamiltonian for graphene than it is for semiconductor based quantum wells. Consequently, the principal fractional quantum Hall states are expected in the N = 0 Landau level over this range of κ. In the N = 1 Landau level, fractional quantum Hall states are expected for a smaller range of κ and Landau level mixing strongly breaks particle-hole symmetry, producing qualitatively different results compared to the N = 0 Landau level. At half filling of the N = 1 Landau level, we predict the anti-Pfaffian state will occur for κ ∼ 0.25-0.75.

  9. Substitution Effect of Public Support Programs at Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria SZITÁSIOVÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the principle of addi-tionality in public support programs at local level. In the evaluation of public support policies a key question is whether the policy has made a differ-ence over what would have otherwise occurred. This could be measured by different ways as out-put, behavioral or input additionality. In this paper we analyze the impact of public support programs on input additionality as the extent to which the subsidy is refected in increased expenditures by supported subjects through the measurement of substitution effect. We studied public investment subsidies in the case of education support in Slo-vakia. We identifed the substitution effect in 10% of the analyzed municipalities. There are several differences in outcomes.An important factor is the size of the city as larger municipalities reduce their other activities when obtaining the support. We also showed that less developed regions have a lower tendency to misuse the support programs. The more de-veloped regions and cities reduce their own spending on a given priority when obtaining the support.

  10. Efficient Energy Consumption Scheduling: Towards Effective Load Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different agents in the smart grid infrastructure (e.g., households, buildings, communities consume energy with their own appliances, which may have adjustable usage schedules over a day, a month, a season or even a year. One of the major objectives of the smart grid is to flatten the demand load of numerous agents (viz. consumers, such that the peak load can be avoided and power supply can feed the demand load at anytime on the grid. To this end, we propose two Energy Consumption Scheduling (ECS problems for the appliances held by different agents at the demand side to effectively facilitate load leveling. Specifically, we mathematically model the ECS problems as Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP problems using the data collected from different agents (e.g., their appliances’ energy consumption in every time slot and the total number of required in-use time slots, specific preferences of the in-use time slots for their appliances. Furthermore, we propose a novel algorithm to efficiently and effectively solve the ECS problems with large-scale inputs (which are NP-hard. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is significantly more efficient than standard benchmarks, such as CPLEX, while guaranteeing near-optimal outputs.

  11. A molecular and phenotypic integrative approach to identify a no-effect dose level for antiandrogen-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Sophie; Tinwell, Helen; Schorsch, Frédéric; Cavaillé, Christel; Pallardy, Marc; Rouquié, David; Bars, Rémi

    2011-07-01

    The safety assessment of chemicals for humans relies on identifying no-observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) in animal toxicity studies using standard methods. With the advent of high information content technologies, especially microarrays, it is pertinent to determine the impact of molecular data on the NOAELs. Consequently, we conducted an integrative study to identify a no-transcriptomic effect dose using microarray analyses coupled with quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and determined how this correlated with the NOAEL. We assessed the testicular effects of the antiandrogen, flutamide (FM), in a rat 28-day toxicity study using doses of 0.2-30 mg/kg/day. Plasma testosterone levels and testicular histopathology indicated a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/day. A no-effect dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day was established based on molecular data relevant to the phenotypic changes. We observed differential gene expression starting from 1 mg/kg/day and a deregulation of more than 1500 genes at 30 mg/kg/day. Dose-related changes were identified for the major pathways (e.g., fatty acid metabolism) associated with the testicular lesion (Leydig cell hyperplasia) that were confirmed by RT-qPCR. These data, along with protein accumulation profiles and FM metabolite concentrations in testis, supported the no-effect dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day. Furthermore, the microarray data indicated a dose-dependent change in the fatty acid catabolism pathway, a biological process described for the first time to be affected by FM in testicular tissue. In conclusion, the present data indicate the existence of a transcriptomic threshold, which must be exceeded to progress from a normal state to an adaptative state and subsequently to adverse toxicity.

  12. Does industry take the susceptible subpopulation of asthmatic individuals into consideration when setting derived no-effect levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mia K V; Johanson, Gunnar; Öberg, Mattias; Schenk, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, can be aggravated by exposure to certain chemical irritants. The objectives were first to investigate the extent to which experimental observations on asthmatic subjects are taken into consideration in connection with the registration process under the EU REACH regulation, and second, to determine whether asthmatics are provided adequate protection by the derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for acute inhalation exposure. We identified substances for which experimental data on the pulmonary functions of asthmatics exposed to chemicals under controlled conditions are available. The effect concentrations were then compared with DNELs and other guideline and limit values. As of April 2015, only 2.6% of 269 classified irritants had available experimental data on asthmatics. Fourteen of the 22 identified substances with available data were fully registered under REACH and we retrieved 114 reliable studies related to these. Sixty-three of these studies, involving nine of the 14 substances, were cited by the REACH registrants. However, only 17 of the 114 studies, involving four substances, were regarded as key studies. Furthermore, many of the DNELs for acute inhalation were higher than estimated effect levels for asthmatics, i.e., lowest observed adverse effect concentrations or no-observed adverse effect concentrations, indicating low or no safety margin. We conclude that REACH registrants tend to disregard findings on asthmatics when deriving these DNELs. In addition, we found examples of DNELs, particularly among those derived for workers, which likely do not provide adequate protection for asthmatics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  14. Effects of sulfur nutritional level on cadmium toxicity in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yichang; Huerta, A.J. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The effects of S levels on Cd toxicity were studied in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv.UC 476). Barley was grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland's solution containing either 100% or 10% S in a growth chamber at constant 20 C, 290 umole M[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] light intensity, and a 16/18 hour light/dark period. Five days after the first true leaf appeared, 15 uM Cd was added to the nutrient solutions where appropriate. At 14 days after beginning of Cd treatment, plants were analyzed for photosynthetic characteristics. The photosynthetic characteristics measured were CO[sub 2] response curves (measured with a LICOR 6200 portable photosynthesis system), and fluorescence measurement system. At 21 days they were analyzed for morphological and biomass measurements. The CO[sub 2] response curves for leaves of plants treated with 10% S did not significantly differ from those of plants treated with 100% S. Treatment with Cd significantly reduced the CO[sup 2] saturated rates of photosynthesis and the reduction was more significant in the 10% S than in the 100% S plants. Photochemical efficiency of PSII (FV/FM) and fluorescence quenching capacity (FQ) were not affected by 10% S as compared to 100% S treatment. Interestingly, treatment with Cd significantly increased both FV/FM and FQ as compared to control., However, S level had no effect on the fluorescence parameters of Cd-treated plants. Leaf and root length, leaf area, root and shoot dry weight were only slightly affected (increased or decreased) by 10% S as compared to 100% S but very significantly reduced by treatment with Cd. Our results agree with the previous reports which show that S (an important component of glutathione and phytochelatins which are low molecular weight Cd binding proteins), is important in regulating Cd detoxification in plants. However, we are continuing to conduct experiments as even lower S concentrations and different Cd concentrations.

  15. Effect of chronic kidney disease on serum resistin level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-21

    Mar 21, 2014 ... Some studies conducted abroad have shown that resistin level is higher ... Conclusion: Our study is probably the first study in India comparing serum resistin levels of ... expected benefits, risk profile, confidentiality safeguards.

  16. The effect of construal level on unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Kreiner, Hamutal; McElroy, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Construal level theory predicts that people will judge immoral events more harshly when these are presented in a way that elicits a higher construal level, relative to a lower construal level. Previous research supported this prediction using an Israeli sample but not a U.S.

  17. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  18. Effect of interstitial low level laser therapy on tibial defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Hwang, Donghyun; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Tibial defect is very common musculoskeletal disorder which makes patient painful and uncomfortable. Many studies about bone regeneration tried to figure out fast bone healing on early phase. It is already known that low level laser therapy (LLLT) is very convenient and good for beginning of bone disorder. However, light scattering and absorption obstruct musculoskeletal therapy which need optimal photon energy delivery. This study has used an interstitial laser probe (ILP) to overcome the limitations of light penetration depth and scattering. Animals (mouse, C57BL/6) were divided into three groups: laser treated test group 1 (660 nm; power 10 mW; total energy 5 J) and test group 2 (660 nm; power 20 mW; total energy 10 J); and untreated control group. All animals were taken surgical operation to make tibial defect on right crest of tibia. The test groups were treated every 48 hours with ILP. Bone volume and X-ray attenuation coefficient were measured on 0, 14th and 28th day with u-CT after treatment and were used to evaluate effect of LLLT. Results show that bone volume of test groups has been improved more than control group. X-ray attenuation coefficients of each groups have slightly different. The results suggest that LLLT combined with ILP may affect on early phase of bone regeneration and may be used in various musculoskeletal disease in deep tissue layer.

  19. Group level effects of social versus individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei

    2013-06-01

    We study the effects of learning by imitating others within the framework of an iterated game in which the members of two complementary populations interact via random pairing at each round. This allows us to compare both the fitness of different strategies within a population and the performance of populations in which members have access to different types of strategies. Previous studies reveal some emergent dynamics at the population level, when players learn individually. We here investigate a different mechanism in which players can choose between two different learning strategies, individual or social. Imitating behavior can spread within a mixed population, with the frequency of imitators varying over generation time. When compared to a pure population with solely individual learners, a mixed population with both individual and social learners can do better, independently of the precise learning scheme employed. We can then search for the best imitating strategy. Imitating the neighbor with the highest payoff turns out to be consistently superior. This is in agreement with findings in experimental and model studies that have been carried out in different settings.

  20. Effect of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Levels in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Adey, S.; Tadelle, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different administration methods of effective microorganisms (EM®) on the performance and serum cholesterol level of broilers at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Uniform weight of mixed sex day-old-broilers of cobb-500 strain (n =

  1. Magnetic-field-induced mixed-level Kondo effect in two-level systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Arturo; Ngo, Anh T.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2016-10-17

    We consider a two-orbital impurity system with intra-and interlevel Coulomb repulsion that is coupled to a single conduction channel. This situation can generically occur in multilevel quantum dots or in systems of coupled quantum dots. For finite energy spacing between spin-degenerate orbitals, an in-plane magnetic field drives the system from a local-singlet ground state to a "mixed-level" Kondo regime, where the Zeeman-split levels are degenerate for opposite-spin states. We use the numerical renormalization group approach to fully characterize this mixed-level Kondo state and discuss its properties in terms of the applied Zeeman field, temperature, and system parameters. Under suitable conditions, the total spectral function is shown to develop a Fermi-level resonance, so that the linear conductance of the system peaks at a finite Zeeman field while it decreases as a function of temperature. These features, as well as the local moment and entropy contribution of the impurity system, are commensurate with Kondo physics, which can be studied in suitably tuned quantum dot systems.

  2. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  3. Comparing seed dispersal effectiveness by frugivores at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Aarón; Calviño-Cancela, Marĺa; Nogales, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) is the contribution of dispersers to plant recruitment and is estimated as the product of the number of seeds dispersed (quantity) and the probability of recruitment of each dispersed seed (quality). Although SDE is a key concept in seed dispersal ecology, few studies estimate SDE and none has a community approach. Oceanic islands, with simple communities, are ideal for this purpose. In this study, we compared the SDE of the main types of dispersers (lizards and passerine birds) at the community level in a given habitat. We estimated SDE using a stochastic simulation model parameterized with empirical data on quantity and quality components measured throughout the recruitment process. Although lizards are highly frugivorous and their density was approximately 20 times higher than that of birds, lizards and birds dispersed a similar quantity of seeds. This may be due to lower intake of seeds by lizards due to their slower metabolism (approximately 20 times lower than birds). This low metabolic rate limits the importance of lizards as seed dispersers, but it is compensated by extraordinarily high lizard densities in the study area (approximately 9600 individuals/km2). High densities of lizards are typical of islands, and this helps to explain why dispersal by lizards seems mainly an island phenomenon. Birds and lizards showed functional complementarity, especially regarding seed dispersal distribution patterns. In fact, lizards dispersed more seeds in shrublands and open sites, and birds in woodlands and beneath canopies, with their joint contribution helping to maximize recruitment. Lizards provided higher SDE than birds for 7 out of 11 plant species. The disperser with a higher quantity for a given plant generally had the higher quality, and plants could be classified as bird- or lizard-dependent for dispersal. This dependence increased when considering SDE instead of dispersal quantity only. Moreover, quality was a better

  4. In vitro transdentinal effect of low-level laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. F.; Basso, F. G.; dos Reis, R. I.; Parreiras-e-Silva, L. T.; Lins, E. C.; Kurachi, C.; Hebling, J.; Bagnato, V. S.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. However, the specific LLL dose and the response mechanisms of these cells to transdentinal irradiation have not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, this study evaluated the transdentinal effects of different LLL doses on stressed odontoblast-like pulp cells MDPC-23 seeded onto the pulpal side of dentin discs obtained from human third molars. The discs were placed in devices simulating in vitro pulp chambers and the whole set was placed in 24-well plates containing plain culture medium (DMEM). After 24 h incubation, the culture medium was replaced by fresh DMEM supplemented with either 5% (simulating a nutritional stress condition) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were irradiated with doses of 15 and 25 J cm-2 every 24 h, totaling three applications over three consecutive days. The cells in the control groups were removed from the incubator for the same times as used in their respective experimental groups for irradiation, though without activating the laser source (sham irradiation). After 72 h of the last active or sham irradiation, the cells were evaluated with respect to succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme production (MTT assay), total protein (TP) expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) synthesis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for collagen type 1 (Col-I) and ALP, and morphology (SEM). For both tests, significantly higher values were obtained for the 25 J cm-2 dose. Regarding SDH production, supplementation of the culture medium with 5% FBS provided better results. For TP and ALP expression, the 25 J cm-2 presented higher values, especially for the 5% FBS concentration (Mann-Whitney p laser irradiation at 25 J cm-2 caused transdentinal biostimulation of odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells.

  5. EFFECTS OF LIME (CAO) ON THE ENDOTOXIN LEVELS OF BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime addition is a common practice for treating biosolids in order to meet EPA 503 requirements for land application. Since this treatment kills the majority of microorganisms, will it increase the level of endotoxins present in biosolids? And, if endotoxin levels are increased, ...

  6. Worker-Level and Firm-Level Effects of a Wage Subsidy Program for Highly Educated Labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    and firms, we find that the program had positive effects on employment and wages the year individuals participate in the program. For wages, we also find positive and statistically significant effects for the two subsequent years. At the program participating firm level, we find statistically significant...

  7. Lipid levels in dissociative disorders: effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsa, Cristian; Lazignac, Coralie; Miller, Nick; Maris, Susanne; Adam, Eric; Rossignon, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    Although there are several data suggesting a link between lower lipids levels and the risk of suicide, there are few data concerning lower lipids levels in patients with dissociative disorders (DD). This is the first longitudinal study investigating the evolution of the lipids levels during a specific 8 weeks of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PP) for patients with DD. 32 patients diagnosed with DD (SCID for DSMIVR) were assessed with Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Clinical Global Impression and Improvement Scale and their lipids levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein) were measured at inclusion and after 3 and 8 weeks of PP. 30 patients finished the study. There is a significant positive (p dissociation (DES scores) at the beginning and at the end of the study. Interestingly, we found a significant (p = 0.018) positive link between the reduction of the dissociation (DES) and the increase of the triglycerides levels after 8 weeks of treatment. While lower lipids seems related to a higher level of dissociation before and after the treatment, an increasing triglycerides level was observed after 8 weeks of PP in patients with a better outcome. Further studies are needed with larger samples and control groups, in order to confirm these preliminary data. These findings could open the way for hypothesis about the role of lipids in the pathophysiology of DD and raise the question of the patients with DD receiving antilipidemiants agents.

  8. Effect of diet on tissue levels of palmitoylethanolamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    2013-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) as well as the other N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), e.g. anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, stearoylethanolamide and linoleoylethanolamide, appear to exist in every mammalian cell at low levels, e.g. a few hundred pmol/g tissue for PEA. Their formation can be stimulated...... by cellular injury and inflammation. In the brain PEA and other NAEs may have neuroprotective functions. PEA levels in tissues seem hardly to be influenced by variation in intake of dietary fatty acids, except in the small intestine where dietary fat results in decreased levels of PEA and other NAEs. In rat...

  9. Modeling effectiveness of gradual increases in source level to mitigate effects of sonar on marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the effectiveness of ramp-up procedures in reducing the area within which changes in hearing thresholds can occur. We modeled the level of sound killer whales (Orcinus orca) were exposed to from a generic sonar operation preceded by different ramp-up schemes. In our model, ramp-up procedures reduced the risk of killer whales receiving sounds of sufficient intensity to affect their hearing. The effectiveness of the ramp-up procedure depended strongly on the assumed response threshold and differed with ramp-up duration, although extending the duration of the ramp up beyond 5 min did not add much to its predicted mitigating effect. The main factors that limited effectiveness of ramp up in a typical antisubmarine warfare scenario were high source level, rapid moving sonar source, and long silences between consecutive sonar transmissions. Our exposure modeling approach can be used to evaluate and optimize mitigation procedures. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON PLASMA GLUCOSE LEVEL IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Chakraborty; Mrigendranath Gantait; Biswapati Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma glucose level (PGL) in human volunteers after acupuncture. Methods Seventy-seven human volunteers were taken up from the acupuncture clinic. All of pletion of acupuncture. All cases were at four hours abstinence from food before doing acupuncture. Results Plasma glucose level varied 5 mg% or more in 62 cases (80.51%) and only those were considered for computation. PGL increased in cases who had generally plasma glucose level below 90 mg% before acupuncture;and PGL decreased in cases who had plasma glucose 90 mg% or above. In 10 control cases there was no variation of the considerable level of 5 mg% in any case. Conclusion Bi-directional variation of PGL after acupuncture indicates that acupuncture can be used to maintain optimum PGL through endogenous mechanism,suggesting that it is applicable in controlling hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  11. Effect Of Vibration Amplitude Level On Seated Occupant Reaction Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amzar Azizan; Ratchaphon Ittianuwat; Zhengqing Liu

    2015-01-01

    ... r.m.s for each volunteer. Seated volunteers were exposed to Gaussian random vibration with frequency band 1-15 Hz at two level of amplitude low vibration amplitude and medium vibration amplitude for 20-minutes in separate days...

  12. Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... tion in dietary protein level without affecting fish growth ... management, environmental factors and fish size can .... water quality is thus considered suitable for fish ... Specific growth rate follows the same trend, it increases.

  13. Field correlations and effective two level atom-cavity systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rebic, S; Tan, S M

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the properties of the second order correlation functions of the electromagnetic field in atom-cavity systems that approximate two-level systems. It is shown that a recently-developed polariton formalism can be used to account for all the properties of the correlations, if the analysis is extended to include two manifolds - corresponding to the ground state and the states excited by a single photon - rather than just two levels.

  14. Effect Of Selected Factors On The Safety Integrity Level (SIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Młynarski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper concerns the functional safety problems of technical systems. The characteristics of safety assessment, described in IEC 61508 standard are an introduction to the problems associated with the methodology of the calculation of Safety Integrity Levels (SIL. The parameters obtained from reliability indicators, were calculated for the purpose of assessing the impact of repair time for the elements of a given system on the SIL. The calculated values of failure rate and the probability of dangerous failure show the sensitivity of the system at different time to repair values for various reliability-wise configurations. The indicators characterizing the safety level, calculated of the system with no repair time are the basis for demonstrating the influence of repair on the safety integrity level.

  15. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.;

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  16. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  17. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...

  18. Effect of Knowledge Sources on Firm Level Innovation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osoro, O.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Knoben, J.; Kahyarara, G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of different sources of knowledge on product and process innovation in Tanzania using firm-level data. We specifically analyse the separate impacts of internal knowledge, external knowledge and the combined impact of both types of knowledge on firms’ product and proces

  19. Effect of prolonged walking on cardiac troponin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; George, K.; Shave, R.; Gaze, D.; Levine, B.D.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a marker for cardiac damage, has been reported after strenuous exercise in young subjects. However, little is known about changes in cTnI after moderate-intensity exercise in a heterogenous population or which factors may contribute to this change in cTnI levels.

  20. Effect of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense on serum iron levels in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Setayesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The Magnetotactic bacteria Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (MSR-1 mineralizes the magnetite (Fe3 O4 crystals and organizes a highly ordered intracellular structure, called the magnetosome. Iron transport system supports the biogenesis of magnetite. Although iron is an essential trace element for many metabolic pathways of the body, increase or decrease in iron will cause many diseases. Mice were infected by MSR-1 to study survival of bacteria in mice when injected by different routes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bacterial magnetite formation could take up Fe2+ ions from the blood an animal model.Materials and Methods: In this study, MSR-1 at a dose lower than LD50 in 200 μl volume of PBS buffer was injected as intravascular (i.v, peritoneal (i.p and subcutaneous (s.c in mice. Number of viable bacterial was determined in organs such as liver, spleen and lymph node by measuring colony-forming unit (CFU. Moreover, serum iron level was evaluated by using commercial kits.Results and Conclusion: According to CFU measurements, after 96 hours, mice can clear MSR-1 from their body with different routes of injection. We have also shown that MSR-1 bacteria can affect the blood iron level in mice. The serum iron level decreased from control level in the first 24 h after i.v injection (P < 0.05. Our research on optimizing the biological magnetic system is still continuing.

  1. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... however, this test confers small but definite risks for the patient. .... More obese patients could be subjected to follow‑up testing in order to ... with the various timed cortisol levels. Female .... To register for TOC alerts go to.

  2. effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    or non-filtered air with additional O3 of approximately 50 nl l-1. Ambient levels of O3 ... only human health, but also the quality and quantity of ...... productivity and implications for climate change. Annual Review of Plant Biology 63: 637-661.

  3. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996-1501 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  4. Explaining Interaction Effects within and across Levels of Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Many manuscripts submitted to the Journal of International Business Studies propose an interaction effect in their models in an effort to explain the complexity and contingency of relationships across borders. In this article, we provide guidance on how best to explain the interaction effects...

  5. Effect of shipping emissions on European ground-level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Ioannis; -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2017-04-01

    Shipping emissions contribution to the global nitrogen oxides emissions is about 15%, affecting ozone formation and the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on ozone levels over Europe suggesting regions where air quality degradation due to shipping emissions dominates against the rest of the anthropogenic source emissions. Ranking the importance of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories on ozone mixing ratio, road transport has the major impact followed by other mobile sources, power generation, and industrial combustion sectors. All other sectors have a minor impact, therefor, our analysis is focused on these four emission categories. Results suggest that shipping emissions seem to play an important role on ozone levels compared to road transport sector near the coastal zone, while they could partly offset the benefits from the emissions reduction of other mobile sources, power generation and industrial combustion sources, over a great part of the European land.

  6. Developmental Effects in the Masking-Level Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joseph W.; Buss, Emily; Grose, John H.; Dev, Madhu B.

    2004-01-01

    Adults and children (aged 5 years 1 month to 10 years 8 months) were tested in a masking-level difference (MLD) paradigm in which detection of brief signals was contrasted for signal placement in masker envelope maxima versus masker envelope minima. Maskers were 50-Hz-wide noise bands centered on 500 Hz, and the signals were So or S[pi] 30-ms,…

  7. The Effects of Fetuin-A Levels on Aortic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tutuncu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the relation between fetuin-A and calcific aortic stenosis in non diabetic patients whose renal function were normal. Material and Method: 26 patients followed for aortic stenosis by our cardiology clinic for outpatients and 25 voluntary healthy subjects were included in the study. The fetuin%u2013A levels were measured from the venous blood samples of the study population. All patients underwent transthorasic echocardiography, the aortic valvular area and left ventricular parameters of the patients were measured. Results: The average age of the patients in degenerative aortic stenosis group was significantly higher than the control group. The parameters related to aortic valve were naturally higher in patients with dejenerative aortic valve. There was no siginificant difference between two groups about fetuin-A levels. Further more there was no significant relation between fetuin-a levels and aortic stenosis severity. Discussion: In conclusion fetuin-A is a multifunctional glycoprotein that plays important role in systemic calcification inhibition and valvular calcification. Finally aortic stenosis is an active process and larger studies that investigate the relation between fetuin-a and the progression and prognosis of aortic stenosis are needed.

  8. Effect of Exercise Intensity Level on Choice Reaction Time1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin, Xi; Eason, Bobby; Loftin, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity and duration on choice reaction time with a secondary aim to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on choice reaction time...

  9. Level Up, My-Pet: The Effects of Level-up Mechanism of Educational Agents on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chao, Po-Yao; Hsu, Ming-Chieh; Teng, Chin-Hung

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have been devoted to investigating the influence of educational agents on different aspects of student learning. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of the level-up mechanism of educational agents on students although this is a significant issue. Thus, this study develops an educational agent with the…

  10. Differential Effects of Personal-Level vs Group-Level Racial Discrimination on Health among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Nao; Alderson, Courtney J; Mezuk, Briana

    2016-07-21

    Racial/ethnic minorities in the United States not only experience discrimination personally but also witness or hear about fellow in-group members experiencing discrimination (ie, group-level discrimination). The objective of our study was to examine whether the effects of group-level discrimination on mental and physical health are different from those of personal-level discrimination among Black Americans by drawing upon social psychology research of the Personal/Group Discrimination Discrepancy. We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a larger study. One hundred and twenty participants, who self-identified as Black/African Americans during the laboratory sessions (57.5% women, mean age = 48.97, standard deviation = 8.58) in the parent study, were included in our analyses. Perceived personal-level discrimination was assessed with five items that were taken from two existing measures, and group-level racial discrimination was assessed with three items. Self-reported physical and mental health were assessed with a modified version of SF-8. Perceived personal-level racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. In contrast, perceived group-level racial discrimination was associated with better mental as well as physical health. Perceived group-level racial discrimination may serve as one of several health protective factors even when individuals perceive personal-level racial discrimination. The present findings demonstrate the importance of examining both personal- and group-level experiences of racial discrimination as they independently relate to health outcomes for Black Americans.

  11. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  12. Worker-level and Firm-level Effects of a Wage Subsidy Program for Highly Educated Labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a Danish wage subsidy program for highly educated workers on the performance of the persons and firms participating in the program. Using data on the population of program participants, both workers and firms, we find that the program had positive effects on employment...... and annual earnings during program participation while there are no positive effects for the years after program expiration. At the employer-level, we find statistically significant effects on the number of highly educated employees for both the period of program participation and the subsequent time period....... For the total number of employees we only find positive effects during program participation while there are no statistically significant effects for value added, net income, return on assets, wages per employee and labor productivity....

  13. The Effects of Promoting Educational Level on the Development of Reading Comprehension Levels in Hearing-Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarmadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing-impaired students have some delays in learning language skills such as reading because of hearing loss. To study the effect of promoting educational level on the development of reading comprehension, the students of the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school were compared based on international test of reading literacy.Methods: The project was cross-sectional and the tool used was the international standard booklet of PIRLS 2001. Thirty-six students selected with moderately severe and severe hearing loss from the 4th grade of elementary and last year guidance school from Shahriar, Robatkarim, Karaj and Hashtgerd, Iran, exceptional schools. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using t-test.Results: The first level (focus on and retrieve explicity information showed a meaningful difference between the last year guidance school and the 4th grade of elementary students (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences in other levels, make straightforward information-interpret and integrate ideas-examine and evaluate content, (p> 0.05.Conclusion: Hearing-impaired students have difficulties in understanding in deep levels of reading despite promoting educational level. Thus, in making policies for special trainings, continuing the rehabilitation in guidance and high school levels to promote the complex levels of comprehension should be taken more into consideration.

  14. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  15. Cognitive effects of proton irradiation at differing energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    During exploratory class missions to space outside of the magnetic field of the Earth, astronauts will be exposed to various forms of radiation including solar particle events (SPE) which are predominantly composed of protons. As such it is important to characterize the cognitive effects of exposure...

  16. Effect of dietary protein and energy levels on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    Key words: Toasted bambara nut waste, enzyme, effect, cockerels, growth performance. ... has been used in the feeding of poultry and rabbits (Ani .... TBNO and 0.02% Enzyme); **Viamin Premix (2.5 kg/1000 kg): vitamin A (15,000 U.I); vitamin.

  17. Enhancing Effective Administration at Faculty Level through Shared Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afful, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    We live in the world of knowledge, and knowledge keeps increasing in shape and complexity. As a result, no single individual has the repository of knowledge required to effectively manage an organisation all alone to affect organisational performance positively. This explains why administration is explained as doing things through the efforts of…

  18. Effect of Monomethylhydrazine on Insulin Levels in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    pyridoxine was effective against MMH-induced hyper- glycemia (Dost et al., 1973). The following experiments were done to deter- mine if the...or 6 carbon positions to 1 4C02 is depressed in rats exposed to MEIH. Since the turnover of pyruvate-2- 1 4G, acetate-2-1 4 C and butyric acid-l- 1 4

  19. The Effectiveness of Social Media Implementation at Local Government Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira NICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the management of social me-dia at the local government level, the availability of opportunities for citizen dialogue on govern-ment websites, and the impact that social net-working applications have on e-government. The results of the current study converge with prior research on the growing awareness amongst government practitioners regarding the relevance of social media, the use of social media for feed-back on service quality, and privacy and security commitments in e-government. The literature on the use of information technology to transform government, the potential for online government information to contribute to citizen engagement, and the rapid growth in local government use of social media is relevant to this discussion.

  20. The effect of smoking on serum human placental lactogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A

    1977-02-01

    Serial serum samples (162) were drawn weekly from normal pregnant women (53) during the last month of gestation and measurements were made of the human placental lactogen (HPL) content. The women were interviewed as to their smoking habits and divided into nonsmokers (32) and smokers of from one to two packages of cigarettes per day (21). The infant birth weight and placental weights were not significantly different. The HPL levels were elevated in the women who smoked and the differences were significant at the thirty-sixth and thirty-eighth weeks. The importance of this in interpreting HPL as a placental function test and in terms of the biology of placental function and the control of protein hormone synthesis is emphasized.

  1. LEVEL STATISTICS AND PARITY EFFECT ON SMALL SUPERCONDUCTING SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZHI-QIAN; ZHENG REN-RONG

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we have calculated the variations of the gap △'(0, d) and transition temperature Tc' in small metallic grains as functions of grain size (or the level spacing d between discrete electronic states) for the cases of odd and even numbers of electrons by applying the random matrix theory to the mean field theory. We find the presence of enhancement of superconductivity and critical dc, where the superconductivity of small grains breaks down. This agrees with Anderson's prediction (1959 J. Phys. Chem. Solids 11 28). We find that in the grains, as the size is lowered,the transition temperature Tc' decreases and A'(O, d)/kBTc' ≤πe-γ in odd numbers of electrons, and for Gaussian orthogonal and unitary ensembles in some regimes △'(0, d)/kBTc' >πe-γ in even numbers of electrons.

  2. Deep levels and radiation effects in p-InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. A.; Singh, A.; Jiao, K.; Lee, B.

    1989-01-01

    A survey was conducted on past studies of hole traps in InP. An experiment was designed to evaluate hole traps in Zn-doped InP after fabrication, after electron irradiation and after annealing using deep level transient spectroscopy. Data similar to that of Yamaguchi was seen with observation of both radiation-induced hole and electron traps at E sub A=0.45 eV and 0.03 eV, respectively. Both traps are altered by annealing. It is also shown that trap parameters for surface-barrier devices are influenced by many factors such as bias voltage, which probes traps at different depths below the surface. These devices require great care in data evaluation.

  3. Health effects in the Flemish population in relation to low levels of mercury exposure: from organ to transcriptome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Kim; De Coster, Sam; De Galan, Sandra; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nelen, Vera; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Colles, Ann; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Baeyens, Willy; Gao, Yue

    2014-03-01

    Due to possible health risks, quantification of mercury accumulation in humans was included in the Flemish biomonitoring programmes FLEHS I (2002-2006) and FLEHS II (2007-2011). The general objective of FLEHS I was to assess regional exposure levels in order to link possible differences in these internal exposure levels to different types of local environmental pressure. Therefore, Hg and MMHg (methylmercury) were only measured in pooled blood samples per region and per age class. In FLEHS II, mercury concentrations were measured in hair of each participant. About 200 adolescents and 250 mothers (reference group) and two times 200 adolescents (2 hotspots) were screened. The main objectives of the FLEHS II study were: (1) to determine reference levels of mercury in hair for Flanders; (2) to assess relations between mercury exposure and possible sources like fish consumption; (3) to assess dose-effect relations between mercury exposure and health effect markers. The results showed that mercury concentrations in the Flemish population were rather low compared to other studies. Mercury levels in the Flemish populations were strongly related to the age of the participants and consumption of fish. Significant negative associations were observed between mercury in hair and asthma, having received breast feeding as a newborn, age at menarche in girls, allergy for animals and free testosterone levels. Significant correlations were also observed between mercury in hair and genes JAK2, ARID4A, Hist1HA4L (boys) and HLAdrb5, PIAS2, MANN1B1, GIT and ABCA1 (girls).

  4. Effects of low-level deuterium enrichment on bacterial growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshu Xie

    Full Text Available Using very precise (±0.05% measurements of the growth parameters for bacteria E. coli grown on minimal media, we aimed to determine the lowest deuterium concentration at which the adverse effects that are prominent at higher enrichments start to become noticeable. Such a threshold was found at 0.5% D, a surprisingly high value, while the ultralow deuterium concentrations (≤0.25% D showed signs of the opposite trend. Bacterial adaptation for 400 generations in isotopically different environment confirmed preference for ultralow (≤0.25% D enrichment. This effect appears to be similar to those described in sporadic but multiple earlier reports. Possible explanations include hormesis and isotopic resonance phenomena, with the latter explanation being favored.

  5. Review of health effects models for Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many international organizations have developed health risk models. Especially, as radiation-induced cancer is an important part among health effects, development has been focused on cancer risk model. This paper reviewed the cancer risk models of international agencies; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Moreover, as pre-research for improving the health risk model in Korea, this paper analyzed the three methodologies and specific details in modeling. International agencies have developed radiation-induced cancer risk model reflecting the recent A-bomb survivor LSS data. This paper reviewed the recent cancer risk model of UNSCEAR, NAS and ICRP. All three models were based on ERR and EAR model in the form of a multiplication of dose-response model and modification function. Lifetime risk was calculated as a function of exposure age and gender.

  6. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  7. New public diplomacy and its effects on international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this article is to make known the new type of public diplomacy and the effects this new diplomacy can have internationally. The objectives of our article refer to the context of change, the role of the media in public diplomacy, new approaches and elements of public diplomacy, current diplomacy in scientific and technical way and the use of scientific cooperation to improve bilateral relations between countries.

  8. Prenatal Effects of Exposure to High-Level Noise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    responses could be recorded from the other 5 subjects; the investigators attribute this failure to the use of an oxytocin infusion in order to effect labor ...found to remain constant. The latencies of the fetal heart changes were as short as one second after tone onset , ruling out the likelihood that the fetal...sound stimuli was reported. Crimwade et al. (1970) used both vibrators and sound stimuli to record the fetal heart rate in 32 patients in labor

  9. Effective multi-level energy reporting in South African industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maneschijn, R.; Vosloo, J.C.; Pelzer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Energy management standards received significant attention in recent years for assisting intensive users in improving energy management processes. However, applying such a standard to the Energy Management System of an industrial consumer is most effective if supported by an Energy Information Management System. Energy Information Management Systems are commercially available and have been applied in South African industry. However, one notable shortfall of the majority of these systems is in...

  10. Metabolic Effect Level Index Links Multivariate Metabolic Fingerprints to Ecotoxicological Effect Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Schreiber, René; Otto, Matthias; Heilmeier, Hermann; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-07-07

    A major goal of ecotoxicology is the prediction of adverse outcomes for populations from sensitive and early physiological responses. A snapshot of the physiological state of an organism can be provided by metabolic fingerprints. However, to inform chemical risk assessment, multivariate metabolic fingerprints need to be converted to readable end points suitable for effect estimation and comparison. The concentration- and time-dependent responsiveness of metabolic fingerprints to the PS-II inhibitor isoproturon was investigated by use of a Myriophyllum spicatum bioassay. Hydrophilic and lipophilic leaf extracts were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and preprocessed with XCMS. Metabolic changes were aggregated in the quantitative metabolic effect level index (MELI), allowing effect estimation from Hill-based concentration-response models. Hereby, the most sensitive response on the concentration scale was revealed by the hydrophilic MELI, followed by photosynthetic efficiency and, 1 order of magnitude higher, by the lipophilic MELI and shoot length change. In the hydrophilic MELI, 50% change compares to 30% inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency and 10% inhibition of dry weight change, indicating effect development on different response levels. In conclusion, aggregated metabolic fingerprints provide quantitative estimates and span a broad response spectrum, potentially valuable for establishing adverse outcome pathways of chemicals in environmental risk assessment.

  11. Nanogold – Biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanogold has different properties and biological activity compared to metallic gold. It can be applied in many fields, such as medicine, laboratory diagnostics and electronics. Studies on laboratory animals show that nanogold can be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion. It can penetrate deep into the epidermis and dermis, but there is no evidence that it is absorbed through the skin. Gold nanoobjects accumulate mainly in the liver and spleen, but they can also reach other internal organs. Nanogold can cross the blood–brain and blood–placenta barriers. Toxicokinetics of nanogold depends on the particle size, shape and surface charge. In animals exposure to gold nanoparticles via inhalation induces slight changes in the lungs. Exposure to nanogold by the oral route does not cause adverse health effects in rodents. In animals after injection of gold nanoobjects changes in the liver and lungs were observed. Nanogold induced genotoxic effects in cells, but not in animals. No adverse effects on the fetus or reproduction were found. There are no carcinogenicity studies on gold nanoparticles. The mechanism of toxicity may be related to the interaction of gold nanoobjects with proteins and DNA, and it leads to the induction of oxidative stress and genetic material damage. The impact of nanostructures on human health has not yet been fully understood. The person, who works with nanomaterials should exercise extreme caution and apply existing recommendations on the evaluation of nanoobjects exposure. The risk assessment should be the basis for taking appropriate measures to limit potential exposure to nanometals, including nanogold. Med Pr 2017;68(4:545–556

  12. The effects of globotriaosylceramide tail saturation level on bilayer phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Chaban, Vitaly V; Johannes, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    of the Gb3 concentration and its acyl chain saturation on the phase behaviour of a mixed bilayer of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and Gb3. The simulation results show that: (1) the Gb3 acyl chains (longer tails) from one leaflet interdigitate into the opposing leaflet and lead to significant bilayer...... rigidification and immobilisation of the lipid tails. S-Gb3 can form a highly ordered, relatively immobile phase which is resistant to bending while these changes for U-Gb3 are not significant. (2) At low concentrations of Gb3, U-Gb3 and S-Gb3 have a similar impact on the bilayer reminiscent of the effect...

  13. Current research on biological effects of low-level exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    Rather substantial numbers of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and radiation display U-shaped or seemingly paradoxical dose-response relationships. A limited listing of studies providing examples of data fitting the U-shaped curve has been published. This array suggests that the U-shaped response is broadly generalizable and therefore potentially of considerable significance in the toxicological and public health domains. In fact, in 1992 and 1993, three conferences (Japan, United States, and China) were held exclusively on the topic of the biological effects of low doses of chemicals and radioactivity with articular emphasis on U-shaped curves. Substantial efforts have been made at understanding this observation.

  14. Preliminary investigation of the effects of sea-level rise on groundwater levels in New Haven, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerklie, David M.; Mullaney, John R.; Stone, Janet R.; Skinner, Brian J.; Ramlow, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Global sea level rose about 0.56 feet (ft) (170 millimeters (mm)) during the 20th century. Since the 1960s, sea level has risen at Bridgeport, Connecticut, about 0.38 ft (115 mm), at a rate of 0.008 ft (2.56 mm + or - 0.58 mm) per year. With regional subsidence, and with predicted global climate change, sea level is expected to continue to rise along the northeast coast of the United States through the 21st century. Increasing sea levels will cause groundwater levels in coastal areas to rise in order to adjust to the new conditions. Some regional climate models predict wetter climate in the northeastern United States under some scenarios. Scenarios for the resulting higher groundwater levels have the potential to inundate underground infrastructure in lowlying coastal cities. New Haven is a coastal city in Connecticut surrounded and bisected by tidally affected waters. Monitoring of water levels in wells in New Haven from August 2009 to July 2010 indicates the complex effects of urban influence on groundwater levels. The response of groundwater levels to recharge and season varied considerably from well to well. Groundwater temperatures varied seasonally, but were warmer than what was typical for Connecticut, and they seem to reflect the influence of the urban setting, including the effects of conduits for underground utilities. Specific conductance was elevated in many of the wells, indicating the influence of urban activities or seawater in Long Island Sound. A preliminary steady-state model of groundwater flow for part of New Haven was constructed using MODFLOW to simulate current groundwater levels (2009-2010) and future groundwater levels based on scenarios with a rise of 3 ft (0.91 meters (m)) in sea level, which is predicted for the end of the 21st century. An additional simulation was run assuming a 3-ft rise in sea level combined with a 12-percent increase in groundwater recharge. The model was constructed from existing hydrogeologic information for the

  15. Effect of surface charge on hydrophobicity levels of insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Villa, V.M.; Ponce-Velez, M.A.; Valle-Jaime, E.; Fierro-Chavez, J.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Mor (Mexico). Unidad de Materiales Electricos

    1998-11-01

    A correlation between the hydrophobic characteristics and accumulation of static charge on several insulating surfaces (ceramic and non- ceramic) is studied. Although numerous experimental studies on the loss and recovery of hydrophobicity on insulator surfaces have been carried out, no efforts for establishing a correlation between such hydrophobic properties and the presence of surface charge have yet been made, especially when attention is paid to ceramic surfaces. This experiment consists of simultaneous measurements of surface charge decay and contact angle recovery against time on samples previously exposed to corona impingement; a comparison between charge decay and hydrophobicity recovery trends is then made. From the data obtained, a lowering of the original hydrophobicity level for each material as a consequence of surface charge accumulation is identified. The decay of surface charge and the corresponding recovery of the initial hydrophobic characteristics with time are observed. Loss and recovery of hydrophobicity resulting from surface charging and charge decay, respectively, are identified as mechanisms occurring not only on polymeric surfaces, but also on ceramic ones. From a number of laboratory studies it has been confirmed, and extensively reported by several researchers, that surface charging of insulators due to electrical activity (partial discharging) can be achieved. Based on the above, as well as on the results obtained from this experimental work, surface charging of insulators is a phenomenon which may occur under realistic operational conditions, and is therefore proposed as a factor responsible for the loss of the initial highly hydrophobic characteristics of polymeric insulators and coatings, in addition to other well established mechanisms. (author)

  16. Effects of language intervention on syntactic skill levels in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of input in the growth of syntactic skills have generated substantial debate within psychology and linguistics. The authors address these questions by investigating the effects of experimentally manipulated input on children's skill with the passive voice. The study involved 72 four-year-olds who listened to stories containing either a high proportion of passive voice sentences or a high proportion of active voice sentences. Following 10 story sessions, children's production and comprehension of passives were assessed. Intervention type affected performance--children who heard stories with passive sentences produced more passive constructions (and with fewer mistakes) and showed higher comprehension scores than children who heard stories with active sentences. Theoretical implications of these results for the understanding of the nature of syntactic skills and practical implications for the development of preschool materials are discussed.

  17. Assessing Level and Effectiveness of Corrosion Education in the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwee Ling Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of corrosion can be minimized by an engineering workforce well trained in corrosion fundamentals and management. Since the United Arab Emirates incurs the second highest cost of corrosion after Saudi Arabia, this paper examined the quality of corrosion education in the UAE. Surveys with academia and industry respondents showed that dedicated corrosion courses and engineering courses that integrated corrosion into the curricula were available in UAE universities, but graduates had insufficient knowledge of corrosion engineering and superficial understanding of corrosion in real-life design contexts. The effectiveness of corrosion education is determined by both competence in corrosion knowledge/skills and availability of resources (faculty and research. Though most departments would not hire new corrosion-specialist faculty, department research efforts and industry partnerships in corrosion research were present. The paper concluded with recommendations for improving knowledge and skills of future engineers in corrosion and enhancing corrosion instruction to better meet industry needs.

  18. Lateral facilitation--no effect on the target noise level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Mikhail; Sagi, Dov

    2010-11-23

    The detection threshold of a centrally placed Gabor target is reduced in the presence of aligned high-contrast Gabor patches that are optimally spaced from the target (Polat & Sagi, 1993). Here we determined whether threshold reduction is due to signal enhancement or to decreased signal response variability (internal noise), using a recently developed analysis for a Signal Detection Theory (SDT)-based contrast-identification paradigm (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2007a). We found that flankers did not affect internal noise, but instead caused increased target response when collinear with it, in agreement with the lateral facilitation effect. Based on these results, we concluded that lateral facilitation can be explained by signal enhancement only, and that uncertainty-based models do not provide a satisfactory description of the data.

  19. Effects of spaceflight on levels and activity of immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Berry, Wallace D.; Mandel, Adrian D.; Konstantinova, Irena V.; Taylor, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on cells from rats that had been flown on Soviet Biosputnik Cosmos 1887 to explore the effects of speceflight on immune responses. Rat bone marrow cells were examined for their response to colony stimulating factor-M. Rat spleen and bone marrow cells were stained with antibodies directed against cell surface antigenic markers. The results of the studies indicate that bone marrow cells from flown rats showed a decreased response to colony stimulating factor. There was a higher percentage of spleen cells from flown rats staining positively for pan-T-cell, suppressor-T-cell, and interleukin-2 receptor cell surface antigens. A small increase in the percentage of cells staining positively for helper-T-cell antigens was also noted. In addition, a higher percentage of cells that appeared to be part of the myelogenous population of bone marrow cells from flown rats stained positively for surface immunoglobulin.

  20. Effect of thyroxine treatment on carnitine levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederblad, G; Engström, G

    1978-07-01

    The effect in mice of 8 subcutaneous injections of 20 microgram of L-thyroxine at 12 hr-intervals on the carnitine concentration in the heart and skeletal muscle tissue was studied. In skeletal muscle tissue, the thyroxine treatment resulted in a depressed carnitine concentration. The mean values were 1.59 +/- 0.034 (S.E.M.) and 2.03 +/- 0.045 mumol/g noncollagen protein and 1.11 +/- 0.035 and 1.45 +/- 0.037 mumol/g dry weight for the thyroxine treated and the control animals, respectively. Thyroxine produced myocardial hypertrophy. The thyroxine treated animals had lower cardiac values when dry weight was used as reference base 4.17 +/- 0.10 mumol/g dry weight than the control group, 4.69 +/- 0.18 mumol/g dry weight. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups when the cardiac carnitine concentration was expressed per g noncollagen protein or as carnitine in the entire hearts. Thus, thyroxine has been showed to influence the metabolism of carnitine in mice.

  1. Ethanol teratogenesis in Japanese medaka: effects at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Chaudhary, Amit; Khan, Ikhlas A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2008-01-01

    The adverse effects of alcohol on the developing humans represent a spectrum of structural and neurobehavioral abnormalities, most appropriately termed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The mechanism by which ethanol induces FASD is unknown. Human studies of FASD are very limited due to ethical constraints; however, several animal models from nematodes to mammals are utilized to understand the molecular mechanism of this disorder. We have used Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo-larval development as a unique non-mammalian model to study the molecular mechanism of FASD. Fertilized medaka eggs were exposed to ethanol (0-400 mM) for 48 h post fertilization (hpf) and then maintained in regular embryo rearing medium without ethanol. Viable embryos were harvested on 0, 2, 4 and 6 day post fertilization (dpf) and analyzed for DNA, RNA and protein contents of the embryos. By applying semi-quantitative RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), RNA samples were further analyzed for seven transcription factors, emx2, en2, iro3, otx2, shh, wnt1 and zic5 which are expressed in the neural tube of medaka embryo during early phase of development. RNA and protein contents of the embryos were significantly reduced by ethanol at 400 mM dose on 4 and 6 dpf compared to the control (no ethanol), and 100 mM ethanol treated embryos. However, significant reduction of DNA was observed only in 4 dpf embryos. Total protein contents of yolk remained unaltered after ethanol treatment. Expression pattern of emx2, en2, iro3, otx2, shh, wnt1, and zic5 mRNAs were found to be developmentally regulated, however, remained unaltered after ethanol treatment. It is therefore concluded that alteration of nucleic acid and protein contents of medaka embryo by ethanol could be used as an indicator of embryonic growth retardation which might be the result of disruption of specific gene function during development.

  2. Combined effects of projected sea level rise, storm surge, and peak river flows on water levels in the Skagit Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, Josheph J; Hamlet, Alan F.; Fuller, Roger; Grossman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Current understanding of the combined effects of sea level rise (SLR), storm surge, and changes in river flooding on near-coastal environments is very limited. This project uses a suite of numerical models to examine the combined effects of projected future climate change on flooding in the Skagit floodplain and estuary. Statistically and dynamically downscaled global climate model scenarios from the ECHAM-5 GCM were used as the climate forcings. Unregulated daily river flows were simulated using the VIC hydrology model, and regulated river flows were simulated using the SkagitSim reservoir operations model. Daily tidal anomalies (TA) were calculated using a regression approach based on ENSO and atmospheric pressure forcing simulated by the WRF regional climate model. A 2-D hydrodynamic model was used to estimate water surface elevations in the Skagit floodplain using resampled hourly hydrographs keyed to regulated daily flood flows produced by the reservoir simulation model, and tide predictions adjusted for SLR and TA. Combining peak annual TA with projected sea level rise, the historical (1970–1999) 100-yr peak high water level is exceeded essentially every year by the 2050s. The combination of projected sea level rise and larger floods by the 2080s yields both increased flood inundation area (+ 74%), and increased average water depth (+ 25 cm) in the Skagit floodplain during a 100-year flood. Adding sea level rise to the historical FEMA 100-year flood resulted in a 35% increase in inundation area by the 2040's, compared to a 57% increase when both SLR and projected changes in river flow were combined.

  3. Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain levels in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Leite de Moraes Maia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are characterized by the presence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ and/or masticatory muscle pain and dysfunction. Low-level laser is presented as an adjuvant therapeutic modality for the treatment of TMD, especially when the presence of inflammatory pain is suspected. Objective: To systematically review studies that investigated the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the pain levels in individuals with TMD. Material and Methods: The databases Scopus, embase, ebsco and PubMed were reviewed from January/2003 to October/2010 with the following keywords: laser therapy, low-level laser therapy, temporomandibular joint disorders, temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome, temporomandibular joint, temporomandibular, facial pain and arthralgia, with the inclusion criteria for intervention studies in humans. exclusion criteria adopted were intervention studies in animals, studies that were not written in english, Spanish or Portuguese, theses, monographs, and abstracts presented in scientific events. Results: After a careful review, 14 studies fit the criteria for inclusion, of which, 12 used a placebo group. As for the protocol for laser application, the energy density used ranged from 0.9 to 105 J/cm², while the power density ranged from 9.8 to 500 mW. The number of sessions varied from 1 to 20 and the frequency of applications ranged from daily for 10 days to 1 time per week for 4 weeks. A reduction in pain levels was reported in 13 studies, with 9 of these occurring only in the experimental group, and 4 studies reporting pain relief for both the experimental group and for the placebo. Conclusion: Most papers showed that LLLT seemed to be effective in reducing pain from TMD. However, the heterogeneity of the standardization regarding the parameters of laser calls for caution in interpretation of these results. Thus, it is necessary to conduct further research in order to obtain a consensus regarding the

  4. Using panel data to determine the effect of advertising on brand-level distilled spirits sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gius, M P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect that brand-level advertising has on brand-level spirits demand. Using a panel data set consisting of 16 brands and 14 years of data, a fixed effects model of brand-level spirits demand was estimated. It was found that own-brand advertising, income, rival-brand price, a time trend and brand loyalty all have a significant effect on brand-level spirits demand. These results indicate that brand-level spirits advertising results only in brand switching and does not increase the overall size of the market.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE LEVELS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS UPON THEIR DEPRESSION LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan ISIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was planned to evaluate the effects of the quality of life levels of university students upon their depression levels. The students of School of Physical Education and Sports who took physical activity courses (n=148 and students of other academ ic branches who did not take physical activity courses (n=180 participated in the study voluntarily. To the participant individuals; SF - 36 quality of life scale (8 subscales, 2 summary scores, Beck Depression Inventory (Total scores and a personal infor mation form (about age, height, weight, sportive age, marital status and income status were administered. When intergroup quality of life subscale differences were examined; it was found out that there was a statistically significant difference in physic al functioning (t=6.810; p0.05. As for the quality of life summary scores; a statistically significant difference exist ed in physical health summary scores (t=3.580; p0.05. Again; intergroup depression scores were investigated; it was found out that students who stud ied at other academic departments had higher depression scores than those who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports (t= - 6.855; p<0.001. It was concluded that physical activities had positive effects upon both quality of life and depression le vels and that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression levels.

  6. The effects of student-level and classroom-level factors on elementary students' science achievement in five countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects (Lamb & Fullarton, 2002) as well as understanding how these factors operate across countries (Baker, Fabrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004). The current study examined the individual student factors and classroom factors on fourth grade science achievement within and across five countries. Guided by the previous school learning models, the elements of students' science learning were categorized as student-level and classroom-level factors. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science, and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the United States and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia, and Scotland were reported. Multilevel effects of student and classroom variables were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 fourth grade dataset. The outcome variable was the TIMSS 2003 science score. Overall, the results of this study showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student-level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom-level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the U.S. and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the U.S. and Australia. Experimental studies that investigate the impacts of teacher and instructional factors on elementary science achievement are

  7. [Effectiveness, population-level effects, and heath economics of measles and rubella vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, O; Ultsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against measles and rubella has been included in national immunization programs worldwide for several decades. In this article, we present the evidence related to the effectiveness of measles and rubella vaccination based on published systematic reviews, and we describe the epidemiological and health economic effects of vaccination at a population level. Several observational studies demonstrate the high effectiveness (> 90 %) of both measles and rubella vaccination. The global measles mortality reduction and the dramatic decrease in rubella and measles incidences after introduction of routine immunization contribute to the very high quality of evidence. The countries of the Americas have proved that it is feasible to eliminate measles and rubella by strengthening infant immunization through routine vaccination services and by conducting supplemental immunization activities in other childhood age groups so as to close immunity gaps. An economic evaluation of measles and rubella vaccination specifically for the healthcare system in Germany does not exist. However, we conducted a systematic review and identified 11 health-economic studies from other industrialized countries and one for a hypothetical industrialized country. Results indicate that vaccination against measles and rubella had either a cost-effective or even a cost-saving potential, which could be assumed with some limitations also for the German setting. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that the available vaccines are very effective and that measles and rubella elimination is feasible if adequate vaccination strategies are implemented. In Germany, catch-up vaccination programs are urgently needed for children, adolescents, and young adults specifically in the western federal states.

  8. The effect of bisphenol A and chlorinated derivatives of bisphenol A on the level of serum vitellogenin in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, A; Watanabe, N; Yamamoto, I; Ohnishi, Y; Itoh, M; Kamei, T; Magara, Y; Terao, Y

    2004-01-01

    2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane or Bisphenol A (BPA), has been reported to behave as an endocrine disrupter below acute toxic levels, and is widely present in the water environment. Although BPA is easily chlorinated, very little is reported on the effect of chlorinated BPA to the aquatic organisms. In this study, the estrogenic activities of BPA and its chlorinated derivatives were evaluated by the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in the serum of mature male Japanese medaka. In addition, the effect of sodium hypochlorite on the decomposition of BPA was tested. The relative potencies of estrogenic activities of chlorinated BPA descended in the order 3,3'-diCIBPA>BPA> or =3-CIBPA>3,3',5-triCIBPA, and no estrogenic activity was observed in 3,3',5,5'-tetraCIBPA. Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for both 3-CIBPA and 3,3'-diCIBPA were 500 microg/L and 200 microg/L, respectively. LOEC for 3,3',5-triCIBPA was >500 microg/L. When BPA was reacted with sodium hypochlorite (24 hours; residual chlorine at 1 ppm), however, complete decomposition of BPA and its chlorinated derivatives was observed. The decrease in BPA and its chlorinated derivatives paralleled the decrease in estrogenic potency evaluated by the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in the serum of mature male Japanese medaka.

  9. Effects of Asynchronous Music on Students' Lesson Satisfaction and Motivation at the Situational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digelidis, Nikolaos; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Papapavlou, Anastasia; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students' motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; M [subscript…

  10. Effects of Asynchronous Music on Students' Lesson Satisfaction and Motivation at the Situational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digelidis, Nikolaos; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Papapavlou, Anastasia; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students' motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; M [subscript…

  11. Evaluation of the Dynamic Velocity Effect for Steam Generator Wide Range Water Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Soo; Nam, Ki Haeng; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Yun, Jae Hee [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The measurement of Steam Generator (SG) water level is based upon pressure differential of the level transmitter. As shown in Fig. 1, if the location of a lower tap is in the downcomer region, a deviation between the indicated level and the actual level occurs. This phenomenon is called 'velocity effect' or 'dynamic effect.' This effect needs to be addressed to obtain a more accurate SG water level. Korean Utility Requirements Document (KURD) requires Downcomer Velocity Effect (DVE) to be quantified and to be considered in the instrument requirements. In this paper, DVE occurred through downcomer will be evaluated for SG wide range (WR) level for OPR1000

  12. Comparing State- Versus Facility-Level Effects on Crowding in U.S. Correctional Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Benjamin; Wooldredge, John

    2008-01-01

    The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated…

  13. Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the C-reactive protein level in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Bartels, Else M; Bliddal, Henning;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs.......To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs....

  14. Classroom-Level Effects on the Reading and Behavior of At-Risk Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Carrie R.; Finch, W. Holmes; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has documented that classroom-level variables have a significant effect on student outcomes; however, previous findings have typically focused on average student outcomes and have only recently begun to use hierarchical linear modeling techniques. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of classroom-level variables on the…

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  16. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  17. Effects of Metformin on Serum Levels of Secreted Klotho and Leptin in PCOS Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savadali Saifi Novashnag

    2016-07-01

    Patients’ weights showed some decline. Fasting plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance decreased significantly (p<0.01. Hormonal assays indicated significant decrease in leptin and insulin levels and rise in Klotho levels. BMIs did not change meaningfully. Measurements of leptin and klotho levels showed a decrease in mean leptin levels from 34.74 to 28.41 ng/l and the level of klotho increased from 4.01 to 5.43 ng/l. Conclusion: This study showed that metformin treatment can cause a rise in klotho and a decrease in leptin levels without considerable effects on the weights of women with PCOS. Probably, leptin exerts its physiological effects in low concentrations while klotho in contrast acts physiologically in higher concentrations.

  18. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  19. Effectiveness of Five-Level Emergency Severity Index Triage System Compared With Three-Level Spot Check: An Iranian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Triage for patients’ prioritization in the emergency department is a suitable solution to decrease overcrowding. Different methods are used for prioritization that needs effectiveness evaluation. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the emergency severity index (ESI 5-level triage system in contrast with spot check triage. Patients and Methods Data for this quasi-experimental study were extracted using a form to review 770 records of patients referred to emergency department of Imam Khomeini hospital (in Sari, north of Iran during two separated periods each for four months; the first from 20th March to 19th July 2010 and the other from 21 March to 20 July 2011. The method used in the first time was spot check triage and the second one ESI triage. Data were processed with descriptive statistics and analyzed using independent samples t-test (CI = 95%. Results Increase from 6.46 to 8.92 minutes in the average time from patient arrival to being visited by a physician (P < 0.001 and increase in average time from physician visit to receive the first nursing care from 7.68 to 15.89 minutes were significant (P < 0.001. The average waiting time for laboratory services was significantly decreased from 112.3 to 84.1 (P = 0.033. Increase in the average waiting time for radiology, decrease in average waiting time for sonography, average length of stay in the emergency department, and number of patients per emergency bed were not significant. Conclusions Between the two systems of triage, ESI was more effective than the spot check and in the spatial and temporal domain of research, was a successful method in improving some indicators of emergency and improving the performance indices. Hospital managers by implementation of ESI system can take a step toward new health policies and improve the processes as key tools of continuous quality improvement system.

  20. GIS analysis of effects of future Baltic sea level rise on the island of Gotland, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, K.; K. Ekstedt; J. Jarsjö

    2016-01-01

    Future sea level rise as a consequence of global warming will affect the world's coastal regions. Even though the pace of sea level rise is not clear, the consequences will be severe and global. Commonly the effects of future sea level rise are investigated for relatively vulnerable development countries; however, a whole range of varying regions needs to be considered in order to improve the understanding of global consequences. In this paper we investigate consequences of ...

  1. Effects of prebiotic, protein level, and stocking density on performance, immunity, and stress indicators of broilers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Houshmand, M; Azhar, K; Zulkifli, I; Bejo, M H; Kamyab, A

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of period on the performance, immunity, and some stress indicators of broilers fed 2 levels of protein and stocked at a normal or high stocking density...

  2. Effects of sulfasalazine treatment on serum immunoglobulin levels in children with juvenile chronic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, MAJ; Fiselier, TJW; Franssen, MJAN; ten Cate, R; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Wulffraat, NM; van Luijk, WHJ; Oostveen, JCM; Kuis, W; Dijkmans, BAC; van Soesbergen, RM

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the effects of sulfasalazine (SSZ) treatment on serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels in 6 children with oligoarticular- or polyarticular onset juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). None of the children who developed dysimmunoglobulinemia during treatment showed clinical symptoms of th

  3. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine and lipoprotein (a levels during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hekmati Azar Mehrabani

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although FA supplementation decreased serum levels of Hcy in different MTHFR genotypes, serum Lp(a was not changed by FA supplements. Our data suggests that FA supplementation effects on serum Hcy is MTHFR genotype independent in pregnant women.

  4. Matching business-level strategic controls to strategy: Impact on control system effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiegener, Mark K

    1994-01-01

    ... if they are to lead their organizations toward long-term strategic objectives. The contingent relationships between strategic control, business-level strategy, and the perceived effectiveness of the strategic control system are explored...

  5. Locus of Word Frequency Effects in Spelling to Dictation: Still at the Orthographic Level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological…

  6. Instructional strategy effects on the retention and transfer of procedures of different difficulty level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Otto; Pieters, Jules M.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of two instructional strategies on the retention and transfer of procedures of different difficulty level were investigated. Difficulty level was manipulated by providing a different number of cues during training. The instructional strategies differed with respect

  7. Effects of Role Conflict on Counselor Trainees' Self-Statements, Anxiety Level, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated if and how role conflict affects counselor trainees' self-statements, anxiety level, and performance. Results suggested role conflict may produce few adverse effects on beginning trainees' self-evaluations, affect, or behavior. Trainee performance was inversely related to anxiety level, and anxiety was inversely related to strength of…

  8. Effects of Swimming Training on Stress Levels of the Students Aged 11-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…

  9. Multi-level fuzzy comprehensive appraisal on social effects of projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立新; 李良宝; 李晓东; 王强

    2004-01-01

    The application of multi-level fuzzy comprehensive appraisal on social effects of projects has been studied. The principles for setting up an index system have been analyzed and the index system has been set up according to projects of construction. Models for multi-level fuzzy comprehensive appraisal have been offered and relative calculation steps have been given according to project instances.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy Toothbrush in Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghini, Jaber; Mogharehabed, Ahmad; Safavi, Nassimeh; Mohamadi, Mehrnush; Ashtiju, Fahime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dentin hypersensitivity is one of the most common complications that affect patients after periodontal therapy. Recently low level laser therapy has been introduced as a new treatment modality and has produced beneficial results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy toothbrushes in reduction of dentin hypersensitivity.

  11. The Effect of Online Planning, Strategic Planning and Rehearsal across Two Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Shahri, Mohammad Naseh Nasrollahi

    2017-01-01

    The study presents an investigation of the effect of strategic planning, online planning and rehearsal on the fluency, accuracy and complexity of oral productions at two proficiency levels. Forty EFL participants at low and intermediate levels performed picture story tasks in three different conditions: the online planning only condition,…

  12. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate,…

  13. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  14. Analysis of Bullwhip Effect for Two-level Supply Chain with Multi-distributed Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LirongCui

    2004-01-01

    The bullwhip effect is studied for two-level supply chain with multi-distributed centers. First the model for two-level supply chain with multi-distributed centers is established under some assumptions, then the mathematical description is given for it. Finally a simple example is showed to illustrate the results obtained in the paper.

  15. Relationship between protecitve effect of probucol on endothelial cells and asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-linJIANG; Xiao-hongZHANG; Han-wuDENG; Yuan-JianLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between protective effect of probucol on endothelial cells and endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels. METHODS: Endothelial cells were treated with oxidative-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) (100 rag/L) or lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) (5 mg/L) for 48 h, and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), levels of nitric oxide (NO),

  16. The effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia (mouth dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlić Verica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Xerostomia is a subjective complaint of mouth/oral dryness, caused by a reduction in normal salivary secretion due to different causes. Even though there are many available treatment modalities to enhance salivary flow, the therapy often remains unsatisfactory. The low-level laser therapy (low-level laser irradiation, photo-biomodulation has been extensively used as a new, non-invasive approach and advantageous tool for reduction of xerostomia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to give a systematic overview on the effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia. Material and Methods. A systematic review of published articles in PubMed database was carried out using keywords: ”low-level laser therapy”, ”xerostomia”, ”mouth dryness”. Results. In all published articles, which were considered adequate for this overview, positive effects of low-level laser therapy were reported. Low-level laser therapy could significantly enhance salivary secretion and improve antimicrobial characteristics of secreted saliva (increased level of secretory immunoglobulin A; sIgA. Furthermore, low-level laser therapy could improve salivary flow and regeneration of salivary duct epithelial cells. Conclusion. The current literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be safely and effectively used as an advanced treatment modality for reduction of xerostomia. Further in vivo, in vitro and clinical studies using different irradiation parameters are suggested to determine the best laser parameters to be used.

  17. Population-level impact and herd effects following human papillomavirus vaccination programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Bénard, Élodie; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes were first implemented in several countries worldwide in 2007. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the population-level consequences and herd effects after female HPV vaccination programmes, to verify whether...... results are promising for the long-term population-level effects of HPV vaccination programmes. However, continued monitoring is essential to identify any signals of potential waning efficacy or type-replacement. FUNDING: The Canadian Institutes of Health Research....

  18. Spin Cut-off Parameter of Nuclear Level Density and Effective Moment of Inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.N. Behkami; M. Soltani

    2005-01-01

    The spin cut-off parameter of the nuclear level density and effective moment of inertia for a large number of nuclei have been determined from analysis of the experimental data on S-wave neutron resonances and spins of lowlying levels. Contrary to claims made before, it is shown the spin cut-off parameter differs considerably from their corresponding rigid body values, and the energy dependence of the effective moment of inertia confirms the interacting fermion model prediction.

  19. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  20. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  1. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  2. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  3. The effect of serum magnesium levels and serum endothelin-1 levels on bone mineral density in protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, C F; Karakelleoglu, C; Orbak, Z; Yildiz, L

    2012-06-01

    An inadequate and imbalanced intake of protein and energy results in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). It is known that bone mineral density and serum magnesium levels are low in malnourished children. However, the roles of serum magnesium and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the pathophysiology of bone mineralization are obscure. Thus, the relationships between serum magnesium and ET-1 levels and the changes in bone mineral density were investigated in this study. There was a total of 32 subjects, 25 of them had PEM and seven were controls. While mean serum ET-1 levels of the children with kwashiorkor and marasmus showed no statistically significant difference, mean serum ET-1 levels of both groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. Serum magnesium levels were lower than normal value in 9 (36%) of 25 malnourished children. Malnourished children included in this study were divided into two subgroups according to their serum magnesium levels. While mean serum ET-1 levels in the group with low magnesium levels were significantly higher than that of the group with normal magnesium levels (p malnutrition. Our study suggested that lower magnesium levels and higher ET-1 levels might be important factors in changes of bone mineral density in malnutrition. We recommend that the malnourished patients, especially with hypomagnesaemia, should be treated with magnesium early.

  4. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (Pfluoride and high fat (Pfluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (Pfluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (Pfluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (Pfluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An alternative viewpoint to the biological effects of low-level exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.R. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The effects of low-level exposures to toxic chemicals and radiations are presumed to be similar to those associated with higher level exposures. There is a growing body of evidence that this assumption is incorrect. Through a series of data-based examples, this paper challenges the assumptions inherent to the current toxics model and offers three alternatives: nonlinear dose response in which the effects seen at low levels may be interpreted as paradoxical, or even beneficial; a holistic model in which the outcome is the whole animal; and a trade-off model in which the unit of study is the population and not an individual.

  6. Making leaps in amphibian ecotoxicology: translating individual-level effects of contaminants to population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, J D; Hopkins, W A; Bergeron, C M; Todd, B D

    2012-09-01

    Concern that environmental contaminants contribute to global amphibian population declines has prompted extensive experimental investigation, but individual-level experimental results have seldom been translated to population-level processes. We used our research on the effects of mercury (Hg) on American toads (Bufo americanus) as a model for bridging the gap between individual-level contaminant effects and amphibian population viability. We synthesized the results of previous field and laboratory studies examining effects of Hg throughout the life cycle of B. americanus and constructed a comprehensive demographic population model to evaluate the consequences of Hg exposure on population dynamics. Our model explicitly considered density-dependent larval survival, which is known to be an important driver of amphibian population dynamics, and incorporated two important factors that have seldom been considered in previous amphibian modeling studies: environmental stochasticity and sublethal effects. We demonstrated that decreases in embryonic survival and sublethal effects (e.g., reduced body size) that delay maturation have minor effects on population dynamics, whereas contaminant effects that reduce late-larval or post-metamorphic survival have important population-level consequences. We found that excessive Hg exposure through maternal transfer or larval diet, alone, had minor effects on B. americanus populations. Simultaneous maternal and dietary exposure resulted in reduced population size and a dramatic increase in extinction probability, but explicit prediction of population-level effects was dependent on the strength of larval density dependence. Our results suggest that environmental contaminants can influence amphibian population viability, but that highly integrative approaches are needed to translate individual-level effects to populations.

  7. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed.

  8. Study the effect of Vitamin K on intracellular NAD level in yeast by fluorescence spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahong, Chen; Ruxiu, Cai; Ke, Zhang

    2007-05-01

    The intracellular NAD level plays a pivotal role in numerous biological processes such as rhythm, senescence, cancer and death. The study of the intracellular NAD level has been one of the "hotspots" in biomedical research. We investigated the effect of Vitamin K on intracellular NAD level in yeast by fluorescence spectrum in this paper. Plasma membrane redox system of yeast was found to be greatly promoted by the addition of Vitamin K 3 or Vitamin K 1. Ferricyanide reduction catalyzed by Vitamin K was accompanied by the decrease in intracellular NADH concentration and the increase in intracellular NAD level of yeast cells.

  9. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.

  10. Effects of stimulus level and rate on psychophysical thresholds for interleaved pulse trains in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michelle L; Goehring, Jenny L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Schmid, Kendra K

    2016-10-01

    This study examined channel interactions using interleaved pulse trains to assess masking and potential facilitative effects in cochlear-implant recipients using clinically relevant stimuli. Psychophysical thresholds were measured for two adjacent mid-array electrodes; one served as the masker and the other as the probe. Two rates representative of those found in present-day strategies were tested: 1700 and 3400 pulses per second per channel. Four masker levels ranging from sub-threshold to loud-but-comfortable were tested. It was hypothesized that low-level maskers would produce facilitative effects, shifting to masking effects at high levels, and that faster rates would yield smaller masking effects due to greater stochastic neural firing patterns. Twenty-nine ears with Cochlear or Advanced Bionics devices were tested. High-level maskers produced more masking than low-level maskers, as expected. Facilitation was not observed for sub-threshold or threshold-level maskers in most cases. High masker levels yielded reduced probe thresholds for two Advanced Bionics subjects. This was partly eliminated with a longer temporal offset between each masker-probe pulse pair, as was used with Cochlear subjects. These findings support the use of temporal gaps between stimulation of subsequent electrodes to reduce channel interactions.

  11. Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Seon-Rye; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of riding exercise on hormone levels in normal elderly people who were taught horseback riding for 8 weeks. [Subjects] Subjects were classified into an exercise group (n=10) and control group (n=10). [Methods] The two groups, horseback riding exercise group of 10 and control group of 10, were each tested for 15 minutes, 3 times, over 8 weeks. Post-exercise tests were implemented in both groups in the same way as pre-study tests. [Results] The horseback riding group showed a significant difference in the pre- and post-exercise serotonin and cortisol levels. Additionally, serotonin and cortisol levels showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Serotonin and cortisol levels significantly increased in the experimental group, suggesting that horseback riding exercise is effective for improving the levels of these hormones. PMID:26311966

  12. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  13. Effects of Mg on C and N Metabolism of Soybean at Different Nitrogen Supplying Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Man; LIU Yuanying; PENG Xianlong; ZHANG Wenzhao

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of magnesium on carbon and nitrogen metabolism of soybean at different nitrogen supplying levels. The results showed that the effects of magnesium at low nitrogen rate on N content, soluble protein, soluble sugar contents were not alike at different growth stage, although nodule dry weights raised, the yield and protein content of seeds decreased, however, the oil content was improved.The application of magnesium at medium and high nitrogen supplying levels promoted the uptake of N effectively,increased the soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, but the nodule dry weights of application magnesium at medium nitrogen supplying level decreased and the yield increased only a little despite the improved quality.Application of magnesium at high nitrogen supplying level raised nodule dry weights and soybean yield significantly, the quality of seeds was also improved.

  14. Effect of simvastatin versus low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone regeneration in rabbit's tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Mostafa E.; Khairy, Maggie A.

    2014-02-01

    Simvastatin is a cholesterol lowering drug which proved effective on promoting bone healing. Recently low level laser therapy (LLLT) proved its effect as a biostimulator promoting bone regeneration. This study aims to compare the effect of both Simvastatin versus low level laser on bone healing in surgically created bone defects in rabbit's tibia. Material and methods: The study included 12 New Zealand white rabbits. Three successive 3mm defects were created in rabbits tibia first defect was left as control, second defect was filled with Simvastatin while the third defect was acted on with Low Level Laser (optical fiber 320micrometer). Rabbits were sacrificed after 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks intervals. Histopathology was conducted on the three defects Results: The histopathologic studies showed that the bony defects treated with the Low Level Laser showed superior healing patterns and bone regeneration than those treated with Simvastatin. While the control defect showed the least healing pattern.

  15. Effects of alprazolam on increases in hormonal and anxiety levels induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, S; Brown, S L; Wetzler, S; Kotler, M; Molcho, A; Plutchik, R; van Praag, H M

    1994-09-01

    The effects of alprazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine, on hormonal and behavioral responses induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), a serotonin receptor agonist, were investigated in 10 healthy men. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) or placebo was given 1 hour before MCPP (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo. Cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone (GH) release, MCPP and alprazolam plasma levels, anxiety level, and panic symptoms were measured over 210 minutes. MCPP was found to increase cortisol, prolactin, GH, and anxiety levels. Alprazolam decreased cortisol and GH levels but had no effect on prolactin. When used in combination with MCPP, alprazolam blunted MCPP-induced cortisol and GH release, and it blocked the anxiogenic effects of MCPP.

  16. Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soohan; Kim, Min Hyung; Park, Jae Hee; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-01

    During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.

  17. Protective effect of berberine on serum glucose levels in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2012-03-01

    Among the active components in traditional anti-diabetic herbal plants, berberine which is an isoquinoline alkaloid exhibits promising potential for its potent anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic effects. However, the berberine effect on serum glucose levels in type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects still remains unknown. This study investigated berberine's effects on serum glucose levels using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop T1D. The NOD mice were randomly divided into four groups, administered water with 50, 150, and 500 mg berberine/kg bw, respectively, through 14 weeks. ICR mice were also selected as a species control group to compare with the NOD mice. Changes in body weight, oral glucose challenge, and serum glucose levels were determined to identify the protective effect of berberine on T1D. After the 14-week oral supplementation, berberine decreased fasting serum glucose levels in NOD mice close to the levels in normal ICR mice in a dose dependent manner. Serum berberine levels showed a significantly (Pberberine-administered NOD mice. Our results suggested that berberine supplemented at appropriate doses for 14 weeks did not cause toxic side effects, but improved hyperglycemia in NOD mice.

  18. Leveling effects of ammonium salts on thermal stabilities of polyethylene glycols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Song, Le Xin; Liu, Wei; Teng, Yue

    2013-10-28

    In this work, the thermal stabilities of a series of polyethylene glycols (PEG 4000, 6000 and 10000) were investigated after compositing with different kinds of inorganic salts, such as ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate (AMT), NH4VO3, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, Na2SO4, Na2MoO4. It was first observed that all the ammonium salts exerted leveling effects for the thermal stabilities of the PEGs. In other words, the presence of the ammonium salts caused the occurrence of the maximum decomposition rates of the PEGs with the same repeat sequence but different chain lengths at almost the same temperatures. Leveling effects were defined by three parameters: leveling spans, leveling degrees and dispersion degrees of leveling. Further experiments revealed that leveling effects also occur in similar types of polymers: polypropylene glycols (PPG 2000, 3000 and 4000). A series of independent experiments including Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, conductivity and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were performed to explore the origin of leveling effects. We consider that the interaction between inorganic ions and polymer molecules and the Hofmeister effect of ions in solution are two important factors affecting the stability of salt–polymer composites, because they can contribute to decrease the interaction between the polymer chains, leading to changes in the conformation and pyrolysis mode of polymers. We believe that the finding of leveling effects would be significant for both basic and applied research of soft matter.

  19. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  20. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on cow manure extretion and ammonia votalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.; Vliet, van P.C.J.; Reijs, J.W.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Adjusting dietary composition is considered an effective way to reduce nutrient losses to the environment. The effects of various dietary protein and energy levels on manure composition (Ca, Mg, K, Na, N, P, and pH) were studied by determining total and direct available (free) nutrient concentration

  1. The Effects of Internationalization on Innovation: Firm-Level Evidence for Transition Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, M.A.; Roelfsema, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    It is well-documented that international enterprises are more productive. Only few studies have explored the effect of internationalization on productivity and innovation at the firm-level. Using propensity score matching we analyze the causal effects of internationalization on innovation in 10 tran

  2. Problematic Internet Usage: Personality Traits, Gender, Age and Effect of Dispositional Hope Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin Gudunz, Hicran; Eksioglu, Subhan; Tarhan, Sinem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of personality traits, gender, age and effects of dispositional hope level in problematic internet usage of university students. Research Methods: This paper is an example of a descriptive study, which presents the relationship between problematic internet usage of university students…

  3. Iodine carry over in dairy cows: effects of levels of diet fortification and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Masoero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous lactating cows were divided in three groups based on milk yield: high (H, average (A and low (L. Within each group, cows were randomly allotted to two levels of iodine inclusions into the diet and respectively: level 1 (1: base diet containing 1.55 mg/kg dry matter, level 2 (2: base diet plus 47.2 mg/d. Potassium iodide was used. Feeds, orts, drinking water and individual milk samples were collected and analysed for the iodine content. The iodine concentration and total excretion in milk were affected by the level of iodine supplementation (P<0.05. No effect on milk iodine concentration could be addressed either to the level of milk yield or to the milk yield x treatment interaction. The total amount of iodine excretion and carry over were affected (P<0.05 by the level of milk yield.

  4. Effect of x-ray irradiation on lipid peroxide levels in the rat submandibular gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, M.; Takashima, H.; Oka, T.; Ohishi, N.; Yagi, K.

    1986-07-01

    We examined the effect of local x-ray irradiation on the changes in the lipid peroxide level in submandibular gland, liver, and blood plasma. Rats five weeks of age received a single low dose of 3 Gy x-ray irradiation to their neck regions. The lipid peroxide level in the submandibular gland was significantly enhanced at seven days after irradiation, as was the level in the blood plasma at two hours, seven and 14 days after irradiation. The lipid peroxide level in the liver decreased, as compared with levels in the controls. There was a slight tendency for acinar cells of the submandibular gland to show pyknosis and anomalous nuclei within three days after irradiation. These results suggest that radiation injury results in an elevation of the lipid peroxides in the submandibular gland, and an increased level in the blood.

  5. EFFECT OF MILK UREA AND PROTEIN LEVELS ON FERTILITY INDICES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata JANKOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of milk urea and protein levels in four consecutive lactations on fertility indices of Blackand- White Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, milk recorded in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province has been made. Poorer fertility indices were found in first-calf heifers and second lactation cows receiving energy-deficient diets and in older (third and fourth lactation cows receiving excess dietary protein and energy. Best fertility was found in young cows fed excess protein (>3.60% regardless of milk urea levels, and in older cows having lower and optimum levels regardless of protein levels. Cow fertility is differentiated more by milk protein levels than by urea content. Fertility parameters were poorer in first and second lactation cows than in older cows. The coefficients of correlation between milk urea and protein levels and fertility indices were very low, with the only significant differences between protein content vs. calving interval and reproductive rest period.

  6. Robust fractional quantum Hall effect in the N=2 Landau level in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diankov, Georgi; Liang, Chi-Te; Amet, François; Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Bestwick, Andrew J.; Tharratt, Kevin; Coniglio, William; Jaroszynski, Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-12-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect is a canonical example of electron-electron interactions producing new ground states in many-body systems. Most fractional quantum Hall studies have focussed on the lowest Landau level, whose fractional states are successfully explained by the composite fermion model. In the widely studied GaAs-based system, the composite fermion picture is thought to become unstable for the N≥2 Landau level, where competing many-body phases have been observed. Here we report magneto-resistance measurements of fractional quantum Hall states in the N=2 Landau level (filling factors 4<|ν|<8) in bilayer graphene. In contrast with recent observations of particle-hole asymmetry in the N=0/N=1 Landau levels of bilayer graphene, the fractional quantum Hall states we observe in the N=2 Landau level obey particle-hole symmetry within the fully symmetry-broken Landau level. Possible alternative ground states other than the composite fermions are discussed.

  7. Robust fractional quantum Hall effect in the N=2 Landau level in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diankov, Georgi; Liang, Chi-Te; Amet, François; Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Bestwick, Andrew J; Tharratt, Kevin; Coniglio, William; Jaroszynski, Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2016-12-21

    The fractional quantum Hall effect is a canonical example of electron-electron interactions producing new ground states in many-body systems. Most fractional quantum Hall studies have focussed on the lowest Landau level, whose fractional states are successfully explained by the composite fermion model. In the widely studied GaAs-based system, the composite fermion picture is thought to become unstable for the N≥2 Landau level, where competing many-body phases have been observed. Here we report magneto-resistance measurements of fractional quantum Hall states in the N=2 Landau level (filling factors 4Landau levels of bilayer graphene, the fractional quantum Hall states we observe in the N=2 Landau level obey particle-hole symmetry within the fully symmetry-broken Landau level. Possible alternative ground states other than the composite fermions are discussed.

  8. Pitavastatin and HDL: Effects on plasma levels and function(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico L

    2017-07-01

    Low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels represent an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; in addition to the reduced HDL-C levels commonly observed in patients at cardiovascular risk, the presence of dysfunctional HDL, i.e. HDL with reduced atheroprotective properties, has been reported. Despite the established inverse correlation between HDL-C levels and cardiovascular risk, several clinical trials with HDL-C-increasing drugs (such as niacin, CETP inhibitors or fibrate) failed to demonstrate that a significant rise in HDL-C levels translate into a cardiovascular benefit. Statins, that are the most used lipid-lowering drugs, can also increase HDL-C levels, although this effect is highly variable among studies and statins; the most recent developed statin, pitavastatin, beside its role as LDL-C-lowering agent, increases HDL-C levels at a significantly higher extent and progressively upon treatment; such increase was observed also when patients where shifted from another statin to pitavastatin. The stratification by baseline HDL-C levels revealed that only pitavastatin significantly increased HDL-C levels in patients with baseline HDL-C ≤45 mg/dl, while no changes were observed in patients with higher baseline HDL-C levels. In the last years the hypothesis that functional properties of HDL may be more relevant than HDL-C levels has risen from several observations. The treatment with pitavastatin not only increased HDL-C levels, but also increased the phospholipid content of HDL, increased the HDL efflux capacity and their anti-oxidant properties. These observations suggest that, besides its high LDL-C-lowering effect, pitavastatin also exhibits a significantly higher ability to increase HDL-C levels and may also positively affect the quality and functionality of HDL particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Cinacalcet and Concurrent Low-Dose Vitamin D on FGF23 Levels in ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiguang; Krebill, Ron; Menard, Rochelle; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels are elevated in ESRD and have been associated with adverse outcomes. The effects of various treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism on FGF23 levels in ESRD have not been examined in a clinical trial. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We assessed intact FGF23 levels in 91 subjects over the course of the ACHIEVE trial, which was designed to compare escalating doses of Cinacalcet plus fixed low-dose calcitriol analogs (Cinaclcet-D) with titration of calcitriol analogs alone (Flex-D) to suppress parathyroid hormone. Between-group and within-group changes in log-transformed FGF23 levels were analyzed. Factors associated with change in FGF23 were assessed using a multiple regression model. Results: Intact FGF23 levels were markedly elevated in subjects at baseline. A statistically significant difference in percent change in log FGF23 levels was observed between treatment groups (P < 0.002). The Cinacalcet-D group had a significant decrease in percent change in log FGF23 levels (corrected P = 0.021), whereas FGF23 levels trended toward an increase in the Flex-D group. Change in FGF23 level was significantly associated with changes in levels of phosphate (P < 0.0001) and calcium (P = 0.0002) but not parathyroid hormone. Conclusions: Treatment with Cinacalcet plus low-dose calcitriol analogs results in lower FGF23 levels compared with a treatment regimen using calcitriol analogs alone in ESRD. The mechanisms underlying the differential effects of these treatment regimens on FGF23 levels and the clinical impact of these changes on FGF23 remain to be defined. PMID:19965548

  10. Effects of dietary digestible lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in the carcass of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F de C Tavernari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in the diets of male and female broilers on protein and fat deposition. A total of 2160 Avian Farms broilers. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, and treatments consisted of the effects of three digestible lysine levels nested within each sex, with 12 replicates and 30 birds per experimental unit. The adopted digestible lysine levels corresponded to 92.5, 100.0, and 107.5% of the nutritional requirements of phases 1 to 21 days, 22 to 42 days, and 43 to 56 days of age, respectively. In each phase, the experimental diets contained similar calorie and protein levels within each sex. No significant effects of lysine levels were found on dry matter and fat percentages in the carcass of birds during the evaluated periods. Also, there were no significant effects of lysine levels on protein and fat deposition in males or females. However, males presented higher protein deposition and lower fat deposition than females during the total experimental period. Gompertz equations showed that females deposit more fat and less protein than males, and that this affected the fall in the curve of protein deposition, when the curve of fat deposition was still rising. Therefore, it was concluded that the older the broilers at slaughter, the higher their body fat content and the lower their body protein content, particularly in females.

  11. The effect of erythropoietin on calcium levels during hypoxia reoxygenation injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Tsompos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study examined the effect of erythropoietin (Epo on rat model and particularly in a hypoxia-reoxygenation protocol. The effect of that molecule was studied biochemically using blood mean calcium levels (Ca++. Forty rats of mean weight 247.7 g were used in the study. Ca++ levels were measured at 60 min (groups A and C and at 120 min (groups B and D of reoxygenation. Erythropoietin was administered only in groups C and D. Epo administration non-significantly decreased the Ca++ levels by 0.56%±1.13% (P=0.5761. Reoxygenation time non-significantly increased the Ca++ levels by 0.65%±1.12% (P=0.5281. However, Epo administration and reoxygenation time together non-significantly decreased the Ca++ levels by 0.34%±0.68% (P=0.6095. Epo administration whether it interacted or not with reoxygenation time had non-significant decreasing short-term effects on calcium levels. Perhaps, a longer study time than 2 h or a higher Epo dose may reveal more significant effects.

  12. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  13. Effects of dietary protein levels for gestating gilts on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Jang, S K; Kim, D H; Oh, H K; Kim, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts (F1, Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (pPlasma urea nitrogen levels of gilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (pplasma of gestating gilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, pplasma FFA, glucose levels and milk composition in lactation. These results indicate that increasing dietary CP level under equal lysine content in gestation increases BW of gilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth.

  14. Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Alexandre de Souza; da Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

  15. Effective inundation of continental United States communities with 21st century sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Dahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent, tidally driven coastal flooding is one of the most visible signs of sea level rise. Recent studies have shown that such flooding will become more frequent and extensive as sea level continues to rise, potentially altering the landscape and livability of coastal communities decades before sea level rise causes coastal land to be permanently inundated. In this study, we identify US communities that will face effective inundation—defined as having 10% or more of livable land area flooded at least 26 times per year—with three localized sea level rise scenarios based on projections for the 3rd US National Climate Assessment. We present these results in a new, online interactive tool that allows users to explore when and how effective inundation will impact their communities. In addition, we identify communities facing effective inundation within the next 30 years that contain areas of high socioeconomic vulnerability today using a previously published vulnerability index. With the Intermediate-High and Highest sea level rise scenarios, 489 and 668 communities, respectively, would face effective inundation by the year 2100. With these two scenarios, more than half of communities facing effective inundation by 2045 contain areas of current high socioeconomic vulnerability. These results highlight the timeframes that US coastal communities have to respond to disruptive future inundation. The results also underscore the importance of limiting future warming and sea level rise: under the Intermediate-Low scenario, used as a proxy for sea level rise under the Paris Climate Agreement, 199 fewer communities would be effectively inundated by 2100.

  16. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Mulholland, M B; Altose, M D; Cherniack, N S

    1990-10-01

    Breathing during hypercapnia is determined by reflex mechanisms but may also be influenced by respiratory sensations. The present study examined the effects of voluntary changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea at a constant level of chemical drive. Studies were carried out in 15 normal male subjects during steady-state hypercapnia at an end-tidal PCO2 of 50 Torr. The intensity of dyspnea was rated on a Borg category scale. In one experiment (n = 8), the level of ventilation was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (Vspont). In another experiment (n = 9), the minute ventilation was maintained at the level spontaneously adopted at PCO2 of 50 Torr and breathing frequency was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (fspont) with reciprocal changes in tidal volume. The intensity of dyspnea (expressed as percentage of the spontaneous breathing level) correlated with ventilation (% Vspont) negatively at levels below Vspont (r = -0.70, P less than 0.001) and positively above Vspont (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001). At a constant level of ventilation, the intensity of dyspnea correlated with breathing frequency (% fspont) negatively at levels below fspont (r = -0.69, P less than 0.001) and positively at levels above fspont (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). These results indicate that dyspnea intensifies when the level or pattern of breathing is voluntarily changed from the spontaneously adopted level. This is consistent with the possibility that ventilatory responses to changes in chemical drive may be regulated in part to minimize the sensations of respiratory effort and discomfort.

  18. Temporal pattern in the effect of postnatal blood lead level on intellectual development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaas, L; Rothenberg, S J; Perroni, E; Martínez, S; Hernández, C; Hernández, R M

    2000-01-01

    To determine the temporal pattern of the effect of postnatal blood lead level on the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, we used data from 112 children of the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study with complete evaluations from 36 to 60 months of age at 6-month intervals. We measured blood lead level every 6 months from 6 to 54 months. We controlled for 5-min Apgar, birth weight, birth order, sex, socioeconomic level, maternal IQ, and maximum maternal educational level in a repeated measures ANCOVA using child blood lead level grouped by 6-18 month (geometric mean 10.1 microg/dl, range 3.5-37.0 microg/dl), 24-36 month (geometric mean 9.7 microg/dl, range 3.0-42.7 microg/dl), and 42-54 month (geometric mean 8.4 microg/dl, range 2.5-44.8 microg/dl) averages. There were significant interactions between the 6-18 month blood lead level and age with GCI as the endpoint and between 24-36 month blood lead level and age. The regression coefficient of blood lead at 6-18 months became more negative with age until 48 months, when the rate of decline moderated (linear polynomial contrast p=0. 047). The regression coefficient of blood lead at 24-36 months with CGI became more negative as well from 36 to 48 months but then started decreasing toward zero from 48 to 60 months (quadratic polynomial contrast p=0.019). Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 24-36 month blood lead level at 48 months (p=0.021) and at 54 months (p=0.073). The greatest effect (at 48 months) was a 5.8-point GCI decrease with each natural log unit increase in blood lead. Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 42-54 month blood lead level at 54 months (p=0. 040) and at 60 months (p=0.060). The effect of postnatal blood lead level on GCI reaches its maximum approximately 1-3 years later, and then becomes less evident. Four to five years of age appears to be a critical period for the manifestation of the earlier postnatal

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Extruded Soybean and Avizyme Enzyme on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasiri Mogadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme on broiler performance. In a completely randomized design with 2×3 factorial arrangement, 480 one day-old, Ross broiler chickens were divided into 40 groups, 12 chicks per pen. Treatments were consisting of combination of four levels of extruded soybean (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and two levels of enzyme (0.0 and 500 g per ton. Different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme had no significant effect on blood factors such as cholesterol, triglyceride and the weight of liver and heart. The usage of extruded soybean and enzyme showed significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion (p

  20. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  1. The Effects of Testing Circumstance and Education Level on MMPI-2 Correction Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Report The Effects of Testing Circumstance and Education Level on MMPI - 2 Correction Scale Scores DOT/FAA/AM-10/3 Office of Aerospace Medicine Washington...Education Level on MMPI - 2 Correction Scale Scores 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No...Inventory- 2 ( MMPI - 2 ) is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to assess psychopathology in air traffic control specialist applicants after a

  2. Newspaper reporters' role effectiveness: A comparative study of two levels of hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Hardly any behavioural scientist ever thought of empirically studying newspaper reporters from a psychological perspective. Realising the dearth of study from psychological viewpoints this investigation was designed to examine the relationships as well as relative impact of the antecedent variables of Background information, organisational climate, organisational role stress, and journalistic writing attitude on to the role effectiveness of the lower level reporters and the higher level repor...

  3. Examination of the Effect of High School Students Physical Activity Levels on Their Problem Solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nimet Korkmaz; Serkan Pancar; Tuncay Alparslan; Ayça Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to be knowledgeable with demographic characteristics, Body mass index, physical activity levels, problem solving skills and sub-dimensions of the students receiving education at Anatolia High Schools and examine the effect of the physical activity levels of these students on their problem solving skills. The population of the study was included a total of 451 students (female=264; male=187) receiving education at the Anatolia High Schools in the Osmangazi district...

  4. The effect of fast-food restaurants on childhood obesity: a school level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviola, Pedro A; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Thomsen, Michael R; Danforth, Diana; Smartt, James

    2014-01-01

    We analyze, using an instrumental variable approach, the effect of the number of fast-food restaurants on school level obesity rates in Arkansas. Using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument, our results suggest that exposure to fast-food restaurants can impact weight outcomes. Specifically, we find that the number of fast-food restaurants within a mile from the school can significantly affect school level obesity rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of strength training on serum levels of adiponectin, testosterone, and cortisol in sedentary lean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatah Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Performing a period of strength training can improve body weight, body mass index, and cardio respiratory function of sedentary lean men, while it results in no significant change in body fat percent. Also, since testosterone has anti-diabetic role, strength training can be useful through increasing testosterone levels in sedentary lean men. It doesn’t appear that twelve weeks strength training has effect on circulating levels of adiponectin and cortisol in sedentary lean men.

  6. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there ...

  7. Investigation of Self-Effectiveness and Self-Efficacy Levels of Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdanur Dikmen

    2016-09-01

    Results: It was found that the average age of students in study was 21.11 +/- 2.16 (min. 18, max 28, 81.1% of students were female, 58.7% of students' mothers and 44.3% of students fathers had primary school graduates, 10.5% of students' families were in not good income status and 55.9% of students were willingly preferred their departments. The total Cronbach alpha reliability scale was calculated as 0.71. The total average scale score of students was determined as 81.83 +/- 21.51. It was found that female students, students who were willingly preferred their departments and students who had mothers with higher education levels had significantly higher scale scores (p0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it was concluded as the students' self-effectiveness-efficacy levels were above the middle level. It was concluded that the students' self-effectiveness-efficacy levels which were above the middle level have been affected by the variables as their mothers' education levels and their willingly choosing their departments. In order to increase the level of self-effectiveness-efficacy of students, the students must be supported by scholars and their families. Teaching staff may contribute the students' self-effectiveness-efficacy levels by using strategies like to appreciate the positive aspects of students, to separate to pieces the processes and concepts by using concept maps and to follow a path towards from simple to complex. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 206-213

  8. The effects of watching American TV series on tertiary level EFL learners' use of formulaic language

    OpenAIRE

    Erdemir, Fatma Birgül

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 77-84. This study investigates the effects of watching an American TV Series, How I Met Your Mother (HIMYM), on tertiary level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ use of formulaic language. The participants were 66 Upper Intermediate level students studying at Akdeniz University, Schoo...

  9. Whisker-reinforced dental core buildup composites: effect of filler level on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H H; Smith, D T; Schumacher, G E; Eichmiller, F C

    2000-12-15

    The strength and toughness of dental core buildup composites in large stress-bearing restorations need to be improved to reduce the incidence of fracture due to stresses from chewing and clenching. The aims of the present study were to develop novel core buildup composites reinforced with ceramic whiskers, to examine the effect of filler level, and to investigate the reinforcement mechanisms. Silica particles were fused onto the whiskers to facilitate silanization and to roughen the whisker surface for improved retention in the matrix. Filler level was varied from 0 to 70%. Flexural strength, compressive strength, and fracture toughness of the composites were measured. A nano-indentation system was used to measure elastic modulus and hardness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces of specimens. Whisker filler level had significant effects on composite properties. The flexural strength in MPa (mean +/- SD; n = 6) increased from (95+/-15) for the unfilled resin to (193+/- 8) for the composite with 50% filler level, then slightly decreased to (176+/-12) at 70% filler level. The compressive strength increased from (149+/-33) for the unfilled resin to (282+/-48) at 10% filler level, and remained equivalent from 10 to 70% filler level. Both the modulus and hardness increased monotonically with filler level. In conclusion, silica particle-fused ceramic single-crystalline whiskers significantly reinforced dental core buildup composites. The reinforcement mechanisms appeared to be crack deflection and bridging by the whiskers. Whisker filler level had significant effects on the flexural strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus, and hardness of composites.

  10. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  11. The effects of domestic cooking on the levels of 3-monochloropropanediol in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; Brereton, P; Davies, A

    2001-04-01

    The results are reported of a study to determine the effect of domestic cooking procedures on the level of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in selected foods. Samples of 23 foods comprising stock cubes, gravies, a cake mix, batters, breads, cheese and meats were subjected to a range of cooking procedures including grilling, toasting and microwaving. The resulting levels of 3-MCPD were compared with those present in the foods before cooking. Grilling and toasting produced substantial increases in the 3-MCPD content of bread, forming up to 0.3 mg/kg, and of most cheeses, resulting in levels of up to about 0.1 mg/kg. Microwave cooking produced elevated 3-MCPD levels in some cheeses. Frying laboratory-produced batters increased 3-MCPD levels to about 0.1 mg/kg whereas a retail batter contained no detectable 3-MCPD when fried. The remaining foods showed little or no discernible increase on cooking.

  12. The effect of service level constraint on EPQ model with random defective rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of service level constraint on the economic production quantity (EPQ model with random defective rate. We first prove that the expected overall cost for imperfect quality EPQ model with backlogging permitted is less than or equal to that of the same model without backlogging. Secondly, the relationship between “imputed backorder cost” and maximal shortage level is derived for decision-making on whether the required service level is achievable. Then an equation is proposed for calculating the intangible backorder cost for the situation when the required service level is not attainable. By including this intangible backorder cost in the mathematical analysis, one can derive a new optimal lot-size policy that minimizes expected total costs as well as satisfies the service level constraint. Numerical example is provided to demonstrate its practical usage.

  13. Management Modes at Different Levels and Management Effectiveness of Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Classification management is one of nature reserves management system in China. But state nature reserves and local administration nature reserves under the regulations are only the approval system and embody the concept of protection. Management pattern of nature reserves can be divided into nine types. There are big differences in the nine patterns in management foundation and coordination ability of management because different management pattern occupies different resources of administration,personnel,financial and law enforcement. By analyzing management pattern,thirty-eight indexes in thirteen categories were selected to evaluate the management effectiveness of national nature reserves subordinate to the State Forestry Administration (SFA) . Results show that the management effectiveness of national nature reserves is good as a whole,and the management effectiveness is direct proportional to administration level. Provincial administration has the higher efficiency than municipal and county administration. Direct administration by governments at all levels has the higher efficiency than departments’ administration at the same level.

  14. Integrated Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis for Determining the Minimal Anticipated Biological Effect Level of a Novel Anti-CD28 Receptor Antagonist BMS-931699.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Wang, Haiqing; Salcedo, Theodora W; Suchard, Suzanne J; Xie, Jenny H; Schneeweis, Lumelle A; Fleener, Catherine A; Calore, James D; Shi, Rong; Zhang, Sean X Y; Rodrigues, A David; Car, Bruce D; Marathe, Punit H; Nadler, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    BMS-931699 (lulizumab pegol), a domain antibody (dAb) conjugated with 40-kDa branched polyethylene glycol, is a human anti-CD28 receptor antagonist under development for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the present work, the minimal anticipated biologic effect level (MABEL) was determined for BMS-931699 by integrating all the available preclinical data. The relevance of the in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay to a whole blood CD28 receptor occupancy (RO) assessment, as well as the relationship between the CD28 RO and the inhibition of T-cell-dependent antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin in vivo, was demonstrated through an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis using anti-hCD28 dAb-001 (differing from BMS-931699 by two additional amino acids at the N-terminus) and a mouse surrogate. Based on this analysis, the EC10 value (0.32 nM) from the human MLR assay and the human plasma volume (0.04 l/kg) were employed to calculate the MABEL (0.01 mg) of BMS-931699 in humans, with a CD28 RO predicted to be ≤10%. The estimated MABEL dose was threefold higher than the value derived from the binding constant and twofold less than the MABEL converted from animal efficacy studies based on the body surface area. Furthermore, it was 2900-fold lower than the human equivalent dose derived from the no observed adverse effect level in monkeys (15 mg/kg/week for 5 doses, intravenous dosing) with a 10-fold safety factor applied. Therefore, the MABEL dose represented a sound approach to mitigate any potential risk in targeting CD28 and was successfully used as the first-in-human starting dose for BMS-931699. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Effect of flunixin meglumine on cytokine levels in experimental endotoxemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, E; Er, A; Uney, K; Altunok, V; Elmas, M

    2007-09-01

    In this study, effect of flunixin meglumine on serum tumour necrosis factor alpha, (TNFalpha) interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 levels was investigated in lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic mice. Healthy 273 Balb/C mice were used and divided into three equal groups. Group 1 was injected lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli 0111:B4, 250 microg/mouse, intraperitoneally), Group 2 was injected flunixin meglumine (2.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously), and Group 3 was injected lipopolysaccharide + flunixin meglumine. After the treatments, at 0., 1., 2., 3., 6., 12., 24th hours and 3., 5., 7., 14., 21., 28th days blood samples were taken from seven mice in each group. Serum TNFalpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 levels were measured using commercially available kits by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Flunixin meglumine did not affect the cytokine levels in healthy animals. While lipopolysaccharide increased serum TNFalpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 levels, flunixin meglumine inhibited increases at levels of all cytokines. As result, flunixin meglumine showed depressor effect on cytokine levels in endotoxemia and the effect may be a reason for the first chosen member of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug in endotoxemia.

  16. Effect of L-glutamine levels in piglets diets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysacharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pardo L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of different levels of L-glutamine on weaned and immunologically challenged piglets with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS on performance parameters, serum cortisol and defense cells. Materials and methods. Four levels of L –glutamine were evaluated (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% as well as the addition, or no addition, of LPS (0.3μg. 96 piglets were used (48 castrated males and 48 females of Agroceres x PenArlan lineage, with an initial age of 21 days and 6.06±0.852 kg live weight. An experimental design was used on randomized blocks in a factorial setting 4 x 2 (levels of L- glutamine with or without challenge. Results. Cubic effect was shown for daily weight gain of unchallenged animals, and was better with the addition of 0.41% L- glutamine. Feed conversion improved with increased levels of L -glutamine for challenged animals. In the evaluation of defense cells, there was interaction of leukocytes with the levels of L- glutamine and the immune challenge. Eosinophils and lymphocytes showed a quadratic effect for the levels of L –glutamine, with a maximum value of 1.30% and 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions. L -glutamine supplementation of up to 2% in the diet improves feed conversion and favors the immune serum of weaned piglets challenged with LPS of E. coli.

  17. Effect of physical activity on levels of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Gharaibeh, Mohammad Y; Qhatan, Redha A

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) has emerged as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However the relationship of physical activity (PA) with Hcy levels in the elderly is controversial. Accordingly, the current study examined the effect of low and high participation in PA on serum Hcy in young (n = 77; 18-50 years) and old (n = 207; > 65 years) males (n = 141) and females (n = 142). Level of PA was obtained in a 1-to-1 interview and participants divided into low and high groups. Serum Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 were obtained after 12 hour fast drawn by venipuncture. Levels of Hcy correlated with folate (r = -0. 5; p = 0.000) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.3; p = 0.000). The ANOVA revealed a main effect of PA for Hcy (p = 0.04) but not for folate (p = 0.2) and vitamin B12 (p = 0.2). Main effects were found also of age for Hcy (p = 0.000) and folate (p = 0.005) as well as of gender for Hcy (p = 0.000) and vitamin B12 (p = 0.000). Subsequent ANCOVA showed lower levels of Hcy in the participants with greater versus lower PA even after controlling for B12 vitamin. These results confirm the importance of the vitamins for regulating Hcy levels. Additionally, the data suggests that PA affects Hcy levels without affecting and independent of B vitamins in the elderly.

  18. Potential exposure levels and health effects of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A H; Munshi, A A; Goodman, A K

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the potential exposure levels and pursuant public health implications of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill. This site received ash from a single incinerator without pollution control devices from 1954-1973. Soil was sampled for 10 heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodioxin and furan congeners, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil concentrations for these substances were converted to estimates of exposure, health effects, and/or cancer risk by the application of a general exposure model and exposure/effect and exposure/risk models for specific substances. The results of soil analysis and modeling indicate that the level of lead detected on the site was considerably above the recommended levels of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and may lead to an elevated blood lead level in exposed children above that currently defining a case of lead poisoning. The potential for health effects resulting from exposure to other substances measured in the soil on this site is considered to be small, and no significant increased cancer risk is expected. Comparison of levels of various substances obtained at this site with levels obtained in fresh bottom ash in other studies suggests that these results may be applicable to exposures from other municipal incinerator bottom ash landfills.

  19. Effect of different fat level on microwave cooking properties of goat meat patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun K; Rajkumar, V

    2013-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various fat levels on the cooking and sensory properties of goat meat patties cooked by microwave energy. Goat meat patties were prepared with refined vegetable oil to get fat level of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Each patty was cooked in a microwave oven with full power (700 W) operating at 2450 MHz to an internal temperature of 75-80 °C. pH value of raw patties with 5% fat level were lower compared to patties with 10, 15 and 20% fat level. Fat level did not affect emulsion stability of batter but it decreased as fat level increased. Microwave cooking time decreased as fat levels increased. With an increase in fat contents, protein and moisture in raw patties decreased and in cooked meat patties with 5% fat had higher protein and moisture content than those with more fat. Patties with 5% level showed lower cooking loss than other fat level. Water activity of patties was affected by fat level and patties with 15 and 20% fat had lower water activity than patties with 5 and 10% fat. As fat level increased, shear force value decreased indicating soft texture. Subjective colour evaluation indicated that 5% patties were darker and redder than patties with more fat. Sensory analysis revealed that goat meat patties with 5 and 10% fat had less flavour and juicer than patties with 15 and 20% fat. Goat meat patties with 20% fat were the juiciest. Tenderness and oiliness increased significantly with an increase in fat level. Patties with 15% fat were rated higher overall palatability than others.

  20. The Effects of Urban Sprawl on Birds at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Blair

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl affects the environment in myriad ways and at multiple levels of biological organization. In this paper I explore the effects of sprawl on native bird communities by comparing the occurrence of birds along gradients of urban land use in southwestern Ohio and northern California and by examining patterns at the individual, species, community, landscape, and continental levels. I do this by assessing the distribution and abundance of all bird species occupying sites of differing land-use intensity in Ohio and California. Additionally, I conducted predation experiments using artificial nests, tracked the nest fate of American Robins and Northern Cardinals, and assessed land cover in these sites. At the individual level, predation on artificial nests decreased with urbanization; however, this trend was not reflected in the nesting success of robins and cardinals, which did not increase with urbanization. At the species level, sprawl affected local patterns of extinction and invasion; the density of different species peaked at different levels of urbanization. At the community level, species richness and diversity peaked at moderate levels of urbanization, and the number of low-nesting species and of species with multiple broods increased with urbanization. The community-level results may reflect both the species-level patterns of local extinction and invasion as well as broader landscape-level patterns. At the landscape level, a linear combination of spatial heterogeneity and density of woody patches accurately predicted both species richness and Shannon Diversity. At the continental level, local extinction of endemic species, followed by the invasion of ubiquitous weedy species, leads to faunal homogenization between ecoregions.

  1. The effect of antidepressant medication treatment on serum levels of inflammatory cytokines: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannestad, Jonas; DellaGioia, Nicole; Bloch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, for example, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1 beta (IL-1β), are elevated in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The reason why this occurs is unclear. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines could be a result of brain dysfunction in MDD. It is also possible that inflammatory cytokines contribute to depressive symptoms in MDD. If the first assumption is correct, one would expect levels to normalize with resolution of the depressive episode after treatment. Several studies have measured changes in cytokine levels during antidepressant treatment; however, the results vary. The purpose of this study was to pool all available data on changes in serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β during antidepressant treatment to determine whether these levels change. Studies were included if they used an approved pharmacological treatment for depression, patients had a diagnosis of MDD, and serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, and/or IL-1β were measured before and after treatment. Twenty-two studies fulfilled these criteria. Meta-analysis of these studies showed that, overall, while pharmacological antidepressant treatment reduced depressive symptoms, it did not reduce serum levels of TNFα. On the other hand, antidepressant treatment did reduce levels of IL-1β and possibly those of IL-6. Stratified subgroup analysis by class of antidepressant indicated that serotonin reuptake inhibitors may reduce levels of IL-6 and TNFα. Other antidepressants, while efficacious for depressive symptoms, did not appear to reduce cytokine levels. These results argue against the notion that resolution of a depressive episode is associated with normalization of levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines; however, the results are consistent with the possibility that inflammatory cytokines contribute to depressive symptoms and that antidepressants block the effects of inflammatory cytokines on the brain.

  2. Coulomb impurity effects on the zero-Landau level splitting of graphene on polar substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yao; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zi-Wu

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the effects of the Coulomb impurity on the zero-Landau level splitting of graphene on different polar substrates basing on the Fröhlich polaron model, in which the polaron is formed due to the carriers-surface optical phonon coupling. We discuss the influence of Coulomb impurity on the zero-Landau level splitting in the case of weak and strong coupling limits. We find that the splitting energy can be varied in a large scale due to the Coulomb impurity, which provides the possible theoretical explanation for the experimental measurements regarding the energy gap opened and zero-Landau level splitting in Landau quantized graphene.

  3. Effects of Dietary Protein Levels for Gestating Gilts on Reproductive Performance, Blood Metabolites and Milk Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y. D.; Jang, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, H. K.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts (F1, Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (p<0.05) and weight gain of litter (p<0.01) and piglet (p<0.05) throughout the lactation as dietary CP level increased. Plasma urea nitrogen levels of gilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (p<0.05). Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in plasma of gestating gilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, p<0.01; 90 d, p<0.05), and a quadratic trend (70 d, p = 0.06). There were no differences in plasma FFA, glucose levels and milk composition in lactation. These results indicate that increasing dietary CP level under equal lysine content in gestation increases BW of gilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth. PMID:25049930

  4. Level of Automation and Failure Frequency Effects on Simulated Lunar Lander Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Ramirez, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, where instrument-rated pilots completed a simulated terminal descent phase of a lunar landing. Ten pilots participated in a 2 x 2 mixed design experiment, with level of automation as the within-subjects factor and failure frequency as the between subjects factor. The two evaluated levels of automation were high (fully automated landing) and low (manual controlled landing). During test trials, participants were exposed to either a high number of failures (75% failure frequency) or low number of failures (25% failure frequency). In order to investigate the pilots' sensitivity to changes in levels of automation and failure frequency, the dependent measure selected for this experiment was accuracy of failure diagnosis, from which D Prime and Decision Criterion were derived. For each of the dependent measures, no significant difference was found for level of automation and no significant interaction was detected between level of automation and failure frequency. A significant effect was identified for failure frequency suggesting failure frequency has a significant effect on pilots' sensitivity to failure detection and diagnosis. Participants were more likely to correctly identify and diagnose failures if they experienced the higher levels of failures, regardless of level of automation

  5. The Effect of Cinnamon Extract on Serum Proteins Levels of Male Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Modaresi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Cinnamon is a plant with many pharmaceutical effects. The present research evaluated the effects of Cinnamon bark extract on serum proteins level in male Balb/c mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 small Balb/c mice were chosen and divided into 5 groups: a control group, a case group, and three treatment groups. Normal saline was administered as placebo to the case group while the control group received no injections.. Cinnamon extract in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg/48hr were injected intraperitoneally for 20 days to treatment groups. The levels of pre albumin, albumin, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta and gamma globulins were separated electrophoretically and calculated from the pattern of electrophoretogram. Results: The result indicated that the levels of pre albumin decreased significantly in two experimental groups (doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the levels of alpha-1 and beta in 200 group, alpha-2 level in 100 and gamma in 100 and 200 groups increased significantly .The injection of 100 mg/Kg/48h extract of Cinnamon decreased (p<0.05 the albumin level in plasma in treatment group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that the serum level of globulins has not changed dramatically by the extract of Cinnamon. Since albumin synthesis occurs in the liver cells‚ thus administration of Cinnamon may affect the function of liver cells.

  6. Analysis of the relationship between the kink effect and the indium levels in MOS transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hizem, N., E-mail: neila_tn2002@yahoo.fr [University of Monastir, Laboratory of Microelectronics and Instrumentation, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Fargi, A.; Kalboussi, A. [University of Monastir, Laboratory of Microelectronics and Instrumentation, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Souifi, A. [Institute of Nanotechnology of Lyon, 7 Avenue, Jean, Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2013-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Low frequency (LF) output conductance dispersion analysis based on the Gain-Phase versus frequency biased in the saturation zone for V{sub ds} < V{sub kink} (where In is supposed to be inactive) is used to analyse the indium-related levels in nMOSFETs. -- Highlights: • We examine the effects of indium ion implantation on the channel of nMOSFETs. • The LF output conductance dispersion is used to characterise the nMOSFETs. • A kink effect is shown in the electrical characteristics of nMOSFETs. • We analyse the excess of the drain current in the kink zone. • A relationship is found between the kink effect and the In level. -- Abstract: In this work, we investigate the effects of indium ion implantation on the channel of nMOSFETs. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy (AS) measurements have been made on a series of indium doped silicon N{sup +}P structures and MOS capacitors. To analyse the indium-related levels in nMOSFETs, we used a low frequency (LF) output conductance dispersion analysis, which is based on the Gain-Phase versus frequency at different temperatures. These experiences show that the indium level when operated at low temperatures at which the majority of carriers freeze-out exhibit a kink effect. The effects of indium doping on the kink were studied using the variation of channel conductance g{sub d} and transconductance g{sub m} versus temperature in the kink zone. The excess drain current versus drain and gate voltage show the maximums of both conductance g{sub d} and transconductance g{sub m} at around T = 124 K when the indium level is activated.

  7. Effect of Sea Level Variation on Tidal Characteristic Values for the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宜法; 俞聿修; 左军成; 万振文; 陈宗镛

    2003-01-01

    Tidal waves in the East China Sea are simulated numerically with POM(Princeton Ocean Model) model for normal mean sea level, 30 cm higher, 60 cm higher, and 100 cm higher, respectively, and the simulated result is compared with the harmonic analysis result of hourly sea level data from 19 tide gauges for more than 19 years. It is indicated that the long-term mean sea level variation affects notably tidal waves in this region. Generally, the tidal amplitude increases when the mean sea level rises, but this relationship may be inverse for some sea areas. The maximal variation of tidal amplitude takes place in the zones near the Fujian coast and the Zhejiang coast, rather than the shallowest Bohai Sea. The maximum increase of M2 amplitude can exceed about 15 cm corresponding to the 60 cm rise of the mean sea level along the Fujian coast. The other regions with large variations of tidal amplitude are those along the Jiangsu coast, the south-east coast of Shandong, and the south-east coast of Dalian. The propagation of tidal waves is also related to mean sea level variation, and the tidal phase-lag decreases generally when the mean sea level rises. Almost all the regions where the tidal phase-lag increases with rising mean sea level are close to amphidromic points, meanwhile the spatial area of such regions is very small. Because the influence of mean sea level variation upon tidal waves is spatially marked, such spatial effect should be considered in calculation of the tidal characteristic value and engineering water level. In the region where the amplitudes of the major tidal constituents increase, the probable maximum high water level becomes higher, the probable maximum low water level becomes lower, and both design water level andcheck water level increase obviously. For example, the design water level at Xiamen increases by 13.5 cm due to the variation of tidal waves when the mean sea level rises 60 cm, the total increase of design water level being 73.5 cm.

  8. The combined effect of water status and crop level on Tempranillo wine volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverano, Inmaculada; Valdés, Esperanza; Moreno, Daniel; Gamero, Esther; Mancha, Luis; Vilanova, Mar

    2017-03-01

    The effect of water status and crop level on the volatile composition of Tempranillo wine was investigated over two growing seasons (2010-2011) in Extremadura (Spain). Three water status treatments (T0, Rainfed control; T1, Early regulated deficit irrigation; T2, Late regulated deficit irrigation) were combined with two crop levels treatments (TH, cluster thinning; C, control). Crop level treatment had a higher effect on individual volatiles analyzed in Tempranillo wine than water status. The combinations of water status and crop level treatments showed effects on all families of compounds with the exception of acetates and volatile fatty acids. Alcohols, C6 compounds and phenol volatiles produced the highest concentrations at the lower level of available water and when cluster thinning was applied (T0-TH). However, ethyl ester and lactones showed higher concentrations in regulated deficit irrigation (T1 and T2) and when cluster thinning was not applied. The combined effect of rainfed and cluster-thinning treatments (T0-TH) increased the majority of individual aromatic compounds quantified in Tempranillo wines and also showed the highest total odor activity value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. False memory and level of processing effect: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Boldini, Angela; Cadavid, Sara

    2012-09-12

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to determine the effects of level of processing on true and false memory, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, lists of words highly associated to a single nonpresented word (the 'critical lure') are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. Lists with three critical lures per list were auditorily presented here to participants who studied them with either a shallow (saying whether the word contained the letter 'o') or a deep (creating a mental image of the word) processing task. Visual presentation modality was used on a final recognition test. True recognition of studied words was significantly higher after deep encoding, whereas false recognition of nonpresented critical lures was similar in both experimental groups. At the ERP level, true and false recognition showed similar patterns: no FN400 effect was found, whereas comparable left parietal and late right frontal old/new effects were found for true and false recognition in both experimental conditions. Items studied under shallow encoding conditions elicited more positive ERP than items studied under deep encoding conditions at a 1000-1500 ms interval. These ERP results suggest that true and false recognition share some common underlying processes. Differential effects of level of processing on true and false memory were found only at the behavioral level but not at the ERP level.

  10. Effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in Taekwondo contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. C.; Lee, B. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, S.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in the muscle was studied. A 450cm2 large red and near infrared LED pad with its irradiance of 10mW/cm2 was applied for 10 minutes to brachial muscle and quadriceps muscle of thigh to the participants before and after the Taekwondo contest. Blood samples from the participants were taken at 5 minutes after the competition and 10 minutes after the recovery. The test results showed that the LED therapy (LEDT) before and after the competition had a significant effect on the decrease of blood lactate level of the participants.

  11. Effects of state-level public spending on health on the mortality probability in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David

    2010-11-01

    This study uses the second National Family Health Survey of India to estimate the effect of state-level public health spending on mortality across all age groups, controlling for individual, household, and state-level covariates. We use a state's gross fiscal deficit as an instrument for its health spending. Our study shows a 10% increase in public spending on health in India decreases the average probability of death by about 2%, with effects mainly on the young, the elderly, and women. Other major factors affecting mortality are rural residence, household poverty, and access to toilet facilities.

  12. The Effect of Acupuncture on Serum IgE Level in Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Che Jianli

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of acupuncture on serum IgE level in patients with chronic urticaria,the changes of the immune indices were observed at various stages in the development of the disease.It was found that the serum IgE level in patients with chronic urticaria was higher than that of the normal healthy subjects; and that acupuncture had a benign regulatory effect on IgE,showing a favorable regulation on the immune functions in patients with chronic urticaria.

  13. [Pharmacological influences on the brain level and transport of GABA. II) Effect of various psychoactive drugs on brain level and uptake of GABA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabana, M A; Varotto, M; Saladini, M; Zanchin, G; Battistin, L

    1981-04-30

    The effects of some psychoactive drugs on the level and uptake of GABA in the mouse brain was studied using well standardized procedures, mainely the silica-gel cromatography for determining the GABA content and the brain slices for measuring GABA uptake. It was found that levomepromazine, sulpiride, haloperidol and amytryptiline were without effects on the cerebral level of GABA; it was also found that these drugs do not influence the rates of uptake of GABA by mouse brain slices. Such results do indicate that the psychoactive drugs studied are without effects on the level and uptake of GABA in the brain.

  14. Does Controlling for Temporal Parameters Change the Levels-of-Processing Effect in Working Memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Loaiza, Vanessa M.; Camos, Val?rie

    2016-01-01

    The distinguishability between working memory (WM) and long-term memory has been a frequent and long-lasting source of debate in the literature. One recent method of identifying the relationship between the two systems has been to consider the influence of long-term memory effects, such as the levels-of-processing (LoP) effect, in WM. However, the few studies that have examined the LoP effect in WM have shown divergent results. This study examined the LoP effect in WM by considering a theoret...

  15. EFFECT OF LOW-DOSE NIACIN ON DYSLIPIDEMIA, SERUM PHOSPHORUS LEVELS AND ADVERSE EFFECTS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk An

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Niacin supplementation improves dyslipidemia and lowers serum phosphorus levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. However, its adverse effects, including hot flusing, hinder the administration of niacin. We evaluated whether low-dose niacin supplementation can improve dyslipidemia, lower serum phosphorus levels, and be administered with a low frequency of adverse effects in patients with CKD. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of CKD patients who had taken niacin from January, 2009 to June, 2011. We excluded patients with CKD1 and CKD 5. We then enrolled 31 CKD patients who had taken niacin at a fixed-dose of 500mg/day for 6 months. We also randomly selected 30 CKD patients who had been taking statin for 9 months as a control group. Among 34 CKD patients prescribed niacin, 5 patients (14% complained of adverse effects, and 3 CKD patients (8% discontinued niacin. There were no significant differences in baseline data between the niacin group and the control group. The proportion of patients in the niacin group who had been taking a statin, or omega-3 fatty acids was 67.7% and 48.8%, respectively. In the niacin group, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL levels was significantly increased (p<0.05, and triglyceride (p<0.05 at 12 weeks and 24 weeks compared to baseline levels. In the niacin group, phosphorous levels (p<0.05 were significantly decreased, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR was significantly increased (p=0.016 at 24 weeks compared to baseline values; however, serum creatinine levels did not significantly change. Low dose niacin (500mg/day had a low freqeuncy of adverse effects and also improved dyslipidemia, lowered serum phosphorus levels, and increased GFR in CKD patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long term effects of low-dose niacin for renal progression of CKD.

  16. Effects of irrigation levels on interactions among Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae), insecticides, and predators in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Peter; Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Variation in plant quality and natural enemy abundance plays an important role in insect population dynamics. In manipulative field studies, we evaluated the impact of varying irrigation levels and insecticide type on densities of Lygus hesperus Knight and the arthropod predator community in cotton. Three watering levels were established via irrigations timed according to three levels of percent soil water depletion (SWD): 20, 40, or 60, where 40% SWD is considered standard grower practice, 60% represents a deficit condition likely to impose plant productivity losses, and 20% represents surplus conditions with likely consequences on excessive vegetative plant production. The two key L. hesperus insecticides used were the broad-spectrum insecticide acephate and the selective insecticide flonicamid, along with an untreated check. We hypothesized that densities of L. hesperus and its associated predators would be elevated at higher irrigation levels and that insecticides would differentially impact L. hesperus and predator dynamics depending on their selectivity. L. hesperus were more abundant at the higher irrigation level (20% SWD) but the predator densities were unaffected by irrigation levels. Both L. hesperus and its predators were affected by the selectivity of the insecticide with highest L. hesperus densities and lowest predator abundance where the broad spectrum insecticide (acephate) was used. There were no direct interactions between irrigation level and insecticides, indicating that insecticide effects on L. hesperus and its predators were not influenced by the irrigation levels used here. The implications of these findings on the overall ecology of insect-plant dynamics and yield in cotton are discussed.

  17. Understanding and estimating the power to detect cross-level interaction effects in multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, John E; Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A; Chen, Gilad

    2012-09-01

    Cross-level interaction effects lie at the heart of multilevel contingency and interactionism theories. Researchers have often lamented the difficulty of finding hypothesized cross-level interactions, and to date there has been no means by which the statistical power of such tests can be evaluated. We develop such a method and report results of a large-scale simulation study, verify its accuracy, and provide evidence regarding the relative importance of factors that affect the power to detect cross-level interactions. Our results indicate that the statistical power to detect cross-level interactions is determined primarily by the magnitude of the cross-level interaction, the standard deviation of lower level slopes, and the lower and upper level sample sizes. We provide a Monte Carlo tool that enables researchers to a priori design more efficient multilevel studies and provides a means by which they can better interpret potential explanations for nonsignificant results. We conclude with recommendations for how scholars might design future multilevel studies that will lead to more accurate inferences regarding the presence of cross-level interactions.

  18. Examining multi-level effects on corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei Matthew J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What influences firms to engage in socially responsible (irresponsible activities? Corporate social responsibility (CSR, the efforts of firms to create a positive and desirable impact on society, and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI, contrary actions of unethical behavior that negatively influence society, have become an important focus of discussion for both corporations and scholars. Despite this interest, our understanding of organizations’ socially responsible (irresponsible actions and their antecedents is still developing. A dearth of knowledge about the multi-level nature of the drivers of CSR and CSI continues to exist. Utilizing a longitudinal sample composed of 899 firms in 66 industries, we follow a prominent model to empirically examine industry-, firm-, and individual-level effects on CSR and CSI. Employing variance decomposition analysis, our results confirm that all three levels of investigation do indeed influence CSR and CSI. More substantively, our analysis estimates the magnitude of the effects attributable to each of the three levels for both CSR and CSI. We also compare multi-level influences on two separate CSR strategies, those targeting primary stakeholders (strategic CSR and those targeting secondary stakeholders (social CSR. We find greater industry- and firmlevel effects on social CSR, and higher individual-level effects on strategic CSR. Our results build on the conceptual work of previous authors by providing empirical analyses to confirm multilevel influences on CSR and extending prior multi-level theory to the concept of CSI. Further, we add to the emerging literature regarding stakeholder demands by examining the various influences on CSR strategies targeting different stakeholder groups.

  19. The effect of oral Isotretinoin on plasma level of folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir majdein amir javanbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders and Isotretinoin has widely been used as a treatment for its severe and resistant cases in recent years. Considering the controversy over the effect of systemic Isotretinoin on reducing the plasma level of folic acid and the negative effect of this reduction on health, this study was conducted to assess the influence of systemic Isotretinoin on the plasma level of folic acid during the years 2008 and 2009 in Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: 61 patients including 38 women and 23 men with severe or moderate acne (age mean 23.6+6 y/o who were resistant to conventional treatments were supplemented with 0.5mg/kg/day of oral Isotretinoin for 30 days. They were instructed not to use any other drugs with an effect on folic acid level or change their diet. The serum levels of folic acid were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment period. The statistical analyses were carried out using the paired T-test. Results: The mean levels of folic acid were 26.75+9.42 nmol/lit and 23.6+8.42 nmol/lit at the baseline and after 30 days of Isotretinoin supplementation respectively. This showed a significant decrease in plasma folic acid level (p=0.008. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant reduction in plasma level of folic acid following a 30 day use of oral Isotretinoin in acne patients. Concerning the important role of folic acid in metabolic functions, we recommend further studies to assess the effect of longer periods of Isotretinoin treatment as well as other relevant factors on folic acid metabolism. Moreover, folic acid supplementation and simultaneous use of Isotretinoin is recommended in patients with acne.

  20. Increasing nurse staffing levels in Belgian cardiac surgery centres: a cost-effective patient safety intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Koen; Simoens, Steven; Diya, Luwis; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Vleugels, Arthur; Sermeus, Walter

    2010-06-01

    This paper is a report of a cost-effectiveness analysis from a hospital perspective of increased nurse staffing levels (to the level of the 75th percentile) in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units. A previous study indicated that increasing nurse staffing levels in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units was associated with lower mortality rates. Research is needed to compare the costs of increased nurse staffing levels with benefits of reducing mortality rates. Two types of average national costs were compared. A first calculation included the simulation of an increase in the number of nursing hours per patient day to the 75th percentile for nursing units staffed below that level. For the second calculation (the comparator) we used a 'do nothing' alternative. The most recent available data sources were used for the analysis. Results were expressed in the form of the additional costs per avoided death and the additional costs per life-year gained. The analysis used 2007 costing data. The costs of increasing nurse staffing levels to the 75th percentile in Belgian general cardiac postoperative nursing units amounted to euro1,211,022. Such nurse staffing levels would avoid an estimated number of 45.9 (95% confidence interval: 22.0-69.4) patient deaths per year and generate 458.86 (95% confidence interval: 219.93-693.79) life-years gained annually. This corresponds with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of euro26,372 per avoided death and euro2639 per life-year gained. Increasing nurse staffing levels appears to be a cost-effective intervention as compared with other cardiovascular interventions.

  1. Effect of montelukast on clinical score and cytokine levels of infants for clinically diagnosed acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Fulya; Celik, Serkan; Eke Gungor, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Acute bronchiolitis comprises a major cause for morbidity in infants with viral infection which induces an immune inflammatory response that may produce long lasting harmful effects. Currently, there is no effective therapy for bronchiolitis. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of five-day montelukast therapy in acute bronchiolitis management. The study included 50 infants with acute bronchiolitis. The infants with first episode of acute bronchiolitis were randomly assigned to receive daily montelukast dose of 4mg over five days after admission or no treatment. Plasma eotaxin, IL-4, IL-8 and IFN-gamma levels were evaluated before and after treatment by ELISA method. In the present study, the primary outcome measure was change in clinical severity score, whilst secondary outcome measures were changes in plasma eotaxin, IL-4, IL-8, IFN-gamma levels. No significant differences was found in clinical severity score with five-day montelukast treatment (p>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). There were no significant differences in plasma eotaxin, IL-4, IL-8, IFN-gamma levels between the groups (p>0.05 Mann-Whitney U test). There was significant decrease in plasma IFN-gamma levels following five-day montelukast treatment (p=0.027, Wilcoxon). There were no significant differences in plasma IL-4, IL-8, IFN-gamma levels between the groups after five-day montelukast treatment (p>0.05, Wilcoxon). There was significant increase in eotaxin levels after five-day montelukast treatment (p=0.009, Wilcoxon). Our study showed that montelukast affected plasma IFN-gamma and eotaxin levels after five days of treatment. Further studies are needed to demonstrate effects of montelukast on chemokine levels in bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect ofwater level lfuctuations ontemporal-spatial patterns offoraging activities bythe wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag-ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  3. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  4. Using observation-level random effects to model overdispersion in count data in ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier A. Harrison

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Overdispersion is common in models of count data in ecology and evolutionary biology, and can occur due to missing covariates, non-independent (aggregated data, or an excess frequency of zeroes (zero-inflation. Accounting for overdispersion in such models is vital, as failing to do so can lead to biased parameter estimates, and false conclusions regarding hypotheses of interest. Observation-level random effects (OLRE, where each data point receives a unique level of a random effect that models the extra-Poisson variation present in the data, are commonly employed to cope with overdispersion in count data. However studies investigating the efficacy of observation-level random effects as a means to deal with overdispersion are scarce. Here I use simulations to show that in cases where overdispersion is caused by random extra-Poisson noise, or aggregation in the count data, observation-level random effects yield more accurate parameter estimates compared to when overdispersion is simply ignored. Conversely, OLRE fail to reduce bias in zero-inflated data, and in some cases increase bias at high levels of overdispersion. There was a positive relationship between the magnitude of overdispersion and the degree of bias in parameter estimates. Critically, the simulations reveal that failing to account for overdispersion in mixed models can erroneously inflate measures of explained variance (r2, which may lead to researchers overestimating the predictive power of variables of interest. This work suggests use of observation-level random effects provides a simple and robust means to account for overdispersion in count data, but also that their ability to minimise bias is not uniform across all types of overdispersion and must be applied judiciously.

  5. Ditch water levels manages for environmental aims: effects on field soil water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Armstrong

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ditch water management regimes on water tables are examined for two test sites in England, Halvergate in the Broads and Southlake Moor in the Somerset Levels and Moors Environmentally Sensitive Areas. It is observed that in some fields the effects of water management are only poorly transferred from the ditch to the field centre, especially where the hydraulic conductivity of the subsoil is small. Where there are large variations in the ditch water levels, reflecting the influence of major ditches subject to pump drainage, field soil water regimes differ significantly. Nevertheless, the effects of even quite small changes in the ditch regime cam be noticeable. Simple modelling studies show that much greater effects can be achieved by increasing the frequency of ditches within wetlands.

  6. Effects of live sax music on various physiological parameters, pain level, and mood level in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrai, Francesco; Micheluzzi, Valentina; Bugani, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Few randomized controlled trial studies have focused on the effect of music in cancer patients, and there are no randomized controlled trials on the effects of live music with saxophone in cancer patients. To determine the effects of live saxophone music on various physiological parameters, pain level, and mood level. A randomized controlled trial study. 52 cancer patients were randomized to a control group (n = 26), an experimental group (n = 26) whose members received 30 minutes of live music therapy with saxophone. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, glycemia, oxygen saturation, pain level, and mood level were measured before and after the live music performance. There was a statistical difference between the groups for oxygen saturation (0.003) and mood level (0.001). Live music performed with a saxophone could be introduced in oncology care to improve the oxygen saturation and mood in cancer patients.

  7. Fighting corruption when existing corruption-control levels count : what do wealth effects tell us?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Why are some nations more effective at battling corruption than others? Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing nations? How do wealth effects play-out when existing corruption-control levels matter in the corruption battle? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption. The following broad findings are established. (1) Population growth is a(an)...

  8. Immune and individual level effects of environmental pollutants in North-Atlantic top predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Marine mammals accumulate alarming amounts of environmental pollutants and are thus the most contaminated group of animals in the world. Elevated pollutant exposure is of concern to marine mammals because of potential adverse effects on reproduction, endocrine disruption and immunity. In vitro...... a unique combination of approaches, namely statistical meta-analyses, in vitro experimentation, analytical chemistry, and ecological modeling, to gain further insight into pollutant accumulation and effects at molecular and organism levels in North-Atlantic top predators....

  9. The Effect of Whole-Body Radiation on Blood Levels of Gastrointestinal Peptides in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Katanyutanon, Sakdhisapol; WU, RONGQIAN; Wang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-induced injury may occur in various incidents as well as the terrorist radiation exposure scenario. The digestive tract is among the most radiosensitive organs in the body and its function, which is partly regulated by gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, can be affected by radiation exposure. However, very little is known about the effect of whole-body radiation on blood GI peptides. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the effect of whole-body radiation on circulating level...

  10. Biological effects of low-level exposures: a perspective from U.S. EPA scientists.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, J M; Farland, W H

    1998-01-01

    Biological effects of low-level exposures (BELLE) may be very important in characterizing the potential health risks of environmental pollutants. Before some features of BELLE, such as effects that may be modulated by adaptive or defense mechanisms, can be taken into greater consideration in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessments, however adequate information on a toxicant's mode of action and answers to other questions are needed.

  11. Total Quantum Zeno effect and Intelligent States for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D; Stephany, J

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show that by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states which display Total Zeno Effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

  12. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.

  13. Effect of fasting during Ramadan on serum lithium level and mental state in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Saeed; Nazar, Zahid; Akhtar, Javaid; Akhter, Javed; Irfan, Muhammad; Irafn, Mohammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ahmed, Zia; Khan, Ejaz Hassan; Khatak, Ijaz Hassan; Naeem, Farooq

    2010-11-01

    The Muslims fast every year during the month of Ramadan. A fasting day can last 12-17 h. The effects of fasting on serum lithium levels and the mood changes in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder during Ramadan are not well studied. We aimed to compare the serum lithium levels, side effects, toxicity and mental state in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder and on prophylactic lithium therapy before, during and after Ramadan. Sixty-two patients meeting the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Research Diagnostic Criteria of bipolar affective disorder receiving lithium treatment for prophylaxis were recruited in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Serum lithium, electrolytes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were assessed at three points, 1 week before Ramadan, midRamadan and 1 week after Ramadan. The side effects and toxicity were measured by a symptoms and signs checklist. There was no significant difference in mean serum lithium levels at three time points (preRamadan=0.45±0.21, midRamadan=0.51±0.20 and postRamadan=0.44±0.23 milli equivalents/litre, P=0.116). The scores on HDRS and YMRS showed significant decrease during Ramadan (F=34.12, P=0.00, for HDRS and F=15.6, P=0.000 for YMRS). The side effects and toxicity also did not differ significantly at three points. In conclusion, the patients who have stable mental state and lithium levels before Ramadan can be maintained on lithium during Ramadan. Fasting in an average temperature of 28°C for up to 12 h per day did not result in elevated serum lithium levels or more side effects and did not have adverse effects on mental state of patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder.

  14. Effects of loratadine and cetirizine on serum levels of neuropeptides in patients with chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Pinar Y; Vural, Huseyin; Kazanoglu, Oya O; Erturan, Ijlal; Buyukbayram, Halil I

    2014-12-01

    H1-receptor inhibiting drugs, namely loratadine and cetirizine, were frequently used in treatment of chronic urticaria. Urticarial weal and flare reactions, a neurogenic reflex due to neuropeptides, were reported to be more effectively inhibited by cetirizine than loratadine. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments on serum levels of selected neuropeptides in chronic urticaria. Treatment groups of either systemic loratadine or cetirizine (10 mg/d), consisting of 16 and 22 patients, respectively, were included. Serum levels of stem cell factor (SCF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor (NGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP) were detected before and after one week of treatment with antihistamines. Serum NPY and VIP levels were significantly decreased when compared before and after treatment with antihistamines (P neuropeptides. Systemic loratadine and cetirizine treatments in patients with chronic urticaria precisely caused variations in serum levels of neuropeptides. The predominant effect of cetirizine compared to loratadine on reducing serum SCF levels might be explained with anti-inflammatory properties of cetirizine.

  15. Coupling of effective one-dimensional two-level atoms to squeezed light

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, S; Clark, Stephen; Parkins, Scott

    2002-01-01

    A cavity QED system is analyzed which duplicates the dynamics of a two-level atom in free space interacting exclusively with broadband squeezed light. We consider atoms in a three or four-level Lambda-configuration coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity which is driven by a squeezed light field. Raman transitions are induced between a pair of stable atomic ground states via the squeezed cavity mode and coherent driving fields. An analysis of the reduced master equation for the atomic ground states shows that a three-level atomic system has insufficient parameter flexibility to act as an effective two-level atom interacting exclusively with a squeezed reservoir. However, the inclusion of a fourth atomic level, coupled dispersively to one of the two ground states by an auxiliary laser field, introduces an extra degree of freedom and enables the desired interaction to be realised. As a means of detecting the reduced quadrature decay rate of the effective two-level system, we examine the transmission spectrum o...

  16. Effects of surface drag on upper-level frontogenesis within a developing baroclinic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tan, Zhemin; Chu, Kekuan

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of surface drag on upper-level front with a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic mesoscale numerical model (MM5). To this end, a new and simple potential vorticity intrusion (PVI) index is proposed to quantitatively describe the extent and path that surface drag affects upper-level front. From a PV perspective, the formation of the upper-level front is illustrated as the tropopause folding happens from the stratosphere. The PVI index shows a good correlation with the minimum surface pressure, and tends to increase with the deepening of the surface cyclone and upper-level front. The surface drag acts to damp and delay the development of upper-level front, which could reduce the growth rate of the PVI index. However, the damping presents different effects in different development stages. It is the most significant during the rapid development stage of the surface cyclone. Compared with no surface drag cases, the tropopause is less inclined to intrude into the troposphere due to the surface drag. Positive feedback between the surface cyclone and upper-level front could accelerate the development of the frontal system.

  17. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  18. No effect of physiotherapy on the serum levels of adipocytokines in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Levitová, Andrea; Kuklová, Markéta; Stochl, Jan; Haluzík, Martin; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Senolt, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intensive physiotherapy on disease activity and serum levels of adipocytokines in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Twenty-six patients with AS were included in this study. Intensive physiotherapy was performed twice a week for a period of 3 months. The Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) were assessed at inclusion and after 3 months. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were analysed by ELISA assays. Patients had mild to moderate disease activity. Baseline levels of adipocytokines did not correlate with indicators of disease activity, functional status or acute-phase reactants. After the 3 months of intensive physiotherapy, BASDAI significantly decreased from 2.98 to 1.8 (p = 0.01) and BASFI improved from 2.31 to 1.37 (p = 0.05), while there were no changes in serum levels of CRP, ESR and adipocytokines. In addition, baseline levels of adipocytokines did not predict the change of disease activity or functional ability. Intensive physiotherapy effectively reduces all clinical measures of disease activity, but it is not associated with a significant change in acute-phase reactants or serum levels of adipocytokines.

  19. Locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Still at the orthographic level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological neighborhood density were orally presented to adults who had to write them down. Following the additive factors logic (Sternberg, 1969, 2001), if word frequency in spelling to dictation influences a processing level, that is, the orthographic output level, different from that influenced by phonological neighborhood density, that is, spoken word recognition, the impact of the 2 factors should be additive. In contrast, their influence should be overadditive if they act at the same processing level in spelling to dictation, namely the spoken word recognition level. We found that both factors had a reliable influence on the spelling latencies but did not interact. This finding is in line with an orthographic output locus hypothesis of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The effects of preservice teacher's cognitive questioning level and redirecting on student science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Joseph P., II

    The objectives of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of 100% high cognitive questions, 50% high cognitive questions and 0% high cognitive questions on primary and intermediate students' achievement at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels. A second purpose was to examine the effects of redirecting questions on student achievement. Groups of 5 subjects were randomly selected from 16 intermediate and 16 primary classrooms and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment levels. Data were collected on 154 subjects. Within the three cognitive questioning treatment levels the subjects were also randomly assigned to one of two questioning strategies: (1) redirected and (2) directed. Redirection occurs when the teacher asks the same question to a number of students (in this case 2). Thirty preservice teachers conducted the treatments. The teachers were trained to follow a prescribed behavior pattern and were video taped during the treatment to insure fidelity to the scripted questions. At the end of the lesson a criterion test was administered with 3 subtests measuring at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. There was no significant difference among scores on the total criterion measure or the sub tests due to cognitive questioning level. There was a significant difference due to redirecting questions (p = 0.05). Students assigned to teachers using redirection scored significantly higher than those assigned to teachers not using this strategy. This difference was found on the knowledge subtest. Significant interactions occurred between questioning level and questioning strategy on the comprehension and total test.

  1. The effect of reduced amino acid level and increasing levels of lupin on growth performance and meat content in organic reared pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suitable protein sources for organic pig production are scarce. This project was aimed at studying the effect of a reduced amino acid level and thus crude protein level, and the inclusion of lupin in diets for grower-finisher pigs fed under organic conditions. Two hundred pigs (females......:male castrates, 1:1) were fed either 100% or 85% of amino acid recommendations and lupin inclusions levels of 0%, 12.5% or 25% from 30 to 105 kg....

  2. The effect of strength training on the testosterone level in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary objective of this study was to provide the insight into the effects of strength training on the testosterone (TE level in men, as well as the mechanisms of anabolic effects of testosterone on human muscle apparatus, since it is known that one of the ways to increase muscle strength is through the increase of muscle mass (peripheral factor, and the basis of this process is the effect of TE. The collected data summarize the conclusions of a number of previous studies, out of which larger number of recently, and they relate to the effect of different methods of strength training (H - submaximal effort to failure, S - maximal effort, P - dynamic effort with equally applied total volume of load, and the effect of different rest periods in strength training on the level of TE in men. The presented results confirmed the claims that the H method is the most effective and reasonably called 'the method for muscle hypertrophy'. When it comes to rest periods, the ones that last for about 90 seconds proved optimal because this period had most influence on the level of lactic acid and catecholamines in blood which are considered to be the key factors for the increased secretion of TE (this hormone was included in a group of stress hormones as well. However, according to many authors, further examinations in this field are necessary in order to determine the causal link with greater certainty.

  3. Low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapour in air: Lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for miosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.P.M. van; Trap, H.C.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Oostdijk, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to indicate, for low-level exposure of conscious guinea pigs and marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour in air, the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of sarin for miosis. This is the concentration × time (C·t) value (t = 5 h) of exposure at which miosis

  4. Long-term, low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapor in air: Lowest observable effect level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.P.M. van; Trap, H.C.; Oostdijk, J.P.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Langenberg, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Realistic scenarios for low-level exposure to nerve agents will often involve exposures over several hours to extremely low doses of agent. In order to expose animals to the lowest controllable concentrations of agent and to increase exposure times until a lowest observable effect level (LOEL)

  5. Effects of dietary protein levels during rearing and dietary energy levels during lay on body composition and reproduction in broiler breeder females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    A study with a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to determine the effects of 2 dietary protein levels (high = CPh and low = CPl) during rearing, 3 dietary energy levels (3,000, MEh1; 2,800, MEs1; and 2,600, MEl1, kcal/kg AMEn, respectively) during the first phase of lay, and 2 dietary

  6. Effect of low-level laser-treated mesenchymal stem cells on myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gammal, Zaynab H; Zaher, Amr M; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2017-07-06

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although cardiac transplantation is considered the most effective therapy for end-stage cardiac diseases, it is limited by the availability of matching donors and the complications of the immune suppressive regimen used to prevent graft rejection. Application of stem cell therapy in experimental animal models was shown to reverse cardiac remodeling, attenuate cardiac fibrosis, improve heart functions, and stimulate angiogenesis. The efficacy of stem cell therapy can be amplified by low-level laser radiation. It is well established that the bio-stimulatory effect of low-level laser is influenced by the following parameters: wavelength, power density, duration, energy density, delivery time, and the type of irradiated target. In this review, we evaluate the available experimental data on treatment of myocardial infarction using low-level laser. Eligible papers were characterized as in vivo experimental studies that evaluated the use of low-level laser therapy on stem cells in order to attenuate myocardial infarction. The following descriptors were used separately and in combination: laser therapy, low-level laser, low-power laser, stem cell, and myocardial infarction. The assessed low-level laser parameters were wavelength (635-804 nm), power density (6-50 mW/cm(2)), duration (20-150 s), energy density (0.96-1 J/cm(2)), delivery time (20 min-3 weeks after myocardial infarction), and the type of irradiated target (bone marrow or in vitro-cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells). The analysis focused on the cardioprotective effect of this form of therapy, the attenuation of scar tissue, and the enhancement of angiogenesis as primary targets. Other effects such as cell survival, cell differentiation, and homing are also included. Among the evaluated protocols using different parameters, the best outcome for treating myocardial infarction was achieved by treating the bone marrow by one dose of low-level

  7. In vitro effect of levofloxacin and vancomycin combination against high level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Ilknur; Cicek-Senturk, Gonul; Yucesoy-Dede, Behiye; Yuksel-Kocdogan, Funda; Yuksel, Saim; Karagul, Emin

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro effects of levofloxacin and vancomycin in combination were evaluated against high level aminoglycoside-resistant (HLAR) enterococci using chequerboard and time-kill curve techniques. We examined 28 strains of enterococci comprising 17 Enterococcus faecalis, 10 E. faecium and one E. durans. The combination of vancomycin and levofloxacin had indifferent activity against all isolates according to chequerboard microdilution method, but was synergistic for two isolates, one E. faecium and one E. faecalis, using the time-kill curve method. Both strains were levofloxacin resistant and had high level aminoglycoside resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin. Antagonism was not detected in any strain. The results of this study suggested that the combination of vancomycin with levofloxacin does not often show synergistic effect against high level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci.

  8. Forgiveness As A Leadership Feature And A Study O n Its Effects On Organizational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Şener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on forgiveness notion, which is mainly related to the rel igion but has significant effects on organizational level. The frequency of the forgiveness studies on the organization and administration level in the Christian culture is more striking than the Muslim culture. But the rational aspect of this notion is addressed rather than the emotional and religious aspects and its personal and organizational effects are explained. The forgiveness notion which is found to be a feature of both transformationa l and servantleadership in the literature, the things to do to use it as an intervention agent on the organizational level are explained. In this study it is suggested that the reasons why forgiveness is not widely used in practice despite being one of the important element of our culture and qualitative and quantitative research on the use of forgiveness as a culture and intervention agent should be done.

  9. Automaticity of basic-level categorization accounts for labeling effects in visual recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic category level versus exemplar level in the absence of any overt labeling produces the same qualitative pattern of results. Experiment 2 demonstrates that labeling does not always disrupt memory as predicted by the representational shift hypothesis: Differences in memory following labeling versus preference are more likely an effect of judging preference, not an effect of overt labeling. Labeling does not influence memory by shifting memory representations toward the category prototype. Rather, labeling objects at the basic level produces memory representations that are simply less robust than those produced by other kinds of study tasks.

  10. Effect of mazindol on growth hormone levels in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, M; Rapaport, D; Vainzof, M; Pavanello, R de C; Rocha, J M; Betti, R T; Otto, P A

    1988-12-01

    Human growth hormone (HGH) inhibition may be beneficial in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and slow down the rate of progression of the disease. The purposes of the present investigation were: 1) to assess, through pharmacological stimuli (L-dopa test), the HGH response in untreated DMD patients, and 2) to evaluate the inhibitory effect of mazindol on HGH levels as a potential treatment for DMD. In 55 DMD patients, HGH levels were measured through the L-dopa test, and 40 received mazindol. After 1 year, there was wide variability in the individual response to mazindol. An apparent diminution in the mean HGH level was observed in the whole group of patients; this was statistically significant after 3 and 6 months but not after 9 and 12 months of treatment. The results suggest that this drug is not effective for arresting growth or inhibiting HGH secretion for a prolonged period of time.

  11. Many-body effects of Coulomb interaction on Landau levels in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, A. A.; Zabolotskiy, A. D.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2017-03-01

    In strong magnetic fields, massless electrons in graphene populate relativistic Landau levels with the square-root dependence of each level energy on its number and magnetic field. Interaction-induced deviations from this single-particle picture were observed in recent experiments on cyclotron resonance and magneto-Raman scattering. Previous attempts to calculate such deviations theoretically using the unscreened Coulomb interaction resulted in overestimated many-body effects. This work presents many-body calculations of cyclotron and magneto-Raman transitions in single-layer graphene in the presence of Coulomb interaction, which is statically screened in the random-phase approximation. We take into account self-energy and excitonic effects as well as Landau level mixing, and achieve good agreement of our results with the experimental data for graphene on different substrates. The important role of a self-consistent treatment of the screening is found.

  12. The Interaction Effects of Gender and Grade Level on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chua Kah; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study reports the effects of gender and grade level on secondary students' attitude towards chemistry lessons. For this purpose, the Attitude towards Chemistry Lessons Scale (ATCLS) was administered to 446 secondary school students between 16-19 years old. The ATCLS consists of four different subscales: liking for chemistry…

  13. Effects of Language Anxiety on Three Proficiency-Level Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Llinas, Monica; Garau, Maria Juan

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of language anxiety on course achievement in three foreign language proficiency levels of Spanish, namely, beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Participants completed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) and a background questionnaire. Results showed that language…

  14. Effect of dietary cis and trans fatty acids on serum lipoprotein(a) levels in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.; Hornstra, G.

    1992-01-01

    Serum lipoprotein[a] (Lp[a]) is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease. We therefore examined the effect of dietary fatty acid composition on serum Lp[a] levels in three strictly controlled experiments with healthy normocholesterolemic men and women. In Expt. I, 58 subjects consumed a contr

  15. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  16. The Effects of Familiarization with Oral Expository Text on Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakidoy, Irene-Anna N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text type and early familiarization with oral expository text structures on listening and reading comprehension levels. Second-grade students read and listened to narrative and expository texts, and their comprehension was assessed with a sentence verification task. Half of the students had participated in a…

  17. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  18. Effects of Multiple Simulation Presentation among Students of Different Anxiety Levels in the Learning of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook; Por, Fei Ping; Tang, Ai Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple simulation presentation in interactive multimedia are on the achievement of students with different levels of anxiety in the learning of Probability. The interactive multimedia courseware was developed in two different modes, which were Multiple Simulation Presentation (MSP) and…

  19. The Effect of Project Based Learning on the Statistical Literacy Levels of Student 8th Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur; Güven, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of project based learning on 8th grade students' statistical literacy levels. A performance test was developed for this aim. Quasi-experimental research model was used in this article. In this context, the statistics were taught with traditional method in the control group and it was taught using project based…

  20. The Effect of Project-Based Learning on Students' Statistical Literacy Levels for Data Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koparan, Timur; Güven, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The point of this study is to define the effect of project-based learning approach on 8th Grade secondary-school students' statistical literacy levels for data representation. To achieve this goal, a test which consists of 12 open-ended questions in accordance with the views of experts was developed. Seventy 8th grade secondary-school students, 35…

  1. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning o...

  2. The Effects of Social Capital Levels in Elementary Schools on Organizational Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of social capital levels at elementary schools on organizational information sharing as reported by teachers. Participants were 267 teachers selected randomly from 16 elementary schools; schools also selected randomly among 42 elementary schools located in the city center of Batman. The data were analyzed by…

  3. The Effect of the Family Training Program on Married Women's Couple-Burnout Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Hatice Deveci; Deniz, M. Engin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of Modules 2 and 3 of the Family Communication Section of the Family Training Program as prepared by the Ministry of Family and Social Policies on married women's couple-burnout levels. The study group consists of 40 married women in total: 20 constituting the experimental group and the remaining 20…

  4. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lung function level and decline are each pre- dictive of morbidity and mortality. Evaluation of the combined effect of these measurements may help further identify high-risk groups. Using Copenhagen City Heart Study longitudinal spirometry data (n = 10,457), 16–21 year risks of chronic o...

  5. Effects of Language Anxiety on Three Proficiency-Level Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Llinas, Monica; Garau, Maria Juan

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of language anxiety on course achievement in three foreign language proficiency levels of Spanish, namely, beginner, intermediate, and advanced. Participants completed the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) and a background questionnaire. Results showed that language…

  6. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  7. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  8. The Effects of Social Capital Elements on Job Satisfaction and Motivation Levels of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydak Özan, Mukadder; Yavuz Özdemir, Tuncay; Yaras, Zübeyde

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social capital elements' on job satisfaction and motivation levels of teachers. The mixed method was used in the study. The quantitative data were analyzed through Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. An interview form developed by the researchers was used for analyzing the…

  9. Effect of exercise modality and intensity on post-exercise interleukin-6 and hepcidin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exercise modality and intensity on Interleukin-6 (IL-6), iron status, and hepcidin levels was investigated. Ten trained male triathletes performed 4 exercise trials including low-intensity continuous running (L-R), low-intensity continuous cycling (L-C), high-intensity interval running

  10. The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Meaning in Life and Depression Levels of Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatmili, Somaye; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shahrak, Mohammad Ali; Talepasand, Siavash; Nokani, Mostafa; Hasani, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the effectiveness of group logotherapy in reducing depression and increasing meaning in life levels of university students in Iran. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre- post- and follow-up test design. The instruments used were the "Purpose in Life" (PIL) test and the "Beck Depression…

  11. Nonclassical Effects of a Four-Level Excited-Doublet Atom Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Song; XU Jing-Bo

    2006-01-01

    We adopt a dynamical algebraic method to study a four-level excited-doublet atom model and obtain the explicit expressions of the time-evolution operator and the density operator for the system. The nonclassical effects of the system, such as collapses and revivals of the atomic inversion and squeezing of the radiation field, are also discussed.

  12. Effect of Conductor Verbalization, Dynamic Markings, Conductor Gesture, and Choir Dynamic Level on Singers' Dynamic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skadsem, Julie A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effects of conductor verbalization, dynamic markings, conductor gesture, and choir dynamic level on individual singers' dynamic responses. Indicates that verbal instructions from the conductor elicited significantly stronger dynamic performance responses than did the other instructional conditions. Suggests that additional research…

  13. Effects of Varied Levels of Treatment Integrity on Appropriate Toy Manipulation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Nicole C.; Groskreutz, Mark P.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effects of varying the treatment integrity of a prompting procedure on appropriate toy manipulation in two preschool-aged children with autism. Following an assessment to identify toys with high levels of inappropriate toy manipulation, each of three toys was associated with implementation of the prompting procedure at a different…

  14. The Interaction Effects of Gender and Grade Level on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Chua Kah; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study reports the effects of gender and grade level on secondary students' attitude towards chemistry lessons. For this purpose, the Attitude towards Chemistry Lessons Scale (ATCLS) was administered to 446 secondary school students between 16-19 years old. The ATCLS consists of four different subscales: liking for chemistry…

  15. Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

  16. Effects of Varying Text Difficulty Levels on Second Language (L2) Reading Attitudes and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Min-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of varying text difficulty on L2 reading attitudes and reading comprehension. To provide the optimal challenge for L2 reading, comprehensible input hypothesis postulates that choosing text slightly harder than the learner's current level will enhance reading comprehension. Fifty-four freshmen from one university…

  17. Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students with Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Amanda K.; Horner, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a literacy intervention matching student skill level with academic performance demands were examined through a multiple baseline across participants design. The dual dependent variables were problem behavior and academic engagement. Four students in Grades 2 or 3 who exhibited low academic performance and problem behavior during…

  18. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  19. Using the QUAIT Model to Effectively Teach Research Methods Curriculum to Master's-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy J.; Gitchel, Dent

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To apply Slavin's model of effective instruction to teaching research methods to master's-level students. Methods: Barriers to the scientist-practitioner model (student research experience, confidence, and utility value pertaining to research methods as well as faculty research and pedagogical incompetencies) are discussed. Results: The…

  20. The Relationships between Organizational Learning Level, School Effectiveness and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanoglu, Müslim; Demirtas, Zülfü

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the relationships between organizational learning levels of high schools; organizational citizenship behavior of managers and teachers and effective school characteristics of them based on the opinions of managers and teachers. The population of the research consists of managers and teachers serving at high…

  1. Effect of exercise modality and intensity on post-exercise interleukin-6 and hepcidin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exercise modality and intensity on Interleukin-6 (IL-6), iron status, and hepcidin levels was investigated. Ten trained male triathletes performed 4 exercise trials including low-intensity continuous running (L-R), low-intensity continuous cycling (L-C), high-intensity interval running

  2. Effect of methadone on plasma arginine vasopressin level and urine production in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, L.J.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of i.v. methadone on the plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels and urine production in 9 conscious dogs. A highly significant increase from the baseline plasma AVP values of below 3 pg/ml occurred within 5 min following methadone administration. Max

  3. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  4. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  5. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of clozapine and molindone on plasma and brain levels of mescaline in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N S; Gulati, O D

    1984-01-01

    Levels of unchanged mescaline were examined in the plasma and brain of albino Swiss-Webster mice pretreated with various doses of either clozapine or molindone. In clozapine treated mice, the mescaline levels were statistically significantly higher at 2 and 3 h with 7.5 and 15.0 mg/kg and at 1, 2 and 3 h with 30 mg/kg. Molindone at 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg produced no significant effect; at 16.0 and 48.0 mg/kg, the levels were significantly higher at 1 and 2 h. Elevated brain levels of mescaline by clozapine and molindone indicate an adverse metabolic interaction between a hallucinogen and drugs that are commonly used to treat mescaline-induced psychosis.

  7. EFFECT OF THE SCREW TORQUE LEVEL ON THE INTERFRAGMENTARY STRAIN AND THE INTERFRAGMENTARY MODULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthum Wongchai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The screw torque is applied at the screw head to fix the plate and the bone. It generates the compressive force between the plate and the bone to stabilize them. The interfragmentary strain is the main factor for healing the bone fractured. The screw torque level affects the interfragmentary strain and the stability of the fixation between the plates an the bone. The interfragmentary modulus is the new factor of the plate fixation stability and it is affected by the torque level. This research is proposed to study the effect of the screw torque level on the interfragmentary strain and the interfragmentary modulus. The interfragmentary strain and the interfragmentary modulus decrease by increasing the screw torque level.

  8. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  9. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  10. Effects of dietary lead exposure on vitamin levels in great tit nestlings - An experimental manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra; Espín, Silvia; Rainio, Miia; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to metal pollution negatively affects animal physiology, including nutrient metabolism, but in the wild an effect can seldom be attributed to a single metal. Moreover, little is known about how the metabolism of vitamins, essential micronutrients for developing juveniles, is affected by toxic metals. Therefore we experimentally investigated the effects of lead (Pb), a widespread toxic metal, on four fat-soluble vitamins A (total and retinol), D3, E (total and α-tocopherol) and K and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and unidentified) in great tit (Parus major) nestlings. In addition to a control group where no Pb was provided, two Pb-dosed groups were compared to a metal exposed group in the vicinity of a Ni-Cu smelter. We examined whether Pb treatment affects vitamin homeostasis and how the response of Pb-treated birds relates to that of a population under industrial exposure of Pb and other metals. For this purpose, vitamin and carotenoid levels were quantified with UPLC-MS from plasma of 7 days-old nestlings. All metal exposed groups showed increased vitamin A and retinol levels. However, vitamin levels were not directly associated with fecal Pb levels, with the exception of retinol, which was positively correlated with fecal Pb. Alpha-tocopherol, lutein and zeaxanthin levels were positively associated with body mass and wing growth rate. To conclude, Pb exposure increased plasma vitamin A and retinol levels while the levels of other vitamins and carotenoids rather reflected secondary pollution effects via differences in habitat and diet quality at the smelter site. Our findings suggest Pb exposed nestlings may allocate the vitamins needed for growth and development to fight the physiological stress thus compromising their fitness.

  11. The relationship between calculated effect-site sevoflurane levels and awakening from anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R R; Sakowska, M M

    2006-12-01

    We have previously described a system that displays real-time estimates of effect-site sevoflurane concentrations. Estimates of effect-site levels should be similar to minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values, which are determined after allowing time for equilibrium. This study aimed to determine estimated effect-site sevoflurane concentrations at awakening from routine anaesthesia and to compare this with published estimates of MAC-awake. If these values were similar; this would validate our approach to the calculation of effect-site concentration. Sixty-five patients undergoing a variety of surgical procedures were observed. Prior to disconnection from the breathing circuit, forward estimates of effect-site sevoflurane were recorded. Patients were observed in the post-anaesthesia care unit and the time at which they responded to command was recorded.Age-adjusted effect-site sevoflurane at the time of awakening was determined. Correlation with patient, surgical and anaesthetic factors including age, gender; ASA status and intraoperative opioid usage were explored. Mean age-adjusted calculated effect-site concentration at awakening was 0.59 (SD 0.27) vol%. This value is within the range of values determined for MAC-awake of sevoflurane. There was no correlation with any of the demographic or anaesthetic factors, but patients undergoing major surgery woke at a significantly lower mean sevoflurane level. These results support the use of effect-site sevoflurane concentration to guide administration of anaesthesia.

  12. The Deep-Level-Reasoning-Question Effect: The Role of Dialogue and Deep-Level-Reasoning Questions during Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Witherspoon, Amy; Gholson, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the impact of dialogue and deep-level-reasoning questions on vicarious learning in 2 studies with undergraduates. In Experiment 1, participants learned material by interacting with AutoTutor or by viewing 1 of 4 vicarious learning conditions: a noninteractive recorded version of the AutoTutor dialogues, a dialogue with a…

  13. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain. PMID:25865218

  14. Effect of background noise on neuronal coding of interaural level difference cues in rat inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-07-01

    Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-noise conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band noise on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural level difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural noise at high levels generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower levels resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural noise effects were related to selective noise effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background noise appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background noise (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background noise. They also suggest that some effects of background noise on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the level of the midbrain.

  15. The Effect of Renal Dysfunction on Circulating Sclerostin Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Hwa Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Sclerostin is a Wnt inhibitor produced specifically by osteocytes. However, it is not currently clear whether renal dysfunction has an effect on circulating sclerostin level in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate this relationship. Design and Patients. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 302 type 2 diabetic patients with or without chronic kidney disease. Serum sclerostin level was analyzed by ELISA, and renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. Results. There was a strong correlation between sclerostin level with renal function presented as serum creatinine (r=0.745, P<0.001 and eGFR (r=-0.590, P<0.001. Serum sclerostin level was significantly higher in patients with CKD-G3 stage than those with CKD-G1/2 stages after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (P=0.011. Patients with CKD-G4/5 stages had dramatically increased level of circulating sclerostin. Multiple regression analyses found that age, sex, and eGFR were independent determining factors for circulating sclerostin level. Conclusion. Our data showed that serum sclerostin levels start to increase in diabetic patients with CKD-G3 stage. Further studies are needed to establish the potential role of elevated sclerostin in diabetic patients with CKD.

  16. Effect of visible laser light on ATP level of anaemic red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, Nursakinah; Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Mustafa, Mohd Zulkifli; Ali, Zalila

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present influence of visible laser light on ATP level and viability of anaemic red blood cell (RBC). The visible laser lights used in this work are 460nm and 532nm. The responses of ATP level in anaemic and normal RBC before and after laser irradiation at different exposure time (30, 40, 50 and 60s) were observed. Three aliquots were prepared from the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood sample. One served as a control (untreated) and another two were irradiated with 460nm and 560nm lasers. Packed RBC was prepared to study ATP level in the RBC using CellTiter-GloLuminescent cell Viability Assay kit. The assay generates a glow type signal produced by luciferase reaction, which is proportional to the amount of ATP present in RBCs. Paired t-test were done to analyse ATP level before and after laser irradiation. The results revealed laser irradiation improve level of ATP in anaemic RBC. Effect of laser light on anaemic RBCs were significant over different exposure time for both 460nm (p=0.000) and 532nm (p=0.003). The result of ATP level is further used as marker for RBC viability. The influence of ATP level and viability were studied. Optical densities obtained from the data were used to determine cell viability of the samples. Results showed that laser irradiation increased viability of anaemic RBC compared to normal RBC.

  17. Effect of radiation dose level on the detectability of pulmonary nodules in chest tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, Sara A.; Svalkvist, Angelica; Maansson, Lars Gunnar; Baath, Magnus [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johnsson, Aase A.; Vikgren, Jenny; Flinck, Agneta; Boijsen, Marianne; Fisichella, Valeria A. [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the detectability of pulmonary nodules in chest tomosynthesis at reduced radiation dose levels. Eighty-six patients were included in the study and were examined with tomosynthesis and computed tomography (CT). Artificial noise was added to simulate that the tomosynthesis images were acquired at dose levels corresponding to 12, 32, and 70 % of the default setting effective dose (0.12 mSv). Three observers (with >20, >20 and three years of experience) read the tomosynthesis cases for presence of nodules in a free-response receiver operating characteristics (FROC) study. CT served as reference. Differences between dose levels were calculated using the jack-knife alternative FROC (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM). The JAFROC FOM was 0.45, 0.54, 0.55, and 0.54 for the 12, 32, 70, and 100 % dose levels, respectively. The differences in FOM between the 12 % dose level and the 32, 70, and 100 % dose levels were 0.087 (p = 0.006), 0.099 (p = 0.003), and 0.093 (p = 0.004), respectively. Between higher dose levels, no significant differences were found. A substantial reduction from the default setting dose in chest tomosynthesis may be possible. In the present study, no statistically significant difference in detectability of pulmonary nodules was found when reducing the radiation dose to 32 %. (orig.)

  18. Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and noise levels in preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    High activity noise levels that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and levels of noise, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called "Hjalli model", and in six public preschools. Noise levels were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress level, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting noise and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the "Hjalli model") experienced lower activity noise loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower noise levels were also measured in the "Hjalli model" preschool and fewer "Hjalli model" teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than "Hjalli model" teachers and the stress level was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity noise level better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported noise and its consequences.

  19. Effects of broadband noise on cortical evoked auditory responses at different loudness levels in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C; Munro, Kevin J; Sawaya, Kathleen; Peter, Varghese

    2014-03-26

    Young adults with no history of hearing concerns were tested to investigate their /da/-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (P1-N1-P2) recorded from 32 scalp electrodes in the presence and absence of noise at three different loudness levels (soft, comfortable, and loud), at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (+3 dB). P1 peak latency significantly increased at soft and loud levels, and N1 and P2 latencies increased at all three levels in the presence of noise, compared with the quiet condition. P1 amplitude was significantly larger in quiet than in noise conditions at the loudest level. N1 amplitude was larger in quiet than in noise for the soft level only. P2 amplitude was reduced in the presence of noise to a similar degree at all loudness levels. The differential effects of noise on P1, N1, and P2 suggest differences in auditory processes underlying these peaks. The combination of level and signal-to-noise ratio should be considered when using cortical auditory evoked potentials as an electrophysiological indicator of degraded speech processing.

  20. Artificial regulation of water level and its effect on aquatic macrophyte distribution in Taihu Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Zhao

    Full Text Available Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15-30 m resolution to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989-2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000-2010 were 0.06-0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season and 0.22-0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season than in the 1989-1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CV(a decreased from 10.21% in 1989-1999 to 5.41% in 2000-2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000-2010 relative to 1989-1999. Neither annual average water level nor CV(a influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes that was present historically.

  1. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  2. [Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Mehmet; Ayoglu, Hilal; Okyay, Dilek; Ayoglu, Ferruh; Gür, Abdullah; Can, Murat; Yurtlu, Serhan; Hancı, Volkan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Turan, Işıl

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5mgkg(-1) propofol, 1mgkg(-1) lidocaine and 0.6mgkg(-1) rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4Lmin(-1), 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4Lmin(-1) 6mgkgh(-1) propofol and 1μgkgh(-1) fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. Predicted levels of human radiation tolerance extrapolated from clinical studies of radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Results of clinical studies of radiation effects on man are used to evaluate space radiation hazards encountered during manned space travel. Considered are effects of photons as well as of mixed fission neutrons and gamma irradiations in establishing body radiosensitivity and tolerance levels. Upper and lower dose-response-time relations for acute radiation syndromes in patients indicate that man is more than sufficiently radioresistant to make the risks of an early radiation effect during one short space mission intangibly small in relation to the other nonradiation risks involved.

  5. The in vivo effects of interleukin-3 on histamine levels in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, D J; Stahl Skov, P; Nissen, N I

    1997-06-01

    Recombinant human Interleukin-3 (RhIL-3) is a haemopoietic growth factor with effect both on early and differentiated cells, such as eosinophils and basophils, and it also acts as a histamine-releasing agent. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether in vivo rhIL-3 administration after chemotherapy affected basophil histamine levels and whether a concordance between rhIL-3 induced histamine release and side effects during the treatment could be demonstrated. Thirty patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma entered the study. All patients received 6 courses of chemotherapy, rhIL-3 was administered subcutaneously once daily after the second and the fourth course of chemotherapy from cycle day 2-15 at the dose levels 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 micrograms/kg with 6 patients at each dose level. In cycle 6 recombinant human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (rhGM-CSF) (3.0 micrograms/kg) was administered sequential/concurrent day 9-15 to rhIL-3 (day 2-15) at all dose levels except 7.5 micrograms/kg, where rhIL-3 was given day 2-8 and rhGM-CSF sequential day 9-15. Cycles 1, 3 and 5 served as control cycles with no cytokine therapy. During rhIL-3 treatment, and after CHOP chemotherapy, the basophil counts increased moderately especially during the recovery period day 15-22, and mainly at the two highest dose levels 7.5 and 10 micrograms/kg, but never exceeded the normal upper limit. Histamine levels in basophils were the same in patients before chemotherapy and healthy volunteers, and except from a trend to increased histamine level at 10 micrograms/kg on day 15, no difference was noted between rhIL-3 cycles and control cycles. Within 3-4 hr after rhIL-3 administration, a drop in histamine level in basophils was noted, which could be due to histamine-releasing properties of rhIL-3 as previously demonstrated by in vitro studies. No serious side effects were noted during the cytokine treatment, and despite that most patients had mild flushing of the

  6. School Effectiveness at Primary Level of Education in Relation to Classroom Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Panigrahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the relationship of School Effectiveness with regard to classroom teaching at primary level of education. The objectives of the study were to identify the more-effective and less-effective schools; to find out the differences between more-effective and less-effective schools in relation to physical facilities, Head Master and Teachers’ performance and Students’ performance; to find out the relationship between the school effectiveness and classroom teaching. The descriptive survey method was used to carry out this study. A Total number of 27 more-effective and 35 less-effective primary schools were included in the sample of the present study. And also all principals of selected schools and from each school 2 teachers were selected to know their classroom teaching in the classroom situation. The selection of teachers was based on their teaching the classes (III, IV and V, to investigate their participation in school activities. The findings of the present study on school effectiveness and classroom teaching find adequate support from similar or related studies. Thus, the above discussion reflects that there is no simple combination of factors, which can produce effective school. The study has, however, revealed that school effectiveness has emerged as related to classroom teaching.

  7. Redox levels in aqueous solution: Effect of van der Waals interactions and hybrid functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Francesco; Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We investigate redox levels in aqueous solution using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and thermodynamic integration methods. The molecular dynamics are performed with both the semilocal Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional and a nonlocal functional (rVV10) accounting for van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The band edges are determined through three different schemes, namely, from the energy of the highest occupied and of the lowest unoccupied Kohn-Sham states, from total-energy differences, and from a linear extrapolation of the density of states. It is shown that the latter does not depend on the system size while the former two are subject to significant finite-size effects. For the redox levels, we provide a formulation in analogy to the definition of charge transition levels for defects in crystalline materials. We consider the H+/H2 level defining the standard hydrogen electrode, the OH-/OH∗ level corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxyl ion, and the H2O/OH∗ level for the dehydrogenation of water. In spite of the large structural modifications induced in liquid water, vdW interactions do not lead to any significant structural effect on the calculated band gap and band edges. The effect on the redox levels is also small since the solvation properties of ionic species are little affected by vdW interactions. Since the electronic properties are not significantly affected by the underlying structural properties, it is justified to perform hybrid functional calculations on the configurations of our MD simulations. The redox levels calculated as a function of the fraction α of Fock exchange are found to remain constant, reproducing a general behavior previously observed for charge transition levels of defects. Comparison with experimental values shows very good agreement. At variance, the band edges and the band gap evolve linearly with α. For α ≃ 0.40, we achieve a band gap, band-edge positions, and redox levels in overall

  8. Redox levels in aqueous solution: Effect of van der Waals interactions and hybrid functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, Francesco, E-mail: Francesco.Ambrosio@epfl.ch; Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo [Chaire de Simulation à l’Echelle Atomique (CSEA), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-12-28

    We investigate redox levels in aqueous solution using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and thermodynamic integration methods. The molecular dynamics are performed with both the semilocal Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional and a nonlocal functional (rVV10) accounting for van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The band edges are determined through three different schemes, namely, from the energy of the highest occupied and of the lowest unoccupied Kohn-Sham states, from total-energy differences, and from a linear extrapolation of the density of states. It is shown that the latter does not depend on the system size while the former two are subject to significant finite-size effects. For the redox levels, we provide a formulation in analogy to the definition of charge transition levels for defects in crystalline materials. We consider the H{sup +}/H{sub 2} level defining the standard hydrogen electrode, the OH{sup −}/OH{sup ∗} level corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxyl ion, and the H{sub 2}O/OH{sup ∗} level for the dehydrogenation of water. In spite of the large structural modifications induced in liquid water, vdW interactions do not lead to any significant structural effect on the calculated band gap and band edges. The effect on the redox levels is also small since the solvation properties of ionic species are little affected by vdW interactions. Since the electronic properties are not significantly affected by the underlying structural properties, it is justified to perform hybrid functional calculations on the configurations of our MD simulations. The redox levels calculated as a function of the fraction α of Fock exchange are found to remain constant, reproducing a general behavior previously observed for charge transition levels of defects. Comparison with experimental values shows very good agreement. At variance, the band edges and the band gap evolve linearly with α. For α ≃ 0.40, we achieve a band gap, band

  9. Measuring macro-level effects of the global economic recession on university-industry research cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)

  10. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long...

  11. The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors.

  12. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    , while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  13. Correlation, Breit and Quantum Electrodynamics effects on energy level and transition properties of W54+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaobin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Dong, Chenzhong

    2017-03-01

    The electron correlation effects and Breit interaction as well as Quantum Electro-Dynamics (QED) effects were expected to have important contribution to the energy level and transition properties of heavy highly charged ions. The ground states [Ne]3 s 23 p 63 d 2 and first excited states [Ne]3 s 23 p 53 d 3 of W54+ ion have been studied by using Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock method with the implementation of Grasp2K package. A restricted active space method was employed to investigate the correlation contribution from different models. The Breit interaction and QED effects were taken into account in the relativistic configuration interaction calculation with the converged wavefunction. It is found that the correlation contribution from 3 s and 3 p orbital have important contribution to the energy level, transition wavelength and probability of the ground and the first excited state of W54+ ion.

  14. Beta-globin YAC transgenes exhibit uniform expression levels but position effect variegation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, R; Greally, J M; Tanimoto, K; Hwang, S; Feng, Y Q; Engel, J D; Fiering, S; Bouhassira, E E

    2000-03-01

    Expression of a construct integrated at different genomic locations often varies because of position effects that have been subcategorized as stable (decreased level of expression) and variegating (decreased proportion of expressing cells). It is well established that locus control regions (LCRs) generally overcome position effects in transgenes. However, whether stable and variegated position effects are equally overcome by an intact LCR has not been determined. We report that single-copy yeast artificial chromosome transgenes containing an unmodified human beta -globin locus were not subject to detectable stable position effects but did undergo mild to severe variegating position effects at three of the four non-centromeric integration sites tested. We also find that, at a given integration site, the distance and the orientation of the LCR relative to the regulated gene contributes to the likelihood of variegating position effects, and can affect the magnitude of its transcriptional enhancement. DNase I hypersensitive site (HSS) formation varies with the proportion of expressing cells, not the level of gene expression, suggesting that silencing of the transgene is associated with a lack of HSS formation in the LCR region. We conclude that transcriptional enhancement and variegating position effects are caused by fundamentally different but inter-dependent mechanisms.

  15. Effect of paroxetine combined with climen on hormone levels and neurotransmitters in patients with perimenopausal depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Ling Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of paroxetine combined with climen on hormone levels and neurotransmitters in patients with perimenopausal depression. Methods:A total of 96 cases of perimenopausal women who met the diagnosis of depression and were treated in our hospital from July 2012 to March 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group with 48 cases. Control group received paroxetine therapy alone, observation group received paroxetine combined with climen therapy, serum hormone and neurotransmitter levels of two groups were compared, and severity of menopause and depression was detected after treatment. Results:E2 level of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group, and levels of FSH and LH were lower than those of control group;serum NE, 5-HT, DA, Glu and Asp values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and values of GABA and Gly were lower than those of control group;KI, MRS and HAMD scores of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group. Conclusion:Paroxetine combined with climen therapy for patients with perimenopausal depression can effectively optimize the levels of hormones and neurotransmitters in patients and reduce the symptom severity of menopause and depression.

  16. Using community-level metrics to monitor the effects of marine protected areas on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykan, Candan U; Lewison, Rebecca L

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to protect species, communities, and their associated habitats, among other goals. Measuring MPA efficacy can be challenging, however, particularly when considering responses at the community level. We gathered 36 abundance and 14 biomass data sets on fish assemblages and used meta-analysis to evaluate the ability of 22 distinct community diversity metrics to detect differences in community structure between MPAs and nearby control sites. We also considered the effects of 6 covariates-MPA size and age, MPA size and age interaction, latitude, total species richness, and level of protection-on each metric. Some common metrics, such as species richness and Shannon diversity, did not differ consistently between MPA and control sites, whereas other metrics, such as total abundance and biomass, were consistently different across studies. Metric responses derived from the biomass data sets were more consistent than those based on the abundance data sets, suggesting that community-level biomass differs more predictably than abundance between MPA and control sites. Covariate analyses indicated that level of protection, latitude, MPA size, and the interaction between MPA size and age affect metric performance. These results highlight a handful of metrics, several of which are little known, that could be used to meet the increasing demand for community-level indicators of MPA effectiveness. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  18. Effect of day-to-day variations in adrenal cortex hormone levels on abdominal symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumura Hideki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is known to be related to abdominal symptoms, and the relationship between abdominal pain and cortisol secretory patterns has been previously investigated using a cross-sectional approach. Here, we investigated the effect of day-to-day variations in salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels on abdominal symptoms in healthy individuals. Methods Eleven college students (4 males and 7 females participated in this study. The participants were asked to collect their saliva immediately after awakening and before bedtime for eight consecutive days. They also completed a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms before bedtime. The linear mixed model was applied to analyze the effects of the day-by-day variability or the 8-day average adrenal hormone level (at awakening, before bedtime, slope from awakening to bedtime on abdominal symptoms. Results The day-to-day variability of cortisol levels before bedtime was negatively related with loose stool, while the day-to-day variability of the cortisol slope was positively correlated with loose stool. A low 8-day average dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate level at awakening was positively related with frequent bowel movements, loose stool, and long bouts of severe abdominal pain. Likewise, a low 8-day average dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate slope was positively related with long bouts of abdominal pain. Conclusions Low cortisol levels before bedtime and a steeper diurnal cortisol slope during the day may be related to bouts of diarrhea during the day.

  19. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bin Mu; Yu-Xin Huang; Bao-Min Zhao; Zhen-Xiong Liu; Bing-Hua Zhang; Qing-Li Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones.METHODS: Atotal of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively.Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay.RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24)remarkably changed also.CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range,the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder.

  20. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  1. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  2. Effect of hemodialysis on carnitine levels in children with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Sevgi; Kantar, Mehmet; Yalaz, Mehmet; Keskinoglu, Ahmet; Coker, Işil; Huseyinov, Afig

    2002-02-01

    Impaired structural and metabolic integrity of the kidney in chronic renal failure (CRF) effects carnitine metabolism by means of many factors. Depletion due to hemodialysis (HD) is one of the major concerns. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of chronic renal failure and HD on plasma free carnitine (FC) concentrations in children. Plasma FC concentrations were measured in age-matched 14 undialyzed patients, 20 dialyzed patients and 12 healthy children. In the HD group, measurements were done pre- and postdialysis and an hour after ceasing HD. None of the children have been receiving exogenous l-carnitine replacement. Plasma FC concentrations on either HD or conservative treatment were found to be decreased as compared to the healthy subjects (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The patients on HD had lower levels of plasma FC at the predialysis period than those on conservative treatment (P = 0.01). The FC levels significantly dropped at the postdialysis period as compared to those at the predialysis period (P < 0.001), but recovered at 1 h after ceasing HD. The mean duration of HD did not correlate with plasma FC levels at predialysis period. Children with CRF, either dialyzed or undialyzed, have decreased plasma FC levels. Hemo-dialysis treatment significantly depletes plasma FC concentrations during the procedure, but predialysis levels are reached 1 hr after ceasing HD.

  3. Effect of vitamin A administration on free radicals and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlar, Suleyman; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the effect of vitamin A administration on Free Radicals production and antioxidant system activity and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion The study registered 10 healthy sedentary males their mean age was 22,85±0,26 years. The subjects were orally administrated with 300 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 4 weeks and engaged in strenuous exercise (using the Bruce protocol) once a week. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at four different times, before and after the supplementation and before and after exercise to analyze Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels using colorimetric ELISA test kits and plasma lactate levels using an autoanalyzer. Exhaustion exercise leaded to an increase in both MDA, NO, and lactate, and GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels compared to resting levels both before and after supplementation (plevels found in pre-supplementation exhaustion showed a significant decrease after the supplementation of vitamin A (plevels of the free radical NO was offset by vitamin A supplementation. It can be suggested that supplementation of vitamin A at physiological doses has a limited effect on lipid peroxidation caused by strenuous exercise.

  4. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p silicon and simvastatin levels (r = 0.3, p silicon dioxide as an inactive ingredient. The mean simvastatin concentration was 9.02 ng/ml. All hypotheses were verified at the significance level of p silicon level in the plasma suggests that both might prompt the positive effect of osteoarthritis treatment.

  5. Intelligibility of speech in noise at high presentation levels: effects of hearing loss and frequency region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Van; Cord, Mary T

    2007-08-01

    These experiments examined how high presentation levels influence speech recognition for high- and low-frequency stimuli in noise. Normally hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners were tested. In Experiment 1, high- and low-frequency bandwidths yielding 70%-correct word recognition in quiet were determined at levels associated with broadband speech at 75 dB SPL. In Experiment 2, broadband and band-limited sentences (based on passbands measured in Experiment 1) were presented at this level in speech-shaped noise filtered to the same frequency bandwidths as targets. Noise levels were adjusted to produce approximately 30%-correct word recognition. Frequency bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios supporting criterion performance in Experiment 2 were tested at 75, 87.5, and 100 dB SPL in Experiment 3. Performance tended to decrease as levels increased. For NH listeners, this "rollover" effect was greater for high-frequency and broadband materials than for low-frequency stimuli. For HI listeners, the 75- to 87.5-dB increase improved signal audibility for high-frequency stimuli and rollover was not observed. However, the 87.5- to 100-dB increase produced qualitatively similar results for both groups: scores decreased most for high-frequency stimuli and least for low-frequency materials. Predictions of speech intelligibility by quantitative methods such as the Speech Intelligibility Index may be improved if rollover effects are modeled as frequency dependent.

  6. Low-level laser effects on bacterial cultures submitted to heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, E. M.; Guimarães, O. R.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Low-level lasers have been used worldwide to treat a number of diseases, pain relief, and wound healing. Some studies demonstrated that low-level laser radiations induce effects depending on the physiological state and DNA repair mechanisms of cells. In this work we evaluated the effects of low-level red and infrared lasers on Escherichia coli cells deficient in SOS responses submitted to heat stress. Exponential and stationary E. coli cultures of wild type (AB1157), RecA deficient (AB2463) and LexA deficient (AB2494), both SOS response deficient, were exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers at different fluences and submitted to heat stress (42 °C, 20 min). After that, cell survival and morphology were evaluated. Previous exposure to red, but not infrared lasers, increases survival fractions and decreases the area ratios of E. coli AB1157 cells submitted to heat stress. Our research suggests that a low-level red laser increases cell viability and protects cells from morphological alteration in E. coli cultures submitted to heat stress depending on laser wavelength and SOS response.

  7. Effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters (Crassostrea gigas): From molecular to individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Antoine; Séguin, Alexis; Devos, Alexandre; Pabic, Charles Le; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean Marc; Serpentini, Antoine; Fievet, Bruno; Costil, Katherine

    2015-06-30

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used and can be measured in aquatic ecosystems, including coastal waters. The effect of glyphosate on non-target organisms is an issue of worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Yearling oysters were exposed to three concentrations of glyphosate (0.1, 1 and 100μgL(-1)) for 56days. Various endpoints were studied, from the individual level (e.g., gametogenesis and tissue alterations) to the molecular level (mRNA quantification), including biochemical endpoints such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities and malondialdehyde content. No mortality and growth occurred during the experiment, and individual biomarkers revealed only slight effects. The levels of gene expression significantly increased in oysters exposed to the highest glyphosate concentration (GST and metallothioneins) or to all concentrations (multi-xenobiotic resistance). These results suggested an activation of defence mechanisms at the molecular level.

  8. The effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on serum oxidative stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Aslan, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Filiz Fusun; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Selek, Sahbettin; Sabuncu, Tevfik

    2016-12-01

    Some authors have investigated the effects of oxidative stress in some process such as undergoing laparoscopic. However, the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress is unclear. We evaluated the short-term effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process on oxidative stress. Thirty patients who underwent endoscopy process and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the prospective study. Serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status measurements were measured before and after endoscopy process. The ratio percentage of total oxidant status to total antioxidant capacity was regarded as oxidative stress index. Before endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity levels were higher, while serum total oxidant status levels and oxidative stress index values were lower in patients than controls, but this difference was not statistically significant (all, p > 0.05). After endoscopy process, serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were significantly higher in patients than before endoscopy process (both, p oxidative stress index values were slight higher in patients but this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). We observed that serum TAC and TOS levels were increased in patients who underwent endoscopy process after endoscopy process. However, short-time upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy process did not cause an important change in the oxidative stress index. Further studies enrolling a larger number of patients are required to clarify the results obtained here.

  9. Levels of oxidative stress parameters and the protective effects of melatonin in psychosis model rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bekir S.Parlaktas; Birsen Ozyurt; Huseyin Ozyurt; Ayten T.Tunc; Ali Akbas

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathologic changes in dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced psychosis model rat testis. Methods: A total of 24 adult male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into three groups with 8 in each. Group Ⅰ was used as control. Rats in Group Ⅱ were injected with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p. for 5 days). In addition to MK-801, melatonin (50 mg/kg body weight i.p. once a day for 5 days) was injected into the rats in Group Ⅲ. The testes were harvested bilaterally for biochemical and histopathological examinations. Antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and nitric oxide (NO) levels in tes-ticular tissues were analyzed using spectrophotometric analysis methods. Histopathological examinations of the testes were also performed. Results: MK-801 induced testicular damage, which resulted in significant oxidative stress (OS) by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. The malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and NO levels were increased in testicular tissues of rats. Treatment with melatonin led to significant decrease in oxidative injury.Administration of melatonin also reduced the detrimental histopathologic effects caused by MK-801. Conclusion:The results of the present study showed that MK-801 cause OS in testicular tissues of rats and treatment with melatonin can reduce the harmful effects of MK-801.

  10. The effects of low level laser therapy (Ga- Al- As on myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebjamei M

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscular pain is one of the most common causes for facial pain. Myofacial pain dysfunction"nsyndrome (MPDS is one of the most important disorders of facial area that affected patients suffer from"npain, tenderness of one or more masticatory muscles and limitation of movements. Lack of specific and"neffective therapeutic method, makes it necessary to find a treatment to decrease pain. Considering the"nanalgesic and anti- inflammatory effects of low-level laser, some investigators have recommended it for"nMPDS patient's treatment. In this study, the effects of low level laser (Ga-Al-As on MPDS patients"nreferred to dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were investigated. Twenty- two"nMPDS patents, with mean age 33.32 years, were treated for 4 weeks (12 visits. Clinical examinations"nwere performed in 6 stages. The results of this study showed that variables such as pain severity, cheek"npain, pain frequency and tenderness of masseter, temporal, internal and external pterygoid muscles, had a"nstatistically significant improvement at the end of treatment with low level laser (GA-A1-AS which"nlasted for three months, (follow- up period. Results of this study showed that, low-level laser therapy"nhas a sedative effect on the pain and tenderness of masticatory muscles in MPDS. Patients and having an"naccurate and regular program to complete treatment period, has an important role in MPDS"nimprovement.

  11. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canuto, K.S.; Guimaraes, O.R.; Geller, M. [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Sergio, L.P.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out. (author)

  12. Effects of dietary energy density on serum adipocytokine levels in diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, M; Hosseinzadeh, M J; Tabesh, M; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2013-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum levels of adipocytokines of type 2 diabetic women. In this randomized parallel design clinical trial, a total of 60 diabetic women (aged 30-60 years; BMI>25 kg/m²) were assigned to consume either a low-energy dense (LED) (65% of energy from carbohydrates and 25% from fats), normal-energy dense (NED) (60% from carbohydrates, 30% from fats), or high-energy dense (HED) diet (55% from carbohydrates and 35% from fats) for 8 weeks. The low-energy dense diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and water, while the high-energy dense diet was rich in fats and oils and limited in fruits and vegetables as compared with the normal-dense diet. At baseline and at the end of intervention fasting blood samples were taken to assess metabolic profile. Women in the LED group consumed significantly more dietary fiber (p<0.001), fruits (p<0.001) and vegetables (p<0.001) than those in the NED and HED groups. We failed to find a significant effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum adiponectin and visfatin levels. Even the within-group changes in serum adiponectin and visfatin levels were not significant. Consumption of LED and NED diets resulted in a significant increase in serum chemerin levels (p=0.04). Comparison of mean changes of serum chemerin levels across 3 groups revealed a significant difference (p=0.04). Our study provides evidence indicating that consumption of HED diet for 8 weeks among diabetic patients prevented the increase in serum chemerin levels compared with LED and NED diets. Furthermore, we found no significant effect of dietary energy density (kcal/g) on serum adiponectin and visfatin concentrations in the current study.

  13. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  14. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  15. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K S; Sergio, L P S; Guimarães, O R; Geller, M; Paoli, F; Fonseca, A S

    2015-10-01

    Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia colicells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficientE. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC). Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out.

  16. Effects of surface drag on low-level frontogenesis within baroclinic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; TAN ZheMin

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic mesoscale numerical model (MM5), the evolution and structures of baroclinic waves with and without surface drag in case of dry and moist atmosphere are simulated, with special emphases on the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontal structure and frontogenesis. There are two different effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis in the dry case. On one hand, the surface drag weakens the low-level frontogenesis and less inclined to develop the baroclinic wave due to the dissipation. But on the other hand, the surface drag induces a strong ageostrophic flow, which prolongs the low-level frontogenesis and finally leads to the enhancement of cold front. Compared with the no surface drag case, the surface drag increases the frontal slope especially in the boundary layer, where the front is almost vertical to the surface, and then enhances the prefrontal vertical motion. All these conclusions expanded the analytical theory of Tan and Wu (1990). In the moist atmosphere, the influence of surface drag on frontal rainbands is also obvious. The surface drag weakens the convection, and reduces the energy dissipation near the surface when the initial relative humidity is relatively weak. At this time, the confluence induced post-frontal updrafts moves across the cold front and reinforces the prefrontal convection, which is beneficial to the maintenance of the rainband in cold sector. Given the enhancement of relative humidity, the moist convection dominates the low-level frontogenesis while the retardation of surface drag on energy dissipation is not obvious, therefore the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis and precipitation are reduced.

  17. Effect of 2-hydroxychalcone on adiponectin level in type 2 diabetes induced experimentally in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Ahmed Eissa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for 90% of diabetic cases. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia which is caused by a combination of deficiency in insulin action and secretion. Adipose tissue regulates insulin sensitivity via the circulating adipocytokines, leptin, resistin and adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia contributes to the development of obesity and related disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effect of flavonoid 2-hydroxychalcone in T2DM through its effect on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ and adiponectin. T2DM was induced in male Wistar rats using high fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg, i.p.. The flavonoid 2-hydroxychalcone was administered by oral tubes. Levels of PPAR-γ in sub abdominal adipose tissue, serum adiponectin, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and serum insulin levels were detected by ELISA. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH in sub abdominal adipose tissue, fasting serum glucose, serum triglycerides and serum total cholesterol levels were measured by colorimetric methods. Results showed that 2-hydroxychalcone attenuated changes induced by T2DM in rats. 2-Hydroxychalcone treatment increased PPAR-γ levels in adipose tissue, reduced oxidative stress, restored adiponectin levels and decreased high glucose levels in T2DM rats. In conclusion, 2-hydroxychalcone reduced hyperglycemia in T2DM by regulating adiponectin secretion. This effect involves PPAR-γ signaling pathway.

  18. Effects of surface drag on low-level frontogenesis within baroclinic waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic mesoscale numerical model (MM5), the evolution and structures of baroclinic waves with and without surface drag in case of dry and moist atmosphere are simulated, with special emphases on the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontal structure and frontogenesis. There are two different effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis in the dry case. On one hand, the surface drag weakens the low-level frontogenesis and less inclined to develop the baroclinic wave due to the dissipation. But on the other hand, the surface drag induces a strong ageostrophic flow, which prolongs the low-level frontogenesis and finally leads to the enhancement of cold front. Compared with the no surface drag case, the surface drag increases the frontal slope espe- cially in the boundary layer, where the front is almost vertical to the surface, and then enhances the prefrontal vertical motion. All these conclusions expanded the analytical theory of Tan and Wu (1990). In the moist atmosphere, the influence of surface drag on frontal rainbands is also obvious. The surface drag weakens the convection, and reduces the energy dissipation near the surface when the initial relative humidity is relatively weak. At this time, the confluence induced post-frontal updrafts moves across the cold front and reinforces the prefrontal convection, which is beneficial to the maintenance of the rainband in cold sector. Given the enhancement of relative humidity, the moist convection domi- nates the low-level frontogenesis while the retardation of surface drag on energy dissipation is not obvious, therefore the effects of surface drag on the low-level frontogenesis and precipitation are re- duced.

  19. Effect of citizen engagement levels in flood forecasting by assimilating crowdsourced observations in hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Cortes Arevalo, Juliette; Alfonso, Leonardo; Wehn, Uta; Norbiato, Daniele; Monego, Martina; Ferri, Michele; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2017-04-01

    In the past years, a number of methods have been proposed to reduce uncertainty in flood prediction by means of model updating techniques. Traditional physical observations are usually integrated into hydrological and hydraulic models to improve model performances and consequent flood predictions. Nowadays, low-cost sensors can be used for crowdsourced observations. Different type of social sensors can measure, in a more distributed way, physical variables such as precipitation and water level. However, these crowdsourced observations are not integrated into a real-time fashion into water-system models due to their varying accuracy and random spatial-temporal coverage. We assess the effect in model performance due to the assimilation of crowdsourced observations of water level. Our method consists in (1) implementing a Kalman filter into a cascade of hydrological and hydraulic models. (2) defining observation errors depending on the type of sensor either physical or social. Randomly distributed errors are based on accuracy ranges that slightly improve according to the citizens' expertise level. (3) Using a simplified social model to realistically represent citizen engagement levels based on population density and citizens' motivation scenarios. To test our method, we synthetically derive crowdsourced observations for different citizen engagement levels from a distributed network of physical and social sensors. The observations are assimilated during a particular flood event occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment, Italy. The results of this study demonstrate that sharing crowdsourced water level observations (often motivated by a feeling of belonging to a community of friends) can help in improving flood prediction. On the other hand, a growing participation of individual citizens or weather enthusiasts sharing hydrological observations in cities can help to improve model performance. This study is a first step to assess the effects of crowdsourced observations in

  20. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BLOOD OXYGEN FREE RADICAL AND NO LEVELS IN TREATMENT OF APOPLECTIC SEQUELAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青; 马瑞玲; 靳瑞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on blood oxygen free radical (OFR) and nitric oxide(NO) levels in the treatment of apoplectic sequelae. Methods: A total of 61 cases of apoplectic patients were subject-ed into this study and randomly divided into "JIN San Zhen" group (n=30) and control group (n=31). Blood lipid per-oxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and nitric oxide (NO) contents beforeand after acupuncture treatment were determined with radioimmunoassay. In both groups, acupuncture was given oncedaily, six times a week, with 4 weeks being a therapeutic course and with the interval between two weeks being aweek, 3 courses all together. In "JIN San Zhen" group, acupoints of "JIN San Zhen" were used predominately, whilein control group, scalp-point Motor Sensory Area (MS 8) was used as the main point. Results: Self-comparison showedthat after 3 courses of treatment, in both groups, LPO and NO levels decreased significantly ( P < 0.05 - 0.01 ), SODand GST-Px values increased considerably ( P< 0.05 - 0.01 ). Comparison between two groups indicated that the ef-fects of "JIN San Zhen" group are significantly superior to those of control group in raising blood SOD and GST-Px lev-els ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ) and in lowering blood NO content ( P< 0.01 ). Analysis on the correlation between the restora-tion of neural function and the changes of LPO, SOD and GST-Px levels suggested that the effect of acupuncture in im-proving neural function may be related to changes of the aforementioned indexes. Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy cansignificantly lower blood LPO and NO levels and evidently raise blood SOD and GST-Px levels in stroke patients.

  1. Low-level red laser therapy alters effects of ultraviolet C radiation on Escherichia coli cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level lasers are used at low power densities and doses according to clinical protocols supplied with laser devices or based on professional practice. Although use of these lasers is increasing in many countries, the molecular mechanisms involved in effects of low-level lasers, mainly on DNA, are controversial. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-level red lasers on survival, filamentation, and morphology of Escherichia coli cells that were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC radiation. Exponential and stationary wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells were exposed to a low-level red laser and in sequence to UVC radiation. Bacterial survival was evaluated to determine the laser protection factor (ratio between the number of viable cells after exposure to the red laser and UVC and the number of viable cells after exposure to UVC. Bacterial filaments were counted to obtain the percentage of filamentation. Area-perimeter ratios were calculated for evaluation of cellular morphology. Experiments were carried out in duplicate and the results are reported as the means of three independent assays. Pre-exposure to a red laser protected wild-type and uvrA-deficient E. coli cells against the lethal effect of UVC radiation, and increased the percentage of filamentation and the area-perimeter ratio, depending on UVC fluence and physiological conditions in the cells. Therapeutic, low-level red laser radiation can induce DNA lesions at a sub-lethal level. Consequences to cells and tissues should be considered when clinical protocols based on this laser are carried out.

  2. Effect of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine levels in celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammed Hadithi; Chris JJ Mulder; Frank Stam; Joshan Azizi; J Bart A Crusius; Amado Salvador Pe(n)a; Coen DA Stehouwer; Yvo M Smulders

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vitamin supplements on homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: Vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and fasting plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 51 consecutive adults with celiac disease [median (range) age 56 (18-63) years; 40% men, 26 (51%) had villous atrophy, and 25 (49%) used B-vitamin supplements] and 50 healthy control individuals matched for age and sex. Finally, the C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was evaluated in 46 patients with celiac disease and all control individuals. RESULTS: Patients with celiac disease and using vitamin supplements had higher serum vitamin B6 ( P = 0.003), folate ( P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 ( P = 0.012) levels than patients who did not or healthy controls ( P = 0.035, P < 0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not ( P = 0.001) or healthy controls ( P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly and independently associated with homocysteine levels. Twenty-four (48%) of 50 controls and 23 (50%) of 46 patients with celiac disease carried the MTHFR thermolabile variant T-allele ( P = 0.89). CONCLUSION: Homocysteine levels are dependent on Marsh classification and the regular use of B-vitamin supplements is effective in reduction of homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease and should be considered in disease management.

  3. Effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is an emerging marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. However, it is affected by a number of confounding factors. We aimed to study the effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on FENO in non-smoking Saudi healthy adults. Methods: We recruited 12 nonsmoker healthy male adults aged 36.6 ± 2.7 (21-50 years. All subjects were free from acute respiratory infections or allergies and had normal ventilatory functions and serum IgE levels. At 8 am in the morning, their baseline values of FENO were recorded. They had not taken tea or coffee in the morning and had taken similar light breakfast. They were given three cups of Arabian Qahwa to drink and then after every 30 minutes, serial levels of FENO were recorded. Results: Average FENO levels at baseline were 28.73 ± 9.33 (mean ± SD parts per billion (ppb. The mean FENO levels started to decrease significantly after 30 minutes of drinking Arabian Qahwa (P=0.002. This decrease in FENO level was further observed till two hours after Qahwa drinking and then it started to increase in next 90 minutes but still was significantly lower than the baseline (P=0.002. The mean FENO level recorded after 4 hours was 27.22 ± 10.22 (P=0.039. Conclusions: FENO levels were significantly lowered by intake of Arabian Qahwa and this effect remains for about 4 hours. Therefore, history of recent Qahwa intake and abstinence is essential before performance of FENO and its interpretation.

  4. The Effect of Sodium Restricted Diet on Plasma Visfatin Levels in Hypertensive Patients with Visceral Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rotkegel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background: Experimental and clinical studies revealed contradictory data concerning the influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA system activation on visfatin release. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the effect of dietary sodium restriction with RAA system activation on visfatin level in hypertensive and normotensive patients with visceral obesity. Methods: The study included 24 hypertensive patients with visceral obesity (12 women and 22 normotensive subjects with visceral obesity (11 women constituting the control group. Plasma renin activity, plasma insulin, aldosterone and visfatin levels were determined twice, on normal-salt diet after 6-8 h in recumbent position and the second time after 3 days of dietary sodium restriction and upright position for 2 h. Dietary compliance was controlled by 24 h natriuresis measurement. Results: Hypertensive patients had significantly higher plasma visfatin level than the control group [11.0 (8.5-13.5 vs. 6.8 (6.0-7.6 ng/ml, p=0.003]. Dietary sodium restriction and upright position caused significant increase in PRA and plasma aldosterone level in both groups. While, plasma visfatin level remained unaffected. In the combined group plasma visfatin levels correlated with BMI (r=0.398, waist circumference (r=0.391, glucose (r=0.328, insulin (r=0.663, HOMA-IR (r=0.698, triglycerides (r=0.500 and CRP (r=0.546 but not with percentage of fat mass, percentage of trunk fat, and blood pressure values. Conclusions: 1 Increased plasma visfatin concentration may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with visceral obesity. 2 RAA system activation by dietary sodium restriction and upright position has no effect on plasma visfatin levels in subjects with visceral obesity.

  5. Effects of Vitamin D Levels on Quality of Life in Osteoporosis - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Coşkun Benlidayı

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, impairs bone formation and neuromuscular coordination, thus increases fracture risk. It is well known that pain and functional disability caused by fractures impairs quality of life (QOL. However, studies investigating the association between vitamin D deficiency and QOL are insufficient. This study investigates the effects of vitamin D level on QOL in osteoporotic patients. 286 patients (mean age 60.51±9.1 years with postmenapousal, senile or male osteoporosis were included in the study. Demographic data, physical activity level and back pain were recorded. Bone turnover markers, 25(OHvitaminD, PTH levels and bone mineral density (BMD were evaluated. Spinal deformity index (SDI was calculated by lateral thoracolomber X-rays. QOL was assessed using QOL Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO. 25(OHvitaminD levels below 12ng/ml was accepted as vitamin D deficiency. 25(OHvitaminD level of the patients was 23.19±13.1ng/ml and 34 were (11.8% vitamin D deficient. 25(OHvitaminD levels were not correlated with age, body mass index, concomitant diseases, postmenopausal years, risk factors, pain, and dietary calcium intake. There was also no correlation between 25(OHvitaminD and bone turnover markers, SDI and BMD. 25(OHvitaminD was correlated with physical activity level (p=0.001 and r=0.198 and physical, social, mental function subscales and total score of QUALEFFO. In vitamin D deficient group physical and social function subscales and total QUALEFFO scores were more impaired (p=0.001, p=0.004, p=0.003 respectively. Vitamin D deficiency negatively effects physical and social functions of osteoporotic patients and impairs their QOL. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2006; 12 (2: 35-38

  6. The effect of low-level laser therapy on tooth movement during canine distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üretürk, Sevin Erol; Saraç, Müyesser; Fıratlı, Sönmez; Can, Şule Batu; Güven, Yegane; Fıratlı, Erhan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of low level laser therapy on tooth movement during canine distalization by evaluating IL-1β, TGF-β1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Maxillary first premolars of the 15 Angle Class II division I patients (12-19 years old) were extracted. Right maxillary canines were distalized by standard protocol as control group whereas the left maxillary canines distalized by laser application. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser with an output power of 20 mW was applied as five doses from the buccal and the palatal side on the day 0, and the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21th 30th, 33st, 37th, 60th, 63th, and 67th days. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were obtained with filtration paper at the initial, 7th, 14th, and 21th days, and the IL-1ß and TGF-ß1 cytokine levels were analyzed. Orthodontic models and periodontal indices were taken initially and on the days 30th, 60th, and 90th of canine distalization period. Tooth movement was assessed by scanning models (3Shape). The amount of tooth movement in the laser group was 40% more than the control group. First day IL-1ß levels were statistically higher than initial and 21st day levels (P= 0.003, P = 0.012). The rise in IL-1ß levels caused the negative correlations between 7th day IL-1β and 21st day TGF-β1 levels describes the tissue effects of laser application. Periodontal indices showed no sign of gingival inflammation during canine distalization period. As conclusion, laser does accelerate tooth movement and could shorten the whole treatment duration.

  7. Reversibility of endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) - comparison of different effect levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Lisa; Holbech, Henrik; Schiller, V.S.;

    -term effects on populations, it is essential to know whether such EDC-related effects are reversible. Three different substances selected for different modes of action were tested for their long-term impact on sex ratio, gonadal development, vitellogenin (VTG) induction and aromatase activity in zebrafish...... to estrogens. All compounds have previously been shown to cause striking effects in zebrafish, but recovery has never been studied in detail. In order to test whether EDC-related effects are reversible, an exposure scenario limited to 60 d was followed by (a) a recovery period of 40 d or (b) continued exposure...... of effects at all levels, but clear-cut differences between the two different exposure groups. We conclude that endocrine disruption in zebrafish following discontinuous exposure is only partially reversible and may thus have serious implications for fish....

  8. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of electrolyte fill-level on electrode performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitai, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. This work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFC`s, selecting four subjects (Electrocatalysts degradation, Electrolyte fill-level, Cell material corrosion, Electrolyte loss) as the essential factors relating to the life-time. In this report, we will exhibit the effect of the electrolyte fill-level on the electrode performances.

  9. Changes in color vision with decreasing light level: separating the effects of normal aging from disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbur, John L; Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain additional information about the health of the retina (HR) by measuring the rate of loss of chromatic sensitivity with decreasing light level. The HR(index) is introduced to separate the effects of normal aging from early stage disease. For normal subjects the HR(index is largely independent of age (r(2)~0.1), but ~11% of clinically normal, asymptomatic, older subjects exhibit values below the 2σ limit. The HR(index provides a single number that captures how light level affects chromatic sensitivity irrespective of age and can be used to screen for preclinical signs of retinal disease.

  10. The effects of moderate drinking and abstinence on serum and urinary beta-hexosaminidase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, P; Jokelainen, K; Roine, R; Suokas, A; Salaspuro, M

    1990-02-01

    The effects of moderate alcohol intake on serum (SHEX)- and urinary beta-hexosaminidase (UHEX) were studied in ten healthy volunteers, who ingested 60 g of 100% ethanol daily for 10 days. The drinking period was preceded and followed by an abstinence period. Moderate drinking and abstinence were rapidly and significantly reflected on SHEX, while UHEX levels did not change significantly during the study. Gramma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) decreased during the first abstinence period (P less than 0.05), but stayed thereafter at a constant level. It is concluded that SHEX may better reflect recent alcohol consumption than UHEX, GGT, ASAT or ALAT.

  11. Effects of sea level rise on economy of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Novackova, Monika; Tol, Richard,

    2017-01-01

    We report the first ex post study of the economic impact of sea level rise. We apply two econometric approaches to estimate the past effects of sea level rise on the economy of the USA, viz. Barro type growth regressions adjusted for spatial patterns and a matching estimator. Unit of analysis is 3063 counties of the USA. We fit growth regressions for 13 time periods and we estimated numerous varieties and robustness tests for both growth regressions and matching estimator. Although there is s...

  12. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Application Level on Rice Nutrient Uptake and Ammonia Volatilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiao-gang; YE Jing; YANG Shao-na; FU Jian-rong; MA Jun-wei; SUN Wan-chun; JIANG Li-na

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different nitrogen application levels on nutrient uptake and ammonia volatilization were studied with the rice cultivar Zheyou 12 as a material.The accumulative amounts of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium in rice plants across all growth stages showed a trend to increase with increasing nitrogen application levels from 0 to 270 kg/hm2,but decreased at nitrogen application levels exceeding 270 kg/hm2.Moreover,the accumulative uptake of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium by the rice plants was increased by application of organic manure in combination with 150 kg/hm2 nitrogen.The nitrogen uptake was high during the jointing to heading stages.Correlation analysis showed that rice yield was positively correlated with the accumulative uptake of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium by the rice plants.The highest correlation coefficient observed was between the amount of nitrogen uptake and rice yield.The rate and accumulative amounts of ammonia volatilization increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer application level.Compared with other stages,the rate and accumulative amount of ammonia volatilization were higher after base fertilizer application.The ammonia volatilization rates in response to the nitrogen application levels of 270 kg/hm2 and 330 kg/hm2 were much higher than those in the other treatments.The loss of nitrogen through ammonia volatilization accounted for 23.9% of the total applied nitrogen at the nitrogen application level of 330 kg/hm2.

  14. The Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Serum Level of Cortisol and Anxiety in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ahmadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Widespread use of cell phones is the most important risk factor f human health in the age of technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiation on serum level of cortisol and changes in anxiety level in male rats. Materials and Method: In this laboratory-experimental study, the male Wistar rats were divided into control and exposed to cell phone radiation for 1h, 3h, and 6h/day, groups . After 8 weeks, Elevated Plus Maze was used for anxiety evaluation. Blood samples also were obtained using cardiac puncture method and after serum preparation, levels of cortisol were measured using ELFA method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results indicated that serum level of cortisol significantly increased in rats exposed to cell phone radiation for 6h/day compare to control animals (P < 0.05. Also the results of the elevated plus maze test showed that the percentage of time spent in open arms significantly decreased in all experimental groups compared with control rats (P< 0.001. There was also significant decrease in the percentage of entries into open arms in all experimental groups compared to control group (P< 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the exposure to cell phone radiation results in enhanced anxiety level accompanied by increased serum level of cortisol.

  15. Amplitude modulation detection with cochlear implants: Effects of electrode separation and stimulus level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Chatterjee, Monita

    2001-05-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) detection performance has been studied in the past with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired populations. The temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) is a plot of AM detection performance as a function of modulation rate and provides a way of characterizing temporal sensitivity. Typically the TMTF takes the form of a low-pass filter, with performance declining above 50-70-Hz modulation rate. TMTFs have also been measured with cochlear implant patients, showing a similar low-pass characteristic, with a cutoff around 140-Hz rate, while sensitivity to AM was found to increase with increasing current level. The present study investigated the effects of stimulation level and electrode separation on TMTFs with cochlear implant patients. TMTFs were measured for narrow through wide electrode separations and three different (loudness-balanced) percentages of the dynamic range. Preliminary results indicate that sensitivity increases (lower thresholds) with increasing stimulation level, for a given electrode separation. However, comparing TMTFs across different electrode separations, sensitivity is independent of current level, but increases as a function of percentage of dynamic range. In summary, it appears that AM detection performance with cochlear implants depends primarily on sensation level, rather than current level or electrode separation. [Work supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01DC04786.

  16. Effects of a Humor Therapy Program on Stress Levels in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Julio C; Echeverri, Luis F; Londoño, Manuel J; Ochoa, Sergio A; Quiroz, Andrés F; Romero, César R; Ruiz, Joaquín O

    2017-01-01

    Disease and hospitalization generate stress, which can affect the response to treatment. Humor has been used in many hospitals to decrease stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a humor therapy program on stress levels in pediatric inpatients. In the first phase, an intervention and a control group were studied over 2 consecutive 3-month periods; the interventions were performed by a team of artists trained in humor therapy. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Weisz test, a pictorial chart that determines subjective stress perception, and the Parker test, which assesses objective stress, were applied. In the second phase, salivary cortisol levels were measured and the Weisz test was administered before and after the interventions. A total of 306 patients were recruited into this study: 198 in the first phase (94 in the intervention group and 104 in the nonintervention group) and 108 in the second phase. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, or medical diagnosis. The children in the intervention group presented lower cortisol levels, lower scores on the Parker test, and higher scores on the Weisz test than children in the nonintervention group. In the second phase, the children showed lower salivary cortisol levels and higher scores on the Weisz test after the intervention. Humor therapy has beneficial effects on stress and cortisol levels in pediatric inpatients. This supports the implementation and reinforcement of these therapies in pediatric hospitals. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Effects of domoic acid on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    1995-08-01

    The actions of Domoic Acid (Dom), a marine toxin, on the levels of serum TSH and thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) has been studied to determine if these actions could be mediated by the serotoninergic system. In all the experiments, adult male Wistar rats were used. The Dom dissolved in saline was administered via i.p. in doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. The T4 and T3 concentrations were determined by enzimoinmunoassay and TSH concentration was determined by radioinmunoassay. The results show that Dom 1 mg/kg increases the serum T4 levels one hour after treatment and decreases these levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. Dom 0.5 mg/kg decreased the serum T4 levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. The concentrations of T3 in serum were unchanged by both doses of Dom. The concentration of TSH was increased by Dom. In order to study the possible mediation of the serotoninergic system in the effect of Dom on the hormone levels, PCPA, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was administered i.p. 90 min before blood sampling. In this case, with both doses of Dom a decrease in the levels of both hormones occurred with respect to the PCPA group. These results indicate that the serotoninergic system could affect the actions of Dom on TSH and thyroid hormone secretion.

  18. Long-Term Internal Variability Effects on Centennial Dynamic Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Bordbar, Mohammad; Martin, Thomas; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2015-04-01

    The Earth's surface is warming in response to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). Sea level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations was conducted with a climate model, where each ensemble member was forced by identical CO2-increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions taken from an unforced millennial control run. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea level rise, suggesting internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing 21st century DSL changes. This conclusion is also supported by analyzing projections with other climate models. The ensemble spread is strongly reduced in the mid- to high latitudes if only the atmospheric initial conditions are perturbed; suggesting uncertainty in the projected centennial DSL trends there is largely due to the lack of ocean information. Thus climate model projections of regional sea level would benefit from ocean initialization.

  19. Effects of methotrexate on serum testosterone level in sleep deprived male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, O O; Kunle-Alabi, O T; Oghenetega, B O; Adeyemi, D H; Raji, Y

    2015-06-01

    Sleep deprivation has been reported to decrease testosterone levels but the mechanism remains unclear. Studies have shown that sleep deprivation increases interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine and that increased IL-1β levels cause reductions in Leydig cell production of testosterone. This study was therefore designed to determine the effects of methotrexate, an IL-1β blocker on serum testosterone levels in sleep deprived male Wistar rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 5); group I (Control) received the vehicle (1% tween 80 solution); group II (methotrexate) received 0.5 mg/kg body weight methotrexate; group III (SD) was sleep deprived and received the vehicle; group IV (SD+Methotrexate) was sleep deprived and received 0.5 mg/kg body weight methotrexate. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform technique for 14 days. Treatments were administered twice weekly by oral gavage for 14 days. Blood was collected on day 14 and serum was obtained for analyses of testosterone, LH and FSH levels. IL-1β level and histology of the testis were also determined. Data were expressed as Mean ± SEM and analysed using ANOVA. p sleep deprived rats is not dependent on increased level of IL-1β.

  20. Dynamic Levels in Classical and Romantic Keyboard Music: Effect of Musical Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Ladinig

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of dynamic markings in 140 works representing three musical periods (Classical, early Romantic, late Romantic is reported. We tested the hypothesis that minor-mode music from the Romantic period is more likely to exhibit louder dynamic levels than minor-mode music from the Classical period. This hypothesis was motivated by the theory that in the Romantic period, in addition to conveying sadness, the minor mode was more likely to be used to convey affects that are associated with higher dynamic levels, such as seriousness, passion or aggression. Our analysis showed no absolute differences regarding the notated dynamic levels of the minor-mode pieces. However, regardless of the musical mode, pieces from the earlier period exhibited higher dynamic levels than pieces from the later periods. This effect is attributable to a decrease in dynamics for major-mode pieces in later musical periods, while minor-mode pieces do not show a change in dynamics over time. Using the mean dynamic level for each period as a reference, these observations are consistent with the theory that Romantic music is more likely than Classical music to employ the minor mode to represent or convey affects that are associated with higher dynamic levels.

  1. Effects of Nitrogen Application Level on Rice Nutrient Uptake and Ammonia Volatilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-gang YU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different nitrogen application levels on nutrient uptake and ammonia volatilization were studied with the rice cultivar Zheyou 12 as a material. The accumulative amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in rice plants across all growth stages showed a trend to increase with increasing nitrogen application levels from 0 to 270 kg/hm2, but decreased at nitrogen application levels exceeding 270 kg/hm2. Moreover, the accumulative uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by the rice plants was increased by application of organic manure in combination with 150 kg/hm2 nitrogen. The nitrogen uptake was high during the jointing to heading stages. Correlation analysis showed that rice yield was positively correlated with the accumulative uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by the rice plants. The highest correlation coefficient observed was between the amount of nitrogen uptake and rice yield. The rate and accumulative amounts of ammonia volatilization increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer application level. Compared with other stages, the rate and accumulative amount of ammonia volatilization were higher after base fertilizer application. The ammonia volatilization rates in response to the nitrogen application levels of 270 kg/hm2 and 330 kg/hm2 were much higher than those in the other treatments. The loss of nitrogen through ammonia volatilization accounted for 23.9% of the total applied nitrogen at the nitrogen application level of 330 kg/hm2.

  2. Elevated Platelet Activating Factor Level in Ischemia-Related Arrhythmia and Its Electrophysiological Effect on Myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong Kang; ZHAO Shui Ping; YU Pu Lin; SHI Jing; GU Cheng Dong; SUN Hong Tao; ZHANG Guo Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanism through which platelet activating factor (PAF) induces cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmia is not well understood and previous studies have suggested a potential involvement of ion channels in its action. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PAF in fatal arrhythmias following acute myocardia infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. Methods (1) Blood PAF levels were measured among 72 AMI patients at the time of diagnosis with AMI and 48 h later, and their electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously. (2) Ischemia simulation and surface electrocardiogram were conducted in 20 pigs and their PAF levels were measured. (3) PAF perfusion and standard microelectrode recording were performed on guinea pig papillary muscles. Results In both humans and pigs, elevated PAF levels were detected in AMI and simulated ischemia, respectively, and even higher PAF levels were found when fatal arrhythmias occurred. In guinea pig myocardium, PAF induced a shortening of action potential duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD90)under non-ischemic conditions and a more pronounced shortening under early simulated ischemic conditions. Conclusion AMI and ischemia are associated with increased PAF levels in humans and pigs, which are further raised when fatal arrhythmia follows. The effects of PAF on the myocardium may be mediated by multiple ion channels.

  3. Effects of turbidity, light level, and cover on predation of white sturgeon larvae by prickly sculpins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Parsley, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    White sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus occur in rivers of the western United States and southwestern Canada, but some populations are in decline because of recruitment failure. Many river systems in this area have been altered as a result of development that has caused major environmental changes. Our goal was to examine how three changes - lower turbidity levels, higher light levels, and altered substrates - might affect predation by prickly sculpin Cottus asper on white sturgeon larvae. We experimentally investigated predation at various turbidity levels and found that significantly more white sturgeon yolk sac larvae were eaten at lower turbidity levels. The effects of light level (1-4 and 7-15 1x), the presence or absence of rocks as cover, and prey size (14-17 mm and 20-24 mm total length) on the outcome of predator-prey interactions were also examined. Significantly fewer white sturgeon were eaten during trials that combined the lowest light level, cover, and the smallest larvae. Our results suggest that altered river conditions caused by impoundment and other factors have increased predation on white sturgeon larvae. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  4. Effect of heparin and low-molecular weight heparin on serum potassium and sodium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M Bengalorkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the effects of heparin and low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH on potassium and sodium levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and stroke. Materials and Methods : Sixty patients were recruited with 30 patients each receiving heparin and enoxaparin. Patients with CVD and stroke receiving heparin and LMWH were compared for their demographic profile and laboratory data, and this was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Risk factors associated with the development of hyperkalemia were analyzed using multiple logistic regression model. Results : There was an increase in potassium levels and decrease in sodium levels compared with baseline in both the groups. The difference between the groups with respect to sodium and potassium levels was not statistically significant. On analysis, the risk factors for development of hyperkalemia were baseline potassium levels, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance. The change in sodium and potassium levels on the fifth day of therapy was increased with LMWH compared with heparin, although not statistically significant. Conclusions : The clinician should anticipate hyperkalemia especially in patients with renal impairment receiving these drugs.

  5. Effect of energy level sequences and neutron–proton interaction on α-particle preformation probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A., E-mail: ahmedshosha200@yahoo.com

    2013-08-21

    A realistic density-dependent nucleon–nucleon (NN) interaction with finite-range exchange part which produces the nuclear matter saturation curve and the energy dependence of the nucleon–nucleus optical model potential is used to calculate the preformation probability, S{sub α}, of α-decay from different isotones with neutron numbers N=124,126,128,130 and 132. We studied the variation of S{sub α} with the proton number, Z, for each isotone and found the effect of neutron and proton energy levels of parent nuclei on the behavior of the α-particle preformation probability. We found that S{sub α} increases regularly with the proton number when the proton pair in α-particle is emitted from the same level and the neutron level sequence is not changed during the Z-variation. In this case the neutron–proton (n–p) interaction of the two levels, contributing to emission process, is too small. On the contrary, if the proton or neutron level sequence is changed during the emission process, S{sub α} behaves irregularly, the irregular behavior increases if both proton and neutron levels are changed. This behavior is accompanied by change or rapid increase in the strength of n–p interaction.

  6. Amplitude modulation detection with cochlear implants: Effects of electrode separation and stimulus level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Chatterjee, Monita

    2004-05-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) detection performance has been studied in the past with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired populations. The temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) is a plot of AM detection performance as a function of modulation rate and provides a way of characterizing temporal sensitivity. Typically the TMTF takes the form of a low-pass filter, with performance declining above 50-70-Hz modulation rate. TMTFs have also been measured with cochlear implant patients, showing a similar low-pass characteristic, with a cutoff around 140-Hz rate, while sensitivity to AM was found to increase with increasing current level. The present study investigated the effects of stimulation level and electrode separation on TMTFs with cochlear implant patients. TMTFs were measured for narrow through wide electrode separations and three different (loudness-balanced) percentages of the dynamic range. Preliminary results indicate that sensitivity increases (lower thresholds) with increasing stimulation level, for a given electrode separation. However, comparing TMTFs across different electrode separations, sensitivity is independent of current level, but increases as a function of percentage of dynamic range. In summary, it appears that AM detection performance with cochlear implants depends primarily on sensation level, rather than current level or electrode separation. [Work supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01DC04786.

  7. Effect of temperature-dependent energy-level shifts on a semiconductor's Peltier heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, David

    1984-11-01

    The Peltier heat of a charge carrier in a semiconductor is calculated for the situation in which the electronic energy levels are temperature dependent. The temperature dependences of the electronic energy levels, generally observed optically, arise from their dependences on the vibrational energy of the lattice (e.g., as caused by thermal expansion). It has been suggested that these temperature dependences will typically have a major effect on the Peltier heat. The Peltier heat associated with a given energy level is a thermodynamic quantity; it is the product of the temperature and the change of the entropy of the system when a carrier is added in that level. As such, the energy levels cannot be treated as explicitly temperature dependent. The electron-lattice interaction causing the temperature dependence must be expressly considered. It is found that the carrier's interaction with the atomic vibrations lowers its electronic energy. However, the interaction of the carrier with the atomic vibrations also causes an infinitesimal lowering (~1N) of each of the N vibrational frequencies. As a result, there is a finite carrier-induced increase in the average vibrational energy. Above the Debye temperature, this cancels the lowering of the carrier's electronic energy. Thus, the standard Peltier-heat formula, whose derivation generally ignores the temperature dependence of the electronic energy levels, is regained. This explains the apparent success of the standard formula in numerous analyses of electronic transport experiments.

  8. Assessment of serum endothelin-1 levels in rat appendicitis model and the effects of bosentan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsu, S B; Sahin, K; Kilincaslan, H; Mirapoglu, S L; Buyukpınarbasili, N; Duz, M E; Aydogdu, I

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the diagnostic value of serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and the therapeutic effects of bosentan have been investigated in an experimental appendicitis rat model. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the study. The rats were allocated into three groups as follows: Group 1 (control, n = 7), Group 2 (appendicitis, n = 7), and Group 3 (bosentan treatment, n = 7). At the 6th hour of the experiment, Groups 1 and 2 received 2 ml saline, and group 3 received 30 mg/kg bosentan intraperitoneally. At the 24th postoperative hour, all rats were sacrificed and evaluated histopathologically to score the severity of appendicitis. The plasma malondialdehyde, reduced and total glutathione levels, serum, and appendiceal tissue ET-1 levels were evaluated. In this study, we found that the ET-1 levels were significantly increased with appendicitis (p = 0.018). The administration of bosentan can statistically significantly both decrease the histopathologic injury in the inflamed appendix and increase the serum total glutathione levels (p = 0.002). The increase in plasma ET-1 levels may have a diagnostic value of acute appendicitis. We believe that manifestations that occur during the acute phase of appendicitis may be reduced with the administration of bosentan, which may also help prevent complications.

  9. [Effect of atopy on serum glucocorticoid receptor levels in children with bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huan-Yin; Liu, Wei-Rong; Zhang, Hang-Hu; Li, Hua-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xian; Liu, Shu-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Hong

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of atopy on the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in children with bronchiolitis. ELISA was used to measure the changes in the serum levels of glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) and glucocorticoid receptor β (GRβ) in the bronchiolitis group (77 children, including 34 children with atopy) and pneumonia group (68 children). Thirty-eight children who were prepared to undergo surgeries for non-infectious diseases and had no atopy or family history of allergic diseases were enrolled as the control group. The bronchiolitis group and the pneumonia group had significant increases in the serum levels of GRα and GRβ compared with the control group (Pbronchiolitis group had significant increases in these levels compared with the pneumonia group (Pbronchiolitis group had a significant increase in the GRα/GRβ ratio (Pbronchiolitis group had significant increases in the serum levels of GRα and GRβ (Pbronchiolitis group had a significant increase in the serum level of GRβ compared with the atopic children (Pbronchiolitis group had a significant increase in the GRα/GRβ ratio compared with the control group and non-atopic children in the bronchiolitis group (Pbronchiolitis have increased serum levels of GRα and GRβ. The children with atopy have an increased GRα/GRβ ratio, suggesting that the atopic children with bronchiolitis are highly sensitive to glucocorticoids.

  10. Fenofibrate Administration Reduces Alcohol and Saccharin Intake in Rats: Possible Effects at Peripheral and Central Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivera-Meza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the administration of fenofibrate to high-drinker UChB rats markedly reduces voluntary ethanol intake. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα agonist, which induces the proliferation of peroxisomes in the liver, leading to increases in catalase levels that result in acetaldehyde accumulation at aversive levels in the blood when animals consume ethanol. In these new studies, we aimed to investigate if the effect of fenofibrate on ethanol intake is produced exclusively in the liver (increasing catalase and systemic levels of acetaldehyde or there might be additional effects at central level. High drinker rats (UChB were allowed to voluntary drink 10% ethanol for 2 months. Afterward, a daily dose of fenofibrate (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day or vehicle (as control was administered orally for 14 days. Voluntary ethanol intake was recorded daily. After that time, animals were deprived of ethanol access for 24 h and administered with an oral dose of ethanol (1 g/kg for acetaldehyde determination in blood. Fenofibrate reduced ethanol voluntary intake by 60%, in chronically drinking rats, at the three doses tested. Acetaldehyde in the blood rose up to between 80 μM and 100 μM. Considering the reduction of ethanol consumption, blood acetaldehyde levels and body weight evolution, the better results were obtained at a dose of 50 mg fenofibrate/kg/day. This dose of fenofibrate also reduced the voluntary intake of 0.2% saccharin by 35% and increased catalase levels 2.5-fold in the liver but showed no effects on catalase levels in the brain. To further study if fenofibrate administration changes the motivational properties of ethanol, a conditioned-place preference experiment was carried out. Animals treated with fenofibrate (50 mg/kg/day did not develop ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP.In an additional experiment, chronically ethanol-drinking rats underwent two cycles of ethanol

  11. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens.

  12. "No level up!": no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks.

  13. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A Soler

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores was significantly greater (by 40% - 200% in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  14. The Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy on Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Falaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low intensity laser radiation in the treatment of acute and chronic pain is now established in many studies. Trigeminal neuralgia is a pain passes through nerve’s branches and its trigger is located in skin or mucosa that could lead to pain with a trigger stimulus. The pain involved branches of trigeminal nerve that sometimes has patients to seek the treatment for several years. Nowadays different treatments are used for relief of pain that most of them cause tolerance and various side effects. This paper reviews and summarizes scientific papers available in English literature published in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Inter science, and Iran Medex from 1986 until July 2011 about the effect of these types of lasers on trigeminal neuralgia which is one of the most painful afflictions known. In different studies, the effect of laser therapy has been compared with placebo irradiation or medicinal and surgical treatment modalities. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a treatment strategy which uses a single wavelength light source. Laser radiation and monochromatic light may alter cell and tissue function. However, in most studies laser therapy was associated with significant reduction in the intensity and frequency of pain compared with other treatment strategies, a few studies revealed that between laser and placebo group there was not any significant difference according to the analgesic effect. Low-level laser therapy could be considered in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without any side effects.

  15. Statins' effect on plasma levels of Coenzyme Q10 and improvement in myopathy with supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Nate; Beckstrand, Renea L; Luthy, Karlen E

    2014-02-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, are medications at the forefront of the battle against cardiovascular disease. Despite their effectiveness, patient compliance with statins has lagged because of medication cost and adverse effects, namely myopathy. Myopathy is the most common side effect of statin use. The purpose of this review is to report plasma levels of CoQ10 in patients taking statins and then to determine the benefit of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on statin-related myopathy as evidenced by symptomatic improvement and increase in serum levels of CoQ10. CINAHL, Medline, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Cochrane Library. Evidence from this review suggests that studies showed a significant relationship between statin intake and decreased serum levels of CoQ10. A few studies showed a benefit in symptoms of myalgia or improvement of serum levels of CoQ10 with supplementation. One study showed no benefit of CoQ10 supplementation when taken with statins. There were no risks of supplementation reported in any of the studies. CoQ10 supplementation might benefit those patients suffering from statin-induced myopathy as evidenced by the results of these studies. Supplementation of CoQ10 at a dose of between 30 and 200 mg daily has shown to have beneficial effects on statin myopathy with no noted side effects. Further research is necessary. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. The effect of sunlight exposure on interleukin-6 levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovski, Rosa; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Carissimi, Alicia; Gama, Clarissa S; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2013-03-05

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to evaluate the effect of length of sunlight exposure on interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in depressive and non-depressive subjects. This was a cross-sectional study with 154 subjects (54 males, mean age: 43.5 ± 12.8 years) who were living in a rural area in south Brazil. Chronobiological and light parameters were assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon) were collected during the daytime and measured. IL-6 levels showed a positive correlation with light exposure (r = 0.257; p exposure was an independent factor for predicting IL-6 levels (ß = 0.26; p = 0.002). In non-depressed subjects, exposure to a different intensity of light did not affect IL-6 levels (t = -1.6; p = 0.1). However, when the two depressive groups with low and high light exposure were compared, the low light exposure group had lower levels of IL-6 compared with the high light exposure group (t = -2.19 and p = 0.0037). The amount of time that participants are exposed to sunlight is directly related to their IL-6 levels. Additionally, depressed subjects differ in their IL-6 levels if they are exposed to light for differing amounts of time.

  17. Effects of High Estrogen Levels on Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Timothy P; Gregory, Meredith S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Objective: Herein, we tested the effects of high levels of supplemental estrogen treatment on cutaneous wound healing. Approach: Female mice were implanted with a 17β-estradiol (E2) secreting pellet or placebo before receiving a full-thickness dermal excisional wound. Mice receiving the E2 pellet attained hormone levels that are comparable to those achieved during pregnancy. At 1, 3, and 5 days after injury, the dermal excision wound was examined for their histologic appearance, rate of closure, and chemokine levels. Results: Wound closure, assessed by percent reepithelialization, was slower in E2-treated mice relative to placebo (42.6%±6.6% vs. 70.0%±5.3%, respectively, 3 days after injury). In addition, there was a marked reduction in the subepithelial inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue in E2-treated mice relative to placebo. Wound levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were increased by 3 days after injury and continued to rise at 5 days after injury in placebo-treated mice (p<0.01). By contrast, MCP-1 levels were significantly reduced at 3 and 5 days after injury in E2-treated mice relative to placebo-treated controls (p<0.01). This attenuation could be reversed by treatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist. Innovation: High levels of estrogen are able to suppress normal wound closure. Conclusion: Dermal wound healing can be altered by manipulating the gonadal steroid hormone levels. In particular, high levels of estrogen can be utilized to slow down the rate of wound healing through a reduction in the inflammatory response.

  18. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben C Arslan

    Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  19. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  20. The effect of MMF dose and trough levels on adverse effects in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Nida; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T

    2015-09-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic and safety data exist for MMF in pediatric HTR. Previously targeted MPA-TL are 1.5-3.0 μg/mL. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes targeting MPA-TL of 0.8-2.0 μg/mL in pediatric HTR. MPA-TL were retrospectively collected 2-12 months post-transplant. Acute rejection, infection, leukopenia, and GI complaints were then correlated with MPA-TL. A total of 355 MPA-TL from 22 HTR were included. Median age was 2.5 yr. Primary indication for transplant was dilated cardiomyopathy (64%). Mean MPA-TL was 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL. African American patients received significantly higher doses (702 ± 235 mg/m(2) ) compared with other races (p = 0.035). Leukopenia was less common in patients with SUB MPA vs. others (p = 0.01). MMF was discontinued for GI complaints in one patient and leukopenia in two patients. One SUB patient had acute rejection, and one SUP patient had infection. One-yr survival was 100%. Targeting a lower range for MPA-TL was not associated with significant rejection or infection. Despite lower MPA-TL, MMF was discontinued in 3/22 patients for adverse effects.

  1. Effects of low-level laser exposure on calcium channels and intracellular release in cultured astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas S.; Maneshi, Mohammed M.; Shucard, David W.; Hua, Susan; Sachs, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Prompted by a study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a model system of cultured astrocytes, we discovered that low level laser illumination (LLL) at 660nm elevates the level of intracellular Ca2+. The coherence of the illumination was not essential since incoherent red light also worked. For cells bathed in low Ca2+ saline so that influx was suppressed, the Ca2+ level rose with no significant latency following illumination and consistent with a slow leak of Ca2+ from storage such as from the endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. When the cells were bathed in normal Ca2+ saline, the internal Ca2+ rose, but with a latency of about 17 seconds from the beginning of illumination. Pharmacologic studies with ryanodine inhibited the light effect. Testing the cells with fluid shear stress as used in the TBI model showed that mechanically induced elevation of cell Ca2+ was unaffected by illumination.

  2. Effect of low-level pulsed laser 890-nm on lumbar spondylolisthesis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed M. J.; Afsharpad, Mitra; Djavid, Gholam-reza E.

    2002-10-01

    Objective: Evaluating the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in alleviating the symptoms of lumbar spondylolisthesis. Materials and Methods: Laser was irradiated for 2 mm at six symmetric points along the lumbosacral spine and 5 points along the referred point ofpain, six times a week for 2 weeks (890 nm; 8 J/cm2; pulsed at 1500 Hz). Perception of benefit, level of function was assessed by the Oswestry disability index, lumbar mobility range of motion and low back pain intensity. Results and Discussion: Results showed a complete reduction in pain and improvement in function in the patient. This case report suggests that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could play a role in conservative management of low-grade lumbar spondylolisthesis.

  3. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.

  4. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  5. Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Elder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.

  6. Apolipoprotein E levels in cerebrospinal fluid and the effects of ABCA1 polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Kevin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies suggest that brain apolipoprotein E (apoE levels influence amyloid-β (Aβ deposition and thus risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD. We have previously demonstrated that deletion of the ATP-binding cassette A1 transporter (ABCA1 in mice causes dramatic reductions in brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF apoE levels and lipidation. To examine whether polymorphisms in ABCA1 affect CSF apoE levels in humans, we measured apoE in CSF taken from 168 subjects who were 43 to 91 years old and were either cognitively normal or who had mild AD. We then genotyped the subjects for ten previously identified ABCA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results In all subjects, the mean CSF apoE level was 9.09 μg/ml with a standard deviation of 2.70 μg/ml. Levels of apoE in CSF samples taken from the same individual two weeks apart were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.93, p APOE genotype, gender or race. Average apoE levels increased with age by ~0.5 μg/ml per 10 years (r2 = 0.05, p = 0.003. We found no significant associations between CSF apoE levels and the ten ABCA1 SNPs we genotyped. Moreover, in a separate sample of 1225 AD cases and 1431 controls, we found no association between the ABCA1 SNP rs2230806 and AD as has been previously reported. Conclusion We found that CSF apoE levels vary widely between individuals, but are stable within individuals over a two-week interval. AD status, APOE genotype, gender and race do not affect CSF apoE levels, but average CSF apoE levels increase with age. Given the lack of association between CSF apoE levels and genotypes for the ABCA1 SNPs we examined, either these SNPs do not affect ABCA1 function or if they do, they do not have strong effects in the CNS. Finally, we find no evidence for an association between the ABCA1 SNP rs2230806 and AD in a large sample set.

  7. Effects of crude kerosene on testosterone levels, aggression and toxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Rachel W; Macharia, Benson N; Sawe, Dinah J; Maiyoh, Geoffrey K

    2015-01-01

    The use of crude kerosene as a dietary supplement in boarding schools has been a common practice in east Africa and other countries for many years, with the belief of it reducing the sex drive (libido) at the pubertal stage. There is however no scientific basis for this belief. The present study aimed at using a rat animal model to investigate the effects of crude kerosene on serum testosterone levels, aggression and its possible toxic effects. Fifteen male albino rats of approximately similar age and average weights were put into three groups of five animals each; the control group (placebo), low kerosene dose (10 μl/day) group and high kerosene dose (300 μl/day) group. ELISA was used to determine the serum testosterone levels. During treatment, changes in aggression were observed and noted. Liver toxicity was determined using enzyme assays, total protein and albumin while renal toxicity was monitored using serum creatinine levels. A full hemogram was conducted to determine hematological effects. Various tissue biopsies were obtained and examined using histopathological techniques for evidence of toxicity. Contrary to the common belief, our findings showed an overall increase of serum testosterone levels of up to 66% in the low dose and 75% in the high dose groups, with an increasing trend by the end of the study. The high dose group showed significantly increased levels of white blood cells (WBC) (p = 0.036), red blood cells (RBC) (p = 0.025), hematocrit (HCT) (p = 0.03), red cell distribution width (p = 0.028) and platelets (p = 0.017). The histological results of the stomach indicated chronic gastritis.

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser in the treatment of alveolar osteitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Alveolar osteitis (AO is the extraction wound healing disorder with a presence of severe pain. Low level laser therapy stimulates cell metabolism and microcirculation, have has pronounced analgesic, antiedematous and anti-inflammatory effect and speeds up wound healing process. The aim of this study was to present results of clinical research that examined the effectiveness of low level laser in pain relief and healing of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the lower jaw which was formed on the second day after tooth extraction. Methods. The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into the study and the control group. In both groups extraction wounds were processed in similar way, except that in the study group was applied daily treatment of low level laser with a total of eight sessions of radiation, while in the control group extraction wounds were dressed with zinc oxide eugenol paste, which was changed every 48 hours up to the pain cessation. Measurement of pain intensity was done with a visual analogue scale (VAS 10 min prior to processing of extraction wounds and daily for the next eight days. Assessment of the effectiveness of low level laser on healing of extraction wounds was performed on the day eight of the treatment. Results. On the day five after beginning of the treatment of extraction wounds with alveolar osteitis in the patients of the study group a lower average value of pain as compared to the control group was registered. This difference was increased within the following days. Extraction wounds healing in the study group was more successful and faster than in the control group. Conclusion. This study suggested that the reduction of pain was more pronounced in the patients with alveolar osteitis whose extraction wounds were subjected to low level laser radiation in comparison to those in which extraction wounds were treated with zinc oxide eugenol paste.

  9. The Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Intestinal and Cecal Coccidiosis in Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V. D.; Fernando, M. A.; Summers, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of interaction of crude protein level in the diet and coccidiosis of the cecum and small intestine of chicks was investigated. A total of 390 day-old chicks were divided in 36 groups of ten and six groups of five chicks each. Twelve groups of ten and two groups of six chicks each were fed one of the three diets based on dietary crude protein level (16%, 20% and 24%). All diets contained an equal energy concentration. The chicks were on the appropriate diet for 15 days prior to infection. Each group was then subjected to one of the three treatments (a) control, (b) a single dose infection with 100,000 oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and (c) a single dose infection with 10,000 oocysts of Eimeria tenella. On the eighth day post infection all surviving E. tenella infected chicks and two replicates per dietary treatment of control and E. acervulina infected chicks were killed. An increase in dietary crude protein led to a linear (PCoccidiosis caused a reduction in daily gain, feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization, the effect being more severe in E. tenella infection. The effect of dietary crude protein was protective against weight reduction. Chicks infected with E. tenella fed 24% crude protein had a higher (P<0.01) mortality rate than those fed on 16% or 20% crude protein level. The oocyst production by E. acervulina infected chicks was also higher (P<0.01) at the 24% crude protein level. The E. acervulina infected chicks exhibited compensatory growth during the eight to 14 days post infection. The compensatory growth was superior at the higher crude protein levels. The mechanism of compensatory growth is discussed. PMID:4266700

  10. Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, Tumuluru Jaya; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T; Melin, Staffan

    2009-11-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO(2) and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH(4) emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  11. Investigation of the effect of hemoglobin F and A levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Hidayet; Hacioglu, Dilek; Kola, Mehmet; Türk, Adem; Aslan, Yakup

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of hemoglobin F (HbF) and hemoglobin A (HbA) levels on development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. In this prospective study, blood samples were collected from the side of the heel of 49 premature infants at postnatal months 0, 1, 2, and 3. HbF and HbA levels were measured in all samples and analyzed statistically. Furthermore, correlation analysis was performed regarding development of ROP, blood transfusion, and HbF and HbA levels. A total of 49 infants were included. The mean gestational age of the premature infants was 30.9 ± 2.7 weeks (range, 25-35 weeks); mean birth weight, 1542 ± 582 g (range, 520-3240 g). Of the 49 premature infants, stage 1 ROP or above developed in 26 (53%). Mean HbF levels were lower at postnatal months 1 and 2 in premature infants with ROP compared to those without ROP (P = 0.013 and 0.02, respectively); however, mean HbA levels were higher in the infants with ROP than the others (P = 0.034 and 0.029, respectively). Analysis of covariance that ignored transfusion revealed no difference between the means of Hb variants in the infants with and without ROP (P = 0.572 and 0.486). Blood transfusion significantly altered the levels of HbF and HbA in premature infants, and Hb variants have no direct effect on development of ROP. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. METHODOLOGY: To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. SIGNIFICANCE: These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  13. Effect of Fat Level and the Ripening Time on Quality Traits of Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the fat reduction on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Low fat fermented sausages were produced with different fat levels (30%, 20%, 10%, and 5%) under ripening conditions and fermented process. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21st day of ripening. In proximate analysis, the fat reduction in sausages produced an increase in moisture, protein and ash contents during ripening and drying (psausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation. The lower fat level produced redder sausages. Total plate bacteria and Pseudomonas counts of sausages showed no significant differences. Production of low fat sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than the high fat sausages without negative effects, except only a higher VBN and weight loss.

  14. Bilayer graphene under pressure: Electron-hole symmetry breaking, valley Hall effect, and Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, F.; Collado, H. P. Ojeda; Usaj, Gonzalo; Sofo, Jorge O.; Balseiro, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    The electronic structure of bilayer graphene under pressure develops very interesting features with an enhancement of the trigonal warping and a splitting of the parabolic touching bands at the K point of the reciprocal space into four Dirac cones, one at K and three along the T symmetry lines. As pressure is increased, these cones separate in reciprocal space and in energy, breaking the electron-hole symmetry. Due to their energy separation, their opposite Berry curvature can be observed in valley Hall effect experiments and in the structure of the Landau levels. Based on the electronic structure obtained by density functional theory, we develop a low energy Hamiltonian that describes the effects of pressure on measurable quantities such as the Hall conductivity and the Landau levels of the system.

  15. Effect of music on depression levels and physiological responses in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Chan, Engle Angela; Mok, Esther; Kwan Tse, Fionca Yuk

    2009-08-01

    Many people over the age of 65 do not regard depression as a treatable mental disorder and find it difficult to express themselves verbally. Listening to music can facilitate the non-verbal expression of emotion and allow people's inner feelings to be expressed without being threatened. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music on depression levels in elderly people. A randomized controlled study was conducted with 47 elderly people (23 using music and 24 controls) who completed the study after being recruited in Hong Kong. Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and depression level variables were collected. In the music group, there were statistically-significant decreases in depression scores (P music as an effective nursing intervention for patients with depressive symptoms in the community setting.

  16. Effects of level of social contact on dairy calf behavior and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Housing preweaned dairy calves in pairs rather than individually has been found to positively affect behavioral responses in novel social and environmental situations, but concerns have been raised that close contact among very young animals may impair their health. In previous studies, the level...... of social contact permitted in individual housing has been auditory, visual, or physical contact. It is unclear how these various levels of social contact compare with each other and to pair housing, when their effects on behavior and health are considered, and whether the timing of pair housing has...... an effect. To investigate this, 110 Holstein calves (50 males, 60 females) in 11 blocks were paired according to birth date. Within 60 h of birth, each pair of calves was allocated to 1 of 5 treatments: individual housing with auditory contact (I), individual housing with auditory and visual contact (V...

  17. Fermi level pinning effects at gate-dielectric interfaces influenced by interface state densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文婷; 韩伟华; 吕奇峰; 王昊; 杨富华

    2015-01-01

    The dependences of Fermi-level pinning on interface state densities for the metal–dielectric, ploycrystalline silicon–dielectric, and metal silicide–dielectric interfaces are investigated by calculating their effective work functions and their pinning factors. The Fermi-level pinning factors and effective work functions of the metal–dielectric interface are observed to be more susceptible to the increasing interface state densities, differing significantly from that of the ploycrystalline silicon–dielectric interface and the metal silicide–dielectric interface. The calculation results indicate that metal silicide gates with high-temperature resistance and low resistivity are a more promising choice for the design of gate materials in metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology.

  18. Effect of glutathione on brain nitric oxide levels in an experimental epilepsy mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aylin Akcali; Sadrettin Pence; Naciye Kurtul; Mehmet Bosnak; Munife Neyal

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Glutathione, known as one of the compounds of antioxidant defense, has been shown to inhibit convulsions. Nitric oxide has a proconvulsant effect on a pentylenetetrazole-induced animal model. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glutathione administration on nitric oxide levels in brain regions of convulsive and kindling pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure models. DESIGN, TIME, AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment. The study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Gaziantep University and Department of Chemistry-Biochemistry, Kahramamaras Sutcu Imam University in 2006.MATERIALS: Pentylenetetrazole and glutathione were purchased from Sigma, USA. METHODS: A total of 80 mice were assigned to 8 groups (n=10): normal control, saline control (1 mL normal saline), convulsive pentylenetetrazole (single intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole, 60 mg/kg), convulsive pentylenetrazole plus glutathione (single administration of 60 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole and 200 mg/kg glutathione), five-dose glutathione (intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg glutathione respectively at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days), single-dose glutathione (single administration of 200 mg/kg glutathione), pentylenetetrazole kindling (intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole of 40 mg/kg at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days), and pentylenetetrazole kindling plus glutathione group (intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg pentylenetetrazole and 200 mg/kg glutathione respectively at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All mice were sacrificed 1 hour after the last administration. Brain nitric oxide levels were determined by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in nitric oxide levels between the normal control, saline control, five-dose glutathione, and single-dose glutathione groups (P>0.05). Nitric oxide levels in the cerebral hemisphere and

  19. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  20. Effects of estradiol and FSH on leptin levels in women with suppressed pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geber Selmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female fertility depends on adequate nutrition and energy reserves, suggesting a correlation between the metabolic reserve and reproductive capacity. Leptin regulates body weight and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol or FSH alone has a direct effect on the production of leptin. Methods A total of 64 patients submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH for assisted reproduction and 20 patients using estradiol valerate for endometrial preparation for oocyte donation treatment were included in the study. All patients used GnRH analogues before starting treatment to achieve pituitary suppression. Blood samples for hormonal measurements were collected before starting and after completing the respective treatments. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square test, Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation test. Results We observed an elevation of serum leptin levels secondary to the increase in estradiol, in the absence of influence of any other ovarian or pituitary hormone. The rising rate of leptin levels was higher in women treated with recombinant FSH, which also had higher levels of estradiol, than in those treated with estradiol valerate. Conclusions This study demonstrates a correlation between serum levels of estradiol and leptin, suggesting that estradiol is an important regulator of leptin production and that its effects can be amplified by its association with FSH.

  1. Mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect on nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrikus, Hiie; Bachmann, Maie; Karai, Denis; Lass, Jaanus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the mechanism of the effect of low-level modulated microwave radiation on brain bioelectrical oscillations. The proposed model of excitation by low-level microwave radiation bases on the influence of water polarization on hydrogen bonding forces between water molecules, caused by this the enhancement of diffusion and consequences on neurotransmitters transit time and neuron resting potential. Modulated microwave radiation causes periodic alteration of the neurophysiologic parameters and parametric excitation of brain bioelectric oscillations. The experiments to detect logical outcome of the mechanism on physiological level were carried out on 15 human volunteers. The 450-MHz microwave radiation modulated at 7, 40 and 1000 Hz frequencies was applied at the field power density of 0.16 mW/cm(2). A relative change in the EEG power with and without radiation during 10 cycles was used as a quantitative measure. Experimental data demonstrated that modulated at 40 Hz microwave radiation enhanced EEG power in EEG alpha and beta frequency bands. No significant alterations were detected at 7 and 1000 Hz modulation frequencies. These results are in good agreement with the theory of parametric excitation of the brain bioelectric oscillations caused by the periodic alteration of neurophysiologic parameters and support the proposed mechanism. The proposed theoretical framework has been shown to predict the results of experimental study. The suggested mechanism, free of the restrictions related to field strength or time constant, is the first one providing explanation of low-level microwave radiation effects.

  2. Low-level motor inhibition in children:Evidence from the negative compatibility effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Schlaghecken

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The masked prime task was used to investigate low-level inhibitory motor control processes in two groups of children (7-8 years and 11-12 years and in older adolescents/young adults (16-23 years. Masked prime stimuli, presented below the level of conscious awareness, systematically affected reaction times (RTs to subsequent supraliminal target stimuli: RTs were longer when prime and target were mapped to the same response than when they were mapped to different responses. This negative compatibility effect did not differ significantly between age groups, consistent with the hypothesis that the underlying low-level inhibition processes are already fully developed in children as young as seven years of age. In contrast, performance differences between response repetition and response alternation trials were significantly larger in children, consistent with the hypothesis that higher-level control processes are less effective in children. Results provide converging evidence that whereas the latter processes are mediated by late-maturing (prefrontal cortical areas, the former processes are mediated by earlier-maturing (possibly subcortical structures.

  3. The Effect of Air Tourniquet on Interleukin-6 Levels in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kenji; Sonohata, Motoki; Kugisaki, Hajime; Someya, Shinsuke; Honke, Hidefumi; Komine, Mitsunori; Izumi, Masataka; Ide, Shuya; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Background: Air tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle injury increases the concentrations of some cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) in plasma. However, the effect of an air tourniquet on the IL-6 concentrations after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is unclear. We therefore investigated the impact of tourniquet-induced ischemia and reperfusion injury in TKA using the IL-6 level as an index. Methods: Ten patients with primary knee osteoarthrosis who underwent unilateral TKA without an air tourniquet were recruited (Non-tourniquet group). We also selected 10 age- and sex-matched control patients who underwent unilateral TKA with an air tourniquet (Tourniquet group). Venous blood samples were obtained at 3 points; before surgery, 24 h after surgery, and 7 days after surgery. The following factors were compared between the two groups; IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), the mean white blood cell (WBC) counts, and the maximum daily body temperatures. Results: The IL-6 level at 24 h after surgery was significantly higher than that at any other point (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the WBC count, the body temperature, or the CRP, CPK, or IL-6 levels of the two groups at any of the time points. Conclusion: The effect of ischemia and reperfusion due to the use of an air tourniquet on increasing the IL-6 level was much smaller than that induced by surgical stress in TKA. PMID:28217217

  4. Experimental test of the effect of introduced hematophagous flies on corticosterone levels of breeding Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutie, Sarah A; Koop, Jennifer A H; French, Susannah S; Clayton, Dale H

    2013-11-01

    Parasites can negatively affect the evolutionary fitness of their hosts by eliciting physiological stress responses. Parasite-induced stress can be monitored by measuring changes in the adrenal steroid hormone corticosterone. We examined the effect of an invasive parasite on the corticosterone concentrations of a common species of Darwin's finch, the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) is a parasitic nest fly recently introduced to the Galapagos Islands, where it feeds on the blood of nestlings and breeding adult female finches. Previous work shows that P. downsi significantly reduces the reproductive success of several species of finches. We predicted that the effect of P. downsi on host reproductive success is mediated by stress responses in breeding female finches. High stress levels could reduce the ability of females to invest in offspring, thus decreasing their reproductive success. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the abundance of P. downsi in nests, then measured baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels, body condition, and hematocrit (red blood cell content). Acute stress-induced corticosterone levels increased over baseline levels, but this response did not differ significantly with parasite treatment. There was also no significant difference in the body condition or hematocrit of females from parasitized versus non-parasitized nests. Our results suggest that the lower reproductive success of females from parasitized nests is not mediated by a physiological stress response.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2 hours a day, 4 days a week throughout 20 weeks. The data were collected by Hacettepe Psychological Adaptation Scale. For the statistical evaluation of the data, SPSS 15.0 statistical software program was used and significance was tested at levels of 0.05 and 0.01. In accordance with findings of the research, while psychological adaptation levels of application and control groups showed similarity before physical education and sports activity program, significant differences in favour of application group were determined positively after 20-week program. In the light of findings, it can be significantly resulted from this research that physical education and sports activities might have positive effect on psychological adaptation levels of children.

  6. Effect of energy and protein levels on nutrient utilization and their requirements in growing Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Sonali; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Mondal, Goutam; Sontakke, Umesh; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy and protein for optimum growth of Murrah male buffalo calves, a growth trial (150 days) was conducted on 30 calves (body weight 202.5 ± 6.8 kg). Six diets were formulated to provide 90, 100 and 110% protein level and 90 and 110% energy level requirements for buffalo calves, derived from ICAR 2013 recommendations for buffaloes. The crude protein (CP) intake was increased with higher dietary CP, whereas no effect of energy levels or interaction between protein and energy was observed on CP intake. There were significant effects (P interaction between protein and energy (P nutrient intake (protein or energy) per kg body weight (BW)(0.75) at various fortnight intervals was regressed linearly from the average daily gain (ADG) per kg BW(0.75). By setting the average daily gain at zero in the developed regression equation, a maintenance requirement was obtained, i.e. 133.1 kcal ME, 6.45 g CP and 3.95 g metabolizable protein (MP) per kg BW(0.75). Requirement for growth was 6.12 kcal ME, 0.46 g CP and 0.32 g MP per kg BW(0.75) per day. Metabolizable amino acid requirement was estimated from partitioning of MP intake and ADG. The ME requirements were lower, whereas the MP requirement of Murrah buffaloes was higher than ICAR (2013) recommendations.

  7. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  8. When less is more: positive population-level effects of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Arne; van Leeuwen, Anieke; Cameron, Tom C

    2014-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that mortality imposed on a population can counter-intuitively increase the density of a specific life-history stage or total population density. Understanding positive population-level effects of mortality is advancing, illuminating implications for population, community, and applied ecology. Reconciling theory and data, we found that the mathematical models used to study mortality effects vary in the effects predicted and mechanisms proposed. Experiments predominantly demonstrate stage-specific density increases in response to mortality. We argue that the empirical evidence supports theory based on stage-structured population models but not on unstructured models. We conclude that stage-specific positive mortality effects are likely to be common in nature and that accounting for within-population individual variation is essential for developing ecological theory.

  9. Cost-Effective Control of Ground-Level Ozone Pollution in and around Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xuxuan; Zhang Shiqiu; Xu Jianhua; Wu Dan; Zhu Tong

    2012-01-01

    Ground level ozone pollution has become a significant air pollution problem in Beijing. Because of the complex way in which ozone is formed, it is difficult for policy makers to identify optimal control options on a cost-effective basis. This paper identi- fies and assesses a range of options for addressing this problem. We apply the Ambient Least Cost Model and compare the eco- nomic costs of control options, then recommend the most effective sequence to realize pollution control at the lowest cost. The study finds that installing of Stage II gasoline vapor recovery system at Beijing's 1446 gasoline stations would be the most cost-effective option. Overall, options to reduce ozone pollution by cutting ve- hicular emissions are much more cost-effective than options to "clean up" coal-fired power plants.

  10. Outcomes for women with co-occurring disorders and trauma: program-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Joseph J; Jackson, Elizabeth W; Hennigan, Karen; Morrissey, Joseph P; Reed, Beth Glover; Fallot, Roger; Banks, Steve

    2005-03-01

    Program-level effects at 6 months are reported from meta-analysis of a nine-site quasi-experimental study of comprehensive, integrated, trauma-informed, and consumer-involved services for women who have mental health problems, substance use disorders, and who have experienced interpersonal violence. The average weighted effect size is significant for the treatment condition for improved post-traumatic symptoms (p mental health symptoms (p mental health symptoms (p alcohol (p < 0.001) and drug use problem severity (p < 0.001). The same trend is observable for reductions in post-traumatic stress symptoms, although the difference does not attain statistical significance.

  11. Effect of. beta. -endorphin on catecholamine levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Valueva, G.V.; Markov, V.V.; Luchitskii, E.V.

    1986-10-01

    The authors studied the effect of beta-endorphin on catecholamine concentrations in the hypothalmus and cerebral cortex in rats, as a contribution to the explanation of the mechanism of action of this peptide on certain pituitary trophic functions. Concentrations of dopamine, noradrenalin, and adrenalin were determined by a radioenzymatic method. A Mark 3 scintillation system was used for radiometric investigation of the samples. The results of these experiments indicate that beta-endorphin has a marked effect on brain catecholamine levels mainly in the hypothalamus.

  12. Zeno and Anti Zeno effect for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D F

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the appearance of Zeno (QZE) or anti-Zeno (QAE) effect in an exponentially decaying system. We consider the quantum dynamics of a continuously monitored two level system interacting with a squeezed bath. We find that the behavior of the system depends critically on the way in which the squeezed bath is prepared. For specific choices of the squeezing phase the system shows Zeno or anti-Zeno effect in conditions for which it would decay exponentially if no measurements were done. This result allows for a clear interpretation in terms of the equivalent spin system interacting with a fictitious magnetic field.

  13. Effect of adjunct metformin treatment on levels of plasma lipids in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Tarnow, L.; Astrup, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to its glucose-lowering effect, metformin treatment has been suggested to improve lipidaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), information about the effect of metformin treatment on lipidaemia is limited. In this study...... disease did not change conclusions. In statin users (metformin: n = 22, placebo: n = 13), metformin significantly lowered levels of LDL and non-HDL cholesterol by approximately 0.5 mmol/l compared with placebo (adjusted for changes in statin dose or agent: p = 0.048 and p = 0.033 respectively). HbA(1c...

  14. Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdieh Matinfar; Mahsa Masjedi Esfahani; Neda Aslany; Seyyed Hamid Reza Davoodi; Pouya Parsaei; Ghasem Zarei; Parham Reisi

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the serious problems that opioid addicted people are facing is repeated withdrawal syndrome that is accompanying with a significant stress load for addicts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol levels in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Male NMRI mice received morphine as daily increasing doses for 3 days. After that, the mice underwent one time or repeated spont...

  15. Effect of music therapy on pain and anxiety levels of cancer patients: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Priyadharshini Krishnaswamy; Shoba Nair

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer ...

  16. Effects of Nutrition Education on Levels of Nutritional Awareness of Pregnant Women in Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    FALLAH, Farnoush; Pourabbas, Ahmad; Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; Shadnoush, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional health, before and during pregnancy, influences the health status of herself and her developing fetus. Pregnancy is an important condition for improving nutritional knowledge. Objectives The present study aimed at determining effects of nutrition education on levels of nutritional awareness of a representative group of pregnant women in Western Iran. Patients and Methods A quasi-experimental intervention was undertaken on a random sample of pregnant women (n = ...

  17. A Study On The Effect Of Multiple Intelligences Theory Upon The Success Level Of Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Imran

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the effects of Multiple Intelligences theory upon the success level of genders were investigated at three high schools in Konya. In conclusion, a significant difference has not been found between groups for multiple intelligences and groups for pre-tests. In general, the female student groups were more successful than the male student groups regarding post-test. However, this result did not cause a significant difference between the groups.

  18. Effects of Vitamin D Levels on Quality of Life in Osteoporosis - Original Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    İlker Coşkun Benlidayı; Füsun Güler Uysal; Sibel Başaran; Rengin Güzel

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, impairs bone formation and neuromuscular coordination, thus increases fracture risk. It is well known that pain and functional disability caused by fractures impairs quality of life (QOL). However, studies investigating the association between vitamin D deficiency and QOL are insufficient. This study investigates the effects of vitamin D level on QOL in osteoporotic patients. 286 patients (mean age 60.51±9.1 years) with postmenapousal, senile or...

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of population’s labor behaviour at the macro-level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vasilyevich Popov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main approaches to the research into the effectiveness of people’s labor behavior. Special attention is paid to the analysis of statistical, social and statistical-sociological methods. The article presents the author’s methodology for analyzing the effectiveness of labor behavior by the spheres of manifestation: in the labor market and in an organization. The research shows a high degree of differentiation by this indicator among the Russian territories. The indicator’s value was the highest in the Ural Federal District (0.588 points and Central Federal District (0.422 points; it was the lowest in the Siberian (-0.139 points and North Caucasian (-1.269 points federal districts. The integrated assessment of the people’s labor behavior effectiveness was conducted, 5 groups of RF regions were allocated according to this criterion depending on the indicator’s value. The results of the analysis show that the territories with the high level of the indicator under consideration include such subjects of the Central Federal District as Moscow and the Moscow Oblast. The majority of RF subjects constitute the group with the level above medium. The medium-level group includes the regions that are part of nearly all the districts (except for the Ural Federal District, including the Vologda Oblast. The low level of labor behavior effectiveness indicates a depressive character of the territories and requires immediate measures for enhancing the search for reserves and increase in the efficiency of formation and use of labor potential

  20. Synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation in highly efficient photovoltaic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-02-01

    The synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation is realized by introducing fluorine atoms onto both the donor and the acceptor moieties in a D-A polymer, and as a result, the polymer solar cell device based on the trifluorinated polymer, PBT-3F, shows a high efficiency of 8.6%, under illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-) (2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Biological Effects of Short, High-Level Exposure to Gases: Nitrogen Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOT ES3 This project was one of four under the same contract; the others covered ammonia , carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. 3 IS. KEY wOROS...characterize the biological responses to short, high-level exposures to four gases associated with certain Army weapons systems ( ammonia , carbon monoxide...20- i --- 7 (2) Biochemical and Other Effects Buckley and BalchumlO found biochemical changes, principally in enzyme activity of the liver, spleen

  2. Effects of Second Trimester Maternal Hemoglobin Levels on Birth Weight and Birth Time

    OpenAIRE

    DÜNDAR, Özgür; ÇİFTPINAR, Tolga; TÜTÜNCÜ, Levent; ERGÜR, Ali Rüştü; ATAY, Mehmet Vedat; MÜNGEN, Ercüment; YERGÖK, Yusuf Ziya

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of anemia at the second trimester on birth weight and birth time. Patients and Methods: The medical reports of 1116 pregnant women who attended and delivered at our clinic between January 2005 and October 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as having <9 gr/dl hemoglobin or ≥9 gr/dl hemoglobin levels. The gestational and the perinatal outcomes of the normal a...

  3. Effect of Different Levels of Zinc on the Performance and Humoral Immunity Response in Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    S Sharbatdar; M Shamse Shargh; A Hesabi Namaghi; S. Hasani; R Hadadian

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and humoral immunity response in broiler chickens with 250 Ross broiler chickens with five experimental treatments consisted of five replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments were diets containing: basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg Zn/kg. Results of the experiment indicated that birds were fed on diets containing 120 mg Zn/kg and control showed the ...

  4. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action. Although not without exception, results from animal and human studies suggest a moderate cholesterol-lowering action of dairy products fermented with appropriate strain(s) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mechanistically, probiotic bacteria ferment food-derived indigestible carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which can then cause a decrease in the systemic levels of blood lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis and/or redistributing cholesterol from plasma to the liver. Furthermore, some bacteria may interfere with cholesterol absorption from the gut by deconjugating bile salts and therefore affecting the metabolism of cholesterol, or by directly assimilating cholesterol. For prebiotic substances, the majority of studies have been done with the fructooligosaccharides inulin and oligofructose, and although convincing lipid-lowering effects have been observed in animals, high dose levels had to be used. Reports in humans are few in number. In studies conducted in normal-lipidemic subjects, two reported no effect of inulin or oligofructose on serum lipids, whereas two others reported a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (19 and 27%, respectively) with more modest changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol. At present, data suggest that in hyperlipidemic subjects, any effects that do occur result primarily in reductions in cholesterol, whereas in normal lipidemic subjects, effects on serum triglycerides are the dominant feature.

  5. Relationship between blood levels and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Carrasco, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Carrasco-Portugal, Miriam del Carmen; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between blood levels of ketoprofen and its anti-hyperalgesic effects was examined in rat using the carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia model. Female adult Wistar rats were injected with carrageenan into the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Immediately after, rats were administered with ketoprofen po and hindpaw withdrawal latency measured and micro-whole blood samples were obtained over six hours via a cannula inserted in the caudal artery. Ketoprofen levels were measured by HPLC. Ketoprofen concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner and was reflected in dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters expressed as mean ± s.e.m. following administration of 1, 3.2, and 10 mg/kg ketoprofen were: Cmax 1.27 ± 0.08, 3.44 ± 0.20 and 11.76 ± 0.81 μg/mL; AUClast 4.16 ± 0.17, 11.63 ± 0.65 and 28.15 ± 1.32 μg h/mL; and Emax observed (AUCE ): 65.41 ± 7.79, 92.06 ± 6.46 and 98.42 ± 7.53%. A direct relationship between blood concentrations and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen followed a maximum effect model equation. The results indicate that the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the carrageenan pain model can be predicted by the pharmacokinetic properties of ketoprofen.

  6. Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Regeneration During Osseointegration and Bone Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Randa; Selting, Wayne; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2017-07-21

    The effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone regeneration during osseointegration and bone graft is very controversial. Despite many positive reports of in vitro and in vivo studies and more than 50 randomized clinical trials claiming a positive effect of photobiomodulation (PBM), many reports found no significant effect of lasers. The aim of this study was to evaluate studies correlating PBM and bone regeneration and to assesses parameters that produce positive results based on dose and output power used. Four electronic databases were used: PubMed, Springer, Google Scholar, and Cochrane. The research yielded 230 articles. The full texts of all articles were evaluated and scored using eligibility criteria adapted from Cericato et al. After evaluation, only 19 articles met the inclusion criteria. A positive effect of low-level laser energy on bone regeneration within a certain relationship between dose and output power was found. LLLT stimulates cellular metabolism, increasing protein synthesis and subsequent bone regeneration. A high dose combined with low power or a low dose combined with high power appears to produce a positive effect.

  7. Effects of donepezil treatment on rat nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Richard T; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2003-12-01

    Research on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) indicates that long term exposure increases the level of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) but the effects of donepezil on nAChRs are not well studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of sub-chronic donepezil administration on nAChRs in rats and rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered donepezil (0.7 and 2.4 micromoles/kg), nicotine (2.5 micromoles/kg) or saline subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days, PC-12 cells were incubated with 10(-6) to 10(-4) M donepezil for 72 hours and nAChR levels were determined by receptor binding assay using the nAChR ligands [3H]-epibatidine (EPI) for non-alpha 7 nAChRs and [3H]-methyllyconitine (MLA) for alpha 7 nAChRs. Chronic donepezil administration at 1.4 micromoles/kg/day and 4.8 micromoles/ kg/day significantly increased [3H]-epibatidine binding in the cortex to 126 +/- 1.3% and 127 +/- 3.2% of the saline control animals, respectively. [3H]-MLA binding in the cortex increased to 114 +/- 4.4% and 124 +/- 2.8% of the control group for the high and low dose groups, respectively. Hippocampal [3H]-EPI binding in the low dose and high dose groups significantly increased to 135 +/- 3.6% and 125 +/- 4.6% of the controls, respectively while there were no changes in the level of [3H]-MLA binding. In striatal homogenates, neither [3H]-EPI nor [3H]-MLA binding were significantly effected at either dose of donepezil. In PC-12 cells, [3H]-EPI binding was increased at the non-physiological 10(-4)M concentration only. There was no effect of donepezil on [3H]-MLA binding at any concentration examined. These results indicate that donepezil increases cortical alpha 7 and non-alpha 7 nAChRs, hippocampal non-alpha 7 nAChRs but does not influence striatal nAChR levels. Furthermore, the lack of an effect on the alpha 7-nAChRs in PC-12 cells suggests that the increase in cortical alpha 7 nAChRs may be an indirect effect of increased acetylcholine

  8. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training Program via Peer Tutoring on Aggression Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail YELPAZE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills intervention program via peer tutoring on aggression level of secondary school students. The study was a semi-experimental model using experimental group with pre and post-tests. Eleven (eighth class students were selected to have skills for being peer helper. The population of this research consisted 56 secondary school students at Kahramanmaraş. In order to evaluate aggression level of students, Aggression Scale developed by Tuzgöl (1998 was used. . Additionally, a Personal Information Sheet developed by the researcher was used to record certain demographic variables. Researcher applied social skills invention program to 11 students (peer helpers for eight weeks. Later, peer helpers applied intervention program to selected 56 students as well. After application, last-test was applied to selected 56 students, again. To analyze the data collected, SPSS 15 for computer was used. Results of the research revealed that the social skill program via peer helping (peer guidance considerably decreased the level of aggression of students at secondary school students. Students’ aggression level differentiated according to their sex, but not their class levels. Results were discussed in the light of literature

  9. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  10. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  11. The Effect of an Intraperitoneal Injection of Melatonin on Serum Amylase Levels in Acute Pancreatitis

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    Cavit Çöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Several experimental studies have been carried out to explain the ph ysiopathological mechan isms and to introduce endocrinological, enzymatic, biochemical and histopathol ogical changes in organism s during acute pancreatitis. Objective To evaluate the effect of an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin on serum amylase levels. Design Experimental acut e pancreatitis was experimentally caused through panc reatic duct ligation in 20 Winstar Albino rats . The rats were then divided into two groups: control and melatonin groups. Intervention The serum amylase level was measured on the 7 th day after acute pancreatitis had developed. In the melatonin group, an intraperitoneal injecti on of melatonin (20 mg/kg/day was performed starting from the 2 nd day after pancreatic duct ligation. Main outcome measure The levels of serum amylase were measured with an auto analyzer. Results It was found that the mean (±SD level of serum amylase in th e control group was 947±182 IU/mL wh ile it was 358±177 IU/mL in the experimental group (P<0.001. Conclusions The 20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection of melatonin which was carried out for one week attenuated the serum amylase levels to a statistically si gnificant degree. The researchers believe that intraperitoneal in jections of melatonin decrease the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  12. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat on the performance, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers

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    M. Senthilkumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A biological trial was conducted for a period of seven weeks to study the effect of graded levels of tallow (saturated and sunflower oil (un saturated or combination of both on the production performance, carcass characteristics, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers. Materials and Methods: The experimental feeds were prepared by the addition of tallow (2% and 4% and sunflower oil (2% and 4% either alone or in combination of both (SF oil 1% + tallow 1% and SF oil 2% + tallow 2%. Results: Neither the fat source (sunflower oil or tallow nor their combinations had influenced the growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, livability and carcass characteristics in broilers. However, at 49 days of age, broilers fed with tallow alone had higher (P<0.01 abdominal fat than the rest of the treatment groups. When compared to control and tallow alone fed groups, the broilers fed with sunflower oil alone and mixture of sunflower oil and tallow had significantly (P<0.01 lower total serum and meat cholesterol level. Conclusion: The data suggest that the abdominal fat yield, serum and meat total cholesterol level of commercial broilers are inversely proportional to the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 159-162

  13. Geologic effects and coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise, erosion, and storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.J.; Gutierrez, B.T.; Thieler, E.R.; Pendleton, E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of natural and human factors are driving coastal change and making coastal regions and populations increasingly vulnerable. Sea level, a major agent of coastal erosion, has varied greatly from -120 m below present during glacial period low-stands to + 4 to 6 m above present during interglacial warm periods. Geologic and tide gauge data show that global sea level has risen about 12 to 15 cm during the past century with satellite measurements indicating an acceleration since the early 1990s due to thermal expansion and ice-sheet melting. Land subsidence due to tectonic forces and sediment compaction in regions like the mid-Atlantic and Louisiana increase the rate of relative sea-level rise to 40 cm to 100 cm per century. Sea- level rise is predicted to accelerate significantly in the near future due to climate change, resulting in pervasive impacts to coastal regions and putting populations increasingly at risk. The full implications of climate change for coastal systems need to be understood better and long-term plans are needed to manage coasts in order to protect natural resources and mitigate the effects of sea-level rise and increased storms on human infrastructure. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  14. Effects of Different Protein Levels on the Growth Performance and Metabolic Rate of Nutrition in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongda

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of different protein levels on the growth performance and metabolic rate of nutrition in broilers. Total 360 healthy and weight closed local broilers of 3 weeks were chosen and then divided into three groups randomly by one factor. Each group contains three handlings, each handling consists of 40 broilers. The period of experiment was 7 weeks. The metabolic experiment was performed at the 7th week. Three different protein levels were used in broilers' diet. The levels of protein were 19%, 17.5% and 16%. The results showed that the different levels of protein in crude dietary had significant difference between 19% group and the other two groups. The average daily weight gain and daily efficiency were significantly higher than that of the other two groups (P0.05), and the metabolic rate of the impact of phosphorus was significantly different (P<0.05). The result showed that when protein level was 19%, the growth of the local broiler was the best.

  15. Effect of excitatory amino acids on serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, M; Durán, R; Arufe, M C

    2000-01-01

    The actions of glutamate (L-Glu), and glutamate receptor agonists on serum thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and TSH levels have been studied in conscious and freely moving adult male rats. The excitatory amino acids (EAA), L-Glu, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainic acid (KA) and domoic acid (Dom) were administered intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected through a cannula implanted in the rats jugular 0--60 min after injection. Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that L-Glu (20 and 25 mg/kg) and NMDA (25 mg/kg) increased serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations. Serum thyroid hormone levels increased 30 min after treatment, while serum TSH levels increased 5 min after i.p. administration, in both cases serum levels remained elevated during one hour. Injection of the non-NMDA glutamatergic agonists KA (30 mg/kg) and Dom (1 mg/kg) produced an increase in serum thyroid hormones and TSH levels. These results suggest the importance of EAAs in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as the importance of the NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in this stimulatory effect.

  16. Immunotoxic effects of low level ozone exposure suggestive of an inducers in bronchial hyperresponiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongH; LiDM

    2002-01-01

    For the city pollution of motor vehicle emissions,public air oxidizer exposure level has increasing tendence.As a representative of osidizer,ozone exposure is universal expecially at low levels in big city.Summarizing previous experimental study,which focuses on the exposure concentration at 0.125 ppm,the changes in inflammatory cytokines in animal airway suggest that low levels ozone expose activate cytokines resembling the bronchial hyperresponsiveness of atopy.Similarly the epidemiological study on adverse effects of ambient ozone exposure showed that the lower maxinal mid-expiratory flow of achoold children in exposed area where the concentration of ozone exceeded background levels only in the periphery of petroleum chemical enterprise were observed compared with those in control ares(P<0.05).This phenomenon of airway resistance increases as well as laboratory observation suggests that low level oxidizer exposure is one of the main risk factors of result in the increasing incidence of asthma in cities.

  17. Effects of long-term variability on projections of twenty-first century dynamic sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mohammad H.; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise is one of the most pressing aspects of anthropogenic global warming with far-reaching consequences for coastal societies. However, sea-level rise did and will strongly vary from coast to coast. Here we investigate the long-term internal variability effects on centennial projections of dynamic sea level (DSL), the local departure from the globally averaged sea level. A large ensemble of global warming integrations has been conducted with a climate model, where each realization was forced by identical CO2 increase but started from different atmospheric and oceanic initial conditions. In large parts of the mid- and high latitudes, the ensemble spread of the projected centennial DSL trends is of the same order of magnitude as the globally averaged steric sea-level rise, suggesting that internal variability cannot be ignored when assessing twenty-first-century DSL trends. The ensemble spread is considerably reduced in the mid- to high latitudes when only the atmospheric initial conditions differ while keeping the oceanic initial state identical; indicating that centennial DSL projections are strongly dependent on ocean initial conditions.

  18. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  19. Effects of omega-3 supplementation on interleukin and neurotrophin levels in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugno, Alexandra I; Canever, Lara; Mastella, Gustavo; Heylmann, Alexandra S; Oliveira, Mariana B; Steckert, Amanda V; Castro, Adalberto A; dal Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João; Gama, Clarissa S

    2015-08-01

    New studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as omega-3, may reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia. The present study evaluated the preventive effect of omega-3 on interleukines (IL) and neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brains of young rats subjected to a model of schizophrenia. Treatment was performed over 21 days, starting on the 30th day of rat's life. After 14 days of treatment with omega-3 or vehicle, a concomitant treatment with saline or ketamine (25 mg/kg) was started and maintained until the last day of the experiment. BDNF levels in the rat's prefrontal cortex were decreased at 1 h and 24 h after the last administration of ketamine, whereas the group administered with ketamine and omega-3 showed a decrease in BDNF levels only after 24 h. In contrast, both interventions induced similar responses in levels of IL-1β and IL6. These findings suggest that the similarity of IL-1β and IL6 levels in our experimental groups is due to the mechanism of action of ketamine on the immune system. More studies have to be carried out to explain this pathology. In conclusion, according to previous studies and considering the current study, we could suggest a prophylactic role of omega-3 against the outcome of symptoms associated with schizophrenia.

  20. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

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    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.