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Sample records for nm thick oxide

  1. The critical oxide thickness for Pb-free reflow soldering on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C. Key [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Assembly Test Global Materials, Intel Microelectronics Asia Ltd, B1, No. 205, Tun-Hwa North Road, 10595 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Oxidation is an undesirable effect of reflow soldering. Non-wetting occurs when the oxide layer grows above the critical thickness. Characterizing the critical oxide thickness for soldering is challenging due to oxide's nano-scale thickness and irregular topographic surface. In this paper, the critical copper oxide thickness was characterized by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Copper substrates were coated with an Organic-Solderable-Preservative (OSP) layer and baked at 150 Degree-Sign C and 85% Relative Humidity for different amounts of time. The onset of the non-wetting phenomenon occurred when the oxide thickness reached 18 {+-} 5 nm. As the oxide grew beyond this critical thickness, the percentage of non-wetting solder joint increased exponentially. The growth of the oxide thickness followed a parabolic rate law. The rate constant of oxidation was 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1}. Oxidation resulted from interdiffusion of copper and oxygen atoms through the OSP and oxide layers. The oxidation mechanism will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical oxide thickness for Pb free solder on Cu substrate is 18 {+-} 5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above the critical oxide, non-wet solder joint increases exponentially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum 13-nm oxide thickness is suggested for good solder joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth of oxide thickness is logarithmic and then parabolic after 12 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick oxide (360-560 nm) is formed as pores shorten the oxidation path.

  2. Synchrotron X-ray irradiation effects on the device characteristics and the resistance to hot-carrier damage of MOSFETs with 4 nm thick gate oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuusuke; Tanabe, Akira; Suzuki, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron x-ray irradiation on the device characteristics and hot-carrier resistance of n- and p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with 4 nm thick gate oxides are investigated. In p-channel MOSFETs, device characteristics were significantly affected by the x-ray irradiation but completely recovered after annealing, while the device characteristics in n-channel MOSFETs were not noticeably affected by the irradiation. This difference appears to be due to a difference in interface-state generation. In p-channel MOSFETs, defects caused by boron-ion penetration through the gate oxides may be sensitive to x-ray irradiation, causing the generation of many interface states. These interface states are completely eliminated after annealing in hydrogen gas. The effects of irradiation on the resistance to hot-carrier degradation in annealed 4 nm thick gate-oxide MOSFETs were negligible even at an x-ray dose of 6,000 mJ/cm 2

  3. Densification of ∼5 nm-thick SiO_2 layers by nitric acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Joo, Soyeong; Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Woo-Byoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Leakage current density of the commercial PECVD grown ∼5 nm SiO_2 layer has been decreased about three orders of magnitude by densification. • The densification of SiO_2 layer is achieved by high oxidation ability of O·. • Densities of suboxide, fixed charge (N_f) and defect state (N_d) in SiO_2/Si interface are decreased by NAOS and PMA. • Tunneling barrier height (Φ_t) is increased because of the increase of atomic density in SiO_2 layer. - Abstract: Low-temperature nitric acid (HNO_3) oxidation of Si (NAOS) has been used to improve the interface and electrical properties of ∼5 nm-thick SiO_2/Si layers produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Investigations of the physical properties and electrical characteristics of these thin films revealed that although their thickness is not changed by NAOS, the leakage current density at a gate bias voltage of −1 V decreases by about two orders of magnitude from 1.868 × 10"−"5 A/cm"2. This leakage current density was further reduced by post-metallization annealing (PMA) at 250 °C for 10 min in a 5 vol.% hydrogen atmosphere, eventually reaching a level (5.2 × 10"−"8 A/cm"2) approximately three orders of magnitude less than the as-grown SiO_2 layer. This improvement is attributed to a decrease in the concentration of suboxide species (Si"1"+, Si"2"+ and Si"3"+) in the SiO_2/Si interface, as well as a decrease in the equilibrium density of defect sites (N_d) and fixed charge density (N_f). The barrier height (Φ_t) generated by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism also increased from 0.205 to 0.371 eV after NAOS and PMA. The decrease in leakage current density is therefore attributed to a densification of the SiO_2 layer in combination with the removal of OH species and increase in interfacial properties at the SiO_2/Si interface.

  4. Thickness measurement of a thin hetero-oxide film with an interfacial oxide layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Lee, Seung Mi; Jang, Jong Shik; Moret, Mona

    2012-02-01

    The general equation Tove = L cos θ ln(Rexp/R0 + 1) for the thickness measurement of thin oxide films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to a HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) as a thin hetero-oxide film system with an interfacial oxide layer. The contribution of the thick interfacial SiO2 layer to the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer was counterbalanced by multiplying the ratio between the intensity of Si4+ from a thick SiO2 film and that of Si0 from a Si(1 0 0) substrate to the intensity of Si4+ from the HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) film. With this approximation, the thickness levels of the HfO2 overlayers showed a small standard deviation of 0.03 nm in a series of HfO2 (2 nm)/SiO2 (2-6 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. Mutual calibration with XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to verify the thickness of HfO2 overlayers in a series of HfO2 (1-4 nm)/SiO2 (3 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. From the linear relation between the thickness values derived from XPS and TEM, the effective attenuation length of the photoelectrons and the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer could be determined.

  5. Densification of ∼5 nm-thick SiO{sub 2} layers by nitric acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jaeyoung [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 311-16 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Soyeong [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Youngin 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Joo [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Byoung, E-mail: woo7838@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 311-16 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Leakage current density of the commercial PECVD grown ∼5 nm SiO{sub 2} layer has been decreased about three orders of magnitude by densification. • The densification of SiO{sub 2} layer is achieved by high oxidation ability of O·. • Densities of suboxide, fixed charge (N{sub f}) and defect state (N{sub d}) in SiO{sub 2}/Si interface are decreased by NAOS and PMA. • Tunneling barrier height (Φ{sub t}) is increased because of the increase of atomic density in SiO{sub 2} layer. - Abstract: Low-temperature nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) oxidation of Si (NAOS) has been used to improve the interface and electrical properties of ∼5 nm-thick SiO{sub 2}/Si layers produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Investigations of the physical properties and electrical characteristics of these thin films revealed that although their thickness is not changed by NAOS, the leakage current density at a gate bias voltage of −1 V decreases by about two orders of magnitude from 1.868 × 10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2}. This leakage current density was further reduced by post-metallization annealing (PMA) at 250 °C for 10 min in a 5 vol.% hydrogen atmosphere, eventually reaching a level (5.2 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) approximately three orders of magnitude less than the as-grown SiO{sub 2} layer. This improvement is attributed to a decrease in the concentration of suboxide species (Si{sup 1+}, Si{sup 2+} and Si{sup 3+}) in the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface, as well as a decrease in the equilibrium density of defect sites (N{sub d}) and fixed charge density (N{sub f}). The barrier height (Φ{sub t}) generated by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism also increased from 0.205 to 0.371 eV after NAOS and PMA. The decrease in leakage current density is therefore attributed to a densification of the SiO{sub 2} layer in combination with the removal of OH species and increase in interfacial properties at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  6. Highly flexible sub-1 nm tungsten oxide nanobelts as efficient desulfurization catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Liu, Huiling; Xu, Biao; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Ultrathin tungsten oxide nanobelts are successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. Sub-1 nm thickness and hydrophobic surface property endow the nanobelts with flexibility, viscosity, gelation, and good catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ellipsometry measurements of thickness of oxide and water layers on spherical and flat silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Netterfield, R.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Ellipsometry has been used to measure the thickness of oxide layers on single crystal silicon surfaces, both flat and spherical and also to measure the extent of adsorption of moisture on the surface as a function of partial water vapour pressure. The measurements form part of an international collaborative project to make a precise determination of the Avogadro constant (ΔN A /N A -8 ) which will then be used to obtain an absolute definition of the kilogram, rather than one in terms of an artefact. Typically the native oxide layer on a cleaned silicon wafer is about 2 nm thick. On a polished sphere this oxide layer is typically 8 to 10 nm thick, the increased thickness being attributed to parameters related to the polishing process. Ellipsometry measurements on an 89 mm diameter polished silicon sphere at both VUW and CSIRO indicated a SiO 2 layer at 7 to 10 nm thick. It was observed that this thickness varied regularly. The crystal orientation of the sphere was determined using electron patterns generated from an electron microscope and the oxide layer was then measured through 180 arcs of great circles along (110) and (100) planes. It was observed that the thickness varied systematically with orientation. The minimum thickness was 7.4 nm at the axis (softest direction in silicon) and the greatest thickness was 9.5 nm at the axis (hardest direction in silicon). This is similar to an orientation dependent cubic pattern which has been observed to be superimposed on polished silicon spheres. At VUW, the sphere was placed in an evacuated bell jar and the ellipsometry signal was observed as the water vapour pressure was progressively increased up to saturation. The amount of water vapour adsorbed at saturation was one or two monolayers, indicating that the sphere does not wet

  8. Impact of oxide thickness on SEGR failure in vertical power MOSFETs: Development of a semi-empirical expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J.L.; Wheatley, C.F.; Burton, D.I.; Mouret, I.; Allenspach, M.; Brews, J.; Schrimpf, R.; Galloway, K.; Pease, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that the gate oxide thickness (T ox ) plays on the gate and drain failure threshold voltages required to induce the onset of single-event gate rupture (SEGR). The impact of gate oxide thickness on SEGR is experimentally determined from vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) having identical process and design parameters, except for the gate oxide thickness. Power MOSFETs from five variants were specially fabricated with nominal gate oxide thicknesses of 30, 50, 70, 100, and 150 nm. Devices from each variant were characterized to mono-energetic ion beams of Nickel, Bromine, Iodine, and Gold, Employing different bias conditions, failure thresholds for the onset of SEGR were determined for each oxide thickness. Applying these experimental test results, the previously published empirical expression is extended to include the effects of gate oxide thickness. In addition, observations of ion angle, temperature, cell geometry, channel conductivity, and curvature at high drain voltages are briefly discussed

  9. Effect of coating thickness of iron oxide nanoparticles on their relaxivity in the MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Hajesmaeelzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Iron oxide nanoparticles have found prevalent applications in various fields including drug delivery, cell separation and as contrast agents. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles allow researchers and clinicians to enhance the tissue contrast of an area of interest by increasing the relaxation rate of water. In this study, we evaluate the dependency of hydrodynamic size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with Polyethylene  glycol (PEG on their relativities with 3 Tesla clinical MRI. Materials and Methods: We used three groups of nanoparticles with nominal sizes 20, 50 and 100 nm with a core size of 8.86 nm, 8.69 nm and 10.4 nm that they were covered with PEG 300 and 600 Da. A clinical magnetic resonance scanner determines the T1 and T2 relaxation times for various concentrations of PEG-coated nanoparticles. Results: The size measurement by photon correlation spectroscopy showed the hydrodynamic sizes of MNPs with nominal 20, 50 and 100 nm with 70, 82 and 116 nm for particles with PEG 600 coating and 74, 93 and 100 nm for  particles with PEG 300 coating, respectively. We foud that the relaxivity decreased with increasing overall particle size (via coating thickness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that by increasing the size of the nanoparticles, r2/r1 increases linearly. Conclusion: According to the data obtained from this study it can be concluded that increments in coating thickness have more influence on relaxivities compared to the changes in core size of magnetic nanoparticles.

  10. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S. [Thin Film Nano Tech. Lab., Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Taiwan (China); Tien, T.-C. [Material Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 310, Taiwan (China); Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO{sub x}) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO{sub x} metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x} structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO{sub x} nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO{sub x} nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of {approx}2 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO{sub x} nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-}5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-} 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO{sub x} nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} and 2 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10{sup 6} cycles and good retention of 10{sup 4} s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of {+-} 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO{sub x} nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  11. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S.; Tien, T.-C.; Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO x ) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO x metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO x nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO x nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of ∼2 x 10 12 /cm 2 have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO x nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ± 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO x nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO x nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10 13 /cm 2 and 2 x 10 13 /cm 2 , respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO x nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10 6 cycles and good retention of 10 4 s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of ± 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO x nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO x nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  12. Influence of ultra-thin TiN thickness (1.4 nm and 2.4 nm) on positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) of high-k/metal gate nMOSFETs with gate-last process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Lu-Wei; Yang Hong; Ren Shang-Qing; Xu Ye-Feng; Luo Wei-Chun; Xu Hao; Wang Yan-Rong; Tang Bo; Wang Wen-Wu; Yan Jiang; Zhu Hui-Long; Zhao Chao; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) degradations of high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) nMOSFETs with thin TiN capping layers (1.4 nm and 2.4 nm) are systemically investigated. In this paper, the trap energy distribution in gate stack during PBTI stress is extracted by using ramped recovery stress, and the temperature dependences of PBTI (90 °C, 125 °C, 160 °C) are studied and activation energy (E a ) values (0.13 eV and 0.15 eV) are extracted. Although the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) values of two TiN thickness values are almost similar (0.85 nm and 0.87 nm), the 2.4-nm TiN one (thicker TiN capping layer) shows better PBTI reliability (13.41% at 0.9 V, 90 °C, 1000 s). This is due to the better interfacial layer/high-k (IL/HK) interface, and HK bulk states exhibited through extracting activation energy and trap energy distribution in the high-k layer. (paper)

  13. Dependence of the optical constants and the performance in the SPREE gas measurement on the thickness of doped tin oxide over coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.; Hertwig, A.; Beck, U.; Negendank, D.; Lohse, V.; Kormunda, M.; Esser, N.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, thickness related changes of the optical properties of doped tin oxide were studied. Two different sets of samples were prepared. The first set was doped with iron or nickel on silicon substrate with thicknesses of 29-56 nm, the second was iron doped on gold/glass substrate with 1.6-6.3 nm. The optical constants were determined by using spectral ellipsometry (SE) followed by modelling of the dielectric function with an oscillator model using Gaussian peaks. The analysis of the optical constants shows a dependence of the refraction and the absorption on the thickness of the doped tin oxide coating. In addition to the tin oxide absorption in the UV, one additional absorption peak was found in the near-IR/red which is related to plasmonic effects due to the doping. This peak shifts from the near-IR to the red part of the visible spectrum and becomes stronger by reducing the thickness, probably due to the formation of metal nanoparticles in this layer. These results were found for two different sets of samples by using the same optical model. Afterwards the second sample set was tested in the Surface Plasmon Resonance Enhanced Ellipsometric (SPREE) gas measurement with CO gas. It was found that the thickness has significant influence on the sensitivity and thus the adsorption of the CO gas. By increasing the thickness from 1.6 nm to 5.1 nm, the sensing ability is enhanced due to a higher coverage of the surface with the over coating. This is explained by the high affinity of CO molecules to the incorporated Fe-nanoparticles in the tin oxide coating. By increasing the thickness further to 6.3 nm, the sensing ability drops because the layer disturbs the SPR sensing effect too much.

  14. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonka, Lukas; Kubart, Tomas; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Abedin, Ahmad; Hellström, Per-Erik; Östling, Mikael; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-03-01

    The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleation-controlled for Ni thicknesses <5 nm<5 nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness

  15. Thickness measurement of SiO2 films thinner than 1 nm by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong Kim, Kyung; Park, Ki Tae; Lee, Jong Wan

    2006-01-01

    The thickness measurement of ultra-thin SiO 2 films thinner than 1 nm was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amorphous SiO 2 thin films were grown on amorphous Si films to avoid the thickness difference due to the crystalline structure of a substrate. SiO 2 thin films were grown by ion beam sputter deposition under oxygen gas flow and the thickness was measured by in situ XPS. The attenuation length was determined experimentally by a SiO 2 film with a known thickness. The straight line fit between the measured thickness using XPS and the nominal thickness showed a good linear relation with a gradient of 0.969 and a small offset of 0.126 nm. The gradient measured at the range of 3.4-0.28 nm was very close to that measured at sub-nanometer range of 1.13-0.28 nm. This result means that the reliable measurement of SiO 2 film thickness below 1 nm is possible by XPS

  16. Improvement of the effective work function and transmittance of thick indium tin oxide/ultrathin ruthenium doped indium oxide bilayers as transparent conductive oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taweesup, Kattareeya; Yamamoto, Ippei; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Lothongkum, Gobboon; Tsukagoshi, Kazutoshi; Ohishi, Tomoji; Tungasmita, Sukkaneste; Visuttipitukul, Patama; Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium doped indium oxide (In_1_−_xRu_xO_y) films fabricated using DC magnetron co-sputtering with In_2O_3 and Ru targets were investigated for use as transparent conductive oxides. The In_1_−_xRu_xO_y films had an amorphous structure in the wide compositional range of x = 0.3–0.8 and had an extremely smooth surface. The transmittance and resistivity of the In_1_−_xRu_xO_y films increased as the Ru content increased. The transmittance of the In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y film improved to over 80% when the film thickness was less than 5 nm, while the specific resistivity (ρ) was kept to a low value of 1.6 × 10"−"4 Ω cm. Based on these experimental data, we demonstrated that thick indium tin oxide (In_0_._9Sn_0_._1O_y, ITO) (150 nm)/ultrathin In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y (3 nm) bilayers have a high effective work function of 5.3 eV, transmittance of 86%, and low ρ of 9.2 × 10"−"5 Ω cm. This ITO/In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer is a candidate for use as an anode for organic electroluminescent devices. - Highlights: • We investigated characteristics of thick ITO/ultrathin Ru doped In_2O_3 bilayers. • Effect of Ru addition in In_2O_3 results in smooth surface because of an amorphous structure. • The In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y film with less than 5 nm improves to high transmittance over 80%. • ITO/In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer has a high effective work function of 5.3 eV. • We conclude that ITO/ultrathin In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer is a candidate as an anode of OEL.

  17. Structure and corrosion behavior of sputter deposited cerium oxide based coatings with various thickness on Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Huang, Jiamu, E-mail: huangjiamu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Claypool, James B.; Castano, Carlos E. [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); O’Keefe, Matthew J., E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings are deposited on Al 2024-T3 alloys by magnetron sputtering. • The crystal size and internal stress both increased with the thickness of CeO{sub 2} coating. • The ∼210 nm thick coating has the highest adhesion strength to the Al alloy substrate. • The ∼900 nm thick coating increased the corrosion resistance two orders of magnitude. • CeO{sub 2} coatings provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys by acting as physical barriers. - Abstract: Cerium oxide based coatings from ∼100 to ∼1400 nm in thickness were deposited onto Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates by magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% pure CeO{sub 2} target. The crystallite size of CeO{sub 2} coatings increased from 15 nm to 46 nm as the coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼1400 nm. The inhomogeneous lattice strain increased from 0.36% to 0.91% for the ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm thick coatings and slightly decreased to 0.89% for the ∼1400 nm thick coating. The highest adhesion strength to Al alloy substrates was for the ∼210 nm thick coating, due to a continuous film coverage and low internal stress. Electrochemical measurements indicated that sputter deposited crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings acted as physical barriers that provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys in saline solution. The ∼900 nm thick CeO{sub 2} coated sample had the best corrosion performance that increased the corrosion resistance by two orders magnitude and lowered the cathodic current density 30 times compared to bare Al 2024-T3 substrates. The reduced defects and exposed surface, along with suppressed charge mobility, likely accounts for the improved corrosion performance as coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm. The corrosion performance decreased for ∼1400 nm thick coatings due in part to an increase in coating defects and porosity along with a decrease in adhesion strength.

  18. Influence of thickness and coatings morphology in the antimicrobial performance of zinc oxide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, P. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Sampaio, P. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Azevedo, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Vaz, C. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Espinós, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-University of Sevilla, Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Teixeira, V., E-mail: vasco@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Carneiro, J.O., E-mail: carneiro@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    In this research work, the production of undoped and silver (Ag) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films for food-packaging applications were developed. The main goal was to determine the influence of coatings morphology and thickness on the antimicrobial performance of the produced samples. The ZnO based thin films were deposited on PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by means of DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The thin films were characterized by optical spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial performance of the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO thin films was also evaluated. The results attained have shown that all the deposited zinc oxide and Ag-doped ZnO coatings present columnar morphology with V-shaped columns. The increase of ZnO coatings thickness until 200 nm increases the active surface area of the columns. The thinner samples (50 and 100 nm) present a less pronounced antibacterial activity than the thickest ones (200–600 nm). Regarding Ag-doped ZnO thin films, it was verified that increasing the silver content decreases the growth rate of Escherichia coli and decreases the amount of bacteria cells present at the end of the experiment.

  19. Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S; Ogino, T; Shirakashi, J; Takemura, Y

    2008-01-01

    Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution is investigated by optimizing the applied bias voltage (V), scanning speed (S) and the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever (A). We fabricated Si oxide wires with an average width of 9.8 nm (V = 17.5 V, S 250 nm/s, A = 292 nm). In SPM local oxidation with tapping mode operation, it is possible to decrease the size of the water meniscus by enhancing the oscillation amplitude of cantilever. Hence, it seems that the water meniscus with sub-10 nm dimensions could be formed by precisely optimizing the oxidation conditions. Moreover, we quantitatively explain the size (width and height) of Si oxide wires with a model based on the oxidation ratio, which is defined as the oxidation time divided by the period of the cantilever oscillation. The model allows us to understand the mechanism of local oxidation in tapping mode operation with amplitude modulation. The results imply that the sub-10 nm resolution could be achieved using tapping mode SPM local oxidation technique with the optimization of the cantilever dynamics

  20. Characterization of Films with Thickness Less than 10 nm by Sensitivity-Enhanced Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraoka Mikio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a method for characterizing ultrathin films using sensitivity-enhanced atomic force acoustic microscopy, where a concentrated-mass cantilever having a flat tip was used as a sensitive oscillator. Evaluation was aimed at 6-nm-thick and 10-nm-thick diamond-like carbon (DLC films deposited, using different methods, on a hard disk for the effective Young's modulus defined as E/(1 - ν2, where E is the Young's modulus, and ν is the Poisson's ratio. The resonant frequency of the cantilever was affected not only by the film's elasticity but also by the substrate even at an indentation depth of about 0.6 nm. The substrate effect was removed by employing a theoretical formula on the indentation of a layered half-space, together with a hard disk without DLC coating. The moduli of the 6-nm-thick and 10-nm-thick DLC films were 392 and 345 GPa, respectively. The error analysis showed the standard deviation less than 5% in the moduli.

  1. Study on the oxidation and reduction of tungsten surface for sub-50 nm patterning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jhon, Myung S.; Min, Kyung Suk; Kim, Chan Kyu; Jung, Ho Bum; Yeom, Geun Young [Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering and Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of tungsten line pattern during the carbon-based mask-layer removal process using oxygen plasmas have been investigated for sub-50 nm patterning processes, in addition to the reduction characteristics of the WO{sub x} layer formed on the tungsten line surface using hydrogen plasmas. The surface oxidation of tungsten lines during the mask layer removal process could be minimized by using low-temperature (300 K) plasma processing for the removal of the carbon-based material. Using this technique, the thickness of WO{sub x} on the tungsten line could be decreased to 25% compared to results from high-temperature processing. The WO{sub x} layer could also be completely removed at a low temperature of 300 K using a hydrogen plasma by supplying bias power to the tungsten substrate to provide a activation energy for the reduction. When this oxidation and reduction technique was applied to actual 40-nm-CD device processing, the complete removal of WO{sub x} formed on the sidewall of tungsten line could be observed.

  2. Electrical characteristics of AlO sub x N sub y prepared by oxidation of sub-10-nm-thick AlN films for MOS gate dielectric applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, S H; Kim, H S; Noh, D Y; Hwang, H S

    2000-01-01

    In this research, the feasibility of ultrathin AlO sub x N sub y prepared by oxidation of sub 100-A-thick AlN thin films for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate dielectric applications was investigated. Oxidation of 51-A-and 98-A-thick as-deposited AlN at 800 .deg. C was used to form 72-A-and 130-A-thick AlO sub x N sub y , respectively. Based on the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the MOS capacitor, the dielectric constants of 72 A-thick and 130 A-thick Al-oxynitride were 5.15 and 7, respectively. The leakage current of Al-oxynitride at low field was almost the same as that of thermal SiO sub 2. based on the CV data, the interface state density of Al-oxynitride was relatively higher than that of SiO sub 2. Although process optimization is still necessary, the Al-oxynitride exhibits some possibility for future MOS gate dielectric applications.

  3. Electrical characteristics of AlO{sub x}N{sub y} prepared by oxidation of sub-10-nm-thick AlN films for MOS gate dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang Hun; Jang, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Noh, Do Young; Hwang, Hyun Sang [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    In this research, the feasibility of ultrathin AlO{sub x}N{sub y} prepared by oxidation of sub 100-A-thick AlN thin films for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate dielectric applications was investigated. Oxidation of 51-A-and 98-A-thick as-deposited AlN at 800 .deg. C was used to form 72-A-and 130-A-thick AlO{sub x}N{sub y}, respectively. Based on the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the MOS capacitor, the dielectric constants of 72 A-thick and 130 A-thick Al-oxynitride were 5.15 and 7, respectively. The leakage current of Al-oxynitride at low field was almost the same as that of thermal SiO{sub 2}. based on the CV data, the interface state density of Al-oxynitride was relatively higher than that of SiO{sub 2}. Although process optimization is still necessary, the Al-oxynitride exhibits some possibility for future MOS gate dielectric applications.

  4. Large-scale freestanding nanometer-thick graphite pellicles for mass production of nanodevices beyond 10 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul-Gi; Shin, Dong-Wook; Kim, Taesung; Kim, Sooyoung; Lee, Jung Hun; Lee, Chang Gu; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Lee, Sungjoo; Cho, Sang Jin; Jeon, Hwan Chul; Kim, Mun Ja; Kim, Byung-Gook; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2015-09-21

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) has received much attention in the semiconductor industry as a promising candidate to extend dimensional scaling beyond 10 nm. We present a new pellicle material, nanometer-thick graphite film (NGF), which shows an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) transmission of 92% at a thickness of 18 nm. The maximum temperature induced by laser irradiation (λ = 800 nm) of 9.9 W cm(-2) was 267 °C, due to the high thermal conductivity of the NGF. The freestanding NGF was found to be chemically stable during annealing at 500 °C in a hydrogen environment. A 50 × 50 mm large area freestanding NGF was fabricated using the wet and dry transfer (WaDT) method. The NGF can be used as an EUVL pellicle for the mass production of nanodevices beyond 10 nm.

  5. Thick-film effects in the oxidation and hydriding of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    One of the fundamental discoveries involving radiation effects on the oxidation of Zircaloy in low-oxygen aqueous environments is the influence of thick oxide films. Zircaloy oxidation rates in low-oxygen (hydrogen-rich) coolants initially proceed at relatively low rates, often almost uninfluenced by radiation. Marked upturns in oxidation rate have signaled the onset of radiation effects. The radiation effects appear to correlate with a threshold oxide thickness. Results of the test reactor experiments lead to formulation of the Thick-Film Hypothesis: beyond a threshold oxide thickness, radiolysis of water that infiltrates oxide cracks and pores controls the oxidation rate; radiation creates microenvironments inside the oxide film, producing highly oxidizing conditions, that are no longer suppressed by the coolant-borne hydrogen. Upturns in oxidation rate on high-exposure Zircaloy pressure tubes add confirmatory evidence for the thick-film effect. This paper summarizes the early evidence for thick-film behavior, including oxidation and hydriding trends, updates confirmatory evidence from Zircaloy reactor and fuel assembly components, and highlights other observations from the test reactor series that have potential fundamental significance to explanations of radiation effects on Zircaloy. 23 refs., 10 figs

  6. Preparation and spectroscopic analysis of zinc oxide nanorod thin films of different thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Nasrul Haque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide thin films with different thicknesses were prepared on microscopic glass slides by sol-gel spin coating method, then hydrothermal process was applied to produce zinc oxide nanorod arrays. The nanorod thin films were characterized by various spectroscopic methods of analysis. From the images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, it was observed that for the film thickness up to 200 nm the formed nanorods with wurtzite hexagonal structure were uniformly distributed over the entire surface substrate. From X-ray diffraction analysis it was revealed that the thin films had good polycrystalline nature with highly preferred c-axis orientation along (0 0 2 plane. The optical characterization done by UV-Vis spectrometer showed that all the films had high transparency of 83 % to 96 % in the visible region and sharp cut off at ultraviolet region of electromagnetic spectrum. The band gap of the films decreased as their thickness increased. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed the presence of zinc and oxygen elements in the films and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed the chemical composition of ZnO in the film.

  7. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  8. Thermal Oxidation of Structured Silicon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Hansen, Ole; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    The topography of thermally oxidized, structured silicon dioxide is investigated through simulations, atomic force microscopy, and a proposed analytical model. A 357 nm thick oxide is structured by removing regions of the oxide in a masked etch with either reactive ion etching or hydrofluoric acid....... Subsequent thermal oxidation is performed in both dry and wet ambients in the temperature range 950◦C to 1100◦C growing a 205 ± 12 nm thick oxide in the etched mask windows. Lifting of the original oxide near the edge of the mask in the range 6 nm to 37 nm is seen with increased lifting for increasing...

  9. Changes in Macular Retinal Layers and Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness after 577-nm Pattern Scanning Laser in Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji Soo; Lee, Young Hoon

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in thickness of each macular retinal layer, the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and central macular thickness (CMT) after 577-nm pattern scanning laser (PASCAL) photocoagulation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. This retrospective study included 33 eyes with diabetic retinopathy that underwent 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation. Each retinal layer thickness, peripapillary RNFL thickness, and CMT were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation, as well as at 1, 6, and 12 months after 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation. Computerized intraretinal segmentation of optical coherence tomography was performed to identify the thickness of each retinal layer. The average thickness of the RNFL, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner retinal layer, and CMT at each follow-up increased significantly from baseline (p 0.05). Each macular retinal layer and CMT had a tendency to increase for one year after 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation, whereas the average thickness of retinal pigment epithelium decreased at one-year follow-up compared to the baseline. Although an increase in peripapillary RNFL thickness was observed one month after 577-nm PASCAL photocoagulation, there were no significant changes at the one-year follow-up compared to the baseline. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  10. Room temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanotubes with high precision wall thickness by electroless deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Boehme

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive nanotubes consisting of indium tin oxide (ITO were fabricated by electroless deposition using ion track etched polycarbonate templates. To produce nanotubes (NTs with thin walls and small surface roughness, the tubes were generated by a multi-step procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below yields open end nanotubes with well defined outer diameter and wall thickness. In the past, zinc oxide films were mostly preferred and were synthesized using electroless deposition based on aqueous solutions. All these methods previously developed, are not adaptable in the case of ITO nanotubes, even with modifications. In the present work, therefore, we investigated the necessary conditions for the growth of ITO-NTs to achieve a wall thickness of around 10 nm. In addition, the effects of pH and reductive concentrations for the formation of ITO-NTs are also discussed.

  11. X-ray diffractometry of 10 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7-x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, Yu.N.; Moldavskaya, L.D.; Parafin, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    We report on some specific features of the X-ray diffraction spectra for ultrathin c-axis-oriented YBCO films. The films were prepared by laser deposition on LaAlO 3 substrates. A DRON-4 powder diffractometer was used to analyze a structure and to measure thickness of the films. We find that this conventional technique can detect the YBCO films as thin as 5 nm. The X-ray interference fringes in the vicinity of the (005) YBCO reflections for the films from 10 to 20 nm thick were clearly visible. The oscillation period of the fringes depends on the thickness of the film and the intensity modulation yields some structural information. The I(-1)/I(+1) fringes intensity ratio was found to be sensitive to the type of atomic layer at the top and bottom of YBCO film [ru

  12. Adhesion-enhanced thick copper film deposition on aluminum oxide by an ion-beam-mixed Al seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Jae-Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a highly-adherent 30-μm Cu conductive-path coating on an aluminum-oxide layer anodized on an aluminum-alloy substrate for a metal-printed circuit-board application. A 50-nm Al layer was first coated with an e-beam evaporative deposition method on the anodized oxide, followed by ion bombardment to mix the interfacial region. Subsequently, a Cu coating was deposited onto the mixed seed layer to the designed thickness. Adhesions of the interface were tested by using tape adhesion test, and pull-off tests and showed commercially acceptable adhesions for such thick coating layers. The ion beam mixing (IBM) plays the role of fastening the thin seed coating layer to the substrate and enhancing the adhesion of the Cu conductive path on the anodized aluminum surface.

  13. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao, E-mail: yxzheng@fudan.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures, Ministry of Education, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-11-10

    A series of SiO{sub 2} films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO{sub 2} films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO{sub 2}. For the thin films deposited at the rate of {approx}1.0 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from {approx}60 to {approx}10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below {approx}10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of {approx}0.4 and {approx}0.2 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  14. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao

    2010-01-01

    A series of SiO 2 films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO 2 films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO 2 . For the thin films deposited at the rate of ∼1.0 nm s -1 , the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from ∼60 to ∼10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below ∼10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of ∼0.4 and ∼0.2 nm s -1 , the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  15. The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evertsson, J., E-mail: jonas.evertsson@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bertram, F. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, F. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rullik, L.; Merte, L.R.; Shipilin, M. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Soldemo, M.; Ahmadi, S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Vinogradov, N.; Carlà, F. [ESRF, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weissenrieder, J.; Göthelid, M. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Pan, J. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Mikkelsen, A. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, J.-O. [Sapa Technology, Kanalgatan 1, 612 31 Finspång (Sweden); Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We have determined the native oxide film thickness on several Al samples. • The results obtained from XRR and XPS show excellent agreement. • The results obtained from EIS show consistently thinner oxide films. • The oxides on the alloys are thicker than the oxides on the single crystals. - Abstract: We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liquid water conditions. The results obtained using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate good agreement. However, the oxide thicknesses determined from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a larger discrepancy from the above two methods. In the present contribution the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We also address the effect of the substrate type and the presence of water on the resultant oxide thickness.

  16. STRUCTURAL, PHOTO-FUNCTIONAL AND SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES OF COPPER OXIDE THIN FILMS PREPARED BY DC REACTIVE METHOD UNDER VARIOUS THICKNESSES Anmar H. Shukur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar H. Shukur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O has been formed on glass substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering method, whereas pure target of the solid copper was sputtered with a mixture of plasma for argon gas and oxygen gas was used to form these films. Under vacuum chamber pressure of 1.2×10-5 Pa, thin film thickness was changed from 100 nm to 300 nm while other deposition parameters were fixed. The influence of changing the thickness of thin films on the electrical and the optical properties was investigated in this study. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray Diffractions system XRD, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, hall effect measurement system, UV–VIS spectrophotometer were employed to determine the characteristic of the deposited thin films. Thin film of 200 nm has observed low resistivity of 60.63 Ω cm and direct band gap of 2.5eV. This study has demonstrated that the thickness has direct influence on electrical and optical properties.

  17. Effect of thermal processing on silver thin films of varying thickness deposited on zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Ngo, A. T.; Alford, T. L.; Iyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 deg. C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory

  18. The Thickness Dependence of Optical Constants of Ultrathin Iron Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shang; Lian Jie; Wang Xiao; Li Ping; Sun Xiao-Fen; Li Qing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses from 7.1 to 51.7 nm are deposited by magnetron sputtering and covered by tantalum layers protecting them from being oxidized. These ultrathin iron films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurement. An extra tantalum film is deposited under the same sputtering conditions and its optical constants and film thickness are obtained by a combination of ellipsometry and transmission measurement. After introducing these obtained optical constants and film thickness into the tantalum-iron film, the optical constants and film thicknesses of ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses are obtained. The results show that combining ellipsometry and transmission measurement improves the uniqueness of the obtained film thickness. The optical constants of ultrathin iron films depend strongly on film thicknesses. There is a broad absorption peak at about 370 nm and it shifts to 410 nm with film thickness decreasing

  19. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  20. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  1. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  2. Thickness effect of ultra-thin Ta2O5 resistance switching layer in 28 nm-diameter memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Hyung; Song, Seul Ji; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Soo Gil; Chung, Suock; Kim, Beom Yong; Lee, Kee Jeung; Kim, Kyung Min; Choi, Byung Joon; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-11-01

    Resistance switching (RS) devices with ultra-thin Ta2O5 switching layer (0.5-2.0 nm) with a cell diameter of 28 nm were fabricated. The performance of the devices was tested by voltage-driven current—voltage (I-V) sweep and closed-loop pulse switching (CLPS) tests. A Ta layer was placed beneath the Ta2O5 switching layer to act as an oxygen vacancy reservoir. The device with the smallest Ta2O5 thickness (0.5 nm) showed normal switching properties with gradual change in resistance in I-V sweep or CLPS and high reliability. By contrast, other devices with higher Ta2O5 thickness (1.0-2.0 nm) showed abrupt switching with several abnormal behaviours, degraded resistance distribution, especially in high resistance state, and much lower reliability performance. A single conical or hour-glass shaped double conical conducting filament shape was conceived to explain these behavioural differences that depended on the Ta2O5 switching layer thickness. Loss of oxygen via lateral diffusion to the encapsulating Si3N4/SiO2 layer was suggested as the main degradation mechanism for reliability, and a method to improve reliability was also proposed.

  3. A comparison of oxide thickness predictability from the perspective of codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo-Young; Shin, Hye-In; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Han, Hee-Tak; Kim, Hong-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hwan [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, OPR1000 and Westinghouse type nuclear power plant reactor fuel rods oxide thickness has been evaluated by imported code A. Because of this, there have been multiple constraints in operation and maintenance of fuel rod design system. For this reason, there has been a growing demand to establish an independent fuel rod design system. To meet this goal, KNF has recently developed its own code B for fuel rod design. The objective of this study is to compare oxide thickness prediction performance between code A and code B and to check the validity of predicting corrosion behaviors of newly developed code B. This study is based on Pool Side Examination (PSE) data for the performance confirmation. For the examination procedures, the oxide thickness measurement methods and equipment of PSE are described in detail. In this study, code B is confirmed conservatism and validity on evaluating cladding oxide thickness through the comparison with code A. Code prediction values show higher value than measured data from PSE. Throughout this study, the values by code B are evaluated and proved to be valid in a view point of the oxide thickness evaluation. However, the code B input for prediction has been made by designer's judgment with complex handwork that might be lead to excessive conservative result and ineffective design process with some possibility of errors.

  4. Colloidal titania-silica-iron oxide nanocomposites and the effect from silica thickness on the photocatalytic and bactericidal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanhom, Padtaraporn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Charoenlap, Nisanart [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Tomapatanaget, Boosayarat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Insin, Numpon, E-mail: Numpon.I@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    New types of colloidal multifunctional nanocomposites that combine superparamagnetic character and high photocatalytic activity were synthesized and investigated. The superparamagnetic nanocomposites composed of anatase titania, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles (TSI) were synthesized using thermal decomposition method followed by microemulsion method, without calcination at high temperature. Different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize and confirm the structure of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites showed high photocatalytic activity when used in the photodegradation of methylene blue under irradiation with a black light lamp. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited high antibacterial properties. From our study, the nanocomposites can be useful in various applications such as removal of pollutants with readily separation from the environment using an external magnetic field. These composites could effectively photo-degrade the dye at least three cycles without regeneration. The effects of silica shell thickness on the photocatalytic activity was investigated, and the thickness of 6 nm of the silica interlayer is enough for the inhibition of electron translocation between titania and iron oxide nanoparticles and maintaining the efficiency of photocatalytic activity of titania nanoparticles. - Highlights: • New colloidal nanocomposites of iron oxide-silica-titania were prepared. • The nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activity with magnetic response. • The effects of silica thickness on photocatalytic activity were investigated. • Bactericidal activity of the nanocomposites was demonstrated.

  5. Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation at room and elevated temperature response of pMOS dosimeters with thick gate oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Momčilo M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation response at room and elevated temperature have been studied for radiation sensitive pMOS transistors with gate oxide thickness of 100 and 400 nm, respectively. Their response was followed based on the changes in the threshold voltage shift which was estimated on the basis of transfer characteristics in saturation. The presence of radiation-induced fixed oxide traps and switching traps - which lead to a change in the threshold voltage - was estimated from the sub-threshold I-V curves, using the midgap technique. It was shown that fixed oxide traps have a dominant influence on the change in the threshold voltage shift during gamma-ray irradiation and annealing.

  6. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  7. Rapid optical determination of topological insulator nanoplate thickness and oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of 2D antimony telluride (Sb2Te3 nanoplates in ambient conditions is elucidated. These materials exhibit an anisotropic oxidation mode, and CVD synthesized samples oxidize at a much faster rate than exfoliated samples investigated in previous studies. Optical measurement techniques are introduced to rapidly measure the oxidation modes and thickness of 2D materials. Auger characterization were conducted to confirm that oxygen replaces tellurium as opposed to antimony under ambient conditions. No surface morphology evolution was detected in AFM before and after exposure to air. These techniques were employed to determine the origin of the thickness dependent color change effect in Sb2Te3. It is concluded that this effect is a combination of refractive index change due to oxidation and Fresnel effects.

  8. Micro-length anodic porous niobium oxide for lithium-ion thin film battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Jiyoung; Cha, Gihoon; Choi, Jinsub

    2013-01-01

    The anodization of niobium in an aqueous mixture of H 3 PO 4 and HF in the potential range from 2.5 to 30 V for 2 h at 5 °C was performed, demonstrating that anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of up to 2000 nm, including a surface dissolution layer, can be obtained by controlling the applied potential and composition of the electrolytes. Specifically, surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 800 nm can be prepared in a low electrolyte concentration. The surface dissolution is observed when the concentration ratio of HF (wt.%):H 3 PO 4 (M) was more than 2:1. The discontinuous layers in the niobium oxide film were observed when the thickness was higher than 500 nm, which was ascribed to the large volume expansion of the niobium oxide grown from the niobium metal. The anodic porous niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries in the potential range from 1.2 to 3.0 V at a current density of 7.28 × 10 − 6 A cm −2 . The first discharge capacity of ca. 53 μA h cm − 2 was obtained in 800 nm thick niobium oxide without a surface dissolution layer. - Highlights: ► Anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 2000 nm was obtained. ► Surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film was prepared. ► The niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries

  9. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik

    2015-01-01

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10 −4 Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively

  10. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik, E-mail: dskim87@postech.ac.kr

    2015-03-02

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively.

  11. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwalkar, A.; Grasing, E.; Huang, Z.; Misiolek, W.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 µm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity. PMID:19578471

  12. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwalkar, A; Grasing, E; Van Geertruyden, W; Huang, Z; Misiolek, W Z

    2008-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 microm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity.

  13. Leaping shampoo glides on a 500-nm-thick lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erqiang; Lee, Sanghyun; Marston, Jeremy; Bonito, Andrea; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2013-11-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer [Lee et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 061001 (2013)]. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine micro-bubbles. The resulting micro-bubble sizes suggest that the thickness of this air layer is around 500 nm. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding, with the shear stress within the thin air layer sufficient for the observed deceleration. Particle tracking within the jet shows uniform velocity, with no pronounced shear, which would be required for shear-thinning effects. The role of the surfactant may primarily be to stabilize the air film.

  14. Direct Synthesis of 7 nm Thick Zinc(II)-Benzimidazole-Acetate Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Feng; Kumar, Prashant; Xu, Wenqian; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2018-01-09

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising candidates for high performance gas sepa-ration membranes. Currently, MOF nanosheets are mostly fabricated through delamination of layered MOFs, which often re-sults in a low yield of intact free-standing nanosheets. In this work, we present a direct synthesis method for zinc(II)-benzimidazole-acetate (Zn(Bim)OAc) MOF nanosheets. The obtained nanosheets have a lateral dimension of 600 nm when synthesized at room temperature. By adjusting the synthesis temperature, the morphology of obtained nanosheets can be readily tuned from nanosheets to nanobelts. A thickness of 7 nm is determined for Zn(Bim)OAc using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, which makes these nanosheets promising building blocks of gas sepa-ration membranes.

  15. Ultra-low power thin film transistors with gate oxide formed by nitric acid oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Kim, W. B.; Matsumoto, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a low temperature fabrication method of SiO 2 /Si structure by use of nitric acid, i.e., nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method, and applied it to thin film transistors (TFT). A silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) layer formed by the NAOS method at room temperature possesses 1.8 nm thickness, and its leakage current density is as low as that of thermally grown SiO 2 layer with the same thickness formed at ∼900 deg C. The fabricated TFTs possess an ultra-thin NAOS SiO 2 /CVD SiO 2 stack gate dielectric structure. The ultrathin NAOS SiO 2 layer effectively blocks a gate leakage current, and thus, the thickness of the gate oxide layer can be decreased from 80 to 20 nm. The thin gate oxide layer enables to decrease the operation voltage to 2 V (cf. the conventional operation voltage of TFTs with 80 nm gate oxide: 12 V) because of the low threshold voltages, i.e., -0.5 V for P-ch TFTs and 0.5 V for N-ch TFTs, and thus the consumed power decreases to 1/36 of that of the conventional TFTs. The drain current increases rapidly with the gate voltage, and the sub-threshold voltage is ∼80 mV/dec. The low sub-threshold swing is attributable to the thin gate oxide thickness and low interface state density of the NAOS SiO 2 layer. (authors)

  16. Effect of the thickness and hydrogen treatment on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lim, Jinhyong; Bang, Jungsik; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2008-01-01

    Combined effects of the thickness and hydrogen post-annealing treatment on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were investigated as a potential substitute for indium tin oxide transparent conductive oxide. In the as-deposited films, microstructural evolution initially improved the crystallinity up to the thickness of 160 nm accompanying enhanced electrical and optical properties, but further thickness increase resulted in the deterioration of these properties attributable to the development of ZnGa 2 O 4 and Ga 2 O 3 phases originating from the excessive amount of the Ga dopant. Post-annealing treatment of the GZO films in a hydrogen atmosphere improved the electrical and optical properties substantially through possible reduction of the oxide phases and passivation of the surfaces and grain boundaries. In this case, electrical and optical properties remained almost similar for the thickness above 160 nm indicating that there exists a certain optimal film thickness.

  17. Lg = 100 nm In0.7Ga0.3As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, D.; Kwon, H. M.; Kim, T.-W.; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D.; Kim, D.-H.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Maszara, W.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al 2 O 3 and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO 2 bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In 0.7 Ga 0.3 As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO 2 dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100 mV/dec, and a transconductance (g m,max ) of 1.1 mS/μm, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7 nm technology node and/or beyond

  18. Effect of Al2O3 insulator thickness on the structural integrity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide based thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Hwang, In-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2014-12-01

    The current transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) technology provides flexibility and high performance. In this study, multi-stack nano-layers of TOSs were designed for three-dimensional analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) based thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, the effects of torsional and compressive stresses on the nano-sized active layers such as the a-IGZO layer were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the structural integrity of a-IGZO based TFTs with three different thicknesses of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) insulator (δ = 10, 20, and 30 nm), respectively, using a commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are graphically depicted for operating conditions.

  19. Oxide thickness measurement for monitoring fuel performance at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, M.A.; Van Swam, L.F.P.; Brueck-Neufeld, K.

    1991-01-01

    For on-site monitoring of the fuel performance at high burnup, Advanced Nuclear Fuels uses the linear scan eddy current method to determine the oxide thickness of irradiated Zircaloy fuel cans. Direct digital data acquisition methods are employed to collect the data on magnetic storage media. This field-proven methodology allows oxide thickness measurements and rapid interpretation of the data during the reactor outages and makes it possible to immediately reinsert the assemblies for the next operating cycle. The accuracy of the poolside measurements and data acquisition/interpretation techniques have been verified through hot cell metallographic measurements of rods previously measured in the fuel pool. The accumulated data provide a valuable database against which oxide growth models have been benchmarked and allow for effective monitoring of fuel performance. (orig.) [de

  20. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-01-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta 2 O 5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta 2 O 5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta 2 O 5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta 2 O 5 . This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices. (orig.)

  1. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-09-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta2O5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta2O5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta2O5. This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices.

  2. High-performance micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum [WCUHybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Hae-Weon [High Temperature Energy Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-22

    Micro-solid oxide fuel cells ({mu}-SOFCs) are fabricated on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with a cell structure composed of a 600-nm-thick AAO free-standing membrane embedded on a Si substrate, sputter-deposited Pt electrodes (cathode and anode) and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Initially, the open circuit voltages (OCVs) of the AAO-supported {mu}-SOFCs are in the range of 0.05 V to 0.78 V, which is much lower than the ideal value, depending on the average pore size of the AAO template and the thickness of the YSZ electrolyte. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals the formation of pinholes in the electrolyte layer that originate from the porous nature of the underlying AAO membrane. In order to clog these pinholes, a 20-nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of the 300-nm thick YSZ layer and another 600-nm thick YSZ layer is deposited after removing the top intermittent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. Fuel cell devices fabricated in this way manifest OCVs of 1.02 V, and a maximum power density of 350 mW cm{sup -2} at 500 C. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Indium-Nitrogen Codoped Zinc Oxide Thin Film Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis on n-(111 Si Substrate: The Effect of Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-nitrogen codoped zinc oxide (INZO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition technique on n-(111 Si substrate with different film thicknesses at 450°C using a precursor containing zinc acetate, ammonium acetate, and indium nitrate with 1 : 3 : 0.05 at.% concentration. The morphology and structure studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The grain size of the films increased when increasing the film thickness. From XRD spectra, polycrystalline ZnO structure can be observed and the preferred orientation behavior varied from (002 to (101 as the film thickness increased. The concentration and mobility were investigated by Hall effect measurement. the p-type films with a hole mobility around 3 cm2V−1s−1 and hole concentration around 3×1019 cm−3 can be achieved with film thickness less than 385 nm. The n-type conduction with concentration 1×1020 cm−3 is observed for film with thickness 1089 nm. The defect states were characterized by photoluminescence. With temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, acceptor state with activation energy 0.139 eV dominate the p type conduction for thin INZO film. And the Zn-related shallow donors with activation energy 0.029 eV dominate the n-type conduction for the thick INZO film.

  4. Thickness-Dependent Bioelectrochemical and Energy Applications of Thickness-Controlled Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mieritz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO enable interfacing adsorbed species, such as biomacromolecules, with an electronic circuit. The coating thickness is a limiting factor for the surface coverage of adsorbates, that are electrochemically addressable. To overcome this challenge, a carbon black-based templating method was developed by studying the composition of the template system, and finding the right conditions for self-standing templates, preventing the reaction mixture from flowing out of the mask. The thicknesses of as-fabricated coatings were measured using stylus profilometry to establish a relationship between the mask thickness and the coating thickness. Cyclic voltammetry was performed on coatings with adsorbed cytochrome c to check whether the entire coating thickness was electrochemically addressable. Further, bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers were incorporated into the coatings, and photocurrent with respect to coating thickness was studied. The template mixture required enough of both carbon black and polymer, roughly 7% carbon black and 6% poly(ethylene glycol. Coatings were fabricated with thicknesses approaching 30 µm, and thickness was shown to be controllable up to at least 15 µm. Under the experimental conditions, photocurrent was found to increase linearly with the coating thickness, up to around 12 µm, above which were diminished gains.

  5. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  6. Thickness independent reduced forming voltage in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2} based resistive switching memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Komissinskiy, P.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2014-08-18

    The conducting filament forming voltage of stoichiometric hafnium oxide based resistive switching layers increases linearly with layer thickness. Using strongly reduced oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films grown on polycrystalline TiN/Si(001) substrates, the thickness dependence of the forming voltage is strongly suppressed. Instead, an almost constant forming voltage of about 3 V is observed up to 200 nm layer thickness. This effect suggests that filament formation and switching occurs for all samples in an oxidized HfO{sub 2} surface layer of a few nanometer thickness while the highly oxygen deficient thin film itself merely serves as a oxygen vacancy reservoir.

  7. TiN films by Atomic Layer Deposition: Growth and electrical characterization down to sub-nm thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the growth and characterization of TiN thib films obtained by atomic layer deposition at 350-425 ◦C. We observe a growth of the continuous layers from the very beginning of the process, i.e. for a thickness of 0.65 nm, which is equivalent to 3 monolayers of TiN. The film growth

  8. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  9. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mitch A.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Ashby, Paul D.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Stavsetra, Liv; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-01-01

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  10. Compact polarization beam splitter for silicon photonic integrated circuits with a 340-nm-thick silicon core layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenlei; Dai, Daoxin

    2017-11-01

    A polarization beam splitter (PBS) is proposed and realized for silicon photonic integrated circuits with a 340-nm-thick silicon core layer by introducing an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC), which consists of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire and a subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide. The SWG is introduced to provide an optical waveguide which has much higher birefringence than a regular 340-nm-thick SOI nanowire, so that it is possible to make the phase-matching condition satisfied for TE polarization only in the present design when the waveguide dimensions are optimized. Meanwhile, there is a significant phase mismatching for TM polarization automatically. In this way, the present ADC enables strong polarization selectivity to realize a PBS that separates TE and TM polarizations to the cross and through ports, respectively. The realized PBS has a length of ∼2  μm for the coupling region. For the fabricated PBS, the extinction ratio (ER) is 15-30 dB and the excess loss is 0.2-2.6 dB for TE polarization while the ER is 20-27 dB and the excess loss is 0.3-2.8 dB for TM polarization when operating in the wavelength range of 1520-1580 nm.

  11. The effect of oxide shell thickness on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of Si-SiO{sub 2} core-shell nano-crystals: A (time dependent)density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazemi, Sanaz, E-mail: s.nazemi@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir; Soleimani, Ebrahim Asl [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: s.nazemi@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Microelectronics, Technische Universität Wien, Wien A-1040 (Austria); Kosina, Hans [Institute for Microelectronics, Technische Universität Wien, Wien A-1040 (Austria)

    2016-04-14

    Due to their tunable properties, silicon nano-crystals (NC) are currently being investigated. Quantum confinement can generally be employed for size-dependent band-gap tuning at dimensions smaller than the Bohr radius (∼5 nm for silicon). At the nano-meter scale, however, increased surface-to-volume ratio makes the surface effects dominant. Specifically, in Si-SiO{sub 2} core-shell semiconductor NCs the interfacial transition layer causes peculiar electronic and optical properties, because of the co-existence of intermediate oxidation states of silicon (Si{sup n+}, n = 0–4). Due to the presence of the many factors involved, a comprehensive understanding of the optical properties of these NCs has not yet been achieved. In this work, Si-SiO{sub 2} NCs with a diameter of 1.1 nm and covered by amorphous oxide shells with thicknesses between 2.5 and 4.75 Å are comprehensively studied, employing density functional theory calculations. It is shown that with increased oxide shell thickness, the low-energy part of the optical transition spectrum of the NC is red shifted and attenuated. Moreover, the absorption coefficient is increased in the high-energy part of the spectrum which corresponds to SiO{sub 2} transitions. Structural examinations indicate a larger compressive stress on the central silicon cluster with a thicker oxide shell. Examination of the local density of states reveals the migration of frontier molecular orbitals from the oxide shell into the silicon core with the increase of silica shell thickness. The optical and electrical properties are explained through the analysis of the density of states and the spatial distribution of silicon sub-oxide species.

  12. Sub-30 nm patterning of molecular resists based on crosslinking through tip based oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Matteo; Wagner, Daniel; Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2018-06-01

    Oxidation Scanning Probe Lithography (o-SPL) is an established method employed for device patterning at the nanometer scale. It represents a feasible and inexpensive alternative to standard lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography (EBL) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). In this work we applied non-contact o-SPL to an engineered class of molecular resists in order to obtain crosslinking by electrochemical driven oxidation. By patterning and developing various resist formulas we were able to obtain a reliable negative tone resist behavior based on local oxidation. Under optimal conditions, directly written patterns can routinely reach sub-30 nm lateral resolution, while the final developed features result wider, approaching 50 nm width.

  13. Structural and interfacial characteristics of thin (2 films grown by electron cyclotron resonance plasma oxidation on [100] Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Carl, D.A.; Hess, D.W.; Lieberman, M.A.; Gronsky, R.

    1991-04-01

    The feasibility of fabricating ultra-thin SiO 2 films on the order of a few nanometer thickness has been demonstrated. SiO 2 thin films of approximately 7 nm thickness have been produced by ion flux-controlled Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma oxidation at low temperature on [100] Si substrates, in reproducible fashion. Electrical measurements of these films indicate that they have characteristics comparable to those of thermally grown oxides. The thickness of the films was determined by ellipsometry, and further confirmed by cross-sectional High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Comparison between the ECR and the thermal oxide films shows that the ECR films are uniform and continuous over at least a few microns in lateral direction, similar to the thermal oxide films grown at comparable thickness. In addition, HRTEM images reveal a thin (1--1.5 nm) crystalline interfacial layer between the ECR film and the [100] substrate. Thinner oxide films of approximately 5 nm thickness have also been attempted, but so far have resulted in nonuniform coverage. Reproducibility at this thickness is difficult to achieve

  14. Probing the diffusion of vacuum ultraviolet ({lambda} = 172 nm) induced oxidants by nanoparticles immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatri, Om P.; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Murase, Kuniaki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugimura, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hiroyuki.sugimura@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-09-30

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, {lambda} = 172 nm) patterning of alkyl monolayer on silicon surface has been demonstrated with emphasis on the diffusion of VUV induced oxygen-derived active species, which are accountable for the pattern broadening. The VUV photons photo-dissociates the atmospheric oxygen and water molecules into the oxygen-derived active species (oxidants). These oxidants photo-oxidize the hexadecyl (HD) monolayer in VUV irradiated regions (Khatri et al., Langmuir. 24 (2008) 12077), as well as the little concentration of oxidants diffuses towards the masked areas. In this study, we performed VUV patterning at a vacuum pressure of 10 Pa to track the diffusion pathways for the oxidants with help of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs; {phi} = 10 nm) immobilization. At VUV irradiated sites AuNPs are found as uniformly distributed, but adjacent to the pattern boundary we observed quasi-linear arrays of AuNPs, which are determined by diffusion pathways of the oxidants. The diffusion of oxidants plays vital role in pattern broadening. The site selective anchoring of AuNPs demonstrates the utility of VUV photons for the construction of functional materials with microstructural architecture.

  15. Measurement of oxide-layer thickness of internal granules in high-purity aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Mahunka, I.

    1989-01-01

    Charged-particle activation analysis was used for the determination of bulk oxygen concentration in aluminium. High-purity aluminium samples and mixtures containing different amounts of alumina were irradiated by 13 MeV 3 He particles. The aim of the investigation was to determine the oxide-layer thickness on the surface of internal aluminium granules. The measurement was carried out by determining the bulk oxygen concentration in the samples, and calculating the oxide-layer thickness, by using model conditions about the microstructure of the aluminium samples. (author) 5 refs

  16. Low temperature solid oxide fuel cells with proton-conducting Y:BaZrO{sub 3} electrolyte on porous anodic aluminum oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seungbum [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of); Su, Pei-Chen [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ji, Sanghoon [Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Suk Won, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the architecture of a nano thin-film yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) solid-oxide fuel cell that uses nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a supporting and gas-permeable substrate. The anode was fabricated by sputtering 300 nm platinum thin film that partially covered the AAO surface pores, followed by an additional conformal platinum coating to tune the pore size by atomic layer deposition. Two different nano-porous anode structures with a pore size of 10 nm or 50 nm were deposited. Proton-conducting BYZ ceramic electrolyte with increasing thicknesses of 300, 600, and 900 nm was deposited on top of the platinum anode by pulsed laser deposition, followed by a 200 nm layer of porous Pt sputtered on BYZ electrolyte as a cathode. The open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cells was characterized at 250 °C with 1:1 volumetric stoichiometry of a methanol/water vapor mixture as the fuel. The OCVs were 0.17 V with a 900 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 50 nm pores and 0.3 V with a 600 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 10 nm pores, respectively, but it increased to 0.8 V for a 900 nm-thick BYZ electrolyte on 10 nm pores, indicating that increasing the film thickness and decreasing a surface pore size help to reduce the number of electrolyte pinholes and the gas leakage through the electrolyte. A maximum power density of 5.6 mW/cm{sup 2} at 250 °C was obtained from the fuel cell with 900 nm of BYZ electrolyte using methanol vapor as a fuel. - Highlights: • A low temperature ceramic fuel cell on nano-porous substrate was demonstrated. • A thin-film yttrium doped barium zirconate (BYZ) was deposited as an electrolyte. • An open circuit voltage (OCV) was measured to verify the BYZ film quality. • An OCV increased by increasing BYZ film thickness and decreasing pore size of anode. • The current–voltage performance was measured using vaporized methanol fuel at 250 °C.

  17. Effect of Thickness on Oxidation Behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 using Arc Ion Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Sun Jin [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ever since the Fukushima accident, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) has been widely studied. To increase the life time and safety of nuclear claddings, there are increasing demands for protective coatings exhibiting excellent oxidation resistance. Many metal and oxide films are produced by using this method because of the high kinetic energy of the ions, ionization efficiency and deposition rate. Candidate materials for a protective layer have higher thermal neutron absorption cross sections than Zr. However, there is no systematic study of thickness effect on oxidation resistance of protective layer. In this study, Cr films with different thickness (from 1 μm to 50 μm) were deposited on the cladding surfaces by AIP. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Cr films with different thicknesses has been investigated. Uniform oxide layer with nanoporous structures have been fabricated on the surface of Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA).

  18. Detection of OH on photolysis of styrene oxide at 193 nm in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Awadhesh; SenGupta, Sumana; Pushpa, K. K.; Naik, P. D.; Bajaj, P. N.

    2006-10-01

    Photodissociation of styrene oxide at 193 nm in gas phase generates OH, as detected by laser-induced fluorescence technique. Under similar conditions, OH was not observed from ethylene and propylene oxides, primarily because of their low absorption cross-sections at 193 nm. Mechanism of OH formation involves first opening of the three-membered ring from the ground electronic state via cleavage of either of two C sbnd O bonds, followed by isomerization to enolic forms of phenylacetaldehyde and acetophenone, and finally scission of the C sbnd OH bond of enols. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations support the proposed mechanism.

  19. Effect of thickness on optoelectrical properties of Nb-doped indium tin oxide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-na; Ma, Rui-xin; Ma, Chun-hong; Li, Dong-ran; Xiao, Yu-qin; He, Liang-wei; Zhu, Hong-min

    2013-05-01

    Niobium-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Nb) thin films are prepared on glass substrates with various film thicknesses by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from one piece of ceramic target material. The effects of thickness (60-360 nm) on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ITO: Nb films are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. XRD patterns show the highly oriented (400) direction. The lowest resistivity of the films without any heat treatment is 3.1×10-4Ω·cm-1, and the resistivity decreases with the increase of substrate temperature. The highest Hall mobility and carrier concentration are 17.6 N·S and 1.36×1021 cm-3, respectively. Band gap energy of the films depends on substrate temperature, which varies from 3.48 eV to 3.62 eV.

  20. Evaluation of the nanomechanical properties of vanadium and native oxide vanadium thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, M.A.; Zhang, K.; Baumgart, H.; Elmustafa, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • V films of 50, 75, 100 nm thickness were deposited on Si by RF magnetron sputtering. • We studied structural/mechanical properties by XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, and nanoindentation. • The hardness increased from 9.0 to 14.0 GPa for 100 to 50 nm. • The modulus showed no correlation with thickness or native oxide formation. • Native oxide formation resulted in grain enlargement and roughness reduction. - Abstract: Polycrystalline vanadium thin films of 50, 75, and 100 nm thickness were deposited by magnetron sputtering of a vanadium metal target of 2 inch diameter with 99.9% purity on native oxide covered Si substrates. One set of the fabricated samples were kept in moisture free environment and the other set was exposed to ambient air at room temperature for a long period of time that resulted in formation of native oxide prior to testing. The crystal structure and phase purity of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results yield a preferential (1 1 0), and (2 0 0) orientation of the polycrystalline V films and (0 0 4) vanadium oxide (V 3 O 7 ). The vanadium films thickness were verified using field emission scanning electron microscopy and the films surface morphologies were inspected using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images reveal surface roughness was observed to increase with increasing film thickness and also subsequent to oxidation at room temperature. The nanomechanical properties were measured by nanoindentation to evaluate the modulus and hardness of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films. The elastic modulus of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium films was estimated as 150 GPa at 30% film thickness and the elastic modulus of the bulk vanadium target is estimated as 135 GPa. The measured hardness of the vanadium films at 30% film thickness varies between 9 and 14 GPa for the 100 and 50 nm films, respectively, exhibiting size effects

  1. A comparison of Zircaloy oxide thicknesses on Millstone-3 and North Anna-1 PWR fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, M.V.; Evans, H.E.

    1993-08-01

    High concentrations of lithium in the coolant may enhance the corrosion rate of Zircaloy fuel cladding. In the present work, oxide thicknesses on fuel cladding from the Millstone 3 PWR were compared with those from the North Anna 1 PWR. The intention was to identify whether the higher lithium levels (up to 3.5 ppM) in the Millstone 3 primary coolant during cycles 2 and 3 led to significantly greater oxidation rates than in North Anna 1 which operated generally with lithium levels lower than 2.2 ppM. The comparisons were made by comparing the measurements with code predictions of Zircaloy oxidation in order to factor out the effect of operational variables on the oxide thicknesses achieved. Overall, Millstone 3 oxide thicknesses were found to be approximately 14% greater than North Anna 1 values. However, approximately 29% lower oxide thicknesses were found on reload Millstone 3 rods exposed to one cycle of elevated lithium chemistry than on Millstone 3 initial fuel exposed to one cycle of normal lithium chemistry during cycle 1. Furthermore, oxide thicknesses on Millstone 3 rods exposed to two cycles of elevated lithium chemistry were approximately 36% lower than on Millstone 3 rods exposed to one cycle of normal lithium chemistry plus one cycle of elevated lithium chemistry. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that elevated lithium operation in Millstone 3 led to enhanced Zircaloy fuel clad corrosion

  2. 60 GHz 5-bit digital controlled phase shifter in a digital 40 nm CMOS technology without ultra-thick metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ying, K.; Matters-Kammerer, M.K.; Harpe, P.; Wang, B.; Liu, B.; Serdijn, W.A.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    A 5-bit digital controlled switch-type passive phase shifter realised in a 40 nm digital CMOS technology without ultra-thick metals for the 60 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band is presented. A patterned shielding with electromagnetic bandgap structure and a stacked metals method to

  3. Damage thresholds of thin film materials and high reflectors at 248 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Carniglia, C.K.; Hart, T.T.; Lichtenstein, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-ns, 248-nm KrF laser pulses were used to measure laser damage thresholds for halfwave-thick layers of 15 oxide and fluoride coating materials, and for high reflectance coatings made with 13 combinations of these materials. The damage thresholds of the reflectors and single-layer films were compared to measurements of several properties of the halfwave-thick films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films were useful for identifying materials for fabrication of damage resistant coatings

  4. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Cr-doped Indium Oxide Thick Film Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Chavan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of In1-xCrxO3 composites, with x ranging from 0.01 to 0.5wt% were prepared by mechanochemically starting from InCl3 and CrO3. Structural and micro structural characteristics of the sample were investigated by XRD, SEM with EDAX. Thick films of pure Indium Oxide and composites were prepared by standard screen printing technique. The gas sensitivity of these thick films was tested for various gases. The pure Indium Oxide thick film (x=0 shows maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapour (80 ppm at 350 oC, but composite-A (x=0.01 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to H2S gas (40 ppm at 250 oC, composite-B (x=0.1 thick film shows higher sensitivity to NH3 gas (80 ppm at 250 oC and composite-C (x=0.5 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to Cl2 gas (80 ppm at 350 oC. A systematic study of gas sensing performance of the sensors indicates the key role played by concentration variation of Cr doped species. The sensitivity, selectivity and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  5. Characterization and corrosion behavior of F6NM stainless steel treated in high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-yang; Cai, Zhen-bing; Yang, Wen-jin; Shen, Xiao-yao; Xue, Guo-hong; Zhu, Min-hao

    2018-03-01

    F6NM martensitic stainless steel was exposed to 350 °C water condition for 500, 1500, and 2500 h to simulate pressurized water reactor (PWR) condition. The characterization and corrosion behavior of the oxide film were investigated. Results indicate that the exposed steel surface formed a double-layer oxide film. The outer oxide film is Fe-rich and contains two type oxide particles. However, the inner oxide film is Cr-rich, and two oxide films, whose thicknesses increase with increasing exposure time. The oxide film reduces the corrosion behavior because the outer oxide film has many crack and pores. Finally, the mechanism and factors affecting the formation of the oxide film were investigated.

  6. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment ...

  7. Effect of shell thickness on the exchange bias blocking temperature and coercivity in Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Reethu, K.; Thanveer, T.; Myint, M. T. Z.; Al-Harthi, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    The exchange bias blocking temperature distribution of naturally oxidized Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles exhibits two distinct signatures. These are associated with the existence of two magnetic entities which are responsible for the temperature dependence of an exchange bias field. One is from the CoO grains which undergo thermally activated magnetization reversal. The other is from the disordered spins at the Co-CoO interface which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. We investigated the oxide shell thickness dependence of the exchange bias effect. For particles with a 3 nm thick CoO shell, the predominant contribution to the temperature dependence of exchange bias is the interfacial spin-glass layer. On increasing the shell thickness to 4 nm, the contribution from the spin-glass layer decreases, while upholding the antiferromagnetic grain contribution. For samples with a 4 nm CoO shell, the exchange bias training was minimal. On the other hand, 3 nm samples exhibited both the training effect and a peak in coercivity at an intermediate set temperature Ta. This is explained using a magnetic core-shell model including disordered spins at the interface.

  8. Oxide thickness measurement technique for duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, R.G.; O'Leary, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP) is investigating the use of duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 tubing to improve the waterside corrosion resistance of cladding for high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel designs. Standard SNP PWR cladding is typically 0.762-mm (0.030-in.)-thick Zircaloy-4. The SNP duplex cladding is nominally 0.660-mm (0.026-in.)-thick Zircalloy-4 with an ∼0.102-mm (0.004-in.) outer layer of another, more corrosion-resistant, zirconium-based alloy. It is common industry practice to monitor the in-reactor corrosion behavior of Zircaloy cladding by using an eddy-current 'lift-off' technique to measure the oxide thickness on the outer surface of the fuel cladding. The test program evaluated three different cladding samples, all with the same outer diameter and wall thickness: Zircaloy-4 and duplex clad types D2 and D4

  9. Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid in Osteoarthritis Patients ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... and moderate phase patients after intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate, while the effect ...

  10. Magnetic properties and microstructure investigation of electrodeposited FeNi/ITO films with different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Derang; Wang, Zhenkun; Feng, Erxi; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates by electrodeposition method. •A columnar crystalline microstructure and domain structure were obtained in FeNi thin films. •Particular FMR spectra of FeNi alloy with different thickness were studied. -- Abstract: FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates from the electrolytes by electrodeposition method have been studied by magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique. For these films possessing an in-plane isotropy, the remanence decreases with the increasing of film thickness and the critical thickness that a stripe domain structure emerges is about 116 nm. Characteristic differences of the FMR spectra of different thickness are also observed. The results show that the resonance field at high measured angle increases firstly then decreases with increasing thickness, which may be related to the striped domain structure

  11. Influence of Ag thickness of aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, No. 949, Dawan Rd., Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ru-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China); Hsiung, Chin-Min; Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highly conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (5-15 nm)/aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm) multilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrate by rf magnetron sputtering (for top/bottom aluminum-doped ZnO films) and e-beam evaporation (for Ag film). The transmittance is more than 70% for wavelengths above 400 nm with the Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. The resistivity is 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm, which can be decreased to 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} {Omega}-cm with the increase of the Ag layer thickness to 15 nm. The Haacke figure of merit has been calculated for the films with the best value being 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}. It was shown that the multilayer thin films have potential for applications in optoelectronics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO Transparent Conducting Oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; E-beam evaporation for Ag film (5-15 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of Ag thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality multilayer film with optimal intermediate Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm resistivity, 91.89% transmittance at 470 nm obtained and reproducible.

  12. Synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters below 5 nm for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huidan; Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Mengying; Yan, Yi; Liu, Yongping; Li, Ming; Yang, Zhishu; Geng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Semiconductor with one dimension (1D) ultrathin nanostructure has been proved to be a promising nanomaterial in photocatalytic field. Great efforts were made on preparation of monoclinic ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires. However, non-monoclinic phase tungsten oxides with 1D ultrathin structure, especially less than 5 nm width, have not been reported. Herein, we report the synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires (U-WOx NW) by modified hydrothermal method. Microstructure characterization showed that U-WOx NW have the diameters of 1-3 nm below 5 nm and are hexagonal phase sub-stoichiometric WOx. U-WOx NW show absorption tail in the visible and near infrared region due to oxygen vacancies. For improving further photocatalytic performance, Ag co-catalyst was grown directly onto U-WOx NW surface by in situ redox reaction. Photocatalytic measurements revealed hexagonal U-WOx NW have better photodegradation activity, compared with commercial WO3(C-WO3) and oxidized U-WOx NW, ascribe to larger surface area, short diffusion length of photo-generated charge carriers and visible absorption of oxygen-vacancy-rich hexagonal ultrathin nanostructures. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity and stability of U-WOx NW using Ag co-catalyst were further improved.

  13. Effects of stress on the oxide layer thickness and post-oxidation creep strain of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Young Ku

    1986-01-01

    Effects of compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and its subsequent relief on oxidation rate and post-oxidation creep characteristics of zircaloy-4 were investigated by oxidation studies in steam with and without applied tensile stress and by creep testing at 700 deg C in high purity argon. The thickness of oxide layer increased with the magnitude of tensile stress applied during oxidation at 650 deg C in steam whereas similar phenomenon was not observed during oxidation at 800 deg C. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C in steam without applied stress exhibited higher creep strain than that shown by unoxidized specimens when creep-tested in argon. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C steam under the applied stress of 8.53MPa and oxidized at 800 deg C under the applied stress of 0 and 8.53MPa exhibited lower strain than that shown by unoxidized specimen. The above experimental results were accounted for on the basis of interactions among applied stress during oxidation, compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and elasticity of zircaloy-4 matrix. (Author)

  14. A direct current potential drop method for evaluating oxide film thickness formed in high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Hideya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Saka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    To establish an evaluation technique for oxide film thickness in-situ, the applicability of a four-point-probe direct current potential drop method is discussed in this study. Several samples of JIS SUS316L stainless steel with different oxide film thickness were prepared after immersing them in oxygenated pure water at 288°C for different periods. The oxide film thickness was measured by cross sectional observation using a transmission electron microscope. Potential drop on the oxide surface was measured every second during an acquisition period of about 20 s while a constant current was being injected into the sample simultaneously. This kind of measurement was repeatedly carried out at several arbitrary contact positions on the surface of the same sample. The measurement results showed that the potential drop slightly changed during the acquisition period and the tendency varied at the different contact positions. Multiple measurements at different contact positions revealed that the tendency could be categorized into two general types: the decreasing potential drop and the increasing potential drop, defined by the overall trend of the potential drop during the acquisition time. It was found that the ratio of contact positions with a decreasing potential drop tendency to all the contact positions of measurement tended to increase as applied current increased. This tendency depended on the oxide film thickness. The threshold value of applied current was found to correlate well with the oxide film thickness when the occurrence rate of decreasing potential drop ranged from 70 to 90% showing the best correlation at 70%. (author)

  15. 100-nm thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents over 10%

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Hanxiao; Ponce, Fernando A.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2017-01-01

    Growing thicker BAlN films while maintaining single-phase wurtzite structure and boron content over 10% has been challenging. In this study, we report on the growth of 100 nm-thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents up to 14.4% by MOCVD. Flow-modulated epitaxy was employed to increase diffusion length of group-III atoms and reduce parasitic reactions between the metalorganics and NH3. A large growth efficiency of ∼2000 μm mol−1 was achieved as a result. Small B/III ratios up to 17% in conjunction with high temperatures up to 1010 °C were utilized to prevent formation of the cubic phase and maintain wurtzite structure.

  16. 100-nm thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents over 10%

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-11

    Growing thicker BAlN films while maintaining single-phase wurtzite structure and boron content over 10% has been challenging. In this study, we report on the growth of 100 nm-thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents up to 14.4% by MOCVD. Flow-modulated epitaxy was employed to increase diffusion length of group-III atoms and reduce parasitic reactions between the metalorganics and NH3. A large growth efficiency of ∼2000 μm mol−1 was achieved as a result. Small B/III ratios up to 17% in conjunction with high temperatures up to 1010 °C were utilized to prevent formation of the cubic phase and maintain wurtzite structure.

  17. Skin color and tissue thickness effects on transmittance, reflectance, and skin temperature when using 635 and 808 nm lasers in low intensity therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Barros, Leanna; Dhaidan, Ghaith; Maunula, Mikko; Solomon, Vaeda; Gabison, Sharon; Lilge, Lothar; Nussbaum, Ethne L

    2018-04-01

    To examine the role of skin color and tissue thickness on transmittance, reflectance, and skin heating using red and infrared laser light. Forty volunteers were measured for skin color and skin-fold thickness at a standardized site near the elbow. Transmittance, reflectance and skin temperature were recorded for energy doses of 2, 6, 9, and 12 Joules using 635 nm (36 mW) and 808 nm (40 mW) wavelength laser diodes with irradiances within American National Standards Institute safety guidelines (4.88 mm diameter, 0.192 W/cm 2 and 4.88 mm diameter, 0.214 W/cm 2 , respectively). The key factors affecting reflectance to an important degree were skin color and wavelength. However, the skin color effects were different for the two wavelengths: reflectance decreased for darker skin with a greater decrease for red light than near infrared light. Transmittance was greater using 808 nm compared with 635 nm. However, the effect was partly lost when the skin was dark rather than light, and was increasingly lost as tissue thickness increased. Dose had an increasing effect on temperature (0.7-1.6°C across the 6, 9, and 12 J doses); any effects of wavelength, skin color, and tissue thickness were insignificant compared to dose effects. Subjects themselves were not aware of the increased skin temperature. Transmittance and reflectance changes as a function of energy were very small and likely of no clinical significance. Absorption did not change with higher energy doses and increasing temperature. Skin color and skin thickness affect transmittance and reflectance of laser light and must be accounted for when selecting energy dose to ensure therapeutic effectiveness at the target tissue. Skin heating appears not to be a concern when using 635 and 808 nm lasers at energy doses of up to 12 J and irradiance within American National Standards Institute standards. Photobiomodulation therapy should never exceed the American National Standards Institute

  18. Influence of interface layer on optical properties of sub-20 nm-thick TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yue-Jie; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Li, Da-Hai; Zhan, Yi-Qiang; Lu, Hong-Liang; Jiang, An-Quan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2018-02-01

    The sub-20 nm ultrathin titanium dioxide (TiO2) films with tunable thickness were deposited on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The structural and optical properties were acquired by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Afterwards, a constructive and effective method of analyzing interfaces by applying two different optical models consisting of air/TiO2/Ti x Si y O2/Si and air/effective TiO2 layer/Si, respectively, was proposed to investigate the influence of interface layer (IL) on the analysis of optical constants and the determination of band gap of TiO2 ultrathin films. It was found that two factors including optical constants and changing components of the nonstoichiometric IL could contribute to the extent of the influence. Furthermore, the investigated TiO2 ultrathin films of 600 ALD cycles were selected and then annealed at the temperature range of 400-900 °C by rapid thermal annealing. Thicker IL and phase transition cause the variation of optical properties of TiO2 films after annealing and a shorter electron relaxation time reveals the strengthened electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the TiO2 ultrathin films at high temperature. The as-obtained results in this paper will play a role in other studies of high dielectric constants materials grown on Si substrates and in the applications of next generation metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  19. Thickness optimization of the ZnO based TCO layer in a CZTSSe solar cell. Evolution of its performance with thickness when external temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadel, Meriem; Moustafa Bouzaki, Mohammed; Chadel, Asma; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene

    2017-07-01

    The influence of the thickness of a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on the performance of the CZTSSe solar cell is shown in detail. In a photovoltaic cell, the thickness of each layer largely influence the performance of the solar cell and optimization of each layer constitutes a complete work. Here, using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulation (SCAPS) software, we present simulation results obtained in the analyze of the influence of the TCO layer thickness on the performance of a CZTSSe solar cell, starting from performance of a CZTSSe solar cell commercialized in 2014 with an initial efficiency equal to 12.6%. In simulation, the temperature was considered as a functioning parameter and the evolution of tthe performance of the cell for various thickness of the TCO layer when the external temperature changes is simulated and discussed. The best efficiency of the solar cell based in CZTSSe is obtained with a ZnO thickness equal to 50 nm and low temperature. Based on the considered marketed cell, we show a technological possible increase of the global efficiency achieving 13% by optimization of ZnO based TCO layer.

  20. Sub-10 nm low current resistive switching behavior in hafnium oxide stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Celano, U.; Xu, Z.; Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Goux, L.; Fantini, A.; Degraeve, R.; Youssef, A.; Jurczak, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Liu, L., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn; Cheng, Y.; Kang, J. [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2016-03-21

    In this letter, a tip-induced cell relying on the conductive atomic force microscope is proposed. It is verified as a referable replica of an integrated resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. On the basis of this cell, the functionality of sub-10 nm resistive switching is confirmed in hafnium oxide stack. Moreover, the low current switching behavior in the sub-10 nm dimension is found to be more pronounced than that of a 50 × 50 nm{sup 2} device. It shows better ON/OFF ratio and low leakage current. The enhanced memory performance is ascribed to a change in the shape of the conductive filament as the device dimensions are reduced to sub-10 nm. Therefore, device downscaling provides a promising approach for the resistance optimization that benefits the RRAM array design.

  1. Sub-50 nm patterning of functional oxides by soft lithographic edge printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    We report a fast, versatile and reproducible method to make arbitrary nanoscale patterns of functional metal oxides by edge transfer printing of aqueous metal-loaded water-soluble polyacrylic acid (PAA) solutions on silicon. Patterns of ZnO, CuO, NiO and Fe2O3 with lateral dimensions below 50 nm

  2. Determination of oxide film thickness on aluminium using 14-MeV neutron activation and BET method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, H.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of the mean film thickness of aluminium oxides by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis of the oxygen and by BET measurement of the surface area. The mean film thickness obtained is independent of the surface roughness. Stable oxide films consisting of only a few atomic layers of oxygen are detected on aluminium. (author)

  3. CANDU fuel sheath integrity and oxide layer thickness determination by Eddy current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, Gabriela; Man, Ion; Parvan, Marcel; Valeca, Serban

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results concerning the integrity assessment of the fuel elements cladding and measurements of the oxide layer on sheaths, using the eddy current technique. Flaw detection using eddy current provides information about the integrity of fuel element sheath or presence of defects in the sheath produced by irradiation. The control equipment consists of a flaw detector with eddy currents, operable in the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 MHz, and a differential probe. The calibration of the flaw detector is done using artificial defects (longitudinal, transversal, external and internal notches, bored and unbored holes) obtained on Zircaloy-4 tubes identical to those out of which the sheath of the CANDU fuel element is manufactured (having a diameter of 13.08 mm and a wall thickness of 0.4 mm). When analyzing the behavior of the fuel elements' cladding facing the corrosion is important to know the thickness of the zirconium oxide layer. The calibration of the device measuring the thickness of the oxide layer is done using a Zircaloy-4 tube identical to that which the cladding of the CANDU fuel element is manufactured of, and calibration foils, as well. (authors)

  4. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  5. Effect of dew point on the formation of surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yunkyum; Lee, Joonho; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Jeon, Sun-Ho; Chin, Kwang-Geun

    2014-01-01

    The surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel annealed at 800 °C for 43 s were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. During the annealing process, the oxygen potential was controlled by adjusting the dew point in a 15%H 2 –N 2 gas atmosphere. It was found that the type of surface oxides formed and the thickness of the oxide layer were determined by the dew point. In a gas mixture with a dew point of − 20 °C, a MnO layer with a thickness of ∼ 100 nm was formed uniformly on the steel surface. Under the MnO layer, a MnAl 2 O 4 layer with a thickness of ∼ 15 nm was formed with small Mn 2 SiO 4 particles that measured ∼ 70 nm in diameter. Approximately 500 nm below the MnAl 2 O 4 layer, Al 2 O 3 was formed at the grain boundaries. On the other hand, in a gas mixture with a dew point of − 40 °C, a MnAl 2 O 4 layer with a thickness of ∼ 5 nm was formed on most parts of the surface. On some parts of the surface, Mn 2 SiO 4 particles were formed irregularly up to a thickness of ∼ 50 nm. Approximately 200 nm below the MnAl 2 O 4 layer, Al 2 O 3 was found at the grain boundaries. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to explain the experimental results. The calculations showed that when a O2 > ∼ 1.26 × 10 −28 , MnO, MnAl 2 O 4 , and Mn 2 SiO 4 can be formed together, and the major oxide is MnO. When a O2 is in the range of 1.26 × 10 −28 –2.51 × 10 −31 , MnO is not stable but MnAl 2 O 4 is the major oxide. When a O2 < ∼ 2.51 × 10 −31 , only Al 2 O 3 is stable. Consequently, the effective activity of oxygen is considered the dominant factor in determining the type and shape of surface oxides of TWIP steel. - Highlights: • The surface oxides of TWIP steel annealed at 800 °C were investigated using TEM. • The surface oxides were determined by the dew point during the annealing process. • The activity of oxygen is the major factor determining the oxides of TWIP steel

  6. Direct comparison of the electrical properties in metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon and metal/aluminum oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon capacitors with equivalent oxide thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ho-Myoung; Seo, Yu Jeong; Kim, Hee Dong; Kim, Kyoung Chan; Kim, Jong-Guk [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Won-Ju; Koh, Jung-Hyuk [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yun Mo [Department of Materials and Science Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.k [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-31

    We examine the electrical properties of metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon (MONOS) capacitors with two different blocking oxides, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, under the influence of the same electric field. The thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is set to 150 A, which is electrically equivalent to a thickness of the SiO{sub 2} layer of 65 A, in the MONOS structure for this purpose. The capacitor with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer shows a larger capacitance-voltage memory window of 8.6 V, lower program voltage of 7 V, faster program/erase speeds of 10 ms/1 {mu}s, lower leakage current of 100 pA and longer data retention than the one with the SiO{sub 2} blocking layer does. These improvements are attributed to the suppression of the carrier transport to the gate electrode afforded by the use of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer physically thicker than the SiO{sub 2} one, as well as the effective charge-trapping by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the deep energy levels in the nitride layer.

  7. Thickness-self-controlled synthesis of porous transparent polyaniline-reduced graphene oxide composites towards advanced bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shin-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Tsung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Yang, Shin-Yi; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2014-08-01

    A powerful synthesis strategy is proposed for fabricating porous polyaniline-reduced graphene oxide (PANI-RGO) composites with transparency up to 80% and thickness from 300 to 1000 nm for the counter electrode (CE) of bifacial dye-sensitizing solar cells (DSSCs). The first step is to combine the in-situ positive charge transformation of graphene oxide (GO) through aniline (ANI) prepolymerization and the electrostatic adsorption of ANI oligomer-GO to effectively control the thickness of ultrathin PANI-GO films by adjusting pH of the polymerization media. In the second step, PANI-GO films are reduced with hydroiodic acid to simultaneously enhance the apparent redox activity for the I3-/I- couple and their electronic conductivity. Incorporating the RGO increases the transparency of PANI and facilitates the light-harvesting from the rear side. A DSSC assembled with such a transparent PANI-RGO CE exhibits an excellent efficiency of 7.84%, comparable to 8.19% for a semi-transparent Pt-based DSSC. The high light-harvesting ability of PANI-RGO enhances the efficiency retention between rear- and front-illumination modes to 76.7%, compared with 69.1% for a PANI-based DSSC. The higher retention reduces the power-to-weight ratio and the total cost of bifacial DSSCs, which is also promising in other applications, such as windows, power generators, and panel screens.

  8. CdO Doped Indium Oxide Thick Film as a Low Temperature H2S Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CdCl2 for different intervals of time. The surface modified (10 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (10 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 150 oC. Cadmium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the thick films indicates the key role played by cadmium oxide on the surface of thick films. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the thick films were measured and presented.

  9. THE THICKNESS DEPENDENCE OF OXYGEN PERMEABILITY IN SOL-GEL DERIVED CGO-COFE2O4 THIN FILMS ON POROUS CERAMIC SUBSTRATES: A SPUTTERED BLOCKING LAYER FOR THICKNESS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K

    2009-01-08

    Mixed conductive oxides are a topic of interest for applications in oxygen separation membranes as well as use in producing hydrogen fuel through the partial oxidation of methane. The oxygen flux through the membrane is governed both by the oxygen ionic conductivity as well as the material's electronic conductivity; composite membranes like Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO)-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) use gadolinium doped ceria oxides as the ionic conducting material combined with cobalt iron spinel which serves as the electronic conductor. In this study we employ {approx} 50 nm sputtered CeO{sub 2} layers on the surface of porous CGO ceramic substrates which serve as solution 'blocking' layers during the thin film fabrication process facilitating the control of film thickness. Films with thickness of {approx} 2 and 4 microns were prepared by depositing 40 and 95 separate sol-gel layers respectively. Oxygen flux measurements indicated that the permeation increased with decreasing membrane thickness; thin film membrane with thickness on the micron level showed flux values an order of magnitude greater (0.03 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2} s) at 800 C as compared to 1mm thick bulk ceramic membranes (0.003 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}).

  10. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Surface Chrominated Indium Oxide Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CrO3 for different intervals of time. The surface chrominated (20 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (40 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 250 oC. Chromium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the sensor indicates the key role played by chromium oxide on the surface of thick film. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  11. A redox-assisted molecular assembly of molybdenum oxide amine composite nanobelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Haiyan; Wei Mingdeng; Wei Kemei

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nanobelts of molybdenum oxide amine were first synthesized via a redox-assisted molecular assembly route. → These nanobelts are highly crystalline with a several tens of micrometers in length and 20-30 nm in thickness. - Abstract: In this paper, the nanobelts of molybdenum oxide amine composite were successfully synthesized via a redox-assisted molecular assembly route under the hydrothermal conditions. The synthesized nanobelts were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, TG and FT-IR measurements. The thickness of nanobelts is found to be ca. 20-30 nm and their lengths are up to several tens of micrometers. Based on a series of the experimental results, a possible model, redox-intercalation-exfoliation, was suggested for the formation of nanobelts of molybdenum oxide amine composite.

  12. Niobium oxide nanocolumns formed via anodic alumina with modulated pore diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pligovka, A.; Zakhlebayeva, A.; Lazavenka, A.

    2018-03-01

    Niobium oxide nanocolumns with modulated diameters were formed for the first time. An Al/Nb bilayer specimen was prepared by successive sputter-deposition of 300 nm niobium layer and 1200 nm aluminum layer onto silicon wafer. Regular anodic alumina matrix with modulated pore diameters was formed by sequential anodization of initial specimen in tartaric acid at 180 V, and in oxalic acid at 37 V. Further potentiodynamic reanodization of the specimen up to 400 V causes the simultaneous growth of 440 nm continuous niobium oxide layer beneath the alumina film and two types of an array of oxide nanocolumns (thick – with 100 nm width and 630 nm high and thin – with 25 nm width and 170 nm high), which are the filling of the alumina pores. The morphology of the formed anodic niobium oxide nanocolumns with modulated diameters was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The formed nanostructures can be used for perspective devices of nano- and optoelectronics such as photonic crystals.

  13. Photoconduction in silicon rich oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Lopez, J A; Carrillo-Lopez, J; Flores-Gracia, F J; Garcia-Salgado, G [CIDS-ICUAP, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla. Ed. 103 D and C, col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue. Mexico 72570 (Mexico); Aceves-Mijares, M; Morales-Sanchez, A, E-mail: jluna@buap.siu.m, E-mail: jluna@inaoep.m [INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Apdo. 51, Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico 72000 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Photoconduction of silicon rich oxide (SRO) thin films were studied by current-voltage (I-V) measurements, where ultraviolet (UV) and white (Vis) light illumination were applied. SRO thin films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) technique, using SiH{sub 4} (silane) and N{sub 2}O (nitrous oxide) as reactive gases at 700 {sup 0}. The gas flow ratio, Ro = [N{sub 2}O]/[SiH{sub 4}] was used to control the silicon excess. The thickness and refractive index of the SRO films were 72.0 nm, 75.5 nm, 59.1 nm, 73.4 nm and 1.7, 1.5, 1.46, 1.45, corresponding to R{sub o} = 10, 20, 30 and 50, respectively. These results were obtained by null ellipsometry. Si nanoparticles (Si-nps) and defects within SRO films permit to obtain interesting photoelectric properties as a high photocurrent and photoconduction. These effects strongly depend on the silicon excess, thickness and structure type. Two different structures (Al/SRO/Si and Al/SRO/SRO/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-like structures) were fabricated and used as devices. The photocurrent in these structures is dominated by the generation of carriers due to the incident photon energies ({approx}3.0-1.6 eV and 5 eV). These structures showed large photoconductive response at room temperature. Therefore, these structures have potential applications in optoelectronics devices.

  14. Improved performances of organic light-emitting diodes with mixed layer and metal oxide as anode buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qin; Liu, Shouyin; Zhang, Shiming; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-01-01

    We fabricated organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)-anthracene (MADN) as hole-transport material (HTM) instead of commonly used N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl,1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB). After inserting a 0.9 nm thick molybdenum oxide (MoOx) layer at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/MADN interface and a 5 nm thick mixed layer at the organic/organic heterojunction interface, the power conversion efficiency of the device can be increased by 4-fold.

  15. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  16. 100-nm gate lithography for double-gate transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Zhang, Ying; Babich, Inna V.; Treichler, John; Yoon, Jung H.; Guarini, Kathryn; Solomon, Paul M.

    2001-09-01

    The double gate field effect transistor (FET) is an exploratory device that promises certain performance advantages compared to traditional CMOS FETs. It can be scaled down further than the traditional devices because of the greater electrostatic control by the gates on the channel (about twice as short a channel length for the same gate oxide thickness), has steeper sub-threshold slope and about double the current for the same width. This paper presents lithographic results for double gate FET's developed at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center. The device is built on bonded wafers with top and bottom gates self-aligned to each other. The channel is sandwiched between the top and bottom polysilicon gates and the gate length is defined using DUV lithography. An alternating phase shift mask was used to pattern gates with critical dimensions of 75 nm, 100 nm and 125 nm in photoresist. 50 nm gates in photoresist have also been patterned by 20% over-exposure of nominal 100 nm lines. No trim mask was needed because of a specific way the device was laid out. UV110 photoresist from Shipley on AR-3 antireflective layer were used. Process windows, developed and etched patterns are presented.

  17. Paranode Abnormalities and Oxidative Stress in Optic Nerve Vulnerable to Secondary Degeneration: Modulation by 670 nm Light Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis R Szymanski

    Full Text Available Secondary degeneration of nerve tissue adjacent to a traumatic injury results in further loss of neurons, glia and function, via mechanisms that may involve oxidative stress. However, changes in indicators of oxidative stress have not yet been demonstrated in oligodendrocytes vulnerable to secondary degeneration in vivo. We show increases in the oxidative stress indicator carboxymethyl lysine at days 1 and 3 after injury in oligodendrocytes vulnerable to secondary degeneration. Dihydroethidium staining for superoxide is reduced, indicating endogenous control of this particular reactive species after injury. Concurrently, node of Ranvier/paranode complexes are altered, with significant lengthening of the paranodal gap and paranode as well as paranode disorganisation. Therapeutic administration of 670 nm light is thought to improve oxidative metabolism via mechanisms that may include increased activity of cytochrome c oxidase. Here, we show that light at 670 nm, delivered for 30 minutes per day, results in in vivo increases in cytochrome c oxidase activity co-localised with oligodendrocytes. Short term (1 day 670 nm light treatment is associated with reductions in reactive species at the injury site. In optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration superoxide in oligodendrocytes is reduced relative to handling controls, and is associated with reduced paranode abnormalities. Long term (3 month administration of 670 nm light preserves retinal ganglion cells vulnerable to secondary degeneration and maintains visual function, as assessed by the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex. Light at a wavelength of 670 nm may serve as a therapeutic intervention for treatment of secondary degeneration following neurotrauma.

  18. Effect of dew point on the formation of surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yunkyum [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136–713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joonho, E-mail: joonholee@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136–713 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kwang-Soo [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang 790–600 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sun-Ho; Chin, Kwang-Geun [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang 545–090 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    The surface oxides of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel annealed at 800 °C for 43 s were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. During the annealing process, the oxygen potential was controlled by adjusting the dew point in a 15%H{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas atmosphere. It was found that the type of surface oxides formed and the thickness of the oxide layer were determined by the dew point. In a gas mixture with a dew point of − 20 °C, a MnO layer with a thickness of ∼ 100 nm was formed uniformly on the steel surface. Under the MnO layer, a MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer with a thickness of ∼ 15 nm was formed with small Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} particles that measured ∼ 70 nm in diameter. Approximately 500 nm below the MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was formed at the grain boundaries. On the other hand, in a gas mixture with a dew point of − 40 °C, a MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer with a thickness of ∼ 5 nm was formed on most parts of the surface. On some parts of the surface, Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} particles were formed irregularly up to a thickness of ∼ 50 nm. Approximately 200 nm below the MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found at the grain boundaries. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to explain the experimental results. The calculations showed that when a{sub O2} > ∼ 1.26 × 10{sup −28}, MnO, MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} can be formed together, and the major oxide is MnO. When a{sub O2} is in the range of 1.26 × 10{sup −28}–2.51 × 10{sup −31}, MnO is not stable but MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the major oxide. When a{sub O2} < ∼ 2.51 × 10{sup −31}, only Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is stable. Consequently, the effective activity of oxygen is considered the dominant factor in determining the type and shape of surface oxides of TWIP steel. - Highlights: • The surface oxides of TWIP steel annealed at 800 °C were investigated using TEM. • The surface oxides were determined by the dew point

  19. Does the conductivity of interconnect coatings matter for solid oxide fuel cell applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Claudia; Fefekos, Alexander G.; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Froitzheim, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The present work aims to quantify the influence of typical interconnect coatings used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on area specific resistance (ASR). To quantify the effect of the coating, the dependency of coating thickness on the ASR is examined on Crofer 22 APU at 600 °C. Three different Co coating thicknesses are investigated, 600 nm, 1500 nm, and 3000 nm. Except for the reference samples, the material is pre-oxidized prior to coating to mitigate the outward diffusion of iron and consequent formation of poorly conducting (Co,Fe)3O4 spinel. Exposures are carried out at 600 °C in stagnant laboratory air for 500 h and subsequent ASR measurements are performed. Additionally the microstructure is investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On all pre-oxidized samples, a homogenous dense Co3O4 top layer is observed beneath which a thin layer of Cr2O3 is present. As the ASR values range between 7 and 12 mΩcm2 for all pre-oxidized samples, even though different Co3O4 thicknesses are observed, the results strongly suggest that for most applicable cases the impact of the coating on ASR is negligible and the main contributor is Cr2O3.

  20. A Sub-ppm Acetone Gas Sensor for Diabetes Detection Using 10 nm Thick Ultrathin InN FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kun-Wei; Hsu, Ming-Che; Chang, Yuh-Hwa; Gwo, Shangjr; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    An indium nitride (InN) gas sensor of 10 nm in thickness has achieved detection limit of 0.4 ppm acetone. The sensor has a size of 1 mm by 2.5 mm, while its sensing area is 0.25 mm by 2 mm. Detection of such a low acetone concentration in exhaled breath could enable early diagnosis of diabetes for portable physiological applications. The ultrathin InN epilayer extensively enhances sensing sensitivity due to its strong electron accumulation on roughly 5–10 nm deep layers from the surface. Platinum as catalyst can increase output current signals by 2.5-fold (94 vs. 37.5 μA) as well as reduce response time by 8.4-fold (150 vs. 1,260 s) in comparison with bare InN. More, the effect of 3% oxygen consumption due to breath inhalation and exhalation on 2.4 ppm acetone gas detection was investigated, indicating that such an acetone concentration can be analyzed in air. PMID:22969342

  1. Gate tunneling current and quantum capacitance in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with graphene gate electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yanbin; Shekhawat, Aniruddh; Behnam, Ashkan; Pop, Eric; Ural, Ant

    2016-11-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with graphene as the metal gate electrode, silicon dioxide with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 20 nm as the dielectric, and p-type silicon as the semiconductor are fabricated and characterized. It is found that Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling dominates the gate tunneling current in these devices for oxide thicknesses of 10 nm and larger, whereas for devices with 5 nm oxide, direct tunneling starts to play a role in determining the total gate current. Furthermore, the temperature dependences of the F-N tunneling current for the 10 nm devices are characterized in the temperature range 77-300 K. The F-N coefficients and the effective tunneling barrier height are extracted as a function of temperature. It is found that the effective barrier height decreases with increasing temperature, which is in agreement with the results previously reported for conventional MOS devices with polysilicon or metal gate electrodes. In addition, high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements of these MOS devices are performed, which depict a local capacitance minimum under accumulation for thin oxides. By analyzing the data using numerical calculations based on the modified density of states of graphene in the presence of charged impurities, it is shown that this local minimum is due to the contribution of the quantum capacitance of graphene. Finally, the workfunction of the graphene gate electrode is extracted by determining the flat-band voltage as a function of oxide thickness. These results show that graphene is a promising candidate as the gate electrode in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  2. Functionalization of 2D macroporous silicon under the high-pressure oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Kartel, M.; Kladko, V.; Gudymenko, O.; Bo, Wang; Bratus, V.; Lytvynenko, O.; Onyshchenko, V.; Stronska, O.

    2018-03-01

    Addition functionalization after high-pressure oxidation of 2D macroporous silicon structures is evaluated. X-ray diffractometry indicates formation of orthorhombic SiO2 phase on macroporous silicon at oxide thickness of 800-1200 nm due to cylindrical symmetry of macropores and high thermal expansion coefficient of SiO2. Pb center concentration grows with the splitting energy of LO- and TO-phonons and SiO2 thickness in oxidized macroporous silicon structures. This increase EPR signal amplitude and GHz radiation absorption and is promising for development of high-frequency devices and electronically controlled elements.

  3. The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Ki-Bum; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2012-07-01

    The thermomechanical stability of micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs) fabricated on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template is investigated. The full structure consists of the following layers: AAO membrane (600 nm)/Pt anode/YSZ electrolyte (900 nm)/porous Pt cathode. The utilization of a 600-nm-thick AAO membrane significantly improves the thermomechanical stability due to its well-known honeycomb-shaped nanopore structure. Moreover, the Pt anode layer deposited in between the AAO membrane and the YSZ electrolyte preserves its integrity in terms of maintaining the triple-phase boundary (TPB) and electrical conductivity during high-temperature operation. Both of these results guarantee thermomechanical stability of the micro-SOFC and extend the cell lifetime, which is one of the most critical issues in the fabrication of freestanding membrane-type micro-SOFCs.

  4. MoO3 Thickness, Thermal Annealing and Solvent Annealing Effects on Inverted and Direct Polymer Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wantz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters of the fabrication process of inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells based on titanium oxide as an electron selective layer and molybdenum oxide as a hole selective layer were tested in order to achieve efficient organic photovoltaic solar cells. Thermal annealing treatment is a common process to achieve optimum morphology, but it proved to be damageable for the performance of this kind of inverted solar cells. We demonstrate using Auger analysis combined with argon etching that diffusion of species occurs from the MoO3/Ag top layers into the active layer upon thermal annealing. In order to achieve efficient devices, the morphology of the bulk heterojunction was then manipulated using the solvent annealing technique as an alternative to thermal annealing. The influence of the MoO3 thickness was studied on inverted, as well as direct, structure. It appeared that only 1 nm-thick MoO3 is enough to exhibit highly efficient devices (PCE = 3.8% and that increasing the thickness up to 15 nm does not change the device performance. 

  5. Titanium Oxide/Platinum Catalysis: Charge Transfer from a Titanium Oxide Support Controls Activity and Selectivity in Methanol Oxidation on Platinum

    KAUST Repository

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-11-24

    Platinum films of 1 nm thickness were deposited by electron beam evaporation onto 100 nm thick titanium oxide films (TiOx) with variable oxygen vacancy concentrations and fluorine (F) doping. Methanol oxidation on the platinum films produced formaldehyde, methyl formate, and carbon dioxide. F-doped samples demonstrated significantly higher activity for methanol oxidation when the TiOx was stoichiometric (TiO 2), but lower activity when it was nonstoichiometric (TiO 1.7 and TiO1.9). These results correlate with the chemical behavior of the same types of catalysts in CO oxidation. Fluorine doping of stoichiometric TiO2 also increased selectivity toward partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde and methyl formate, but had an opposite effect in the case of nonstoichiometric TiOx. Introduction of oxygen vacancies and fluorine doping both increased the conductivity of the TiO x film. For oxygen vacancies, this occurred by the formation of a conduction channel in the band gap, whereas in the case of fluorine doping, F acted as an n-type donor, forming a conduction channel at the bottom of the conduction band, about 0.5-1.0 eV higher in energy. The higher energy electrons in F-doped stoichiometric TiOx led to higher turnover rates and increased selectivity toward partial oxidation of methanol. This correlation between electronic structure and turnover rate and selectivity indicates that the ability of the support to transfer charges to surface species controls in part the activity and selectivity of the reaction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  7. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  8. Mn-implanted, polycrystalline indium tin oxide and indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Xu Qingyu; Buerger, Danilo; Zhou Shengqiang; Kolitsch, Andreas; Grenzer, Joerg; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline conducting, ca. 250 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) films grown on SiO 2 /Si substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, have been implanted with 1 and 5 at.% of Mn, followed by annealing in nitrogen or in vacuum. The effect of the post-growth treatment on the structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties has been studied. The roughness of implanted films ranges between 3 and 15 nm and XRD measurements revealed a polycrystalline structure. A positive MR has been observed for Mn-implanted and post-annealed ITO and IO films. It has been interpreted by considering s-d exchange. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to prove the existence of midgap electronic states in the Mn-implanted ITO and IO films reducing the transmittance below 80%.

  9. Rheology and microstructure of dilute graphene oxide suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfai, Waka; Singh, Pawan; Shatilla, Youssef; Iqbal, Muhammad Z.; Abdala, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide are potential candidates as nanofluids for thermal management applications. Here, we investigate the rheological properties and intrinsic viscosity of aqueous suspension of graphene and use the measured intrinsic viscosity to determine the aspect ratio of graphene oxide. Dilute suspension of graphene oxide (0.05 to 0.5 mg/mL) exhibits a shear thinning behavior at low shear rates followed by a shear-independent region that starts at shear rate between 5 and 100/s depending on the concentration. This shear thinning behavior becomes more pronounced with the increase of particle loading. Moreover, AFM imaging of the dried graphene oxide indicates the evolution of irregular and thin low fractal aggregates of 0.3–1.8 nm thickness at lower concentrations to oblate compact structures of 1–18 nm thickness of nanosheets at higher concentration. These observations elucidate the microstructure growth mechanisms of graphene oxide in multiphase systems, which are important for nanofluids applications and for dispersing graphene and graphene oxide in composite materials. The suspension has a very high intrinsic viscosity of 1661 due to the high graphene oxide aspect ratio. Based on this intrinsic viscosity, we predict graphene oxide aspect ratio of 2445. While the classical Einstein and Batchelor models underestimate the relative viscosity of graphene oxide suspension, Krieger–Dougherty prediction is in a good agreement with the experimental measurement

  10. Observation of dark pulses in 10 nm thick YBCO nanostrips presenting hysteretic current voltage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejrnaes, M.; Parlato, L.; Arpaia, R.; Bauch, T.; Lombardi, F.; Cristiano, R.; Tafuri, F.; Pepe, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    We have fabricated several 10 nm thick and 65 nm wide YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) nanostrips. The nanostrips with the highest critical current densities are characterized by hysteretic current voltage characteristics (IVCs) with a direct bistable switch from the zero-voltage to the finite voltage state. The presence of hysteretic IVCs allowed the observation of dark pulses due to fluctuations phenomena. The key role of the bistable behavior is its ability to transform a small disturbance (e.g. an intrinsic fluctuation) into a measurable transient signal, i.e. a dark pulse. On the contrary, in devices characterized by lower critical current density values, the IVCs are non-hysteretic and dark pulses have not been observed. To investigate the physical origin of the dark pulses, we have measured the bias current dependence of the dark pulse rate: the observed exponential increase with the bias current is compatible with mechanisms based on thermal activation of magnetic vortices in the nanostrip. We believe that the successful amplification of small fluctuation events into measurable signals in nanostrips of ultrathin YBCO is a milestone for further investigation of YBCO nanostrips for superconducting nanostrip single photon detectors and other quantum detectors for operation at higher temperatures.

  11. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production by nitric oxide synthase in thick ascending limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Saikumar, Jagannath H; Massey, Katherine J; Hong, Nancy J; Dominici, Fernando P; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to become a source of superoxide (O2 (-)) via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent process in endothelial cells. Ang II stimulates both NO and O2 (-) production in thick ascending limbs. We hypothesized that Ang II causes O2 (-) production by NOS in thick ascending limbs via a PKC-dependent mechanism. NO production was measured in isolated rat thick ascending limbs using DAF-FM, whereas O2 (-) was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions using the lucigenin assay. Consistent stimulation of NO was observed with 1 nmol/L Ang II (P thick ascending limbs via a PKC- and NADPH oxidase-dependent process; and (2) the effect of Ang II is not due to limited substrate. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. The initial oxidation of magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, M.

    2004-07-01

    Pure Magnesium samples have been oxidised in an UHV chamber under controlled conditions. Pressure range was 10{sup -10} Torr to 10{sup -7} Torr, temperature range was 273 K to 435 K. The samples have then been investigated with XPS, Ellipsometry and HERDA. Additionally, furnace oxidations at 750 Torr and 673 K have been carried out and investigated with XPS. From the XPS measurements data concerning layer thickness, composition, oxidation state and binding state have been gained. The ellipsometrie measurements yielded additional data concerning layer thickness as well as the size of the band gap of the developing oxide. With the HERDA measurements, the oxygen content within the oxide layer has been determined yielding additional information about composition and layer thickness. The layer thickness as a function of time have then been modelled with a kinetic growth model of Fromhold and Cook. For the refinement of the XPS data concerning layer thickness and composition, the pronounced plasmon excitations that occur in magnesium have been determined with two different procedures which have been developed in the methodical part of this work. The layer thickness and composition values have thus been corrected. Results: Two oxidation stages could be identified: a strong increase for the first few Langmuirs (1L = 1s x 10{sup -6} Torr), followed by a saturation'' region which was about 1.2 nm to 1.5 nm in magnitude. XPS and ellipsometry results have thereby been in very good agreement. The composition of the developing oxide showed a clear deviation from stoichiometric MgO, mainly caused by an oxygen deficiency; this deficiency has also been confirmed with the HERDA measurements. The Mg/O ratio as a function of layer thickness showed a continous decay starting from very high values for the thinnest layers (>{proportional_to}2.5) down to a saturation value of about 1.4, even for larger layer thicknesses gained with the furnace oxidations. The determination of

  13. The Effect of Thickness and Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide on Nanoscale Friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangku; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Hyunsoo; Koh, Sang Joon; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Park, Jeong Young

    2018-01-18

    The tribological properties of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are quite different from three-dimensional continuum materials because of the unique mechanical responses of 2D layers. It is known that friction on graphene shows a remarkable decreasing behavior as the number of layers increases, which is caused by the puckering effect. On other graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), the thickness dependence of friction is important because of the possibilities for technical applications. In this report, we demonstrate unexpected layer-dependent friction behavior on GO and rGO layers. Friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on GO does not depend on the number of layers; however, after reduction, friction on rGO shows an inverse thickness dependence compared with pristine graphene. We show that the friction on rGO is higher than that on SiO 2 at low load, and that an interesting crossover behavior at higher load occurs because of the lower friction coefficient and higher adhesion of the rGO. We provide a relevant interpretation that explains the effect of thickness and chemical reduction on nanoscale friction.

  14. Pt-Ag cubic nanocages with wall thickness less than 2 nm and their enhanced catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojun; Yang, Xuan; Zhang, Yun; Ding, Yong; Su, Dong; Qin, Dong

    2017-10-12

    We report a facile synthesis of Pt-Ag nanocages with walls thinner than 2 nm by depositing a few atomic layers of Pt as conformal shells on Ag nanocubes and then selectively removing the Ag template via wet etching. In a typical process, we inject a specific volume of aqueous H 2 PtCl 6 into a mixture of Ag nanocubes, ascorbic acid (H 2 Asc), NaOH, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) in water under ambient conditions. At an initial pH of 11.9, the Pt(iv) precursor is quickly reduced by an ascorbate monoanion, a strong reducing agent derived from the neutralization of H 2 Asc with NaOH. The newly formed Pt atoms are deposited onto the edges and then corners and side faces of Ag nanocubes, leading to the generation of Ag@Pt core-shell nanocubes with a conformal Pt shell of approximately three atomic layers (or, about 0.6 nm in thickness) when 0.4 mL of 0.2 mM H 2 PtCl 6 is involved. After the selective removal of Ag in the core using an etchant based on a mixture of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and HNO 3 , we transform the core-shell nanocubes into Pt-Ag alloy nanocages with an ultrathin wall thickness of less than 2 nm. We further demonstrate that the as-obtained nanocages with a composition of Pt 42 Ag 58 exhibit an enhanced catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, with a mass activity of 0.30 A mg -1 and a specific activity of 0.93 mA cm -2 , which are 1.6 and 2.5 times, respectively, greater than those of a commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  15. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds via waveguide-supported titanium dioxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lawrence W.

    A photochemical reactor based on titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated silica optical fibers was constructed to explore the use of waveguide-supported TiO2 films for photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds. The reactor was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of 4-chlorophenol in water. It was confirmed that TiO2 films could be securely attached to silica optical fibers. The 4-chlorophenol (100 mumol/L in water) was successfully oxidized on the TiO2 surface when UV light (310 nm--380 nm) was propagated through the fibers to the films. Rates of 4-chlorophenol oxidation and UV light flux to the fibers were measured. The quantum efficiency of 4-chlorophenol oxidation [defined as the change in 4-chlorophenol concentration divided by the UV light absorbed by the catalyst] was determined as a function of TiO2 catalyst film thickness and internal incident angle of propagating UV light. A maximum quantum efficiency of 2.8% was measured when TiO2 film thickness was ca. 80 nm and the maximum internal incident angle of propagating light was 84°. Quantum efficiency increased with increasing internal angle of incidence of propagating light and decreased with TiO2 film thickness. UV-Visible internal reflection spectroscopy was used to determine whether UV light propagated through TiO2-coated silica waveguides in an ATR mode. Propagation of UV light in an ATR mode was confirmed by the similarities between internal reflection spectra of phenolphthalein obtained with uncoated and TiO2-coated silica crystals. Planar silica waveguides coated with TiO2 were employed in a photocatalytic reactor for the oxidation of formic acid (833 mumol/L in water). It was shown that the quantum yield of formic acid oxidation [defined as the moles of formic acid oxidized divided by the moles of UV photons absorbed by the catalyst] on the waveguide-supported TiO2 surface is enhanced when UV light propagates through the waveguides in an ATR mode. A maximum quantum yield of 3.9% was found for formic

  16. Thickness Dependence of Optoelectrical Properties of Mo-Doped In2O3 Films Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrates by Ion-Beam-Assisted Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chiuan Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium molybdenum oxide (IMO films were deposited onto the polyethersulfone (PES substrates by ion-beam-assisted evaporation (IBAE deposition at low temperature in this study. The effects of film thickness on their optical and electrical properties were investigated. The results show that the deposited IMO films exhibit a preferred orientation of B(222. The electrical resistivity of the deposited film initially reduces then subsequently increases with film thickness. The IMO film with the lowest resistivity of 7.61 × 10−4 ohm-cm has been achieved when the film thickness is 120 nm. It exhibits a satisfactory surface roughness pv of 8.75 nm and an average visible transmittance of 78.7%.

  17. Channel layer thickness dependence of In-Ti-Zn-O thin-film transistors fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K.; Liu, G. X.; Liu, A.; Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous indium-titanium-zinc-oxide (ITZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various channel thicknesses were fabricated at room temperature by using pulsed laser deposition. The channel layer thickness (CLT) dependence of the TFTs was investigated. All the ITZO thin films were amorphous, and the surface roughnesses decreased slightly first and then increased with increasing CLT. With increasing CLT from 35 to 140 nm, the on/off current ratio and the field-effect mobility increased, and the subthreshold swing decreased. The TFT with a CLT of 210 nm exhibited the worst performance, while the ITZO TFT with a CLT of 140 nm exhibited the best performance with a subthreshold voltage of 2.86 V, a mobility of 53.9 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , a subthreshold swing of 0.29 V/decade and an on/off current ratio of 10 9 .

  18. Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Chunqing, E-mail: cdeng@uwaterloo.ca; Otto, M.; Lupascu, A., E-mail: alupascu@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-27

    We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5 nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303 mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

  19. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d{sub Cu} = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm {<=} d{sub Ni} {<=} 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent.

  20. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d Cu = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm ≤ d Ni ≤ 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent

  1. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4–20 nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P r of up to 10 μC cm −2 as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6 × 10 5 cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems

  2. Thickness-dependent photocatalytic performance of graphite oxide for degrading organic pollutants under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghoon; Chang, Yun Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-28

    Photocatalysts use sustainable solar light energy to trigger various catalytic reactions. Metal-free nanomaterials have been suggested as cost-effective and environmentally friendly photocatalysts. In this work, we propose thickness-controlled graphite oxide (GO) as a metal-free photocatalyst, which is produced by exfoliating thick GO particles via stirring and sonication. All GO samples exhibit photocatalytic activity for degrading an organic pollutant, rhodamine B under visible light, and the thickest sample shows the best catalytic performance. UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance absorption spectra indicate that thicker GO samples absorb more vis-NIR light than thinner ones. Density-functional theory calculations show that GO has a much smaller band gap than that of single-layer graphene oxide, and thus suggest that the largely-reduced band gap is responsible for this trend of light absorption.

  3. Lower thermospheric nitric oxide concentrations derived from WINDII observations of the green nightglow continuum at 553.1 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. A. von Savigny

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of nitric oxide in the altitude range 90 to 105 km are derived from 553 nm nightglow continuum measurements made with the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS. The profiles are derived under the assumption that the continuum emission is due entirely to the NO+O air afterglow reaction. Vertical profiles of the atomic oxygen density, which are required to determine the nitric oxide concentrations, are derived from coordinated WINDII measurements of the atomic oxygen OI 557.7 nm nightglow emission. Data coverage for local solar times ranging from 20 h to 04 h, and latitudes ranging from 42°S to 42°N, is achieved by zonally averaging and binning data obtained on 18 nights during a two-month period extending from mid-November 1992 until mid-January 1993. The derived nitric oxide concentrations are significantly smaller than those obtained from rocket measurements of the airglow continuum but they do compare well with model expectations and nitric oxide densities measured using the resonance fluorescence technique on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite. The near-global coverage of the WINDII observations and the similarities to the nitric oxide global morphology established from other satellite measurements strongly suggests that the NO+O reaction is the major source of the continuum near 553 nm and that there is no compelling reason to invoke additional sources of continuum emission in this immediate spectral region.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora; thermosphere – composition and chemistry; instruments and techniques

  4. Effect of oxidation and annealing temperature on optical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tin oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrate with 100 nm thickness of Sn, which was coated by magnetron sputtering followed by thermal oxidation at different temperatures. ... Annealing of the samples at 500–650 °C caused the transmittance and optical ..... (αhν)1/2 and (αhν)1/3 to determine the Eg. (b) They used.

  5. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  6. In2Ga2ZnO7 oxide semiconductor based charge trap device for NAND flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Suk; Kim, Jun Shik; Jeon, Seok Min; Lee, Seung Jun; Jang, Younjin; Cho, Deok-Yong; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2018-04-01

    The programming characteristics of charge trap flash memory device adopting amorphous In2Ga2ZnO7 (a-IGZO) oxide semiconductors as channel layer were evaluated. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and RF-sputtering processes were used to grow a 45 nm thick a-IGZO layer on a 20 nm thick SiO2 (blocking oxide)/p++-Si (control gate) substrate, where 3 nm thick atomic layer deposited Al2O3 (tunneling oxide) and 5 nm thick low-pressure CVD Si3N4 (charge trap) layers were intervened between the a-IGZO and substrate. Despite the identical stoichiometry and other physicochemical properties of the MOCVD and sputtered a-IGZO, a much faster programming speed of MOCVD a-IGZO was observed. A comparable amount of oxygen vacancies was found in both MOCVD and sputtered a-IGZO, confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and bias-illumination-instability test measurements. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed a higher Fermi level (E F) of the MOCVD a-IGZO (∼0.3 eV) film than that of the sputtered a-IGZO, which could be ascribed to the higher hydrogen concentration in the MOCVD a-IGZO film. Since the programming in a flash memory device is governed by the tunneling of electrons from the channel to charge trapping layer, the faster programming performance could be the result of a higher E F of MOCVD a-IGZO.

  7. A monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-180 nm High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. Standard FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to trapped charge in the buried oxide layer and charged interface states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180 nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation using a deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection. The design and measurement results from first prototypes are presented including radiation tolerance to total ionizing dose and charge collection properties of neutron irradiated samples.

  8. Optical scattering characteristic of annealed niobium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Fachun; Li Ming; Wang Haiqian; Hu Hailong; Wang Xiaoping; Hou, J.G.; Song Yizhou; Jiang Yousong

    2005-01-01

    Niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) films with thicknesses ranging from 200 to 1600 nm were deposited on fused silica at room temperature by low frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system. In order to study the optical losses resulting from the microstructures, the films with 500 nm thickness were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1100 deg. C, and films with thicknesses from 200 to 1600 nm were annealed at 800 deg. C. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images show that the root mean square of surface roughness, the grain size, voids, microcracks, and grain boundaries increase with increasing both the annealing temperature and the thickness. Correspondingly, the optical transmittance and reflectance decrease, and the optical loss increases. The mechanisms of the optical losses are discussed. The results suggest that defects in the volume and the surface roughness should be the major source for the optical losses of the annealed films by causing pronounced scattering. For samples with a determined thickness, there is a critical annealing temperature, above which the surface scattering contributes to the major optical losses. In the experimental scope, for the films annealed at temperatures below 900 deg. C, the major optical losses resulted from volume scattering. However, surface roughness was the major source for the optical losses when the 500-nm films were annealed at temperatures above 900 deg. C

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode with oxygen-reducing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdoval, Wayne A.; Berry, David A.; Shultz, Travis

    2018-04-03

    The disclosure provides a SOFC comprised of an electrolyte, anode, and cathode, where the cathode comprises an MIEC and an oxygen-reducing layer. The oxygen-reducing layer is in contact with the MIEC, and the MIEC is generally between and separating the oxygen-reducing layer and the electrolyte. The oxygen-reducing layer is comprised of single element oxides, single element carbonates, or mixtures thereof, and has a thickness of less than about 30 nm. In a particular embodiment, the thickness is less than 5 nm. In another embodiment, the thickness is about 3 monolayers or less. The oxygen-reducing layer may be a continuous film or a discontinuous film with various coverage ratios. The oxygen-reducing layer at the thicknesses described may be generated on the MIEC surface using means known in the art such as, for example, ALD processes.

  10. Influence of air exposure duration and a-Si capping layer thickness on the performance of p-BaSi2/n-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Takabe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of p-BaSi2(20nm/n-Si heterojunction solar cells was performed with different a-Si capping layer thicknesses (da-Si and varying air exposure durations (tair prior to the formation of a 70-nm-thick indium-tin-oxide electrode. The conversion efficiencies (η reached approximately 4.7% regardless of tair (varying from 12–150 h for solar cells with da-Si = 5 nm. In contrast, η increased from 5.3 to 6.6% with increasing tair for those with da-Si = 2 nm, in contrast to our prediction. For this sample, the reverse saturation current density (J0 and diode ideality factor decreased with tair, resulting in the enhancement of η. The effects of the variation of da-Si (0.7, 2, 3, and 5 nm upon the solar cell performance were examined while keeping tair = 150 h. The η reached a maximum of 9.0% when da-Si was 3 nm, wherein the open-circuit voltage and fill factor also reached a maximum. The series resistance, shunt resistance, and J0 exhibited a tendency to decrease as da-Si increased. These results demonstrate that a moderate oxidation of BaSi2 is a very effective means to enhance the η of BaSi2 solar cells.

  11. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Phenomenon of the Oxidizing and Reducing Polypyrrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaila Rajabiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR phenomenon of the oxidizing and reducing polypyrrole (PPy have been observed using a modified Au/PPy Kretschmann configuration. The observation was carried out through simulation Winspall 3.02 software and compared with some experimental data refractive index (n, absorbance index (, and thickness (τ reported in other literatures with spectroscopy ellipsometry. This simulation assumed that the SPR system use BK-7 halfcylinder prism (n= 1,515 and the laser beam was generated by HeNe (λ= 632,8 nm. The result showed that the optimum layer thickness of polypyrrole with neutral electrolyte solution in the reduction state is of about 20 nm. The polypyrrole with an acid solution in the oxidation state showed that the reflectivity curve is sharper and the width of the curve is smaller than the neutral electrolyte solution in the reduction state with the SPR angle of about 46,810 and the reflectivity value of about 0,217. Polypyrrole in a state of oxidation and reduction, related to the absorption, film thickness, and dielectric constant of materials, affected to the SPR angle shift and dip curve

  12. Formation of nano iridium oxide: material properties and neural cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In-Seop; Whang, Chung-Nam; Lee, Young-Hee; Hwan Lee, Gun; Park, Bong-Joo; Park, Jong-Chul; Seo, Won-Seon; Cui Fuzhai

    2005-01-01

    Iridium film with the thickness of 30 and 60 nm were formed on both Si wafer and commercially pure (CP) Ti by electron beam evaporation. The thin iridium film showed the identical charge injection capability with the bulk Ir. However, the charge injection value of iridium film was decreased with continuous potential cycling when the deposited iridium became depleted due to the formation of oxide. The number of cycles at which the charge injection value decreased was 800 and 1600 cycles for the 30- and 60-nm-thick Ir film, respectively. FE-SEM observations on the cross section of Ir film clearly showed the thicker iridium oxide was formed with the more potential cycling. Ar ion beam etching to substrates before deposition certainly improved the adhesion strength of Ir film enough to resist to the strain induced by the larger volume occupation of iridium oxide. Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts culture on Ir and Ir oxide showed no cytotoxicity. Also, embryonic cortical neural cell culture on electrode indicated neurons adhered and survived by the formation of neurofilament

  13. Comparing XPS on bare and capped ZrN films grown by plasma enhanced ALD: Effect of ambient oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneshwar, Triratna; Cadien, Ken

    2018-03-01

    In this article we compare x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on bare- and capped- zirconium nitride (ZrN) films to investigate the effect of ambient sample oxidation on the detected bound O in the form of oxide ZrO2 and/or oxynitride ZrOxNy. ZrN films in both bare- and Al2O3/AlN capped- XPS samples were grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) technique using tetrakis dimethylamino zirconium (TDMAZr) precursor, forming gas (5% H2, rest N2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and as received research grade process gases under identical process conditions. Capped samples were prepared by depositing 1 nm thick PEALD AlN on ZrN, followed by additional deposition of 1 nm thick ALD Al2O3, without venting of ALD reactor. On bare ZrN sample at room temperature, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements with increasing ambient exposure times (texp) showed a self-limiting surface oxidation with the oxide thickness (dox) approaching 3.7 ± 0.02 nm for texp > 120 min. In XPS data measured prior to sample sputtering (tsput = 0), ZrO2 and ZrOxNy were detected in bare- samples, whereas only ZrN and Al2O3/AlN from capping layer were detected in capped- samples. For bare-ZrN samples, appearance of ZrO2 and ZrOxNy up to sputter depth (dsput) of 15 nm in depth-profile XPS data is in contradiction with measured dox = 3.7 nm, but explained from sputtering induced atomic inter-diffusion within analyzed sample. Appearance of artifacts in the XPS spectra from moderately sputtered (dsput = 0.2 nm and 0.4 nm) capped-ZrN sample, provides an evidence to ion-bombardment induced modifications within analyzed sample.

  14. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, X.H.; Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z.; Ma, L.X.; Zhao, H.D.; Liu, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 /PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 /La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm 2 , small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories

  15. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, X.H. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); Ma, L.X. [Department of Physics, Blinn College, Bryan, TX 77805 (United States); Zhao, H.D. [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Liu, B.T., E-mail: btliu@hbu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}O{sub 3}/La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm{sup 2}, small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories.

  16. Differential reflectometry of thin film metal oxides on copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.K. III; Hummel, R.E.; Verink, E.D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A differential reflectometry study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of thin oxide films on metal substrates. The oxides were produced by heating pure metals of copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium in dry oxygen. A new 'halfpolishing' technique was applied to obtain specimens with a step in oxide thickness in order to make them suitable for differential reflectometry. It was found that oxides formed this way yielded the same differential reflectograms as by electrochemical oxidation. A mathematical model involving the interaction of light with a thin corrosion product on metal substrates was applied to generate computer calculated differential reflectograms utilizing various optical constants and thicknesses of the assumed film. Three different thickness ranges have been identified. (a) For large film thicknesses, the differential reflectograms are distinguished by a sequence of interference peaks. (b) If the product of thickness and refraction index of the films is smaller than about 40 nm, no interference peaks are present. Any experimentally observed peaks in differential reflectograms of these films are caused entirely by electron interband transitions. (c) In an intermediate thickness range, superposition of interference and interband peaks are observed. (author)

  17. Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides from Pinal Creek, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, J.R.; Fuller, C.C.; Marcus, M.A.; Brearley, A.J.; Perez De la Rosa, M.; Webb, S.M.; Caldwell, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The microbial catalysis of Mn(II) oxidation is believed to be a dominant source of abundant sorption- and redox-active Mn oxides in marine, freshwater, and subsurface aquatic environments. In spite of their importance, environmental oxides of known biogenic origin have generally not been characterized in detail from a structural perspective. Hyporheic zone Mn oxide grain coatings at Pinal Creek, Arizona, a metals-contaminated stream, have been identified as being dominantly microbial in origin and are well studied from bulk chemistry and contaminant hydrology perspectives. This site thus presents an excellent opportunity to study the structures of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides in detail. XRD and EXAFS measurements performed in this study indicate that the hydrated Pinal Creek Mn oxide grain coatings are layer-type Mn oxides with dominantly hexagonal or pseudo-hexagonal layer symmetry. XRD and TEM measurements suggest the oxides to be nanoparticulate plates with average dimensions on the order of 11 nm thick ?? 35 nm diameter, but with individual particles exhibiting thickness as small as a single layer and sheets as wide as 500 nm. The hydrated oxides exhibit a 10-?? basal-plane spacing and turbostratic disorder. EXAFS analyses suggest the oxides contain layer Mn(IV) site vacancy defects, and layer Mn(III) is inferred to be present, as deduced from Jahn-Teller distortion of the local structure. The physical geometry and structural details of the coatings suggest formation within microbial biofilms. The biogenic Mn oxides are stable with respect to transformation into thermodynamically more stable phases over a time scale of at least 5 months. The nanoparticulate layered structural motif, also observed in pure culture laboratory studies, appears to be characteristic of biogenic Mn oxides and may explain the common occurrence of this mineral habit in soils and sediments. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The silicon-silicon oxide multilayers utilization as intrinsic layer on pin solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colder, H.; Marie, P.; Gourbilleau, F.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanostructures are promising candidate for the intrinsic layer on pin solar cells. In this work we report on new material: silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRSO) deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of a pure silica target and an interesting structure: multilayers consisting of a stack of SRSO and pure silicon oxide layers. Two thicknesses of the SRSO sublayer, t SRSO , are studied 3 nm and 5 nm whereas the thickness of silica sublayer is maintaining at 3 nm. The presence of nanocrystallites of silicon, evidenced by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), leads to photoluminescence (PL) emission at room temperature due to the quantum confinement of the carriers. The PL peak shifts from 1.3 eV to 1.5 eV is correlated to the decreasing of t SRSO from 5 nm down to 3 nm. In the purpose of their potential utilization for i-layer, the optical properties are studied by absorption spectroscopy. The achievement a such structures at promising absorption properties. Moreover by favouring the carriers injection by the tunnel effect between silicon nanograins and silica sublayers, the multilayers seem to be interesting for solar cells

  19. Demonstration of enhanced continuous-wave operation of blue laser diodes on a semipolar 202¯1¯ GaN substrate using indium-tin-oxide/thin-p-GaN cladding layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Shlomo; Cohen, Daniel A; Becerra, Daniel L; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P

    2018-01-22

    The benefits of utilizing transparent conductive oxide on top of a thin p-GaN layer for continuous-wave (CW) operation of blue laser diodes (LDs) were investigated. A very low operating voltage of 5.35 V at 10 kA/cm 2 was obtained for LDs with 250 nm thick p-GaN compared to 7.3 V for LDs with conventional 650 nm thick p-GaN. An improved thermal performance was also observed for the thin p-GaN samples resulting in a 40% increase in peak light output power and a 32% decrease in surface temperature. Finally, a tradeoff was demonstrated between low operating voltage and increased optical modal loss in the indium tin oxide (ITO) with thinner p-GaN. LDs lasing at 445 nm with 150 nm thick p-GaN had an excess modal loss while LDs with an optimal 250 nm thick p-GaN resulted in optical output power of 1.1 W per facet without facet coatings and a wall-plug efficiency of 15%.

  20. Controlled synthesis and electrochemical properties of vanadium oxides with different nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yifu; Zhou, Min; Huang, Chi; Chen, Chongxue; Cao, Yuliang; Fan, Meijuan; Li, Houbin; Liu, Xinghai; Xie, Guangyong

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium oxides (V 3 O 7 .H 2 O and VO 2 ) with different morphologies have been selectively synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach using glucose as the reducing and structure-directing reagent. The as-obtained V 3 O 7 .H 2 O nanobelts have a length up to several tens of micrometers, width of about 60-150 nm and thickness of about 5-10 nm, while the as-prepared VO 2 (B) nanobelts have a length of about 1.0- 7 μm, width, 80-140 nm and thickness, 2-8 nm. It was found that the quantity of glucose, the reaction temperature and the reaction time had significant influence on the compositions and morphologies of final products. Vanadium oxides with different morphologies were easily synthesized by controlling the concentration of glucose. The formation mechanism was also briefly discussed, indicating that glucose played different roles in synthesizing various vanadium oxides. The phase transition from VO 2 (B) to VO 2 (M) were investigated and the phase transition temperature of the VO 2 (M) appeared at around 68 deg C. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of V 3 O 7 .H 2 O nanobelts, VO 2 (B) nanobelts and VO 2 (B) nanosheets were investigated and they exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 296, 247 and 227 mAh/g, respectively. (author)

  1. Probing anodic oxidation kinetics and nanoscale heterogeneity within TiO2 films by Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy and combined techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamanti, M.V.; Souier, T.; Stefancich, M.; Chiesa, M.; Pedeferri, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanoscale anodic titanium oxides were investigated with multidisciplinary approach. • Oxide thickness was estimated via spectrophotometry and coulometry. • C-AFM identified nanometric conductivity heterogeneities, ascribed to oxide structure. • High conductivity areas exhibited local memristive behavior. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of titanium in acid electrolytes allows to obtain a thin, compact oxide layer with thickness, structure, color, and electrical properties that vary with process parameters imposed, among which cell voltage has a key effect. Although oxidation kinetics have been investigated in several research works, a broader vision of oxide properties–including thickness and structure–still has to be achieved, especially in the case of very thin oxide films, few tens of nanometers thick. This is vital for engineered applications of nanostructured TiO 2 films, as in the field of memristive devices, where a precise control of oxide thickness, composition and structure is required to tune its electrical response. In this work, oxide films were produced on titanium with thickness ranging from few nanometers to 200 nm. Oxide thickness was estimated by coulometry and spectrophotometry. These techniques were then combined with C-AFM, which provided a deeper understanding of oxide thickness and uniformity of the metal surface and probed the presence of crystalline nano-domains within the amorphous oxide phase affecting the overall film electrical and optical properties

  2. Characterization of nanometer-thick polycrystalline silicon with phonon-boundary scattering enhanced thermoelectric properties and its application in infrared sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huchuan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-01-14

    Although significantly reducing the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires has been reported, it remains a challenge to integrate silicon nanowires with structure materials and electrodes in the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. In this paper, we investigated the thermal conductivity of nanometer-thick polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) theoretically and experimentally. By leveraging the phonon-boundary scattering, the thermal conductivity of 52 nm thick poly-Si was measured as low as around 12 W mK(-1) which is only about 10% of the value of bulk single crystalline silicon. The ZT of n-doped and p-doped 52 nm thick poly-Si was measured as 0.067 and 0.024, respectively, while most previously reported data had values of about 0.02 and 0.01 for a poly-Si layer with a thickness of 0.5 μm and above. Thermopile infrared sensors comprising 128 pairs of thermocouples made of either n-doped or p-doped nanometer-thick poly-Si strips in a series connected by an aluminium (Al) metal interconnect layer are fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology. The measured vacuum specific detectivity (D*) of the n-doped and p-doped thermopile infrared (IR) sensors are 3.00 × 10(8) and 1.83 × 10(8) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1) for sensors of 52 nm thick poly-Si, and 5.75 × 10(7) and 3.95 × 10(7) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1) for sensors of 300 nm thick poly-Si, respectively. The outstanding thermoelectric properties indicate our approach is promising for diverse applications using ultrathin poly-Si technology.

  3. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Labram, John G.

    2015-02-13

    Physical phenomena such as energy quantization have to-date been overlooked in solution-processed inorganic semiconducting layers, owing to heterogeneity in layer thickness uniformity unlike some of their vacuum-deposited counterparts. Recent reports of the growth of uniform, ultrathin (<5 nm) metal-oxide semiconductors from solution, however, have potentially opened the door to such phenomena manifesting themselves. Here, a theoretical framework is developed for energy quantization in inorganic semiconductor layers with appreciable surface roughness, as compared to the mean layer thickness, and present experimental evidence of the existence of quantized energy states in spin-cast layers of zinc oxide (ZnO). As-grown ZnO layers are found to be remarkably continuous and uniform with controllable thicknesses in the range 2-24 nm and exhibit a characteristic widening of the energy bandgap with reducing thickness in agreement with theoretical predictions. Using sequentially spin-cast layers of ZnO as the bulk semiconductor and quantum well materials, and gallium oxide or organic self-assembled monolayers as the barrier materials, two terminal electronic devices are demonstrated, the current-voltage characteristics of which resemble closely those of double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes. As-fabricated all-oxide/hybrid devices exhibit a characteristic negative-differential conductance region with peak-to-valley ratios in the range 2-7.

  4. A parametric study of laser induced ablation-oxidation on porous silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, Luca; Rea, Ilaria; Nigro, M Arcangela; Della Corte, Francesco G; Rendina, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the laser induced ablation-oxidation process on porous silicon layers having different porosities and thicknesses by non-destructive optical techniques. In particular, the interaction between a low power blue light laser and the porous silicon surfaces has been characterized by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidation profiles etched on the porous samples can be tuned as functions of the layer porosity and laser fluence. Oxide stripes of width less than 2 μm and with thicknesses between 100 nm and 5 μm have been produced, depending on the porosity of the porous silicon, by using a 40 x focusing objective

  5. Optical properties of amorphous SiO2-TiO2 multi-nanolayered coatings for 1064-nm mirror technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnozzi, M.; Terreni, S.; Anghinolfi, L.; Uttiya, S.; Carnasciali, M. M.; Gemme, G.; Neri, M.; Principe, M.; Pinto, I.; Kuo, L.-C.; Chao, S.; Canepa, M.

    2018-01-01

    The use of amorphous, SiO2-TiO2 nanolayered coatings has been proposed recently for the mirrors of 3rd-generation interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, to be operated at low temperature. Coatings with a high number of low-high index sub-units pairs with nanoscale thickness were found to preserve the amorphous structure for high annealing temperatures, a key factor to improve the mechanical quality of the mirrors. The optimization of mirror designs based on such coatings requires a detailed knowledge of the optical properties of sub-units at the nm-thick scale. To this aim we have performed a Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) study of amorphous SiO2-TiO2 nanolayered films deposited on Si wafers by Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS). We have analyzed films that are composed of 5 and 19 nanolayers (NL5 and NL19 samples) and have total optical thickness nominally equivalent to a quarter of wavelength at 1064 nm. A set of reference optical properties for the constituent materials was obtained by the analysis of thicker SiO2 and TiO2 homogeneous films (∼ 120 nm) deposited by the same IBS facility. By flanking SE with ancillary techniques, such as TEM and AFM, we built optical models that allowed us to retrieve the broad-band (250-1700 nm) optical properties of the nanolayers in the NL5 and NL19 composite films. In the models which provided the best agreement between simulation and data, the thickness of each sub-unit was fitted within rather narrow bounds determined by the analysis of TEM measurements on witness samples. Regarding the NL5 sample, with thickness of 19.9 nm and 27.1 nm for SiO2 and TiO2 sub-units, respectively, the optical properties presented limited variations with respect to the thin film counterparts. For the NL19 sample, which is composed of ultrathin sub-units (4.4 nm and 8.4 nm for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively) we observed a significant decrease of the IR refraction index for both types of sub-units; this points to a lesser mass density with

  6. Secondary electron emission influenced by oxidation on the aluminum surface: the roles of the chemisorbed oxygen and the oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Hoekstra, Bart; Wang, Zhen-Bin; Qiu, Jie; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2018-04-01

    A relationship between the apparent secondary electron yield ({γ }{{se}}) and the oxygen coverage/oxide layer thickness on an aluminum cathode is obtained in an experiment under a controlled environment. The apparent secondary electron yield ({γ }{{se}}) is deduced from the breakdown voltage between two parallel plate electrodes in a 360 mTorr argon environment using a simple Townsend breakdown model with the assumption that the variation of the apparent secondary electron yield is dominated by the variation of the argon ion induced processes. The oxygen coverage/oxide layer thickness on the aluminum cathode is measured by a semi in situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy equipment which is directly attached to the discharge chamber. It is found that three phases exist: (1) in the monomonolayer regime, as the oxygen coverage increases from 0 to 0.3, {γ }{{se}} decreases by nearly 40 % , (2) as the oxygen coverage increases from 0.3 to 1, {γ }{{se}} keeps nearly constant, (3) as the oxide layer thickness increases from about 0.3 nm to about 1.1 nm, {γ }{{se}} increases by 150 % . We propose that, in the submonolayer regime, the chemisorbed oxygen on the aluminum surface causes the decrease of {γ }{{se}} by creating a local potential barrier, which reduces the Auger neutralization rate and the energy gained by the Auger electrons. In the multilayer regime, as the oxide layer grows in thickness, there are three proposed mechanisms which cause the increase of {γ }{{se}}: (1) the work function decreases; (2) resonance neutralization and Auger de-excitation may exist. This is served as another channel for secondary electron production; (3) the kinetic energy of Auger electrons is increased on average, leading to a higher probability for electrons to overcome the surface potential barrier.

  7. Optimum thickness evaluation of ZrO2 coating on type 304L stainless steel for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Nidhi; Bera, Santanu; Velmurugan, S.; Tripathi, V.S.; Karki, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nano-crystalline ZrO 2 coatings of different thickness have been grown on pre-oxidized stainless steel (SS) surface by hydrothermal method in an autoclave. Thickness of the coating has been enhanced by repeating the deposition process several times using same precursor concentration. Several cycles of the deposition process lead to the increase of the coating thickness from 200 nm to ∼1 μm after the fourth round of deposition. The samples after different rounds of the coating have been extensively characterized by SEM-EDS technique to find the surface topography, coating thickness and composition. Corrosion resistance properties of the plain SS, pre-oxidized SS and all the ZrO 2 coated samples were studied by potentiodynamic polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion current densities (I corr /cm 2 ) of the coated samples are found to reduce significantly with the increase in thickness. After a certain critical thickness, the corrosion resistance properties found to deteriorate due to the formation of coating defects caused by lattice strain. The coating was found to be continuous but porous after the first cycle but porosity of zirconia coating have been reduced drastically after the second cycle itself. EIS analysis confirms that the zirconia coated samples show insulating, barrier like characteristics in terms of high charge transfer resistance after the second cycle of zirconia deposition. The role of pre-oxidized surface composition and the interface between the pre-oxidized surface and the coating has been discussed in details by showing the depth distribution of Zr in the coating. (author)

  8. Analysis of zircaloy oxide thickness data from PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, K.D.; Speyer, D.M.; Chan, Y.Y.; Frankl, I.; Strasser, A.A.

    1990-02-01

    Prior EPRI funded research (Project 1250-1) resulted in a set of Zircaloy waterside corrosion models. These models were based principally on KWU reactor data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the KWU corrosion models to predict available domestic USA data for all domestic PWR vendors in order to further validate the models and to provide a consistent basis to judge the corrosion data of the domestic plants. A methodology for analyzing the large amount of data was developed and implemented in a single channel model. This model includes the capability, by a method described herein, of accounting for open core related effects (crossflow) and the effect of the immediately adjacent fuel rods, guide tubes, etc., on the coolant conditions around the fuel rods that were measured for oxide thickness. Data from the Arkansas Unit number-sign 2 (ANO-2) Combustion Engineering (C-E), Oconee Units 1 and 2 built by Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W), and the Trojan reactor built by Westinghouse (W) were used in this study. The corrosion models previously developed, and the present single channel model methodology, were able to predict the corrosion data quite well. The maximum corrosion thickness was on the order of 20 to 40 microns in all plants studied. 13 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Formation and electrical characteristics of silicon dioxide layers by use of nitric acid oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imal, S.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuba, K.; Asuha; Ishikawa, Y.; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2005-01-01

    SiO 2 /Si structure can be formed at low temperatures by use of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) oxidation of Si (NAOS) method. When Si wafers are immersed in ∼ 40 wt% HNO 3 solutions at 108 deg C, ∼ 1 nm SiO 2 layers are formed. The subsequent immersion in 68 wt% HNO 3 (i.e., azeotropic mixture of HNO 3 with water) at 121 deg C increases the SiO 2 thickness. The 3,5 nm-thick SiO 2 layers produced by this two-step NAOS method possess a considerably low leakage current density (e.g. 1 x 10 2 A/cmi 2 at the forward gate bias, V G , of 1.5 V), in spite of the low temperature oxidation, and further decreased (e.g., 8 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at V G = 1.5 V) by post-metallization annealing at 250 deg C in hydrogen atmosphere. In order to increase the SiO 2 thickness, a bias voltage is applied during the NAOS method. When 10 V is applied to Si with respect to a Pt counter electrode both immersed in 1 M HNO 3 solutions at 25 deg C, SiO 2 layers with 8 nm thickness can be formed for 1 h(Authors)

  10. Thickness and composition of ultrathin SiO2 layers on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marel, C. van der; Verheijen, M.A.; Tamminga, Y.; Pijnenburg, R.H.W.; Tombros, N.; Cubaynes, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrathin SiO 2 layers are of importance for the semiconductor industry. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the chemical composition and thickness of this type of layers is x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As shown by Seah and Spencer [Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 640 (2002)], it is not trivial to characterize this type of layer by means of XPS in a reliable way. We have investigated a series of ultrathin layers of SiO 2 on Si (in the range from 0.3 to 3 nm) using XPS. The samples were also analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and ellipsometry. The thickness of the SiO 2 layers (d) was determined from the XPS results using three different approaches: the 'standard' equation (Seah and Spencer) for d, an overlayer-substrate model calculation, and the QUASES-Tougaard [Surf. Interface Anal. 26, 249 (1998), QUASES-Tougaard: Software package for Quantitative Analysis of Surfaces by Electron Spectroscopy, version 4.4 (2000); http://www.quases.com] method. Good agreement was obtained between the results of XPS analyses using the 'standard' equation, the overlayer-substrate model calculation, and RBS results. The QUASES-Tougaard results were approximately 62% above the other XPS results. The optical values for the thickness were always slightly higher than the thickness according to XPS or RBS. Using the model calculation, these (relatively small) deviations from the optical results could be explained as being a consequence of surface contaminations with hydrocarbons. For a thickness above 2.5 nm, the TEM results were in good agreement with the results obtained from the other techniques (apart from QUASES-Tougaard). Below 2.5 nm, significant deviations were found between RBS, XPS, and optical data on the one hand and TEM results on the other hand; the deviations became larger as the thickness of the SiO 2 decreased. This effect may be related to interface states of oxygen, which have been

  11. Room temperature plasma oxidation: A new process for preparation of ultrathin layers of silicon oxide, and high dielectric constant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, J.C.; Estrada, M.; Baez, H.; Cerdeira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present basic features and oxidation law of the room temperature plasma oxidation (RTPO), as a new process for preparation of less than 2 nm thick layers of SiO 2 , and high-k layers of TiO 2 . We show that oxidation rate follows a potential law dependence on oxidation time. The proportionality constant is function of pressure, plasma power, reagent gas and plasma density, while the exponent depends only on the reactive gas. These parameters are related to the physical phenomena occurring inside the plasma, during oxidation. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated with these layers are characterized by capacitance-voltage, current-voltage and current-voltage-temperature measurements. Less than 2.5 nm SiO 2 layers with surface roughness similar to thermal oxide films, surface state density below 3 x 10 11 cm -2 and current density in the expected range for each corresponding thickness, were obtained by RTPO in a parallel-plate reactor, at 180 mW/cm 2 and pressure range between 9.33 and 66.5 Pa (0.07 and 0.5 Torr) using O 2 and N 2 O as reactive gases. MOS capacitors with TiO 2 layers formed by RTPO of sputtered Ti layers are also characterized. Finally, MOS capacitors with stacked layers of TiO 2 over SiO 2 , both layers obtained by RTPO, were prepared and evaluated to determine the feasibility of the use of TiO 2 as a candidate for next technology nodes

  12. Swift heavy ion induced de wetting of metal oxide thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolse, T.; Paulus, H.; Bolse, W.

    2006-01-01

    We have observed that thin oxide coatings (NiO, Fe 2 O 3 ) tend to dewet their Si substrate when being bombarded with swift heavy ions (350-600 MeV Au ions) even though the irradiation was carried out about 80 K and hence, the films never reached their melting point. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy reveal a surprising similarity of the dewetting morphologies with those observed for molten polymer films on Si, which have recently been reported by others [S. Herminghaus, K. Jakobs, K. Mecke, J. Bischof, A. Fery, M. Ibn-Elhaj, S. Schlagowsky, Science 282 (1998) 916; R. Seemann, S. Herminghaus, K. Jacobs, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 (2001) 4925]. Like in that cases also here heterogeneous and homogeneous hole nucleation could be identified. Heterogeneous nucleation is less pronounced in Fe 2 O 3 /Si than in NiO/Si. The occurrence of spinodal-like dewetting cannot be detected unambiguously. The dewetting kinetics were determined by means of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and found to slightly differ for the two compounds. The dewetting kinetics as well as the final dewetting pattern strongly depend on the initial film thicknesses. No dewetting occurs for film thicknesses above about 150 nm, while for very small thicknesses below about 40 nm the film decays into nm-sized spherical droplets. At intermediate film thicknesses percolated networks of small oxide bridges are formed

  13. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0 which improves the efficiency of HIT solar cell. The ultrathin thermal passivation silicon oxide (SiO2 layer was deposited by RTO system in the temperature range 500–950°C for 2 to 6 minutes. The thickness of the silicon oxide layer was affected by RTO annealing temperature and treatment time. The best value of surface recombination velocity was recorded for the sample treated at a temperature of 850°C for 6 minutes at O2 flow rate of 3 Lpm. A surface recombination velocity below 25 cm/s was obtained for the silicon oxide layer of 4 nm thickness. This ultrathin SiO2 layer was employed for the fabrication of HIT solar cell structure instead of a-Si:H, (i layer and the passivation and tunneling effects of the silicon oxide layer were exploited. The photocurrent was decreased with the increase of illumination intensity and SiO2 thickness.

  14. Reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide thick films and alumina substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Ilushechkin, A.; Yamashita, T.; Bhargava, A.; Barry, J.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The structure and composition of reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide (BSCCO) thick films and alumina substrates have been characterized using a combination of electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sr and Ca are found to be the most reactive cations with alumina. Sr 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 is formed between the alumina substrates and BSCCO thick films prepared from paste with composition close to Bi-2212 (and Bi-2212+10 wt.% Ag). For paste with composition close to Bi(Pb)-2223 +20 wt.% Ag, a new phase with f.c.c. structure, lattice parameter about a=24.5 A and approximate composition Al 3 Sr 2 CaBi 2 CuO x has been identified in the interface region. Understanding and control of these reactions is essential for growth of high quality BSCCO thick films on alumina. (orig.)

  15. Characterization Of Oxide Layers Produced On The AISI 321 Stainless Steel After Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochnowski W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure, chemical composition and topography of oxide layers produced on the surface of the AISI 321 austenitic steel in the annealing process were analyzed. Heat treatment was done at 980°C temperature for 1 hour time in different conditions. The annealing was done in a ceramic furnace in oxidation atmosphere and in vacuum furnaces with cylindrical molybdenum and graphite chambers. The analysis was carried out using the following methods: a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, a transmission electron microscope (TEM equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, an X-ray diffractometer (XRD, a secondary ion mass spectrometer with time-of-flight mass analyzer (TOF SIMS and an atomic force microscope (AFM. The oxide layer formed during annealing of the AISI 321 steel at 980°C consisted of sub-layers, diversified in the chemical composition. The thickness of the oxidized layer is depended on the annealing conditions. In a ceramic furnace in oxidation atmosphere, the thickness of the oxide layer was of 300-500 nm, in a vacuum furnace with molybdenum and graphite heating chambers, it ranged from 40 to 300 nm and from a few to 50 nm, respectively. TOF SIMS method allows to get average (for the surface of 100 μm × 100 μm depth profiles of concentration of particular elements and elements combined with oxygen. In oxide layers formed in vacuum furnaces there are no iron oxides. Titanium, apart from being bounded with carbon in carbides, is a component of the oxide layer formed on the surface of the AISI 321 steel.

  16. Structural and electronic characterization of 355 nm laser-crystallized silicon: Interplay of film thickness and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semler, Matthew R.; Swenson, Orven F.; Hoey, Justin M.; Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Gette, Cody R.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the laser crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films as a function of laser fluence and film thickness. Silicon films grown through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were subjected to a Q-switched, diode-pumped solid-state laser operating at 355 nm. The crystallinity, morphology, and optical and electronic properties of the films are characterized through transmission and reflectance spectroscopy, resistivity measurements, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and optical and scanning-electron microscopy. Our results reveal a unique surface morphology that strongly couples to the electronic characteristics of the films, with a minimum laser fluence at which the film properties are optimized. A simple scaling model is used to relate film morphology to conductivity in the laser-processed films

  17. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb via Ca2+/calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and AMP kinase (AMPK) and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM) increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (pthick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects.

  18. Deuterium permeation behavior of HTUPS4 steel with thermal oxidation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Si-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Jing; An, Zhong-Qing; Lu, Tao; Liu, Hao-Dong; Ding, Fang; Zhou, Hai-Shan; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The permeation behavior of creep-resistant, Al 2 O 3 -forming HTUPS austenitic stainless steels was studied using a gas driven permeation (GDP) device. The steel samples were first thermal oxidized at air condition, followed by GDP experiments. The permeability and diffusion coefficients of oxidized samples and bare 316L steels were derived and compared. In order to characterize the oxide layer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed. An oxide layer with a thickness of 200 nm which mainly consists of Al 2 O 3 was detected.

  19. Comparison of 193 nm and 308 nm laser liquid printing by shadowgraphy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: apalla@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Shaw-Stewart, J. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mattle, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinca, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Over the last years laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a versatile and powerful tool for engineering surfaces with active compounds. Soft, easily damageable materials can be transferred using a triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer which acts as a pressure generator and at the same time protects the material from direct laser irradiation. To understand and optimize the transfer process of biomolecules in liquid solution by using an intermediate triazene polymer photosensitive layer, shadowgraphy imaging is carried out. Two laser systems i.e. an ArF laser operating at 193 nm and a XeCl laser operating at 308 nm are applied for the transfer. Solutions with 50% v/v glycerol concentration are prepared and the influence of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer thickness (60 nm) on the deposits is studied. The shadowgraphy images reveal a pronounced difference between laser-induced forward transfer using 193 nm or 308 nm, i.e. very different shapes of the ejected liquid.

  20. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  1. Organic photovoltaic effects depending on CuPc layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Sung Woo; Kim, Tae Wan; Chung, Dong Hoe; Oh, Hyun Seok; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Joon Ung; Park, Jong Wook

    2004-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic effects were studied in device structures of ITO/CuPc/Al and ITO/CuPc/C 60 /BCP/Al by varying the CuPc layer thickness. Since the exciton diffusion length is relatively short in organic semiconductors, a study on the thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects is important. The thickness of the CuPc layer was varied from 10 nm to 50 nm. We found that the optimum CuPc layer thickness was around 40 nm from the analysis of the current density-voltage characteristics in an ITO/CuPc/Al photovoltaic cell. The efficiency of the device shows that the multi-layered heterojunction structure is more appropriate for photovoltaic cells.

  2. Sputter fabricated Nb-oxide-Nb josephson junctions incorporating post-oxidation noble metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.J.P.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present an extension, involving other metals, of the work of Hawkins and Clarke, who found that a thin layer of copper prevented the formation of the superconductive shorts which are an inevitable consequence of sputtering niobium counter-electrodes directly on top of niobium oxide. We find gold to be the most satisfactory, and that 0.3 nm is sufficient to guarantee short-free junctions of excellent electrical and mechanical stability, though high excess conductance means they are best suited to shunted-junction applications, as in SQUIDs. We present results for critical current dependence on oxide thickness and on gold thickness. Our data shows that thermal oxide growth is described by the Cabrera-Mott mechanism. We show that the protective effect of the gold layer can be understood in terms of the electro-chemistry of the Nb-oxide-Au structure, and that the reduced quasi-particle resistance of the junctions relative to goldfree junctions with evaporated counterelectrodes can be explained in terms of barrier shape modification, and not by proximity effect mechanisms. The performance of a DC SQUID based on these junctions is described

  3. Hydrogen interaction with oxidized Si(111) probed with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Nielsen, B.; Welch, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    A variable-energy positron beam was utilized to study the interface action of hydrogen with Si(111) covered by an ultrahigh-vacuum thermally grown oxide of 2-3 nm thickness. It was observed that positrons implanted at shallow depth (< 100 nm) after diffusion are trapped either at the interface between the oxide and the Si or in the oxide. The positron-annihilation characteristics of these trapped positrons are found to be very sensitive to hydrogen exposure. The momentum distribution of the annihilating positron-electron pair, as observed in the Doppler broadening of the annihilation line, broadens considerably after exposure to hydrogen. The effect recovers after annealing at ≅ 1100 K, suggesting a hydrogen binding at the interface of ∼ 3 ± 0.3 eV. (author). 18 refs., 3 figs

  4. Effects of Zinc Injection on the Cladding Oxide Thickness in the Domestic Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hak Kyu; Kim, Hong Jin; Shin, Jung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The first commercial plant for zinc injection demonstration was Farley-2 in 1994, and the effect of zinc injection was successfully demonstrated. Since then the PWR with zinc injection has been increased, there are about 80 PWR with zinc injection in the world in 2012. Zinc injection at the high duty plant has potential risk of increasing the cladding oxide thickness. Zinc injection doesn't affect the cladding corrosion directly but it may negatively affect crud deposit in the subcooled boiling region of the fuel. So the effect of zinc injection on fuel integrity has been evaluated. For low duty plant it is confirmed that zinc injection doesn't affect the fuel integrity. For high duty plant Callaway in U. S. and Vandellos II in Spain were successfully demonstrated but the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was still lacking. Thus EPRI recommend the fuel surveillance programs for the high duty plant to apply zinc. The High Duty Core Index (HDCI) of most domestic nuclear power plant is above 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F. Those plants with a HDCI of 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F or greater may be considered as 'high duty'. As aforementioned, the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was lacking. Thus to apply zinc injection in domestic plant with high duty, prudent approach is needed. In this study the effect of zinc injection in Hanul unit 1 with a HDCI of around 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F was evaluated. And in the next study the effect of zinc injection in the plant of HDCI of around 200 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F will be evaluated. Zinc injection had not caused any increase in oxide thickness in Hanul unit 1. Most of the oxide thickness measurement data with zinc injection are well within the non-zinc injection database. And the computer code which was developed based on non-zinc injection database well predicts oxide thickness for fuel rod with zinc injection. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc injection doesn't accelerate clad corrosion. Based

  5. Effects of layer sequence and postdeposition annealing temperature on performance of La2O3 and HfO2 multilayer composite oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As for MOS capacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Chuang, Ting-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chen; Hou, Tzu-Ching; Yao, Jing-Neng; Chang, Po-Chun; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we report on high-k composite oxides that are formed by depositing multiple layers of HfO2 and La2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As for MOS device application. Both multilayer HfO2 (0.8 nm)/La2O3 (0.8 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As and La2O3 (0.8 nm)/HfO2 (0.8 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As MOS structures were investigated. The effects of oxide thickness and postdeposition annealing (PDA) temperature on the interface properties of the composite oxide MOS capacitors were studied. It was found that a low CET of 1.41 nm at 1 kHz was achieved using three-layer composite oxides. On the other hand, a small frequency dispersion of 2.8% and an excellent Dit of 7.0 × 1011 cm-2·eV-1 can be achieved using multiple layers of La2O3 (0.8 nm) and HfO2 (0.8 nm) on the In0.53Ga0.47As MOS capacitor with optimum thermal treatment and layer thickness.

  6. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  7. Native oxide formation on pentagonal copper nanowires: A TEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimammadov, Rashad; Mohl, Melinda; Kordas, Krisztian

    2018-06-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized copper nanowires were allowed to oxidize in air at room temperature and 30% constant humidity for the period of 22 days. The growth of native oxide layer was followed up by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction to reveal and understand the kinetics of the oxidation process. Copper oxides appear in the form of differently oriented crystalline phases around the metallic core as a shell-like layer (Cu2O) and as nanoscopic islands (CuO) on the top of that. Time dependent oxide thickness data suggests that oxidation follows the field-assisted growth model at the beginning of the process, as practically immediately an oxide layer of ∼2.8 nm thickness develops on the surface. However, after this initial rapid growth, the local field attenuates and the classical parabolic diffusion limited growth plays the main role in the oxidation. Because of the single crystal facets on the side surface of penta-twinned Cu nanowires, the oxidation rate in the diffusion limited regime is lower than in polycrystalline films.

  8. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.

  9. Study on low temperature solid oxide fuel cells using Y Doped BaZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ikw Hang; Ji, Sang Hoon; Paek, Jun Yeol; Lee, Yoon Ho; Park, Tae Hyun; Cha, Suk Won [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In this study, we fabricate and investigate low temperature solid oxide fuel cells with a ceramic substrate/porous matal/ceramic/porous metal structure. To realize low temperature operation in solid oxide fuel cells, the membrane should be fabricated to have a thickness of the order of a few hundreds nanometers to minimize IR loss Yttrium doped barium zirconate (BYZ), a proton conductor, was used as the electrolyte. We deposited a 350nm thick Pt (anode) layer on a porous substrate by sputter deposition. We also deposited a 1{mu}m thick BYZ layer on the Pt anode using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Finally, we deposited a 200nm thick Pt (cathode) layer on the BYZ electrolyte by sputter deposition. The open circuit voltage (OCV) is 0.806V, and the maximum power density is 11.9mW/cm'2' at 350 .deg. C. Even though a fully dense electrolyte is deposited via PLD, a cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image reveals many voids and defects.

  10. The magnetic characteristics of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with MgO and Al-O oxidation layers in various thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-J.; Canizo-Cabrera, A.; Chang, C.-H.; Liao, K.-A.; Li, Simon C.; Hou, C.-K.; Wu Teho

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show the magnetic characteristics of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) with different oxidation layers. The pMTJs structures were made by RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Individual depositions of magnesium oxide layers and of aluminum oxide films were prepared by plasma oxidation. The experimental results showed that the initial switching field was decreased as the magnesium oxide thickness was increased. Further work of the aluminum oxide surface roughness and hysteresis loop influenced by different oxidation layers on pMTJs structures will be discussed as well

  11. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Allison M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mangum, Benjamin D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Piryatinski, Andrei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Young-Shin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-21

    Fields as diverse as biological imaging and telecommunications utilize the unique photophysical and electronic properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). The development of new NQD compositions promises material properties optimized for specific applications, while addressing material toxicity. Indium phosphide (InP) offers a 'green' alternative to the traditional cadmium-based NQDs, but suffers from extreme susceptibility to oxidation. Coating InP cores with more stable shell materials significantly improves nanocrystal resistance to oxidation and photostability. We have investigated several new InP-based core-shell compositions, correlating our results with theoretical predictions of their optical and electronic properties. Specifically, we can tailor the InP core-shell QDs to a type-I, quasi-type-II, or type-II bandgap structure with emission wavelengths ranging from 500-1300 nm depending on the shell material used (ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, or CdSe) and the thickness of the shell. Single molecule microscopy assessments of photobleaching and blinking are used to correlate NQD properties with shell thickness.

  12. Growth and characterization of thick cBN coatings on silicon and tool substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewilogua, K.; Keunecke, M.; Weigel, K.; Wiemann, E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently some research groups have achieved progress in the deposition of cubic boron nitride (cBN) coatings with a thickness of 2 μm and more, which is necessary for cutting tool applications. In our laboratory, thick cBN coatings were sputter deposited on silicon substrates using a boron carbide target. Following a boron carbide interlayer (few 100 nm thick), a gradient layer with continuously increasing nitrogen content was prepared. After the cBN nucleation, the process parameters were modified for the cBN film growth to a thickness of more than 2 μm. However, the transfer of this technology to technically relevant substrates, like cemented carbide cutting inserts, required some further process modifications. At first, a titanium interlayer had to be deposited followed by a more than 1-μm-thick boron carbide layer. The next steps were identical to those on silicon substrates. The total coating thickness was in the range of 3 μm with a 0.5- to nearly 1-μm-thick cBN top layer. In spite of the enormous intrinsic stress, both the coatings on silicon and on cemented carbide exhibited a good adhesion and a prolonged stability in humid air. Oxidation experiments revealed a stability of the coating system on cemented carbide up to 700 deg. C and higher. Coated cutting inserts were tested in turning operations with different metallic workpiece materials. The test results will be compared to those of well-established cutting materials, like polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) and oxide ceramics, considering the wear of coated tools

  13. Structural evolution of tunneling oxide passivating contact upon thermal annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Min, Kwan Hong; Jeong, Myeong Sang; Lee, Jeong In; Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-Eun; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Ka-Hyun

    2017-10-16

    We report on the structural evolution of tunneling oxide passivating contact (TOPCon) for high efficient solar cells upon thermal annealing. The evolution of doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) into polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) by thermal annealing was accompanied with significant structural changes. Annealing at 600 °C for one minute introduced an increase in the implied open circuit voltage (V oc ) due to the hydrogen motion, but the implied V oc decreased again at 600 °C for five minutes. At annealing temperature above 800 °C, a-Si:H crystallized and formed poly-Si and thickness of tunneling oxide slightly decreased. The thickness of the interface tunneling oxide gradually decreased and the pinholes are formed through the tunneling oxide at a higher annealing temperature up to 1000 °C, which introduced the deteriorated carrier selectivity of the TOPCon structure. Our results indicate a correlation between the structural evolution of the TOPCon passivating contact and its passivation property at different stages of structural transition from the a-Si:H to the poly-Si as well as changes in the thickness profile of the tunneling oxide upon thermal annealing. Our result suggests that there is an optimum thickness of the tunneling oxide for passivating electron contact, in a range between 1.2 to 1.5 nm.

  14. Shungite as the natural pantry of nanoscale reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Sheka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shungite is presented as a natural carbon allotrope of a multilevel fractal structure that is formed by a successive aggregation of ~1 nm reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. Turbostratic stacks of the sheets of ~1.5 nm in thickness and globular composition of the stacks of ~6 nm in size determine the secondary and tertiary levels of the structure. Aggregates of globules of tens of nanometers complete the structure. Molecular theory of graphene oxide, supported by large experience gained by the modern graphene science, has led to the foundation of the suggested presentation. The microscopic view has found a definite confirmation when analyzing the available empirical appearance of shungite. To our knowledge, this is the first time a geological process is described at quantum level.

  15. Characterization of 10 μm thick porous silicon dioxide obtained by complex oxidation process for RF application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a 10 μm thick oxide layer structure, which can be used as a substrate for RF circuits. The structure has been fabricated by anodic reaction and complex oxidation, which is a combined process of low temperature thermal oxidation (500 deg. C, for 1 h at H 2 O/O 2 ) and a rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) process (1050 deg. C, for 1 min). The electrical characteristics of oxidized porous silicon layer (OPSL) were almost the same as those of standard thermal silicon dioxide. The leakage current through the OPSL of 10 μm was about 100-500 pA in the range of 0-50 V. The average value of breakdown field was about 3.9 MV cm -1 . From the X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, surface and internal oxide films of OPSL, prepared by complex process were confirmed to be completely oxidized and also the role of RTO process was important for the densification of porous silicon layer (PSL) oxidized at a lower temperature. For the RF-test of Si substrate with thick silicon dioxide layer, we have fabricated high performance passive devices such as coplanar waveguide (CPW) on OPSL substrate. The insertion loss of CPW on OPSL prepared by complex oxidation process was -0.39 dB at 4 GHz and similar to that of CPW on OPSL prepared by a temperature of 1050 deg. C (1 h at H 2 O/O 2 ). Also the return loss of CPW on OPSL prepared by complex oxidation process was -23 dB at 10 GHz, which is similar to that of CPW on OPSL prepared by high temperature

  16. A theoretical analysis of the response of an air-cored eddy current coil for remote oxide thickness measurements on reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1979-10-01

    It is shown how the impedance of an air-cored eddy current coil in close proximity to an oxidised steel component may be calculated. Representative values were selected for the oxide thickness, lift off, operating frequency, conductivities and permeabilities of the oxide coating and steel base. The values of these parameters in the calculations were allowed to vary between suitable limits to quantify the effect of each one on coil impedance. The results of the calculations are used to determine the most suitable conditions for the measurement of oxide thickness on steel components using an air-cored eddy current probe. (author)

  17. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Herbert, F. William; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr 1+ , Zr 2+ , and Zr 3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr 4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO 2 . This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr 0 and Zr 4+ at the metal-oxide interface. The presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr

  18. Contribution of thickness dependent void fraction and TiSixOy interlayer to the optical properties of amorphous TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Xu, Zi-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zi-Yi; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of TiO 2 thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and analyzed quantitatively using effective medium approximation theory and an effective series capacitance model. The refractive indices of TiO 2 are essentially constant and approach to those of bulk TiO 2 for films thicker than 40 nm, but drop sharply with a decrease in thickness from 40 to 5.5 nm. This phenomenon can be interpreted quantitatively by the thickness dependence of the void fraction and interfacial oxide region. The optical band gaps calculated from Tauc law increase with an increase of film thickness, and can be attributed to the contribution of disorder effect. - Highlights: • Amorphous TiO 2 thin films fabricated on Si substrate by electron beam evaporation • The refractive index and band gap are obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry. • The refractive index decreases with decreasing film thickness. • Effective medium approximation theory and effective series capacitance model introduced • A band gap increases gradually with an increase in film thickness

  19. Deformation of confined poly(ethylene oxide) in multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuan-Yar; Hiltner, Anne; Baer, Eric; Korley, LaShanda T J

    2012-04-01

    The effect of confinement on the deformation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied using melt processed coextruded poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) and PEO multilayer films with varying PEO layer thicknesses from 3600 to 25 nm. The deformation mechanism was found to shift as layer thickness was decreased between 510 and 125 nm, from typical axial alignment of the crystalline fraction, as seen in bulk materials, to nonuniform micronecking mechanisms found in solution-grown single crystals. This change was evaluated via tensile testing, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). With the commercially relevant method of melt coextrusion, we were able to overcome the limitations to the testing of solution-grown single crystals, and the artifacts that occur from their handling, and bridged the gap in knowledge between thick bulk materials and thin single crystals.

  20. Electronic structures near surfaces of perovskite type oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toru

    2005-01-01

    This work is intended to draw attention to the origin of the electronic structures near surfaces of perovskite type oxides. Deep states were observed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic measurements. The film thickness dependent electronic structures near surfaces of (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 thin films were observed. As for the 117-308 nm thick (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 films, deep states were lying at 0.20, 0.55, and 0.85 eV below the quasi-fermi level, respectively. However, as for the 40 nm thick (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 film, the states were overlapped. The A-site doping affected electronic structures near surfaces of SrTiO 3 single crystals. No evolution of deep states in non-doped SrTiO 3 single crystal was observed. However, the evolution of deep states in La-doped SrTiO 3 single crystal was observed

  1. Solvent annealing induced phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN blend film: film thickness and solvent dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Huang, Gang; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Yongjin

    2013-06-28

    The competition between "dewetting" and "phase separation" behaviors in polymer blend films attracts significant attention in the last decade. The simultaneous phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN [poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile)] blend ultrathin films upon solvent annealing have been observed for the first time in our previous work. In this work, film thickness and annealing solvent dependence of phase behaviors in this system has been investigated using atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). On one hand, both vertical phase separation and dewetting take place upon selective solvent vapor annealing, leading to the formation of droplet∕mimic-film structures with various sizes (depending on original film thickness). On the other hand, the whole blend film dewets the substrate and produces dispersed droplets on the silicon oxide upon common solvent annealing. GISAXS results demonstrate the phase separation in the big dewetted droplets resulted from the thicker film (39.8 nm). In contrast, no period structure is detected in small droplets from the thinner film (5.1 nm and 9.7 nm). This investigation indicates that dewetting and phase separation in PMMA∕SAN blend film upon solvent annealing depend crucially on the film thickness and the atmosphere during annealing.

  2. Impact of active layer thickness of nitrogen-doped In–Sn–Zn–O films on materials and thin film transistor performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yue; Yang, Hao-Zhi; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Ying-Bo; Xin, Yan-Qing; Yang, Tian-Lin; Sun, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO:N) thin film transistors (TFTs) were deposited on SiO2 (200 nm)/p-Si〈1 0 0〉 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, chemical compositions, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties as a function of the active layer thickness were investigated. As the active layer thickness increases, Zn content decreases and In content increases gradually. Meanwhile, Sn content is almost unchanged. When the thickness of the active layer is more than 45 nm, the ITZO:N films become crystallized and present a crystal orientation along InN(0 0 2) plan. No matter what the thickness is, ITZO:N films always display a high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Their optical band gaps fluctuate between 3.4 eV and 3.62 eV. Due to the dominance of low interface trap density and high carrier concentration, ITZO:N TFT shows enhanced electrical properties as the active layer thickness is 35 nm. Its field-effect mobility, on/off radio and sub-threshold swing are 17.53 cm2 V‑1 · s‑1, 106 and 0.36 V/dec, respectively. These results indicate that the suitable thickness of the active layer can enhance the quality of ITZO:N films and decrease the defects density of ITZO:N TFT. Thus, the properties of ITZO:N TFT can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the active layer.

  3. Indium--tin oxide films radio frequency sputtered from specially formulated high density indium--tin oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Bayard, M.

    1991-01-01

    High density ITO (indium--tin oxide) targets doped with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 manufactured in the Tektronix Ceramics Division have been used to rf sputter ITO films of various thicknesses on borosilicate glass substrates. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in forming gas, resulted in ITO films exhibiting 90% transmission at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq for a thickness of 1100 A. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in air increased sheet resistance without a large effect on the transmission. Films sputtered in argon gas alone were transparent in the visible and the sheet resistance was found to be 100--180 Ω/sq for the same thickness, without annealing

  4. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, H; Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sachan, R; Strader, J; Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Khenner, M, E-mail: ramki@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO{sub 2} under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm {<=} h {<=} 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm {<=} h {<=} 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO{sub 2}. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  5. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  6. Influence of air exposure duration and a-Si capping layer thickness on the performance of p-BaSi{sub 2}/n-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabe, Ryota; Yachi, Suguru; Tsukahara, Daichi; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi, E-mail: suemasu@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Du, Weijie [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Material and Device, College of Mathematics and Science, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Fabrication of p-BaSi{sub 2}(20 nm)/n-Si heterojunction solar cells was performed with different a-Si capping layer thicknesses (d{sub a-Si}) and varying air exposure durations (t{sub air}) prior to the formation of a 70-nm-thick indium-tin-oxide electrode. The conversion efficiencies (η) reached approximately 4.7% regardless of t{sub air} (varying from 12–150 h) for solar cells with d{sub a-Si} = 5 nm. In contrast, η increased from 5.3 to 6.6% with increasing t{sub air} for those with d{sub a-Si} = 2 nm, in contrast to our prediction. For this sample, the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}) and diode ideality factor decreased with t{sub air}, resulting in the enhancement of η. The effects of the variation of d{sub a-Si} (0.7, 2, 3, and 5 nm) upon the solar cell performance were examined while keeping t{sub air} = 150 h. The η reached a maximum of 9.0% when d{sub a-Si} was 3 nm, wherein the open-circuit voltage and fill factor also reached a maximum. The series resistance, shunt resistance, and J{sub 0} exhibited a tendency to decrease as d{sub a-Si} increased. These results demonstrate that a moderate oxidation of BaSi{sub 2} is a very effective means to enhance the η of BaSi{sub 2} solar cells.

  7. Highly strained InGaAs oxide confined VCSELs emitting in 1.25 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.; Yu, H.C.; Su, Y.K.; Chen, I.L.; Lee, T.D.; Lu, C.M.; Chiou, C.H.; Lee, Z.H.; Yang, H.P.; Sung, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Highly strained GaAs-based all-epitaxial oxide confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting in 1.25 μm were fabricated. Compared with the designed cavity resonance, it was found that lasing wavelength blue shifted by 29 nm when the driving current was small. The observation of such oxide mode is attributed to the effective optical thickness shrinkage of the oxide layer, and large detuning between the gain peak and cavity resonance

  8. Effects of Zinc Injection on the Cladding Oxide Thickness in the Domestic Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hak Kyu; Kim, Hong Jin; Shin, Jung Cheol [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The first commercial plant for zinc injection demonstration was Farley-2 in 1994, and the effect of zinc injection was successfully demonstrated. Since then the PWR with zinc injection has been increased, there are about 80 PWR with zinc injection in the world in 2012. Zinc injection at the high duty plant has potential risk of increasing the cladding oxide thickness. Zinc injection doesn't affect the cladding corrosion directly but it may negatively affect crud deposit in the subcooled boiling region of the fuel. So the effect of zinc injection on fuel integrity has been evaluated. For low duty plant it is confirmed that zinc injection doesn't affect the fuel integrity. For high duty plant Callaway in U. S. and Vandellos II in Spain were successfully demonstrated but the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was still lacking. Thus EPRI recommend the fuel surveillance programs for the high duty plant to apply zinc. The High Duty Core Index (HDCI) of most domestic nuclear power plant is above 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F. Those plants with a HDCI of 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F or greater may be considered as 'high duty'. As aforementioned, the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was lacking. Thus to apply zinc injection in domestic plant with high duty, prudent approach is needed. In this study the effect of zinc injection in Hanul unit 1 with a HDCI of around 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F was evaluated. And in the next study the effect of zinc injection in the plant of HDCI of around 200 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F will be evaluated. Zinc injection had not caused any increase in oxide thickness in Hanul unit 1. Most of the oxide thickness measurement data with zinc injection are well within the non-zinc injection database. And the computer code which was developed based on non-zinc injection database well predicts oxide thickness for fuel rod with zinc injection. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc injection doesn

  9. Study optoelectronic properties for polymer composite thick film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobayr, Mahmood Radhi; Al Razak, Ali Hussein Abd; Mahdi, Shatha H.; Fadhil, Rihab Nassr

    2018-05-01

    Coupling the epoxy with cadmium oxide particles are important for optical properties that may be affected by various mixing proportions. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing proportions on these properties of reinforced epoxy with cadmium oxide particles. The ultrasonic techniques were used to mix and prepared samples of composites. The surfaces topographic of the 50 µm thick reinforced epoxy films were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microscopy technique (FTIR) Spectroscopy. AFM imaging and quantitative characterization of the films showed that for all samples the root mean square of the surface roughness increases monotonically with increasing the CdO concentrations (from 0% to 15%). The observed effects of CdO concentrations on surface roughness can be explained by two things: the first reason is that the atoms of additives are combined with the original material to form a new compound that is smoother, more homogeneity and smaller in particle size. The second reason is due to high mixing due to ultrasonic mixing. It is clear also, AFM examination of the prepared samples of reinforced epoxy resin shown that topographical contrast and the identification of small structural details critically depend on hardness of epoxy resin, which in turn depended on the ratio of material (CdO) added. We show that the AFM imaging of the films showed that the mean diameter (104.8nm) of films for all of the samples decreased from 135.50 nm to 83.20 nm with the increase of CdO concentrations.

  10. The passive oxide films growth on 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution measured by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haisong; Wang, Lu; Sun, Dongbai [National Center for Materials Service Safety (NCMS), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Hongying, E-mail: hyyu@ustb.edu.cn [Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The optical properties of passive oxide films on 316L stainless steel were studied. • The thickness of the oxide films (1.5–2.6 nm) increased linearly with the potentials. • The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. • Selective solubility of oxide induced compositional change of passive film. - Abstract: Passive film growth on 316L stainless steel was investigated in borate buffer electrolyte (pH = 9.1) by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and the composition was estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Anodic passivation of 316L SS was carried out in the potential range from 0 V{sub SCE} to 0.9 V{sub SCE}, after potentiostatic polarization for 1800s, the current density decayed from 10{sup −2} A cm{sup −2} to 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. The passive film thickness was simulated from Frenel and Drude reflection equations, the average complex refractive index was assumed to be N = 2.3 − j0.445. The estimated thickness increased linearly with potential from 1.5 nm at 0 V to 2.6 nm at 0.8 V. The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. The passive film mainly contained the oxide/hydroxide of iron and chromium. The selective solubility of oxide in passive film explained the change of iron and chromium content at different potentials. Few nickel and molybdenum also contributed to the passive film with a constant content.

  11. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  12. Electroluminescence and Photoluminescence from a Fluorescent Cobalt Porphyrin Grafted on Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghouri, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    A new graphene oxide-cobalt porphyrin (GO-CoTPP) hybrid material has been used as an emissive layer in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with fundamental structure of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS, 45 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (PVK):2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4- t-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD):GO-CoTPP (70 nm)/1,3,5-tris( N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (TPBI, 20 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. A red electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from thin-film PVK:PBD:CoTPP at 70 nm thickness. When CoTPP was covalently grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, near-white EL was obtained. The white emission, which was composed of bluish green and red, is attributed to electroplex formation at the GO-CoTPP/PBD interface. Such electroplex emission between electrons and holes is a reason for the low turn-on voltage of the GO-CoTPP-based OLED. Maximum luminance efficiency of 1.43 cd/A with Commission International de l'Eclairage coordinates of 0.33 and 0.40 was achieved at current of 0.02 mA and voltage of 14 V.

  13. Enhanced low-temperature oxidation of zirconium alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Fidleris, V.

    1989-01-01

    The linear growth of relatively thick (>300 nm) interference-colored oxide films on zirconium alloy specimens exposed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) coolant at ≤55 o C was unexpected. Initial ideas were that this was a photoconduction effect. Experiments to study photoconduction in thin anodic zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) films in the laboratory were initiated to provide background data. It was found that, in the laboratory, provided a high electric field was maintained across the oxide during ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, enhanced growth of oxide occurred in the irradiated area. Similarly enhanced growth could be obtained on thin thermally formed oxide films that were immersed in an electrolyte with a high electric field superimposed. This enhanced growth was found to be caused by the development of porosity in the barrier oxide layer by an enhanced local dissolution and reprecipitation process during UV irradiation. Similar porosity was observed in the oxide films on the ATR specimens. Since it is not thought that a high electric field could have been present in this instance, localized dissolution of fast-neutron primary recoil tracks may be the operative mechanism. In all instances, the specimens attempt to maintain the normal barrier-layer oxide thickness, which causes the additional oxide growth. Similar mechanisms may have operated during the formation of thick loosely adherent, porous oxides in homogeneous reactor solutions under irradiation, and may be the cause of enhanced oxidation of zirconium alloys in high-temperature water-cooled reactors in some water chemistries. (author)

  14. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Sachan, R; Strader, J; Favazza, C; Khenner, M; Kalyanaraman, R

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm < or = h < or = 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm < or = h < or = 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  15. Work Function Tuning in Sub-20nm Titanium Nitride (TiN) Metal Gate: Mechanism and Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Mehdi

    2011-07-01

    Scaling of transistors (the building blocks of modern information age) provides faster computation at the expense of excessive power dissipation. Thus to address these challenges, high-k/metal gate stack has been introduced in commercially available microprocessors from 2007. Since then titanium nitride (TiN) metal gate’s work function (Wf) tunability with its thickness (thickness increases, work function increases) is a well known phenomenon. Many hypotheses have been made over the years which include but not limited to: trap charge and metal gate nucleation, nitrogen concentration, microstructure agglomeration and global stress, metal oxide formation, and interfacial oxide thickness. However, clear contradictions exist in these assumptions. Also, nearly all these reports skipped a comprehensive approach to explain this complex paradigm. Therefore, in this work we first show a comprehensive physical investigation using transmission electron microcopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM/EELS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to show replacement of oxygen by nitrogen in the metal/dielectric interface, formation of TiONx, reduction of Ti/N concentration and grain size increment happen with TiN thickness increment and thus may increase the work function. Then, using these finding, we experimentally show 100meV of work function modulation in 10nm TiN Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor by using low temperature oxygen annealing. A low thermal budget flow (replicating gate-last) shows similar work function boost up. Also, a work function modulation of 250meV has been possible using oxygen annealing and applying no thermal budget. On the other hand, etch-back of TiN layer can decrease the work function. Thus this study quantifies role of various factors in TiN work function tuning; it also reproduces the thickness varied TiN work function modulation in single thickness TiN thus reducing the

  16. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.

    2014-11-11

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films as the lower layer we built a matrix of bottom-gate Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors of different thickness. We found that the thickness of the Cu2O layer is of major importance in oxidation of the SnO layer underneath. The thicker the Cu2O layer, the more the underlying SnO layer is oxidized, and, hence, the more transistor mobility is enhanced at a specific temperature. Both device performance and the annealing temperature required could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of each layer of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors.

  17. Effect of the Ti-Nanolayer Thickness on the Self-Lift-off of Thick GaN Epitaxial Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugov, A. A.; Malahov, S. S.; Donskov, A. A.; Duhnovskii, M. P.; Knyazev, S. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Yugova, T. G.; Belogorokhov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the type of substrate, sapphire substrate (c- and r-orientation) or GaN/Al_2O_3 template (c- and r-orientations), on the nitridation of an amorphous titanium nanolayer is shown. The effect of the titanium-nanolayer thickness on thick GaN epitaxial layer self-separation from the substrate is revealed. The titanium-nanolayer thickness at which thick GaN layer is reproducibly self-separated is within 20–40 nm.

  18. Estimation of residual life of boiler tubes using steamside oxide scale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikrant, K.S.N.; Ramareddy, G.V.; Pavan, A.H.V.; Singh, Kulvir

    2013-01-01

    In thermal power plants, remaining-life-estimation of boiler tubes is required at regular intervals for a safer and a better functionality of boilers. In this paper, a new method is proposed for the residual life estimation of service exposed boiler tubes using Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Oxide scale thickness measurements, average metal temperature and creep master curve. While steady state conduction heat transfer equations are solved to calculate the average metal temperature, creep master curve is generated from short term stress rupture data of rupture life less than 5000 h on a virgin material. In the present study, the residual life of T22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) service exposed Platen Superheater tube is estimated using two master creep curves, i.e. Larson-Miller Parametric (LMP) method of standard ASME T22 creep data and Wilshire approach of short term stress rupture data of T22. As the residual life is calculated from fundamental conduction heat transfer theory and creep rupture data, the proposed method can be applied for different grades of boiler materials. -- Highlights: ► Residual life is calculated from non-destructive oxide scale thickness, creep master curve and average metal temperature. ► A new method is proposed for calculating residual life using above parameters and from conduction heat transfer principles. ► The method can be applied to different boiler grades for estimating residual life and hence the method is generic

  19. Thickness effects of yttria-doped ceria interlayers on solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zeng; An, Jihwan; Iancu, Andrei; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-11-01

    Determining the optimal thickness range of the interlayed yttria-doped ceria (YDC) films promises to further enhance the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) at low operating temperatures. The YDC interlayers are fabricated by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with one super cycle of the YDC deposition consisting of 6 ceria deposition cycles and one yttria deposition cycle. YDC films of various numbers of ALD super cycles, ranging from 2 to 35, are interlayered into bulk fuel cells with a 200 um thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte. Measurements and analysis of the linear sweep voltammetry of these fuel cells reveal that the performance of the given cells is maximized at 10 super cycles. Auger elemental mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques are employed to determine the film completeness, and they verify 10 super cycles of YDC to be the critical thickness point. This optimal YDC interlayer condition (6Ce1Y × 10 super cycles) is applied to the case of micro fuel cells as well, and the average performance enhancement factor is 1.4 at operating temperatures of 400 and 450 °C. A power density of 1.04 W cm-2 at 500 °C is also achieved with the optimal YDC recipe.

  20. Estimating the thickness of hydrated ultrathin poly(o-phenylenediamine) film by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-C.; Chang, H.-C.

    2004-01-01

    A novel method to measure ultrathin poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PPD) film electropolymerized on gold electrode in liquid was developed. It is based on the force versus distance curve (force curve) of atomic force microscopy (AFM). When 1-0.25 μm/s was chosen as the rising rate of the scanner, and 50% of the confidence interval (CI) as the qualifying threshold value, the thickness of the hydrated polymer film could be calculated. This result was compared with one obtained from an AFM image. A step-like electrode fabricated by a photolithographic process was used. The height difference of the electrode before and after the PPD coating was imaged in liquid, and then the real thickness, 19.6±5.2 nm, was obtained. The sample was also measured by estimating the transition range of the force curve of hydrated PPD film, and the thickness of the hydrated PPD film was determined to be 19.3±8.2 nm. However, the results calculated by integrating the electropolymerized charge for the oxidation process of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) was only one-third as large as it was when using the two previously described methods. This indicated that the structure of hydrated PPD film might have been swollen

  1. Chemical Vapor Identification by Plasma Treated Thick Film Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Srivastava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals the class recognition potential of a four element plasma treated thick film tin oxide gas sensor array exposed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Methanol, Ethanol and Acetone are selected as target VOCs and exposed on sensor array at different concentration in range from 100-1000 ppm. Sensor array consist of four tin oxide sensors doped with 1-4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for 5-10 minute durations. Sensor signal is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA for visual classification of VOCs. Further output of PCA is used as input for classification of VOCs by four pattern classification techniques as: linear discriminant analysis (LDA, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM. All the four classifier results 100 % correct classification rate of VOCs by response analysis of sensor array treated with plasma for 5 minute.

  2. Facile and controllable construction of vanadium pentoxide@conducting polymer core/shell nanostructures and their thickness-dependent synergistic energy storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Ding, Yanbo; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Here, we report a novel approach to prepare metal oxide@conducting polymer core/shell hybrids with controlled shell thickness and morphology, and the influence of PANI shell thickness on the electrochemical performance of V 2 O 5 @PANI core/shell hybrids is systematically investigated. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distance, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Highlights: • Thickness- and morphology-controlled V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated. • The enhancement of energy storage performance of core/shell hybrids varies with the shell thickness. • Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Abstract: Thickness- and morphology-controlled vanadium pentoxide/polyaniline (V 2 O 5 /PANI) core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated by electropolymerization of PANI on V 2 O 5 nanofibers for enhanced energy storage. By simply adjusting the electrodeposition time, the thickness of the PANI shells can be controlled from 5 nm to 47 nm, and the morphology can be changed from coaxial to branched. The influence of shell thickness on the improved Li-ion storage performance of the V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell nanofibers is systematically investigated, and this enhancement of charge capability and cycling stability strongly varies with the shell thickness. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are also proposed. These results provide meaningful references for developing new functional core/shell materials and high-performance energy storage composite materials.

  3. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    HuThese Authors Contributed Equally To This Work., Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05722d

  4. Tuning dipolar magnetic interactions by controlling individual silica coating of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Rojas, P. C.; Tancredi, P.; Moscoso Londoño, O.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Single and fixed size core, core-shell nanoparticles of iron oxides coated with a silica layer of tunable thickness were prepared by chemical routes, aiming to generate a frame of study of magnetic nanoparticles with controlled dipolar interactions. The batch of iron oxides nanoparticles of 4.5 nm radii, were employed as cores for all the coated samples. The latter was obtained via thermal decomposition of organic precursors, resulting on nanoparticles covered with an organic layer that was subsequently used to promote the ligand exchange in the inverse microemulsion process, employed to coat each nanoparticle with silica. The amount of precursor and times of reaction was varied to obtain different silica shell thicknesses, ranging from 0.5 nm to 19 nm. The formation of the desired structures was corroborated by TEM and SAXS measurements, the core single-phase spinel structure was confirmed by XRD, and superparamagnetic features with gradual change related to dipolar interaction effects were obtained by the study of the applied field and temperature dependence of the magnetization. To illustrate that dipolar interactions are consistently controlled, the main magnetic properties are presented and analyzed as a function of center to center minimum distance between the magnetic cores.

  5. Magnetic properties of permalloy films with different thicknesses deposited onto obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Sun, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of obliquely sputtered Cu underlayer of 10 nm on the magnetic properties of normally sputtered Permalloy thin films with different thicknesses from 10 nm to 150 nm has been investigated. It has been found that the samples with the Permalloy layer thickness ranging from 10 nm to 70 nm exhibit a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the increase of the film thickness leads to a decrease of the anisotropy field and the natural resonance frequency. The critical Permalloy layer thickness for stripe domain initiation of these films is about 80 nm, which is thinner than that of obliquely sputtered Permalloy thin films without an underlayer. The characteristic shapes of hysteresis loops which can be called ''transcritical'' are observed above the critical thickness. The condition and mechanism of appearing stripe domain structure were discussed and it has been found that the frequency response of permeability of the anisotropic films shows the characteristics of multi-peak resonance. - Highlights: • Py films were fabricated on obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers by RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of Py layer thickness on anisotropy, ferromagnetic resonance frequency have been studied. • Samples with Py layer (<70 nm) show a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. • Samples with Py layer (>80 nm) show stripe domains and multi-peaks in permeability spectra

  6. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemperek, Tomasz, E-mail: hemperek@uni-bonn.de; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples.

  7. Order in nanometer thick intergranular films at Au-sapphire interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baram, Mor [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Garofalini, Stephen H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 (United States); Kaplan, Wayne D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Au particles were equilibrated on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in the presence of anorthite. {yields} 1.2 nm thick equilibrium films (complexions) were formed at the Au-sapphire interfaces. {yields} Quantitative HRTEM was used to study the atomistic structure of the films. {yields} Structural order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal. {yields} This demonstrates that ordering is an intrinsic part of equilibrium intergranular films. - Abstract: In recent years extensive studies on interfaces have shown that {approx}1 nm thick intergranular films (IGF) exist at interfaces in different material systems, and that IGF can significantly affect the materials' properties. However, there is great deal of uncertainty whether such films are amorphous or partially ordered. In this study specimens were prepared from Au particles that were equilibrated on sapphire substrates in the presence of anorthite glass, leading to the formation of 1.2 nm thick IGF at the Au-sapphire interfaces. Site-specific cross-section samples were characterized using quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy to study the atomistic structure of the films. Order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal in the form of 'Ca cages', experimentally demonstrating that ordering is an intrinsic part of IGF, as predicted from molecular dynamics and diffuse interface theory.

  8. Effect of Thickness on the Morphology and Corrosion Behavior of Cerium-Based Conversion Coatings on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Carlos E.; Maddela, Surender; O'Keefe, Matthew J.; Wang, Yar-Ming

    Cerium-based conversion coatings (CeCCs) were deposited onto AZ31B magnesium alloy substrates using a spontaneous reaction of CeCl3, H2O2 and gelatin in a water-based solution. The coating thickness was adjusted by controlling the immersion time in the deposition solution. Prior to deposition, the AZ31B substrates were treated using an acid pickling in nitric acid and then an alkaline cleaning in sodium metasilicate pentahydrate. After deposition, the coated samples were immersed in a phosphate bath that converted cerium oxide/hydroxide into cerium phosphate. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and neutral salt spray testing studies indicated that 100 nm thick CeCC had better corrosion performance than 400 nm coatings. Characterization of the CeCCs by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed a three layer structure with different compositions.

  9. Monitoring the in-situ oxide growth on uranium by ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweke, Danielle; Maimon, Chen; Chernia, Zelig; Livneh, Tsachi

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate the in-situ monitoring of oxide growth on U-0.1 wt. % Cr by means of UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy in the thickness range of ˜20-150 nm. Two different approaches are presented: In the "modeling approach," we employ a model for a metallic substrate covered by a dielectric layer, while taking into account the buildup of oxygen gradient and surface roughness. Then, we fit the simulated spectra to the experimental one. In the "extrema analysis," we derive an approximated analytical expression, which relates the oxide thickness to the position of the extrema in the reflectance spectra based on the condition for optical interference of the reflected light. Good agreement is found between the values extracted by the two procedures. Activation energy of ˜21 kcal/mole was obtained by monitoring the oxide growth in the temperature range of 22-90 °C. The upper bound for the thickness determination is argued to be mostly dictated by cracking and detachment processes in the formed oxide.

  10. Fabrication of electrodeposited Co-Pt nano-arrays embedded in an anodic aluminum oxide/Ti/Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S.K. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, G.H. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, I.S. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Na, S.M. [Advanced Materials and Process Research for IT, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: nsmv2k@skku.edu; Suh, S.J. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Materials and Process Research for IT, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, which is filled with the Co-Pt alloys, is a promising material for high-density magnetic recording media due to its high magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity. The porous AAO templates were fabricated by the two-step anodizing of 1-{mu}m-thick Al thin film evaporated on top of the titanium layer with the thickness of 250 nm. The AAO template with pore size of approximately 60 nm and aspect ratio of 10 was obtained at voltage of 40 V, temperature of 5 deg. C, oxalic acid of 0.3 M and widening time of 55 min. Then the thickness of barrier is less than 20 nm. The Co-Pt alloy electrodeposited at pulsed current density, pH of 4 and room temperature was successfully filled in the AAO template with pore size of 80 nm and aspect ratio of 3. Then the Co-Pt alloy with Pt concentration of 45 at% was uniformly filled in the template and the coercivity of 1100 Oe was observed by VSM.

  11. Fabrication of electrodeposited Co-Pt nano-arrays embedded in an anodic aluminum oxide/Ti/Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. K.; Jeong, G. H.; Park, I. S.; Na, S. M.; Suh, S. J.

    An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, which is filled with the Co-Pt alloys, is a promising material for high-density magnetic recording media due to its high magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity. The porous AAO templates were fabricated by the two-step anodizing of 1-μm-thick Al thin film evaporated on top of the titanium layer with the thickness of 250 nm. The AAO template with pore size of approximately 60 nm and aspect ratio of 10 was obtained at voltage of 40 V, temperature of 5 °C, oxalic acid of 0.3 M and widening time of 55 min. Then the thickness of barrier is less than 20 nm. The Co-Pt alloy electrodeposited at pulsed current density, pH of 4 and room temperature was successfully filled in the AAO template with pore size of 80 nm and aspect ratio of 3. Then the Co-Pt alloy with Pt concentration of 45 at% was uniformly filled in the template and the coercivity of 1100 Oe was observed by VSM.

  12. Fabrication of electrodeposited Co-Pt nano-arrays embedded in an anodic aluminum oxide/Ti/Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.K.; Jeong, G.H.; Park, I.S.; Na, S.M.; Suh, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    An anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template, which is filled with the Co-Pt alloys, is a promising material for high-density magnetic recording media due to its high magnetic anisotropy and high coercivity. The porous AAO templates were fabricated by the two-step anodizing of 1-μm-thick Al thin film evaporated on top of the titanium layer with the thickness of 250 nm. The AAO template with pore size of approximately 60 nm and aspect ratio of 10 was obtained at voltage of 40 V, temperature of 5 deg. C, oxalic acid of 0.3 M and widening time of 55 min. Then the thickness of barrier is less than 20 nm. The Co-Pt alloy electrodeposited at pulsed current density, pH of 4 and room temperature was successfully filled in the AAO template with pore size of 80 nm and aspect ratio of 3. Then the Co-Pt alloy with Pt concentration of 45 at% was uniformly filled in the template and the coercivity of 1100 Oe was observed by VSM

  13. Formation of silicon Oxide nano thickness on Si (III) with the assistance of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, A.; Bagheri, M.

    2006-01-01

    : The possibility of controlling the growth of a uniform ultra thin oxide on silicon via oxygen dosing at low temperatures, would be a great interest for the projected further development of nano electronics. One way to achieve this is to be able to control the conversion of chemically adsorbed oxygen and retained at room temperature into oxide during subsequent heating. Oxygen is chemisorbed at room temperature on Si(111) surface to saturation ( >100 L O 2 ), and the experimental chamber is then evacuated. This leaves adsorbed oxygen as atomically inserted on Si surface which sits on the back bonds. This surface is then used as a base for further processing which in one case consists of annealing to 600- 700 d eg C and subsequent exposures equivalent to the first step. This is repeated again. As the focus of this work, a series of experiments are done with adsorbed Cs, which assists in retaining oxygen and in transforming the adsorbed oxygen into oxide upon heating. It was found that the oxide formed on the surface at low coverage clusters. Without any external influence, the clusters may be made to coalesce upon further oxygen adsorption at room temperature, and annealing terminates as a continuous monolayer of amorphous oxide on top of a well-ordered silicon substrate. This configuration is inert to further uptake of oxygen. A higher oxide thickness could be obtained with Cs. Also in this case, the oxide growth saturates in an inert oxide Iayer

  14. Impact of thickness reduction of the ZnO:Al window layer on opto-electronical properties of CIGSSe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jan; Knipper, M.; Parisi, J.; Riedel, I. [Thin Film Photovoltaics, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Dalibor, T.; Avellan, A. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG, D-81739 Munich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The application of highly doped transparent conducting oxides in chalcopyrite solar cells requires an optimized trade-off between optical transmission and sheet-conductivity. In this respect we studied the thickness variation of ZnO:Al films used as window layer in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} (CIGSSe) thin film solar cells. Thin ZnO:Al layers (200nm) on glass exhibit significantly enhanced transmission at wavelengths {lambda}<400nm while a considerable sub-bandgap absorption at {lambda}>800nm appears in thicker films which is attributed to free charge carrier absorption. The IV-characteristics of CIGSSe solar cells with d{sub ZnO:Al}=200nm exhibit a strong enhancement of the short-circuit current density J{sub SC} ({delta}J{sub SC}=3mA) as compared to samples with conventional ZnO:Al-film thickness. However, the reduced parallel (R{sub p}) and increased series (R{sub s}) resistance of samples with thin ZnO:Al-layer cause reduction of the fill factor, which has direct consequences for the series connection of cells in a CIGSSe-module. XRD-diffractograms suggest that the high R{sub s} in thin ZnO:Al is not only related to the thickness but also due to reduced (002)-texture that appears to be beneficial for lateral conductivity. By thermographic investigations we are able to directly locate the cell-regimes responsible for the decreased R{sub p}.

  15. Atomic layer-by-layer oxidation of Ge (100) and (111) surfaces by plasma post oxidation of Al2O3/Ge structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Huang, Po-Chin; Lin, Ju-Chin; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    The ultrathin GeO x /Ge interfaces formed on Ge (100) and (111) surfaces by applying plasma post oxidation to thin Al 2 O 3 /Ge structures are characterized in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the XPS signals assigned to Ge 1+ and the 2+ states in the GeO x layers by post plasma oxidation have oscillating behaviors on Ge (100) surfaces in a period of ∼0.3 nm with an increase in the GeO x thickness. Additionally, the oscillations of the signals assigned to Ge 1+ and 2+ states show opposite phase to each other. The similar oscillation behaviors are also confirmed on Ge (111) surfaces for Ge 1+ and 3+ states in a period of ∼0.5 nm. These phenomena can be strongly regarded as an evidence of the atomic layer-by-layer oxidation of GeO x /Ge interfaces on Ge (100) and (111) surfaces.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of noble metal–titania core–shell nanostructures with tunable shell thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bartosewicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Core–shell nanostructures have found applications in many fields, including surface enhanced spectroscopy, catalysis and solar cells. Titania-coated noble metal nanoparticles, which combine the surface plasmon resonance properties of the core and the photoactivity of the shell, have great potential for these applications. However, the controllable synthesis of such nanostructures remains a challenge due to the high reactivity of titania precursors. Hence, a simple titania coating method that would allow better control over the shell formation is desired. A sol–gel based titania coating method, which allows control over the shell thickness, was developed and applied to the synthesis of Ag@TiO2 and Au@TiO2 with various shell thicknesses. The morphology of the synthesized structures was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Their sizes and shell thicknesses were determined using tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS technique. The optical properties of the synthesized structures were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy. Ag@TiO2 and Au@TiO2 structures with shell thickness in the range of ≈40–70 nm and 90 nm, for the Ag and Au nanostructures respectively, were prepared using a method we developed and adapted, consisting of a change in the titania precursor concentration. The synthesized nanostructures exhibited significant absorption in the UV–vis range. The TRPS technique was shown to be a very useful tool for the characterization of metal–metal oxide core–shell nanostructures.

  17. Preparation and characterization of sub-20 nm Cu{sub X}@Ag{sub 1} core-shell nanoparticles by changing concentration of silver precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Jong-Hyun, E-mail: pljh@snut.ac.kr

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafine Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) less than 20 nm in diameter were prepared. After synthesizing ultrafine Cu NPs using a solvothermal method to serve as the core particles, Cu@Ag NPs were fabricated with different initial Ag precursor concentrations, resulting in different thicknesses, densities, and uniformities of Ag shells. The average thickness and density of the Ag shell increased with increasing initial Ag precursor concentration in a Cu:Ag atomic ratio from 6:1 to 1:1. However, excessive Ag precursor concentrations induced homogeneous nucleation and growth of surplus fine pure NPs. Ag dewetting behavior and Cu oxidation in the Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} NPs were observed, they occurred during heating at 200 and 250 °C, respectively. The electrical resistivities of sintered Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} films decreased with increasing temperature from 200 to 240 °C. The resistivity after washing the OA and sintering for 60 min at 240 °C in air was measured to be 4.96 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm. The film was sintered in nitrogen using the ink containing non-washed Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} NPs indicated the lower resistivity of 2.70 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm owing to the non-oxidation atmosphere, although the chemically capped oleylamine in the core-shell NPs hindered the sintering behavior. - Highlights: • Ultrafine Ag-coated Cu nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter were fabricated. • Different Ag precursor concentrations influenced thickness and density of Ag shell. • Excessive Ag precursor concentrations induced formation of surplus fine pure NPs. • Ag dewetting behavior and Cu oxidation in Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} nanoparticles were observed. • Electrical resistivities of sintered Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} films were 2.70–4.96 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm.

  18. High-rate reduction of copper oxide using atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasma microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Satomi; Tsuchiya, Shouichi; Matsumori, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Shigeki; Ichiki, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of copper oxide was performed using an atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasma (AP-ICP) microjet while varying the input power P between 15 and 50 W. Cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) and cupric oxide (CuO) were formed on the sputtered Cu surface by thermal annealing. Dynamic behavior of the microplasma jet, optical emission from H atoms, the substrate temperature, chemical bonding states of the treated surface, and the thickness of the reduced Cu layer were measured to study the fundamental reduction process. Surface composition and the thickness of the reduced Cu layer changed significantly with P. Rapid reduction of CuO and Cu 2 O was achieved at a rate of 493 nm/min at P = 50 W since high-density H atoms were produced by the AP-ICP microjet.

  19. High-rate reduction of copper oxide using atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasma microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Satomi; Tsuchiya, Shouichi [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan); Matsumori, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Shigeki [Panasonic Factory Solutions Co., Ltd., 2-7 Matsuba-cho, Kadoma-city, Osaka, 571-8502 (Japan); Ichiki, Takanori, E-mail: ichiki@sogo.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Engineering Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-08-01

    Reduction of copper oxide was performed using an atmospheric-pressure inductively coupled plasma (AP-ICP) microjet while varying the input power P between 15 and 50 W. Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) and cupric oxide (CuO) were formed on the sputtered Cu surface by thermal annealing. Dynamic behavior of the microplasma jet, optical emission from H atoms, the substrate temperature, chemical bonding states of the treated surface, and the thickness of the reduced Cu layer were measured to study the fundamental reduction process. Surface composition and the thickness of the reduced Cu layer changed significantly with P. Rapid reduction of CuO and Cu{sub 2}O was achieved at a rate of 493 nm/min at P = 50 W since high-density H atoms were produced by the AP-ICP microjet.

  20. Preperitoneal Fat Thicknesses, Lipid Profile, and Oxidative Status in Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Clemente, Nicolò; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Tassetti, Marta; Zagaglia, Giulia; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a possible role for metabolic syndrome and its determinants, such as dyslipidemia, in uterine fibroid (UF) pathogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the association between UFs and visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), lipid profile, and oxidative and antioxidative status. In this cross-sectional study, 35 patients diagnosed with UFs and 15 women without UFs were enrolled. Clinical history and anthropometric parameters were collected for every woman. Characteristics of UFs, preperitoneal fat thickness (PFT), and SFT were assessed ultrasonically. Lipid profile, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated on plasma from participants. Women with UFs showed a significantly increased PFT (11.63 ± 3.39 vs 7.01 ± 3.10 mm; P HDL-C; 45.4 ± 8.3 vs 57.2 ± 13.4 mg/dL; P = .017), higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 92.3 ± 21.5 vs 72.0 ± 14.6 mg/dL; P = .007), and oxidized LDL (65.2 ± 20.7 vs 43.0 ± 11.3 U/L; P = .002). In patients, TBARs concentration was significantly higher (9.41 ± 6.49 vs 2.92 ± 1.65 nmol malondialdehyde/100 μg prot; P body mass index, oxidized LDL, and TBARs. At multivariate analysis, PFT and HDL-C maintained a significant correlation with the diagnosis of UFs. Chronic inflammation triggered and sustained by visceral fat could play a determinant role in cell differentiation and proliferation processes, necessary for the development of UFs. Alterations in cholesterol fractions may be explained as a consequence of the increased visceral fat deposits and can reflect an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with UF.

  1. Highly conductive grain boundaries in copper oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuermeier, Jonas, E-mail: j.deuermeier@campus.fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, i3N/CENIMAT, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wardenga, Hans F.; Morasch, Jan; Siol, Sebastian; Klein, Andreas, E-mail: aklein@surface.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, i3N/CENIMAT, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-06-21

    High conductivity in the off-state and low field-effect mobility compared to bulk properties is widely observed in the p-type thin-film transistors of Cu{sub 2}O, especially when processed at moderate temperature. This work presents results from in situ conductance measurements at thicknesses from sub-nm to around 250 nm with parallel X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An enhanced conductivity at low thickness is explained by the occurrence of Cu(II), which is segregated in the grain boundary and locally causes a conductivity similar to CuO, although the surface of the thick film has Cu{sub 2}O stoichiometry. Since grains grow with an increasing film thickness, the effect of an apparent oxygen excess is most pronounced in vicinity to the substrate interface. Electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}O grains are at least partially short-circuited by this effect. The study focuses on properties inherent to copper oxide, although interface effects cannot be ruled out. This non-destructive, bottom-up analysis reveals phenomena which are commonly not observable after device fabrication, but clearly dominate electrical properties of polycrystalline thin films.

  2. A redox-assisted supramolecular assembly of manganese oxide nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Li; Sun Chenggao; Fan Meilian; Huang Caijuan; Wu Hailong; Chao Zisheng; Zhai Hesheng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the hydrothermal synthesis of manganese oxide nanotube from an aqueous medium of pH 7, using KMnO 4 and MnCl 2 as inorganic precursors, polyoxyethylene (10) nonyl phenyl ether (TX-10) a surfactant and acetaldehyde an additive. The characterization of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and N 2 adsorption at 77 K (BET) reveals that the synthesized manganese oxide nanotube has a mesopore size of ca. 3.65 nm and a wall thickness of ca. 12 nm, with the wall being composed of microporous crystals of monoclinic manganite. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) result demonstrates a decrease of the binding energy of the Mn 3+ in the manganese oxide nanotube, which may be related to both the nanotubular morphology and the crystalline pore wall. A mechanism of a redox-assisted supramolecular assembly, regulated by acetaldehyde, is postulated

  3. Surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser in treatment of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, J; Akashi, G; Moriya, K; Hirai, Y; Hatayama, H; Inoue, A; Miyazaki, H

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using tuna tissue, which was irradiated with a 405-nm diode laser at output powers of 400 mW (694 W/cm 2 ) to 1 W (1735 W/cm 2 ) on a motorized stage moving at a rate of 1 mm/sec. As a control, a 920-nm diode laser was used with the same irradiation conditions. After irradiation, the thickness of ablation and coagulation was measured by stereoscopic microscopy and evaluated statistically. Ablation and coagulation zones were obtained with 405-nm laser irradiation, but not with irradiation at 920 nm. Ablation depth increased significantly with output power and a thick coagulation zone was observed with 405-nm irradiation. The 405-nm diode laser performed well for incising and coagulating soft tissue at a low power density

  4. Corrosion mechanisms of zirconium alloys - study of the initial oxidation kinetics and of the mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, M.

    1996-12-01

    Nuclear fuel claddings are made of zirconium alloys. The conditions of use lead the cladding oxidize outside. The so-formed layers behaves like a thermal barrier and prevents from using oxidized claddings with an oxide thickness larger than 100 μm. The oxidation kinetic is approximately cubic for oxide thicknesses smaller than about 2μm, linear beyond. A kinetic model has been proposed which estimates the post-transition growth rate from the kinetic parameters of the pre-transition state and morphological features of post-transition layers. This work aims at providing the necessary elements to validate this model and studying the layers around the kinetic transition, in order to determine whether the oxidation mechanisms before and after the transition are similar. Thicknesses of the 50 - 500 nm range of the oxide layers are measured by an optical method; pre-transition kinetics are thus precisely determined. The effect of the composition, the thermal treatment and the presence of oxygen in solid solution is studied. The morphological and crystallographic study of the layers show that they exhibit a lot of similarities before and after the kinetic transition. The results concerning the kinetic aspects and the morphology of the post-transition layers point out that the proposed model leads to realistic post-transition growth rates. Furthermore, the kinetic transition corresponds to the appearance of cracks in the oxide layer. The mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system has been modelled at different scales. When the specific behaviours of the metal and the oxide are taken into account together with the interface geometry, radial stresses appear, which are high enough to locally open cracks. The appearance and localization of cracks depend on both the interface geometry and the stress distribution in the metal/oxide system. (author)

  5. Magnetic Nature of Light Transmission through a 5-nm Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyosim; Kim, Dai-Sik; Kim, Richard H Joon-Yeon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kang, Taehee; Jeong, Jeeyoon; Lee, Dukhyung

    2018-02-09

    Slot antennas have been exploited as important building blocks of optical magnetism because their radiations are invoked by the magnetic fields along the axes, as vectorial Babinet principle predicts. However, optical magnetism of a few-nanometer-width slit, for which fascinating applications are found due to the colossal field enhancement but Babinet principle fails due to the nonnegligible thickness, has not been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrated that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in light transmission through a 5-nm slit on a 150-nm-thick gold film. The 5-nm slit was fabricated by atomic layer lithography, and the transmission was investigated for various incident angles by experiment and simulation at 785-nm wavelength. We found that, due to the deep subwavelength gap width, the transmission has the same incident angle dependence as the tangential magnetic field on the metal surface and this magnetic nature of a nanogap holds up to ~100-nm width. Our analysis establishes conditions for nanogap optical magnetism and suggests new possibilities in realizing magnetic-field-driven optical nonlinearities.

  6. Ion Diffusion-Directed Assembly Approach to Ultrafast Coating of Graphene Oxide Thick Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Weiwei; Yao, Weiquan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2017-10-24

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach has been widely used to fabricate multilayer coatings on substrates with multiple cycles, whereas it is hard to access thick films efficiently. Here, we developed an ion diffusion-directed assembly (IDDA) strategy to rapidly make multilayer thick coatings in one step on arbitrary substrates. To achieve multifunctional coatings, graphene oxide (GO) and metallic ions were selected as the typical building blocks and diffusion director in IDDA, respectively. With diffusion of metallic ions from substrate to negatively charged GO dispersion spontaneously (i.e., from high-concentration region to low-concentration region), GO was assembled onto the substrate sheet-by-sheet via sol-gel transformation. Because metallic ions with size of subnanometers can diffuse directionally and freely in the aqueous dispersion, GO was coated on the substrate efficiently, giving rise to films with desired thickness up to 10 μm per cycle. The IDDA approach shows three main merits: (1) high efficiency with a μm-scale coating rate; (2) controllability over thickness and evenness; and (3) generality for substrates of plastics, metals and ceramics with any shapes and morphologies. With these merits, IDDA strategy was utilized in the efficient fabrication of functional graphene coatings that exhibit outstanding performance as supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding textiles, and anticorrosion coatings. This IDDA approach can be extended to other building blocks including polymers and colloidal nanoparticles, promising for the scalable production and application of multifunctional coatings.

  7. on THICKNESS OF COPPER (|) OXIDE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-20

    Dec 20, 2006 ... known materials to be used as semiconductor devices. The oxide is. Observed to be an attractive starting material for the production of solar cells for low cost terrestrial conversion of solar energy to electricity. Copper (I) oxide is one Of the earliest known photovoltaic materials and the first in which the ...

  8. A novel locus in the oxidative stress-related gene ALOX12 moderates the association between PTSD and thickness of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Sadeh, Naomi; Logue, Mark; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Sperbeck, Emily; Schichman, Steven A; Stone, Angie; Carter, Weleetka C; Humphries, Donald E; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in many common age-related diseases and is hypothesized to play a role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related neurodegeneration (Miller and Sadeh, 2014). This study examined the influence of the oxidative stress-related genes ALOX 12 and ALOX 15 on the association between PTSD and cortical thickness. Factor analyses were used to identify and compare alternative models of the structure of cortical thickness in a sample of 218 veterans. The best-fitting model was then used for a genetic association analysis in White non-Hispanic participants (n=146) that examined relationships between 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the two genes, 8 cortical thickness factors, and each SNP×PTSD interaction. Results identified a novel ALOX12 locus (indicated by two SNPs in perfect linkage disequilibrium: rs1042357 and rs10852889) that moderated the association between PTSD and reduced thickness of the right prefrontal cortex. A whole-cortex vertex-wise analysis showed this effect to be localized to clusters spanning the rostral middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. These findings illustrate a novel factor-analytic approach to neuroimaging-genetic analyses and provide new evidence for the possible involvement of oxidative stress in PTSD-related neurodegeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Instrumentation for Gate Current Noise Measurements on sub-100 nm MOS Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Gaioni, L; Ratti, L; Re, V; Speziali, V; Traversi, G

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a measuring system that was developed to characterize the gate current noise performances of CMOS devices with minimum feature size in the 100 nm span. These devices play an essential role in the design of present daymixedsignal integrated circuits, because of the advantages associated with the scaling process. The reduction in the gate oxide thickness brought about by CMOS technology downscaling leads to a non-negligible gate current due to direct tunneling phenomena; this current represents a noise source which requires an accurate characterization for optimum analog design. In this paper, two instruments able to perform measurements in two different ranges of gate current values will be discussed. Some of the results of gate current noise characterization will also be presented.

  10. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap, P; Revathi, N; Subbaiah, Y P Venkata; Reddy, K T Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity

  11. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Determining the thickness of aliphatic alcohol monolayers covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Austin W. H.; Kim, Dongho; Gates, Byron D.

    2018-04-01

    The thickness of alcohol based monolayers on silicon oxide surfaces were investigated using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). Advantages of using alcohols as building blocks for the formation of monolayers include their widespread availability, ease of handling, and stability against side reactions. Recent progress in microwave assisted reactions demonstrated the ease of forming uniform monolayers with alcohol based reagents. The studies shown herein provide a detailed investigation of the thickness of monolayers prepared from a series of aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths. Monolayers of 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, and 1-dodecanol were each successfully formed through microwave assisted reactions and characterized by ARXPS techniques. The thickness of these monolayers consistently increased by ∼1.0 Å for every additional methylene (CH2) within the hydrocarbon chain of the reagents. Tilt angles of the molecules covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces were estimated to be ∼35° for each type of reagent. These results were consistent with the observations reported for thiol based or silane based monolayers on either gold or silicon oxide surfaces, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the alcohol based monolayers are uniform at a molecular level.

  13. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji, E-mail: hosoi@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogawa, Shingo [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Toray Research Center Inc., 3-3-7 Sonoyama, Otsu, Shiga 520-8567 (Japan); Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-06-08

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  14. Film-thickness and composition dependence of epitaxial thin-film PZT-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Vu, Hung Ngoc; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f and mass-sensitivity were measured on piezoelectric cantilevers based on epitaxial PZT thin-films with film-thicknesses ranging from 100 to 2000 nm. The highest values of e31,f and mass-sensitivity were observed at a film thickness of 500–750 nm, while

  15. Nano-thick calcium oxide armed titanium: boosts bone cells against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Jin, Guodong; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-02-22

    Since the use of systemic antibiotics for preventing acute biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) may build up bacterial resistance and result in huge medical costs and unpredictable mortality, new precaution strategies are required. Here, it demonstrated that titanium armed with a nano-thick calcium oxide layer was effective on averting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in rabbits. The calcium oxide layer was constructed by, firstly, injecting of metallic calcium into titanium via a plasma immersion ion implantation process, and then transforming the outer most surface into oxide by exposing to the atmosphere. Although the calcium oxide armed titanium had a relative low reduction rate (~74%) in growth of MRSA in vitro, it could markedly promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), restore local bone integration against the challenge of MRSA, and decrease the incidence of MRSA infection with a rate of 100% (compared to the titanium control). This study demonstrated for the first time that calcium, as one of the major elements in a human body, could be engineered to avert MRSA infections, which is promising as a safe precaution of disinfection for implantable biomedical devices.

  16. Nano-thick calcium oxide armed titanium: boosts bone cells against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Jin, Guodong; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-02-01

    Since the use of systemic antibiotics for preventing acute biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) may build up bacterial resistance and result in huge medical costs and unpredictable mortality, new precaution strategies are required. Here, it demonstrated that titanium armed with a nano-thick calcium oxide layer was effective on averting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in rabbits. The calcium oxide layer was constructed by, firstly, injecting of metallic calcium into titanium via a plasma immersion ion implantation process, and then transforming the outer most surface into oxide by exposing to the atmosphere. Although the calcium oxide armed titanium had a relative low reduction rate (~74%) in growth of MRSA in vitro, it could markedly promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), restore local bone integration against the challenge of MRSA, and decrease the incidence of MRSA infection with a rate of 100% (compared to the titanium control). This study demonstrated for the first time that calcium, as one of the major elements in a human body, could be engineered to avert MRSA infections, which is promising as a safe precaution of disinfection for implantable biomedical devices.

  17. Thickness dependent electrical properties of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, L.C.S.; Rao, K.S.R.K.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of thin films of cadmium oxide have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method. The prepared films have uniform thickness varying from 200-600 nm and good adherence to the glass substrate. A systematic study has been made on the influence of thickness on resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility of the films. The resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility values varied from 1.56-5.72x10 -3 Ω-cm, 128-189 Ω/□, 1.6-3.9x10 21 cm -3 and 0.3-3 cm 2 /Vs, respectively for varying film thickness. A systematic increase in mobility with grain size clearly indicates the reduction of overall scattering of charge carriers at the grain boundaries. The large concentration of charge carriers and low mobility values have been attributed to the presence of Cd as an impurity in CdO microcrystallites. Using the optical transmission data, the band gap was estimated and found to vary from 2.20-2.42 eV. These films have transmittance around 77% and average reflectance is below 2.6% in the spectral range 350-850 nm. The films are n-type and polycrystalline in nature. SEM micrographs of the CdO films were taken and the films exhibit clear grains and grain boundary formation at a substrate temperature as low as 523 K. (author)

  18. Effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on aluminum alloy 7075-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Simon; Fahrenholtz, William G.; O'Keefe, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on the composition and thickness of the oxide layer on aluminum alloy 7075-T6 was studied. E-pH diagrams were developed to predict the effect of alkaline cleaning and activation solutions on the stability of the oxide surface layers. The thickness of the native oxide layer was determined to be ∼30 nm by Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. The outer ∼20 nm was rich in magnesium while the remaining ∼10 nm was rich in aluminum. Cleaning in a 9.1 pH alkaline solution was found to remove the magnesium-rich layer and leave behind an aluminum-rich oxide layer ∼10 nm thick. Activation in alkaline solutions of NaOH (pH > 12.9) or Na 2 CO 3 (pH > 11.5) produced an oxide that was ∼20 to 60 nm thick and rich in magnesium. Alkaline cleaning and activation altered the oxide composition and thickness making it possible for deposition of thicker cerium-based conversion coatings (∼100 to 250 nm) compared to only alkaline cleaning (∼30 nm), with application of one spray cycle of deposition solution.

  19. Effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on aluminum alloy 7075-T6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Simon, E-mail: sjwt5@mst.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Fahrenholtz, William G.; O' Keefe, Matthew J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alkaline cleaning and activation on the composition and thickness of the oxide layer on aluminum alloy 7075-T6 was studied. E-pH diagrams were developed to predict the effect of alkaline cleaning and activation solutions on the stability of the oxide surface layers. The thickness of the native oxide layer was determined to be {approx}30 nm by Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. The outer {approx}20 nm was rich in magnesium while the remaining {approx}10 nm was rich in aluminum. Cleaning in a 9.1 pH alkaline solution was found to remove the magnesium-rich layer and leave behind an aluminum-rich oxide layer {approx}10 nm thick. Activation in alkaline solutions of NaOH (pH > 12.9) or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (pH > 11.5) produced an oxide that was {approx}20 to 60 nm thick and rich in magnesium. Alkaline cleaning and activation altered the oxide composition and thickness making it possible for deposition of thicker cerium-based conversion coatings ({approx}100 to 250 nm) compared to only alkaline cleaning ({approx}30 nm), with application of one spray cycle of deposition solution.

  20. Effect of annealing and oxide layer thickness on doping profiles shape of ''through-oxide'' implanted P+ ions in textured silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouki, M.S.; Galloni, R.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphorous ions at energies of 60+100 KeV, and doses (4+5)x10 15 atom/cm 2 have been implanted randomly through SiO 2 layers into textured silicon crystals. The penetration profiles of the P + ions have been determined by means of differential sheet resistivity and Hall-effect, together with the anodic oxidation stripping technique. The effect of the oxide layer thickness, annealing temperature on the junction properties has been studied. The damage produced by implantation, has also been investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM). From the mobility measurements of the free carriers as a function of depth through the junction, two minima have been observed in through oxide implanted samples. The one nearer to the Si-SiO 2 interface (at about 200A from the interface) was related to the damage produced by the recoil oxygen atoms from the oxide layer into silicon. The deeper minimum is lying at ∼ 0.2μm from the interface and was attributed to the damage produced by the implanted P + ions, which caused clusters and defect loops after annealing. This damage was observed through TEM photographs. The optimum conditions for producing shallow junction without losing much of the implanted P + ions through the oxide layer were estimated. (author). 22 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  1. Cholesterol Protects the Oxidized Lipid Bilayer from Water Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owen, Michael C; Kulig, Waldemar; Rog, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to delineate how cholesterol protects membrane structure under oxidative stress conditions, we monitored the changes to the structure of lipid bilayers comprising 30 mol% cholesterol and an increasing concentration of Class B oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC...... in a characteristic reduction in bilayer thickness and increase in area per lipid, thereby increasing the exposure of the membrane hydrophobic region to water. However, cholesterol was observed to help reduce water injury by moving into the bilayer core and forming more hydrogen bonds with the oxPLs. Cholesterol also...... resists altering its tilt angle, helping to maintain membrane integrity. Water that enters the 1-nm-thick core region remains part of the bulk water on either side of the bilayer, with relatively few water molecules able to traverse through the bilayer. In cholesterol-rich membranes, the bilayer does...

  2. Naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide layer-based transistors with nanometer oxide and side chain dielectrics operating below one volt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Byung Jun; Martinez Hardigree, Josue F; Dhar, Bal Mukund; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Sun, Jia; See, Kevin Cua; Katz, Howard E

    2011-04-26

    We designed a new naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NTCDI) semiconductor molecule with long fluoroalkylbenzyl side chains. The side chains, 1.2 nm long, not only aid in self-assembly and kinetically stabilize injected electrons but also act as part of the gate dielectric in field-effect transistors. On Si substrates coated only with the 2 nm thick native oxide, NTCDI semiconductor films were deposited with thicknesses from 17 to 120 nm. Top contact Au electrodes were deposited as sources and drains. The devices showed good transistor characteristics in air with 0.1-1 μA of drain current at 0.5 V of V(G) and V(DS) and W/L of 10-20, even though channel width (250 μm) is over 1000 times the distance (20 nm) between gate and drain electrodes. The extracted capacitance-times-mobility product, an expression of the sheet transconductance, can exceed 100 nS V(-1), 2 orders of magnitude higher than typical organic transistors. The vertical low-frequency capacitance with gate voltage applied in the accumulation regime reached as high as 650 nF/cm(2), matching the harmonic sum of capacitances of the native oxide and one side chain and indicating that some gate-induced carriers in such devices are distributed among all of the NTCDI core layers, although the preponderance of the carriers are still near the gate electrode. Besides demonstrating and analyzing thickness-dependent NTCDI-based transistor behavior, we also showed <1 V detection of dinitrotoluene vapor by such transistors.

  3. Oxidation of nano-sized aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, A.B.; Lerner, M.; Rodkevich, N.; Nie, H.; Abraham, A.; Schoenitz, M.; Dreizin, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Weight gain measured in TG oxidation experiments was split between particles of different sizes. • Reaction kinetics obtained by isoconversion explicitly accounting for the effect of size distribution. • Activation energy is obtained as a function of oxide thickness for growth of amorphous alumina. • Oxidation mechanism for nanopowders remains the same as for coarser aluminum powders. - Abstract: Oxidation of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electro-exploded wires is studied. Particle size distributions are obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) experiments are complemented by TEM and XRD studies of partially oxidized particles. Qualitatively, oxidation follows the mechanism developed for coarser aluminum powder and resulting in formation of hollow oxide shells. Sintering of particles is also observed. The TG results are processed to account explicitly for the particle size distribution and spherical shapes, so that oxidation of particles of different sizes is characterized. The apparent activation energy is obtained as a function of the reaction progress using model-free isoconversion processing of experimental data. A complete phenomenological oxidation model is then proposed assuming a spherically symmetric geometry. The oxidation kinetics of aluminum powder is shown to be unaffected by particle sizes reduced down to tens of nm. The apparent activation energy describing growth of amorphous alumina is increasing at the very early stages of oxidation. The higher activation energy is likely associated with an increasing homogeneity in the growing amorphous oxide layer, initially containing multiple defects and imperfections. The trends describing changes in both activation energy and pre-exponent of the growing amorphous oxide are useful for predicting ignition delays of aluminum particles. The kinetic trends describing activation energies and pre-exponents in a broader range of the oxide

  4. Characterization study of native oxides on GaAs(100) surface by XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liu; Zhang, Lian-dong; Liu, Hui; Gao, Xiang; Miao, Zhuang; Cheng, Hong-chang; Wang, Long; Niu, Sen

    2013-08-01

    In order to know more about the surface state of GaAs(100) epitaxial wafer during a storage period of two years, the XPS analysis was carried out four times on the surface, respectively polished by chemical etching, stored in desiccator for half a year, one year and two years. The results indicated that even after cleaned by proper etchant solutions, the fresh surface was slightly oxidized with Ga2O3, As2O3 and organic contaminant. The epi-wafer was always exposed to air during the storage period, so more and more oxides turned out. The mixed oxide layer comprised of C-OR, COOR, Ga2O3, As2O3 and As2O5 appeared after only half a year. In the ageing process of two years, the oxide types of gallium or arsenic did not change with stable content of Ga2O3 and remarkably fluctuating relative contents of As2O3 and As2O5. Based on the intensity ratio of Ga 3d-Ga2O3 to Ga 3d-GaAs, the thickness of oxide layer was estimated. The oxide layer generated after chemical polishing was very thin, just only 0.435nm thick, and then it grew rapidly, approximately 1.822nm after one year while almost no change any more subsequently. It was indicated that after the epi-wafer was stored for one year, because of volatile As2O3 or As2O5, there remained a large amount of Ga2O3 in oxide layer, which prevented the reactions between bulk material and oxide layer with oxygen. So native oxide layer plays a role as passive film to protect epi-wafer against the environment during a long storage period.

  5. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  6. Mehanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Joints in Thick Gage CA6NM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafan, Sheida; Wanjara, Priti; Gholipour, Javad; Champliaud, Henri; Mathieu, Louis

    2017-10-01

    Design of hydroelectric turbine components requires high integrity welds (without detectable volumetric defects) in heavy gage sections of stainless steel materials, such as ASTM A743 grade CA6NM—a low carbon 13% Cr-4% Ni martensitic stainless steel that is manufactured in cast form. In this work, 90-mm-thick plates of CA6NM were joined using a single-pass autogenous electron beam (EB) welding process and the mechanical properties were evaluated in the as-welded condition to characterize the performance of the joints. The static tensile properties that were evaluated in two directions—transverse and longitudinal to the EB weld seam—demonstrated conformance of the joints with the requirements of the ASME Section IX standard. The Charpy impact energies of the EB welds—measured at -18 °C on samples with V-notch roots located in the fusion and heat-affected zones—met the minimum requirements of 27 J specified in ASME Section VIII standard. In addition, bend tests that were conducted on the entire weld cross section displayed no discontinuities on the tension side of the bent joints. Hence, the developed EB welding process was demonstrated to render high-performance joints and promises key advantages for industrialization, such as cost savings through reductions in consumable material, production time and labor intensity.

  7. Low power loss and field-insensitive permeability of Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with manganese oxide-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junnan, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Wang, Xian; Xu, Xiaojun; Gong, Rongzhou, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Feng, Zekun [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Yajie; Harris, V. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Fe-6.5%Si alloy powders coated with manganese oxides using an innovative in situ process were investigated. The in-situ coating of the insulating oxides was realized with a KMnO{sub 4} solution by a chemical process. The insulating manganese oxides with mixed valance state were verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The thickness of the insulating layer on alloy particles was determined to be in a range of 20–210 nm, depending upon the KMnO{sub 4} concentration. The powder core loss and the change in permeability under a DC-bias field were measured at frequencies ranging from 50 to 100 kHz. The experiments indicated that the Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with a 210 nm-thick manganese oxide layer not only showed a low core loss of 459 mW/cm{sup 3} at 100 kHz but also showed a small reduction in permeability (μ(H)/μ(0) = 85% for μ = 42) at a DC-bias field of 80 Oe. This work has defined a novel pathway to realizing low core loss and field-insensitive permeability for Fe-Si powder cores.

  8. [Preliminary analysis about influence of porcelain thickness on interfacial crack of PFM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baowei; Zhang, Xiuyin; Xu, Kan; Fang, Ruhua; Wang, Dongmei

    2002-01-01

    This study was about the influence of porcelain thickness on crack at interface. The effect of porcelain thickness on the flaw at the interface between porcelain and metal was studied in three groups with porcelain thickness of 0.5 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm (metal thickness of 0.5 mm) by means of moire interferometre and interfacial fracture mechanics. The parameter Jc was compared among the three groups and the growing of the flaw was observed. Jc and the extreme strength of group with porcelain thickness of 0.5 mm (2.813 N/m and 9.979 N) were lower than those of the groups with porcelain thickness of 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm (5.395 N/m, 19.134 N and 5.429 N/m, 19.256 N). Flaws extend along the interface in the groups with porcelain thickness of 1.5 mm and 0.5 mm. (1) Fracture resistance of the interface in the groups with porcelain thickness of 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm is similar and it decreases in the group with 0.5 mm thick porcelain. (2) When porcelain is 1.5 mm or 0.5 mm thick, flaws will extend along the interface. When porcelain is 2.5 mm thick, flaws will extend into the porcelain layer.

  9. 65 nm LP/GP mix low cost platform for multi-media wireless and consumer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavel, B.; Duriez, B.; Gwoziecki, R.; Basso, M. T.; Julien, C.; Ortolland, C.; Laplanche, Y.; Fox, R.; Sabouret, E.; Detcheverry, C.; Boeuf, F.; Morin, P.; Barge, D.; Bidaud, M.; Biénacel, J.; Garnier, P.; Cooper, K.; Chapon, J. D.; Trouiller, Y.; Belledent, J.; Broekaart, M.; Gouraud, P.; Denais, M.; Huard, V.; Rochereau, K.; Difrenza, R.; Planes, N.; Marin, M.; Boret, S.; Gloria, D.; Vanbergue, S.; Abramowitz, P.; Vishnubhotla, L.; Reber, D.; Stolk, P.; Woo, M.; Arnaud, F.

    2006-04-01

    A complete 65 nm CMOS platform, called LP/GP Mix, has been developed employing thick oxide transistor (IO), Low Power (LP) and General Purpose (GP) devices on the same chip. Dedicated to wireless multi-media and consumer applications, this new triple gate oxide platform is low cost (+1mask only) and saves over 35% of dynamic power with the use of the low operating voltage GP. The LP/GP mix shows competitive digital performance with a ring oscillator (FO = 1) speed equal to 7 ps per stage (GP) and 6T-SRAM static power lower than 10 pA/cell (LP). Compatible with mixed-signal design requirements, transistors show high voltage gain, low mismatch factor and low flicker noise. Moreover, to address mobile phone demands, excellent RF performance has been achieved with FT = 160 GHz for LP and 280 GHz for GP nMOS transistors.

  10. Modeling on oxide dependent 2DEG sheet charge density and threshold voltage in AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, J.; Jena, K.; Swain, R.; Lenka, T. R.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a physics based analytical model for the calculation of threshold voltage, two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and surface potential for AlGaN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMT). The developed model includes important parameters like polarization charge density at oxide/AlGaN and AlGaN/GaN interfaces, interfacial defect oxide charges and donor charges at the surface of the AlGaN barrier. The effects of two different gate oxides (Al2O3 and HfO2) are compared for the performance evaluation of the proposed MOSHEMT. The MOSHEMTs with Al2O3 dielectric have an advantage of significant increase in 2DEG up to 1.2 × 1013 cm-2 with an increase in oxide thickness up to 10 nm as compared to HfO2 dielectric MOSHEMT. The surface potential for HfO2 based device decreases from 2 to -1.6 eV within 10 nm of oxide thickness whereas for the Al2O3 based device a sharp transition of surface potential occurs from 2.8 to -8.3 eV. The variation in oxide thickness and gate metal work function of the proposed MOSHEMT shifts the threshold voltage from negative to positive realizing the enhanced mode operation. Further to validate the model, the device is simulated in Silvaco Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) showing good agreement with the proposed model results. The accuracy of the developed calculations of the proposed model can be used to develop a complete physics based 2DEG sheet charge density and threshold voltage model for GaN MOSHEMT devices for performance analysis.

  11. Investigation of the fabrication parameters of thick film metal oxide-polymer pH electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gac, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a study into the development of an optimum material and fabrication process for the production of thick film pH electrodes. These devices consist of low cost, miniature and rugged pH sensors formed by screen printing a metal oxide bearing paste onto a high temperature (∼850 deg C) fired metal back contact supported on a standard alumina substrate. The pH sensitive metal oxide layer must be fabricated at relatively low temperatures (<300 deg C) in order to maintain the pH sensitivity of the layer and hence requires the use of a suitably stable low temperature curing binder. Bespoke fabricated inks are derived from a Taguchi style factorial experimental plans in which, different binder types, curing temperatures, hydration level and percentage mixtures of different metal oxides and layer thicknesses were investigated. The pH responses of 18 printed electrodes per batch were assessed in buffer solutions with respect to a commercial reference electrode forming a complete potentiometric circuit. The evaluation criteria used in the study included the device-to-device variation in sensitivity of the pH sensors and their sensitivity variation as a function of time. The results indicated the importance of the choice of binder type in particular on the performance characteristics. Reproducible device-to-device variation in sensitivity was determined for the best inks found, whatever the ink fabrication batch. A reduction in the sensitivity variation with time has been determined using the mathematical models derived from an experimental plan. The lack of reproducibility of the sensitivity magnitude, regardless of the ink manufacturing batch, seems to be a recurrent problem with prototype inks. Experimental sub-Nernstian responses are discussed in the light of possible pH mechanisms. (author)

  12. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In

    2014-01-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8 nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55 × 10 −5 Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54 × 10 −3 Ω −1 , comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10 nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs

  13. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist (∼90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO 2 hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO 2 (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles ≥85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3σ, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs≥60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  14. Growth and structure of rapid thermal silicon oxides and nitroxides studied by spectroellipsometry and Auger electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, N.; Gagnaire, A.; Barbier, D.; Glachant, A.

    1994-11-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation of Czochralski-grown silicon in either O2 or N2O atmospheres have been studied using spectroellipsometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. Multiwavelength ellipsometric data were processed in order to separately derive the thickness and refractive indexes of rapid thermal dielectrics. Results revealed a significant increase of the mean refractive index as the film thickness falls below 20 nm for both O2 or N2O oxidant species. A multilayer structure including an about 0.3-nm-thick interfacial region of either SiO(x) or nitroxide in the case of O2 and N2O growth, respectively, followed by a densified SiO2 layer, was found to accurately fit the experimental data. The interfacial region together with the densified state of SiO2 close to the interface suggest a dielectric structure in agreement with the continuous random network model proposed for classical thermal oxides. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of noncrystalline Si-Si bonds in the interfacial region, mostly in the case of thin oxides grown in O2. It was speculated that the initial fast growth regime was due to a transient oxygen supersaturation in the interfacial region. Besides, the self-limiting growth in N2O was confirmed and explained in agreement with several recently published data, by the early formation of a very thin nitride or oxynitride membrane in the highly densified oxide beneath the interface. The beneficial effect of direct nitrogen incorporation by rapid thermal oxidation in N2O instead of O2 for the electrical behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors is likely a better SiO2/Si lattice accommodation through the reduction of stresses and Si-Si bonds in the interfacial region of the dielectric.

  15. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of graphene oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dispersions of few-layer (1-3 layers, multi-layer (4-10 layers and thick-layer (>10 layers graphene oxide (GO were prepared by a modified Hummers method with different mass ratios of KMnO4 to graphite. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopic data show that few-layer GO dispersions can be distinguished from multi- and thick-layer dispersions by a more intense peak at 230 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images of few-layer GO contain a single peak, those of multi-layer GO exhibit a shoulder and those of thick-layer GO do not contain a peak or shoulder. These findings allow qualitative analysis of GO dispersions. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS show that the change of UV-vis absorption intensity of GO is caused by a conjugative effect related to chromophore aggregation that influences the π-π* plasmon peak.

  16. Thickness dependence of optical properties of VO2 thin films epitaxially grown on sapphire (0 0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Jin Ping; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) films were epitaxially grown on α-Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) by rf reactive magnetron sputtering. The effects of film thickness ranging from 3 to 150 nm on optical properties were investigated. It revealed that the semiconductor--metal phase transition temperature considerably decreases as film thickness decreases, in particular for the film with thickness less than 10 nm. On the other hand, we found that the difference in visible transmittance between the two phases of VO 2 also varies with film thickness. For the films with thickness less than 50 nm, the semiconductor phase exhibits lower visible transmittance than its metallic phase, while for those with thickness larger than 50 nm the situation is reversed

  17. XPS and SEM studies of chromium oxide films chemically formed on stainless steel 316 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Marinova, T.

    2000-01-01

    The structure and composition of chromium oxide films formed on stainless steel by immersion in a chromium electrolyte have been studied by SEM and XPS. Cr 2 O 3 crystallites in the range 30-150 nm are fully developed and cover the whole surface. The chemical composition in the depth and the thickness of the oxide layer have been determined by XPS sputter profiles. The oxide film can be described within the framework of a double layer consisting of a thin outer hydrated layer and an inner layer of Cr 2 O 3 . (orig.)

  18. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  19. Influence of synthesis conditions on properties of green-reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruna, A.; Pullini, D.; Busquets, D.

    2013-01-01

    Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) was performed using ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), which resulted in reduced graphene oxide (PSS–rGO) with excellent solubility and stability in water. Large rGO sheets of 4 μm 2 area and 1.1-nm thickness were obtained. The measurements showed that noncovalent functionalization with PSS molecules prevented rGO from aggregation. The parameters of graphite oxidation process and AA:GO w/w ratio were evaluated, and the obtained results showed that the properties of the reduced material (PSS–rGO) can be tailored by proper selection and adjustment of these parameters.

  20. Bond-specific reaction kinetics during the oxidation of (111) Si: Effect of n-type doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokce, B.; Aspnes, D. E.; Lucovsky, G.; Gundogdu, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a higher concentration of free carriers leads to a higher oxide growth rate in the thermal oxidation of silicon. However, the role of electrons and holes in oxidation chemistry is not clear. Here, we report real-time second-harmonic-generation data on the oxidation of H-terminated (111)Si that reveal that high concentrations of electrons increase the chemical reactivity of the outer-layer Si-Si back bonds relative to the Si-H up bonds. However, the thicknesses of the natural oxides of all samples stabilize near 1 nm at room temperature, regardless of the chemical kinetics of the different bonds.

  1. Effect of the polymeric coating thickness on the photocurrent performance of titanium dioxide nanorod arrays-polyaniline composite-based UV photosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, M. M.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Othman, , N.; Ismail, A. S.; Saidi, S. A.; Mohamed, R.; Suriani, A. B.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (TNAs) were synthesized and deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate using a one-step immersion method in a glass container. The effect of the polymeric coating thickness of p-type polyaniline (PANI) on the n-type TNAs was investigated in the p-n heterojunction photodiode (PD) for the application of ultraviolet (UV) photosensor. The fabricated photosensor demonstrated an increased photocurrent under UV irradiation in correlation with the thickness layer of PANI. The measured UV response showed the highest photocurrent of 0.014 µA at 1.0 V of reverse bias with low dark current under the UV radiation (365 nm, 750 µW/cm2). The thickness of the PANI film improved the photocurrent of the fabricated TNAs/PANI composite-based UV photosensor.

  2. Large exchange bias induced by polycrystalline Mn3Ga antiferromagnetic films with controlled layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haokaifeng; Sudoh, Iori; Xu, Ruihan; Si, Wenshuo; Vaz, C. A. F.; Kim, Jun-young; Vallejo-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline Mn3Ga layers with thickness in the range from 6–20 nm were deposited at room temperature by a high target utilisation sputtering. To investigate the onset of exchange-bias, a ferromagnetic Co0.6Fe0.4 layer (3.3–9 nm thick) capped with 5 nm Ta, were subsequently deposited. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the presence of Mn3Ga (0 0 0 2) and (0 0 0 4) peaks characteristic of the D019 antiferromagnetic structure. The 6 nm thick Mn3Ga film shows the largest exchange bias of 430 Oe at 120 K with a blocking temperature of 225 K. The blocking temperature is found to decrease with increasing Mn3Ga thickness. These results in combination with x-ray reflectivity measurements confirm that the quality of the Mn3Ga/Co0.6Fe0.4 interface controls the exchange bias, with the sharp interface with the 6-nm-thick Mn3Ga inducing the largest exchange bias. The magneto-crystalline anisotropy for 6 nm thick Mn3Ga thin film sample is calculated to be . Such a binary antiferromagnetic Heusler alloy is compatible with the current memory fabrication process and hence has a great potential for antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  3. Structural influences on the laser damage resistance of optical oxide coatings for use at 1064 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, E; Lauth, H; Meyer, J; Weissbrodt, P [Zeiss Jena GmbH, Jena (Germany, F.R.); Wolf, R; Zscherpe, G [Ingenieurhochschule Mittweida (Germany, F.R.); Heyer, H [Sektion Physik, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-11-01

    Optical coatings of titania (TiO{sub 2}) and tantala (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) prepared by reactive r.f. diode and d.c. plasmatron sputtering were investigated for the influence of structural properties on the 1064 nm laser damage resistance. Using various methods of characterizing the compositional, crystallographic, microstructural and optical properties, it was found that the damage thresholds are directly related to the content of oxygen in the films in excess of the stoichiometric values, whereas grain sizes and refractive indices show no systematic influences valid for both oxide materials. The highest oxygen-to-metal atomic ratios and thus the highest damage threshold were achieved by the use of r.f diode sputtering. X-ray photospectroscopy investigations of tantala coatings with different oxygen-to-tantalum atomic ratios up to 2.75 revealed for both constituents of the oxide only binding energies representative for tantalum pentoxide. (orig.).

  4. Sensitive Capacitive-type Hydrogen Sensor Based on Ni Thin Film in Different Hydrogen Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Ghobad Behzadi; Aval, Leila Fekri; Eslami, Shahnaz

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen sensors are micro/nano-structure that are used to locate hydrogen leaks. They are considered to have fast response/recovery time and long lifetime as compared to conventional gas sensors. In this paper, fabrication of sensitive capacitive-type hydrogen gas sensor based on Ni thin film has been investigated. The C-V curves of the sensor in different hydrogen concentrations have been reported. Dry oxidation was done in thermal chemical vapor deposition furnace (TCVD). For oxidation time of 5 min, the oxide thickness was 15 nm and for oxidation time 10 min, it was 20 nm. The Ni thin film as a catalytic metal was deposited on the oxide film using electron gun deposition. Two MOS sensors were compared with different oxide film thickness and different hydrogen concentrations. The highest response of the two MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 87.5% and 65.4% respectively. The fast response times for MOS sensors with 15 nm and 20 nm oxide film thickness in 4% hydrogen concentration was 8 s and 21 s, respectively. By increasing the hydrogen concentration from 1% to 4%, the response time for MOS sensor (20nm oxide thickness), was decreased from 28s to 21s. The recovery time was inversely increased from 237s to 360s. The experimental results showed that the MOS sensor based on Ni thin film had a quick response and a high sensitivity.

  5. Intrinsic flux pinning mechanisms in different thickness MgB2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 films in four thickness (60 nm, 200nm, 600nm and 1μm have been fabricated by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition technique (HPCVD. By measuring the magnetization hysteresis loops and the resistivity, we have obtained the transport and magnetic properties of the four films. After that, the pinning mechanisms in them were discussed. Comparing the pinning behaviors in these ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, it was found that there exist different pinning types in MgB2 films of different thickness. In combination with the study of the surface morphology, cross-section and XRD results, we concluded that MgB2 films had different growth modes in different growth stages. For thin films, films grew along c axis, and grain boundaries acted as surface pinning. While for thick films, films grew along c axis at first, and then changed to a-b axis growth. As a result, the a-b axis grains acted as strong volume pinning.

  6. Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D2O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuxin; Wen, Wenhui; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ke; Zhai, Peng; Qiu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    1700-nm window has been demonstrated to be a promising excitation window for deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Long working-distance water immersion objective lenses are typically used for deep-tissue imaging. However, absorption due to immersion water at 1700 nm is still high and leads to dramatic decrease in signals. In this paper, we demonstrate measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) from 1200 nm to 2600 nm, covering the three low water-absorption windows potentially applicable for deep-tissue imaging (1300 nm, 1700 nm, and 2200 nm). We apply this measured result to signal enhancement in MPM at the 1700-nm window. Compared with water immersion, D 2 O immersion enhances signal levels in second-harmonic generation imaging, 3-photon fluorescence imaging, and third-harmonic generation imaging by 8.1, 24.8, and 24.7 times with 1662-nm excitation, in good agreement with theoretical calculation based on our absorption measurement. This suggests D 2 O a promising immersion medium for deep-tissue imaging

  7. Giant moving vortex mass in thick magnetic nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guslienko, K Y; Kakazei, G N; Ding, J; Liu, X M; Adeyeye, A O

    2015-09-10

    Magnetic vortex is one of the simplest topologically non-trivial textures in condensed matter physics. It is the ground state of submicron magnetic elements (dots) of different shapes: cylindrical, square etc. So far, the vast majority of the vortex dynamics studies were focused on thin dots with thickness 5-50 nm and only uniform across the thickness vortex excitation modes were observed. Here we explore the fundamental vortex mode in relatively thick (50-100 nm) dots using broadband ferromagnetic resonance and show that dimensionality increase leads to qualitatively new excitation spectra. We demonstrate that the fundamental mode frequency cannot be explained without introducing a giant vortex mass, which is a result of the vortex distortion due to interaction with spin waves. The vortex mass depends on the system geometry and is non-local because of important role of the dipolar interaction. The mass is rather small for thin dots. However, its importance increases drastically with the dot thickness increasing.

  8. Electro-optical evaluation of tungsten oxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films for modeling an electrochromic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Najafi Ashtiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tungsten oxide and vanadium oxide electrochromic thin films were placed in vacuum and in a thickness of 200 nm on a transparent conductive substrate of SnO2:F using the physical method of thermal evaporation. Then they were studied for the optical characteristics in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm and for their electrical potentials in the range form +1.5 to -1.5 volts. The films were post heated in order to assess changes in energy gap with temperature, at temperatures120 , 300 and 500°C. Refractive and extinction coefficients and the transition type of films in the visible light range and in the thickness of 200 nm were determined and measured. X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM images and cyclic Voltammetry of layers were also studied. The results of this study due to the deposition of layers, the layer thickness selected, the type of substrate, the range of annealing temperatures and selected electrolyte were in full compliance with the works of other researchers [1,2,3]. Therefore, these layers with features such as crystal structure, refractive and even extinction coefficients in the range of visible light, the appropriate response of chromic switch in the replication potential, good adhesion to the substrate, and the high amount of optical transmition and so on, prove useful to be used in an electrochromic device

  9. Ultrathin SiO{sub 2} layer formed by the nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method to improve the thermal-SiO{sub 2}/Si interface for crystalline Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Nakajima, Hiroki; Irishika, Daichi; Nonaka, Takaaki; Imamura, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hikaru, E-mail: h.kobayashi@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The density of interface states at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface is decreased by NAOS. • The minority carrier lifetime is increased by the NAOS treatment. • Great interfacial properties of the NAOS layer are kept after thermal oxidation. - Abstract: A combination of the nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method and post-thermal oxidation is found to efficiently passivate the SiO{sub 2}/n-Si(100) interface. Thermal oxidation at 925 °C and annealing at 450 °C in pure hydrogen atmosphere increases the minority carrier lifetime by three orders of magnitude, and it is attributed to elimination of Si dangling bond interface states. Fabrication of an ultrathin, i.e., 1.1 nm, NAOS SiO{sub 2} layer before thermal oxidation and H{sub 2} annealing further increases the minority carrier lifetime by 30% from 8.6 to 11.1 ms, and decreased the interface state density by 10% from 6.9 × 10{sup 9} to 6.3 × 10{sup 9}eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. After thermal oxidation at 800 °C, the SiO{sub 2} layer on the NAOS-SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) structure is 2.26 nm thick, i.e., 0.24 nm thicker than that on the Si(100) surface, while after thermal oxidation at 925 °C, it is 4.2 nm thick, i.e., 0.4 nm thinner than that on Si(100). The chemical stability results from the higher atomic density of a NAOS SiO{sub 2} layer than that of a thermal oxide layer as reported in Ref. [28] (Asuha et al., 2002). Higher minority carrier lifetime in the presence of the NAOS layer indicates that the NAOS-SiO{sub 2}/Si interface with a low interface state density is preserved after thermal oxidation, which supports out-diffusion oxidation mechanism, by which a thermal oxide layer is formed on the NAOS SiO{sub 2} layer.

  10. Effect of anionic dopants on thickness, morphology and electrical properties of polypyrrole ultra-thin films prepared by in situ chemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodian, Mehrnoosh [Dep. of Polymer Engineering, Nanostructured Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourabbas, Behzad, E-mail: pourabas@sut.ac.ir [Dep. of Polymer Engineering, Nanostructured Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, Shams [Nano-Electronics and Thin Film Lab, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395/515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-29

    The effect of different dopant anions on deposition and characteristics of polypyrrole (PPy) thin film has been studied in this work. Ultra-thin films of conducting PPy were deposited on insulating surfaces of glass and oxidized silicon wafer by in situ chemical polymerization in the presence of different anionic dopants including sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, α-naphthalene sulfonic acid, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate/5-sulfosalicylic acid dehydrate, and camphor sulfonic acid. Hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties and morphology of the self-assembled monolayer of N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)pyrrole, the surface modifying agent in this work, and PPy thin films were characterized before and after deposition by contact angle measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Chemical structure, thickness, and conductivity of the thin films were also studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ellipsometry, and four-point probe measurements. The results showed deposition of thin films of conducting PPy with comparable thickness in the range of 6-31 nm and different morphologies, uniformity, and smoothness with average roughness in the range of 0.3-6 nm and relatively high range of conductivity on the modified surfaces. - Highlights: • Conducting thin films of polypyrrole were deposited on glass and SiO{sub 2} substrates. • Surface modification using pyrrole-silane was employed prior to polymerization. • Films as thin as ≈ 7 nm were deposited using different surfactant/counter ions. • Chemistry of the counter ion affects thickness, conductivity and morphology. • Lower thickness/higher conductivity were obtained by structurally flexible dopants.

  11. An RBS study of thin PLD and MOCVD strontium copper oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Papadopoulou, E.L.; Aperathitis, E. [Inst. Electronic Struture and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion 71110 (Greece); Deschanvres, J.-L. [LMPG INP Grenoble-Minatec, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Somogyi, K. [MicroVacuum Ltd., Kerekgyarto u.: 10, H-1147 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: karoly.somogyi@microvacuum.com; Szendro, I. [MicroVacuum Ltd., Kerekgyarto u.: 10, H-1147 Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-09-30

    Strontium copper oxide (SCO) has been studied as p-type transparent (VIS) conductive oxide material. Also theoretical studies suggested p-type conductivity of the SrCu{sub 2}O{sub 2} composition. SCO thin layers, with thicknesses of 30-2000 nm, were deposited on glass and silicon substrates both by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and by MOCVD method. The as-grown layers showed high electrical resistance. Due to an annealing process, the resistivity significantly decreased and the layers showed p-type conductivity. Optical transparency measured on samples grown on glass substrates was found about or above 80%, including also thickness dependence. RBS measurements were applied for the determination of the chemical composition profile of the layers. A comparison revealed some specific differences between as-grown and annealed PLD samples. Due to the annealing, the ratio of oxide phases was changed and a vertical inhomogeneity in chemical composition was observed. Our measurements revealed also the influence of the deposition technique and of the substrate.

  12. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Belwalkar, A.; Grasing, E.; Van Geertruyden, W.; Huang, Z.; Misiolek, W.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that me...

  13. Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Rajala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS to confirm the presence of gamma-phase aluminum oxide when heated at temperatures above 700 °C. The fiber diameter decreased from 987 ± 19 nm to 382 ± 152 nm after the calcination process due to the polymer material being burned off. The wall thickness of these fibers is estimated to be 100 nm.

  14. Simulation study of 14-nm-gate III-V trigate field effect transistor devices with In1−xGaxAs channel capping layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hao Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study characteristics of 14-nm-gate InGaAs-based trigate MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor devices with a channel capping layer. The impacts of thickness and gallium (Ga concentration of the channel capping layer on the device characteristic are firstly simulated and optimized by using three-dimensional quantum-mechanically corrected device simulation. Devices with In1−xGaxAs/In0.53Ga0.47As channels have the large driving current owing to small energy band gap and low alloy scattering at the channel surface. By simultaneously considering various physical and switching properties, a 4-nm-thick In0.68Ga0.32As channel capping layer can be adopted for advanced applications. Under the optimized channel parameters, we further examine the effects of channel fin angle and the work-function fluctuation (WKF resulting from nano-sized metal grains of NiSi gate on the characteristic degradation and variability. To maintain the device characteristics and achieve the minimal variation induced by WKF, the physical findings of this study indicate a critical channel fin angle of 85o is needed for the device with an averaged grain size of NiSi below 4x4 nm2.

  15. Intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films: effect of vapour chopping and air ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R B; Puri, R K; Puri, V

    2008-01-01

    Bismuth oxide thin films of thickness 1000 A 0 have been prepared by thermal oxidation (in air) of vacuum evaporated bismuth thin films (on glass substrate) at different oxidation temperatures and duration. Both the vapour chopped and nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films showed polycrystalline and polymorphic structure. The monoclinic bismuth oxide was found to be predominant in both the cases. The effect of vapour chopping and air exposure for 40 days on the intrinsic stress of bismuth oxide thin films has been studied. The vapour chopped films showed low (3.92 - 4.80 x 10 9 N/m 2 ) intrinsic stress than those of nonchopped bismuth oxide thin films (5.77 - 6.74 x 10 9 N/m 2 ). Intrinsic stress was found to increase due to air ageing. The effect of air ageing on the vapour chopped films was found low. The vapour chopped films showed higher packing density. Higher the packing density, lower the film will age. The process of chopping vapour flow creates films with less inhomogenety i.e. a low concentration of flaws and non-planar defects which results in lower intrinsic stress

  16. AFM-based force spectroscopy on polystyrene brushes: effect of brush thickness on protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Carsten; Wagner, Hendrik; Smiatek, Jens; Heuer, Andreas; Fuchs, Harald; Zhang, Xi; Studer, Armido; Chi, Lifeng

    2013-02-12

    Herein we present a study on nonspecific binding of proteins at highly dense packed hydrophobic polystyrene brushes. In this context, an atomic force microscopy tip was functionalized with concanavalin A to perform single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements on polystyrene brushes with thicknesses of 10 and 60 nm, respectively. Polystyrene brushes with thickness of 10 nm show an almost two times stronger protein adsorption than brushes with a thickness of 60 nm: 72 pN for the thinner and 38 pN for the thicker layer, which is in qualitative agreement with protein adsorption studies conducted macroscopically by fluorescence microscopy.

  17. Role of the SiO2 buffer layer thickness in the formation of Si/SiO2/nc-Ge/SiO2 structures by dry oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, A.; Ortiz, M.I.; Prieto, A.C.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Jimenez, J.; Ballesteros, C.; Soares, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nanomemories, containing Ge-nanoparticles in a SiO 2 matrix, can be produced by dry thermal oxidation of a SiGe layer deposited onto a Si-wafer with a barrier SiO 2 layer on its top. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry has been used to characterize the kinetics of the oxidation process, the composition profile of the growing oxide, the Ge-segregation and its diffusion into the barrier oxide in samples with thin and thick barrier oxide layers. The Ge segregated during the oxidation of the SiGe layer diffuses into the barrier oxide. In the first case the diffusion through the thin oxide is enhanced by the proximity of the substrate that acts as a sink for the Ge, resulting in the formation of a low Ge concentration SiGe layer in the surface of the Si-wafer. In the second case, the Ge-diffusion progresses as slowly as in bulk SiO 2 . Since barrier oxide layers as thin as possible are favoured for device fabrication, the structures should be oxidized at lower temperatures and the initial SiGe layer thickness reduced to minimize the Ge-diffusion

  18. CoFe Layers Thickness and Annealing Effect on the Magnetic Behavior of the CoFe/Cu Multilayer Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires were electrodeposited into anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization method, using the single-bath technique. Nanowires with 30 nm diameter and the definite lengths were obtained. The effect of CoFe layers thickness and annealing on the magnetic behavior of the multilayer nanowires was investigated. The layers thickness was controlled through the pulses numbers: 200, 260, 310,360 and 410 pulses were used to deposit the CoFe layers, while 300 pulse for the Cu layers. A certain increase in coercivity and squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires observed with increasing the CoFe layer thickness and annealing improved the coercivity and decrease squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires. First order reversal curves after annealed showed amount domains with soft magnetic phase, it also shows decreasing spreading of distribution function along the Hu axis after annealed

  19. Oxygen Reduction Kinetics Enhancement on a Heterostructured Oxide Surface for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2010-11-04

    Heterostructured interfaces of oxides, which can exhibit transport and reactivity characteristics remarkably different from those of bulk oxides, are interesting systems to explore in search of highly active cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we show that the ORR of ∼85 nm thick La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates is dramatically enhanced (∼3-4 orders of magnitude above bulk LSC113) by surface decorations of (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214) with coverage in the range from ∼0.1 to ∼15 nm. Their surface and atomic structures were characterized by atomic force, scanning electron, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the ORR kinetics were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the mechanism for ORR enhancement is not yet fully understood, our results to date show that the observed ORR enhancement can be attributed to highly active interfacial LSC113/LSC214 regions, which were shown to be atomically sharp. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Oxygen Reduction Kinetics Enhancement on a Heterostructured Oxide Surface for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mutoro, Eva; Ahn, Sung-Jin; la O’ , Gerardo Jose; Leonard, Donovan N.; Borisevich, Albina; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Heterostructured interfaces of oxides, which can exhibit transport and reactivity characteristics remarkably different from those of bulk oxides, are interesting systems to explore in search of highly active cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we show that the ORR of ∼85 nm thick La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates is dramatically enhanced (∼3-4 orders of magnitude above bulk LSC113) by surface decorations of (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214) with coverage in the range from ∼0.1 to ∼15 nm. Their surface and atomic structures were characterized by atomic force, scanning electron, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the ORR kinetics were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the mechanism for ORR enhancement is not yet fully understood, our results to date show that the observed ORR enhancement can be attributed to highly active interfacial LSC113/LSC214 regions, which were shown to be atomically sharp. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Structural, optical and electrical characteristics of nickel oxide thin films synthesised through chemical processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuade, Shadrach; Mwankemwa, Benanrd; Nel, Jacqueline; Meyer, Walter

    2018-04-01

    A simple and cheap chemical deposition method was used to produce a nickel oxide (NiO) thin film on glass substrates from a solution that contained Ni2+ and monoethanolamine. Thermal treatment of the film at temperatures above 350 °C for 1 h caused decomposition of the nickel hydroxide into nickel oxide. Structural, optical and electrical properties of the film were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectrophotometry, current-voltage measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The film was found to be polycrystalline with interplanar spacing of 0.241 nm, 0.208 nm and 0.148 nm for (111), (200) and (220) planes respectively, the lattice constant a was found to be 0.417 nm. The film had a porous surface morphology, formed from a network of nanowalls of average thickness of 66.67 nm and 52.00 nm for as-deposited and annealed films respectively. Transmittance of visible light by the as-deposited film was higher and the absorption edge of the film blue-shifted after annealing. The optical band gap of the annealed film was 3.8 eV. Electrical resistivity of the film was 378 Ωm.

  2. Dextran and Polymer Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Coating Reduce Both 5 and 30 nm Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity in 2D and 3D Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Morss Clyne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical applications, yet questions remain regarding the effect of nanoparticle size and coating on nanoparticle cytotoxicity. In this study, porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to 5 and 30 nm diameter iron oxide nanoparticles coated with either the polysaccharide, dextran, or the polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG. Nanoparticle uptake, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, and cell morphology changes were measured. Endothelial cells took up nanoparticles of all sizes and coatings in a dose dependent manner, and intracellular nanoparticles remained clustered in cytoplasmic vacuoles. Bare nanoparticles in both sizes induced a more than 6 fold increase in cell death at the highest concentration (0.5 mg/mL and led to significant cell elongation, whereas cell viability and morphology remained constant with coated nanoparticles. While bare 30 nm nanoparticles induced significant ROS formation, neither 5 nm nanoparticles (bare or coated nor 30 nm coated nanoparticles changed ROS levels. Furthermore, nanoparticles were more toxic at lower concentrations when cells were cultured within 3D gels. These results indicate that both dextran and PEG coatings reduce nanoparticle cytotoxicity, however different mechanisms may be important for different size nanoparticles.

  3. Sub-2 nm SnO2 nanocrystals: A reduction/oxidation chemical reaction synthesis and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Du Ning; Chen Bindi; Cui Tianfeng; Yang Deren

    2008-01-01

    A simple reduction/oxidation chemical solution approach at room temperature has been developed to synthesize ultrafine SnO 2 nanocrystals, in which NaBH 4 is used as a reducing agent instead of mineralizers such as sodium hydroxide, ammonia, and alcohol. The morphology, structure, and optical property of the ultrafine SnO 2 nanocrystals have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. It is indicated that the uniform tetragonal ultrafine SnO 2 nanocrystals with the size below 2 nm have been fabricated at room temperature. The band gap of the ultrafine SnO 2 nanocrystals is about 4.1 eV, exhibiting 0.5 eV blue shift from that of the bulk SnO 2 (3.6 eV). Furthermore, the mechanism for the reduction/oxidation chemical reaction synthesis of the ultrafine SnO 2 nanocrystals has been preliminary presented

  4. A thermally robust and thickness independent ferroelectric phase in laminated hafnium zirconium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riedel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric properties in hafnium oxide based thin films have recovered the scaling potential for ferroelectric memories due to their ultra-thin-film- and CMOS-compatibility. However, the variety of physical phenomena connected to ferroelectricity allows a wider range of applications for these materials than ferroelectric memory. Especially mixed HfxZr1-xO2 thin films exhibit a broad compositional range of ferroelectric phase stability and provide the possibility to tailor material properties for multiple applications. Here it is shown that the limited thermal stability and thick-film capability of HfxZr1-xO2 can be overcome by a laminated approach using alumina interlayers.

  5. Nano-porous anodic aluminium oxide membranes with 6-19 nm pore diameters formed by a low-potential anodizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan; Liu Xiaohua; Pan Caofeng; Zhu Jing [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-08-29

    Self-organized nano-porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes with small pore diameters were obtained by applying a low anodizing potential in sulfuric acid solutions. The pore diameters of the as-prepared AAO membranes were in the range of about 6-19 nm and the interpore distances were about 20-58 nm. Low potentials (6-18 V) were applied in anodizing processes to make such small pores. A linear relationship between the anodizing potential (U{sub a}) and the interpore distance (D{sub int}) was also revealed. By carefully monitoring the current density's evolution as a function of time with different U{sub a} (2-18 V) during the anodizing processes, a new formula is proposed to simulate the self-ordering anodizing process.

  6. Template-directed formation of functional complex metal-oxide nanostructures by combination of sol-gel processing and spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.C.; Kim, J.; Bu, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    We report the template-based formation of functional complex metal-oxide nanostructures by a combination of sol-gel processing and spin coating. This method employs the spin-coating of a sol-gel solution into an anodic aluminum oxide membrane (SSAM). Various metal-oxide nanowires and nanotubes with a high aspect-ratio were prepared. The aspect-ratios of the PbO 2 nanowires and Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 nanowires were about 300 and 400, respectively, and their diameters were about 50 nm. The fabricated PbTiO 3 nanotubes have a relatively constant wall thickness of about 20 nm with an outer diameter of about 60 nm. The deposition time for all of the fabricated metal-oxide nanowires and nanotubes is less than 120 s, which is far shorter than those required in both the sol-gel dipping and sol-gel electrophoretic methods. These results indicate that the SSAM method can be a versatile pathway to prepare functional complex metal-oxide nanowires and nanotubes with a high aspect-ratio. The possible formation process for the one-dimensional nanostructures by SSAM is discussed

  7. Resistive switching in ZrO2 based metal-oxide-metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkkaenen, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is a deeper understanding of the influence of the (i) metal-oxide-metal (MOM) layer stacks configuration, (ii) the oxide films microstructure, (iii) and their defect structure on the appearance of different switching modes, i.e. unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP). The first part deals with the fabrication of ZrO 2 thin films by an industrial compatible atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the chemical, structural and morphological characterization of the films, the growth of ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers, the integration of the layers into metal-oxide-metal (MOM) devices and the electrical characterization with focus on the RS behavior. In the second part the effect of the device structure, in particular the thickness of the electrochemical active electrode (EAE) and the ZrO 2 film morphology, on the RS switching polarity of Pt/ZrO 2 /(EAE) cells is discussed. ZrO 2 films and ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers were grown by ALD and were carefully structurally and electrically characterized. The ZrO 2 films grown from Zr[N(CH 3 )C 2 H 5 ] 4 (TEMA-Zr) at 240 C were polycrystalline with a mixture of cubic/tetragonal phases. ALD/H 2 O-ZrO 2 films exhibited a random oriented polycrystalline structure, whereas the ALD/O 3 -ZrO 2 films consisted of preferably oriented cubic shaped grains. Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt structures with a Ti top electrode (TE) thickness of 5 to 20 nm showed unipolar type RS behavior, while by increasing the Ti TE thickness a gradual change of switching polarity from unipolar to bipolar with a completely bipolar type RS behavior for a Ti TE thickness of 40 nm is found. The switching in Pt/ZrO 2 /TiO 2 /Ti/Pt devices was unipolar, comparable to Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt cells. In contrast, bilayers with the reverse structure, Pt/TiO 2 /ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt, showed non-switching behavior. The effect of the cells stack structure on the polarity of the RS behavior was studied in detail for 20 nm thick ZrO 2 films grown by an ozone based ALD process and integrated into Pt/ZrO 2

  8. Studies of nitride- and oxide-based materials as absorptive shifters for embedded attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-ming; Chang, Keh-wen; Lee, Ming-der; Loong, Wen-An

    1999-07-01

    Abstract-Five materials which are PdSixOy, CrAlxOy, SiNx, TiSixNy, and TiSixOyNz as absorptive shifters for attenuated phase-shifting mask in 193 nm wavelength lithography are presented. PdSixOy films were deposited by dual e-gun evaporation. CrAlxOy, TiSixNy and TiSixOyNz films were formed by plasma sputtering and SiNx films were formed with LPCVD. All of these materials are shown to be capable of achieving 4 percent - 15 percent transmittance in 193 nm with thickness that produce a 180 degrees phase shift. Under BCl3:Cl2 equals 14:70 sccm; chamber pressure 5 mtorr and RF power 1900W, the dry etching selectivity of TiSixNy over DQN positive resist and fused silica, were found to be 2:1 and 4,8:1 respectively. An embedded layer TiSixNy with 0.5 micrometers line/space was successfully patterned.

  9. Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Grating Coating with TiO2 Nanostructured Metal Oxide for Refractive Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaymaa Riyadh Tahhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the sensitivity of biosensor a new approach using an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG coated with a suitable nanostructured metal oxide (NMO is proposed which is costly effective compared to other biosensors. Bragg grating was written on a D-shaped optical fiber by phase mask method using a 248 nm KrF excimer laser for a 5 min exposure time producing a grating with a period of 528 nm. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanostructured metal oxide was coated over the fiber for the purpose of increasing its sensing area. The etched D-shaped FBG was then coated with 312 nm thick TiO2 nanostructured layer to ensure propagating the radiation modes within the core. The final structure was used to sense deionized water and saline. The etched D-shaped FBG original sensitivity before coating to air-deionized water and to air-saline was 0.314 nm/riu and 0.142 nm/riu, respectively. After coating the sensitivity became 1.257 nm/riu for air-deionized water and 0.857 nm/riu for air-saline.

  10. A supercritical carbon dioxide plasma process for preparing tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plasma process for fabricating one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires coated with amorphous carbon is presented. High-frequency plasma was generated in supercritical carbon dioxide at 20 MPa by using tungsten electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell, and subsequently an organic solvent was introduced with supercritical carbon dioxide into the plasma. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations of the deposited materials showed the production of tungsten oxide nanowires with or without an outer layer. The nanowires with an outer layer exhibited a coaxial structure with an outer concentric layer of amorphous carbon and an inner layer of tungsten oxide with a thickness and diameter of 20-30 and 10-20 nm, respectively

  11. Numerical modelling of the impedance plane for simultaneous determining, by eddy currents, the oxide thickness and conductivity in Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, Alejandro E.

    2001-01-01

    During service at high temperature or in aggressive media, metallic structures and components may suffer different types of changes or degradation. As an example, phase transformations may occur, second phases may precipitate, and in consequence the mechanical and chemical properties of the material may change. Their behavior will therefore differ from that considered for the design of the component. The knowledge of the amount of a precipitated second phase in a component should be an important tool in the hands of the maintenance engineer. And it would be very important to obtain this knowledge nondestructively and reliably. The objective of this project is to evaluate by eddy currents the amount of the hydrogen incorporated during service in structural zirconium base materials. For this purpose, a series of Zircaloy-4 specimens with oxide layers of different thickness and different concentration of hydrogen obtained by controlled autoclave treatments were used. These specimens were tested with eddy current equipment. The information produced by an eddy current test is the superposition of many variables, e.g.: thickness of oxide layers, conductance, thickness of specimen, etc. In order to sort out this information, an analytical model of the impedance plane was programmed in a PC, with which this information was processed, permitting, in this way, to evaluate the conductivity of materials, taking into account the effect of oxide layers thickness. A linear relationship between the conductivity and the hydrogen content in the range of hydrogen concentrations of technological interest was observed. Therefore, the calculated electrical conductivity may be transformed to the amount of hydrogen content, using a suitable calibration curve. This process will allow for the nondestructive assessment of the amount of hydrogen in reactor components, such as pressure and calandria tubes, a knowledge which will enable the experts to predict the degree of fragility of those

  12. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto

    2015-01-01

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO 2 in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO 2 layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices

  13. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail: a.rosikhin86@yahoo.co.id; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of physics, physics of electronic materials research division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Jawa Barat – Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO{sub 2} in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO{sub 2} layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices.

  14. Thickness dependence of J_c (0) in MgB_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A serial of MgB_2 superconducting films from 10 nm to 8 µm have been prepared. • T_c and J_c (5 K, 0 T) of films are high. • J_c (5 K, 0 T) reaches its maximum 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 for 100 nm films. • The relationship between thickness and J_c has been discussed in detail. - Abstract: MgB_2 superconducting films, whose thicknesses range from 10 nm to 8 µm, have been fabricated on SiC substrates by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method. It is the first time that the T_c and the J_c of MgB_2 films are studied on such a large scale. It is found that with the increasing of thickness, T_c elevates first and then keeps roughly stable except for some slight fluctuations, while J_c (5 K, 0 T) experiences a sharp increase followed by a relatively slow fall. The maximum J_c (5 K, 0 T) = 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 is obtained for 100 nm films, which is the experimental evidence for preparing high-quality MgB_2 films by HPCVD method. Thus, this work may provide guidance on choosing the suitable thickness for applications. Meanwhile, the films prepared by us cover ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, so the study on them will bring a comprehensive understanding of MgB_2 films.

  15. Hybrid Spintronic Structures With Magnetic Oxides and Heusler Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Y. B.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid spintronic structures, integrating half-metallic magnetic oxides and Heusler alloys with their predicted high spin polarization, are important for the development of second-generation spintronics with high-efficient spin injection. We have synthesized epitaxial magnetic oxide Fe3O4 on Ga......As(100) and the unit cell of the Fe3O4 was found to be rotated by 45 degrees to match the gallium arsenide GaAs. The films were found to have a bulk-like moment down to 3-4 nm and a low coercivity indicating a high-quality magnetic interface. The magnetization hysteresis loops of the ultrathin films...... are controlled by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic response of the sample shows a heavily damped precessional response to the applied field pulses. In the Heusler alloy system of Co-2 MnGa on GaAs, we found that the magnetic moment was reduced for thicknesses down to 10 nm, which may account...

  16. Investigation of top electrode for PZT thick films based MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Paw T.

    2010-01-01

    In this work processing of screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick films on silicon substrates is investigated for use in future MEMS devices. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt are patterned on PZT as a top electrode using a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mu m. Three test structures are used...... to investigate the optimal thickness of the top electrode, the degradation of the piezoelectric properties of the PZT film in absence of a diffusion barrier layer and finally how to fabricate electrical interconnects down the edge of the PZT thick film. The roughness of the PZT is found to have a strong...... influence on the conductance of the top electrode influencing the optimal top electrode thickness. A 100 nm thick top electrode on the PZT thick film with a surface roughness of 273 nm has a 4.5 times higher resistance compared to a similar wire on a planar SiO2 surface which has a surface roughness of less...

  17. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  18. Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Kolb, Jan Philip; Wieser, Wolfgang; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Fujimoto, James G; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Huber, Robert; Wolf, Armin

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s for choroidal imaging in normal and diseased eyes over a ∼60° field of view. To investigate and correlate wide-field three-dimensional (3D) choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascular patterns using ChT maps and coregistered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled Megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. High-definition, ∼60° wide-field 3D datasets consisting of 2088 × 1024 A-scans were acquired using a 1.68 MHz prototype SS-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser. Nine subjects (nine eyes) with various chorioretinal diseases or without ocular pathology are presented. Coregistered ChT maps, choroidal summation maps, and depth-resolved en face images referenced to either the retinal pigment epithelium or the choroidal-scleral interface were generated using manual segmentation. Wide-field ChT maps showed a large inter- and intraindividual variance in peripheral and central ChT. In only four of the nine eyes, the location with the largest ChT was coincident with the fovea. The anatomy of the large lumen vessels of the outer choroid seems to play a major role in determining the global ChT pattern. Focal ChT changes with large thickness gradients were observed in some eyes. Different ChT and vascular patterns could be visualized over ∼60° in patients for the first time using OCT. Due to focal ChT changes, a high density of thickness measurements may be favorable. High-definition depth-resolved en face images are complementary to cross sections and thickness maps and enhance the interpretation of different ChT patterns.

  19. Prediction of overpotential and effective thickness of Ni/YSZ anode for solid oxide fuel cell by improved species territory adsorption model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Tsuyoshi; Hanamura, Katsunori

    2017-06-01

    The reliability of analytical model for hydrogen oxidation at Ni/YSZ anode in solid oxide fuel cell named as species territory adsorption model has been improved by introducing referenced thermodynamic and kinetic parameters predicted by density function theory calculations. The model can explicitly predict anode overpotential using unknown values of quantities of state for oxygen migration process in YSZ near a triple phase boundary (TPB), frequency factor for hydrogen oxidation, and effective anode thickness. The former two are determined through careful fitting process between the predicted and experimental results of Ni/YSZ cermet and Ni-patterned anodes. This makes it possible to estimate effective anode thickness, which tends to increase with temperature in six kinds of Ni/YSZ anodes in references. In addition, the comparison between the proposed model and a published numerical simulation indicates that the model can predict more precise dependence of anode overpotential on steam partial pressure than that by Butler-Volmer equation with empirical exchange current density. The introduction of present model into numerical simulation instead of Butler-Volmer equation can give more accurate prediction of anode polarization.

  20. Electroluminescence dependence on the organic thickness in ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pengzhi; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Dawei

    2011-04-01

    ZnO nanorods are synthesised by a hydrothermal method on ITO glass. Their crystallization and morphology are detected by XRD and SEM, respectively. The results show that the ZnO nanorod array has grown primarily along a direction aligned perpendicular to the ITO substrate. The average height and diameter of the nanorods is about 130 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Then ZnO nano rods/Alq3 heterostructure LEDs are prepared by thermal evaporation of Alq3 molecules. The thicknesses of the Alq3 layers are 130 nm, 150 nm, 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively. The electroluminescence of the devices is detected under different DC bias voltages. The exciton emission of Alq3 is detected in all devices. When the thickness of Alq3 is 130 nm, the UV electroluminescence of ZnO is around 382 nm, and defect emissions around 670 nm and 740 nm are detected. Defect emissions of ZnO nanorods are prominent. When the thickness of Alq3 increases to over 170 nm, it is difficult to observe defect emissions from the ZnO nano rods. In such devices, the exciton emission of Alq3 is more prominent than other emissions under different bias voltage.

  1. Advanced technique for ultra-thin residue inspection with sub-10nm thickness using high-energy back-scattered electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Hee

    2018-03-01

    Recently the aspect ratio of capacitor and via hole of memory semiconductor device has been dramatically increasing in order to store more information in a limited area. A small amount of remained residues after etch process on the bottom of the high aspect ratio structure can make a critical failure in device operation. Back-scattered electrons (BSE) are mainly used for inspecting the defect located at the bottom of the high aspect ratio structure or analyzing the overlay of the multi-layer structure because these electrons have a high linearity with the direction of emission and a high kinetic energy above 50eV. However, there is a limitation on that it cannot detect ultra-thin residue material having a thickness of several nanometers because the surface sensitivity is extremely low. We studied the characteristics of BSE spectra using Monte Carlo simulations for several cases which the high aspect ratio structures have extreme microscopic residues. Based on the assumption that most of the electrons emitted without energy loss are localized on the surface, we selected the detection energy window which has a range of 20eV below the maximum energy of the BSE. This window section is named as the high-energy BSE region. As a result of comparing the detection sensitivity of the conventional and the high-energy BSE detection mode, we found that the detection sensitivity for the residuals which have 2nm thickness is improved by more than 10 times in the high-energy BSE mode. This BSE technology is a new inspection method that can greatly be improved the inspection sensitivity for the ultra-thin residual material presented in the high aspect ratio structure, and its application will be expanded.

  2. Influence of various thickness metallic interlayers on opto-electric and mechanical properties of AZO thin films on PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. C.; Li, T. C.; Lin, C. W.

    2012-02-01

    Various thickness metallic interlayers to improve the opto-electric and mechanical properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephtalate (PET) substrates are studied. The effects of the interlayers on the resistance and transmittance of the AZO thin films are discussed. The result shows that the metallic interlayers effectively improve the electric resistance but reduce the optical transmittance of the AZO thin films. These phenomena become more obvious as the interlayer thickness increases. However, the AZO with an aluminum interlayer still behaves an acceptable transmittance. Moreover, mechanical tests indicate that the aluminum interlayer increases the hardness and modulus, and reduce the residual stress of the AZO thin films. In contrast, the silver and copper interlayers decrease the AZO's mechanical properties. Comparing to those without any interlayer, the results show that the best interlayer is the 6 nm thick aluminum film.

  3. Effect of thickness on structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Co and Al doped ZnO films deposited by sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mamta [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India); Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India)], E-mail: rammehra2003@yahoo.com

    2008-12-30

    This paper reports deposition and characterization of Zn{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.05}Al{sub 0.01}O films of thickness ranging from 70 nm to 400 nm. These films were deposited on a glass (Corning, 7059) substrate using sol-gel route. The films have been characterized to study their structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the crystallinity and growth mode of the films. The films deposited up to a thickness of 200 nm showed improvement in crystallinity and preferential c-axis orientation. A transition in the growth mode from vertical (c-axis) to lateral (a and b-axis) was observed with further increase in the thickness of the film. The average transmittance of the films for thickness less than 200 nm was above 80% in the visible region which decreased at higher thickness of the film. The resistivity of the film was found to decrease with increase in thickness up to 200 nm. Ferromagnetism, at room temperature, was confirmed for 200 nm and 400 nm thick films.

  4. Effect of thickness on structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Co and Al doped ZnO films deposited by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mamta; Mehra, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports deposition and characterization of Zn 0.94 Co 0.05 Al 0.01 O films of thickness ranging from 70 nm to 400 nm. These films were deposited on a glass (Corning, 7059) substrate using sol-gel route. The films have been characterized to study their structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the crystallinity and growth mode of the films. The films deposited up to a thickness of 200 nm showed improvement in crystallinity and preferential c-axis orientation. A transition in the growth mode from vertical (c-axis) to lateral (a and b-axis) was observed with further increase in the thickness of the film. The average transmittance of the films for thickness less than 200 nm was above 80% in the visible region which decreased at higher thickness of the film. The resistivity of the film was found to decrease with increase in thickness up to 200 nm. Ferromagnetism, at room temperature, was confirmed for 200 nm and 400 nm thick films.

  5. Thickness dependencies of structural and magnetic properties of cubic and tetragonal Heusler alloy bilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, R.; Suzuki, K. Z.; Sugihara, A.; Ando, Y.; Miyazaki, T.; Mizukami, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thickness dependencies of the structural and magnetic properties for bilayers of cubic Co-based Heusler alloys (CCHAs: Co2FeAl (CFA), Co2FeSi (CFS), Co2MnAl (CMA), and Co2MnSi (CMS)) and D022-MnGa were investigated. Epitaxy of the B2 structure of CCHAs on a MnGa film was achieved; the smallest thickness with the B2 structure was found for 3-nm-thick CMS and CFS. The interfacial exchange coupling (Jex) was antiferromagnetic (AFM) for all of the CCHAs/MnGa bilayers except for unannealed CFA/MnGa samples. A critical thickness (tcrit) at which perpendicular magnetization appears of approximately 4-10 nm for the CMA/MnGa and CMS/MnGa bilayers was observed, whereas this thickness was 1-3 nm for the CFA/MnGa and CFS/MnGa films. The critical thickness for different CCHAs materials is discussed in terms of saturation magnetization (Ms) and the Jex .

  6. Low leakage Ru-strontium titanate-Ru metal-insulator-metal capacitors for sub-20 nm technology node in dynamic random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, M., E-mail: Mihaela.Ioana.Popovici@imec.be; Swerts, J.; Redolfi, A.; Kaczer, B.; Aoulaiche, M.; Radu, I.; Clima, S.; Everaert, J.-L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Jurczak, M. [Imec, Leuven 3001 (Belgium)

    2014-02-24

    Improved metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIMCAP) stacks with strontium titanate (STO) as dielectric sandwiched between Ru as top and bottom electrode are shown. The Ru/STO/Ru stack demonstrates clearly its potential to reach sub-20 nm technology nodes for dynamic random access memory. Downscaling of the equivalent oxide thickness, leakage current density (J{sub g}) of the MIMCAPs, and physical thickness of the STO have been realized by control of the Sr/Ti ratio and grain size using a heterogeneous TiO{sub 2}/STO based nanolaminate stack deposition and a two-step crystallization anneal. Replacement of TiN with Ru as both top and bottom electrodes reduces the amount of electrically active defects and is essential to achieve a low leakage current in the MIM capacitor.

  7. Formation process of graphite film on Ni substrate with improved thickness uniformity through precipitation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul-Gi; Hu, Qicheng; Nam, Ki-Bong; Kim, Mun Ja; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale graphitic thin film with high thickness uniformity needs to be developed for industrial applications. Graphitic films with thicknesses ranging from 3 to 20 nm have rarely been reported, and achieving the thickness uniformity in that range is a challenging task. In this study, a process for growing 20 nm-thick graphite films on Ni with improved thickness uniformity is demonstrated and compared with the conventional growth process. In the film grown by the process, the surface roughness and coverage were improved and no wrinkles were observed. Observations of the film structure reveal the reasons for the improvements and growth mechanisms.

  8. n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride–oxide heterostructure with various thickness of VO{sub 2} layer grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minhuan [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Weifeng [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Yuzhi [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Luo, Yingmin [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The significant influences of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the structural, electrical and contact properties of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure were investigated systemically. - Highlights: • High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). • A distinct reversible SMT phase transition was observed for the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure. • The clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer. • The XPS analyses confirmed the valence state of V in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. • The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure devices will benefit significantly from these achievements. - Abstract: High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). Results indicated that a distinct reversible semiconductor-to-metal (SMT) phase transition was observed for all the samples in the temperature dependent electrical resistance measurement, and the influence of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the SMT properties of the as-grown n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure was investigated. Meanwhile, the clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer, which were attributed to the p-n junction behavior and Schottky contact character, respectively. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed the valence state of vanadium (V) in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure

  9. Passivation mechanism in silicon heterojunction solar cells with intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Dimitrios; van Vliet, Jeroen; Vasudevan, Ravi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Zeman, Miro

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we use intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers (a-SiOx:H) with varying oxygen content (cO) but similar hydrogen content to passivate the crystalline silicon wafers. Using our deposition conditions, we obtain an effective lifetime (τeff) above 5 ms for cO ≤ 6 at. % for passivation layers with a thickness of 36 ± 2 nm. We subsequently reduce the thickness of the layers using an accurate wet etching method to ˜7 nm and deposit p- and n-type doped layers fabricating a device structure. After the deposition of the doped layers, τeff appears to be predominantly determined by the doped layers themselves and is less dependent on the cO of the a-SiOx:H layers. The results suggest that τeff is determined by the field-effect rather than by chemical passivation.

  10. Thickness dependent ferromagnetism in thermally decomposed NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in

    2016-11-15

    We report the effects of film thickness, annealing temperature and annealing environments on thermal decomposition behavior and resulting magnetic properties of NiO (t=50–300 nm) thin films. All the NiO films were prepared directly on thermally oxidized Si at ambient temperature using magnetron sputtering technique and post annealed at different temperatures (T{sub A}) under vacuum and oxygen atmospheres. As-deposited films exhibit face centered cubic structure with large lattice constant due to strain induced during sputtering process. With increasing T{sub A}, the lattice constant decreases due to the release of strain and thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction of NiO into Ni has been observed for the NiO films annealed at 500 °C under vacuum condition. As a result, the antiferromagnetic nature of the as-deposited NiO films transforms into ferromagnetic one with dominant thickness dependent ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. In addition, the existence of both Ni and NiO phases in the annealed NiO films shows noticeable exchange bias under field cooling condition. The behavior of thermal decomposition was not observed for the NiO films annealed under oxygen condition which results in no detectable change in the magnetic properties. The observed results are discussed on the basis of thickness dependent thermal decomposition in NiO films with increasing T{sub A} and changing annealing conditions. - Highlights: • Preparation of highly strained single layer NiO films with different thicknesses. • Study the effects of annealing under different environments on crystal structure. • Understanding the origin of thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction. • Investigate the role of thermal decomposition reaction on the magnetic properties. • Study the interaction between NiO and Ni phases on the exchange bias mechanism.

  11. Unique Crystal Orientation of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films by Crystallization Using a Thermal Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbabode, Gabin; Delvaux, Maxime; Schweicher, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), thin films of different thicknesses (220, 450, and 1500 nm) and molecular masses (4000, 8000, and 20000 g/mol) have been fabricated by spin-coating of methanol solutions onto glass substrates. All these samples have been recrystallized from the melt using a directional......, to significantly decrease the distribution of crystal orientation obtained after crystallization using the thermal gradient technique....

  12. Measurements of the dependence of damage thresholds on laser wavelength, pulse duration and film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Vercimak, C.L.; Carniglia, C.K.; Milam, D.; Hart, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three experiments are described. The authors used 351-nm and 355-nm pulses with durations of 0.6, 1, 5 and 9 ns to measure thresholds for a variety of antireflectance and high reflectance coatings. The functional form t/sup m/, with t the pulse duration, was used to scale fluence thresholds measured at 0.6 ns to those measured at 9.0 ns. Values of the coefficient m ranged from 0.10 to 0.51. The average value was 0.30. In the second experiment, they measured thresholds at 1064 nm, 527 nm and 355 nm for single-frequency high reflectance ZrO/sub 2//SiO/sub 2/ coatings. Coatings for all three frequencies were deposited simultaneously by use of masks in the coating chamber. Thresholds varied from 2-4 J/cm/sup 2/ at 355 nm to 7-10 J/cm/sup 2/ at 1064 nm. The third experiment measured thresholds at 355 nm for antireflection coatings made with layer thicknesses varying from greater than one wavelength to less than a quarterwavelength. A significant variation of threshold with coating thickness was not observed, but the median thresholds increased slightly as coating thickness increased

  13. Template synthesis of indium nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Kitai, Adrian H

    2008-09-01

    Indium nanowires with diameters approximately 300 nm have been synthesized by a hydraulic pressure technique using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The indium melt is injected into the AAO template and solidified to form nanostructures. The nanowires are dense, continuous and uniformly run through the entire approximately 60 microm thickness of the AAO template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the nanowires are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. SEM is performed to characterize the morphology of the nanowires.

  14. Dielectric breakdown of ultrathin aluminum oxide films induced by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magtoto, N. P.; Niu, C.; Ekstrom, B. M.; Addepalli, S.; Kelber, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric breakdown of 7-Aa-thick Al 2 O 3 (111) films grown on Ni 3 Al(111) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions is induced by increasing the bias voltage on the scanning tunneling microscopy tip under constant current feedback. Breakdown is marked by the precipitous retreat of the tip from the surface, and the formation of an elevated feature in the scanning tunneling microscopy image, typically greater than 5 nm high and ∼100 nm in diameter. Constant height measurements performed at tip/sample distances of 1 nm or less yield no tip/substrate physical interaction, indicating that such features do not result from mass transport. Consistent with this, current/voltage measurements within the affected regions indicate linear behavior, in contrast to a band gap of 1.5 eV observed at unaffected regions of the oxide surface. A threshold electric field value of 11±1 MV cm -1 is required to induce breakdown, in good agreement with extrapolated values from capacitance measurements on thicker oxides. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in molecular beam epitaxy-grown SrTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianqi; Ganguly, Koustav; Marshall, Patrick; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    We report on the study of the critical thickness and the strain relaxation in epitaxial SrTiO 3 film grown on (La 0.3 Sr 0.7 )(Al 0.65 Ta 0.35 )O 3 (001) (LSAT) substrate using the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach. No change in the film's lattice parameter (both the in-plane and the out-of-plane) was observed up to a film thickness of 180 nm, which is in sharp contrast to the theoretical critical thickness of ∼12 nm calculated using the equilibrium theory of strain relaxation. For film thicknesses greater than 180 nm, the out-of-plane lattice parameter was found to decrease hyperbolically in an excellent agreement with the relaxation via forming misfit dislocations. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which the elastic strain energy can be accommodated prior to forming misfit dislocations leading to such anomalously large critical thickness

  16. Analysis and optimization of acoustic wave micro-resonators integrating piezoelectric zinc oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, O.; Zahr, A. H.; Orlianges, J.-C.; Crunteanu, A.; Chatras, M.; Blondy, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports on the design, simulation, fabrication, and test results of ZnO-based contour-mode micro-resonators integrating piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) layers. The inter-digitated (IDT) type micro-resonators are fabricated on ZnO films and suspended top of 2 μm thick silicon membranes using silicon-on insulator technology. We analyze several possibilities of increasing the quality factor (Q) and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt2) of the devices by varying the numbers and lengths of the IDT electrodes and using different thicknesses of the ZnO layer. We designed and fabricated IDTs of different finger numbers (n = 25, 40, 50, and 80) and lengths (L = 100/130/170/200 μm) for three different thicknesses of ZnO films (200, 600, and 800 nm). The measured Q factor confirms that reducing the length and the number of IDT fingers enables us to reach better electrical performances at resonant frequencies around 700 MHz. The extracted results for an optimized micro-resonator device having an IDT length of 100 μm and 40 finger electrodes show a Q of 1180 and a kt2 of 7.4%. We demonstrate also that the reduction of the ZnO thickness from 800 nm to 200 nm increases the quality factor from 430 to 1600, respectively, around 700 MHz. Experimental data are in very good agreement with theoretical simulations of the fabricated devices

  17. Interplay between total thickness and period thickness in the phonon thermal conductivity of superlattices from the nanoscale to the microscale: Coherent versus incoherent phonon transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Polanco, Carlos A.; Addamane, Sadhvikas; Zhang, Jingjie; Ghosh, Avik W.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the room temperature thermal conductivity of AlAs-GaAs superlattices (SLs), in which we systematically vary the period thickness and total thickness between 2 -24 nm and 20.1 -2 ,160 nm , respectively. The thermal conductivity increases with the SL thickness and plateaus at a thickness around 200 nm, showing a clear transition from a quasiballistic to a diffusive phonon transport regime. These results demonstrate the existence of classical size effects in SLs, even at the highest interface density samples. We use harmonic atomistic Green's function calculations to capture incoherence in phonon transport by averaging the calculated transmission over several purely coherent simulations of independent SL with different random mixing at the AlAs-GaAs interfaces. These simulations demonstrate the significant contribution of incoherent phonon transport through the decrease in the transmission and conductance in the SLs as the number of interfaces increases. In spite of this conductance decrease, our simulations show a quasilinear increase in thermal conductivity with the superlattice thickness. This suggests that the observation of a quasilinear increase in thermal conductivity can have important contributions from incoherent phonon transport. Furthermore, this seemingly linear slope in thermal conductivity versus SL thickness data may actually be nonlinear when extended to a larger number of periods, which is a signature of incoherent effects. Indeed, this trend for superlattices with interatomic mixing at the interfaces could easily be interpreted as linear when the number of periods is small. Our results reveal that the change in thermal conductivity with period thickness is dominated by incoherent (particlelike) phonons, whose properties are not dictated by changes in the AlAs or GaAs phonon dispersion relations. This work demonstrates the importance of studying both period and sample thickness dependencies of thermal conductivity to understand the

  18. Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Ostwal, Mayur; Shinde, Digambar B.; Wang, Xinbo; Gadwal, Ikhlas; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes were prepared using vacuum filtration technique. The thickness and the MoS2 content in the membranes were varied and their H2 permeance and H2/CO2 selectivity are reported. A 60nm hybrid membrane containing ~75% by weight of MoS2 exhibited the highest H2 permeance of 804×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa with corresponding H2/CO2 selectivity of 26.7; while a 150nm hybrid membrane with ~29% MoS2 showed the highest H2/CO2 selectivity of 44.2 with corresponding H2 permeance of 287×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa. The hybrid membranes exhibited much higher H2 permeance compared to graphene oxide membranes and higher selectivity compared to MoS2 membranes, which fully demonstrated the synergistic effect of both nanomaterials. The membranes also displayed excellent operational long-term stability.

  19. Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Ostwal, Mayur

    2017-12-24

    Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes were prepared using vacuum filtration technique. The thickness and the MoS2 content in the membranes were varied and their H2 permeance and H2/CO2 selectivity are reported. A 60nm hybrid membrane containing ~75% by weight of MoS2 exhibited the highest H2 permeance of 804×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa with corresponding H2/CO2 selectivity of 26.7; while a 150nm hybrid membrane with ~29% MoS2 showed the highest H2/CO2 selectivity of 44.2 with corresponding H2 permeance of 287×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa. The hybrid membranes exhibited much higher H2 permeance compared to graphene oxide membranes and higher selectivity compared to MoS2 membranes, which fully demonstrated the synergistic effect of both nanomaterials. The membranes also displayed excellent operational long-term stability.

  20. The effect of silver thickness on the enhancement of polymer based SERS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidewind, H; Weber, K; Zeisberger, M; Hübner, U; Dellith, A; Cialla-May, D; Mattheis, R; Popp, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated silver-covered polymer based nanogratings as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in particular with respect to the thickness of the plasmonically active silver film. In order to obtain accurate geometrical input data for the simulation process, we inspected cross sections of the gratings prepared by breaking at cryogenic temperature. We noticed a strong dependence of the simulation results on geometrical variations of the structures. Measurements revealed that an increasing silver film thickness on top of the nanogratings leads to a blue shift of the plasmonic resonance, as predicted by numerical simulations, as well as to an increased field enhancement for an excitation at 488 nm. We found a clear deviation of the experimental data compared to the simulated results for very thin silver films due to an island-like growth at a silver thickness below 20 nm. In order to investigate the SERS activity. we carried out measurements with crystal violet as a model analyte at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. The SERS enhancement increases up to a silver thickness of about 30 nm, whereas it remains nearly constant for thicker silver films. (paper)

  1. Simple electrodepositing of CoFe/Cu multilayers: Effect of ferromagnetic layer thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekgül, Atakan, E-mail: atakantekgul@gmail.com [Akdeniz University, Physics Department, Science Faculty, TR-07058 Antalya (Turkey); Uludag University, Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, TR-16059 Bursa (Turkey); Alper, Mürsel [Uludag University, Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, TR-16059 Bursa (Turkey); Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir University, Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, TR-10145 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    The CoFe/Cu magnetic multilayers were produced by changing CoFe ferromagnetic layers from 3 nm to 10 nm using electrodeposition. By now, the thinnest Cu (0.5 nm) layer thicknesses were used to see whether the GMR effect in the multilayers can be obtained or not since the pinning of non-magnetic layer between the ferromagnetic layers is required. For the proper depositions, the cyclic voltammograms was used, and the current–time transients were obtained. The Cu and CoFe layers were deposited at a cathode potential of −0.3 and −1.5 V with respect to saturated calomel electrode, respectively. From the XRD patterns, the multilayers were shown to be fcc crystal structures. For the magnetization measurements, saturation magnetization increases from 160 to 600 kA/m from 3 to 8 nm ferromagnetic layer thicknesses. And, the coercivity values increase until the 8 nm of the CoFe layer thickness. It is seen that the thin Cu layer (fixed at 0.5 nm) and pinholes support the random magnetization orientation and thus all multilayers exhibited the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, and the highest GMR value was observed about 5.5%. And, the variation of GMR field sensitivity was calculated. The results show that the GMR and GMR sensitivity are compatible among the multilayers. The CoFe/Cu magnetic multilayers having GMR properties are used in GMR sensors and hard disk drive of the nano-technological devices. - Highlights: • The much thinner (0.5 nm) Cu layer was used to obtain the GMR effect on the electrodeposited CoFe/Cu multilayers. • All samples exhibited GMR and the maximum GMR value was 5.5%. • The M{sub s} and the H{sub c} changed with increasing magnetic layer thickness.

  2. Photolysis of allene-ozone mixtures at 647 nm in cryogenic matrices. Part 1. Formation of allene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singmaster, Karen A.; Pimentel, George C.

    1989-03-01

    Matrix studies of the photolytic reaction at 647 nm between allene and ozone were carried out at 12 K. Primary photoproducts include carbon monoxide, acrolein ( cis and trans), cyclopropanone, ketene, ethylene, allene oxide and formaldehyde. In Ar and Kr matrices both acrolein and cyclopropanone are produced in high yields, whereas in Xe matrices cyclopropanone is the major product. Infrared spectra for cyclopropanone and its oxygen-18 and deuterium substitutes are reported. The carbonyl stretch for cyclopropanone is observed at 1815 cm -1 in an Ar matrix. Also reported is the first synthesis of allene oxide. The carbon—carbon double bond stretch is observed at 1823.4 cm -1 and it exhibits a small oxygen-18 shift. The change in product distribution is discussed in terms of heavy atom spin—orbit enhancement of singlet—triplet excitation, so that in xenon reaction takes place on a triplet surface, whereas in argon it occurs on a singlet surface.

  3. Performance Analysis of GaN Capping Layer Thickness on GaN/AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Periasamy, C; Chaturvedi, N

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of the impact of GaN capping layer and AlGaN layer thickness on the two-dimensional (2D)-electron mobility and the carrier concentration which was formed close to the AlGaN/GaN buffer layer for Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN and GaN/Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures deposited on sapphire substrates. The results of our analysis clearly indicate that expanding the GaN capping layer thickness from 1 nm to 100 nm prompts an increment in the electron concentration at hetero interface. As consequence of which drain current was additionally increments with GaN cap layer thicknesses, and eventually saturates at approximately 1.85 A/mm for capping layer thickness greater than 40 nm. Interestingly, for the same structure, the 2D-electron mobility, decrease monotonically with GaN capping layer thickness, and saturate at approximately 830 cm2/Vs for capping layer thickness greater than 50 nm. A device with a GaN cap layer didn't exhibit gate leakage current. Furthermore, it was observed that the carrier concentration was first decrease 1.03 × 1019/cm3 to 6.65 × 1018/cm3 with AlGaN Layer thickness from 5 to 10 nm and after that it increases with the AlGaN layer thickness from 10 to 30 nm. The same trend was followed for electric field distributions. Electron mobility decreases monotonically with AlGaN layer thickness. Highest electron mobility 1354 cm2/Vs were recorded for the AlGaN layer thickness of 5 nm. Results obtained are in good agreement with published experimental data.

  4. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-03-07

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  5. Epitaxial growth and characterization of approximately 300-nm-thick AlInN films nearly lattice-matched to c-plane GaN grown on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamanaka, Mizuki; Egawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    AlInN epitaxial films with film thicknesses up to approximately 300 nm were grown nearly lattice-matched to a c-plane GaN-on-sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The AlInN films showed relative good crystal qualities and flat surfaces, despite the existence of surface pits connected to dislocations in the underlying GaN film. The refractive index derived in this study agreed well with a previously reported result obtained over the whole visible wavelength region. The extinction coefficient spectrum exhibited a clear absorption edge, and the bandgap energy for AlInN nearly lattice-matched to GaN was determined to be approximately 4.0 eV.

  6. Prediction model for oxide thickness on aluminum alloy cladding during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, G.L.; Hanan, N.A.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    An empirical model predicting the oxide film thickness on aluminum alloy cladding during irradiation has been developed as a function of irradiation time, temperature, heat flux, pH, and coolant flow rate. The existing models in the literature are neither consistent among themselves nor fit the measured data very well. They also lack versatility for various reactor situations such as a pH other than 5, high coolant flow rates, and fuel life longer than ∼1200 hrs. Particularly, they were not intended for use in irradiation situations. The newly developed model is applicable to these in-reactor situations as well as ex-reactor tests, and has a more accurate prediction capability. The new model demonstrated with consistent predictions to the measured data of UMUS and SIMONE fuel tests performed in the HFR, Petten, tests results from the ORR, and IRIS tests from the OSIRIS and to the data from the out-of-pile tests available in the literature as well. (author)

  7. The effects of gate oxide thickness on radiation damage in MOS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hui; Yan Rongliang; Wang Yu; He Jinming

    1988-01-01

    The dependences of the flatband voltage shift (ΔV FB ) and the threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH ) in MOS system on the oxide thickness (T ox ) and on total irradiated dose (D) of electron-beam and 60 Co γ-ray have been studied. It has been found that ΔV FB ∝ T ox 3 , with +10V of gate bias during irradiation for n-Si substrate MOS capacitors; ΔV TH ∝ T ox 3 D 2/3 , with 'on' gate bias during irradiation for n- and P-channel MOS transistors; ΔV TP ∝ T ox 2 D 2/3 , with 'off' gate bias during irradiation for P-channel MOS transistors. These results are explained by Viswanathan model. According to ∼T ox 3 dependence, the optimization of radiation hardening process for MOS system is also simply discussed

  8. Interfacial and electrical properties of HfAlO/GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with sulfur passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhen; Zhao Lian-Feng; Wang Jing; Xu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial and electrical properties of HfAlO/GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with sulfur passivation were investigated and the chemical mechanisms of the sulfur passivation process were carefully studied. It was shown that the sulfur passivation treatment could reduce the interface trap density D it of the HfAlO/GaSb interface by 35% and reduce the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) from 8 nm to 4 nm. The improved properties are due to the removal of the native oxide layer, as was proven by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) results. It was also found that GaSb-based MOSCAPs with HfAlO gate dielectrics have interfacial properties superior to those using HfO 2 or Al 2 O 3 dielectric layers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Temperature dependence of copper diffusion in different thickness amorphous tungsten/tungsten nitride layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Somayeh; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood

    2017-11-01

    The amorphous W/WN films with various thickness (10, 30 and 40 nm) and excellent thermal stability were successfully prepared on SiO2/Si substrate with evaporation and reactive evaporation method. The W/WN bilayer has technological importance because of its low resistivity, high melting point, and good diffusion barrier properties between Cu and Si. The thermal stability was evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In annealing process, the amorphous W/WN barrier crystallized and this phenomenon is supposed to be the start of Cu atoms diffusion through W/WN barrier into Si. With occurrence of the high-resistive Cu3Si phase, the W/WN loses its function as a diffusion barrier. The primary mode of Cu diffusion is the diffusion through grain boundaries that form during heat treatments. The amorphous structure with optimum thickness is the key factor to achieve a superior diffusion barrier characteristic. The results show that the failure temperature increased by increasing the W/WN film thickness from 10 to 30 nm but it did not change by increasing the W/WN film thickness from 30 to 40 nm. It is found that the 10 and 40 nm W/WN films are good diffusion barriers at least up to 800°C while the 30 nm W/WN film shows superior properties as a diffusion barrier, but loses its function as a diffusion barrier at about 900°C (that is 100°C higher than for 10 and 40 nm W/WN films).

  10. Tuning the thickness of electrochemically grafted layers in large area molecular junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluteau, T.; Bessis, C.; Barraud, C., E-mail: clement.barraud@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Della Rocca, M. L.; Lafarge, P. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, MPQ, UMR 7162, CNRS, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Martin, P.; Lacroix, J.-C. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-09-21

    We have investigated the thickness, the surface roughness, and the transport properties of oligo(1-(2-bisthienyl)benzene) (BTB) thin films grafted on evaporated Au electrodes, thanks to a diazonium-based electro-reduction process. The thickness of the organic film is tuned by varying the number of electrochemical cycles during the growth process. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal the evolution of the thickness in the range of 2–27 nm. Its variation displays a linear dependence with the number of cycles followed by a saturation attributed to the insulating behavior of the organic films. Both ultrathin (2 nm) and thin (12 and 27 nm) large area BTB-based junctions have then been fabricated using standard CMOS processes and finally electrically characterized. The electronic responses are fully consistent with a tunneling barrier in case of ultrathin BTB film whereas a pronounced rectifying behavior is reported for thicker molecular films.

  11. Equilibrium helium film in the thick film limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klier, J.; Schletterer, F.; Leiderer, P.; Shikin, V.

    2003-01-01

    For the thickness of a liquid or solid quantum film, like liquid helium or solid hydrogen, there exist still open questions about how the film thickness develops in certain limits. One of these is the thick film limit, i.e., the crossover from the thick film to bulk. We have performed measurements in this range using the surface plasmon resonance technique and an evaporated Ag film deposited on glass as substrate. The thickness of the adsorbed helium film is varied by changing the distance h of the bulk reservoir to the surface of the substrate. In the limiting case, when h > 0, the film thickness approaches about 100 nm following the van der Waals law in the retarded regime. The film thickness and its dependence on h is precisely determined and theoretically modeled. The equilibrium film thickness behaviour is discussed in detail. The agreement between theory and experiment is very good

  12. Characterization of Series Resistance and Mobility Degradation Parameter and Optimizing Choice of Oxide Thickness in Thin Oxide N-Channel MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Maouhoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two methods to extract the series resistance and the mobility degradation parameter in short-channel MOSFETs. The principle of the first method is based on the comparison between the exponential model and the classical model of effective mobility and for the second method is based on directly calculating the two parameters by solving a system of two equations obtained by using two different points in strong inversion at small drain bias from the characteristic (. The results obtained by these techniques have shown a better agreement with data measurements and allowed in the same time to determine the surface roughness amplitude and its influence on the maximum drain current and give the optimal oxide thickness.

  13. Oxidation of aqueous HF-treated Si(001) surface induced by translational kinetic energy of O sub 2 at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshigoe, A

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation induced by the translational kinetic energy of O sub 2 on the Si(001) surface treated with HF solution were investigated by combining synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy with the supersonic molecular beam techniques. The oxidation at room temperature did not progress up to 3600 L of O sub 2 exposure with incident energy of 0.04 eV, whereas the oxidation states of up to Si sup 4 sup + species were formed in the case of 3.0 eV. The oxide-layer thickness was estimated to be 0.26 nm at the final oxidation stages. We concluded that the Si atoms at the top layers were oxidized by the incident energy of 3.0 eV.

  14. Deposition and characterization of ITO films produced by laser ablation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 355 nm. Even though the absorption of laser light at the wavelength 355 nm is much smaller than that of the standard excimer lasers for PLD at 248 nm and 193 nm, high-quality films can be produced. At high fluence...

  15. Hardness enhancement and oxidation resistance of nanocrystalline TiN/Mo xC multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q.; Wang, X.P.; Liang, F.J.; Wang, J.X.; Fang, Q.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the layer's microstructure on the hardness enhancement in multilayer nanocrystalline films and the oxidation resistance are studied. The TiN/Mo x C multilayer films at different modulation period, and Mo x C and TiN monolayer films were deposited on the (0 0 1) silicon wafers and molybdenum sheets by rf and dc magnetron sputtering. The monolayer TiN films with a thickness of about 2 μm are of pure face-center cubic TiN phase, while the monolayer Mo x C films consist of two phases, one of which is body-center cubic Mo and the other is hexagonal Mo 2 C as determined by XRD. The coarse columnar grains of about 200 nm in the monolayer TiN films become much smaller or disappear in the multilayer films. The hardness enhancement of the multilayer films takes place at the modulation period of 320 nm, which can reach to 26 GPa and is much higher than the values of Mo x C and TiN monolayer films. This enhancement in hardness can be explained as the decrease in the size and/or disappearance of columnar grains in the TiN layer. The Young's modulus in the temperature range from 100 to 400 deg. C increases with decreasing modulation period. It is found that about 100 nm thick TiN films can increase largely the oxidation resistance of Mo x C films

  16. Effect of Ga2O3 buffer layer thickness on the properties of Cu/ITO thin films deposited on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Huihui; Yan Jinliang; Xu Chengyang; Meng Delan

    2014-01-01

    Cu and Cu/ITO films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu layer thickness on the optical and electrical properties of the Cu film deposited on a PET substrate with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer was studied, and an appropriate Cu layer thickness of 4.2 nm was obtained. Changes in the optoelectrical properties of Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films were investigated with respect to the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer thickness. The optical and electrical properties of the Cu/ITO films were significantly influenced by the thickness of the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer. A maximum transmission of 86%, sheet resistance of 45 Ω/□ and figure of merit of 3.96 × 10 −3 Ω −1 were achieved for Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films with a Ga 2 O 3 layer thickness of 15 nm. (semiconductor materials)

  17. Copper:molybdenum sub-oxide blend as transparent conductive electrode (TCE) indium free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hssein, Mehdi; Cattin, Linda; Morsli, Mustapha; Addou, Mohammed; Bernède, Jean-Christian

    2016-05-01

    Oxide/metal/oxide structures have been shown to be promising alternatives to ITO. In such structures, in order to decrease the high light reflection of the metal film it is embedded between two metal oxides dielectric. MoO3-x is often used as oxide due to its capacity to be a performing anode buffer layer in organic solar cells, while silver is the metal the most often used [1]. Some attempts to use cheaper metal such as copper have been done. However it was shown that Cu diffuses strongly into MoO3-x [2]. Here we used this property to grow simple new transparent conductive oxide (TCE), i.e., Cu: MoO3-x blend. After the deposition of a thin Cu layer, a film of MoO3-x is deposited by sublimation. An XPS study shows more than 50% of Cu is present at the surface of the structure. In order to limit the Cu diffusion an ultra-thin Al layer is deposited onto MoO3-x. Then, in order to obtain a good hole collecting contact with the electron donor of the organic solar cells, a second MoO3-x layer is deposited. After optimization of the thickness of the different layers, the optimum structure is as follow: Cu (12 nm) : MoO3-x (20 nm)/Al (0.5 nm)/ MoO3-x (10 nm). The sheet resistance of this structure is Rsq = 5.2 Ω/sq. and its transmittance is Tmax = 65%. The factor of merit ϕM = T10/Rsq. = 2.41 × 10-3 Ω-1, which made this new TCE promising as anode in organic solar cells. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  18. Thickness dependent growth of low temperature atomic layer deposited zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel-González, Z.; Castelo-González, O.A.; Aguilar-Gama, M.T.; Ramírez-Morales, E.; Hu, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline columnar ZnO thin films deposited by ALD at low temperatures. • Higher deposition temperature leads to a greater surface roughness in the ALD ZnO films. • Higher temperature originates larger refractive index values of the ALD ZnO films. • ZnO thin films were denser as the numbers of ALD deposition cycles were larger. • XPS analysis revels mayor extent of the DEZ reaction during the ALD process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide films are promising to improve the performance of electronic devices, including those based on organic materials. However, the dependence of the ZnO properties on the preparation conditions represents a challenge to obtain homogeneous thin films that satisfy specific applications. Here, we prepared ZnO films of a wide range of thicknesses by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at relatively low temperatures, 150 and 175 °C. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry it is concluded that the polycrystalline structure of the wurtzite is the main phase of the ALD samples, with OH groups on their surface. Ellipsometry revealed that the temperature and the deposition cycles have a strong effect on the films roughness. Scanning electron micrographs evidenced such effect, through the large pyramids developed at the surface of the films. It is concluded that crystalline ZnO thin films within a broad range of thickness and roughness can be obtained for optic or optoelectronic applications.

  19. Optimization of Si–C reaction temperature and Ge thickness in C-mediated Ge dot formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Yuhki, E-mail: yu-ki@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Itoh, Yuhki; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Washio, Katsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    To form Ge dots on a Si substrate, the effect of thermal reaction temperature of sub-monolayer C with Si (100) was investigated and the deposited Ge thickness was optimized. The samples were prepared by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy with an electron-beam gun for C sublimation and a Knudsen cell for Ge evaporation. C of 0.25 ML was deposited on Si (100) at a substrate temperature of 200 °C, followed by a high-temperature treatment at the reaction temperature (T{sub R}) of 650–1000 °C to create Si–C bonds. Ge equivalent to 2 to 5 nm thick was subsequently deposited at 550 °C. Small and dense dots were obtained for T{sub R} = 750 °C but the dot density decreased and the dot diameter varied widely in the case of lower and higher T{sub R}. A dot density of about 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} was achieved for Ge deposition equivalent to 3 to 5 nm thick and a standard deviation of dot diameter was the lowest of 10 nm for 5 nm thick Ge. These results mean that C-mediated Ge dot formation was strongly influenced not only by the c(4 × 4) reconstruction condition through the Si–C reaction but also the relationship between the Ge deposition thickness and the exposed Si (100)-(2 × 1) surface area. - Highlights: • The effect of Si–C reaction temperature on Ge dot formation was investigated. • Small and dense dots were obtained for T{sub R} = 750 °C. • The dot density of about 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} was achieved for Ge = 3 to 5 nm. • The standard deviation of dot diameter was the lowest of 10 nm at Ge = 5 nm.

  20. Adhesive Strength of dry Adhesive Structures Depending on the Thickness of Metal Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Hye; Kwon, Da Som; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Su Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; An, Tea Chang; Hwang, Hui Yun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, engineering applications have started to adopt solutions inspired by nature. The peculiar adhesive properties of gecko skin are an example, as they allow the animal to move freely on vertical walls and even on ceilings. The high adhesive forces between gecko feet and walls are due to the hierarchical microscopical structure of the skin. In this study, the effect of metal coatings on the adhesive strength of synthetic, hierarchically structured, dry adhesives was investigated. Synthetic dry adhesives were fabricated using PDMS micro-molds prepared by photolithography. Metal coatings on synthetic dry adhesives were formed by plasma sputtering. Adhesive strength was measured by pure shear tests. The highest adhesion strengths were found with coatings composed of 4 nm thick layers of Indium, 8 nm thick layers of Zinc and 6 nm thick layers of Gold, respectively

  1. Adhesive Strength of dry Adhesive Structures Depending on the Thickness of Metal Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Hye; Kwon, Da Som; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Su Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; An, Tea Chang; Hwang, Hui Yun [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Recently, engineering applications have started to adopt solutions inspired by nature. The peculiar adhesive properties of gecko skin are an example, as they allow the animal to move freely on vertical walls and even on ceilings. The high adhesive forces between gecko feet and walls are due to the hierarchical microscopical structure of the skin. In this study, the effect of metal coatings on the adhesive strength of synthetic, hierarchically structured, dry adhesives was investigated. Synthetic dry adhesives were fabricated using PDMS micro-molds prepared by photolithography. Metal coatings on synthetic dry adhesives were formed by plasma sputtering. Adhesive strength was measured by pure shear tests. The highest adhesion strengths were found with coatings composed of 4 nm thick layers of Indium, 8 nm thick layers of Zinc and 6 nm thick layers of Gold, respectively.

  2. V6O13 films by control of the oxidation state from aqueous precursor to crystalline phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peys, Nick; Ling, Yun; Dewulf, Daan; Gielis, Sven; De Dobbelaere, Christopher; Cuypers, Daniel; Adriaensens, Peter; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; De Gendt, Stefan; Hardy, An; Van Bael, Marlies K

    2013-01-28

    An aqueous deposition process for V(6)O(13) films is developed whereby the vanadium oxidation state is continuously controlled throughout the entire process. In the precursor stage, a controlled wet chemical reduction of the vanadium(V) source with oxalic acid is achieved and monitored by (51)Vanadium Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((51)V-NMR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The resulting vanadium(IV) species in the aqueous solution are identified as mononuclear citrato-oxovanadate(IV) complexes by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. This precursor is successfully employed for the deposition of uniform, thin films. The optimal deposition and annealing conditions for the formation of crystalline V(6)O(13), including the control of the vanadium oxidation state, are determined through an elaborate study of processing temperature and O(2) partial pressure. To ensure a sub 100 nm adjustable film thickness, a non-oxidative intermediate thermal treatment is carried out at the end of each deposition cycle, allowing maximal precursor decomposition while still avoiding V(IV) oxidation. The resulting surface hydrophilicity, indispensable for the homogeneous deposition of the next layer, is explained by an increased surface roughness and the increased availability of surface vanadyl groups. Crystalline V(6)O(13) with a preferential (002) orientation is obtained after a post deposition annealing in a 0.1% O(2) ambient for thin films with a thickness of 20 nm.

  3. Ultrathin copper aluminum and nickel aluminide protective oxidation studied with an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. F.; McCann, M. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Zinovev, A.; Hryn, J. N.

    2003-09-01

    Oxidation in a regime where diffusion is rapid and pressures are low is addressed. Kinetic effects under these conditions are minimized and a protective oxide film of near-equilibrium composition that is a few nanometers thick may form. Ultrathin oxides have great potential for addressing the corrosion resistance of metals, since they do not always suffer stress-induced cracking upon thermal cycling, and can be reformed under high temperature, oxidizing environments. Ultrathin oxide films are also preferable to those on a thick oxide scale for electrochemical applications due to their electrical properties. To study the growth of these oxide films, we have developed a high signal x-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The instrument can measure the near-surface composition during growth under oxygen partial pressures of up to 10-5 mbar and surface temperatures up to 1300 K. Under these conditions, films grow to a level of 3 nm in 1 h. Experiments with Cu-Al alloys show rapid segregation of Al upon oxygen exposure at 875 K, whereas exposures at lower temperatures result in a mixed oxide. With a Ni-Al intermetallic, higher temperatures were needed to preferentially segregate Al. Thermal cycling followed by exposure to chlorine in the same instrument is used as a measure of the degree of corrosion resistance of the oxides in question.

  4. Treatment of burn scars in Fitzpatrick phototype III patients with a combination of pulsed dye laser and non-ablative fractional resurfacing 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium laser devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Joy; Champlain, Amanda; Weddington, Charles; Moy, Lauren; Tung, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Burn scars cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychosocial distress. We present two Fitzpatrick phototype (FP) III patients with burn scars successfully treated with combination pulsed dye laser (PDL) and non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFL). A 30-year-old, FP III woman with a history of a second-degree burn injury to the bilateral arms and legs affecting 30% body surface area (BSA) presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received three treatments with 595 nm PDL (7 mm, 8 J, 6 ms), six with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and five with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). Treated burn scars improved significantly in thickness, texture and colour. A 33-year-old, FP III man with a history of a second-degree burn injury of the left neck and arm affecting 7% BSA presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received two treatments with 595 nm PDL (5 mm, 7.5 J, 6 ms), four with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and two with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). The burn scars became thinner, smoother and more normal in pigmentation and appearance. Our patients' burn scars were treated with a combination of PDL and NAFL (two wavelengths). The PDL targets scar hypervascularity, the 1550 nm erbium:glass stimulates collagen remodelling and the 1927 nm thulium targets epidermal processes, particularly hyperpigmentation. This combination addresses scar thickness, texture and colour with a low side effect profile and is particularly advantageous in patients at higher risk of post-procedure hyperpigmentation. Our cases suggest the combination of 595nm PDL plus NAFL 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium device is effective and well-tolerated for burn scar treatment in skin of colour.

  5. Layer-by-layer deposition of zirconium oxide films from aqueous solutions for friction reduction in silicon-based microelectromechanical system devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junfu; Nistorica, Corina; Gory, Igor; Skidmore, George; Mantiziba, Fadziso M.; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    This work reports layer-by-layer deposition of zirconium oxide on a Si surface from aqueous solutions using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. The process consists of repeated cycles of adsorption of zirconium precursors, water rinse, and hydrolysis. The film composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film thickness was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by measuring the Zr atom concentration. The average deposition rate from a 0.1 M Zr(SO 4 ) 2 solution on a SiO 2 /Si surface is 0.62 nm per cycle. Increasing the acidity of the zirconium precursor solution inhibits the deposition of the zirconium oxide film. Atomic force microscopy shows that the zirconium oxide film consists of nanoparticles of 10-50 nm in the lateral dimension. The surface roughness increased with increasing number of deposition cycles. Friction measurements made with a microelectromechanical system device reveal a reduction of 45% in the friction coefficient of zirconium oxide-coated surfaces vs. uncoated surfaces in air

  6. Influence of strain on the growth of thick InGaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellmach, J.; Leyer, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of high quality InGaN alloys is critical for a number of various optoelectronic device applications like LEDs and laser diodes. Nevertheless, the exact growth mechanisms of InGaN with high indium content is still not fully understood. In the present study the growth of thick InGaN layers was systematically investigated. InGaN films with thicknesses between ∝35 nm and ∝200 nm were grown on GaN templates with metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The group III partial pressures of 1.1 Pa for TMGa, 0.45 Pa for TMIn and the V/III-ratio of 1600 were kept constant. The growth temperature was varied between 750 C and 800 C. The growth of InGaN layer was characterized by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Up to temperatures of 790 C structural analysis by XRD showed two strained layers with different indium content. The formation of the layer structure was investigated by varying the growth times at 770 C. In the first 500 s (35 nm) a rough (rms=9 nm) and pseudomorphically strained InGaN layer with low indium content (4%) is formed. Between 500 s and 1000 s this strained layer becomes smoother (rms=3.4 nm). For thicknesses beyond the In content increases (8% at 84 nm) and reaches 11% at 200 nm. We propose that the transition from a first layer with a low indium content to a second layer with an higher indium content is due to a gradual release of strain

  7. The development of latent fingerprints by zinc oxide and tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by precipitation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Deepali; Kumar, Sacheen

    2018-05-01

    Fingerprints are the very important evidence at the crime scene which must be developed clearly with shortest duration of time to solve the case. Metal oxide nanoparticles could be the mean to develop the latent fingerprints. Zinc oxide and Tin Oxide Nanoparticles were prepared by using chemical precipitation technique which were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The size of zinc oxide crystallite was found to be 14.75 nm with minimum reflectance at 360 nm whereas tin oxide have the size of 90 nm and reflectance at minimum level 321 nm. By using these powdered samples on glass, plastic and glossy cardboard, latent fingerprints were developed. Zinc oxide was found to be better candidate than tin oxide for the fingerprint development on all the three types of substrates.

  8. Surface texture of single-crystal silicon oxidized under a thin V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S. E., E-mail: nikitin@mail.ioffe.ru; Verbitskiy, V. N.; Nashchekin, A. V.; Trapeznikova, I. N.; Bobyl, A. V.; Terukova, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The process of surface texturing of single-crystal silicon oxidized under a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer is studied. Intense silicon oxidation at the Si–V{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface begins at a temperature of 903 K which is 200 K below than upon silicon thermal oxidation in an oxygen atmosphere. A silicon dioxide layer 30–50 nm thick with SiO{sub 2} inclusions in silicon depth up to 400 nm is formed at the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–Si interface. The diffusion coefficient of atomic oxygen through the silicon-dioxide layer at 903 K is determined (D ≥ 2 × 10{sup –15} cm{sup 2} s{sup –1}). A model of low-temperature silicon oxidation, based on atomic oxygen diffusion from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} through the SiO{sub 2} layer to silicon, and SiO{sub x} precipitate formation in silicon is proposed. After removing the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-dioxide layers, texture is formed on the silicon surface, which intensely scatters light in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm and is important in the texturing of the front and rear surfaces of solar cells.

  9. Surface oxidation on thin films affects ionization cross section induced by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertol, Ana Paula Lamberti; Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Hinrichs, Ruth; Limandri, Silvina; Trincavelli, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In microanalysis techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), the transformation from intensity to concentration is made by standard less software that needs exact values of fundamental parameters such as the ionization cross section, transition probabilities of the different electronic levels, and fluorescent yield. The three parameters together measure the photon generating probability of an electronic transition and can be determined experimentally under the name of production cross section. These measurements are performed on thin films, with thickness around 10 nm, but most studies do not take into account any spontaneous surface oxidation. In this work, in the attempt to obtain cross section values of Al, Si and Ti, in metallic and oxide films, the influence of surface oxidation on the metallic films was established. Simulations considering the oxidation with the software SIMNRA on the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectra obtained from the films provided mass thickness values used to calculate the cross section data that were compared with theoretical values (PWBA and ECPSSR), and with experimental values and empirical adjustments from other studies. The inclusion of the natural oxidation affects the values of cross section, and may be one of the causes of discrepancies between the experimental values published in literature. (author)

  10. Photoluminescence from ZnO-SiO2 opals with different sphere diameters and thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingling; Yan Hongwei; Fu Zhengping; Yang Beifang; Xia Linsheng; Wang Zhen; Zuo Jian; Yu Shijun; Fu Shengquan; Li Fanqing

    2007-01-01

    We systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) and transmittance characteristics of ZnO-SiO 2 opals with varied positions of the stop-band and film thicknesses. An improved ultraviolet (UV) luminescence was observed from ZnO-SiO 2 composites over pure ZnO nanocrystals under 325 nm He-Cd laser excitation at room temperature. The UV PL of ZnO nanocrystals in SiO 2 opals with stop-bands center of 410 nm is sensitive to the thickness of opal films, and the UV PL intensity increases with the film thickness increasing. The PL spectra of ZnO nanocrystals in SiO 2 opals with stop-bands center of 570 nm show a suppression of the weak visible band. The experimental results are discussed based on the scattering and/or absorbance in opal crystals

  11. The mobility of growth twins synthesized by sputtering: Tailoring the twin thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Leonardo; Hodge, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    The current work presents a protean twin thickness contour zone map that illustrates how the nucleation and the mobility of twin boundaries affects the twin thickness of sputtered films. The twin thickness contour zone map can be used as a versatile guide to synthesize fully nanotwinned films with tailored twin thicknesses in materials with a wide range of stacking fault energies. The nucleation and mobility of twin boundaries was studied in four Cu alloys of different compositions (Cu-6wt.%Al, Cu-4wt.%Al, Cu-2wt.%Al, and Cu-10wt.%Ni), having stacking fault energies ranging from 6 mJ/m 2 to 60 mJ/m 2 . The films were synthesized by magnetron sputtering and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where the twin thickness varied from 2 nm to 35 nm. Our experimental results show that it is possible to control the twin thickness. Three main mechanisms are explained to describe twin nucleation and twin boundary mobility, which are correlated to the interplay of specific sputtering conditions and the deposition temperature.

  12. Effect of the thickness of Zn(BTZ)2 emitting layer on the electroluminescent spectra of white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, F.J.; Hua, Y.L.; Yin, S.G.; Deng, J.C.; Wu, K.W.; Niu, X.; Wu, X.M.; Petty, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated with a simple bilayer structure: ITO/TPD/ Zn(BTZ) 2 /Al. White emission is composed of two parts: one is 470 nm, which originates from exciton emission in Zn(BTZ) 2 emitting layer; the other is 580 nm, which originates from exciplexes formation at the interface of TPD and Zn(BTZ) 2 . Specially, the thickness of Zn(BTZ) 2 layer effects the relative intensity of two emissions. When the Zn(BTZ) 2 layer becomes thin (or thick), the 470 nm (or 580 nm) emission intensity turns into weak (or strong). Finally, We successfully fabricated pure white OLED when the thickness of Zn(BTZ) 2 layer was 65 nm

  13. Evolution of the thickness of the aluminum oxide film due to the pH of the cooling water and surface temperature of the fuel elements clad of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiche, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of growth of a film of aluminum oxide on an alloy of the same material, which serves as a protective surface being the constituent material of the RP-10 nuclear reactor fuel elements clads. The most influential parameters on the growth of this film are: the pH of the cooling water and the clad surface temperature of the fuel element. For this study, a mathematical model relating the evolution of the aluminum oxide layer thickness over the time, according to the same oxide film using a power law is used. It is concluded that the time of irradiation, the heat flux at the surface of the aluminum material, the speed of the coolant, the thermal conductivity of the oxide, the initial thickness of the oxide layer and the solubility of the protective oxide are parameters affecting in the rate and film formation. (author).

  14. Effect of ZnO channel thickness on the device behaviour of nonvolatile memory thin film transistors with double-layered gate insulators of Al2O3 and ferroelectric polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Yang, Shin-Hyuk; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Jung, Soon-Won; Cho, Doo-Hee; Byun, Chun-Won; Kang, Seung-Youl; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Yu, Byoung-Gon

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and ZnO were employed for nonvolatile memory thin film transistors as ferroelectric gate insulator and oxide semiconducting channel layers, respectively. It was proposed that the thickness of the ZnO layer be carefully controlled for realizing the lower programming voltage, because the serially connected capacitor by the formation of a fully depleted ZnO channel had a critical effect on the off programming voltage. The fabricated memory transistor with Al/P(VDF-TrFE) (80 nm)/Al 2 O 3 (4 nm)/ZnO (5 nm) exhibits encouraging behaviour such as a memory window of 3.8 V at the gate voltage of -10 to 12 V, and 10 7 on/off ratio, and a gate leakage current of 10 -11 A.

  15. Nickel doped indium tin oxide anode and effect on dark spot development of organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.M. [Southern Taiwan University, Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, 1 Nan-Tai St, Yung-Kang City, Tainan County 710, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tedhsu@mail.stut.edu.tw; Kuo, C.S.; Hsu, W.C.; Wu, W.T. [Southern Taiwan University, Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, 1 Nan-Tai St, Yung-Kang City, Tainan County 710, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrated that introducing nickel (Ni) atoms into an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode could considerably decrease ITO surface roughness and eliminate the formation of dark spots of an organic light-emitting device (OLED). A dramatic drop in surface roughness from 6.52 nm of an conventional ITO to 0.46 nm of an 50 nm Ni(50 W)-doped ITO anode was observed, and this led to an improved lifetime performance of an Alq3 based OLED device attributed to reduced dark spots. Reducing thickness of Ni-doped ITO anode was found to worsen surface roughness. Meanwhile, the existence of Ni atoms showed little effect on deteriorating the light-emitting mechanism of OLED devices.

  16. Low voltage stress-induced leakage current and traps in ultrathin oxide (1.2 2.5 nm) after constant voltage stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Zander, D.

    2007-10-01

    It has been shown that the low voltage gate current in ultrathin oxide metal-oxide-semiconductor devices is very sensitive to electrical stresses. Therefore, it can be used as a reliability monitor when the oxide thickness becomes too small for traditional electrical measurements to be used. In this work, we present a study on n-MOSCAP devices at negative gate bias in the direct tunneling (DT) regime. If the low voltage stress-induced leakage current (LVSILC) depends strongly on the low sense voltages, it also depends strongly on the stress voltage magnitude. We show that two LVSILC peaks appear as a function of the sense voltage in the LVSILC region and that their magnitude, one compared to the other, depends strongly on the stress voltage magnitude. One is larger than the other at low stress voltage and smaller at high stress voltage. From our experimental results, different conduction mechanisms are analyzed. To explain LVSILC variations, we propose a model of the conduction through the ultrathin gate oxide based on two distinctly different trap-assisted tunneling mechanisms: inelastic of gate electron (INE) and trap-assisted electron (ETAT).

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy of large-area SnSe2 with monolayer thickness fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woon; Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Jeon, Jae Ho; Roy, Sanjib Baran; Akbar, Kamran; Kim, Jeong; Sim, Yumin; Seong, Maeng-Je; Kim, Jung Hwa; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Minju; Yi, Yeonjin; Kim, Jinwoo; Noh, Do Young; Chun, Seung-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The interest in layered materials is largely based on the expectation that they will be beneficial for a variety of applications, from low-power-consuming, wearable electronics to energy harvesting. However, the properties of layered materials are highly dependent on thickness, and the difficulty of controlling thickness over a large area has been a bottleneck for commercial applications. Here, we report layer-by-layer growth of SnSe2, a layered semiconducting material, via van der Waals epitaxy. The films were fabricated on insulating mica substrates with substrate temperatures in the range of 210 °C-370 °C. The surface consists of a mixture of N and (N ± 1) layers, showing that the thickness of the film can be defined with monolayer accuracy (±0.6 nm). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals a polycrystalline film with a grain size of ˜100 nm and clear Moiré patterns from overlapped grains with similar thickness. We also report field effect mobility values of 3.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 6.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 for 11 and 22 nm thick SnSe2, respectively. SnSe2 films with customizable thickness can provide valuable platforms for industry and academic researchers to fully exploit the potential of layered materials.

  18. Ionizing Radiation Effects on the Noise of 65 nm CMOS Transistors for Pixel Sensor Readout at Extreme Total Dose Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Riceputi, E.; Traversi, G.; Ratti, L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the noise performance of 65 nm CMOS transistors at extremely high total ionizing dose (TID) levels of the order of several hundreds of Mrad(SiO2). Noise measurements are reported and discussed, analyzing radiation effects on 1/ f noise and channel thermal noise. In nMOSFETs, up to 10 Mrad(SiO2), the experimental behavior is consistent with a damage mechanism mainly associ- ated with lateral isolation oxides, and can be modeled by parasitic transistors turning on after irradiation and contributing to the total noise of the device. At very high dose, these parasitic transistors tend to be turned off by negative charge accumulating in interface states and compensating radiation-induced positive charge building up inside thick isolation oxides. Effects associated with ionization and hydrogen transport in spacer oxides may become dominant at 600 Mrad(SiO2) and may explain the observed noise behavior at extremely high TID. The results of this analysis provide an understanding o...

  19. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method; Peliculas de oxido de zinc impurificadas con Ti y preparadas por el metodo Sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado G, S. [ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  20. Fabrication of free standing anodic titanium oxide membranes with clean surface using recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhui; Lee, Tae-Young; Chen, Huiyu; Shin, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Kee-Won; Kwon, Sang Jik; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2010-07-01

    Large area of self-organized, free standing anodic titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube membranes with clean surfaces were facilely prepared to desired lengths via electrochemical anodization of highly pure Ti sheets in an ethylene glycol electrolyte, with a small amount of NH4F and H2O at 50 V, followed by self-detachment of the ATO membrane from the Ti substrate using recycling processes. In the first anodization step, the nanowire oxide layer existed over the well-arranged ATO nanotube. After sufficiently rinsing with water, the whole ATO layer was removed from the Ti sheet by high pressure N2 gas, and a well-patterned dimple layer with a thickness of about 30 nm existed on the Ti substrate. By using these naturally formed nano-scale pits as templates, in the second and third anodization process, highly ordered, vertically aligned, and free standing ATO membranes with the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO)-like clean surface were obtained. The inter-pore distance and diameter was 154 +/- 2 nm and 91+/- 2 nm, the tube arrays lengths for 25 and 46 hours were 44 and 70 microm, respectively. The present study demonstrates a simple approach to producing high quality, length controllable, large area TiO2 membrane.

  1. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Irigoyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO–polyelectrolyte (PE capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS. Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies.

  2. The electrochemical transfer reactions and the structure of the iron|oxide layer|electrolyte interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrović, Željka; Metikoš-Huković, Mirjana; Babić, Ranko

    2012-01-01

    The thickness, barrier (protecting) and semiconducting properties of the potentiostatically formed oxide films on the pure iron electrode in an aqueous borate buffer solution were investigated by electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Mott–Schottky (MS) analysis. The thicknesses of the prepassive Fe(II)hydroxide layer (up to monolayer) nucleated on the bare iron surface and the passive Fe(II)/Fe(III) layer (up to 2 nm), deposited on the top of the first one, were determined using in situ gravimetry. Electronic properties of iron prepassive and passive films as well as ionic and electronic transfer reactions at the film|solution interface were discussed on the basis of a band structure model of the surface oxide film and the potential distribution at the interface. The anodic oxide film formation and cathodic decomposition are coupled processes and their reversible inter-conversion is mediated by the availability of free charge carriers on the electrode|solution interface. The structure of the reversible double layer at the iron oxide|solution interface was discussed based on the concept of the specific adsorption of the imidazolium cation on the negatively charged electrode surface at pH > pH pzc .

  3. Resistive switching in ZrO{sub 2} based metal-oxide-metal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaenen, Irina

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this work is a deeper understanding of the influence of the (i) metal-oxide-metal (MOM) layer stacks configuration, (ii) the oxide films microstructure, (iii) and their defect structure on the appearance of different switching modes, i.e. unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP). The first part deals with the fabrication of ZrO{sub 2} thin films by an industrial compatible atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the chemical, structural and morphological characterization of the films, the growth of ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} bilayers, the integration of the layers into metal-oxide-metal (MOM) devices and the electrical characterization with focus on the RS behavior. In the second part the effect of the device structure, in particular the thickness of the electrochemical active electrode (EAE) and the ZrO{sub 2} film morphology, on the RS switching polarity of Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/(EAE) cells is discussed. ZrO{sub 2} films and ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} bilayers were grown by ALD and were carefully structurally and electrically characterized. The ZrO{sub 2} films grown from Zr[N(CH{sub 3})C{sub 2}H{sub 5}]{sub 4} (TEMA-Zr) at 240 C were polycrystalline with a mixture of cubic/tetragonal phases. ALD/H{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2} films exhibited a random oriented polycrystalline structure, whereas the ALD/O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} films consisted of preferably oriented cubic shaped grains. Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/Ti/Pt structures with a Ti top electrode (TE) thickness of 5 to 20 nm showed unipolar type RS behavior, while by increasing the Ti TE thickness a gradual change of switching polarity from unipolar to bipolar with a completely bipolar type RS behavior for a Ti TE thickness of 40 nm is found. The switching in Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}/Ti/Pt devices was unipolar, comparable to Pt/ZrO{sub 2}/Ti/Pt cells. In contrast, bilayers with the reverse structure, Pt/TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}/Ti/Pt, showed non-switching behavior. The effect of the cells stack structure on the polarity of the RS behavior was studied in

  4. Model for thickness dependence of radiation charging in MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, C. R.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    The model considers charge buildup in MOS structures due to hole trapping in the oxide and the creation of sheet charge at the silicon interface. The contribution of hole trapping causes the flatband voltage to increase with thickness in a manner in which square and cube dependences are limiting cases. Experimental measurements on samples covering a 200 - 1000 A range of oxide thickness are consistent with the model, using independently obtained values of hole-trapping parameters. An important finding of our experimental results is that a negative interface charge contribution due to surface states created during irradiation compensates most of the positive charge in the oxide at flatband. The tendency of the surface states to 'track' the positive charge buildup in the oxide, for all thicknesses, applies both in creation during irradiation and in annihilation during annealing. An explanation is proposed based on the common defect origin of hole traps and potential surface states.

  5. A heterojunction photocatalyst composed of zinc rhodium oxide, single crystal-derived bismuth vanadium oxide, and silver for overall pure-water splitting under visible light up to 740 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryoya; Takashima, Toshihiro; Tanigawa, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Shugo; Ohtani, Bunsho; Irie, Hiroshi

    2016-10-12

    We recently reported the synthesis of a solid-state heterojunction photocatalyst consisting of zinc rhodium oxide (ZnRh 2 O 4 ) and bismuth vanadium oxide (Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ), which functioned as hydrogen (H 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) evolution photocatalysts, respectively, connected with silver (Ag). Polycrystalline Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) powders were utilized to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , which was able to photocatalyze overall pure-water splitting under red-light irradiation with a wavelength of 700 nm (R. Kobayashi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 3061). In the present study, we replaced p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 with a powder obtained by pulverizing single crystals of Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , and demonstrated that this heterojunction photocatalyst had enhanced water-splitting activity. In addition, ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 was able to utilize nearly the entire range of visible light up to a wavelength of 740 nm. These properties were attributable to the higher O 2 evolution activity of s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 .

  6. Comparison of different methods for measuring the passive film thickness on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Marie; Bataillon, Christian; Gwinner, Benoit; Miserque, Frédéric; Orazem, Mark E.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ EIS and ex situ XPS were used for the characterization of zirconium oxide films. • The film thicknesses can be obtained from the analysis of a single EIS diagram. • A convenient graphical method to extract film properties is proposed. - Abstract: In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on electrogenerated zirconium oxide films on zirconium (Zr/ZrO_2) were used to quantify the oxide film thickness and resistivity profiles through the oxide. The EIS analysis presented here takes advantage of the high-frequency domain at which the constant-phase element (CPE) behavior of the oxide film reverts to a capacitive response and the Cole-Cole representations of the complex capacitance to extract the high-frequency capacitance of the oxide film without reference to the nature of the time-constant distribution within the oxide film. The film thickness of the ZrO_2 samples measured from the high-frequency capacitance of EIS were in good agreement with the thickness obtained from XPS. Moreover, the EIS analysis presented is based on the use of the integral solution of the power law model, which allows to obtain in one single EIS experiment, both the film thickness and the resistivity profile in the ZrO_2 film. This work suggests a convenient graphical method to extract film properties and serves to validate a key assumption of the power-law model for interpretation of CPE parameters in terms of physical properties.

  7. Structural, Optical, and Morphological Properties of the Cadmium Oxide Thin Film Taif S. Almaadhede

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taif S. Almaadhede

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium oxide nanoparticles CdO NPS has been prepared by laser ablation in ethanol at 600 pulses and 600 mJ as laser energy. The structural, optical, and morphological properties of the cadmium oxide CdO thin film deposited on a glass substrate have been studied. X-ray diffrac-tometer (XRD 6000, Shimadzu, X-ray, diffractometer with Cukα radiation at a wavelength of ( = 0.154056 nm was utilized to investigate the structural properties of CdO NPs. The optical absorption of colloidal CdO NPs was measured using a spectrophotometer (Cary, 100 cans plus, UV-Vis-NIR, Split Beam Optics, Dual detectors in the range of (200–900 nm. The morpholo-gy of the CdO NPs was investigated by using AFM (AA 3000 Scanning Probe Microscope. The thickness of the films was measured using ellipsometer (Angstrom sun Technologies Ins.

  8. Synthesis of nanometre-thick MoO3 sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Minsheng; Wang, Kang L.; Shailos, Alexandros; Galatsis, Kosmas; Kojima, Robert; Strong, Veronica; Lech, Andrew; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Kaner, Richard B.

    2010-03-01

    The formation of MoO3 sheets of nanoscale thickness is described. They are made from several fundamental sheets of orthorhombic α-MoO3, which can be processed in large quantities via a low cost synthesis route that combines thermal evaporation and mechanical exfoliation. These fundamental sheets consist of double-layers of linked distorted MoO6 octahedra. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the minimum resolvable thickness of these sheets is 1.4 nm which is equivalent to the thickness of two double-layers within one unit cell of the α-MoO3 crystal.

  9. Use of water vapor for suppressing the growth of unstable low-κ interlayer in HfTiO gate-dielectric Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with sub-nanometer capacitance equivalent thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.P.; Zou, X.; Lai, P.T.; Li, C.X.; Chan, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Annealing of high-permittivity HfTiO gate dielectric on Ge substrate in different gases (N 2 , NH 3 , NO and N 2 O) with or without water vapor is investigated. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy indicates that the four wet anneals can greatly suppress the growth of a GeO x interlayer at the dielectric/Ge interface, and thus decrease interface states, oxide charges and gate leakage current. Moreover, compared with the wet N 2 anneal, the wet NH 3 , NO and N 2 O anneals decrease the equivalent permittivity of the gate dielectric due to the growth of a GeO x N y interlayer. Among the eight anneals, the wet N 2 anneal produces the best dielectric performance with an equivalent relative permittivity of 35, capacitance equivalent thickness of 0.81 nm, interface-state density of 6.4 x 10 11 eV -1 cm -2 and gate leakage current of 2.7 x 10 -4 A/cm 2 at V g = 1 V

  10. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya

    2012-06-19

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films. The axial position of the dye molecules across the thickness of the film was determined with a resolution of 12 nm by analyzing astigmatic fluorescence images. The average relaxation times of the rotating molecules do not depend on the overall thickness of the film between 20 and 110 nm. The relaxation times also do not show any dependence on the axial position within the films for the film thickness between 70 and 110 nm. In addition to the rotating molecules we observed a fraction of spatially diffusing molecules and completely immobile molecules. These molecules indicate the presence of thin (<5 nm) high-mobility surface layer and low-mobility layer at the interface with the substrate. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Infrared photodetectors based on reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Tajdidzadeh, M.; Thambiratnam, K.; Yasin, M.

    2018-06-01

    Two photodiode (PD) designs incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are proposed and fabricated. Both PDs have 50 mm thick silver electrodes deposited on the active area, and another electrode consisting of either GO or rGO nanoparticles (NPs). The GO and rGO NPs are deposited onto the p-type silicon substrate by the drop casting method. Both fabricated PDs show good sensitivity and quick responses under 974 nm laser illumination at 150 mW. The photoresponsivity values and external quantum efficiency of both photodetectors are measured to be approximately 800 µAw‑1 and 0.12% for the GO based PD and 1.6 m Aw‑1 and 0.20% for the rGO based PD. Both PDs also have response and recovery times of 114 µs and 276 µs as well as 11 µs and 678 µs for the GO and rGO based PDs respectively. The proposed PDs would have significant applications in many optoelectronic devices as well as nanoelectronics.

  12. Inkjet-printed p-type nickel oxide thin-film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Zhu, Jingguang; Chen, Maosheng; Guo, Tailiang; Li, Fushan

    2018-05-01

    High-performance inkjet-printed nickel oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with Al2O3 high-k dielectric have been fabricated using a sol-gel precursor ink. The "coffee ring" effect during the printing process was facilely restrained by modifying the viscosity of the ink to control the outward capillary flow. The impacts on the device performance was studied in detail in consideration of annealing temperature of the nickel oxide film and the properties of dielectric layer. The optimized switching ability of the device were achieved at an annealing temperature of 280 °C on a 50-nm-thick Al2O3 dielectric layer, with a hole mobility of 0.78 cm2/V·s, threshold voltage of -0.6 V and on/off current ratio of 5.3 × 104. The as-printed p-type oxide TFTs show potential application in low-cost, large-area complementary electronic devices.

  13. Measurement of lateral charge diffusion in thick, fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcher, Armin; Bebek, Christopher J.; Kolbe, William F.; Maurath, Dominic; Prasad, Valmiki; Uslenghi, Michela; Wagner, Martin

    2004-06-30

    Lateral charge diffusion in back-illuminated CCDs directly affects the point spread function (PSF) and spatial resolution of an imaging device. This can be of particular concern in thick, back-illuminated CCDs. We describe a technique of measuring this diffusion and present PSF measurements for an 800 x 1100, 15 mu m pixel, 280 mu m thick, back-illuminated, p-channel CCD that can be over-depleted. The PSF is measured over a wavelength range of 450 nm to 650 nm and at substrate bias voltages between 6 V and 80 V.

  14. Influence of titanium oxide films on copper nucleation during electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyun K.; Choe, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jong K.

    2005-01-01

    Copper electrodeposition has an important industrial role because of various interconnects used in electronic devices such as printed wire boards. With an increasing trend in device miniaturization, in demand are void-free, thin copper foils of 10 μm thick or less with a very low surface profile. In accordance, nucleation kinetics of copper was studied with titanium cathodes that were covered with thin, passive oxide films of 2-3 nm. Such an insulating oxide layer with a band gap of 3 eV is supposed to nearly block charge transfer from the cathode to the electrolyte. However, significant nucleation rates of copper were observed. Pipe tunneling mechanism along a dislocation core is reasoned to account for the high nucleation kinetics. A dislocation core is proposed to be a high electron tunneling path with a reduced energy barrier and a reduced barrier thickness. In supporting the pipe tunneling mechanism, both 'in situ' and 'ex situ' scratch tests were performed to introduce extra dislocations into the cathode surface, that is, more high charge paths via tunneling, before electrodeposition

  15. Study of ion beam sputtered Fe/Si interfaces as a function of Si layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet; Singh, Priti

    2018-01-01

    The exchange interaction in metal/semiconductor interfaces is far from being completely understood. Therefore, in this paper, we have investigated the nature of silicon on the Fe interface in the ion beam deposited Fe/Si/Fe trilayers keeping the thickness of the Fe layers fixed at 3 nm and varying the thickness of the silicon sandwich layer from 1.5 nm to 4 nm. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques were used, respectively, to study the structural and morphological changes in the deposited films as a function of layer thickness. The structural studies show silicide formation at the interfaces during deposition and better crystalline structure of Fe layers at a lower spacer layer thickness. The magnetization behavior was investigated using magneto-optical Kerr effect, which clearly shows that coupling between the ferromagnetic layers is highly influenced by the semiconductor spacer layer thickness. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for a value of tSi = 2.5 nm but above this value an unexpected behavior of hysteresis loop (step like) with two coercivity values is recorded. For spacer layer thickness greater than 2.5 nm, an elemental amorphous Si layer starts to appear in the spacer layer in addition to the silicide layer at the interfaces. It is observed that in the trilayer structure, Fe layers consist of various stacks, viz., Si doped Fe layers, ferromagnetic silicide layer, and nonmagnetic silicide layer at the interfaces. The two phase hysteresis loop is explained on the basis of magnetization reversal of two ferromagnetic layers, independent of each other, with different coercivities. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy technique was also used to study interfaces characteristics as a function of tSi.

  16. The role of surface preparation in corrosion protection of copper with nanometer-thick ALD alumina coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhashemihaghighi, Shadi; Światowska, Jolanta [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Maurice, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.maurice@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Seyeux, Antoine; Klein, Lorena H. [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Salmi, Emma; Ritala, Mikko [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Marcus, Philippe [PSL Research University, CNRS – Chimie ParisTech, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • 10–50 nm thick alumina coatings were grown on copper by atomic layer deposition. • Surface smoothening by substrate annealing was studied as pre-deposition treatment. • Corrosion protection is promoted by pre-treatment for 10 nm but not for thicker films. • Local adhesion failure is assigned to the stresses accumulated in the thicker films. • Surface smoothening decreases the interfacial strength bearing the film stresses. - Abstract: Surface smoothening by substrate annealing was studied as a pre-treatment for improving the corrosion protection provided to copper by 10, 20 and 50 nm thick alumina coatings deposited by atomic layer deposition. The interplay between substrate surface state and deposited film thickness for controlling the corrosion protection provided by ultrathin barrier films is demonstrated. Pre-annealing at 750 °C heals out the dispersed surface heterogeneities left by electropolishing and reduces the surface roughness to less than 2 nm independently of the deposited film thickness. For 10 nm coatings, substrate surface smoothening promotes the corrosion resistance. However, for 20 and 50 nm coatings, it is detrimental to the corrosion protection due to local detachment of the deposited films. The weaker adherence of the thicker coatings is assigned to the stresses accumulated in the films with increasing deposited thickness. Healing out the local heterogeneities on the substrate surface diminishes the interfacial strength that is bearing the stresses of the deposited films, thereby increasing adhesion failure for the thicker films. Pitting corrosion occurs at the local sites of adhesion failure. Intergranular corrosion occurs at the initially well coated substrate grain boundaries because of the growth of a more defective and permeable coating at grain boundaries.

  17. The nanostructure of microbially-reduced graphene oxide fosters thick and highly-performing electrochemically-active biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Bernardino; Dennis, Paul G.

    2017-07-01

    Biofilms of electrochemically-active organisms are used in microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) to catalyze bioreactions otherwise not possible at bare electrodes. At present, however, achievable current outputs are still below levels considered sufficient for economic viability of large-scale METs implementations. Here, we report three-dimensional, self-aggregating biofilm composites comprising of microbial cells embedded with microbially-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles to form a thick macro-porous network with superior electrochemical properties. In the presence of metabolic substrate, these hybrid biofilms are capable of producing up to five times more catalytic current than the control biofilms. Cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, show that in spite of the increased thickness, the biofilms amended with GO display lower polarization/charge transfer resistance compared to the controls, which we ascribe to the incorporation of rGO into the biofilms, which (1) promotes fast electron transfer, yet conserving a macroporous structure that allows free diffusion of reactants and products, and (2) enhances the interfacial dynamics by allowing a higher load of microbial cells per electrode surface area. These results suggest an easy-to-apply and cost-effective method to produce high-performing electrochemically-active biofilms in situ.

  18. An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Denghui; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Ying; Xiao Jing; Liang Chunjun; Pei Zhiliang; Sun Chao

    2005-01-01

    Doped zinc oxides are attractive alternative materials as transparent conducting electrode because they are nontoxic and inexpensive compared with indium tin oxide (ITO). Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. Films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 150-bar o C in 0.03 Pa of oxygen pressure. The electrical and optical properties of the film with the Al-doping amount of 2 wt% in the target were investigated. For the 300-nm thick AZO film deposited using a ZnO target with an Al content of 2 wt%, the lowest electrical resistivity was 4x10 -4 Ωcm and the average transmission in the visible range 400-700 nm was more than 90%. The AZO film was used as an anode contact to fabricate organic light-emitting diodes. The device performance was measured and the current efficiency of 2.9 cd/A was measured at a current density of 100 mA/cm 2

  19. Dependence of surface distribution of self-assembled InSb nanodots on surface morphology and spacer layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbole, M., E-mail: mohit.godbole@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Olivier, E.J. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Coetsee, E.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Neethling, J.H.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Self-assembled InSb nanodots (NDs) were grown on a GaSb (1 0 0) substrate using metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The effects of etching depth of the substrate and thickness of the GaSb buffer layer on the density and size distribution of single and double layer dots were studied for detector applications. The etch depth of the substrate was varied up to 30 {mu}m. In this particular study, the dots were grown at 450 Degree-Sign C and the GaSb spacer thickness was varied between 50 nm and 200 nm. The optimum substrate etch depth was found to be 30 {mu}m while the best spacer thickness was found to be 200 nm.

  20. Dependence of surface distribution of self-assembled InSb nanodots on surface morphology and spacer layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, M.; Olivier, E.J.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H.C.; Neethling, J.H.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Self-assembled InSb nanodots (NDs) were grown on a GaSb (1 0 0) substrate using metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The effects of etching depth of the substrate and thickness of the GaSb buffer layer on the density and size distribution of single and double layer dots were studied for detector applications. The etch depth of the substrate was varied up to 30 μm. In this particular study, the dots were grown at 450 °C and the GaSb spacer thickness was varied between 50 nm and 200 nm. The optimum substrate etch depth was found to be 30 μm while the best spacer thickness was found to be 200 nm.

  1. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  2. Thin zirconium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Polycrystalline Zr and two pure Zr single-crystal samples, one oriented with the normal to the surface parallel to the c-axis of the hcp structure (Z1) and the other with the normal perpendicular to c (Z2), were oxidised at 10 -8 , 10 -7 and 10 -6 Torr and room temperature. Oxidation kinetics, composition and thicknesses of the oxide films formed in each case were analyzed using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as the main technique. The oxidation kinetics followed logarithmic laws in all cases. The deconvolution of XPS Zr3d peaks indicated the formation of two Zr-O compounds before the formation of ZrO 2 . Varying the photoelectrons take-off angle, the compound distribution inside the oxide films could be established. Thus, it was confirmed that the most external oxide, in contact with the gas, was ZrO 2 . The thickness of the films grown at the different pressures was determined. In the polycrystalline samples, thicknesses between 15 and 19 ± 2Angstroem were obtained for pressures between 10 -8 and 10 -6 Torr, in close coincidence with the determined ones for Z2. The thicknesses measured in Z1 were smaller, reaching 13 ± 2Angstroem for the oxidations performed at 10 -6 Torr. (author)

  3. Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of screen-printed thick-films of misfit-layered cobalt oxides with Ag addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Samson, Alfred Junio; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of thick (~60 μm) films prepared by a screen-printing technique using p-type misfit-layered cobalt oxide Ca3Co4O9+δ with Ag addition have been studied. The screen-printed films were sintered in air at various temperatures ranging from 973 K to 1223 K. After each sintering...... process, crystal and microstructure analyses were carried out to determine the optimal sintering condition. The results show that the thermoelectric properties of pure Ca3Co4O9+δ thick film are comparable to those of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) samples. We found that the maximum power factor...... was improved by about 67% (to 0.3 mW/m K2) for film with proper silver (Ag) metallic inclusions as compared with 0.18 mW/m K2 for pure Ca3Co4O9+δ film under the same sintering condition of 1223 K for 2 h in air....

  4. Synthesizing new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxide nanosheets via half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linjie; Li, Yaguang; Xiao, Mu; Wang, Shufang; Fu, Guangsheng; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) metal oxide nanosheets have demonstrated their great potential in a broad range of applications. The existing synthesis strategies are mainly preparing 2D nanosheets from layered and specific transition metal oxides. How to prepare the other types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets remains unsolved, especially for metal oxides containing alkali, alkaline earth metal, and multiple metal elements. Herein, we developed a half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, which could synthesize those types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets. The synthesized 2D metal oxides nanosheets are within 1 nm level thickness and 500 m2 · g-1 level surface area. This method allows us to develop many new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxides nanosheets that have never been prepared before.

  5. Rhodamine B triggers ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, decreases in the number of follicles, 17B-estradiol level, and thickness of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syiska Atik Maryanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to rhodamine B on ovarian oxidative stress, ovarian follicles, hormone 17beta-estradiol and thickness of endometrium. Methods: A total of 28 female rats were divided into four groups consisting of control; groups treated with rhodamine B at doses of 4.5; 9, and 18 milligram/200 gram body weight. Rhodamine B was administered orally for 36 days with the probe. Analysis of MDA level was done spectrophotometrically. Analysis of the number of ovarian follicles and thickness of endometrium was done histopathologically by hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of 17-estradiol level was done by ELISA. Results: Rhodamine B administered in different doses in female rats can increase ovarian MDA levels significantly than the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce the number of primary, secondary, and De Graaf follicles significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce 17-estradiol level significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. The administration of rhodamine B could reduce thickness of endometrium significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that administration of rhodamine B triggered ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, a decrease in the number of follicles, and decreased level of 17-estradiol which ultimately lowered the thickness of endometrium. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 451-457

  6. Effect of Key Parameters on the Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene at Low Concentrations in Air under 254 + 185 nm UV Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quici, Natalia; Vera, Maria L.; Choi, Hyeok; Puma, Gianluca Li; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Litter, Marta I.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The effect of key experimental parameters on the removal of toluene under 254 + 185 nm irradiation was investigated using a benchtop photocatalytic flow reactor. Toluenewas introduced at low concentrations between 10 and 500 ppbv, typical of indoorenvironments, and reacted on TiO2-coated Raschig rings. Two different TiO2-coated rings were prepared: in one case, by dip-coating using a P25 aqueous suspension and, on the other, using an organic/inorganic sol-gel method that produced thin films of mesoporous anatase. Flow rates in the photoreactor varied between 4 L min-1 and 125 mL min-1, leading to residence times in the range 100 ms< tau< 2 s. For these conditions, toluene removal efficiencies were between 30 and 90percent, indicating that the system did not achieve total conversion in any case. For each air flow rate, the conversion oftoluene was significantly higher when the reactor length was 10 cm, as compared with 5 cm; however, only marginal increases in conversions were achieved in the two reactor lengths at equal residence time and different concentration of toluene, suggesting that that the reactor is effectively behaving as an ideal reactor and that the reaction is first-order in the concentration of toluene. Experiments were carried out between 0 and 66percent relative humidity (RH), the fastest reaction rate being observed at moderately low humidity conditions (10percent RH), with respect to both dry air and higher humidity levels. Formaldehyde was formed as a partial oxidation byproduct at low and at high residence times (240 and 960 ms), although higher formaldehyde molar yields (up to 20percent) were observed at low tau (240 ms) and moderate humidity conditions (10 and 33percent), suggesting that both tau and RH can be optimized toreduce the formation of harmful intermediates. Toluene removal efficiency increased with the TiO2 thickness (i.e., mass) until a maximum value of 500 nm, beyond which the removal efficiency decreased. This should be

  7. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M.; Zhang, B.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 μm in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  8. Development of wear resistant zirconium oxide thin films on stainless steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, I.K.; Mujahid, M. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Zhang, B. [Dou Yee Technologies Pte Ltd, Bedok Industrial Park C (Singapore)

    2005-07-01

    The present work deals specifically with the development of zirconium oxide thin film coatings on the stainless steel orthodontic bracket system by sputtering technique. Thin films of zirconium oxide have been deposited on injection molded stainless steel substrates using sputtering under controlled temperature and environment conditions. The deposited films, 1.5 {mu}m in thickness, were found to have a predominantly tetragonal structure with grain size of about 5 nm. The grain size was found to increase only slightly with increasing heat treatment time at 650 C. It has been shown that thin-film zirconia coatings with stable structure and good adhesion along with very low friction coefficient could be produced. (orig.)

  9. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakao, S.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w Bi ) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ F  = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L ϕ ) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w Bi and t smaller than λ F showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L ϕ (T) exceed w Bi or t

  10. Effect of the thickness of Zn(BTZ){sub 2} emitting layer on the electroluminescent spectra of white organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, F.J. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Hua, Y.L. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China)]. E-mail: yulinhua@tjut.edu.cn; Yin, S.G. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Deng, J.C. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wu, K.W. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Niu, X. [Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Wu, X.M. [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300191 (China); Petty, M.C. [Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated with a simple bilayer structure: ITO/TPD/ Zn(BTZ){sub 2}/Al. White emission is composed of two parts: one is 470 nm, which originates from exciton emission in Zn(BTZ){sub 2} emitting layer; the other is 580 nm, which originates from exciplexes formation at the interface of TPD and Zn(BTZ){sub 2}. Specially, the thickness of Zn(BTZ){sub 2} layer effects the relative intensity of two emissions. When the Zn(BTZ){sub 2} layer becomes thin (or thick), the 470 nm (or 580 nm) emission intensity turns into weak (or strong). Finally, We successfully fabricated pure white OLED when the thickness of Zn(BTZ){sub 2} layer was 65 nm.

  11. Study of thickness and uniformity of oxide passivation with DI-O3 on silicon substrate for electronic and photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since the beginning of semiconductor fabrication technology evolution, clean and passivated substrate surface is one of the prime requirements for fabrication of Electronic and optoelectronic device fabrication. However, as the scale of silicon circuits and device architectures are continuously decreased from micrometer to nanometer (from VLSI to ULSI technology), the cleaning methods to achieve better wafer surface qualities has raised research interests. The development of controlled and uniform silicon dioxide is the most effective and reliable way to achieve better wafer surface quality for fabrication of electronic devices. On the other hand, in order to meet the requirement of high environment safety/regulatory standards, the innovation of cleaning technology is also in demand. The controlled silicon dioxide layer formed by oxidant de-ionized ozonated water has better uniformity. As the uniformity of the controlled silicon dioxide layer is improved on the substrate, it enhances the performance of the devices. We can increase the thickness of oxide layer, by increasing the ozone time treatment. We reported first time to measurement of thickness of controlled silicon dioxide layer and obtained the uniform layer for same ozone time.

  12. Light-extraction enhancement of GaN-based 395  nm flip-chip light-emitting diodes by an Al-doped ITO transparent conductive electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Meng; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-06-01

    The distinct ultraviolet (UV) light absorption of indium tin oxide (ITO) limits the performance of GaN-based near-UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Herein, we report an Al-doped ITO with enhanced UV transmittance and low sheet resistance as the transparent conductive electrode for GaN-based 395 nm flip-chip near-UV LEDs. The thickness dependence of optical and electrical properties of Al-doped ITO films is investigated. The optimal Al-doped ITO film exhibited a transmittance of 93.2% at 395 nm and an average sheet resistance of 30.1  Ω/sq. Meanwhile, at an injection current of 300 mA, the forward voltage decreased from 3.14 to 3.11 V, and the light output power increased by 13% for the 395 nm near-UV flip-chip LEDs with the optimal Al-doped ITO over those with pure ITO. This Letter provides a simple and repeatable approach to further improve the light extraction efficiency of GaN-based near-UV LEDs.

  13. Orientation and magnetic properties of the thick multilayered [NdFeBxTby]n films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weifang; Suzuki, Shunji; Machida, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Multilayered [NdFeB x /Tb y ] n films were prepared by a three-demensional sputtering system. From the thickness of NdFeB layer dependence on the orientation and magnetic properties of multilayered [NdFeB (xμm)/Tb (50nm)] n films with 7.2μm as a total thickness of NdFeB layers, it was found that the orientation of NdFeB grains was maintained. However, the coercivity was enhanced with decreasing the thickness of each NdFeB thin layer. The (BH) max value of 240kJ/m 3 was obtained on the layered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] 6 film as an optimal value. For the multilayered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] n films with various multiple layer sets (n), the coercivity value increased with the film thickness without any deterioration of the c-axis texture and consequently, multilayered NdFeB/Tb film magnets with total thickness values around 70μm showed the superior magnetic properties (H cj approx. = 1360kA/m, I r approx.= 1.05T, and (BH) max approx.= 202kJ/m 3 ). (author)

  14. Effect of thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of DC sputtered Fe65Co35 soft magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Kumari, T.; Manivel Raja, M.; Kumar, Atul; Srinath, S.; Kamat, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of Fe 65 Co 35 thin films deposited on Si(001) and MgO(001) substrates was investigated by varying film thickness from 30 to 600 nm. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the FeCo films are polycrystalline in the as-deposited condition irrespective of deposition on Si or MgO substrate. The microstructure of films consisted of spherical grains for 30 nm film thickness and columnar grains for all other film thicknesses. The grain size for the films was found to increase from 15 to 50 nm with increasing film thickness. The sputtered films also exhibited tensile residual stresses with the magnitude of stress decreasing with increasing film thickness. The Fe 65 Co 35 films deposited on both substrates also exhibited very good in-plane soft magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization 4πM s of ∼23.6–23.8 kG and coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe without any under-layer only for films with thickness of 30 nm. For all other thicknesses, these films exhibited a significantly higher coercivity. The observed variations in soft magnetic properties with film thickness were explained in terms of residual stress and microstructure of the films. - Highlights: • Spherical grain morphology transformed to columnar above 30 nm film thickness. • Sputtered films exhibited tensile residual stresses decreasing with film thickness. • An in-plane coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe was achieved without any under-layer

  15. Design of a core–shell Pt–SiO2 catalyst in a reverse microemulsion system: Distinctive kinetics on CO oxidation at low temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Al Mana, Noor

    2016-06-28

    The mechanism of formation of Pt@SiO2 as a model of core–shell nanoparticles via water-in-oil reverse microemulsions was studied in detail. By controlling the time of growth of Pt precursors, Pt(OH)x, after hydrolysis in NH3 aq. before adding SiO2 precursor (TEOS), Pt nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were produced, from ultrafine metal nanoparticles (<1 nm) to 6 nm nanocrystals. Separately, the thickness of SiO2 was controllably synthesized from 1 to 15 nm to yield different Pt@SiO2 materials. The Pt@SiO2 core–shell catalysts exhibited a higher rate of CO oxidation by one order of magnitude with a positive order regarding CO pressure. The SiO2 shell did not perturb the Pt chemical nature, but it provided different coverage of CO in steady-state CO oxidation. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Synthesis of Ni core NiO shell nanostructure and magnetic investigation for shell thickness determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, H.; Bruck, E.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nickel oxide has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years for its catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 8 nm were prepared by dc - arc discharge in argon atmosphere. A current of 130 A and 300 milli bar pressure of argon have been applied. The produced Ni nanoparticles were annealed for oxidizing in air at 350 for six hours to produce antiferromagnetic NiO particles. The structure of Ni and NiO nanoparticles and size estimation of them studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The size and morphology of the particles were also characterized by high resolution transmission microscopy (TEM). The Ni core NiO shell structure, resulting from the oxidation process, were studied by magnetic properties measurements. A quantum design squid magnetometer, model MPMS5S was used for measuring saturation magnetization of both nanoparticles of Ni with and without NiO layer. By knowing the density of Ni and NiO, we were able to deduce the thickness of the Ni core and NiO outer layer. They are around 3 and 5 nanometers respectively. (authors)

  17. Atomic layer deposition grown composite dielectric oxides and ZnO for transparent electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieraltowska, S.; Wachnicki, L.; Witkowski, B.S.; Godlewski, M.; Guziewicz, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report on transparent transistor obtained using laminar structure of two high-k dielectric oxides (hafnium dioxide, HfO 2 and aluminum oxide, Al 2 O 3 ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) layer grown at low temperature (60 °C–100 °C) using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology. Our research was focused on the optimization of technological parameters for composite layers Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 /Al 2 O 3 for thin film transistor structures with ZnO as a channel and a gate layer. We elaborate on the ALD growth of these oxides, finding that the 100 nm thick layers of HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 exhibit fine surface flatness and required amorphous microstructure. Growth parameters are optimized for the monolayer growth mode and maximum smoothness required for gating.

  18. Facile synthetic method for pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots: origin of blue and green luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Je-Hyung; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-07-19

    Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Influence of implantation energy on the electrical properties of ultrathin gate oxides grown on nitrogen implanted Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, E.; Skarlatos, D.; Tsamis, C.; Normand, P.; Tsoukalas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes with gate oxides, in the range of 2.5-3.5 nm, grown either on 25 or 3 keV nitrogen-implanted Si substrates at (0.3 or 1) x10 15 cm -2 dose, respectively, are investigated. The dependence of N 2 + ion implant energy on the electrical quality of the growing oxide layers is studied through capacitance, equivalent parallel conductance, and gate current measurements. Superior electrical characteristics in terms of interface state trap density, leakage current, and breakdown fields are found for oxides obtained through 3 keV nitrogen implants. These findings together with the full absence of any extended defect in the silicon substrate make the low-energy nitrogen implantation technique an attractive option for reproducible low-cost growth of nanometer-thick gate oxides

  20. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide studied by the XRD, TEM and electron spectroscopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobinski, L.; Lesiak, B.; Malolepszy, A.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Mierzwa, B.; Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P.; Bieloshapka, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (FL-GOc) and reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc): XRD, TEM, XPS, REELS. • FL-GOc: stacking nanostructure—22 × 6 nm (DxH), 0.9 nm layers separation (XRD). • FL-RGOc: stacking nanostructure—8 × 1 nm (DxH), 0.4 nm layers separation (XRD). • Reduction: oxygen group degradation, decreasing distance between graphene layers. • Number of graphene layers in stacking nanostructure: 6–7 (FL-GOc), 2–3 (FL-RGOc). - Abstract: The commercial and synthesised few-layer graphene oxide, prepared using oxidation reactions, and few-layer reduced graphene oxide samples were structurally and chemically investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron spectroscopy methods, i.e. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The commercial graphene oxide (FL-GOc) shows a stacking nanostructure of about 22 × 6 nm average diameter by height with the distance of 0.9 nm between 6-7 graphene layers, whereas the respective reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc)—about 8 × 1 nm average diameter by height stacking nanostructure with the distance of 0.4 nm between 2-3 graphene layers (XRD). The REELS results are consistent with those by the XRD indicating 8 (FL-GOc) and 4 layers (FL-RGOc). In graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared from the graphite the REELS indicates 8–11 and 7–10 layers. All graphene oxide samples show the C/O ratio of 2.1–2.3, 26.5–32.1 at% of C sp 3 bonds and high content of functional oxygen groups (hydroxyl—C-OH, epoxy—C-O-C, carbonyl—C=O, carboxyl—C-OOH, water) (XPS). Reduction increases the C/O ratio to 2.8–10.3, decreases C sp 3 content to 11.4–20.3 at% and also the content of C-O-C and C=O groups, accompanied by increasing content of C-OH and C-OOH groups. Formation of additional amount of water due to functional oxygen group reduction leads to layer delamination. Removing of functional oxygen groups

  1. Hf layer thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics of Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryo; Azuma, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hayato; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ito, Takeshi; Shingubara, Shoso

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a HfO2 dielectric layer have been studied extensively owing to the good reproducibility of their SET/RESET switching properties. Furthermore, it was reported that a thin Hf layer next to a HfO2 layer stabilized switching properties because of the oxygen scavenging effect. In this work, we studied the Hf thickness dependence of the resistance switching characteristics of a Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au ReRAM device. It is found that the optimum Hf thickness is approximately 10 nm to obtain good reproducibility of SET/RESET voltages with a small RESET current. However, when the Hf thickness was very small (∼2 nm), the device failed after the first RESET process owing to the very large RESET current. In the case of a very thick Hf layer (∼20 nm), RESET did not occur owing to the formation of a leaky dielectric layer. We observed the occurrence of multiple resistance states in the RESET process of the device with a Hf thickness of 10 nm by increasing the RESET voltage stepwise.

  2. Monitoring the oxidation of nuclear fuel cladding using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Hongyi; Mikael, Solomon; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar; Butt, Darryl; Blanchard, James P.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) cladding oxidation within a spent fuel canister, cladding oxidized in air at 500 °C was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy to measure the oxide layer thickness. Systematic Raman scans were performed to study the relationship between typical Raman spectra and various oxide layer thicknesses. The thicknesses of the oxide layers developed for various exposure times were measured by cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results of this work reveal that each oxide layer thickness has a corresponding typical Raman spectrum. Detailed analysis suggests that the Raman scattering peaks around wave numbers of 180 cm −1 and 630 cm −1 are the best choices for accurately determining the oxide layer thickness. After Gaussian–Lorentzian deconvolution, these two peaks can be quantitatively represented by four peaks. The intensities of the deconvoluted peaks increase consistently as the oxide layer becomes thicker and sufficiently strong signals are produced, allowing one to distinguish the bare and oxidized cladding samples, as well as samples with different oxide layer thicknesses. Hence, a process that converts sample oxide layer thickness to optical signals can be achieved

  3. Band-to-band tunneling in Γ valley for Ge source lateral tunnel field effect transistor: Thickness scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Rastogi, Priyank; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-07-01

    The direct and indirect valleys in Germanium (Ge) are separated by a very small offset, which opens up the prospect of direct tunneling in the Γ valley of an extended Ge source tunnel field effect transistor (TFET). We explore the impact of thickness scaling of extended Ge source lateral TFET on the band to band tunneling (BTBT) current. The Ge source is extended inside the gate by 2 nm to confine the tunneling in Ge only. We observe that as the thickness is scaled, the band alignment at the Si/Ge heterojunction changes significantly, which results in an increase in Ge to Si BTBT current. Based on density functional calculations, we first obtain the band structure parameters (bandgap, effective masses, etc.) for the Ge and Si slabs of varying thickness, and these are then used to obtain the thickness dependent Kane's BTBT tunneling parameters. We find that electrostatics improves as the thickness is reduced in the ultra-thin Ge film ( ≤ 10 nm). The ON current degrades as we scale down in thickness; however, the subthreshold slope ( S S AVG ) improves remarkably with thickness scaling due to subsurface BTBT. We predict that 8 nm thin devices offer the best option for optimized ON current and S S AVG .

  4. Thickness-dependent blue shift in the excitonic peak of conformally grown ZnO:Al on ion-beam fabricated self-organized Si ripples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, T.; Kumar, M.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Nandy, S. [CENIMAT, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica 2829 516 (Portugal); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saini, C. P.; Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India)

    2015-09-14

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films of thicknesses 5,10, 15, 20, and 30 nm were deposited on 500 eV argon ion-beam fabricated nanoscale self-organized rippled-Si substrates at room temperature and are compared with similar films deposited on pristine-Si substrates (without ripples). It is observed that morphology of self-organized AZO films is driven by the underlying substrate morphology. For instance, for pristine-Si substrates, a granular morphology evolves for all AZO films. On the other hand, for rippled-Si substrates, morphologies having chain-like arrangement (anisotropic in nature) are observed up to a thickness of 20 nm, while a granular morphology evolves (isotropic in nature) for 30 nm-thick film. Photoluminescence studies reveal that excitonic peaks corresponding to 5–15 nm-thick AZO films, grown on rippled-Si templates, show a blue shift of 8 nm and 3 nm, respectively, whereas the peak shift is negligible for 20-nm thick film (with respect to their pristine counter parts). The observed blue shifts are substantiated by diffuse reflectance study and attributed to quantum confinement effect, associated with the size of the AZO grains and their spatial arrangements driven by the anisotropic morphology of underlying rippled-Si templates. The present findings will be useful for making tunable AZO-based light-emitting devices.

  5. Methods To Determine the Silicone Oil Layer Thickness in Sprayed-On Siliconized Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Viviane; Germershaus, Oliver; Steinberg, Henrik; Dreher, Sascha; Grauschopf, Ulla; Funke, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    The silicone lubricant layer in prefilled syringes has been investigated with regards to siliconization process performance, prefilled syringe functionality, and drug product attributes, such as subvisible particle levels, in several studies in the past. However, adequate methods to characterize the silicone oil layer thickness and distribution are limited, and systematic evaluation is missing. In this study, white light interferometry was evaluated to close this gap in method understanding. White light interferometry demonstrated a good accuracy of 93-99% for MgF 2 coated, curved standards covering a thickness range of 115-473 nm. Thickness measurements for sprayed-on siliconized prefilled syringes with different representative silicone oil distribution patterns (homogeneous, pronounced siliconization at flange or needle side, respectively) showed high instrument (0.5%) and analyst precision (4.1%). Different white light interferometry instrument parameters (autofocus, protective shield, syringe barrel dimensions input, type of non-siliconized syringe used as base reference) had no significant impact on the measured average layer thickness. The obtained values from white light interferometry applying a fully developed method (12 radial lines, 50 mm measurement distance, 50 measurements points) were in agreement with orthogonal results from combined white and laser interferometry and 3D-laser scanning microscopy. The investigated syringe batches (lot A and B) exhibited comparable longitudinal silicone oil layer thicknesses ranging from 170-190 nm to 90-100 nm from flange to tip and homogeneously distributed silicone layers over the syringe barrel circumference (110- 135 nm). Empty break-loose (4-4.5 N) and gliding forces (2-2.5 N) were comparably low for both analyzed syringe lots. A silicone oil layer thickness of 100-200 nm was thus sufficient for adequate functionality in this particular study. Filling the syringe with a surrogate solution including short

  6. Effect of QW thickness and numbers on performance characteristics of deep violet InGaN MQW lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyarizadeh, Gh.; Amirhoseiny, M.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-03-01

    The performance characteristics of deep violet indium gallium nitride (InGaN) multiquantum well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) with an emission wavelength of around 390 nm have been investigated using the integrated system engineering technical computer aided design (ISE-TCAD) software. A comparative study on the effect of quantum well (QW) thickness and number on electrical and optical performance of deep violet In0.082Ga0.918N/GaN MQW LDs have been carried out. The simulation results showed that the highest slope efficiency and external differential quantum efficiency (DQE), as well as the lowest threshold current are obtained when the number of wells is two. The different QW thickness values of 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, 3 and 3.2 nm were compared and the best results were achieved for 2.5 nm QW thickness. The radiative recombination rate decreases with increasing QW thickness because of decreasing electron and hole carrier densities in wells. By increasing QW thickness, output power decreases and threshold current increases.

  7. Low-resistance magnetic tunnel junctions prepared by partial remote plasma oxidation of 0.9 nm Al barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo P.; MacKenzie, Maureen; Chapman, John N.

    2005-01-01

    Current perpendicular to the plane read-head elements suitable for high-density magnetic storage require low resistance while maintaining a reasonable magnetoresistive (MR) signal (RxA 2 and MR>20% for areal densities >200 Gb/in 2 ). This letter shows that competitive low RxA junctions can be produced using underoxidized barriers starting from 0.9 nm thick Al layers. For as-deposited junctions, tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ∼20% for RxA∼2-15 Ω μm 2 is obtained, while in the RxA∼60-150 Ω μm 2 range, TMR values between 40% to 45% are achieved. A limited number of junctions exhibits considerably lower RxA values with respect to the average, while keeping a similar MR (down to 0.44 Ω μm 2 with TMR of 20% and down to 2.2 Ω μm 2 with TMR of 52%). Experimental data suggest that current confinement to small regions (barrier defects/hot spots) may explain these results

  8. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Top/Bottom electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT Thick Film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    Top and bottom electrodes for screen printed piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thick film are investigated with respect to future MEMS devices. Down to 100 nm thick E-beam evaporated Al and Pt films are patterned as top electrodes on the PZT using a lift-off process...... with a line width down to 3 μ m. A 700 nm thick ZrO2 layer as insolating diffusion barrier layer is found to be insufficient as barrier layer for PZT on a silicon substrate sintered at 850°C. EDX shows diffusion of Si into the PZT layer....

  10. Effect of ZrO2 film thickness on the photoelectric properties of mixed-cation perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Xiao, Meng; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2018-05-01

    In this work, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated in the ambient air, with a scaffold layer composed of TiO2/ZrO2 double layer as the mesoscopic layer and carbon as the counter electrode. The effect of ZrO2 thin film thickness on the photovoltaic performances of PSCs was also studied in detail. Results showed that the photoelectric properties of as-prepared PSCs largely depend on the thin film thickness due to a series of factors, including surface roughness, charge transport resistance, and electron-hole recombination rate. The power conversion efficiency of PSCs increased from 8.37% to 11.33% by varying the thin film thickness from 75 nm to 305 nm, and the optimal power conversion efficiency was realized up to the 11.33% with a thin film thickness of 167 nm. This research demonstrates a promising route for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic technology.

  11. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (3), relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Systematic approaches for evaluating flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. Firstly, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with the coupled models of static electrochemical analysis and dynamic double oxide layer analysis. Anodic current density and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram and ferrous ion release rate determined by the anodic current density was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic double oxide layer model and then was applied as input for the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results based on the coupled models resulted good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP. (author)

  12. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of oxidized porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula, Guido, E-mail: guido.mula@unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Tiddia, Maria V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Ruffilli, Roberta [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Falqui, Andrea [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Palmas, Simonetta; Mascia, Michele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica Chimica e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Piazza d' Armi, 09126 Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    We present a study of the electrochemical oxidation process of porous silicon. We analyze the effect of the layer thickness (1.25–22 μm) and of the applied current density (1.1–11.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, values calculated with reference to the external samples surface) on the oxidation process by comparing the galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and the optical specular reflectivity of the samples. The results of EIS were interpreted using an equivalent circuit to separate the contribution of different sample parts. A different behavior of the electrochemical oxidation process has been found for thin and thick samples: whereas for thin samples the oxidation process is univocally related to current density and thickness, for thicker samples this is no more true. Measurements by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy using a Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed that the inhomogeneity of the electrochemical oxidation process is increased by higher thicknesses and higher currents. A possible explanation is proposed to justify the different behavior of thin and thick samples during the electrochemical process. - Highlights: • A multidisciplinary approach on porous Si electrochemical oxidation is proposed. • Electrochemical, optical, and structural characterizations are used. • Layer thickness and oxidation current effects are shown. • An explanation of the observed behavior is proposed.

  13. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics. Relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    Systematic approaches to evaluate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. First, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with two coupled models: 1.static electrochemical analysis and 2.dynamic oxide layer growth analysis. The anodic current density and the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram. The ferrous ion release rate, determined by the anodic current density, was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic oxide layer growth model and then its value was used as input in the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results (corrosion rate and ECP) based on the coupled models were in good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP.

  14. Coating of tips for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy by means of silicon, magnesium, and tungsten oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Different combinations of metal tips and oxide coatings have been tested for possible operation in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Silicon and magnesium oxides have been thermally evaporated onto gold and platinum-iridium tips, respectively. Two different thickness values have been explored for both materials, namely, 40 and 120 nm for silicon oxide and 20 and 60 nm for magnesium oxide. Alternatively, tungsten oxide has been grown on tungsten tips via electrochemical anodization. In the latter case, to seek optimal results we have varied the pH of the anodizing electrolyte between one and four. The oxide coated tips have been first inspected by means of scanning electron microscopy equipped with microanalysis to determine the morphological results of the coating. Second, the coated tips have been electrically characterized ex situ for stability in time by means of cyclic voltammetry in 1 M aqueous KCl supporting electrolyte, both bare and supplemented with K3[Fe(CN)6] complex at 10 mM concentration in milliQ water as an analyte. Only the tungsten oxide coated tungsten tips have shown stable electrical behavior in the electrolyte. For these tips, the uncoated metal area has been estimated from the electrical current levels, and they have been successfully tested by imaging a gold grating in situ, which provided stable results for several hours. The successful tungsten oxide coating obtained at pH=4 has been assigned to the WO3 form.

  15. Time-resolved analysis of thickness-dependent dewetting and ablation of silver films upon nanosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Dongfeng; Paeng, Dongwoo; Yeo, Junyeob; Kim, Eunpa; Wang, Letian; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Chen, Songyan

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting and ablation of thin silver films is investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 5 ns temporal width are irradiated on silver films of different thicknesses (50 nm, 80 nm, and 350 nm). Below the ablation threshold, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 630 ns after the laser irradiation for all samples, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to the solidification of transported matter at about 700 ns following the laser pulse exposure. In addition to these features, droplet fingers are superposed upon irradiation of 350-nm thick silver films with higher intensity.

  16. Time-resolved analysis of thickness-dependent dewetting and ablation of silver films upon nanosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Dongfeng [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Paeng, Dongwoo; Yeo, Junyeob; Kim, Eunpa; Wang, Letian; Grigoropoulos, Costas P., E-mail: cgrigoro@berkeley.edu [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Chen, Songyan [Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-05-23

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting and ablation of thin silver films is investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 5 ns temporal width are irradiated on silver films of different thicknesses (50 nm, 80 nm, and 350 nm). Below the ablation threshold, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 630 ns after the laser irradiation for all samples, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to the solidification of transported matter at about 700 ns following the laser pulse exposure. In addition to these features, droplet fingers are superposed upon irradiation of 350-nm thick silver films with higher intensity.

  17. Effect of separated layer thickness on magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnyk, T. M.; Shutylieva, O. V.; Vorobiov, S. I.; Pazukha, I. M.; Chornous, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Co(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Co(20 nm)/S and Ni(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Ni(20 nm)/S trilayer films are prepared by electron-beam sputtering to investigate the influence of dysprosium layer thickness (tDy) and thermal annealing on the crystal structure, magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic properties of thin films. The thickness of Dy layer changed in the range from 1 nm to 20 nm. The samples annealed for 20 min at 700 K. Electron diffraction patterns reveal that the as-deposited and annealed systems Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni had fcc-Co + hcp-Dy and fcc-Ni + hcp-Dy phase state, respectively. It is also shown that at the tDy = 15 nm the transition from amorphous to crystalline structures of Dy layer is observed. An increase in the Dy layer thickness results in changes in the MR and magnetic properties of the trilayer systems. It is shown that MR is most thermally stable against annealing to 700 K at tDy = 15 nm for Co/Dy/Co as well as for Ni/Dy/Ni. For tDy = 15 nm the, value of MR for both system increases by two times compared to those of pure ferromagnetic (FM) samples. The coercivity (Bc), remanent (Mr) and saturation (Ms) magnetization of the in-plain magnetization hysteresis loops are related to the Dy layer thickness too. The coercivity depends on the FM materials type and diffusion processes at the layer boundary. Accordingly, Mr and Ms are reduced with tDy increasing before and after annealing for both trilayer systems.

  18. Intra-cavity upconversion to 631 nm of images illuminated by an eye-safe ASE source at 1550 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Capmany, J

    2015-11-15

    We report an image wavelength upconversion system. The system mixes an incoming image at around 1550 nm (eye-safe region) illuminated by an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) fiber source with a Gaussian beam at 1064 nm generated in a continuous-wave diode-pumped Nd(3+):GdVO(4) laser. Mixing takes place in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal placed intra-cavity. The upconverted image obtained by sum-frequency mixing falls around the 631 nm red spectral region, well within the spectral response of standard silicon focal plane array bi-dimensional sensors, commonly used in charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) video cameras, and of most image intensifiers. The use of ASE illumination benefits from a noticeable increase in the field of view (FOV) that can be upconverted with regard to using coherent laser illumination. The upconverted power allows us to capture real-time video in a standard nonintensified CCD camera.

  19. Aluminum oxide barrier coating on polyethersulfone substrate by atomic layer deposition for barrier property enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Sung Soo

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum oxide layers were deposited on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and oxygen as precursor and reactant materials. Several process parameters in PEALD process were investigated in terms of refractive index and layer thickness. Number of process cycle increased the thickness and refractive index of the layer to enhance the barrier properties. Non-physisorbed TMA and unreacted oxygen were purged before and after the plasma reaction, respectively. Identical purge time was applied to TMA and oxygen and it was optimized for 10 s. Thinner and denser layer was formed as substrate temperature increased. However, the PES substrate could be deformed above 120 o C. Aluminum oxide layer formed on PES at optimized conditions have 11.8 nm of thickness and reduced water vapor transmission rate and oxygen transmission rate to below 4 x 10 -3 g/m 2 day and 4 x 10 -3 cm 3 /m 2 day, respectively. Polycarbonate and polyethylene naphthalate films were also tested at optimized conditions, and they also showed quite appreciable barrier properties to be used as plastic substrates.

  20. Control of Alq3 wetting layer thickness via substrate surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Shufen; Szeto, Bryan; Fleischauer, Michael D; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Brett, Michael J

    2007-06-05

    The effects of substrate surface energy and vapor deposition rate on the initial growth of porous columnar tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) nanostructures were investigated. Alq3 nanostructures thermally evaporated onto as-supplied Si substrates bearing an oxide were observed to form a solid wetting layer, likely caused by an interfacial energy mismatch between the substrate and Alq3. Wetting layer thickness control is important for potential optoelectronic applications. A dramatic decrease in wetting layer thickness was achieved by depositing Alq3 onto alkyltrichlorosilane-derivatized Si/oxide substrates. Similar effects were noted with increasing deposition rates. These two effects enable tailoring of the wetting layer thickness.

  1. Rapid microcantilever-thickness determination by optical interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Andrew R; Capener, Matthew J; Elliott, Stephen R; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    Silicon microcantilevers are widely used in scanning-probe microscopy and in cantilever-sensing applications. However, the cantilever thickness is not well controlled in conventional lithography and, since it is also difficult to measure, it is the most important undefined factor in mechanical variability. An accurate method to measure this parameter is thus essential. We demonstrate the capability to measure microcantilever thicknesses rapidly (>1 Hz) and accurately (±2 nm) by optical interferometry. This is achieved with standard microscopy equipment and so can be implemented as a standard technique in both research and in batch control for commercial microfabrication. In addition, we show how spatial variations in the thickness of individual microcantilevers can be mapped, which has applications in the precise mechanical calibration of cantilevers for force spectroscopy. (paper)

  2. Pulsed Photoinitiated Fabrication of Inkjet Printed Titanium Dioxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Briley; Luo, Sijun; Riggs, Brian; Ji, Yaping; Adireddy, Shiva; Schroder, Kurt; Farnsworth, Stan; Chrisey, Douglas B; Escarra, Matthew

    2018-05-08

    This work reports a new technique for scalable and low temperature processing of nanostructured-TiO2 thin films, allowing for practical manufacturing of TiO2 based devices such as perovskite solar cells at low temperature or on flexible substrates. Dual layers of dense and mesoporous TiO2/graphitic oxide nanocomposite films are synthesized simultaneously using inkjet printing and pulsed photonic irradiation. Investigation of process parameters including precursor concentration (10-20 wt%) and exposure fluence (4.5-8.5 J/cm2) reveals control over crystalline quality, graphitic oxide phase, film thickness, dendrite density, and optical properties. Raman spectroscopy shows the E¬g peak, characteristic of anatase phase titania, increases in intensity with higher photonic irradiation fluence, suggesting increased crystallinity through higher fluence processing. Film thickness and dendrite density is shown to increase with precursor concentration in the printed ink. The dense base layer thickness was controlled between 20 nm to 80 nm. The refractive index of the films is determined by ellipsometry to be 1.92 +/- 0.08 at 650 nm. Films exhibit an energy weighted optical transparency of 91.1%, in comparison to 91.3% of a thermally processed film, when in situ carbon materials were removed. Transmission and diffuse reflectance are used to determine optical band gaps of the films ranging from 2.98 eV to 3.38 eV in accordance with the photonic irradiation fluence and suggests tunability of TiO2 phase composition. The sheet resistance of the synthesized films is measured to be 14.54 +/- 1.11 Ω/□ and 28.90 +/- 2.24 Ω/□ for films as-processed and after carbon removal, respectively, which is comparable to high temperature processed TiO2 thin films. The studied electrical and optical properties of the light processed films show comparable results to traditionally processed TiO2 while offering the distinct advantages of scalable manufacturing, low-temperature processing

  3. The effect of the MgO buffer layer thickness on magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO buffer/MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, Anna, E-mail: a.koziolrachwal@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Nozaki, Takayuki; Zayets, Vadym; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    The relationship between the magnetic properties and MgO buffer layer thickness d was studied in epitaxial MgO/Fe(t)/Cr/MgO(d) layers grown on MgO(001) substrate in which the Fe thickness t ranged from 0.4 nm to 1.1 nm. For 0.4 nm ≤ t ≤ 0.7 nm, a non-monotonic coercivity dependence on the MgO buffer thickness was shown by perpendicular magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry. For thicker Fe films, an increase in the buffer layer thickness resulted in a spin reorientation transition from perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization direction. Possible origins of these unusual behaviors were discussed in terms of the suppression of carbon contamination at the Fe surface and changes in the magnetoelastic anisotropy in the system. These results illustrate a method to control magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO(d) via an appropriate choice of MgO buffer layer thickness d.

  4. Helium ion microscopy based wall thickness and surface roughness analysis of polymer foams obtained from high internal phase emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, C.; Viswanathan, P.; Jepson, M.A.E.; Liu, X.; Battaglia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their wide range of applications, porous polymers obtained from high internal phase emulsions have been widely studied using scanning electron microscopy. However, due to their lack of electrical conductivity, quantitative information of wall thicknesses and surface roughness, which are of particular interest to tissue engineering, has not been obtained. Here, Helium Ion Microscopy is used to examine uncoated polymer foams and some very strong but unexpected contrast is observed, the origin of which is established here. Based on this analysis, a method for the measurement of wall thickness variations and wall roughness measurements has been developed, based on the modeling of Helium ion transmission. The results presented here indicate that within the walls of the void structure there exist small features with height variations of ∼30 nm and wall thickness variations from ∼100 nm to larger 340 nm in regions surrounding interconnecting windows within the structure. The suggested imaging method is applicable to other porous carbon based structures with wall thicknesses in the range of 40–340 nm. - Highlights: • The first helium ion microscopy image of uncoated structures formed from HIPEs is presented. • Unusually high contrast features that change with accelerating voltage are observed. • The origin of the observed contrast is determined to be mass thickness contrast. • A new method for quantitative wall thickness variation/roughness measurements is demonstrated

  5. Helium ion microscopy based wall thickness and surface roughness analysis of polymer foams obtained from high internal phase emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenburg, C., E-mail: c.rodenburg@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Viswanathan, P. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2 TN (United Kingdom); Jepson, M.A.E. [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Liu, X. [Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 22, 73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Battaglia, G. [Department of Chemistry University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); The MRC/UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Due to their wide range of applications, porous polymers obtained from high internal phase emulsions have been widely studied using scanning electron microscopy. However, due to their lack of electrical conductivity, quantitative information of wall thicknesses and surface roughness, which are of particular interest to tissue engineering, has not been obtained. Here, Helium Ion Microscopy is used to examine uncoated polymer foams and some very strong but unexpected contrast is observed, the origin of which is established here. Based on this analysis, a method for the measurement of wall thickness variations and wall roughness measurements has been developed, based on the modeling of Helium ion transmission. The results presented here indicate that within the walls of the void structure there exist small features with height variations of ∼30 nm and wall thickness variations from ∼100 nm to larger 340 nm in regions surrounding interconnecting windows within the structure. The suggested imaging method is applicable to other porous carbon based structures with wall thicknesses in the range of 40–340 nm. - Highlights: • The first helium ion microscopy image of uncoated structures formed from HIPEs is presented. • Unusually high contrast features that change with accelerating voltage are observed. • The origin of the observed contrast is determined to be mass thickness contrast. • A new method for quantitative wall thickness variation/roughness measurements is demonstrated.

  6. Effect of substrates and thickness on optical properties in atomic layer deposition grown ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dipayan; Singhal, Jaya; Mathur, Aakash; Singh, Ajaib; Dutta, Surjendu; Zollner, Stefan; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-11-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition technique was used to grow high quality, very low roughness, crystalline, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon (Si) and fused quartz (SiO2) substrates to study the optical properties. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results of ZnO/Si system, staggered type-II quantum well, demonstrate that there is a significant drop in the magnitudes of both the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constants and in near-band gap absorption along with a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing film thickness at and below ∼20 nm. Conversely, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of ZnO/SiO2, thin type-I quantum well, consisting of a narrower-band gap semiconductor grown on a wider-band gap (insulator) substrate, shows the similar thickness dependent blue-shift of the absorption edge but with an increase in the magnitude of near-band gap absorption with decreasing film thickness. Thickness dependent blue shift, energy vs. 1/d2, in two different systems, ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2, show a difference in their slopes. The observed phenomena can be consistently explained by the corresponding exciton (or carrier/s) deconfinement and confinement effects at the ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2 interface respectively, where Tanguy-Elliott amplitude pre-factor plays the key role through the electron-hole overlap factor at the interface.

  7. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y., E-mail: youngok@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Xu, J. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w{sub Bi}) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ{sub F} = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L{sub ϕ}) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w{sub Bi} and t smaller than λ{sub F} showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L{sub ϕ}(T) exceed w{sub Bi} or t.

  8. Investigation on the dominant key to achieve superior Ge surface passivation by GeOx based on the ozone oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xiang, Jinjuan; Wang, Wenwu; Xiong, Yuhua; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dominant key to achieve superior Ge passivation by GeO x is investigated. • The interface state density decreases with increasing the GeO x thickness. • The Ge 3+ oxide component is the dominant key to passivate the Ge surface. • The atomic structure at the GeO x /Ge interface is built by XPS. - Abstract: The dominant key to achieve superior Ge surface passivation by GeO x interfacial layer is investigated based on ozone oxidation. The interface state density (D it ) measured from low temperature conduction method is found to decrease with increasing the GeO x thickness (0.26–1.06 nm). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is employed to demonstrate the interfacial structure of GeO x /Ge with different GeO x thicknesses. And the XPS results show that Ge 3+ oxide component is responsible to the decrease of the D it due to the effective passivation of Ge dangling bonds. Therefore, the formation of Ge 3+ component is the dominant key to achieve low D it for Ge gate stacks. Our work confirms that the same physical mechanism determines the Ge surface passivation by the GeO x regardless of the oxidation methods to grow the GeO x interfacial layer. As a result, to explore a growth process that can realize sufficient Ge 3+ component in the GeO x interlayer as thin as possible is important to achieve both equivalent oxide thickness scaling and superior interfacial property simultaneously. This conclusion is helpful to engineer the optimization of the Ge gate stacks.

  9. Thickness dependence of electrical properties in (0 0 1) oriented lead zirconate titanate films by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.J.; Lu, L.; Lai, M.O.; Soh, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Highly (0 0 1)-oriented Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films with LaNiO 3 (LNO) bottom electrodes have been fabricated on amorphous TiN buffered Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis of the deposited PZT films with different thickness ranging from 25 to 850 nm was measured. Results showed that the coercive field increases with the film thickness scaling down. No P-E loops could be obtained for the film of thickness of 25 nm. The deterioration of ferroelectric property in the thinnest film was attributed to extrinsic effect other than intrinsic size effect. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measurement showed the increase in leakage current of the PZT films with the decrease in the thickness of the films under the same bias voltage. At a high field regime, the leakage current of the PZT films of 25 nm thickness remained unchanged with increasing applied voltage. A totally depleted back-to-back Shottky barrier model was used to explain the effect of electrode interfaces on leakage current in the PZT films. It is believed that ferroelectric/electrode interfaces play an important role in the electrical properties of ferroelectric thin films with thickness at nanometer level

  10. Nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method for low temperature fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/Si and SiO{sub 2}/SiC structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H., E-mail: koba771@ybb.ne.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Imamura, K.; Kim, W.-B.; Im, S.-S.; Asuha [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed low temperature formation methods of SiO{sub 2}/Si and SiO{sub 2}/SiC structures by use of nitric acid, i.e., nitric acid oxidation of Si (or SiC) (NAOS) methods. By use of the azeotropic NAOS method (i.e., immersion in 68 wt% HNO{sub 3} aqueous solutions at 120 deg. C), an ultrathin (i.e., 1.3-1.4 nm) SiO{sub 2} layer with a low leakage current density can be formed on Si. The leakage current density can be further decreased by post-metallization anneal (PMA) at 200 deg. C in hydrogen atmosphere, and consequently the leakage current density at the gate bias voltage of 1 V becomes 1/4-1/20 of that of an ultrathin (i.e., 1.5 nm) thermal oxide layer usually formed at temperatures between 800 and 900 deg. C. The low leakage current density is attributable to (i) low interface state density, (ii) low SiO{sub 2} gap-state density, and (iii) high band discontinuity energy at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface arising from the high atomic density of the NAOS SiO{sub 2} layer. For the formation of a relatively thick (i.e., {>=}10 nm) SiO{sub 2} layer, we have developed the two-step NAOS method in which the initial and subsequent oxidation is performed by immersion in {approx}40 wt% HNO{sub 3} and azeotropic HNO{sub 3} aqueous solutions, respectively. In this case, the SiO{sub 2} formation rate does not depend on the Si surface orientation. Using the two-step NAOS method, a uniform thickness SiO{sub 2} layer can be formed even on the rough surface of poly-crystalline Si thin films. The atomic density of the two-step NAOS SiO{sub 2} layer is slightly higher than that for thermal oxide. When PMA at 250 deg. C in hydrogen is performed on the two-step NAOS SiO{sub 2} layer, the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics become as good as those for thermal oxide formed at 900 deg. C. A relatively thick (i.e., {>=}10 nm) SiO{sub 2} layer can also be formed on SiC at 120 deg. C by use of the two-step NAOS method. With no treatment before the NAOS method

  11. Solid-state Water-mediated Transport Reduction of Nanostructured Iron Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Vladimir M.; Povarov, Vladimir G.; Voronkov, Gennadii P.; Semenov, Valentin G.; Murin, Igor' V.; Gittsovich, Viktor N.; Sinel'nikov, Boris M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio in two-dimensional iron oxide nanosructures (nanolayers with a thickness of 0.3-1.5 nm on silica surface) may be precisely controlled using the transport reduction (TR) technique. The species ≡-O-Fe(OH) 2 and (≡Si-O-) 2 -FeOH forming the surface monolayer are not reduced at 400-600 deg. C because of their covalent bonding to the silica surface, as demonstrated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Iron oxide microparticles (microstructures) obtained by the impregnation technique, being chemically unbound to silica, are subjected to reduction at T ≥ 500 deg. C with formation of metallic iron in the form of α-Fe. Transport reduction of supported nanostructures (consisting of 1 or 4 monolayers) at T ≥ 600 deg. C produces bulk iron(II) silicate and metallic iron phases. The structural-chemical transformations occurring in transport reduction of supported iron oxide nanolayers are proved to be governed by specific phase processes in the nanostructures themselves

  12. CMOS-NEMS Copper Switches Monolithically Integrated Using a 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Muñoz-Gamarra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility to obtain copper nanoelectromechanical (NEMS relays using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology (ST 65 nm following an intra CMOS-MEMS approach. We report experimental demonstration of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtaining low operating voltage (5.5 V, good ION/IOFF (103 ratio, abrupt subthreshold swing (4.3 mV/decade and minimum dimensions (3.50 μm × 100 nm × 180 nm, and gap of 100 nm. With these dimensions, the operable Cell area of the switch will be 3.5 μm (length × 0.2 μm (100 nm width + 100 nm gap = 0.7 μm2 which is the smallest reported one using a top-down fabrication approach.

  13. Use of water vapor for suppressing the growth of unstable low-{kappa} interlayer in HfTiO gate-dielectric Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with sub-nanometer capacitance equivalent thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.P. [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Zou, X. [School of Electromachine and Architecture Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430056 (China); Lai, P.T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)], E-mail: laip@eee.hku.hk; Li, C.X.; Chan, C.L. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2009-03-02

    Annealing of high-permittivity HfTiO gate dielectric on Ge substrate in different gases (N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, NO and N{sub 2}O) with or without water vapor is investigated. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy indicates that the four wet anneals can greatly suppress the growth of a GeO{sub x} interlayer at the dielectric/Ge interface, and thus decrease interface states, oxide charges and gate leakage current. Moreover, compared with the wet N{sub 2} anneal, the wet NH{sub 3}, NO and N{sub 2}O anneals decrease the equivalent permittivity of the gate dielectric due to the growth of a GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interlayer. Among the eight anneals, the wet N{sub 2} anneal produces the best dielectric performance with an equivalent relative permittivity of 35, capacitance equivalent thickness of 0.81 nm, interface-state density of 6.4 x 10{sup 11} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and gate leakage current of 2.7 x 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2} at V{sub g} = 1 V.

  14. The photovoltaic efficiency of the fabrication of copolymer P3HT:PCBM on different thickness nano-anatase titania as solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazim, Haidar Gazy; Ajeel, Khalid I.; Badran, Hussain A.

    2015-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) with an inverted structure have been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) as their electron transport layer, which was prepared on the indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO-glass), silicon wafer and glass substrates by sol-gel method at different spin speed by using spin-coating (1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm) for nano-thin film 58, 75 and 90 nm respectively. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and optical properties of TiO2 layer were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The optical band gap of the films has been found to be in the range 3.63-3.96 eV for allowed direct transition and to be in the range 3.23-3.69 eV for forbidden direct transition to the different TiO2 thickness. The samples were examined to feature current and voltages darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell where they were getting the highest open-circuit voltage, Voc, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39% fabricated with 90 nm respectively.

  15. Comparative study on the deposition of silicon oxide permeation barrier coatings for polymers using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschker, F.; Schücke, L.; Hoppe, Ch; Jaritz, M.; Dahlmann, R.; de los Arcos, T.; Hopmann, Ch; Grundmeier, G.; Awakowicz, P.

    2018-06-01

    The effect of the selection of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) as a precursor in a microwave driven low pressure plasma on the deposition of silicon oxide barrier coatings and silicon based organic interlayers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) substrates is investigated. Mass spectrometry is used to quantify the absolute gas density and the degree of depletion of neutral precursor molecules under variation of oxygen admixture. On average, HMDSN shows a smaller density, a higher depletion and the production of smaller fragments. Subsequently, this is correlated with barrier performance and chemical structure as a function of barrier layer thickness and oxygen admixture on PET. For this purpose, the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) is measured and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is performed. HMDSN based coatings exhibit significantly higher barrier performances for high admixtures of oxygen (200 sccm). In comparison to HMDSO based processes, however, a higher supply of oxygen is necessary to achieve a sufficient degree of oxidation, cross-linking and, therefore, barrier performance. FTIR and XPS reveal a distinct carbon content for low oxygen admixtures (10 and 20 sccm) in case of HMDSN based coatings. The variation of interlayer thickness also reveals significantly higher OTR for HMDSO based coatings on PET and PP. Barrier performance of HMDSO based coatings improves with increasing interlayer thickness up to 10 nm for PET and PP. HMDSN based coatings exhibit a minimum of OTR without interlayer on PP and for 2 nm interlayer thickness on PET. Furthermore, HMDSN based coatings show distinctly higher bond strengths to the PP substrate.

  16. Influence of substrate and film thickness on polymer LIPSS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jing; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rebollar, Esther, E-mail: e.rebollar@csic.es [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR-CSIC), Serrano 119, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The estimation of temperature upon pulse accumulation shows that a small positive offset is caused by each individual pulse. • Number of pulses needed for LIPSS formation in PS thin films depends on polymer thickness. • Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of supporting substrate influence the onset for LIPSS formation and their quality. • Quality of LIPSS is affected by the substrate optical properties. - Abstract: Here we focus on the influence of both, substrate and film thickness on polymer Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) formation in polymer films. For this aim a morphological description of ripples structures generated on spin-coated polystyrene (PS) films by a linearly polarized laser beam with a wavelength of 266 nm is presented. The influence of different parameters on the quality and characteristics of the formed laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was investigated. We found that well-ordered LIPSS are formed either on PS films thinner than 200 nm or thicker than 400 nm supported on silicon substrates as well as on thicker free standing films. However less-ordered ripples are formed on silicon supported films with intermediate thicknesses in the range of 200–380 nm. The effect of the thermal and optical properties of the substrate on the quality of LIPSS was analyzed. Differences observed in the fluence and number of pulses needed for the onset of surface morphological modifications is explained considering two main effects which are: (1) The temperature increase on polymer surface induced by the action of cumulative laser irradiation and (2) The differences in thermal conductivity between the polymer and the substrate which strongly affect the heat dissipation generated by irradiation.

  17. The effect of capped layer thickness on switching behavior in perpendicular CoCrPt based coupled granular/continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.M.; Lim, W.K.; Shi, J.Z.; Ding, J.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic investigation of magnetic switching behavior of CoCrPt based capped media (perpendicularly coupled granular/continuous (CGC) media consisting of granular CoCrPt:SiO 2 TiO 2 Ta 2 O 5 /capped CoCrPt(B)) is performed by varying the thickness of the capped layer from 0 to 9 nm. The microscopic structures of CGC media with different thickness of capped layer are examined by transmission electron microscope. We find out that CoCrPt magnetic grains are separated by nonmagnetic oxide grain boundaries. Grain size and grain boundary are about 8.9 nm and 2 nm, respectively. The nonmagnetic oxide grain boundaries in the granular layer do not disappear immediately at the interface between the granular and capped layers. The amorphous grain boundary phase in the granular layer propagates to the top surface of the capped layer. After capping with the CoCrPt(B) layer, the grain size at the surface of CGC structure increases and the grain boundary decreases. Both coercivity and intergranular exchange coupling of the CGC media are investigated by Polar magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometer and alternating gradient force magnetometer. Although H c apparently decreases at thicker capped layer, no obvious variation of macroscopic switching field distribution (SFD/H c ) is observed. We separate intrinsic switching field distribution from intergranular interactions. The investigation of reduced intrinsic SFD/H c and increased hysteresis loop slope at coercivity, suggests that improvement of absolute switching field distribution (SFD) is caused by both strong intergranular exchange coupling and uniform grain size. Micromagnetic simulation results further verify our conclusion that the capped layer in CGC media is not uniformly continuous but has some granular nature. However, grains in the CoCrPt(B) capped layer is not absolutely isolated, strong exchange coupling exists between grains. - Highlights: • In CGC media, CoCrPt magnetic grains are separated by nonmagnetic oxide

  18. Thick CoFeB with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Naik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of an ultra-thin Ta insertion in the CoFeB (CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB free layer (FL on magnetic and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR properties of a CoFeB-MgO system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. It is found that the critical thickness (tc to sustain PMA is doubled (tc = 2.6 nm in Ta-inserted CoFeB FL as compared to single CoFeB layer (tc = 1.3 nm. While the effective magnetic anisotropy is found to increase with Ta insertion, the saturation magnetization showed a slight reduction. As the CoFeB thickness increasing, the thermal stability of Ta inserted structure is significantly increased by a factor of 2.5 for total CoFeB thickness less than 2 nm. We have observed a reasonable value of TMR for a much thicker CoFeB FL (thickness = 2-2.6 nm with Ta insertion, and without significant increment in resistance-area product. Our results reveal that an ultra-thin Ta insertion in CoFeB might pay the way towards developing the high-density memory devices with enhanced thermal stability.

  19. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  20. Crosslinking and photoreaction of ozone-oxidized calf-lens alpha-crystallin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, E.

    1982-01-01

    Direct-photo-oxidation, singlet oxygen-oxidation, or photosensitized oxidation can modify lens crystallins, causing an increase in blue fluorescence and covalent crosslinking. A relationship between these changes has not been elucidated. We now report results from experiments with ozone oxidation. When calf-lens alpha-crystallin is treated with zone oxidation. When calf-lens alpha-crystallin is treated with ozone, new absorption, fluorescence, and phosphorescence, which are characteristic of the oxidized product of tryptophan (N-formylkynurenine), appear at 320, 435, and 445 nm, respectively. In addition, in this ozonization of alpha-crystallin, its polypeptides are crosslinked by nondisulfide bonds. Irradiation of ozone-treated alpha-crystallin with near-ultraviolet (365 nm) light increases crosslinking and reduces the 320 nm absorbance with a concomitant appearance of a new absorption at about 420 nm. This photoproduct exhibits an intense fluorescence around 450 nm and a weak phosphorescence at 510 nm, with excitation peaks at 400, 415, and 422 nm. These findings are essentially the same as those observed in photo-oxidized alpha-crystallin, suggesting the involvement of the same tryptophan oxidized product in the modification of the lens protein

  1. Development of topologically structured membranes of aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, A.; Videkov, V.; Tzaneva, B.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, nanomembranes have become one of the most widely used construction material for ultrasensitive and ultrathin applications in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and other sensor structures due to their remarkable mechanical properties. Among these, the mechanical stability is of particular importance. We present an approach to the analysis of the stability of nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide free membranes subjected to mechanical bending. The membranes tested were with a thickness of 500 nm to 15 urn in various topological shapes; we describe the technological schemes of their preparation. Bends were applied to membranes prepared by using a selective process of etching and anodizing. The results of the preparation of the membranes are discussed, together with the influence of the angle of deflection, and the number of bendings. The results obtained can be used in designing MEMS structures and sensors which use nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide.

  2. Development of topologically structured membranes of aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankova, A; Videkov, V; Tzaneva, B

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, nanomembranes have become one of the most widely used construction material for ultrasensitive and ultrathin applications in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and other sensor structures due to their remarkable mechanical properties. Among these, the mechanical stability is of particular importance. We present an approach to the analysis of the stability of nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide free membranes subjected to mechanical bending. The membranes tested were with a thickness of 500 nm to 15 urn in various topological shapes; we describe the technological schemes of their preparation. Bends were applied to membranes prepared by using a selective process of etching and anodizing. The results of the preparation of the membranes are discussed, together with the influence of the angle of deflection, and the number of bendings. The results obtained can be used in designing MEMS structures and sensors which use nanostructured anodic aluminum oxide.

  3. Influence of film thickness on structural, optical, and electrical properties of spray deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhijit A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-30

    Transparent conducting antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films with varying thickness were deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique from non-aqueous solvent Propan-2-ol. The effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements showed tetragonal crystal structure of as-deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} films irrespective of film thickness. The surface morphology of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin film is spherical with the continuous distribution of grains. Electrical and optical properties were investigated by Hall Effect and optical measurements. The average optical transmittance of films decreased from 89% to 73% within the visible range (350–850 nm) with increase in film thickness. The minimum value of sheet resistance observed is 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2}. The lowest resistivity found is 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness. - Highlights: • Effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films • Crystalline size in the range of 34–37 nm • Average transmittance decreased from 89% to 73% in the visible region. • Minimum sheet resistance of 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2} • Lowest resistivity is found to be 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness.

  4. Thickness-dependent surface plasmon resonance of ITO nanoparticles for ITO/In-Sn bilayer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenzuo; Hong, Ruijin; Jing, Ming; Shao, Wen; Tao, Chunxian; Zhang, Dawei

    2018-01-05

    Tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in doped semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs), which represents an important characteristic in LSPR sensor applications, still remains a challenge. Here, indium tin oxide/indium tin alloy (ITO/In-Sn) bilayer films were deposited by electron beam evaporation and the properties, such as the LSPR and surface morphology, were investigated by UV-VIS-NIR double beam spectrophotometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. By simply engineering the thickness of ITO/In-Sn NPs without any microstructure fabrications, the LSPR wavelength of ITO NPs can be tuned by a large amount from 858 to 1758 nm. AFM images show that the strong LSPR of ITO NPs is closely related to the enhanced coupling between ITO and In-Sn NPs. Blue shifts of ITO LSPR from 1256 to 1104 nm are also observed in the as-annealed samples due to the higher free carrier concentration. Meanwhile, we also demonstrated that the ITO LSPR in ITO/In-Sn NPs structures has good sensitivity to the surrounding media and stability after 30 d exposure in air, enabling its application prospects in many biosensing devices.

  5. Development of a novel gas sensor based on oxide thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshak, K.; Gaidan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc and iron oxide thick film gas sensors were fabricated using screen-printing technology on glass substrates that had silver interdigitated electrodes. The sensor was used to detect methanol, ethanol and propanol with a concentration range of 0-8000 ppm. Using the formula to calculate a change in resistance, ΔR = R gas - R air, resistance was seen to increase linearly alongside increasing concentrations of the gas vapours. The sensor showed the highest sensitivity to propanol followed by ethanol and methanol when the operating temperature was 25 deg. C. The sensitivities (slope of graphs) of methanol, ethanol and propanol changed from 0.07, 0.5, and 3.54 to 0.075, 0.115, and 0.5 Ω/ppm when the operating temperature was increased from 25 to 50 deg. C. The response/recovery times of the sensor for 4000 ppm at room temperature were, 10/10, 15/20 and 40/70 s for methanol, ethanol and propanol, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine the final composition of the film, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the final composition of grain size. The final composition has two phases: ZnO and ZnFe 2 O 4

  6. Effect of cerium doping on the electrical properties of ultrathin indium tin oxide films for application in touch sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Saewon; Cho, Sanghyun; Song, Pungkeun

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and microstructure properties of cerium doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) ultrathin films were evaluated to assess their potential application in touch sensors. 10 to 150-nm ITO and ITO:Ce films were deposited on glass substrates (200 °C) by DC magnetron sputtering using different ITO targets (doped with CeO 2 : 0, 1, 3, 5 wt.%). ITO:Ce (doped with CeO 2 : 3 wt.%) films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. This lower resistivity was accompanied by a significant increase in the Hall mobility despite a decrease in crystallinity. In addition, the surface morphology and wetting properties improved with increasing Ce concentration. This is related to an earlier transition from an island structure to continuous film formation caused by an increase in the initial nucleation density. - Highlights: • 10 to 150-nm InSnO 2 (ITO) and ITO:Ce thin films were deposited by sputtering. • ITO:Ce films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. • Hall mobility was strongly affected by initial film formation. • Surface morphology and wetting property improved with increasing Ce concentration. • Such behavior is related to an earlier transition to continuous film formation

  7. TEMPO functionalized C60 fullerene deposited on gold surface for catalytic oxidation of selected alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Piotr; Pawłowska, Joanna; Sadło, Jarosław Grzegorz; Bilewicz, Renata; Kaim, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    C 60 TEMPO 10 catalytic system linked to a microspherical gold support through a covalent S-Au bond was developed. The C 60 TEMPO 10 @Au composite catalyst had a particle size of 0.5–0.8 μm and was covered with the fullerenes derivative of 2.3 nm diameter bearing ten nitroxyl groups; the organic film showed up to 50 nm thickness. The catalytic composite allowed for the oxidation under mild conditions of various primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehyde and ketone analogues with efficiencies as high as 79–98%, thus giving values typical for homogeneous catalysis, while retaining at the same time all the advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, e.g., easy separation by filtration from the reaction mixture. The catalytic activity of the resulting system was studied by means of high pressure liquid chromatography. A redox mechanism was proposed for the process. In the catalytic cycle of the oxidation process, the TEMPO moiety was continuously regenerated in situ with an applied primary oxidant, for example, O 2 /Fe 3+ system. The new intermediate composite components and the final catalyst were characterized by various spectroscopic methods and thermogravimetry.

  8. Study of TEC, slab-thickness and neutral temperature of the thermosphere in the Indian low latitude sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkatesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric equivalent slab-thickness is an important parameter which measures the skewness of the electron density profile of the ionosphere. In this paper, the diurnal, seasonal, day-to-day and latitudinal variations of ionospheric parameters namely total electron content (TEC, the peak ionization density of F-layer (NmF2, equivalent slab-thickness (τ and neutral temperature (Tn are presented. The simultaneous data of GPS-TEC and NmF2 from Trivandrum (8.47° N, 76.91° E, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E and Delhi (28.58° N, 77.21° E are used to compute the slab-thickness (τ = TEC/NmF2 of the low sunspot period, 2004–2005. The day-time TEC values at Waltair are found to be greater than those at Trivandrum, while at Delhi the day-time TEC values are much lower compared to those at Trivandrum and Waltair. The trends of variation in the monthly mean diurnal variation of TEC and NmF2 are similar at Delhi, while they are different at Trivandrum and Waltair during the day-time. The slab-thickness (τ has shown a pre-sunrise peak around 05:00 LT at all the three stations, except during the summer months over Delhi. A consistent secondary peak in slab-thickness around noon hours has also been observed at Trivandrum and Waltair. During equinox and winter months a large night-time enhancement in the slab-thickness (comparable to the early morning peak in slab-thickness is observed at Delhi. The latitudinal variation of slab-thickness has shown a decrease from the equatorial station, Trivandrum to the low-mid latitude station, Delhi. The neutral temperatures (Tn computed from the slab-thickness (τ has shown a sharp increase around 05:00 LT over Trivandrum and Waltair. Whereas at Delhi, a double peaking around 05:00 and 23:00 LT is observed during winter and equinoctial months. The neutral temperatures computed are compare well with those of the MSIS-90 model derived temperatures.