WorldWideScience

Sample records for nm gri meeting

  1. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  2. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  3. Quo vadis GRI? A (critical) assessment of GRI 3.1 A+ non-financial reports and implications for credibility and standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Knebel Sebastian; Seele Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of non financial reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) 3.1 A+ standard. By examining the comprehensiveness of the GRI performance in corporate non financial reports classified as A+ the authors challenge the external assurance system imposed by GRI 3.1 A+ and discuss future directions for the application of GRI 4.0 particularly with regard to the standardized corporate reporting software language XBRL. Des...

  4. Avances en la exposición contable de CoPs y memorias GRI = Advances in CoPs and GRI reports as accounting statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Fernández Lorenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente para lograr un desarrollo sustentable, la sociedad requiere que las organizaciones asuman su responsabilidad socio-ambiental y emitan información acerca de los impactos que su actividad genera en el medioambiente.Dicha información mayormente se presenta a través de las denominadas Memorias o Reportes de Sostenibilidad, que responden a distintas formas y contenidos. Cada vez son más los informes que se elaboran siguiendo los lineamientos del Pacto Mundial (PM y del Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.Consideramos que la información sobre la responsabilidad socio-ambiental debería reunir los requisitos que hacen a toda buena información contable, para incrementar su utilidad.Para comprobarlo, se realiza un estudio de casos a los fines de determinar las características generales de estos informes elaborados bajo pautas del PM y del GRI conjuntamente, concluyendo que la información presentada en las memorias analizadas no reúne los requisitos de una buena información contable.A fin de que la exposición de las CoPs y memorias de sostenibilidad GRI, pueda calificarse de contable, se expresan sintéticamente los indicadores analizados agregando su relación porcentual y se incorporan al Estado Contable Socio-ambiental realizado de acuerdo al modelo base de la FCE-UNLP, considerado como un estado contable (Fernández Lorenzo y Geba, 2008.Nowadays in order to achieve sustainable development, organizations are required to take on their social and environmental responsibility and give information about the impact of their activities in the environment.This information is usually presented through sustainability reports, which widely differ in content and layout. Many organizations worldwide have assumed their responsibility by implementing Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and United Nations Global Compact (GC guidelines.We consider that the information regarding socio-environmental responsibility, should meet the characteristics of the

  5. The outlook for natural gas markets in the GRI baseline projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Research Institute is an independent, not-for-profit organization that plans, manages, and develops financing for a cooperative research and development program for the mutual benefit of the natural gas industry and its customers. The research program consists of over 500 active research projects in natural gas supply and end use, and in gas industry operations, as well as related basic research. This paper summarizes the U.S. natural gas demand and supply outlook projected in a preliminary version of the 191 edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. The projection used for this paper is from an early run of the GRI modeling structure. As such, it is subject to substantial revision before the Baseline Projection is finalized. The paper presents a projection of natural gas demand in the major end-use sectors and the slate of supply sources expected to meet that demand over the period from 1989 to 2010

  6. Nível de disclosure nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o Global Reporting Initiative (GRI = Level of disclosure in sustainability reports in compliance with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Di Domenico

    2017-12-01

    presented in the sustainability reports, it reduces the level of disclosure by companies. Regarding the level of disclosure, it is noticed that the largest group of companies is concentrated with low disclosure, representing around 30% of the analyzed companies, attending up to 50 items out of the 150 that the report proposes. As for the economic sector, public utility presented a higher level of disclosure in sustainability reports in compliance with the GRI model. It is concluded that, although there has been an increase in the dissemination of sustainability reports, companies still need adaptation to meet the GRI indicators, improving the quality of the reports disseminated and increasing the transparency of the various stakeholders.

  7. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; von Ballmoos, Peter; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2009-03-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ˜10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10 - 7 ph cm - 2s - 1keV - 1 for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 × 10 - 6 ph cm - 2s - 1 for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin—an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector will be placed on two separate spacecrafts flying in formation in a high elliptical orbit. R&D work to enable the lens focusing technology and to develop the required focal plane detector is currently underway, financed by ASI, CNES, ESA, and the Spanish Ministery of Education and Science. The GRI mission has been proposed as class M mission for ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. GRI will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the universe.

  8. Current results of coal gasification materials research at GRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included

  9. GRI proposes to hold the line on research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Gas Research Institute has proposed a 1993 US research and development program totaling $201.8 million, the same level as the 1991 but down from $212.9 million this year. GRI filed the 1993 proposal and its 1993-97 R and D plan with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. If FERC approves the plan, interstate gas pipeline companies would support the GRI research by collecting a surcharge of 1.51 cents/Mcf on nondiscounted gas transactions and 8 cents/Mcf/month on uniform demand or reservations. The proposed budget is based on a revised funding mechanism FERC is considering for GRI. The research agency's general expanses and capital budget would remain at the 1992 level of $9.8 million

  10. Framework for successfully implementing an inaugural GRI reporting process

    OpenAIRE

    Dudik, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Project submitted as partial requirement for the conferral of Master in International Management This thesis is a corporate project analyzing the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reporting process. Its main objective is to propose a practical framework to guide organizations that plan to engage in first-time voluntary sustainability reporting using GRI’s Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. The thesis provides insight into the exact tasks involved in each stage of the GRI repo...

  11. Arabidopsis GRI is involved in the regulation of cell death induced by extracellular ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzaczek, Michael; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2009-03-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important functions in plant stress responses and development. In plants, ozone and pathogen infection induce an extracellular oxidative burst that is involved in the regulation of cell death. However, very little is known about how plants can perceive ROS and regulate the initiation and the containment of cell death. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana protein, GRIM REAPER (GRI), that is involved in the regulation of cell death induced by extracellular ROS. Plants with an insertion in GRI display an ozone-sensitive phenotype. GRI is an Arabidopsis ortholog of the tobacco flower-specific Stig1 gene. The GRI protein appears to be processed in leaves with a release of an N-terminal fragment of the protein. Infiltration of the N-terminal fragment of the GRI protein into leaves caused cell death in a superoxide- and salicylic acid-dependent manner. Analysis of the extracellular GRI protein yields information on how plants can initiate ROS-induced cell death during stress response and development.

  12. Analysis of GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, D.M.; Singh, J.; Pine, G.D.; Kline, D.; Barron, M.; Cheung, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model using the four scenarios defined for the Energy Modeling Forum Number 9 (EMF-9) described in EMF-9 Working Paper 9.4 (1987). The analysis is designed both to showcase the GRI North American Regional model as well as to infer meaningful results about the North American natural gas system. The focus of the analysis is not R ampersand D per se; R ampersand D analysis using the model is conducted regularly by GRI and described elsewhere. Rather, the objective is to analyze some of the major uncertainties in the North American gas market, uncertainties that potentially affect all players including GRI. In particular, the authors seek to quantify the overall economic environment in which production, transmission, distribution, consumption, and R ampersand D decisions will be made and how different that overall environment might be under alternative assumptions. An attendant objective of this analysis has been to enlist economists from a range of organizations (producers, regulators, GRI, and consultants) to carefully scrutinize the GRI North American Regional model and results. In particular, the coauthors were assembled from diverse organizations to review and evaluate model outputs, applying their particular experience and perspective. The four EMF-9 scenarios upon which this paper is based are described in detail later in this document. Briefly, scenario one represents a world with a surfeit of gas and a relatively high oil price projection; scenario two considers a lower oil price forecast; scenario three assumes a pessimistic outlook for the gas resource base with the same oil prices as scenario one; and scenario four examines a higher level of demand for gas in the North American gas market. An important objective of this analysis is to illustrate the predictive power of multi-scenario comparisons (as contrasted with detailed analysis of any individual scenario)

  13. Gri Suyun Arıtımı ve Yeniden Kullanımı

    OpenAIRE

    ÜSTÜN, Gökhan; TIRPANCI, Ayşenur

    2015-01-01

    Çalışmanın amacı, gri su arıtımının ve yeniden kullanılması konusunun incelenmesidir. Bu amaç için daha önce yapılmış literatür çalışmaları araştırılıp, yorumlanmıştır. Çalışmanın ilk aşamasında gri suyun tanımlanması ile fiziksel, kimyasal ve biyolojik karakteristiği açıklanmıştır. İkinci kısmında, gri suyun arıtım yöntemleri ve yeniden kullanımı incelenmiştir. Üçüncü kısımda gri suların arıtımında kullanılan teknolojiler tek tek açıklanmıştır. Son olarak gri su arıtımı ve yeniden kullanımı ...

  14. GRI's Devonian Shales Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, F.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the key observations and conclusions from the Gas Research Institute's (GRI's) Comprehensive Study Well (CSW) research program conducted in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin. Initiated in 1987, the CSW program was a series of highly instrumented study wells drilled in cooperation with industry partners. Seven wells were drilled as part of the program. Extensive data sets were collected and special experiments were run on the CSW's in addition to the operator's normal operations, with the objectives of identifying geologic production controls, refining formation evaluation tools, and improving reservoir description and stimulation practices in the Devonian Shales. This paper highlights the key results from the research conducted in the CSW program in the areas of geologic production controls, formation evaluation, stimulation and reservoir engineering, and field operations. The development of geologic, log analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analyzed during the research is discussed. In addition, on the basis of what was learned in the CSW program, GRI's plans for new research in the Devonian Shales are described

  15. Analysis on the Compliance with GRI Guidelines and the Information Disclosed by Japanese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Naoko; Irie, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract] Japanese companies do not comply with the Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI)'s Sustainability Guidelines as much as other developed countries, and their compliance levels are lower among developed countries. This study overviewed the characteristics of Japanese GRI compliance and analysed 15 Japanese listed companies on the information of their corporate sustainability reports in which they comply with the GRI version 3.1 Guidelines. The possible correlation between GRI compliance ...

  16. Benefits of GRI R and D products placed in commercial use through early 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowski, L.P.; Pine, G.D.; Rinholm, R.C.

    1992-02-01

    From GRI's inception in 1978 through early 1991, 170 GRI-sponsored research and development (R and D) products have been placed into commercial service. Twenty-four of these products were introduced between April 1990 and March 1991. Benefits have been quantified for 87 of the 170 items, and the calculated ratio of the benefits to gas customers to total GRI costs incurred through the end of 1990 is 4.9 to 1. The calculated internal rate of return to gas customers on their investment in GRI to date is 21.5 percent. When only the costs of completed, terminated, or deferred R and D are included, the benefit-to-cost ratio rises to 7.9 to 1, and the gas customer return on investment rises to 25 percent. The 4.9 to 1 benefit-to-cost ratio is greater than the ratio calculated in May 1990, primarily because of the quantification for the first time of the benefits of two groups of GRI information items: (1) items supporting the use of plastic pipe for gas distribution, and (2) items leading to a better understanding of mid-efficiency gas furnaces and their venting systems

  17. A-Factor and Phosphate Depletion Signals Are Transmitted to the Grixazone Biosynthesis Genes via the Pathway-Specific Transcriptional Activator GriR▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Higashi, Tatsuichiro; Iwasaki, Yuko; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2007-01-01

    Grixazone (GX), which is a diffusible yellow pigment containing a phenoxazinone chromophore, is one of the secondary metabolites under the control of A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone) in Streptomyces griseus. GX production is also induced by phosphate starvation. The whole biosynthesis gene cluster for GX was cloned and characterized. The gene cluster consisting of 13 genes contained six transcriptional units, griT, griSR, griR, griAB, griCDEFG, and griJIH. During cul...

  18. Application of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) in the sustainability reporting of financial services

    OpenAIRE

    MONTE, TOMAS

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability reporting refers to the process in which an organization gives an account of issues related to corporate sustainability over a particular reporting period. The report is meant for both internal and external use. Sustainability reporting gives information about the organization’s interactions with its social and ecological environment. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has pioneered the development of the world’s most widely used sustainability reporting framework. GRI Repor...

  19. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knodlseder, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Frontera, F.

    2009-01-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reach...... processes in the universe....

  20. A Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) for drought monitoring and forecasting in a mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, Giuseppe; Senatore, Alfonso; Versace, Pasquale

    2008-08-01

    SummaryDrought indices are essential elements of an efficient drought watching system, aimed at providing a concise overall picture of drought conditions. Owing to its simplicity, time-flexibility and standardization, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has become a very widely used meteorological index, even if it is not able to account for effects of aquifers, soil, land use characteristics, canopy growth and temperature anomalies. Many other drought indices have been developed over the years, with monitoring and forecasting purposes, also with the purpose of taking advantage of the opportunities offered by remote sensing and improved general circulation models (GCMs). Moreover, some aggregated indices aimed at capturing the different features of drought have been proposed, but very few drought indices are focused on the groundwater resource status. In this paper a novel Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) is presented as a reliable tool useful in a multi-analysis approach for monitoring and forecasting drought conditions. The GRI is derived from a simple distributed water balance model, and has been tested in a Mediterranean region, characterized by different geo-lithological conditions mainly affecting the summer hydrologic response of the catchments to winter precipitation. The analysis of the GRI characteristics shows a high spatial variability and, compared to the SPI through spectral analysis, a significant sensitivity to the lithological characterization of the analyzed region. Furthermore, the GRI shows a very high auto-correlation during summer months, useful for forecasting purposes. The capability of the proposed index in forecasting summer droughts was tested analyzing the correlation of the GRI April values with the mean summer runoff values of some river basins (obtaining a mean correlation value of 0.60) and with the summer NDVI values of several forested areas, where correlation values greater than 0.77 were achieved. Moreover, its performance

  1. Ülemiste City maastikukujundus / Ülle Grišakov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grišakov, Ülle, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Esimene Tallinna erapark, ainulaadne projekt, mis kombineerib vana industriaalarhitektuuri uute hoonetega ning linnamaastiku värskete lahendustega. Säilitatud on kõrghaljastus. Projekti autorid on Olga Borisik, Triin Järve ja Ülle Grišakov OÜ Kivisilla, 2005

  2. Aspectos negativos no modelo de reporte proposto pela GRI: a opinião das organizações que reportam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira-Quilice

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar aspectos negativos no modelo de reporte proposto pelo Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, na opinião dos funcionários responsáveis pelo reporte. A importância deste estudo reside no fato de que poucos trabalhos investigam os relatórios de sustentabilidade a partir desse ponto de vista, e por oferecer ao GRI pontos específicos para serem melhorados. A pesquisa foi conduzida por meio da análise de conteúdo das respostas de 27 empresas à seguinte questão: que aspectos negativos você identifica no modelo de reporte proposto pelo GRI? Essa questão foi enviada a todas as empresas brasileiras que publicaram o relatório GRI, referente ao ano-base 2010, entre os anos 2011 e 2013. Como resultado, os respondentes consideraram que as empresas têm dificuldade em entender o modelo proposto pelo GRI, o qual foi considerado complexo, ambíguo e flexível demais, o que dificulta a padronização e a comparação entre os relatórios. Esse fato tem implicações para o GRI, que poderia propor uma metodologia mais simples e menos flexível.

  3. Using a CAI Network for Statewide Remediation: GRI in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumford, John

    1988-01-01

    Describes South Carolina's Governor's Remediation Initiative (GRI), an instructional management system that links diagnostic tests and teaching modules for use by high school mathematics and reading laboratories. (TW)

  4.  Bank sustainability reporting within GRI-G4 Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability accounting, with its final output – sustainability reporting, is a new field of accounting focused on evaluating and following up activities regarding a firm’s governance, environmental issues and social inclusion and interaction. Among several standardized frameworks, companies worldwide often choose the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Since the year 2000, GRI Guidelines have evolved and currently the fourth generation is in use. The aim of this study is to assess the latest form of sustainability reporting within an integrated report in the banking industry using the UniCredit Group, which operates in 15 countries, as an example. Sustainability reporting will soon become mandatory in the European Union (EU for large companies, listed companies and publicinterest entities (e.g. banks with an average of at least 500 employees, starting from the year 2018 (for activities in 2017. This paper is focused on a content analysis of the recent bank sustainability reporting with a critical review on this matter.

  5. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-04-01

    The annual GRI baseline projection is the result of a complex modeling effort that seeks to achieve an internally consistent energy supply and demand outlook across all energy sources and end-use demand sectors. The year's projection includes the adoption of a new petroleum refinery methodology, the incorporation of a new approach to determining electric utility generating capacity heat rates, the extensive update of both the residential and commercial databases and methodologies, and the continued update of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model. The report presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1992 edition of the projection, an analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer projection, a comparison of the 1992 edition of the projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  6. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on natural gas markets. Summary of the annual GRI Energy Seminar (12th) for the GRI Board of Directors and Advisory Council. Held in Asheville, North Carolina on August 12-14, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Each year, Gas Research Institute (GRI) conducts an energy seminar for its Board of Directors and Advisory Council on an issue of timely importance to the gas industry. The topic selected for the Twelfth Annual GRI Energy Seminar was 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on Natural Gas Markets.' The two sessions of the seminar focused upon the sectors of the energy market most significantly affected by the legislation. Session I: Fuel Choices for Stationary Applications explored the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments upon stationary, fuel-burning applications, particularly power plants. The current outlook for bringing existing coal-fired power plants into conformance with the law and the significance of the provisions for the choice of fuels for major future fuel-burning facilities were discussed, along with the impact of the provisions upon GRI's strategies and the technical and economic targets for ongoing R and D. Session II: The Emerging Alternative-Fuel Vehicle Market addressed the significance of the new requirements to the outlook for compressed natural gas vehicles and the suitability of GRI's methane vehicle R and D strategy to the revised outlook. The report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the seminar

  7. Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska börsbolag : En studie utifrån GRI:s riktlinjer

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Niklas; Moberg, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Sammanfattning Titel: ”Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska börsbolag – En studie utifrån GRI:s riktlinjer” Seminariedatum: Måndagen 25 Februari 2008 Ämne/kurs: Företagsekonomi C-uppsats, 15 p Författare: Niklas Nyberg, Sofia Moberg Handledare: Margareta Paulsson Nyckelord: GRI, Hållbarhetsredovisning, redovisning, svenska företag Bakgrund: De senaste åren har kraven på svenska företag ökat, och intressenter efterfrågar nu information angående produktion, underleverantörer m.m. Att visa att de ta...

  8. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the 1993 edition of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, and presents the implications of the projection that are important for GRI research and development planning and the gas industry. The survey of supply and demand considerations is followed by a breakdown of energy demand by type of fuel, by consumption sector, and by service application. Gas supply and prices are analyzed in terms of two scenarios: a constrained energy demand scenario, and an optimistic scenario. Tables and charts accompany the summary

  9. Applying & Publishing GRI framework in Transport Companies Rethink. Redesign. Rebuild. CSR Reporting and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Soares Outtes Wanderley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Corporations with systematic relationships to tourism are developing activities and publishing CSR reports applying the GRI framework (GRI, 2009. The contribution of tourism to climate change is estimated at between 5% and 12% and by 2050 the amount spent on the tourism sector will consume the entire carbon budget required to avoid dangerous climate change (Scott et al. 2009, UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008. This study defines the TC-8 group, a group of transport in tourism related companies, in order to answer the main questions:To what extent is climate change addressed in the CSR reports of transport companies? Climate change is mentioned and receives attention in all of the company reports analysed, however,overall the transport sector shows that in comparison to the GRI/KPMG (2007 survey, it under-performs. Are the companies just reporting direct emissions from production or also broader emissions from the use of the products? Half of these companies report emissions; some include direct and indirect emissions. Further actions can be mentioned such as, companies participating in forums discussing solutions to climate change, assuming shared responsibilities and employing measures such as reducing energy consumption by runningtheir own photovoltaic power unit or planning for a CO2 neutral operation by 2012.

  10. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-12-01

    The paper summarizes the gas supply outlook in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents the GRI planning outlook for the economic and the energy supply and demand situation to the year 2010. It was prepared independently by GRI using publicly available data and a framework of commercially available models that GRI has developed over several years. It is not derived from the views of GRI member companies. The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices. The gas prices in the 1992 projection support growth in all major U.S. gas supply sources: lower-48, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, and LNG. By about 2005, U.S. gas supply is at its highest level ever. By 2010, U.S. gas supply has grown to almost 25 quads. U.S. gas production increases 2.6 quads between 1990 and 2010; imports increase 2.2 quads. Although imports do not increase as much as U.S. gas production, they account for an increased share of U.S. gas supply. The import share grows from 7 percent to 12 percent over the projection period. Supplemental gas sources provide about 1 percent of U.S. gas supply

  11. 3 x Griškovets ehk avanemine kildude kaudu / Ireene Viktor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viktor, Ireene

    2009-01-01

    Jevgeni Griškovetsi teksti põhjal valminud lavastustest: "Samal ajal", tõlkinud, lavastanud ja mängib Priit Ruttas, esietendus Tartu Athena keskuses 30. juunil 2008. "Linn", lavastaja Lembit Peterson, esietendus Theatrumi saalis 7. juunil 2008. "Vene rännumehe ülestähendused", lavastajad ja kunstnikud Ott Aardam ja Mart Aas, Tartu Uue Teatri esietendus 9. augustil Genialistide klubis

  12. Drenov Grič black limestone as a heritage stone from Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramar, Sabina; Rožič, Boštjan; Žbona, Nina; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mladenović, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The limestone known as Drenov Grič black limestone is considered one of the most beautiful Slovenian natural stones due to its homogenous black colour interwoven with white veins. Over the centuries it has been exploited from three major quarries west of Ljubljana, with the main quarry at Drenov Grič playing the primary role in supplying building material for the central parts of Slovenia. All the quarries are currently not active. In the area of Drenov grič, one locality of black limestone is protected - Kuclerjev kamnolom quarry. It has the status of 'valuable natural feature of national importance' and is protected as a natural monument. This well-stratified micritic limestone of Triassic (Carnian) age occurs in 10-80 cm thick beds, with thin marl interlayers. The stone contains abundant fossil bivalves and ostracods. Apart from calcite as the main component, dolomite, quartz, illite/muscovite and pyrite are also present. The limestone is relatively rich in carbonaceous and bituminous organic matter, which is responsible for the black colour of the stone. This component does not have any adverse effect on mechanical and physical characteristics. As the lime¬stone is dense, thus facilitating a good polish, it has been commercially considered as marble. The stone has been widely used in Slovenian monuments, not only in Ljubljana but also in other regions of Slovenia. Many inner and outdoor architectural elements were made of this limestone, particularly in the baroque period, which was known for the extensive use of black limestones also in other European countries. The most significant use of this limestone has been recorded in sculptured portals and altars. Some of the important buildings decorated utilising this stone, are the Ljubljana Cathedral, the St. James's Parish Church, and the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation, all of which are located in Ljubljana, some of them having been declared as cultural monuments of local or national importance. When

  13. EVALUACIÓN DE SOSTENIBILIDAD CON METODOLOGÍA GRI // EVALUATION OF SUSTAINABILITY USING GRI METHODOLOGY // AVALIAÇÃO DA SUSTENTABILIDADE COM METODOLOGIA GRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cecilia Rodríguez-Guerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el resultado de  investigación realizada a 87 empresas que reportaron bajo la metodología Global Reporting Initiative (GRI G4, capítulo Colombia, entre el 01 de enero y 31 de diciembre del año 2015 con el objetivo de describir el nivel de sostenibilidad social, económica y ambiental, teniendo en cuenta el concepto definido por ellas mismas.  Para lograr obtener los resultados esperados, se elaboró una escala de medición, la cual cataloga a la organización de acuerdo a su desempeño en Madura, En Desarrollo e Incipiente, independientemente del tamaño o sector económico al cual pertenezca.  Las conclusiones y la discusión pretenden explicar porque el nivel En Desarrollo es el predominante en entorno empresarial Colombiano.  De igual manera, se sugiere una implementación organizacional para que la mayor cantidad de empresas posibles, logren la Sostenibilidad Organizacional por medio de un agente externo que así lo determine, después de realizar el respectivo análisis de la información

  14. GRI testing facility available for pipeline inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to help improve detection and characterization of defects that may occur in pipelines, the Gas Research Institute has announced the completion of the first phase of a testing facility for the evaluation of new and existing pipeline inspection technologies. GRI is a private, not-for-profit membership organization based in Chicago. The first phase of the facility consists of a pull rig which includes four 300-foot lengths of pipe with diameters of 12, 24, 30, and 36 inches. NDE inspection devices can be pulled through these pipe segments by a winch at speeds up to 25 miles per hour

  15. Exploring Environmental Disclosure in SelectedAustralian Multinationals under the GRI Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Al Farooque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores changes in environmental reporting among Australian MNEs between 2004 and 2007, using the GRI guidelines, and explains how GRI transformation (from G2 to G3 leads to changes in environmental disclosure aspects along with their association with company size, profitability, industry sector. Applying Wilcoxon matched pair signed ranked and Spearman rank correlation tests, twenty companies from the Australian SAM Sustainability Index (AuSSI are examined to identify the extent of changes on specific aspects of environmental disclosure. The findings of the paper document a significant increase in environmental reporting in Australian companies. In particular, reporting has increased for energy, emissions and environmental management followed by water, overall, materials, transport and product/services aspects. However, a shift in emphasis from compliance and biodiversity aspects associated with climate changes and resource preservation is also evident. Again, the majority of changes occurred in companies operating in environmentally sensitive industries with industry sector having significant relationship with a few environmental disclosure aspects, the study shows no significant effect of company size and profitability on different environmental disclosure aspects. These evidences indicate that external forces (such as, legislation, industry sensitiveness to environment, and stakeholder awareness and pressure rather than internal factors are more effective to influence and determine environmental disclosure in Australian companies.

  16. Managing materiality: a preliminary examination of the adoption of the new GRI G4 guidelines on materiality within the business community

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Comfort, Daphne; Hillier, David

    2016-01-01

    The concept of materiality emerged as the most important element in the new G4 guideline on corporate sustainability reporting launched by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) in 2013. This commentary paper offers a preliminary examination of the way in which these new guidelines are being adopted within the business community. The paper begins with a short discussion of the GRI guidelines and the enhanced emphasis on materiality, and the paper draws its empirical material from the first 10 ...

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE BUSINESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL SIZE OF A COMPANY ALONG WITH GRI AND CSR ADOPTION ON INTEGRATING SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiron-Tudor Adriana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the correlation between the business and organizational size of companies as well as GRI and CSR practices adoption, and the level of sustainability disclosure. The correlation is highlighted through SPSS statistic analysis and determination of an econometric model between a dependent variable - sustainability information disclosure - and five independent ones- sales, number of employees, GRI and CSR policies and ultimately reporting period/year -. We use the Deloitte Sustainability Scorecard for measuring the sustainability reporting practices. Our sample comprises companies that adopted integrated reporting for the period 2009-2010. Sample selection was made on the basis that sustainability reports are incorporated within the integrated reports. We assume to obtain a high correlation between the business and organizational size of companies, GRI and/or CSR polities and the level of sustainability information disclosed in our integrated reports.

  18. GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010. An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest. December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes the 1989 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which was adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of GRI's 1991 R and D program. Summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends are presented. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1989 projection, and analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration energy supply and demand, a comparison of the 1989 projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  19. Application of the GRI 1.2 Methane Oxidation Model to Methane and Methanol Oxidation in Supercritical Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, Steven

    1997-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been leading an effort over the past few years to consolidate recent developments in the elementary reaction modeling of the oxidation of methane for combustion applications into a single...

  20. REPORTING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ACCORDING TO GRI STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is no longer considered an optional activity by companies. The changes that take place worldwide have determined an increasing number of companies to elaborate instruments of implementing CSR principles into their business strategy. A CSR policy adapted to the specifics of the company’s field of activity and to the community in which it is present will bring advantages for both parties. The way through which a company makes their CSR activity results public is by writing a sustainability report which corresponds to international practices in the field. In recent years, an increasing number of companies publish their yearly CSR reports. This reporting originated in the USA, but in the last decade, the number of reports from Europe is increasing. In order to answer to the needs of reporting of the companies, a series of nongovernmental organisms have involved in trying to find the most accessible way that would correspond to the needs of the companies and of the stakeholders. Global Reporting Initiative is a platform that came to the aid of the companies by creating reporting standards which to guide companies through the process of creating the sustainability report. In this paper, we have analysed the evolution in the number of CSR reports worldwide, having then analysed their distribution on continents. We have given attention to the situation in Romania, which in the past ten years, due to multinational companies coming in the market. The presence of multinational companies has helped develop this concept. In the past five years, Romanian companies have submitted CSR reports according to GRI standards. Although the percent of companies of Romanian companies that submit reports according to the GRI standards is small (0.0017%, we believe that it will grow in following years, due to companies realizing the role they have in the society and because the European Commission’s 2014/95/EU Directive will enter into

  1. Analisis Pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility Berdasarkan Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI:Studi Kasus Perusahaan Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam (Persero Tbk dan Timah (Persero Tbk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraini Sari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an overview of the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the mining company's corporate sustainability report. It is also to analyze the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in corporate sustainability report with standard Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI 3.1. Research was conducted in Batubara Bukit Asam (Persero Tbk. and Timah (Persero Tbk. on their corporatesustainability report for the year of 2012. The analysis was conducted on the presentation of economic performance indicator, environmental performance indicator, performance indicators of employment and workplace practices, human rights performance indicator, public performance indicator and performance indicator reported products liability provisions established in the GRI 3.1. The result is the two companies havedisclosed CSR in accordance with GRI3.1. Batubara Bukit Asam (Persero Tbk and Timah (Persero Tbk have disclosed their performance indicators; and the average has exceeded 75%. However, the disclosure of each indicator and its aspects are not comprehensive.

  2. Long-term trends in US gas supply and prices: 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A Summary of the gas supply outlook in the 1993 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, adopted as a major input to the planning cycle of the 1994 research and development program, is presented. Significant changes were made in developing the gas supply and price trends for the 1993 edition of the projection. The GRI Hydrocarbon Model was expanded to include the Canadian hydrocarbon resource base. Thus, Canadian and lower-48 gas production and prices were developed on a fully integrated basis in the 1993 projection. The lower-48 hydrocarbon resource estimate was increased, reflecting the results of the recent National Petroleum Council gas study and ongoing GRI resource work. The effects of new technology and practice on drilling costs and exploration efficiency were included for the first time. Appendices include comparisons of supply and price trends

  3. Controlled Owicki-Gries Concurrency: Reasoning about the Preemptible eChronos Embedded Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Andronick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a controlled concurrency framework, derived from the Owicki-Gries method, for describing a hardware interface in detail sufficient to support the modelling and verification of small, embedded operating systems (OS's whose run-time responsiveness is paramount. Such real-time systems run with interrupts mostly enabled, including during scheduling. That differs from many other successfully modelled and verified OS's that typically reduce the complexity of concurrency by running on uniprocessor platforms and by switching interrupts off as much as possible. Our framework builds on the traditional Owicki-Gries method, for its fine-grained concurrency is needed for high-performance system code. We adapt it to support explicit concurrency control, by providing a simple, faithful representation of the hardware interface that allows software to control the degree of interleaving between user code, OS code, interrupt handlers and a scheduler that controls context switching. We then apply this framework to model the interleaving behavior of the eChronos OS, a preemptible real-time OS for embedded micro-controllers. We discuss the accuracy and usability of our approach when instantiated to model the eChronos OS. Both our framework and the eChronos model are formalised in the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover, taking advantage of the high level of automation in modern reasoning tools.

  4. Establishment of action levels for quality control of IMRT flat panel: experience with the algorithm iGRiMLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.; Dolores, VV. de los; Pastor, V.; Martinez, J.; Gimeno, J.; Guardino, C.; Crispin, V.

    2011-01-01

    Algorithm has been used at our institution iGRiMLO scheduled for individual verification of treatment plans for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) step and shoot through portal dosimetry pretreatment of non-transmission, triggering the plan directly to a portal imaging device (EPID) of an amorphous silicon flat panel.

  5. Long-term trends in U.S. gas transportation: 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, June 1992. Gas Research Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lihn, M.L.; Woods, T.J.

    1992-06-01

    The paper summarizes the trends in lower-48 gas transportation in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices

  6. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook updated for the 1993 edition of the GRI baseline projection of US energy supply and demand, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1992-12-01

    Strategic planning of the research and development program carried out by Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supported by an annual GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand. Because petroleum products compete in a wide variety of energy uses, oil prices serve as a market clearing force for the entire energy system. A significant portion of the U.S. petroleum supply is imported, and the price of crude oil to U.S. refiners is determined by the international oil trade. Any projection of the U.S. energy situation, therefore, requires the evaluation of the global oil market and the impact of oil price changes on the supply/demand balances of market participants. The 1992 edition of the projection completed in August 1991 assumed that in the aftermath of the war in the Middle East the fundamentals of oil trade would reassert their influence. This did indeed occur and with astonishing speed. In the face of this outlook, GRI has revised its 1993 oil price track downward

  7. GRI baseline projection of U.S. Energy supply and demand to 2010. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand and presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1991 projection, a brief discussion of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer (IPP) methodology and projection, a comparison of the 1991 edition with previous projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection

  8. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI: uma análise da adesão as diretrizes pelas empresas listadas no novo mercado sob a perspectiva das teorias institucional e da legitimidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dias da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo se propõe analisar, sob a perspectiva das Teorias Institucional e da Legitimidade, quais companhias do Novo Mercado da BM&FBovespa aderiram às diretrizes da Global Reporting Initiative (GRI e identificar qual a versão das diretrizes GRI adotadas. O estudo é descritivo, qualitativo e documental. Os dados foram analisados por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo e se referem ao período de 2011 a 2013. Percebe-se que, das 133 companhias da amostra, 67 não possuem ou não foram encontrados os relatórios de sustentabilidade no período analisado. Das 66 empresas que publicaram o relatório de sustentabilidade no período de 2011 a 2013, somente 17 empresas não divulgaram as informações socioambientais conforme as diretrizes da GRI. Os resultados revelam que as empresas divulgam práticas de sustentabilidade nos relatórios para reafirmar sua legitimidade perante a sociedade. Além disso, utilizam práticas de divulgação com base em outras empresas modelos, como é o caso da adesão às diretrizes da GRI, o que se pode relacionar com a Teoria Institucional com base no isomorfismo mimético. Sobre as práticas socioambientais, essas são institucionalizadas nas empresas, e a mudança de versão da G3 para G4 possibilita a ampliação do disclosure pelos indicadores propostos.

  9. Long-term trends in U.S. gas supply and prices: 1991 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, April 1991. Gas research insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    The report summarizes the gas supply and price outlook in the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. Projected U.S. gas production, gas imports, and other sources of gas supply are discussed along with the sensitivity of the outlook to changes in price expectations. The critical uncertainties and issues affecting the gas supply and price outlook are discussed. Appendixes include a comparison of the 1991 and the 1989 projections of gas supply and price trends; and a description of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model

  10. DETERMINANTES DA DIVULGAÇÃO DOS INDICADORES DE DESEMPENHO DA GRI NAS EMPRESAS DO BRASIL E DA ESPANHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Diógenes Góis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo investigar os fatores determinantes da divulgação dos indicadores de desempenho de sustentabilidade da GRI nas empresas listadas nas bolsas do Brasil e da Espanha. Para tanto, foram analisados os dados de 94 empresas de capital aberto dos dois países que publicaram relatórios anuais e/ou de sustentabilidade, referentes a 2011, no padrão GRI-G3. A pesquisa é descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa dos dados, utilizando-se a Regressão Linear Múltipla para quatro modelos de disclosure (econômico, ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade. Os resultados mostram que as empresas da Espanha apresentam um nível de disclosure de sustentabilidade mais elevado, e que o nível de evidenciação geral, considerando o conjunto das dimensões da sustentabilidade (econômica, social e ambiental, corresponde a 72,7%. Quanto ao resultado dos modelos de regressão, observa-se que as variáveis independentes (Tamanho, Rentabilidade, Endividamento, Auditoria, Setor de Impacto Ambiental e Idade não explicam o disclosure econômico; porém, quanto aos disclosures ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade, as variáveis Tamanho e Idade são fatores determinantes.

  11. Economic benefits to gas customers from completed research and development at GRI: An occasional publication of Gas Research Institute on topics of current interest, August 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Rinholm, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    Conducted in cooperation with gas industry partners, GRI's R and D program brought 93 gas products, processes and techniques, and 53 information items to the marketplace during 1987-1990. Quantitative estimates of economic benefits to the gas industry and its customers are provided for 60 of the technologies. The net present value is approximately $7.4 billion. While not accounting for R and D efforts in progress, the figure is 4.3 times the cumulative net present value of the cost of the entire GRI R and D program from its inception and represents a rate of return to ratepayers of almost 20%. When compared with the cost of completed R and D, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 8.1 to 1

  12. Policy implications of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand to 2010, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand is summarized. Three broad implications concerning the future of the natural gas industry are highlighted: the residual impact of the August 1990 Gulf War on crude oil prices and the factors influencing the long-term price path, the impact of the growing number of environmental constraints on future energy use, and the effect of recent developments in gas production on future gas supply and price

  13. Baseline Projection Data Book: GRI baseline projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010. 1992 Edition. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Baseline Projection Data Book provides backup data in tabular form for the 1992 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010. Summary tables and data for the residential, commercial, industrial, electric utility, and transportation sectors are presented in the volume

  14. Carnian bauxite horizon on the Kopitov grič near Borovnica (Slovenia – is there a »forgotten« stratigraphic gap in its footwall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomir Celarc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beds underlying the Carnian bauxite on the Kopitov gri~ (Slovenia are by the author’s opinion not Carnian (Cordevolian, but Ladinian age. The considerable stratigraphical gap is presented between Carnian clastic rocks and underlying limestones and dolomites. Bauxite is result of the weathering during the emersion.

  15. Gry w podmiot. Szkic o (wczesnej twórczości Mladena Stilinovicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bogusławska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Games of a subject: A sketch of the (early works of Mladen Stilinović The article concerns the conceptualization of the subject in the works of the contemporary Croatian visual artist Mladen Stilinović. The object of analysis are most of all works (collages, texts from the 1970s and early 1980s, when the artist formulated the basis for his creative philosophy and at the same time determined the directions of their research. His system of reference were the socialist state order and the traditionalist, academic system of artistic practice, which he criticized from the perspectives of Diogenes, philosophical Cynicism and constructive anarchism. Until this day, the attitude of resistance is the main creative principle for Stilinović’s art. He sets strong, conscious and autonomous creator’s “I” against symbolic violence of different systems (political, ideological, educational, etc.. This “I” is not so much the material and object of expression as a space of play based on concpetualism and self-irony.   Gry w podmiot. Szkic o (wczesnej twórczości Mladena Stilinovicia Artykuł dotyczy konceptualizacji podmiotu w twórczości współczesnego chorwackiego artysty wizualnego – Mladena Stilinovicia. Przedmiotem analizy są przede wszystkim prace (kolaże, teksty z lat 70. i początku 80. XX wieku, kiedy to artysta formułował podstawy filozofii twórczej i określał kierunki swych poszukiwań. Układem odniesienia były dla niego wówczas socjalistyczny porządek państwa i tradycjonalistyczny, akademicki system praktyki artystycz­nej, które poddawał konsekwentnej krytyce z pozycji rozumnego, diogenesowskiego cynizmu i konstruktywnego anarchizmu. Do dziś postawa oporu jest dla Stilinovicia podstawową zasadą twórczą. Przemocy symbolicznej wszelkich systemów (politycznych, ideologicznych, edukacyjnych itp. przeciwstawia mocne, świadome i niezależne „ja” twórcy. Jest tu ono nie tyle tworzywem i przedmiotem ekspresji

  16. 20-25 Yaş Arası Sağlıklı Gençlerde Gri ve Beyaz Cevher Hacimlerinin İncelenmesi: Planimetrik Çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAMURDANOĞLU, Niyazi ACER - Tolga ERTEKİN - Ayşegül KÜ; ACER, Niyazi; ERTEKİN, Tolga; KÜÇÜK, Ayşegül; BABAOĞLU, Cumhur; ÇANKAYA, M. Niyazi; ÇAMURDANOĞLU, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Amaç: İnsan beyninde cinsiyete ilişkin varyasyonlar birçok araştırıcı tarafından incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmaların çoğunda erkek beyin hacminin bayanlardan daha büyük olduğu bildirilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı MR görüntüleri üzerinde beyaz ve gri cevher ölçümleri planimterik yöntem ile değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu çalışmada beyaz ve gri cevher hacimleri 20-25 yaş arası sağlıklı gençlerde incelenmiştir. T2 ağırlıklı MR görüntüleri 12 kişi üzerinde elde edilmiş, kadın ve erkeklerde ...

  17. GLOBAL REPORTING INITIATIVE (GRI - UM ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO DA PRÁTICA DE EVIDENCIAÇÃO EM SUSTENTABILIDADE EMPRESARIAL NA AMÉRICA LATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Conceição

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho propõe um estudo exploratório sobre a prática de evidenciação em sustentabilidade empresarial (SE em companhias do Brasil e demais países da América Latina, tomando como parâmetro o relatório de sustentabilidade empresarial denominado Global Reporting Initiative (GRI. A partir dos pressupostos teóricos da teoria da divulgação voluntária e da teoria de legitimidade, estabelece reflexões acerca da sua aderência ao processo de comunicação em sustentabilidade empresarial das companhias. O estudo da série histórica a partir de 1999 até 2010 identifica as companhias brasileiras como responsáveis por mais de 50% dos informes de sustentabilidade empresarial e a América Latina enquanto espaço em que se consolida a utilização do relatório GRI no mundo. Indica pressupostos no desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas que contribuam para a concepção de metodologias de análise, avaliação e interpretação do desempenho em sustentabilidade empresarial das companhias e para o estudo dos fenômenos de sua divulgação, contribuindo para o fortalecimento das variáveis do desempenho em sustentabilidade empresarial no contexto decisório dos stakeholders.

  18. Gry planszowe jako narzędzie wspomagania rozwoju wczesnych kompetencji matematycznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Cipora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poziom kompetencji matematycznych ma bardzo duże znaczenie dla osiągnięcia sukcesu edukacyjnego, wpływa również znacząco na jakość i poziom życia w wieku dorosłym. Niski poziom kompetencji matematycznych może być dla jednostki bardziej dotkliwy niż deficyty w zakresie czytania. Największe możliwości wspierania rozwoju kompetencji matematycznych pojawiają się na początku edukacji, gdyż z czasem deficyty te się pogłębiają. Liniowo zorganizowane gry planszowe z kolejno ponumerowanymi polami stanowią interesujące narzędzie wspomagania kompetencji matematycznych u dzieci. Pomagają wykształcić odpowiednią reprezentację liczebności, a efekty interwencji z ich wykorzystaniem wykraczają poza poprawę w zadaniach, które przypominają bezpośrednio trenowane umiejętności. W pracy przedstawiono przegląd wyników badań nad skutecznością takiej interwencji oraz propozycję zastosowania ich na polskim gruncie. Co więcej, interwencje z ich wykorzystaniem można przeprowadzić w krótkim czasie i przy niewielkim wkładzie finansowym.

  19. Urbanistid ja keskkonnaeksperdid: iga muudatuse eest Reidi tee projektis oleme pidanud võitlema / Helen Sooväli-Sepping, Kristi Grišakov, Mari Jüssi ; intervjueerinud Mari Peegel ; kommenteerinud Taavi Aas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooväli-Sepping, Helen, 1974-

    2016-01-01

    TLÜ keskkonnakorralduse professor ja linnakorralduse õppekava juht Helen Sooväli-Sepping, TTÜ maastikuarhitektuuri õppekava juht ja linnaplaneerija-urbanist Kristi Grišakov ning Stockholmi keskkonnainstituudi Tallinna keskuse liikuvus- ja keskkonnaekspert Mari Jüssi kinnitavad, et Reidi tee projekt ei ole endiselt inimsõbralik

  20. Potential for natural gas to displace oil in response to the Middle East crisis and the implications for the GRI R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtberg, P.D.; Webb, D.O.

    1990-11-01

    Although the significance of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait is indeterminate, a move toward more efficient use of energy in end use applications and increased reliance on domestic energy sources is anticipated. The short and long term potential for natural gas to displace oil in end use applications is analyzed and R and D initiatives are proposed that would accelerate the development of technology by GRI and the gas industry necessary to maximize the substitution of gas for oil

  1. Results from a new 193nm die-to-database reticle inspection platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, William H.; Alles, David S.; Giusti, Michael T.; Kvamme, Damon F.; Shi, Rui-fang; Sousa, Weston L.; Walsh, Robert; Xiong, Yalin

    2010-05-01

    A new 193nm wavelength high resolution reticle defect inspection platform has been developed for both die-to-database and die-to-die inspection modes. In its initial configuration, this innovative platform has been designed to meet the reticle qualification requirements of the IC industry for the 22nm logic and 3xhp memory generations (and shrinks) with planned extensions to the next generation. The 22nm/3xhp IC generation includes advanced 193nm optical lithography using conventional RET, advanced computational lithography, and double patterning. Further, EUV pilot line lithography is beginning. This advanced 193nm inspection platform has world-class performance and the capability to meet these diverse needs in optical and EUV lithography. The architecture of the new 193nm inspection platform is described. Die-to-database inspection results are shown on a variety of reticles from industry sources; these reticles include standard programmed defect test reticles, as well as advanced optical and EUV product and product-like reticles. Results show high sensitivity and low false and nuisance detections on complex optical reticle designs and small feature size EUV reticles. A direct comparison with the existing industry standard 257nm wavelength inspection system shows measurable sensitivity improvement for small feature sizes

  2. REBL: design progress toward 16 nm half-pitch maskless projection electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mark A.; Petric, Paul; Ummethala, Upendra; Carroll, Allen; Kojima, Shinichi; Grella, Luca; Shriyan, Sameet; Rettner, Charles T.; Bevis, Chris F.

    2012-03-01

    REBL (Reflective Electron Beam Lithography) is a novel concept for high speed maskless projection electron beam lithography. Originally targeting 45 nm HP (half pitch) under a DARPA funded contract, we are now working on optimizing the optics and architecture for the commercial silicon integrated circuit fabrication market at the equivalent of 16 nm HP. The shift to smaller features requires innovation in most major subsystems of the tool, including optics, stage, and metrology. We also require better simulation and understanding of the exposure process. In order to meet blur requirements for 16 nm lithography, we are both shrinking the pixel size and reducing the beam current. Throughput will be maintained by increasing the number of columns as well as other design optimizations. In consequence, the maximum stage speed required to meet wafer throughput targets at 16 nm will be much less than originally planned for at 45 nm. As a result, we are changing the stage architecture from a rotary design to a linear design that can still meet the throughput requirements but with more conventional technology that entails less technical risk. The linear concept also allows for simplifications in the datapath, primarily from being able to reuse pattern data across dies and columns. Finally, we are now able to demonstrate working dynamic pattern generator (DPG) chips, CMOS chips with microfabricated lenslets on top to prevent crosstalk between pixels.

  3. Advanced CMOS device technologies for 45 nm node and below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veloso, T. Hoffmann, A. Lauwers, H. Yu, S. Severi, E. Augendre, S. Kubicek, P. Verheyen, N. Collaert, P. Absil, M. Jurczak and S. Biesemans

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and discuss the latest developments and technology options for 45 nm node and below, with scaled planar bulk MOSFETs and MuGFETs as emerging devices. One of the main metal gate (MG candidates for scaled CMOS technologies are fully silicided (FUSI gates. In this work, by means of a selective and controlled poly etch-back integration process, dual work-function Ni-based FUSI/HfSiON CMOS circuits with record ring oscillator performance (high-VT are reported (17 ps at VDD=1.1 V and 20 pA/μm Ioff, meeting the ITRS 45 nm node requirement for low-power (LP CMOS. Compatibility of FUSI and other MG with known stress boosters like stressed CESL (contact-etch-stop-layer with high intrinsic stress or embedded SiGe in the pMOS S/D regions is validated. To obtain MuGFET devices that are competitive, as compared to conventional planar bulk devices, and that meet the stringent drive and leakage current requirements for the 32 nm node and beyond, higher channel mobilities are required. Results obtained by several strain engineering methods are presented here.

  4. Carbon and greenhouse gas balance of the FR-GRI crop site from 2005 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Chammakhi, Manel; Mascher, Nicolas; Durand, Brigitte; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Decuq, Céline; Lecuyer, Vanessa; Laville, Patricia; Buysse, Pauline; Cellier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The carbon and greenhouse gas balance of the ICOS FR-GRI site from 2005 to 2014 is presented. The site is a wheat-barley-maize rotation with the introduction of oil-seed rape in 2012. The site receives large amounts of organic fertilization, but is shown to be a strong source of carbon to the atmosphere, especially due to the increase in the exportations of residues during the period. The exportations have increased from around 4 to around 8 t C ha-1 year-1 over the period on average except for maize for which it remained constant. In the meantime the carbon importations have increased from around 1 to around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 during the same period. Overall the field was losing around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 over the whole period but largely driven by last years (2012-2014). This would represent 17% loss of the soil carbon content in the 0-60 cm in the 2005-2014 period. The discussion focuses on explanations of these losses and possible drawbacks in the methodology. The effect of the winter intermediate crops on the carbon balance is also discussed.

  5. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.

    2006-01-01

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films

  6. Análisis de las condiciones de sostenibilidad del sector productor de plátano del departamento del Quindío bajo el contexto del reporte de iniciativa global (GRI)

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Giraldo, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Trabajo de grado (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas, 2013 El presente trabajo de investigación gira en torno al análisis de las condiciones de sostenibilidad bajo el contexto del Reporte de Iniciativa Global (Global Reporting Initiative, GRI) para el sector productor de plátano en el Departamento del Quindío, implicando el abordaje de la sostenibilidad en el esperado equilibrio entre ...

  7. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  8. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra High Ash/Performance Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. VIjay K. Mathur

    2009-04-30

    The paper industry is one of the largest users of energy and emitters of CO2 in the US manufacturing industry. In addition to that, it is facing tremendous financial pressure due to lower cost imports. The fine paper industry has shrunk from 15 million tons per year production to 10 million tons per year in the last 5 years. This has resulted in mill closures and job loses. The AF&PA and the DOE formed a program called Agenda 2020 to help in funding to develop breakthrough technologies to provide help in meeting these challenges. The objectives of this project were to optimize and scale-up Fibrous Fillers technology, ready for commercial deployment and to develop ultra high ash/high performance paper using Fibrous Fillers. The goal was to reduce energy consumption, carbon footprint, and cost of manufacturing paper and related industries. GRI International (GRI) has been able to demonstrate the techno - economic feasibility and economic advantages of using its various products in both handsheets as well as in commercial paper mills. GRI has also been able to develop sophisticated models that demonstrate the effect of combinations of GRI's fillers at multiple filler levels. GRI has also been able to develop, optimize, and successfully scale-up new products for use in commercial paper mills.

  9. Review of Geopressured-Geothermal and Co-Production Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-16

    This report is the minutes of the DOE/GRI/Industry meeting. They include a transcript of the questions and answers following each presentation and copies of slides and/or summaries prepared by each of the speakers.

  10. Study of the separation of fluoroquinolones using HPLC: Application to the study of their degradation by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Saad, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reverse phase was developed for the separation of a mixture of five fluoroquinolones (lomefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, enoxacin and enrofloxacin). The optimum operating conditions are: the wavelength of detection is fixed at 282nm DAD detector, the stationary phase consists of silica type X scratched Terra RP-18 (250mm x 4, 6 mm, 5μm) and the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (0.02 M) (20: 80 v: v), pH equal to flow rate of 1ml/M/Xin 3etde. This optimized method was applied to analyze the solutions of different concentrations of each fluoroquinolone (100 and 20 ppm) after irradiation with doses of gamma radiation (5 and 25 kGry). The study of the effect of such radiation on fluoroquinolones shows that with a dose of 5 kGry these radiations allow complete degradation of these active ingredients at a concentration of 20 ppm and the appearance of other degradation products. But a dose of 5 kGry is insufficient to degrade the active ingredients (100ppm).

  11. Coupling LaGrit unstructured mesh generation and model setup with TOUGH2 flow and transport: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentís, Manuel Lorenzo; Gable, Carl W.

    2017-11-01

    There are many applications in science and engineering modeling where an accurate representation of a complex model geometry in the form of a mesh is important. In applications of flow and transport in subsurface porous media, this is manifest in models that must capture complex geologic stratigraphy, structure (faults, folds, erosion, deposition) and infrastructure (tunnels, boreholes, excavations). Model setup, defined as the activities of geometry definition, mesh generation (creation, optimization, modification, refine, de-refine, smooth), assigning material properties, initial conditions and boundary conditions requires specialized software tools to automate and streamline the process. In addition, some model setup tools will provide more utility if they are designed to interface with and meet the needs of a particular flow and transport software suite. A control volume discretization that uses a two point flux approximation is for example most accurate when the underlying control volumes are 2D or 3D Voronoi tessellations. In this paper we will present the coupling of LaGriT, a mesh generation and model setup software suite and TOUGH2 (Pruess et al., 1999) to model subsurface flow problems and we show an example of how LaGriT can be used as a model setup tool for the generation of a Voronoi mesh for the simulation program TOUGH2. To generate the MESH file for TOUGH2 from the LaGriT output a standalone module Lagrit2Tough2 was developed, which is presented here and will be included in a future release of LaGriT. In this paper an alternative method to generate a Voronoi mesh for TOUGH2 with LaGriT is presented and thanks to the modular and command based structure of LaGriT this method is well suited to generating a mesh for complex models.

  12. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Agglomerated 35 nm and 100 nm Aluminum Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chun Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, nanoparticles of 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders, respectively, formed particles with average sizes of 161 nm and 167 nm in agglomeration. The characteristics of dust cloud explosions with the two powder sizes, 35 nm and 100 nm, revealed considerable differences, as shown here: (dp/dtmax-35 nm = 1254 bar/s, (dp/dtmax-100 nm = 1105 bar/s; Pmax-35 nm = 7.5 bar, Pmax-100 nm = 12.3 bar, and MEC-35 nm = 40 g/m3, MEC-100 nm = 50 g/m3. The reason of Pmax-35 nm value is smaller than Pmax-100 nm may be due to agglomeration. From an analysis of the explosive residue, the study found that nanoparticles of 35 nm Al powder became filamentous strands after an explosion, where most of 100 nm Al nanoparticles maintained a spherical structure, This may be because the initial melting temperature of 35 nm Al is 435.71°C, while that for 100 nm Al is 523.58°C, higher by 87.87°C. This study discovered that explosive property between the 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders after agglomeration were different.

  13. 75 FR 1754 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... meetings will be held February 1 - 4, 2010. ADDRESSES: The meetings will be held at the Battle House, 26 N....m. - The Council will review and discuss reports from the Sustainable Fisheries/Ecosystem Committee... Access Privilege Program Advisory Panel. 10 a.m. - 12 p.m. - The Sustainable Fisheries/Ecosystem...

  14. Improvement to visualization of nodes in breast cancer patients following audit: are we seeing the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carolyn L; Hendry, Fraser R; Bolster, Alison A

    2018-06-01

    Successful localization of nodes in breast cancer patients depends upon the effectiveness of the lymphoscintigraphy technique employed. A benefit of performing imaging as part of this procedure is that it allows sites to audit their technique. An audit of breast cancer patients at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary (GRI) hospital showed nodes to be visualized in only 81% of patients. Current guidelines state that nodes should be seen in more than 95% of patients. A period of investigation and review led to changes being made to the injection and imaging technique employed at the GRI site. Following these changes a re-audit was performed that showed that the node visualization rate has successfully been increased to 97%, thereby meeting the standards set in the guidelines. This technical note details the results of the initial audit and re-audit, and explains the investigation and changes made to clinical procedures at the GRI site to improve the node visualization rate. The challenges that can occur when performing breast sentinel node procedures are also discussed.

  15. Design technology co-optimization for 14/10nm metal1 double patterning layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingli; Su, Xiaojing; Chen, Ying; Su, Yajuan; Shao, Feng; Zhang, Recco; Lei, Junjiang; Wei, Yayi

    2016-03-01

    Design and technology co-optimization (DTCO) can satisfy the needs of the design, generate robust design rule, and avoid unfriendly patterns at the early stage of design to ensure a high level of manufacturability of the product by the technical capability of the present process. The DTCO methodology in this paper includes design rule translation, layout analysis, model validation, hotspots classification and design rule optimization mainly. The correlation of the DTCO and double patterning (DPT) can optimize the related design rule and generate friendlier layout which meets the requirement of the 14/10nm technology node. The experiment demonstrates the methodology of DPT-compliant DTCO which is applied to a metal1 layer from the 14/10nm node. The DTCO workflow proposed in our job is an efficient solution for optimizing the design rules for 14/10 nm tech node Metal1 layer. And the paper also discussed and did the verification about how to tune the design rule of the U-shape and L-shape structures in a DPT-aware metal layer.

  16. Power scaling of laser diode pumped Pr3+:LiYF4 cw lasers: efficient laser operation at 522.6 nm, 545.9 nm, 607.2 nm, and 639.5 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gün, Teoman; Metz, Philip; Huber, Günter

    2011-03-15

    We report efficient cw laser operation of laser diode pumped Pr(3+)-doped LiYF4 crystals in the visible spectral region. Using two InGaN laser diodes emitting at λ(P)=443.9 nm with maximum output power of 1 W each and a 2.9-mm-long crystal with a doping concentration of 0.5%, output powers of 938 mW, 418 mW, 384 mW, and 773 mW were achieved for the laser wavelengths 639.5 nm, 607.2 nm, 545.9 nm, and 522.6 nm, respectively. The maximum absorbed pump powers were approximately 1.5 W, resulting in slope efficiencies of 63.6%, 32.0%, 52.1%, and 61.5%, as well as electro-optical efficiencies of 9.4%, 4.2%, 3.8%, and 7.7%, respectively. Within these experiments, laser diode-pumped laser action at 545.9 nm was demonstrated for what is believed to be the first time.

  17. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  18. Read-through transcript from NM23-H1 into the neighboring NM23-H2 gene encodes a novel protein, NM23-LV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, Linda J.; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier

    2006-01-01

    NM23-H1 and NM23-H2 are neighboring genes on chromosome 17q. They encode nucleoside diphosphate kinases that have additional roles in signal transduction, transcription, and apoptosis. NM23-H1 expression is a strong marker for prognosis and metastatic behavior in many tumor types. A new

  19. First principles study on the interfacial properties of NM/graphdiyne (NM = Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir): The implications for NM growing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhansheng; Li, Shuo; Lv, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); He, Chaozheng, E-mail: hecz2013@nynu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Ma, Dongwei [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Kaifeng (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NM adatoms belong to embedded adsorption in 18C-hexagon of GDY. • The Rh and Ir/GDY can be applied to single metal catalysts or sensors. • A simple linear relationship between E{sub e-ads} and E{sub b} is presented. • The linear relationship can be used in the noble metal modified GDY. - Abstract: Based on the dispersion-corrected density functional calculations (DFT-D), we systematically studied the adsorption of noble metals (NM), Pd, Pt, Rh and Ir, on graphdiyne (GDY). We present a systematic study on the geometry, embedded adsorption energy and electronic structure of four different adatoms adsorbed on the GDY. The strong interaction between the NM adatoms and the GDY substrate is found with the NM embedded in the 18C-hexagon of the GDY. We investigated the mobility of the NM adatoms on the GDY, and found that the mobility barrier energy increases along with the increasing of the embedded adsorption energy. We present the NM adatoms growth of high concentrations on the GDY. Upon the analysis of the electronic structure and the frontier molecular orbitals, Rh and Ir adatoms of low concentrations (about 1.37 at%) on the GDY have the potential to be applied as single metal catalysts or gas molecule sensors.

  20. Comparison of 193 nm and 308 nm laser liquid printing by shadowgraphy imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: apalla@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Shaw-Stewart, J. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Mattle, T. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinca, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Lippert, T.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Over the last years laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a versatile and powerful tool for engineering surfaces with active compounds. Soft, easily damageable materials can be transferred using a triazene polymer as a sacrificial layer which acts as a pressure generator and at the same time protects the material from direct laser irradiation. To understand and optimize the transfer process of biomolecules in liquid solution by using an intermediate triazene polymer photosensitive layer, shadowgraphy imaging is carried out. Two laser systems i.e. an ArF laser operating at 193 nm and a XeCl laser operating at 308 nm are applied for the transfer. Solutions with 50% v/v glycerol concentration are prepared and the influence of the triazene polymer sacrificial layer thickness (60 nm) on the deposits is studied. The shadowgraphy images reveal a pronounced difference between laser-induced forward transfer using 193 nm or 308 nm, i.e. very different shapes of the ejected liquid.

  1. Compact corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab 1319 nm/1338 nm laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H; Gong, M; Wushouer, X; Gao, S

    2010-01-01

    A corner-pumped type is a new pumping type in the diode-pumped solid-state lasers, which has the advantages of high pump efficiency and favorable pump uniformity. A corner-pumped Nd:YAG/YAG composite slab continuous-wave 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength laser is first demonstrated in this paper. When the cavity length is 25 mm, the maximal output power is up to 7.62 W with a slope efficiency of 16.6% and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 17%. The corresponding spectral line widths of 1319 nm laser and 1338 nm laser are 0.11 and 0.1 nm, respectively. The short-term instability of the output power is better than 1% when the pumping power is 39.5 W. The experimental results show that a corner-pumped type is a kind of feasible schedules in the design of diode-pumped solid-state 1.3 μm lasers with low or medium output powers

  2. Picosecond laser texturization of mc-silicon for photovoltaics: A comparison between 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm radiation wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetti, Simona [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Le Donne, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.ledonne@mater.unimib.it [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Rolfi, Andrea [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Jäggi, Beat; Neuenschwander, Beat [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology, Institute for Applied Laser, Photonics and Surface Technologies ALPS, Pestalozzistrasse 20, CH-3400 Burgdorf (Switzerland); Busto, Chiara [ENI Spa, Via Giacomo Fauser, 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Frigeri, Cesare [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010 Parma (Italy); Scorticati, Davide; Longoni, Luca; Pellegrino, Sergio [Laserpoint Srl, Via Della Burrona 51, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on mc-Si. • Three laser wavelengths were used which effectively reduce Si reflectivity up to 8%. • The subsurface damage induced by the three lasers was studied in detail. • μ-Raman, PL and TEM proved that UV laser provides the lowest subsurface damage. • UV laser induced damage is located above the depletion region of the p–n junction. - Abstract: Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. Three different laser wavelengths were employed (i.e. 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and the resulting morphologies were observed to effectively reduce the reflectivity of the samples after laser irradiation. Besides, a comparative study of the laser induced subsurface damage generated by the three different wavelengths was performed by confocal micro-Raman, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. The results of both the structural and optical characterization showed that the mc-Si texturing performed with the laser at 355 nm provides surface reflectivity between 11% and 8% over the spectral range from 400 nm to 1 μm, while inducing the lowest subsurface damage, located above the depletion region of the p–n junction.

  3. Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waritanant, Tanant; Major, Arkady

    2018-02-01

    A passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm was demonstrated with an intracavity birefringent filter as the wavelength selecting element. The average output powers achieved were 2.17 W and 2.18 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 19.6% and 19.7%, respectively. The slope efficiencies were more than 31% at both output wavelengths. The pulse durations at the highest average output power were 10.3 ps and 8.4 ps, respectively. We believe that this is the first report of mode locking of a Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm or 1085 nm lines.

  4. 75 FR 45008 - Gregory B. Cundiff, Connie Cundiff, CGX, Inc. and Ironhorse Resources, Inc.-Continuance in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... verified notice of exemption to continue in control of Gardendale Railroad, Inc. (GRI), upon GRI becoming a... & Transfer, Inc. at Gardendale, LaSalle County, Tex. In that proceeding, GRI. seeks an exemption under 49 CFR..., 2010, the effective date of the exemption (30 days after the exemption was filed). GRI is owned by...

  5. Design of Polymer Wavelength Splitter 1310 nm/1550 nm Based on Multimode Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about design of 1x2 1310/1550 nm optical wavelength division multiplexer based on polymer waveguides. The polymer splitter was designed by using RSoft software based on beam propagation method. Epoxy novolak resin polymer was used as core waveguides layer, silicon substrate with silica layer was used as buffer layer and polymethylmethacrylate was used as protection cover layer. The simulation shows that the output energy for the fundamental mode is 67.1 % for 1310 nm and 67.8 % for 1550 nm wavelength.

  6. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, O R; Wong, V A, E-mail: moss@thehamner.or [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27509-2137 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (approx25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm{sup 2} surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x10{sup 6}, 8x10{sup 5}, and 8x10{sup 4} 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x10{sup 4} and 1.12x10{sup 4} 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold - possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  7. 30 CFR 206.157 - Determination of transportation allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a series of outgoing pipelines; (5) Gas Research Institute (GRI) fees. The GRI conducts research... industry and gas customers. GRI fees are allowable provided such fees are mandatory in FERC-approved...

  8. Repair of near-UV (365nm or 313 nm) induced DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The action of near-UV (365 nm or 313 nm) radiation in cellular inactivaton (biological measurements) and induction and repair of breaks (physical measurements) is studied in repair proficient strain and in pol A, rec A and uvr A deficient strains of Escherichia coli K-12. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canagasabey, A.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.

    2003-01-01

    A study is presented on 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers. It is found that the intrinsic 244-nm photosensitivity of boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers is enhanced by 355-nm hypersensitization. Hypersensitization through standard polymer coating is also demonstrated.

  10. Advances in Turbulent Combustion Dynamics Simulations in Bluff-Body Stabilized Flames-Body Stabilized Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    during combustion for GRI -Mech 1.2 reaction mechanism using LEM and CHEMKIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.7 Comparison of temperature during...combustion for GRI -Mech 1.2 raction mechanism using LEM and CHEMKIN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.8 The methane profile along the 5 mm long...combustion process was tested using GRI -Mech 1.2 [44]. GRI -Mech is an optimized detailed chemical reaction mechanism capable of the best representation of

  11. Histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis: pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser versus cw 980-nm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge; Eymard-Maurin, Anne Françoise; Wassmer, Benjamin; Ringot, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The use of the laser as an auxiliary tool has refined the traditional technique for lipoplasty. During laser lipolysis, the interaction between the laser and the fat produced direct cellular destruction before the suction, reduced bleeding, and promoted skin tightening. This study sought to perform a comparative histologic evaluation of laser lipolysis with the pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser versus a continuous 980-nm diode laser. A pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG (Smart-Lipo; Deka, Italy) and a CW 980-nm diode laser (Pharaon, Osyris, France) were evaluated at different energy settings for lipolysis on the thighs of a fresh cadaver. The lasers were coupled to a 600-microm optical fiber inserted in a 1-mm diameter cannula. Biopsy specimens were taken on irradiated and non-irradiated areas. Hematoxylin-erythrosin-safran staining and immunostaining (anti-PS100 polyclonal antibody) were performed to identify fat tissue damage. In the absence of laser exposures (control specimens), cavities created by cannulation were seen; adipocytes were round in appearance and not deflated. At low energy settings, tumescent adipocytes were observed. At higher energy settings, cytoplasmic retraction, disruption of membranes, and heat-coagulated collagen fibers were noted; coagulated blood cells were also present. For the highest energy settings, carbonization of fat tissue involving fibers and membranes was clearly seen. For equivalent energy settings, 1064-nm and 980-nm wavelengths gave similar histologic results. Laser lipolysis is a relatively new technique that is still under development. Our histologic findings suggest several positive benefits of the laser, including skin retraction and a reduction in intraoperative bleeding. The interaction of the laser with the tissue is similar at 980 nm and 1064 nm with the same energy settings. Because higher volumes of fat are removed with higher total energy, a high-power 980-nm diode laser could offer an interesting alternative to the 1064-nm Nd

  12. Hypersensitisation using 266nm Laser Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Kristensen, Martin

    UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions.......UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions....

  13. Advances in 750 nm VECSELs (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Ranta, Sanna; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Guina, Mircea

    2017-03-01

    Lasers operating in the transmission window of tissue at wavelengths between 700 and 800 nm are needed in numerous medical and biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy and fluorescence microscopy. However, the performance of diode lasers in this spectral range is limited by the lack of appropriate compound semiconductors. Here, we review our recent research on 750 nm VECSELs. Two approaches to reaching the 750 nm wavelength will be discussed. The first approach relies on intra-cavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused 1500 nm VECSEL. The VECSEL gain chip comprises a GaAs-based DBR and an InP-based gain section, which allows for optical pumping with low-cost commercial diodes at 980 nm. With this scheme we have achieved watt-level output powers and tuning of the laser wavelength over a 40 nm band at around 750 nm. The second approach is direct emission at 750 nm using the AlGaAs/GaAs material system. In this approach visible wavelengths are required for optical pumping. However, the consequent higher costs compared to pumping at 980 nm are mitigated by the more compact laser setup and prospects of doubling the frequency to the ultraviolet range.

  14. Description of the global petroleum supply and demand outlook. Updated for the 1992 edition of the GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.

    1991-11-01

    The global oil trade is still in surplus production with downward pressure on prices just as in early 1990. The current oil price situation includes three major new factors which need to be taken into account: the outlook for the restoration of production capacity lost from the war; the impact of events in the Soviet Union and former Eastern block; and, the effect changed financial circumstances of the major Middle Eastern producers will have on pricing in the future. The net effect appears to be adequate or excess production capability for the next several years, volatile prices in the near term, with general downward pressures resulting in relative lower average prices. In the longer term there will be an increasing demand requirement for aggressive investment in new capacity resulting in relatively steep escalation in prices. The oil price track used for this projection is essentially the same as in the last two GRI Baseline Projections. The U.S. refiners acquisition cost (RAC) of crude oil is expected to increase at an overall real average rate of 2.3 percent, reaching $36.84 per barrel in 1991 dollars and $83.30 in nominal dollars in the year 2010

  15. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  16. Evolution of the postoperative sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis: is there a difference between rib-based and spine-based growth-friendly instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhonghui; Li, Song; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang; Chen, Xi; Xu, Liang; Sun, Xu

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Although the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) and growing rod instrumentation (GRI) encourage spinal growth via regular lengthening, they can create different results because of their different fixation patterns and mechanisms in correcting scoliosis. Previous studies have focused comparisons on coronal plane deformity with minimal attention to the sagittal profile. In this retrospective study, the authors aimed to compare the evolution of the sagittal spinal profile in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treated with VEPTR versus GRI. METHODS The data for 11 patients with VEPTR and 22 with GRI were reviewed. All patients had more than 2 years' follow-up with more than 2 lengthening procedures. Radiographic measurements were performed before and after the index surgery and at the latest follow-up. The complications in both groups were recorded. RESULTS Patients in both groups had similar diagnoses, age at the index surgery, and number of lengthening procedures. The changes in the major coronal Cobb angle and T1-S1 spinal height were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Compared with the GRI group, the VEPTR group had less correction in thoracic kyphosis (23% ± 12% vs 44% ± 16%, p GRI: 8° ± 5°, p = 0.569), the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis was relatively lower in the VEPTR group (VEPTR: 18.2% vs GRI: 22.7%). No significant changes in the spinopelvic parameters were observed, while the sagittal vertical axis showed a tendency toward a neutral position in both groups. The overall complication rate was higher in the VEPTR group than in the GRI group (72.7% vs 54.5%). CONCLUSIONS The VEPTR had coronal correction and spinal growth results similar to those with GRI. In the sagittal plane, however, the VEPTR was not comparable to the GRI in controlling thoracic kyphosis. Thus, for hyperkyphotic EOS patients, GRI is recommended over VEPTR.

  17. A comparative study with a 755 nm picosecond Alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array and a 532 nm/1064 nm Nd:YAG with a holographic optic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghetti Md, Emil; Jennings, John

    2018-01-01

    This study was performed to better understand the cutaneous effects of using a fractional picosecond laser at 755 nm with a diffractive lens array and a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 mn and 1064 nm with a holographic optic. We characterized the injuries created by these devices on skin clinically and histologically over 24 hours. With this information we modeled the effects of these devices on a cutaneous target. Eight patients, representing Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI, were treated on their backs with a picosecond Alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array, as well as a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm with a holographic optic. Photographs were taken 15 minutes and 24 hours after treatments. Punch biopsies were obtained at 24 hours and examined histologically. Treatment with the picosecond Nd:YAG laser at both 532 nm and 1064 nm with the holographic optic revealed erythema and small scatted areas of petechial hemorrhage areas immediately and in many cases at 24 hours after treatment. The 755 nm picosecond Alexandrite laser with diffractive lens array produced erythema immediately after treatment, which largely dissipated 24 hours later. Histologies revealed intra-epidermal vacuoles with all three wavelengths. Fractional picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm with the holographic optic showed focal areas of dermal and intra-epidermal hemorrhage with areas of vascular damage in some patients. This study demonstrates that both fractional picosecond devices produce vacuoles in the skin, which are most likely due to areas of laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB). In the patients (skin type II-IV) we observed scatter areas of hemorrhage in the skin, due to vascular damage with the 532 nm and 1064 nm, but not with 755 nm wavelengths. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:37-44, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative analysis of the effect of the GaAlAs laser irradiation in 780 nm and 660 nm in the hypersensitive dentin; Analise comparativa do efeito da irradiacao do laser de GaAlAs em 780 nm e 660 nm na hipersensibilidade dentinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Sun Chien

    2003-07-01

    This study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the low intensity in laser radiation among GaAlAs 780 nm and GaAlAs 660 nm. The main proposal is to verify if there is any difference of the effects or results in low intensity laser application treatment of hypersensitive dentin, keeping the same parameters, only differing in wavelength. The samples were distributed in two groups. Group A 90 cases, treated with GaAlAs 780 nm and group B irradiated with GaAlAs 660 nm with a total of 76 cases analyzed. The results of application with GaAlAs 660 nm and GaAlAs 780 nm do not differ statistically. Which means using any one of the irradiation gives the same results. However can be noted that the response of reduction of hypersensitivity is faster with the radiation of GaAlAs 780 nm, but the results after three applications is the same for both types of radiation. (author)

  19. Efficient continuous-wave 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser operation under direct diode pumping at 885 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J; Dai, X J; Zhang, L; Wu, X D

    2013-01-01

    We report compact diode-end-pumped continuous-wave laser operation at 1112 nm under 885 nm diode-direct pumping for the first time. On the basis of the R 2 →Y 6 transition in a conventional Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) single crystal, the maximum output power of 12.5 W is achieved, with an optical to optical efficiency of 46.6% and a slope efficiency of 52.9%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest output at 1112 nm generated by a diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser. Furthermore, it is the highest optical to optical efficiency ever reported for 1112 nm Nd:YAG lasers. The short term power stability is ∼0.32% at 12.0 W output. (letter)

  20. Quasi-three level Nd:YLF fundamental and Raman laser operating under 872-nm and 880-nm direct diode pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Niklaus U.; Bereczki, Allan; Paes, João. Pedro Fonseca

    2018-02-01

    Nd:YLiF4 is the gain material of choice whenever outstanding beam quality or a birefringent gain material is necessary such as in certain applications for terahertz radiation or dual-frequency mode-locking. However, for high power CW applications the material is hampered by a low thermal fracture threshold. This problem can be mitigated by special 2D pump set-ups or by keeping the quantum defect to a minimum. Direct pumping into the upper laser level of Nd:YLiF4 is usually performed at 880 nm. For quasi-three level laser emission at 908 nm, direct pumping at this wavelength provides a high quantum defect of 0.97, which allows for very high CW pump powers. Although the direct pumping transition to the upper laser state at 872 nm has a slightly smaller quantum defect of 0.96, its pump absorption cross section along the c-axis is 50% higher than at 880 nm, leading to a higher absorption efficiency. In this work we explore, for the first time to our knowledge, 908 nm lasing under 872 nm diode pumping and compare the results with 880 nm pumping for quasicw and cw operation. By inserting a KGW crystal in the cavity, Raman lines at 990 nm and 972 nm were obtained for the first time from a directly pumped 908 nm Nd:YLF fundamental laser for both quasi-cw and cw conditions.

  1. Application of Detailed Chemical Kinetics to Combustion Instability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Clearance Number 15692 Clearance Date 12/3/2015 14. ABSTRACT A comparison of a single step global reaction and the detailed GRI -Mech 1.2 for combustion...comparison of a single step global reaction and the detailed GRI -Mech 1.2 for com- bustion instability modeling in a methane-fueled longitudinal-mode...methane as the fuel. We use the GRI -Mech 1.2 kinetics mechanism for methane oxidation.11 The GRI -Mech 1.2 was chosen over 2.11 because the only

  2. Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

  3. Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

  4. Importância da sustentabilidade para as empresas do setor de energia elétrica: utilização de relatório de sustentabilidade com base no GRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fabris Lugoboni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainability Report is a tool that aims to give greater transparency to the business activities and increase dialogue with the organization of society, keeping in mind the need that businesses and organizations need to communicate the success and challenges of their social and environmental strategies and ethical coherence of its operations. The demonstration is used by companies to promote and highlight their sustainable practices. This research sought to understand how companies in the electric energy sector, listed on the BM&FBOVESPA as Novo Mercado (the higher level of Corporate Governance and Level 1 Corporate Governance disseminate to stakeholders their sustainability reports. Documentary analysis was performed through the sustainability reports of electric companies: CEEE, Cemig, CESP, Copel, CPFL, CTEEP, EDP, Eletrobrás, Equatorial Light, MPX (lacks any base of reports and Tractebel. We conducted research reports of companies mentioned 2010 , 2011 e 2012, which was seen a great evolution in the dissemination of the indicators of GRI - Global Reporting Initiative, since they are recognized internationally, which gives companies greater reliability and transparency in its information.

  5. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents.

  6. Robust and Energy-Efficient Ultra-Low-Voltage Circuit Design under Timing Constraints in 65/45 nm CMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-low-voltage operation improves energy efficiency of logic circuits by a factor of 10×, at the expense of speed, which is acceptable for applications with low-to-medium performance requirements such as RFID, biomedical devices and wireless sensors. However, in 65/45 nm CMOS, variability and short-channel effects significantly harm robustness and timing closure of ultra-low-voltage circuits by reducing noise margins and jeopardizing gate delays. The consequent guardband on the supply voltage to meet a reasonable manufacturing yield potentially ruins energy efficiency. Moreover, high leakage currents in these technologies degrade energy efficiency in case of long stand-by periods. In this paper, we review recently published techniques to design robust and energy-efficient ultra-low-voltage circuits in 65/45 nm CMOS under relaxed yet strict timing constraints.

  7. Dėl keleto retų vietovardžių kilmės (Greikónys, Grìkapėdis, Plasapnỹkai, Pušė́nai, Silgiónys, Tauliùkai, Vaĩsodžiai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Palionis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ZUR ENSTEHUNG EINIGER SELTENER ORTSNAMEN (Greikónys, Grìkapėdis, Plasapnỹkai, Pušė́nai, Silgiónys, Tauliùkai, VaĩsodžiaiZusammenfassungIm vorliegenden Artikel werden sieben seltene Dorfnamen aus dem südlitauischen Gebiet behandelt. Die Analyse der Entstehung dieser Ortsnamen stützt sich vorwiegend auf das handschriftliche Material der Tauf- und Trauungsurkunden der zweiten Hälfte des 17. und der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jhs der Gemeinde Punià, die gegenwärtig dem Bezirks Alytùs angehört.Greikónys, die ältere Form ist bereits 1659 in einer Taufurkunde verzeichnet (de Gireykancow; das scheint eine Ableitung von dem Familiennamen *Gireika zu sein. Dieser Name läßt sich mit dem Verb gìrti ‘rühmen, loben’ in Verbindung setzen: *gireika- einer, der eine besondere Neigung sich zu rühmen aufweist, Prahlhans ist.Grìkapėdis ist, ohne Zweifel, ebenfalls anthroponymischen Ursprungs, da der Familienname Grìkpėdis im nordwestlichen Teil von Žemaitija vorkommt. Die Bedeutung der Komponenten dieses zusammengesetzten Familiennamens (grìkas ‘Buchweizen’ + pė́das ‘die Getreidegarbe’ zeigt eine metaphorische Basis der Entstehung des Kompositums. Die gegenwärtige Singularform ist wahrscheinlich eine spätere Bildung: in den Taufurkunden der zweiten Hälfte des 17. Jhs findet man Pluralformen (de Grikopedziow, de Grikiepedzow.Plasapnỹkai, änlich wie Greikonys und Grikapėdis, läßt ebenfalls einen anthroponymischen Ursprung vermuten, obwohl dies nicht so augenscheinlich ist. Dieser Ortsname konnte vom Familiennamen *Plasapnỹkas entstanden sein: *Plasapnỹkas < *plasa +  *upinykas, d. h. ‘ein an dem Fluß Plasãupė Wohnender’. Das erste Glied dieser kontrahierter Zusammensetzung könnte man auf eine Form des Verbs plàsti ‘breiter werden’ zurückführen.Pušė́nai kommt in der zweiten Hälfte des 17. und der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jhs als Puišėnai (de Puyszany vor. Diese ältere Form weist

  8. 75 FR 45011 - Gardendale Railroad, Inc.-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Border Transload & Transfer, Inc. at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... County, TX Gardendale Railroad, Inc. (GRI), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under..., Inc., jointly have filed a verified notice of exemption to continue in control of GRI upon its... effective date of the exemption (30 days after the exemption was filed). GRI certifies that its projected...

  9. Characterization of LANDSAT Panels Using the NIST BRDF Scale from 1100 nm to 2500 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Brian; Tsai, Benjamin K.; Allen, David W.; Cooksey, Catherine; Yoon, Howard; Hanssen, Leonard; Zeng, Jinan; Fulton, Linda; Biggar, Stuart; Markham, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Many earth observing sensors depend on white diffuse reflectance standards to derive scales of radiance traceable to the St Despite the large number of Earth observing sensors that operate in the reflective solar region of the spectrum, there has been no direct method to provide NIST traceable BRDF measurements out to 2500 rim. Recent developments in detector technology have allowed the NIST reflectance measurement facility to expand the operating range to cover the 250 nm to 2500 nm range. The facility has been modified with and additional detector using a cooled extended range indium gallium arsenide (Extended InGaAs) detector. Measurements were made for two PTFE white diffuse reflectance standards over the 1100 nm to 2500 nm region at a 0' incident and 45' observation angle. These two panels will be used to support the OLI calibration activities. An independent means of verification was established using a NIST radiance transfer facility based on spectral irradiance, radiance standards and a diffuse reflectance plaque. An analysis on the results and associated uncertainties will be discussed.

  10. Experiment information - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us GRI...a.nbdc01665-002 Description of data contents Experimentally identified GPCR interaction regions Data file File name: gri...pdb_exp_info.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/gripdb/LATEST/gripdb_exp_info.zip ...File size: 6.2 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/gri...es Data item Description ID Experiment information ID GRIP ID1 GRIP ID related wigh the experiment GRIP ID2 No. in GRI

  11. ColloInputGenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is a very simple program to help you put together input files for use in Gries' (2007) R-based collostruction analysis program. It basically puts together a text file with a frequency list of lexemes in the construction and inserts a column where you can add the corpus frequencies. It requires...... it as input for basic collexeme collostructional analysis (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2003) in Gries' (2007) program. ColloInputGenerator is, in its current state, based on programming commands introduced in Gries (2009). Projected updates: Generation of complete work-ready frequency lists....

  12. Technology of focus detection for 193nm projection lithographic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chengliang; Yan, Wei; Hu, Song; Xu, Feng; Li, Jinglong

    2012-10-01

    With the shortening printing wavelength and increasing numerical aperture of lithographic tool, the depth of focus(DOF) sees a rapidly drop down trend, reach a scale of several hundred nanometers while the repeatable accuracy of focusing and leveling must be one-tenth of DOF, approximately several dozen nanometers. For this feature, this article first introduces several focusing technology, Obtained the advantages and disadvantages of various methods by comparing. Then get the accuracy of dual-grating focusing method through theoretical calculation. And the dual-grating focusing method based on photoelastic modulation is divided into coarse focusing and precise focusing method to analyze, establishing image processing model of coarse focusing and photoelastic modulation model of accurate focusing. Finally, focusing algorithm is simulated with MATLAB. In conclusion dual-grating focusing method shows high precision, high efficiency and non-contact measurement of the focal plane, meeting the demands of focusing in 193nm projection lithography.

  13. Magnetic Susceptibility of liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimakura Hironori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For rare earth alloys, the indirect interaction of RKKY is at work between rare-earth atoms. Therefore, the magnetism of them depends on the number of conduction electrons and the distance between rare-earth metals. In this work, to reveal the relationship between the number of conduction electrons and magnetic property of rare earth metal alloys, magnetic susceptibility measurements for liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge was performed by Faraday method. As the results, it was observed that the sign of paramagnetic Curie temperature of Cu-Gd alloys are positive at all composition, while Ga-Gd and Ge-Gd alloys show negative paramagnetic Curie temperature at certain composition. Moreover, it was indicated when the alloy at certain composition shows highest melting temperature, it has the lowest paramagnetic Curie temperature.

  14. Laser Application in Dentistry: Irradiation Effects of Nd:YAG 1064 nm and Diode 810 nm and 980 nm in Infected Root Canals—A Literature Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Thorsten; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In endodontics, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and diode laser (810 nm and 980 nm) devices are used to remove bacteria in infected teeth. A literature review was elaborated to compare and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using these lasers. Methods. Using combined search terms, eligible articles were retrieved from PubMed and printed journals. The initial search yielded 40 titles and 27 articles were assigned to full-text analysis. The studies were classified based upon laser source, laser energy level, duration/similarity of application, and initial and final bacterial count at a minimum of 20 prepared root canals. Part of the analysis was only reduced microorganisms and mechanically treated root canals upon preparation size of ISO 30. All studies were compared to evaluate the most favorable laser device for best results in endodontic therapy. Results. A total of 22 eligible studies were found regarding Nd:YAG laser 1064 nm. Four studies fulfilled all demanded criteria. Seven studies referring to the diode laser 980 nm were examined, although only one fulfilled all criteria. Eleven studies were found regarding the diode laser 810 nm, although only one study fulfilled all necessary criteria. Conclusions. Laser therapy is effective in endodontics, although a comparison of efficiency between the laser devices is not possible at present due to different study designs, materials, and equipment. PMID:27462611

  15. Laser Application in Dentistry: Irradiation Effects of Nd:YAG 1064 nm and Diode 810 nm and 980 nm in Infected Root Canals-A Literature Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saydjari, Yves; Kuypers, Thorsten; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In endodontics, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and diode laser (810 nm and 980 nm) devices are used to remove bacteria in infected teeth. A literature review was elaborated to compare and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using these lasers. Methods. Using combined search terms, eligible articles were retrieved from PubMed and printed journals. The initial search yielded 40 titles and 27 articles were assigned to full-text analysis. The studies were classified based upon laser source, laser energy level, duration/similarity of application, and initial and final bacterial count at a minimum of 20 prepared root canals. Part of the analysis was only reduced microorganisms and mechanically treated root canals upon preparation size of ISO 30. All studies were compared to evaluate the most favorable laser device for best results in endodontic therapy. Results. A total of 22 eligible studies were found regarding Nd:YAG laser 1064 nm. Four studies fulfilled all demanded criteria. Seven studies referring to the diode laser 980 nm were examined, although only one fulfilled all criteria. Eleven studies were found regarding the diode laser 810 nm, although only one study fulfilled all necessary criteria. Conclusions. Laser therapy is effective in endodontics, although a comparison of efficiency between the laser devices is not possible at present due to different study designs, materials, and equipment.

  16. Porównywalność w czasie informacji o wynikach działalności społecznie odpowiedzialnej firm raportujących według zasad GRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Waniak-Michalak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Porównywalność w czasie informacji o wynikach działalności społecznie odpowiedzialnej firm raportujących według zasad GRI The involvement of corporations in corporate social responsibility (CSR activities with respect for work- ers' rights and ethical principles brings tangible benefits to the enterprise. CSR activities can therefore be considered as an investment, the effects of which should be measured. CSR benefits derive from im- proved assessment of the corporation by the stakeholders and increased social trust. However, in order to achieve the desired results of CSR activities, it is necessary to provide adequate information to customers, employees and owners. Moreover, the measurement of CSR results is necessary to determine the effec- tiveness of the actions taken. The aim of the article was to answer the question if companies present the same measures in successive CSR reports and whether it is possible to compare the CSR activity results for successive years. Examination of 31 CSR reports for two consecutive editions of the reporting showed that companies change the number and type of disclosed measures.

  17. Macular autofluorescence in eyes with cystoid macula edema, detected with 488 nm-excitation but not with 580 nm-excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kenichiro; Gomi, Fumi; Harino, Seiyo; Sawa, Miki; Sayanagi, Kaori; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Tano, Yasuo

    2009-06-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (AF) derives from lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Because lipofuscin is a by-product of phagocytosis of photoreceptors by RPE, AF imaging is expected to describe some functional aspect of the retina. In this study we report distribution of AF in patients showing macular edema. Three eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) and 11 with retinal vein occlusion (RVO), associated with macular edema (ME) were examined. ME was determined by standard fundus examination, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). AF was recorded using a Heidelberg confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) with 488 nm laser exciter (488 nm-AF), and a conventional Topcon fundus camera with halogen lamp exciter and 580 nm band-pass filter (580 nm-AF). Color fundus picture, FA image and these two AF images were analyzed by superimposing all images. All subjects presented cystoid macular edema (CME) with petaloid pattern hyperfluorescence in FA. In 488 nm-AF, all eyes (100%) showed macular autofluorescence of a similar shape to that of the CME in FA. In contrast, in 580 nm-AF only one eye (7%) presented this corresponding petaloid-shaped autofluorescence. In all cases, peripheral retinal edemas did not show autofluorescence corresponding to the leakage in FA. In eyes with CME, analogous hyperautofluorescence to the CME was always observed in 488 nm-AF, while it was rarely observed in 580 nm-AF. Moreover, this CME hyperautofluorescence was only seen in the macular area. We hypothesize that autofluorescence from CME may be considered as a "pseudo" or "relative" autofluorescence, due to macular stretching following CME that may result in lateral displacement of macular pigments (MPs) and subsequent reduction of MPs density, as MPs block 488 nm-AF more intensely than 580 nm-AF. Although this phenomenon may not directly indicate change of RPE function, it may be used as a method to assess or track CME non-invasively.

  18. 19 CFR 102.18 - Rules of interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Interpretation (GRI) 2(a) is referred to in § 102.20 as an exception to an allowed change in tariff... manner as a complete or finished good pursuant to GRI 2(a). (b) (1) For purposes of identifying the... except from subheading 8607.19 when that change is pursuant to GRI 2(a)), the only materials that may be...

  19. Superior Glycemic Control with a Glucose-Responsive Insulin Analog: Hepatic and Nonhepatic Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Courtney; Kelley, David E; Camacho, Raul C; Zafian, Peter; Ye, Tian; Lin, Songnian; Kaarsholm, Niels C; Nargund, Ravi; Kelly, Terri M; Van Heek, Margaret; Previs, Stephen F; Moyes, Christopher; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phil; Cherrington, Alan D

    2018-03-14

    We evaluated the hepatic and nonhepatic responses to glucose-responsive insulin (GRI). Eight dogs received GRI or regular human insulin (HI) in random order. A primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [3- 3 H]glucose began at -120 min. Basal sampling (-30 to 0 min) was followed by 2 study periods (150 min each), P1 and P2. At 0 min, somatostatin and GRI (36±3 pmol/kg/min) or HI (1.8 pmol/kg/min) were infused IV; basal glucagon was replaced intraportally. Glucose was infused intravenously to clamp plasma glucose at 80 mg/dL (P1) and 240 mg/dL (P2). Whole body insulin clearance (WBIC) and insulin concentrations were not different in P1 vs P2 with HI, but WBIC was 23% higher and arterial insulin 16% lower in P1 vs P2 with GRI. Net hepatic glucose output was similar between treatments in P1. In P2, both treatments induced net hepatic glucose uptake (2.1±0.5 [HI] vs 3.3±0.4 [GRI] mg/kg/min). Nonhepatic glucose uptake (nonHGU, mg/kg/min) in P1 and P2, respectively, differed between treatments (2.6±0.3 and 7.4±0.6 with HI; 2.0±0.2 and 8.1±0.8 with GRI). Thus, glycemia impacted GRI but not HI clearance, with resultant differential effects on HGU and nonHGU. GRI holds promise for decreasing hypoglycemia risk while enhancing glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Monolithic PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm for Raman amplification at 1810 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been subject to much attention within the field of fiber lasers and amplifiers as it provides an extended wavelength coverage in comparison to rare-earth based devices. Motivated by the projected capacity crunch [1], different approaches are being explored...... demonstrate a monolithic RM Raman fiber laser (RFL), which acts as a pump for a Raman amplifier (RA) at 1810 nm. The lasing wavelength of a RFL, thus also for a RA, can in principle be designed arbitrarily within the entire wavelength range from the Erbium band up to the Thulium/Holmium band...... of OFS PM Raman fiber, with an estimated propagation loss of 0.42/0.46/1.3 dB/km at 1564/1679/1810 nm. The Raman gain coefficient was measured to be gR=2.66/2.35 W-1km-1 at 1679/1810 nm. The laser curve of the RFL is depicted in Fig. 1b, with a slope efficiency of 67 %. The high slope efficiency...

  1. 308nm Excimer Laser in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraban, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  2. Cryogenic Lifetime Studies of 130 nm and 65 nm CMOS Technologies for High-Energy Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, James R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Deptuch, G. W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wu, Guoying [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Gui, Ping [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-04

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility intends to use unprecedented volumes of liquid argon to fill a time projection chamber in an underground facility. Research is under way to place the electronics inside the cryostat. For reasons of efficiency and economics, the lifetimes of these circuits must be well in excess of 20 years. The principle mechanism for lifetime degradation of MOSFET devices and circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures is hot carrier degradation. Choosing a process technology that is, as much as possible, immune to such degradation and developing design techniques to avoid exposure to such damage are the goals. This, then, requires careful investigation and a basic understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hot carrier degradation and the secondary effects they cause in circuits. In this work, commercially available 130 nm and 65 nm nMOS transistors operating at cryogenic temperatures are investigated. Our results show that both technologies achieve the lifetimes required by the experiment. Minimal design changes are necessary in the case of the 130 nm process and no changes whatsoever are necessary for the 65 nm process.

  3. Predictive validity of granulation tissue color measured by digital image analysis for deep pressure ulcer healing: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji; Kaitani, Toshiko; Sugama, Junko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Naito, Ayumi; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Konya, Chizuko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This multicenter prospective cohort study examined the predictive validity of granulation tissue color evaluated by digital image analysis for deep pressure ulcer healing. Ninety-one patients with deep pressure ulcers were followed for 3 weeks. From a wound photograph taken at baseline, an image representing the granulation red index (GRI) was processed in which a redder color represented higher values. We calculated the average GRI over granulation tissue and the proportion of pixels exceeding the threshold intensity of 80 for the granulation tissue surface (%GRI80) and wound surface (%wound red index 80). In the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, most GRI parameters had adequate discriminative values for both improvement of the DESIGN-R total score and wound closure. Ulcers were categorized by the obtained cutoff points of the average GRI (≤80, >80), %GRI80 (≤55, >55-80, >80%), and %wound red index 80 (≤25, >25-50, >50%). In the linear mixed model, higher classes for all GRI parameters showed significantly greater relative improvement in overall wound severity during the 3 weeks after adjustment for patient characteristics and wound locations. Assessment of granulation tissue color by digital image analysis will be useful as an objective monitoring tool for granulation tissue quality or surrogate outcomes of pressure ulcer healing. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  4. Proceedings of the meeting for coordinating precision machining of optics research and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.

    1975-12-01

    The meeting for ''Coordinating Precision Machining of Optics Research and Requirements'' on September 18, 1975, was sponsored by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland AFB, NM. These proceedings contain an introduction to the meeting including a brief description of the participants and the objectives. The developments and capabilities of Union Carbide Y-12 plant are described in detail. A short summary of the new Moore no. 5 machine at Bendix, Kansas City, Mo. is included as well as a description of using light scattering for roughness characterization at Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado. The executive summary of the meeting mentions some of the discussions that also followed. Important conclusions of the meeting were that a 5 y lead time is required to obtain a machine and acquire the necessary skills for precision machining, and that demands for diamond turning optics will be increasing

  5. Capillary Condensation in 8 nm Deep Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junjie; Riordon, Jason; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Xu, Yi; Persad, Aaron H; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2018-02-01

    Condensation on the nanoscale is essential to understand many natural and synthetic systems relevant to water, air, and energy. Despite its importance, the underlying physics of condensation initiation and propagation remain largely unknown at sub-10 nm, mainly due to the challenges of controlling and probing such small systems. Here we study the condensation of n-propane down to 8 nm confinement in a nanofluidic system, distinct from previous studies at ∼100 nm. The condensation initiates significantly earlier in the 8 nm channels, and it initiates from the entrance, in contrast to channels just 10 times larger. The condensate propagation is observed to be governed by two liquid-vapor interfaces with an interplay between film and bridging effects. We model the experimental results using classical theories and find good agreement, demonstrating that this 8 nm nonpolar fluid system can be treated as a continuum from a thermodynamic perspective, despite having only 10-20 molecular layers.

  6. Comparison of the ablation ability of nucleus pulposus after 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Han, Zhengfeng; Guo, Baofeng; Guo, Han; Zhang, Tongtong; Zeng, Yanjun; Ren, Longxi

    2015-07-01

    To compare the ablation ability of nucleus pulposus after 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser radiation. Goat spine specimen (GSS) was radiated using Nd:YAG laser and 980 nm diode laser and then divided into five groups based on the final energy--200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 J groups. The ablation quality of nucleus pulposus after radiation was recorded. The ablation quality of GSS was greater at higher radiation energies in both lasers. When compared at the same energy level, the ablation quality of GSS was greater in 980 nm diode laser than in 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Statistical significance was observed in 200 and 400 J groups (P diode laser showed better ablation ability than 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser.

  7. Transportation of a 451 ton generator stator and a 234 ton generator rotor from Hartsville, TN, to Los Alamos, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Rogers, J.D.; McLelland, G.R.; Pelts, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    A 1430 MVA steam turbine generator was acquired from a cancelled nuclear power plant in Tennessee to be used as the pulsed power and energy storage unit for the Confinement Physics Research Facility being built at Los Alamos, NM. The transportation from Hartsville, near Nashville, TN, to Los Alamos, NM, of the two largest single pieces of the generator, a 451 t stator and a 234 t rotor presented a special challenge. Details of the move, by barge from Hartsville to Catoosa, near Tulsa, OK, by rail from Catoosa to Lamy, near Santa Fe, NM, and by road from Lamy to Los Alamos are described. The greatest difficulty of the successful move was the crossing of the Rio Grande river on an existing reinforced concrete bridge. The two-lane wide road transporters for the stator and rotor were fitted with outriggers to provide a four-lane wide vehicle, thus spreading the load over the entire bridge width and meeting acceptable load distribution and bridge safety factors. 2 refs., 6 figs

  8. Optimization problems of QW-SCH heterostructures AlGaAs/GaAs designed for working at 808 nm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malag, A.; Kozlowska, A.; Strupinski, W.; Mozdzonek, M.; Dobrzanski, L.; Teodorczyk, M.; Mroziewicz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) emitting in the 808 nm range found main field of application in the pumping systems of Nd 3+ :YAG lasers. Because of narrow absorption line of YAG material, narrow emission line of the laser pump exactly at the 808 nm wavelength is expected at the temperature optimised from the viewpoint of its stabilization (usually it is about 15 o C). To meet these requirements, an optimisation of the laser (AlGa)As heterostructure because of the composition and thickness of the constituent layers is necessary. In the communicate the design foundations, the characteristics of the manufactured LDs based on this design and intrinsic limitations of the possibility of 'tuning' the lasers to desired wavelength in the technological process are presented. The reported LDs are of the wide-stripe type with the Schottky-junction-isolation and have been manufactured from the MOVPE grown (Alga)As heterostructure. (author)

  9. PILOT STUDY: Report on the CCPR Pilot Comparison: Spectral Responsivity 10 nm to 20 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank; Vest, Robert; Saito, Terubumi

    2010-01-01

    The CCPR Pilot Comparison on spectral responsivity in the 10 nm to 20 nm spectral range was carried out within the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by three laboratories: PTB (Germany), NIST (USA), and NMIJ/AIST (Japan) with PTB acting as the central and reporting laboratory. All participating laboratories used monochromatized synchrotron radiation. PTB and NIST used a cryogenic radiometer as the primary standard detector and NMIJ, an ionization chamber with extrapolation by a wavelength-independent detector. The aim of the pilot comparison was to check the accuracy of the radiometric scale of spectral responsivity in the short wavelength EUV spectral range which has recently gained in technological importance. The wavelengths of measurement were from 11.5 nm to 20 nm in 0.5 nm steps and additionally 12.2 nm. The comparison was carried out through the calibration of a group of transfer standard detectors. Two sets of three diodes of types AXUV and SXUV from International Radiation Detectors, Inc. were used for the comparison. The comparison had the form of a star comparison: Pilot-lab A-pilot-lab B-pilot, PTB acting as the pilot laboratory. All results were communicated directly to the pilot laboratory. The report describes in detail the measurements made at PTB and summarizes the reports submitted by the participants. Measurements carried out by the pilot laboratory before and after the circulation of the detectors proved that the stability of the detectors was sufficient for the comparison. For the type AXUV detectors, however, changes in their responsivity contributed to the uncertainty of the comparison. Measurement results from participants and their associated uncertainties were analyzed in this report according to the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation. The uncertainty contributions were separated, as to whether they are wavelength dependent or not. All bilateral DoE are well within the respective k = 2 expanded uncertainty

  10. 5.5nm wavelength-tunable high-power MOPA diode laser system at 971 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Müller, André; Fricke, Jörg; Della Casa, Pietro; Ressel, Peter; Ginolas, Arnim; Feise, David; Sumpf, Bernd; Tränkle, Günther

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a widely tunable hybrid master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) diode laser with 6.2 W of output power at 971.8 nm will be presented. The MO is a DBR laser, with a micro heater embedded on top of the DBR grating for wavelength tunability. The emitted light of the MO is collimated and coupled into a tapered amplifier using micro cylindrical lenses, all constructed on a compact 25 mm × 25 mm conduction cooled laser package. The MOPA system emits light with a measured spectral width smaller than 17 pm, limited by the spectrometer, and with a beam propagation factor of M2 1/e2 = 1.3 in the slow axis. The emission is thus nearly diffraction limited with 79% of the total power within the central lobe (4.9 W diffraction limited). The electrically controlled micro-heater provides up to 5.5 nm of wavelength tunability, up to a wavelength of 977.3 nm, while maintaining an output power variation of only +/- 0.16 % for the entire tuning range.

  11. Laser hypersensitisation using 266nm light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    UV hypersensitisation using CW 266 nm light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum sensitisation fluence is found to be in the range of 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with previous results obtained using 355 nm light, indicating the same end-process used in the photochemical reaction...

  12. Laser Shock Processing of 6061-T6 Al alloy with 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Morales, M.; Casillas, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser Shock Processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results in the LSP concept for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The purpose of the work is to compare the effect of both wavelengths on the same material. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/pulse (1064 nm) and 0.9 J/pulse (532 nm) in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with spots of a 1.5 mm in diameter moving forward along the work piece. A LSP configuration with experimental results using a pulse density of 2500 pulses/cm 2 and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples are presented. High level compressive residual stresses are produced using both wavelengths. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is comparable to that achieved by conventional shot peening, but with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products.

  13. Novel 755-nm diode laser vs. conventional 755-nm scanned alexandrite laser: Side-by-side comparison pilot study for thorax and axillary hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Wagner, Justinus A; Paasch, Hartmut W

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrite (755 nm) and diode lasers (800-810 nm) are commonly used for hair removal. The alexandrite laser technology is somewhat cumbersome whereas new diode lasers are more robust. Recently, alexandrite-like 755 nm wavelength diodes became available. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a 755 nm diode laser operated in conventional (HR) and non-conventional in-motion (SHR) modes with a conventional scanned alexandrite 755 nm laser for chest and axillary hair removal. A prospective, single-center, proof of principle study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and handling of a 755 nm diode laser system in comparison to a standard alexandrite 755 nm scanning hair removal laser. The new 755 nm diode is suitable to be used in SHR and HR mode and has been tested for its safety, efficacy and handling in a volunteer with success. Overall, both systems showed a high efficacy in hair reduction (88.8% 755 nm diode laser vs. 77.7% 755 nm alexandrite laser). Also, during the study period, no severe adverse effects were reported. The new 755 nm diode laser is as effective and safe as the traditional 755 nm alexandrite laser. Additionally, treatment with the 755 nm diode laser with HR and SHR modes was found to be less painful.

  14. 77 FR 8926 - Board Meeting: March 7, 2012-Albuquerque, NM; The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Will...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Repository Geologies Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, the Nuclear Waste... Sheraton Albuquerque Airport Hotel, 2910 Yale Blvd. SE., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106; (Tel) 505-843-7000; (Fax) 505-843-6307. A block of rooms has been reserved at the hotel for meeting attendees. To ensure...

  15. Development of 2-channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR for mapping particulate matter in the atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe the developmentof 2-Channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR system for studying atmospheric particulate matter. The system is currently tested in house at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  16. Comparative analysis of the effect of the GaAlAs laser irradiation in 780 nm and 660 nm in the hypersensitive dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sun Chien

    2003-01-01

    This study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the low intensity in laser radiation among GaAlAs 780 nm and GaAlAs 660 nm. The main proposal is to verify if there is any difference of the effects or results in low intensity laser application treatment of hypersensitive dentin, keeping the same parameters, only differing in wavelength. The samples were distributed in two groups. Group A 90 cases, treated with GaAlAs 780 nm and group B irradiated with GaAlAs 660 nm with a total of 76 cases analyzed. The results of application with GaAlAs 660 nm and GaAlAs 780 nm do not differ statistically. Which means using any one of the irradiation gives the same results. However can be noted that the response of reduction of hypersensitivity is faster with the radiation of GaAlAs 780 nm, but the results after three applications is the same for both types of radiation. (author)

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Process Optimization for Contact Layer of 14 nm Node Logic and 16 nm Half Pitch Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-En; Chen, Alek

    2012-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is considered the most promising single exposure technology at the 27 nm half-pitch node and beyond. The imaging performance of ASML TWINSCAN NXE:3100 has been demonstrated to be able to resolve 26 nm Flash gate layer and 16 nm static random access memory (SRAM) metal layer with a 0.25 numerical aperture (NA) and conventional illumination. Targeting for high volume manufacturing, ASML TWINSCAN NXE:3300B, featuring a 0.33 NA lens with off-axis illumination, will generate a higher contrast aerial image due to improved diffraction order collection efficiency and is expected to reduce target dose via mask biasing. This work performed a simulation to determine how EUV high NA imaging benefits the mask rule check trade-offs required to achieve viable lithography solutions in two device application scenarios: a 14 nm node 6T-SRAM contact layer and a 16 nm half-pitch NAND Flash staggered contact layer. In each application, the three-dimensional mask effects versus Kirchhoff mask were also investigated.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation on plant growth, nodulation, nutritional status and yield of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Hefni, E.H.; Maghraby, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted under the conditions of a sandy clay-loam soil. Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma rays (0,5,10,20,40,80 and 160 Gry) before planting. Low-medium range of gamma rays (5-40 Gry), particularly at 20 Gry, considerably stimulated plant growth, nodules formation and development as well as the total uptake of N and Mn by plants. Significant increase in seed yield was obtained as a result of gamma rays ranged from 10 to 40 Gry, but the dose of 160 Gry, reduced it. The total contents of protein and oil in seeds were highly related to the produced yield, however their concentrations did not affect by the tested range of gamma rays. Generally, seed yield of soybean seemed to be positively related to the rate of plant growth, nodulation and nutritional status. Therefore, irradiation of seeds before planting with low gamma doses could be recommended to improve the productivity of soybean

  19. Influence of silicon species on the transformation of green rust I(Cl-) in aqueous solution by oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Gadadhar; Fujieda, Shun; Shinoda, Kozo; Yamaguchi, Shinichi; Korosaki, Masao; Suzuki, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Addition of silicate species and silica to GRI(Cl - ) increased oxidation time. → The lepidocrocite particle size in silicate added case has been reduced significantly. → The influence of silicate was attributed to its adsorption on lepidocrocite. → Silicate also influenced GRI(Cl - ) transformation due to adsorption on it. - Abstract: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solution analysis were used for characterizing the influence of different silicon species on oxidation of green rust (GRI(Cl - )) suspension. While addition of silicon to metallic iron enhanced the formation of β-FeOOH, GRI(Cl - ) in aqueous solution oxidized into lepidocrocite and oxidation was delayed in presence of silica and silicate species as noticed from potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the particle size of lepidocrocite was reduced due to silicate addition. The influence of silicate was attributed to its adsorption on GRI(Cl - ) and lepidocrocite particles as confirmed from ICP-AES analysis of supernatant solution.

  20. Combined 595-nm and 1,064-nm laser irradiation of recalcitrant and hypertrophic port-wine stains in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Tina S; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2009-06-01

    Although pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of port-wine stain (PWS) has long been proven safe and effective, incomplete clearance of these vascular malformations can be problematic. In addition, advanced PWS with deeper coloration and tissue hypertrophy can be particularly difficult to treat because of the superficial dermal penetration of 585- to 595-nm light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel device that delivers sequential pulses of 595- and 1,064-nm wavelengths in the treatment of recalcitrant and hypertrophic PWS. Twenty-five children and adults (skin phototypes I-III) with recalcitrant or hypertrophic PWS showing incomplete clearance after 10 prior PDL treatments were included in the study. Successive treatments using a 595-nm PDL and a 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser were delivered at 6- to 8-week intervals. Two masked assessors determined clinical improvement of treatment areas using independent evaluation of comparative photographs at baseline and 3 months after treatment using a standard quartile grading scale. The use of dual 595-/1,064-nm wavelengths provided continued improvement of PWS that were previously recalcitrant to ongoing PDL therapy. Side effects were limited to transient erythema, edema, and mild purpura. Rare vesicle formation was observed, with no subsequent scarring or undesirable pigmentary changes. The novel dual 595-nm PDL and 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser is an effective treatment for PWS that are recalcitrant to PDL therapy alone.

  1. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  2. Ocular effects of ultraviolet radiation from 295 to 365 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, D.G.; Cullen, A.P.; Hacker, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    A 5,000 watt Xe--Hg source and a double monochromator were used to produce 6.6 nm full band-pass ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Pigmented rabbit eyes were exposed to the 6.6 nm band-pass UV radiant energy in 5 nm steps from 295 to 320 nm and at random intervals above 320 nm. Corneal and lenticular damage was assessed and classified with a biomicroscope. Corneal threshold radiant exposure (Hc) rose very rapidly from 0.022 Jcm -2 at 300 nm to 10.99 Jcm -2 at 335 nm. Radiant exposures exceeding 2 x Hc resulted in irreversible corneal damage. Lenticular damage was limited to wavebands above 295 nm. The action spectrum for the lens began at 295 nm and extended to about 315 nm. Permanent lenticular damage occurred at radiant exposure levels approximately twice the threshold for lenticular radiant exposure. The importance in establishing both corneal and lenticular damage criteria is emphasized

  3. Relatórios de sustentabilidade segundo a Global Reporting Initiative (GRI: uma análise de correspondências entre os setores econômicos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Alencar Souza Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo principal apresentar o nível de adesão e o volume de publicações dos relatórios de sustentabilidade das empresas brasileiras conforme as diretrizes da Global Reporting Initiative (GRI entre 2000 e 2008. Para a análise, foram definidas 5 variáveis de estudo: i Setor econômico de atuação das empresas; ii Ano de adesão às diretrizes; iii Nível de aplicação das diretrizes; iv Existência de ações negociadas em segmentos da BM&FBOVESPA; e v Participação na composição do índice de sustentabilidade empresarial (ISE da BM&FBOVESPA. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos, foram aplicadas análises por correspondências simples e múltipla entre os setores de atuação econômica das empresas publicantes e as 5 variáveis de estudos definidas. Os resultados mostram que o universo de organizações que publicaram relatórios socioambientais até 2008 ainda é reduzido. Contudo, observa-se crescente adesão, demonstrada pelo número de publicações, sobretudo na Europa. As empresas brasileiras responderam por metade do volume de publicações em 2008 na América Latina e o setor de energia liderou esse processo no país com 35% da amostra.

  4. Rational Design of Glucose-Responsive Insulin Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakh, Naveed A; Bisker, Gili; Lee, Michael A; Gong, Xun; Strano, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    A glucose responsive insulin (GRI) is a therapeutic that modulates its potency, concentration, or dosing of insulin in relation to a patient's dynamic glucose concentration, thereby approximating aspects of a normally functioning pancreas. Current GRI design lacks a theoretical basis on which to base fundamental design parameters such as glucose reactivity, dissociation constant or potency, and in vivo efficacy. In this work, an approach to mathematically model the relevant parameter space for effective GRIs is induced, and design rules for linking GRI performance to therapeutic benefit are developed. Well-developed pharmacokinetic models of human glucose and insulin metabolism coupled to a kinetic model representation of a freely circulating GRI are used to determine the desired kinetic parameters and dosing for optimal glycemic control. The model examines a subcutaneous dose of GRI with kinetic parameters in an optimal range that results in successful glycemic control within prescribed constraints over a 24 h period. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the modeling approach can find GRI parameters that enable stable glucose levels that persist through a skipped meal. The results provide a framework for exploring the parameter space of GRIs, potentially without extensive, iterative in vivo animal testing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Combination of Q-switched and quasi long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, non-ablative 1450-nm diode laser, and ablative 10 600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser for enlarged pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Bin; Noh, Seongmin; Lee, Sang Ju; Kang, Jin Moon; Kim, Young Koo; Lee, Ju Hee

    2010-07-01

    Currently, there is no gold standard for the treatment of enlarged facial pores. In this report, we describe a patient with enlarged nasal pores which were treated with a combination of a non-ablative 1450-nm diode laser, a Q-switched and quasi long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, and an ablative 10 600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser system. Four months after the final treatment, the condition of the patient's pores had markedly improved, and the patient was satisfied with the results.

  6. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...... in the HCG minimizes this reduction of the quantum confinement factor, not as significant as in the air-coupled cavity DBR VCSEL....

  7. Two transistor cluster DICE Cells with the minimum area for a hardened 28-nm CMOS and 65-nm SRAM layout design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenin, V.Ya.; Stepanov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A hardened DICE cell layout design is based on the two spaced transistor clusters of the DICE cell each consisting of four transistors. The larger the distance between these two CMOS transistor clusters, the more robust the hardened DICE SRAM to Single Event Upsets. Some versions of the 28-nm and 65-nm DICE CMOS SRAM block composition have been suggested with minimum cluster distances of 2.27-2.32 mkm. The area of hardened 28-nm DICE CMOS cells is larger than the area of 28-nm 6T CMOS cells by a factor of 2.1 [ru

  8. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm....... Brownian relaxation is measured for six different magnetic bead types and their hydrodynamic diameters are determined. The hydrodynamic diameters are found to be within 40% of the nominal bead diameters. We discuss the applicability of the different bead types for volume-based biosensing with respect...... to sedimentation, magnetic trapping, and signal per bead. Among the investigated beads, we conclude that the beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are best suited for future on-chip volume-based biosensing experiments using planar Hall effect sensors....

  9. Treatment of inflammatory facial acne vulgaris with combination 595-nm pulsed-dye laser with dynamic-cooling-device and 1,450-nm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaich, Adrienne S; Friedman, Paul M; Jih, Ming H; Goldberg, Leonard H

    2006-03-01

    The 585-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser have been found effective for the treatment of mild-to-moderate inflammatory facial acne. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined treatment with the 595-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser for inflammatory facial acne. Fifteen patients with inflammatory facial acne were treated with a combination of the 595-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser. Patients' subjective response to treatment was evaluated regarding improvement in acne, acne scarring, oiliness, and redness of the skin. All patients had reductions in acne lesion counts. Mean lesion counts decreased 52% (P < 0.01), 63% (P < 0.01), and 84% (P < 0.01) after one, two, and three treatments, respectively. Patients described moderate-to-marked improvement in acne, acne scarring, and post-inflammatory erythema. Adverse effects were limited to mild, transient erythema. The combination of the 595-nm pulsed-dye laser and the 1,450-nm diode laser is safe and effective for the treatment of inflammatory facial acne, acne scarring, and post-inflammatory erythema. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Study of drain-extended NMOS under electrostatic discharge stress in 28 nm and 40 nm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weihuai; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shurong; Zhong, Lei; Han, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Researches on the electrostatic discharge (ESD) performance of drain-extended NMOS (DeNMOS) under the state-of-the-art 28 nm and 40 nm bulk CMOS process are performed in this paper. Three distinguishing phases of avalanche breakdown stage, depletion region push-out stage and parasitic NPN turn on stage of the gate-grounded DeNMOS (GG-DeNMOS) fabricated under 28 nm CMOS process measured with transmission line pulsing (TLP) test are analyzed through TCAD simulations and tape-out silicon verification detailedly. Damage mechanisms and failure spots of GG-DeNMOS under both CMOS processes are thermal breakdown of drain junction. Improvements based on the basic structure adjustments can increase the GG-DeNMOS robustness from original 2.87 mA/μm to the highest 5.41 mA/μm. Under 40 nm process, parameter adjustments based on the basic structure have no significant benefits on the robustness improvements. By inserting P+ segments in the N+ implantation of drain or an entire P+ strip between the N+ implantation of drain and polysilicon gate to form the typical DeMOS-SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier) structure, the ESD robustness can be enhanced from 1.83 mA/μm to 8.79 mA/μm and 29.78 mA/μm, respectively.

  11. Bilirubin isomer distribution in jaundiced neonates during phototherapy with LED light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Finn; Madsen, Poul H; Vandborg, Pernille K; Jakobsen, Lasse H; Trydal, Torleif; Vreman, Hendrik J

    2016-10-01

    Phototherapy using blue light is the treatment of choice worldwide for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, treatment with turquoise light may be a desirable alternative. Therefore, the aim of this randomized, controlled study was to compare the bilirubin isomer distribution in serum of jaundiced neonates after 24 h of therapy with narrow-band (LED) light centered at 497 nm (turquoise) vs. 459 nm (blue), of essentially equal irradiance. Eighty-three neonates (≥33 wk gestational age) with uncomplicated hyperbilirubinemia were included in the study. Forty neonates were exposed to light centered at 497 nm and 43 infants with light centered at 459 nm. Irradiances were 5.2 × 10(15) and 5.1 × 10(15) photons/cm(2)/s, respectively. After 24 h of treatment no significant differences in serum concentrations of total bilirubin isomers and Z,Z-bilirubin were observed between the 2 groups. Interestingly, concentrations of Z,E-bilirubin, and thus also total bilirubin isomers formed during therapy, were highest for infants receiving light centered at 459 nm, while the concentration of E,Z-bilirubin was highest for those receiving light centered at 497 nm. No significant difference was found between concentrations of E,Z-lumirubin. Therapy with LED light centered at 497 nm vs. 459 nm, applied with equal irradiance on the infants, resulted in a different distribution of bilirubin isomers in serum.

  12. Prediction of Combustion Instability with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of combustion instability. The mechanisms used for methane oxidation are the GRI 1.2 set that comprises of 32 chemical species and 177 reactions. All...with a single step global reaction and the GRI -1.2 kinetics mechanism which contains 177 reactions. The paper is organized as follows, Section II...flame speeds10. GRI -1.2 is a more complete set of hydrocarbon reactions consisting of 177 reactions involving 32 species and was optimized for natural

  13. Removal of sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen and nitrobenzene by UV and UV/chlorine processes: A comparative evaluation of 275 nm LED-UV and 254 nm LP-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minhwan; Yoon, Yeojoon; Kim, Seonbaek; Jung, Youmi; Hwang, Tae-Mun; Kang, Joon-Wun

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the micropollutant removal capacity of a 275 nm light-emitting diode (LED)-UV/chlorine system. The sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, and nitrobenzene removal efficiencies of this system were compared with those of a conventional 254 nm low-pressure (LP)-UV system as a function of the UV dose. In a direct photolysis system, the photon reactivity of sulfamethoxazole is higher than that of nitrobenzene and ibuprofen at both wavelengths. The molar absorption coefficients and quantum yields of each micropollutant were as follows: sulfamethoxazole (ε SMX, 275 nm protonated  = 17,527 M -1  cm -1 , Φ SMX, 275 nm protonated  = 0.239, ε SMX, 275 nm deprotonated  = 8430 M -1  cm -1 , and Φ SMX, 275 nm deprotonated  = 0.026), nitrobenzene (ε NB, 275 nm  = 7176 M -1  cm -1 and Φ NB, 275 nm  = 0.057), and ibuprofen (ε NB, 275 nm  = 200 M -1  cm -1 and Φ IBF, 275 nm  = 0.067). The photon reactivity of chlorine species, i.e., HOCl and OCl-, were determined at 275 nm (ε HOCl, 275 nm  = 28 M -1  cm -1 , Φ HOCl, 275 nm  = 1.97, ε OCl-, 275 nm  = 245 M -1  cm -1 , and Φ OCl-, 275 nm  = 0.8), which indicate that the decomposition rate of OCl - is higher and that of HOCl is lower by 275 nm photolysis than that by 254 nm photolysis (ε HOCl, 254 nm  = 60 M -1  cm -1 , Φ HOCl, 254 nm  = 1.46, ε OCl-, 254 nm  = 58 M -1  cm -1 , and Φ OCl-, 254 nm  = 1.11). In the UV/chlorine system, the removal rates of ibuprofen and nitrobenzene were increased by the formation of OH and reactive chlorine species. The 275-nm LED-UV/chlorine system has higher radical yields at pH 7 and 8 than the 254 nm LP-UV/chlorine system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Michael Fitzsimmons from Los Alamos National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  15. 16.7 W 885 nm diode-side-pumped actively Q -switched Nd:YAG/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser at 1176 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Pengbo; Zhang, Guizhong; Liu, Jian; Ding, Xin; Sheng, Quan; Sun, Bing; Shi, Rui; Wu, Liang; Yao, Jianquan; Yu, Xuanyi; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated the generation of high-power 1176 nm Stokes wave by frequency shifting of a 885 nm diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a YVO 4 crystal in a Z -shaped cavity configuration. Employing the 885 nm diode-side-pumped scheme and the Z -shaped cavity, for the first time to our knowledge, we realized the thermal management effectively, achieving excellent 1176 nm Stokes wave consequently. With an incident pump power of ∼190.0 W, a maximum average output power of 16.7 W was obtained at the pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz. The pulse duration and spectrum linewidth of the Stokes wave at the maximum output power were 20.3 ns and ∼0.08 nm, respectively. (paper)

  16. Comparative Study of the Detection of Chromium Content in Rice Leaves by 532 nm and 1064 nm Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast detection of toxic metals in crops is important for monitoring pollution and ensuring food safety. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS was used to detect the chromium content in rice leaves. We investigated the influence of laser wavelength (532 nm and 1064 nm excitation, along with the variations of delay time, pulse energy, and lens-to-sample distance (LTSD, on the signal (sensitivity and stability and plasma features (temperature and electron density. With the optimized experimental parameters, univariate analysis was used for quantifying the chromium content, and several preprocessing methods (including background normalization, area normalization, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC transformation and standardized normal variate (SNV transformation were used to further improve the analytical performance. The results indicated that 532 nm excitation showed better sensitivity than 1064 nm excitation, with a detection limit around two times lower. However, the prediction accuracy for both excitation wavelengths was similar. The best result, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9849, root-mean-square error of 3.89 mg/kg and detection limit of 2.72 mg/kg, was obtained using the SNV transformed signal (Cr I 425.43 nm induced by 532 nm excitation. The results indicate the inspiring capability of LIBS for toxic metals detection in plant materials.

  17. A high power, continuous-wave, single-frequency fiber amplifier at 1091 nm and frequency doubling to 545.5 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stappel, M; Steinborn, R; Kolbe, D; Walz, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a high power single-frequency ytterbium fiber amplifier system with an output power of 30 W at 1091 nm. The amplifier system consists of two stages, a preamplifier stage in which amplified spontaneous emission is efficiently suppressed (>40 dB) and a high power amplifier with an efficiency of 52%. Two different approaches to frequency doubling are compared. We achieve 8.6 W at 545.5 nm by single-pass frequency doubling in a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO 3 crystal and up to 19.3 W at 545.5 nm by frequency doubling with a lithium-triborate crystal in an external enhancement cavity. (paper)

  18. Effect of guided relaxation and imagery on falls self-efficacy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Newton, Roberta A; Sachs, Michael L; Glutting, Joseph J; Glanz, Karen

    2012-06-01

    To examine the effects of guided relaxation and imagery (GRI) on improvement in falls self-efficacy in older adults who report having a fear of falling. Randomized, controlled trial with allocation to GRI or guided relaxation with music of choice. General community. Ninety-one men and women aged 60 to 92. Participants were randomized to listen to a GRI audio compact disk (intervention group) or a guided relaxation audio compact disk and music of choice (control group) twice a week for 6 weeks for 10 minutes per session. Primary outcome measure was the Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Secondary outcome measures were the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) mobility test. GRI participants reported greater improvements on the Short FES-I (P = .002) and LTEQ (P = .001) scores and shorter time on the TUG (P = .002) than the guided relaxation and music-of-choice group. GRI was more effective at increasing falls self-efficacy and self-reported leisure time exercise and reducing times on a simple mobility test than was guided relaxation with music of choice. GRI is an effective, simple, low-cost tool for older adults to improve falls self-efficacy and leisure time exercise behaviors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Trends in nanosecond melanosome microcavitation up to 1540 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Noojin, Gary D.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-09-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of bovine and porcine melanosomes were previously reported, using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the visible (532 nm) and the near-infrared (NIR) from 1000 to 1319 nm. Here, we report average radiant exposure thresholds for bovine melanosome microcavitation at additional NIR wavelengths up to 1540 nm, which range from ˜0.159 J/cm2 at 800 nm to 4.5 J/cm2 at 1540 nm. Melanosome absorption coefficients were also estimated, and decreased with increasing wavelength. These values were compared to retinal pigment epithelium coefficients, and to water absorption, over the same wavelength range. Corneal total intraocular energy retinal damage threshold values were estimated and compared to the previous (2007) and recently changed (2014) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe levels. Results provide additional data that support the recent changes to the MPE levels, as well as the first microcavitation data at 1540 nm, a wavelength for which melanosome microcavitation may be an ns-pulse skin damage mechanism.

  20. Experimental Studies of Simultaneous 351 nm and 527 nm Laser Beam Interactions in a Long Scalelength Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J D; Divol, L; Glenzer, S H; MacKinnon, A J; Froula, D H; Gregori, G; Kruer, W L; Suter, L J; Williams, E A; Bahr, R; Seka, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe experiments investigating the simultaneous backscattering from 351 nm (3w) and 527 nm (2w) interaction beams in a long scalelength laser-produced plasma for intensities (le) 1 x 10 15 W/cm 2 . Measurements show comparable scattering fractions for both color probe beams. Time resolved spectra of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering (SRS and SBS) indicate the effects of laser intensity and smoothing as well as plasma composition and parameters on the scattering levels

  1. Clock Gating Based Energy Efficient and Thermal Aware Design for Vedic Equation Solver on 28nm and 40nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Pandey, Sujeet; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are integrating clock gating in design of energy efficient equation solver circuits based on Vedic mathematics. Clock gating is one of the best energy efficient techniques. The Sutra 'SunyamSamyasamuccaye' says thatif sum of numerator and sum of denominator is same then we can e......, 94.54% for 1800MHz, and 94.02% for 2.2GHz, when we use gated clock instead of un gated one on 40nm FPGA and temperature is 329.85K. Power consumption in 28nm FPGA is less than 40nm FPGA....

  2. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  3. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm 2 ). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm 2 , plaser scanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  4. Holistic approach for overlay and edge placement error to meet the 5nm technology node requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkens, Jan; Slachter, Bram; Kubis, Michael; Tel, Wim; Hinnen, Paul; Maslow, Mark; Dillen, Harm; Ma, Eric; Chou, Kevin; Liu, Xuedong; Ren, Weiming; Hu, Xuerang; Wang, Fei; Liu, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the metrology methods and error budget that describe the edge placement error (EPE). EPE quantifies the pattern fidelity of a device structure made in a multi-patterning scheme. Here the pattern is the result of a sequence of lithography and etching steps, and consequently the contour of the final pattern contains error sources of the different process steps. EPE is computed by combining optical and ebeam metrology data. We show that high NA optical scatterometer can be used to densely measure in device CD and overlay errors. Large field e-beam system enables massive CD metrology which is used to characterize the local CD error. Local CD distribution needs to be characterized beyond 6 sigma, and requires high throughput e-beam system. We present in this paper the first images of a multi-beam e-beam inspection system. We discuss our holistic patterning optimization approach to understand and minimize the EPE of the final pattern. As a use case, we evaluated a 5-nm logic patterning process based on Self-Aligned-QuadruplePatterning (SAQP) using ArF lithography, combined with line cut exposures using EUV lithography.

  5. Liposucción con diodo láser 980-nm (LSDL 980-nm: optimización de protocolo seguro en cirugía de contorno corporal Body contouring using laser diode 980-nm (LSDL 980-nm assisted lipolysis: a safe procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Centurión

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad en el mercado de una gran gama de equipos de láser de diferentes potencias y longitudes de onda para su aplicación en el tejido graso, así como la existencia de diversos trabajos científicos sobre el tema con resultados opuestos, han causado gran confusión y dudas sobre la técnica de láser-lipolisis entre los cirujanos plásticos. Presentamos un protocolo quirúrgico de liposucción con diodo-láser de 980-nm (LSDL 980-nm aplicado en 240 pacientes. Evaluamos la seguridad de la técnica según el índice de complicaciones sufrido, así como la evolución en el post-operatorio de los pacientes tratados. Empleamos un equipo diodo-láser-980 nm (ORlight ®, cuya energía llevamos a través de una fibra de 600 μm. Esto se traduce en la aplicación de 99 J por cada cm² de área tratada, con un espesor de hasta 4 cm de tejido adiposo subcutáneo. No tuvimos complicaciones mayores, tipo quemaduras y entre las complicaciones menores, que fueron de un 48.33 % (116 pacientes, encontramos equímosis mínimas (menos del 2 % de superficie corporal. El tiempo que los pacientes requirieron para controlar el dolor postoperatorio fue de entre 1 y 2 días. Consideramos importante la incorporación de la LSDL-980 nm por ser una técnica menos traumática y con bajo índice de complicaciones, que reduce el periodo de recuperación de los pacientes, provoca una importante retracción de la piel y disminuye el dolor postoperatorio.The availability of multiple laser systems on the market with different power and wavelengths and the existence of several scientific papers with contradictory presents, have created great confusion and doubts among plastic surgeons with regard to the laser lipolysis technique. We report a surgical protocol for liposuction diode laser-980 nm (LSDL-980 nm applied to 240 patients. We evaluate the security of the technique according to the complication rate and the postoperative development of patients submitted to

  6. Nearly fully compressed 1053 nm pulses directly obtained from 800 nm laser-seeded photonic crystal fiber below zero dispersion point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaeli, Zaharit; Shamir, Yariv; Ofir, Atara; Marcus, Gilad

    2018-02-01

    We report a simple robust and broadly spectral-adjustable source generating near fully compressed 1053 nm 62 fs pulses directly out of a highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A dispersion-nonlinearity balance of 800 nm Ti:Sa 20 fs pulses was obtained initially by negative pre-chirping and then launching the pulses into the fibers' normal dispersion regime. Following a self-phase modulation spectral broadening, some energy that leaked below the zero dispersion point formed a soliton whose central wavelength could be tuned by Self-Frequency-Raman-Shift effect. Contrary to a common approach of power, or, fiber-length control over the shift, here we continuously varied the state of polarization, exploiting the Raman and Kerr nonlinearities responsivity for state of polarization. We obtained soliton pulses with central wavelength tuned over 150 nm, spanning from well below 1000 to over 1150 nm, of which we could select stable pulses around the 1 μm vicinity. With linewidth of > 20 nm FWHM Gaussian-like temporal-shape pulses with 62 fs duration and near flat phase structure we confirmed high quality pulse source. We believe such scheme can be used for high energy or high power glass lasers systems, such as Nd or Yb ion-doped amplifiers and systems.

  7. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mincigrucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  8. Enhancement of 800 nm upconversion emission in a thulium doped tellurite microstructured fiber pumped by a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhixu; Zheng, Kezhi [State Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber and Cable Manufacture Technology, Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable Joint Stock Limited Company, Wuhan 430073 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yao, Chuanfei; Wang, Shunbin; Qin, Guanshi, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn; Qin, Weiping, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Xiong, Liangming; Luo, Jie; Lv, Dajuan [State Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber and Cable Manufacture Technology, Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable Joint Stock Limited Company, Wuhan 430073 (China); Ohishi, Yasutake [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468–8511 (Japan)

    2016-04-28

    We report enhanced upconversion (UC) fluorescence in Tm{sup 3+} doped tellurite microstructured fibers (TDTMFs) fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. Under the pumping of a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser, ultrabroadband supercontinuum light expanding from ∼1050 to ∼2700 nm was generated in a 4 cm long TDTMF. Simultaneously, intense 800 nm UC emission from the {sup 3}H{sub 4} → {sup 3}H{sub 6} transition of Tm{sup 3+} was observed in the same TDTMF. Compared to that pumped by a 1560 nm continuous wave fiber laser, the UC emission intensity was enhanced by ∼4.1 times. The enhancement was due to the spectral broadening in the TDTMF under the pumping of the 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser.

  9. 39 CFR 6.1 - Regular meetings, annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular meetings, annual meeting. 6.1 Section 6.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.1 Regular meetings, annual meeting. The Board shall meet regularly on a schedule...

  10. Absolute frequency atlas from 915 nm to 985 nm based on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölleke, Christian; Raab, Christoph; Neuhaus, Rudolf; Falke, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine gas between 915 nm and 985 nm. This wavelength range is scanned utilizing a narrow linewidth and mode-hop-free tunable diode-laser whose frequency is actively controlled using a calibrated wavelength meter. This allows us to provide an iodine atlas that contains almost 10,000 experimentally observed reference lines with an uncertainty of 50 MHz. For common lines, good agreement is found with a publication by Gerstenkorn and Luc (1978). The new rich dataset allows existing models of the iodine molecule to be refined and can serve as a reference for laser frequency calibration and stabilization.

  11. 1300 nm and 890 nm OCT images of oral cancer tissue engineered models and biopsy samples offer complimentary performance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Joseph; Byers, Robert A.; Fernandes, Jon; Mittar, Shweta; Hearnden, Vanessa; Lu, Zenghai; MacNeil, Sheila; Thornhill, Martin; Murdoch, Craig; Hunter, Keith D.; McKechnie, Alasdair; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-02-01

    OCT has demonstrated great potential to non-invasively detect oral epithelial cancers, potentially guiding biopsy and surgical resection. On non-ophthalmic tissues the preferred illumination wavelength is 1300 nm. Previous studies on skin have shown that useful image data can also be obtained at shorter wavelengths, with systems at 1060 nm and 820 nm offering reduced depth penetration but higher contrast. Here we apply a similar comparison to tissue engineered models of oral cancer and also to human biopsy samples, generally finding a similar trend. 1300 nm multi-beam OCT (Michelson Diagnostics EX1301) visualises stromal structures and surface keratin more clearly, providing useful image contrast down to around 1 mm. This system was compared with an ultra-high resolution home-built system operating at 890 nm (2.5 micron resolution vs 7.5 micron axial resolution for the EX1301). The UHR system reveals epithelial features more clearly, especially in the DOK pre-invasive cell line model and the biopsy samples. The relative effects of center wavelength vs axial resolution in generating the differential, wavelength-dependent contrast are assessed and the OCT biopsy images are compared with contemporary histology.

  12. Proceedings of the fuel cells 1994 contractors review meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C. P., II; Mayfield, M. J.

    1994-08-01

    METC annually sponsors this conference to provide a forum for energy executives, engineers, etc. to discuss advances in fuel cell research and development projects, to exchange ideas with private sector attendees, and to review relevant results in fuel cell technology programs. Two hundred and three people from industry, academia, and Government attended. The conference attempts to showcase the partnerships with the Government and with industry, by seeking activity participation and involvement from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EPRI, GRI, and APRA. In addition to sessions on fuel cells (solid oxide, molten carbonate, etc.) for stationary electric power generation, sessions on US DOE's Fuel Cell Transportation Program and on DOD/APRA's fuel cell logistic fuel program were presented. In addition to the 29 technical papers, an abstract of an overview of international fuel cell development and commercialization plans in Europe and Japan is included. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Proceedings of the fuel cells `94 contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, C.P. II; Mayfield, M.J. [eds.] [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1994-08-01

    METC annually sponsors this conference to provide a forum for energy executives, engineers, etc. to discuss advances in fuel cell research and development projects, to exchange ideas with private sector attendees, and to review relevant results in fuel cell technology programs. Two hundred and three people from industry, academia, and Government attended. The conference attempts to showcase the partnerships with the Government and with industry, by seeking activity participation and involvement from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EPRI, GRI, and APRA. In addition to sessions on fuel cells (solid oxide, molten carbonate, etc.) for stationary electric power generation, sessions on US DOE`s Fuel Cell Transporation Program and on DOD/APRA`s fuel cell logistic fuel program were presented. In addition to the 29 technical papers, an abstract of an overview of international fuel cell development and commercialization plans in Europe and Japan is included. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Efficient differentiation of steroidogenic and germ-like cells from epigenetically-related iPSCs derived from ovarian granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Anchan

    Full Text Available To explore restoration of ovarian function using epigenetically-related, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, we functionally evaluated the epigenetic memory of novel iPSC lines, derived from mouse and human ovarian granulosa cells (GCs using c-Myc, Klf4, Sox2 and Oct4 retroviral vectors. The stem cell identity of the mouse and human GC-derived iPSCs (mGriPSCs, hGriPSCs was verified by demonstrating embryonic stem cell (ESC antigen expression using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis, as well as formation of embryoid bodies (EBs and teratomas that are capable of differentiating into cells from all three germ layers. GriPSCs' gene expression profiles associate more closely with those of ESCs than of the originating GCs as demonstrated by genome-wide analysis of mRNA and microRNA. A comparative analysis of EBs generated from three different mouse cell lines (mGriPSCs; fibroblast-derived iPSC, mFiPSCs; G4 embryonic stem cells, G4 mESCs revealed that differentiated mGriPSC-EBs synthesize 10-fold more estradiol (E2 than either differentiated FiPSC- or mESC-EBs under identical culture conditions. By contrast, mESC-EBs primarily synthesize progesterone (P4 and FiPSC-EBs produce neither E2 nor P4. Differentiated mGriPSC-EBs also express ovarian markers (AMHR, FSHR, Cyp19a1, ER and Inha as well as markers of early gametogenesis (Mvh, Dazl, Gdf9, Boule and Zp1 more frequently than EBs of the other cell lines. These results provide evidence of preferential homotypic differentiation of mGriPSCs into ovarian cell types. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that generating iPSCs from the desired tissue type may prove advantageous due to the iPSCs' epigenetic memory.

  15. Short-term clinical outcomes of laser supported periodontal treatment concept using Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm): a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor, Alin A.; Violant, Deborah; Badea, Victoria; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Backgrounds: Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers can be used adjacent to the conventional periodontal treatment as minimally invasive non-surgical devices. Aim: To describe the short-term clinical outcomes by combining Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode 940 nm lasers in non-surgical periodontal treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients with periodontal disease (mild, moderate, severe) - 233 teeth and 677 periodontal pockets ranging from 4 mm to 12 mm - were treated with Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers in adjunct to manual and piezoelectric scaling and root planning (SRP). Periodontal parameters such as mean probing depth (PD), mean clinical attachment level (CAL) and mean bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after the laser treatment using an electronic periodontal chart. Results: At baseline, the mean PD was 4.06 ± 1.06 mm, mean CAL was 4.56 ± 1.43 mm, and mean BOP was 43.8 ± 23.84 %. At 6 months after the laser supported periodontal treatments the mean PD was 2.6 ± 0.58 mm (p laser wavelengths in adjunct to SRP offers significant improvements of periodontal clinical parameters such as PD, CAL and BOP. Keywords: Laser supported periodontal treatment concept, Er,Cr:YSGG and diode 940nm lasers, Scaling and root planning, Minimally invasive non-surgical device

  16. High-efficency stable 213-nm generation for LASIK application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenglin; Alameh, Kamal; Zheng, Rong

    2005-01-01

    213nm Solid-state laser technology provides an alternative method to replace toxic excimer laser in LASIK system. In this paper, we report a compact fifth harmonic generation system to generate high pulse energy 213nm laser from Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for LASIK application based on three stages harmonic generation procedures. A novel crystal housing was specifically designed to hold the three crystals with each crystal has independent, precise angular adjustment structure and automatic tuning control. The crystal temperature is well maintained at ~130°C to improve harmonic generation stability and crystal operation lifetime. An output pulse energy 35mJ is obtained at 213nm, corresponding to total conversion efficiency ~10% from 1064nm pump laser. In system verification tests, the 213nm output power drops less than 5% after 5 millions pulse shots and no significant damage appears in the crystals.

  17. Linking pre-meeting communication to meeting effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J.A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Landowski, N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of communication that occurs just before workplace meetings (i.e. pre-meeting talk). The paper explores how four specific types of pre-meeting talk (small talk, work talk, meeting preparatory talk, and shop talk) impact

  18. Diode-pumped CW Nd:SGG laser at 1070 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W; Sun, G C; Yu, X; Li, B Z; Jin, G Y

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time (to our knowledge) a diode-pumped Nd:SGG laser emitting at 1070 nm. A power of 1.23 W at 1070 nm has been achieved in continuous-wave (CW) operation with a fiber-coupled laser diode emitting 18.2 W at 806 nm. Intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) in CW mode has also been demonstrated with a power of 328 mW at 535 nm by using a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal. The green beam quality factor M 2 was less than 1.22. The green power stability was less 2.5% in 4 hour

  19. The effects of chemical kinetics and wall temperature on performance of porous media burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    mohammadi, Iman; Hossainpour, Siamak

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a two-dimensional numerical prediction of premixed methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner by using of four multi-step mechanisms: GRI-3.0 mechanism, GRI-2.11 mechanism and the skeletal and 17 Species mechanisms. The effects of these models on temperature, chemical species and pollutant emissions are studied. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model for premixed methane-air combustion in porous media burner has developed. The finite volume method has used to solve the governing equations of methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner. The results indicate that the present four models have the same accuracy in predicting temperature profiles and the difference between these profiles is not more than 2 %. In addition, the Gri-3.0 mechanism shows the best prediction of NO emission in comparison with experimental data. The 17 Species mechanism shows good agreement in prediction of temperature and pollutant emissions with GRI-3.0, GRI-2.11 and the skeletal mechanisms. Also the effects of wall temperature on the gas temperature and mass fraction of species such as NO and CH4 are studied.

  20. Meetings and meeting modeling in smart surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Nishida, T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we survey our research on smart meeting rooms and its relevance for augmented reality meeting support and virtual reality generation of meetings in real-time or off-line. Intelligent real-time and off-line generation requires understanding of what is going on during a meeting. The

  1. Comparison of a novel high-power blue diode laser (λ=442 nm) with Ho:YAG (λ=2100 nm), Tm fiber (λ=1940 nm), and KTP (λ=532 nm) lasers for soft tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnichenko, Victoriya; Kovalenko, Anastasiya; Arkhipova, Valeriya; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Altshuler, Gregory; Gapontsev, Valentin

    2018-02-01

    Three lasers were directly compared, including the Ho:YAG laser (λ = 2100 nm), Tm fiber laser (λ = 1940 nm) operating in 3 different modes (CW, regular pulse, and super pulse), and blue diode laser (λ = 442 nm) for vaporization and coagulation efficiency for treating blood-rich soft tissues, ex vivo, in a porcine kidney model at quasi-contact cutting in water. In addition, experimental results were compared with published data on performance of KTP laser (λ = 532 nm) at similar experimental settings (Power = 60 W and cutting speed = 2 mm/s). Tm fiber laser in pulsed mode and blue laser produced highest vaporization rates of 3.7 and 3.4 mm3/s, respectively. Tm fiber laser (in both CW and pulsed modes) also produced the largest coagulation zone among the laser sources tested. A carbonization zone was observed for Tm fiber laser in CW and pulsed modes, as well as for the blue diode laser. Tm fiber laser in super-pulse mode and Ho:YAG laser both resulted in irregular coagulation zones without carbonization. Comparison with known data for KTP laser revealed that tissue effects of the blue laser are similar to that of the KTP laser. These results suggest that the combination of the two lasers (Tm fiber and blue diode) in one system may achieve high cutting efficiency and optimal coagulation for hemostasis during surgical treatment. Ex vivo testing of the combined system revealed feasibility of this approach. The combination of the CW Tm fiber laser (120W) and the blue diode laser (60W) emitting through a combination tip were compared with CW 120 W Tm fiber laser alone and 120 W Ho:YAG laser. Vaporization rates measured 34, 28, and 6 mm3/s, and coagulation zones measured 0.6, 1.3, and 1.7 mm, respectively. A carbonization zone was only observed with CW Tm fiber laser. The vaporization rate of combined CW Tm fiber laser / blue diode laser was comparable to published data for KTP laser for equivalent total power. Thus, high-power blue diode laser, Tm fiber laser, and

  2. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  3. 100-nm gate lithography for double-gate transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Zhang, Ying; Babich, Inna V.; Treichler, John; Yoon, Jung H.; Guarini, Kathryn; Solomon, Paul M.

    2001-09-01

    The double gate field effect transistor (FET) is an exploratory device that promises certain performance advantages compared to traditional CMOS FETs. It can be scaled down further than the traditional devices because of the greater electrostatic control by the gates on the channel (about twice as short a channel length for the same gate oxide thickness), has steeper sub-threshold slope and about double the current for the same width. This paper presents lithographic results for double gate FET's developed at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center. The device is built on bonded wafers with top and bottom gates self-aligned to each other. The channel is sandwiched between the top and bottom polysilicon gates and the gate length is defined using DUV lithography. An alternating phase shift mask was used to pattern gates with critical dimensions of 75 nm, 100 nm and 125 nm in photoresist. 50 nm gates in photoresist have also been patterned by 20% over-exposure of nominal 100 nm lines. No trim mask was needed because of a specific way the device was laid out. UV110 photoresist from Shipley on AR-3 antireflective layer were used. Process windows, developed and etched patterns are presented.

  4. Meetings and Meeting Modeling in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    In this paper we survey our research on smart meeting rooms and its relevance for augmented reality meeting support and virtual reality generation of meetings in real time or off-line. The research reported here forms part of the European 5th and 6th framework programme projects multi-modal meeting

  5. GPCR Interaction - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us GRI...ed information (disease etc.). Data file File name: gripdb_main.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/gripdb/LATEST/gri...godb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/gripdb_main#en Data acquisition method PDB, Refseq Data analysis method - ...Number of data entries 409 entries Data item Description GRIP ID Interaction ID Main Title Interaction title...tabase Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us GPCR Interaction - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Organic antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefonas, Peter, III; Blacksmith, Robert F.; Szmanda, Charles R.; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Adams, Timothy G.; Taylor, Gary N.; Coley, Suzanne; Pohlers, Gerd

    1999-06-01

    Organic anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) continue to play an important role in semiconductor manufacturing. These materials provide a convenient means of greatly reducing the resist photospeed swing and reflective notching. In this paper, we describe a novel class of ARC materials optimized for lithographic applications using 193 nm exposure tools. These ARCs are based upon polymers containing hydroxyl-alkyl methacrylate monomers for crosslinkable sites, styrene for a chromophore at 193 nm, and additional alkyl-methacrylate monomers as property modifiers. A glycouril crosslinker and a thermally-activated acidic catalyst provide a route to forming an impervious crosslinked film activate data high bake temperatures. ARC compositions can be adjusted to optimize the film's real and imaginary refractive indices. Selection of optimal target indices for 193 nm lithographic processing through simulations is described. Potential chromophores for 193 nm were explored using ZNDO modeling. We show how these theoretical studies were combined with material selection criteria to yield a versatile organic anti-reflectant film, Shipley 193 G0 ARC. Lithographic process data indicates the materials is capable of supporting high resolution patterning, with the line features displaying a sharp resist/ARC interface with low line edge roughness. The resist Eo swing is successfully reduced from 43 percent to 6 percent.

  7. 76 FR 58079 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ...: Hall County Airport Authority, Grand Island, Nebraska. Application Number: 11-03-C-00-GRI. Application...-09-C-01-ALO, Waterloo, IA.... 08/23/11 35,100 44,750 03/01/12 09/01/11 00-02-C-02-GRI, Grand Island...

  8. Intra-cavity upconversion to 631 nm of images illuminated by an eye-safe ASE source at 1550 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Capmany, J

    2015-11-15

    We report an image wavelength upconversion system. The system mixes an incoming image at around 1550 nm (eye-safe region) illuminated by an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) fiber source with a Gaussian beam at 1064 nm generated in a continuous-wave diode-pumped Nd(3+):GdVO(4) laser. Mixing takes place in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal placed intra-cavity. The upconverted image obtained by sum-frequency mixing falls around the 631 nm red spectral region, well within the spectral response of standard silicon focal plane array bi-dimensional sensors, commonly used in charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) video cameras, and of most image intensifiers. The use of ASE illumination benefits from a noticeable increase in the field of view (FOV) that can be upconverted with regard to using coherent laser illumination. The upconverted power allows us to capture real-time video in a standard nonintensified CCD camera.

  9. Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier operating between 1600 and 1800 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firstov, S V; Alyshev, S V; Riumkin, K E; Mel' kumov, M A; Dianov, E M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khopin, V F; Gurjanov, A N [G.G.Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    We report the first bismuth-doped fibre amplifier operating between 1600 and 1800 nm, which utilises bidirectional pumping (co-propagating and counter-propagating pump beams) by laser diodes at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The largest gain coefficient of the amplifier is 23 dB, at a wavelength of 1710 nm. It has a noise figure of 7 dB, 3-dB gain bandwidth of 40 nm and gain efficiency of 0.1 dB mW{sup -1}. (letters)

  10. Sulphur abundances in halo giants from the [S ı] line at 1082 nm and the [S ı] triplet around 1045 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Nissen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    to clarify this situation by measuring the sulphur abundance in a sample of halo giants using two diagnostics: the S i triplet around 1045 nm and the [S i] line at 1082 nm. The latter of the two is not believed to be sensitive to non-LTE effects. We can thereby minimize the uncertainties in the diagnostic...... used and estimate the usefulness of the triplet for the sulphur determination in halo K giants. We will also be able to compare our sulphur abundance differences from the two diagnostics with the expected non-LTE effects in the 1045 nm triplet previously calculated by others. Methods. High...... diagnostics using tailored 1D model atmospheres and relying on non-LTE corrections from the litterature. Effects of convective inhomogeneities in the stellar atmospheres are investigated. Results. The sulphur abundances derived from both the [S i] line and the non-LTE corrected 1045 nm triplet favor a flat...

  11. Laser ablation of ceramic Al2O3 at 193 nm and 248 nm: The importance of single-photon ionization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, R. J.; Afonso, C. N.; Bator, M.; Lippert, T.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that single-photon photoionization processes make a significant difference in the expansion and temperature of the plasma produced by laser ablation of ceramic Al2O3 in vacuum as well as to show their consequences in the kinetic energy distribution of the species that eventually will impact on the film properties produced by pulsed laser deposition. This work compares results obtained by mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy on the composition and features of the plasma produced by laser ablation at 193 nm and 248 nm, i.e., photon energies that are, respectively, above and below the ionization potential of Al, and for fluences between threshold for visible plasma and up to ≈2 times higher. The results show that the ionic composition and excitation of the plasma as well as the ion kinetic energies are much higher at 193 nm than at 248 nm and, in the latter case, the population of excited ions is even negligible. The comparison of Maxwell-Boltzmann temperature, electron temperatures, and densities of the plasmas produced with the two laser wavelengths suggests that the expansion of the plasma produced at 248 nm is dominated by a single population. Instead, the one produced at 193 nm is consistent with the existence of two populations of cold and hot species, the latter associated to Al+ ions that travel at the forefront and produced by single photon ionization as well as Al neutrals and double ionized ions produced by electron-ion impact. The results also show that the most energetic Al neutrals in the plasma produced at the two studied wavelengths are in the ground state.

  12. The generation of a continuous-wave Nd:YVO4/LBO laser at 543 nm by direct in-band diode pumping at 888 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, S C; Wang, X; Chu, H

    2013-01-01

    We report the generation of a green laser at 543 nm by intracavity frequency doubling of the continuous-wave (cw) laser operation of a 1086 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser under 888 nm diode pumping into the emitting level 4 F 3/2 . An LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, is used for the laser second-harmonic generation. At an incident pump power of 17.8 W, as high as 4.53 W cw output power at 543 nm is achieved. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is up to 25.4%, and the fluctuation of the green output power is better than 2.3% in a 30 min period. (paper)

  13. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  14. An expanded study of long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Arisa E; Anderson, R Rox; DiGiorgio, Catherine; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Shafiq, Faiza; Avram, Mathew M

    2018-02-13

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an indolent form of skin cancer that is rarely life threatening, but can cause significant cosmetic and functional morbidity. Surgical treatments often result in disfiguring scars, while topical therapies frequently result in recurrence. The need for a more effective nonsurgical alternative has led to the investigation of laser treatment of BCC. We have previously conducted a pilot study which showed 100% histologic clearance at high fluences. Treatments were well tolerated with no significant adverse events. The objective of this larger study was to confirm preliminary results that the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective method for treating non-facial BCC. This is an IRB-approved, prospective, multi-center study evaluating the safety and efficacy of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of BCC on the trunk and extremities. Thirty-three subjects seeking treatment for biopsy-proven BCC that did not meet the criteria for Mohs surgery were recruited. Subjects on current anticoagulation therapy, or with a history of immunosuppression were excluded. Subjects received one treatment with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser as follows: 5-6 mm spot, fluence of 125-140 J/cm 2 and a pulse duration of 7-10 ms. Standard excision with 5 mm clinical margins was performed at 30 days after laser treatment to evaluate clinical and histologic clearance of BCC. Standardized photographs and adverse assessments were taken at the baseline visit, immediately after laser treatment and on the day of excision. Thirty-one subjects completed the study. BCC tumors had a 90% (28 of 31 BCC tumors) histologic clearance rate after one treatment with the long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Treatments were generally well tolerated without any anesthesia. Immediate side effects included edema and erythema. At 1-month follow-up, some patients had residual crusting. No significant adverse events occurred. The 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser is an

  15. Applying the new gamma ray imager diagnostic to measurements of runaway electron Bremsstrahlung radiation in the DIII-D Tokamak (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C. M.; Pace, D. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Hollmann, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    A new gamma ray imager (GRI) is developed to probe the electron distribution function with 2D spatial resolution during runaway electron (RE) experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic is sensitive to 0.5–100 MeV gamma rays, allowing characterization of the RE distribution function evolution during RE growth and dissipation. The GRI consists of a lead “pinhole camera” mounted on the DIII-D midplane with 123 honeycombed tangential chords 20 cm wide that span the vessel interior. Up to 30 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors capture RE bremsstrahlung radiation for Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) capable of discriminating up to 20 000 pulses per second. Digital signal processing routines combining shaping filters are performed during PHA to reject noise and record gamma ray energy. The GRI setup and PHA algorithms will be described and initial data from experiments will be presented. A synthetic diagnostic is developed to generate the gamma ray spectrum of a GRI channel given the plasma information and a prescribed distribution function. Magnetic reconstructions of the plasma are used to calculate the angle between every GRI sightline and orient and discriminate gamma rays emitted by a field-aligned RE distribution function.

  16. Development of Protective Immunity against Inactivated Iranian Isolate of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Type O/IRN/2007 Using Gamma Ray-Irradiated Vaccine on BALB/c Mice and Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi-Sedeh, Farahnaz; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Mahravani, Homayoon; Shafaee, Kamalodin; Sotoodeh, Masood; Taherkarami, Hamdolah; Jairani, Faramarz

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals and is the most damaging disease of livestock worldwide, leading to great economic losses. The aim of this research was the inactivation of FMDV type O/IRN/1/2007 to produce a gamma ray-irradiated (GRI) vaccine in order to immunize mice and guinea pigs. In this research, the Iranian isolated FMDV type O/IRN/1/2007 was irradiated by gamma ray to prepare an inactivated whole virus antigen and formulated as a GRI vaccine with unaltered antigenic characteristics. Immune responses against this vaccine were evaluated on mice and guinea pigs. The comparison of the immune responses between the GRI vaccine and conventional vaccine did not show any significant difference in neutralizing antibody titer, memory spleen T lymphocytes or IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2 and IL-10 concentrations (p > 0.05). In contrast, there were significant differences in all of the evaluated immune factors between the two vaccinated groups of mice and negative control mice (p GRI vaccines obtained were 6.28 and 7.07, respectively, which indicated the high potency of both vaccines. GRI vaccine is suitable for both routine vaccination and control of FMDV in emergency outbreaks.

  17. Applying the new gamma ray imager diagnostic to measurements of runaway electron Bremsstrahlung radiation in the DIII-D Tokamak (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C. M., E-mail: coopercm@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Pace, D. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Eidietis, N. W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0533 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A new gamma ray imager (GRI) is developed to probe the electron distribution function with 2D spatial resolution during runaway electron (RE) experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic is sensitive to 0.5–100 MeV gamma rays, allowing characterization of the RE distribution function evolution during RE growth and dissipation. The GRI consists of a lead “pinhole camera” mounted on the DIII-D midplane with 123 honeycombed tangential chords 20 cm wide that span the vessel interior. Up to 30 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors capture RE bremsstrahlung radiation for Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) capable of discriminating up to 20 000 pulses per second. Digital signal processing routines combining shaping filters are performed during PHA to reject noise and record gamma ray energy. The GRI setup and PHA algorithms will be described and initial data from experiments will be presented. A synthetic diagnostic is developed to generate the gamma ray spectrum of a GRI channel given the plasma information and a prescribed distribution function. Magnetic reconstructions of the plasma are used to calculate the angle between every GRI sightline and orient and discriminate gamma rays emitted by a field-aligned RE distribution function.

  18. 78 FR 2961 - Sunshine Act Meeting-Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting--Closed Meeting The following notice of a closed meeting is published pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94- 409, 5 U.S.C. 552b. AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. TIME...

  19. 78 FR 6306 - Sunshine Act Meeting-Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting--Closed Meeting The following notice of a closed meeting is published pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94- 409, 5 U.S.C. 552b. AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. TIME...

  20. Comparative mutagenesis and interaction between near-ultraviolet (313- to 405-nm) and far-ultraviolet (254-nm) radiation in Escherichia coli strains with differing repair capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.A.; Webb, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Comparative mutagenesis and possible synergistic interaction between broad-spectrum (313- to 405-nm) near-ultraviolet (black light bulb [BLB]) radiation and 254-nm radiation were studied in Escherichia coli strains WP2 (wild type), WP2s (uvrA), WP10 (recA), WP6 (polA), WP6s (polA uvrA), WP100 (uvrA recA), and WP5 (lexA). With BLB radiation, strains WP2s and WP6s demonstrated a high level of mutagenesis, whereas strains WP2, WP5, WP6, WP10, and WP100 did not demonstrate significant mutagenesis. In contrast, 254-nm radiation was mutagenic in strains WP2, WP2s, WP6, and WP6s, but strains WP5, WP10, and WP100 were not significantly mutated. The absence of mutagenesis by BLB radiation in lexA and recA strains WP10, WP5, and WP100 suggests that lex + rec + repair may play a major role in mutagenesis by both BLB and 254-nm radiation. The hypothesis that BLB radiation selectively inhibits rec + lex + repair was tested by sequential BLB-254 nm radiation. With strain WP2, a fluence of 30 J/m 2 at 254 nm induced trp + revertants at a frequency of 15 x 10 -6 . However, when 10 5 J/m 2 or more BLB radiation preceded the 254-nm exposure, no trp + revertants could be detected. A similar inhibition of 254-nm mutagenesis was observed with strain WP6 (polA). However, strains WP2s (uvrA) and WP6s (polA uvrA) showed enhanced 254-nm mutagenesis when a prior exposure to BLB radiation was given

  1. Combined fractional resurfacing (10600 nm/1540 nm): Tridimensional imaging evaluation of a new device for skin rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzana, Paolo; Valeriani, Maurizio; Valeriani, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    In this study were described the results, by tridimensional imaging evaluation, of the new "Combined Fractional Resurfacing" technique with the first fractional laser that overtakes the limits of traditional ablative, nonablative fractional resurfacing by combining CO 2 ablative and GaAs nonablative lasers. These two wavelengths can work separately or in a mixed modality to give the best treatment choice to all the patients. In this study, it is demonstrated that the simultaneous combination of the CO 2 wavelength (10600 nm) and GaAs wavelength (1540 nm) reduced the downtime, reduced pain during the treatment, and produced better results on fine wrinkles reduction and almost the same results on pigmentation as seen with 3D analysis by Antera (Miravex).

  2. Borsa İstanbul Gelişen İşletmeler Piyasası’nda İşlem Gören Firmaların Gri İlişkisel Analiz ile Performans Ölçümü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan BEKTAŞ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Borsa İstanbul Gelişen İşletmeler Piyasası’nda işlem gören on bir işletme için performans ölçümü yapılmıştır. Bunun için işletmelerin, 2011 yılı bilanço ve gelir tablosu verilerinden yararlanılarak altı tane oran elde edilmiştir. Bu oranlar kullanılarak Gri İlişkisel Analiz uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonucunda, Denge Yatırım Holding A.Ş. (DENGE’nin en yüksek performansa sahip olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca DENGE’nin net kar/toplam varlık, net kar/özsermaye ve net kar/net satışlar olmak üzere karlılık oranlarında yüksek değerlere sahip olduğu görülmüştür.

  3. Diode-pumped continuous-wave eye-safe Nd:YAG laser at 1415 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chul; Byeon, Sung Ug; Lukashev, Alexei

    2012-04-01

    We describe the output performance of the 1415 nm emission in Nd:YAG in a plane-concave cavity under traditional pumping into the 4F5/2 level (808 nm) and direct in-band pumping into the 4F3/2 level (885 nm). An end-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielded maximum cw output power of 6.3 W and 4.2 W at 885 nm and 808 nm laser diode (LD) pumping, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a LD-pumped 1415 nm laser.

  4. Investigation of a Pulsed 1550 nm Fiber Laser System (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-14

    Pump dump and splice Pump dump and splice MFA 976 nm 15 W TFB TFB Pump dump and splice Waveform shaping Delay Power meter...filter 976 nm 7.6 W TFB WDM Pump dump and splice Pump dump and splice MFA 976 nm 15 W TFB TFB Pump dump and splice Waveform shaping...Multimode fiber to OSA or photodiode EOM EOM ASE filter ASE filter 976 nm 7.6 W TFB

  5. Meeting Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joel; Katzman, Jeffrey W

    2017-12-01

    Although meetings are central to organizational work, considerable time devoted to meetings in Academic Health Centers appears to be unproductively spent. The primary purposes of this article are to delineate and describe Meeting Disorders, pathological processes resulting in these inefficient and ineffective scenarios, and Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD), a clinical syndrome. The paper also offers preliminary approaches to remedies. The authors integrate observations made during tens of thousands of hours in administrative meetings in academic medical settings with information in the literature regarding the nature, causes and potential interventions for dysfunctional groups and meetings. Meeting Disorders, resulting from distinct pathologies of leadership and organization, constitute prevalent subgroups of the bureaucrapathologies, pathological conditions caused by dysfunctional bureaucratic processes that generate excesses of wasted time, effort, and other resources. These disorders also generate frustration and demoralization among participants, contributing to professional burnout. Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD) is a subjective condition that develops in individuals who overdose on these experiences and may reflect one manifestation of burnout. Meeting disorders and Meeting Fatigue Disorder occur commonly in bureaucratic life. Resources and potential remedies are available to help ameliorate their more deleterious effects.

  6. Glucose-responsive insulin by molecular and physical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakh, Naveed A.; Cortinas, Abel B.; Weiss, Michael A.; Langer, Robert S.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Gu, Zhen; Dutta, Sanjoy; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of a glucose-responsive insulin (GRI) has been a recent objective of diabetes technology. The idea behind the GRI is to create a therapeutic that modulates its potency, concentration or dosing relative to a patient's dynamic glucose concentration, thereby approximating aspects of a normally functioning pancreas. From the perspective of the medicinal chemist, the GRI is also important as a generalized model of a potentially new generation of therapeutics that adjust potency in response to a critical therapeutic marker. The aim of this Perspective is to highlight emerging concepts, including mathematical modelling and the molecular engineering of insulin itself and its potency, towards a viable GRI. We briefly outline some of the most important recent progress toward this goal and also provide a forward-looking viewpoint, which asks if there are new approaches that could spur innovation in this area as well as to encourage synthetic chemists and chemical engineers to address the challenges and promises offered by this therapeutic approach.

  7. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...

  8. 29 CFR 2701.2 - Open meetings policy; closure of meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings policy; closure of meetings. 2701.2 Section... GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT REGULATIONS § 2701.2 Open meetings policy; closure of meetings. (a) Policy. Commission meetings will generally be open to public observation, including meetings concerning the...

  9. Treatment of tattoos with a 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and novel 1064 nm and 532 nm Nd:YAG laser handpieces pumped by the alexandrite treatment beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Bhawalkar, Jay; Clifford, Joan; Hsia, James

    2010-11-01

    Multi-colored and even black tattoos often require more than one wavelength to remove the target pigment. The authors report here a novel alexandrite laser with two Nd:YAG laser handpieces pumped by the alexandrite treatment beam enabling the delivery of three wavelengths from a single device. To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a novel Q-switched laser-pumped laser for treating tattoos. Twenty tattoos in 14 subjects were treated at four-week intervals using a combination of available wavelengths (532, 755 and 1064 nm) as determined by the treating physician. Digital cross-polarized photographs were taken before treatment and two months following the fourth and final treatment. Photographs were evaluated by three physician observers blinded as to the treatment condition and rated for clearance by the following scale: 1 = > 95 percent, 2 = 76-95 percent, 3 = 51-75 percent, 4 = 26-50 percent and 5 = 0-25 percent clearance. The average clearance score was 3.1, in the 51-75 percent range, two months following four treatments. No scarring, hyper- or hypopigmentation was noted on post-treatment photographs or by the treating physician. The alexandrite and alexandrite-pumped 532 nm and 1064 nm Q-switched lasers are effective for removing decorative tattoos, and represents the first commercial laser with laser-pumped, laser handpieces.

  10. First demonstration of InGaP/InAlGaP based 608nm orange laser and 583nm yellow superluminescent diode

    KAUST Repository

    Majid, Mohammed Abdul

    2015-11-12

    We report on the first demonstration of InGaP/InAlGaP based orange semiconductor laser (OSL) and yellow superluminescent diode (YSLD) emitting at a wavelength of 608nm and 583nm respectively. The total output power of YSLD is ∼4.5mW which is the highest ever reported power on this material system at room-temperature.

  11. Photorefractive effect at 775 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, G.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Degiorgio, V. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, and CNISM, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Pozza, G.; Sada, C. [Physics and Astronomy Departement, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    The photorefractive effect induced by 775-nm laser light on doped lithium niobate crystals is investigated by the direct observation in the far field of the transmitted-beam distortion as a function of time. Measurements performed at various Zr-doping concentrations and different light intensities show that the 775-nm light beam induces a steady-state photorefractive effect comparable to that of 532-nm light, but the observed build-up time of the photovoltaic field is longer by three-orders of magnitude. The 775-nm photorefractivity of lithium niobate crystals doped with 3 mol. % ZrO{sub 2} or with 5.5 mol. % MgO is found to be negligible.

  12. Combined mask and illumination scheme optimization for robust contact patterning on 45nm technology node flash memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio Pret, Alessandro; Capetti, Gianfranco; Bollin, Maddalena; Cotti, Gina; De Simone, Danilo; Cantù, Pietro; Vaccaro, Alessandro; Soma, Laura

    2008-03-01

    Immersion Lithography is the most important technique for extending optical lithography's capabilities and meeting the requirements of Semiconductor Roadmap. The introduction of immersion tools has recently allowed the development of 45nm technology node in single exposure. Nevertheless the usage of hyper-high NA scanners (NA > 1), some levels still remain very critical to be imaged with sufficient process performances. For memory devices, contact mask is for sure the most challenging layer. Aim of this paper is to present the lithographic assessment of 193nm contact holes process, with k I value of ~0.30 using NA 1.20 immersion lithography (minimum pitch is 100nm). Different issues will be reported, related to mask choices (Binary or Attenuated Phase Shift) and illuminator configurations. First phase of the work will be dedicated to a preliminary experimental screening on a simple test case in order to reduce the variables in the following optimization sections. Based on this analysis we will discard X-Y symmetrical illuminators (Annular, C-Quad) due to poor contrast. Second phase will be dedicated to a full simulation assessment. Different illuminators will be compared, with both mask type and several mask biases. From this study, we will identify some general trends of lithography performances that can be used for the fine tuning of the RET settings. The last phase of the work will be dedicated to find the sensitivity trends for one of the analyzed illuminators. In particular we study the effect of Numerical Aperture, mask bias in both X and Y direction and poles sigma ring-width and centre.

  13. Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.

  14. Removing foxing stains from old paper at 157 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Samardzija, Z.; Kobe, S.; Kollia, Z.; Cefalas, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm foxing stains were removed successfully from a 16th century old paper. Laser cleaning of stains and foxing from old paper manuscripts is far more effective at 157 nm in comparison to different wavelengths without leaving any yellowish after-effect on the paper. This is because at 157 nm illumination of old paper, complete bond breaking of all the organic molecules of the paper is taking place. Mass spectroscopy at 157 nm and for moderate laser intensities up to 1 mJ/cm 2 of old paper suffering from foxing indicate organic matter disintegration to small photofragments atomic, diatomic or triatomic, which are flying apart with supersonic speed. In addition high spatial resolution energy dispersive X-ray system (EDXS) analysis over the effected areas indicate the presence of iron, suggesting that biological activity is taking place preferentially in paper areas containing iron

  15. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by 340nm/ 351nm UV laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrum, R.A.; Wharton, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    During preliminary experiments designed to test the feasibility of using a 'caged' DNA break trapping agent, the authors observed a stimulation of incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into DNA when cells were irradiated with low doses (100-1000J/m 2 ) of 351nm UV laser irradiation. This wavelength is used to photolyse 'caged' dideoxynucleotides in our fast time course measurements of DNA repair in mammalian cells. The dose at which this stimulation was observed is well below that at which measurable damage is detected. (author)

  16. Large-scale lithography for sub-500nm features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, R L; Steininger, T; Belier, Benoit; Julie, Gwenaelle

    2006-01-01

    The interest in micro- and nanotechnologies has grown rapidly in the last years. The applications are versatile and different techniques found its way into several research domains as optics, electronics, magnetism, fluidics, etc. In all of these fields integration of more and more functions on steadily decreasing device dimensions lead to an increase in structural density and feature size. Expensive and slow processes utilizing projection steppers or e-beam direct writer equipment are used to fabricate nm features today. A high throughput and cost effective method adapted on a standard mask aligner will be demonstrated, making features of below 300nm available on wafer-level. We will demonstrate results of 4 different resists exposed on a DUV proximity aligner and plasma etched for optical and biological applications in the sub-300nm range

  17. Large-scale lithography for sub-500nm features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, R L [Technology group, EV Group, DI Erich Thallner Str. 1, A-4780 Schaerding (Austria); Steininger, T [Technology group, EV Group, DI Erich Thallner Str. 1, A-4780 Schaerding (Austria); Belier, Benoit [CNRS, Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Universite Paris-Sud Bat 220, F- 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Julie, Gwenaelle [CNRS, Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Universite Paris-Sud Bat 220, F- 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2006-04-01

    The interest in micro- and nanotechnologies has grown rapidly in the last years. The applications are versatile and different techniques found its way into several research domains as optics, electronics, magnetism, fluidics, etc. In all of these fields integration of more and more functions on steadily decreasing device dimensions lead to an increase in structural density and feature size. Expensive and slow processes utilizing projection steppers or e-beam direct writer equipment are used to fabricate nm features today. A high throughput and cost effective method adapted on a standard mask aligner will be demonstrated, making features of below 300nm available on wafer-level. We will demonstrate results of 4 different resists exposed on a DUV proximity aligner and plasma etched for optical and biological applications in the sub-300nm range.

  18. Strategy disclosure reporting trends in South Africa: A 2010–2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    The closest is the GRI G3 Guidelines, which include strategy as one of the requirements for sustainability disclosure (GRI 2013), but these are not comprehensive. The benefits of more open strategy disclosure relate to providing stakeholders with greater insight into risks, performance and future strategic direction. Higgins.

  19. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Identity on Perceived Stress and Coping among Traditional and Nontraditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kayla; Mendenhall, Sarah; Myers, Charlsie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined differences in perceived stress and coping strategies based on gender role identity (GRI) and sex among traditional and nontraditional college students. Participants and Methods: Online surveys that assessed demographic information, GRI, and perceived stress were completed between October 2013 and March 2014 by 197…

  20. Approximate Deconvolution and Explicit Filtering For LES of a Premixed Turbulent Jet Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    from laminar flamelets computed with the GRI -mechanism for methane-air combustion (Smith et al. 1999) and the progress variable Yc is defined as in... gri - mech/. Subramanian, V., P. Domingo, and L. Vervisch (2010). Large-Eddy Simulation of forced igni- tion of an annular bluff-body burner. Combust

  1. Metastable Magnesium fluorescence spectroscopy using a frequency-stabilized 517 nm laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ming; Jensen, Brian B; Therkildsen, Kasper T

    2009-01-01

    We present a laser operating at 517 nm for our Magnesium laser-cooling and atomic clock project. A two-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier (YDFA) system generates more than 1.5 W of 1034 nm light when seeded with a 15 mW diode laser. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide, we obta...... obtained more than 40 mW of 517 nm output power by single pass frequency doubling. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy of metastable magnesium atoms could be used to stabilize the 517 nm laser to an absolute frequency within 1 MHz.......We present a laser operating at 517 nm for our Magnesium laser-cooling and atomic clock project. A two-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier (YDFA) system generates more than 1.5 W of 1034 nm light when seeded with a 15 mW diode laser. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide, we...

  2. Gry z czasem, pamięcią i historią: O prozie Milady Součkovej [Games with time, memory and history: About the prose of Milada Součková

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Woźniak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Games with time, memory and history: About the prose of Milada Součková The article discusses selected short stories by the Czech avant-garde writer Milada Součková. The author presents a brief interpretation of certain primary themes in the writer’s work, such as the themes of memory and history as a kind of framework of Součková’s writing. Another aspect of the article indicates subjects related to specific historical events that constitute for Součková a backdrop for presenting so-called alternative history which is combined with the microcosm of the characters in her stories.   Gry z czasem, pamięcią i historią: O prozie Milady Součkovej W artykule omówione zostały wybrane opowiadania czeskiej pisarki awangardowej Milady Součkovej. Autorka szkicu przedstawia interpretację stałych motywów w twórczości tej pisarki, takich jak motyw pamięci i historii, jako swoistej klamry ujmującej pisarstwo Součkovej. Kolejnym aspektem artykułu jest wskazanie na funkcjonowanie wątków związanych z konkretnymi wydarzeniami historycznymi, stanowiącymi tło do zaprezentowania tzw. historii alternatywnej, łączącej się z mikroświatem przedstawionych postaci.

  3. 75 FR 73083 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; Open Commission Meeting November 30, 2010. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open Meeting on the subjects listed below on... demonstrate accessibility technologies. The meeting site is fully accessible to people using wheelchairs or...

  4. [Comparative investigation of underwater-LIBS using 532 and 1 064 nm lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiao-Jian; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan; Li, Ying; Zheng, Rong-Er

    2014-11-01

    With the hope of applying laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the ocean applications, the laser energy at 532 and 1 064 nm wavelength with 3 and 40 mj respectively was used, which was near their breakdown threshold. Extensive experimental investigations of LIBS from CaCl2 water solution were carried out in this paper using different laser wavelengths of 532 and 1 064 nm. The obtained results show that compared with the 532 nm laser, the 1 064 nm laser can induce the plasma in water with higher emission intensity and longer lifetime, while the reproducibility of LIBS signal under 1 064 nm laser is poorer. On the other hand, due to the different attenuation ratios of 532 and 1 064 nm laser energies in water, the LIBS signal of 1 064 nm laser decreases a lot within the transmission distance range 2-5 cm, while LIBS signal of 532 nm remains the same, because that the wavelength of 532 nm lies in the "transmission window" of the water solution. This study will provide valuable design considerations for the development of LIBS-sea system in near future.

  5. Safety and Efficacy of a 1550nm/1927nm Dual Wavelength Laser for the Treatment of Photodamaged Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narurkar, Vic A; Alster, Tina S; Bernstein, Eric F; Lin, Tina J; Loncaric, Anya

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional photothermolysis (FP) is a popular treatment option for photodamaged skin and addresses shortcomings of ablative skin resurfacing and nonablative dermal remodeling. Previous studies have demonstrated that FP using the 1550nm wavelength has led to improvement of ultrastructural changes and clinical effects associated with photodamaged skin in the deeper dermal structures, while treatment with the 1927nm wavelength has shown clinical effects in the superficial dermis. Both wavelengths produce precise microscopic treatment zones (MTZs) in the skin. The two wavelengths used in combination may optimize the delivery of fractional nonablative resurfacing intended for dermal and epidermal coagulation of photodamage skin. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 1550/1927 Laser System (Fraxel Dual, Solta), using both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths in combination for treatment of facial and non-facial photodamage. METHODS: Prospective, multi-center, post-market study in subjects with clinically identifiable photodamage (N=35) (Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV). Both 1550nm and 1927nm wavelengths were used at each treatment visit. Investigator assessment of the affected area(s) occurred at one week, one month and 3 months after a series of up to four treatments. Severity of adverse events (AEs) were assessed using a 4-point scale (where 0=none and 3=marked). Assessments included erythema, edema, hyperkeratosis, hyper- and hypo-pigmentation, scarring, itchiness, dryness, and flaking. Severity of photoaging, fine and coarse wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, sallowness, and tactile roughness at baseline was assessed using the same scale. Investigators and subjects assessed overall appearance of photodamage and pigmentation based on a 5-point quartile improvement scale at all follow-up visits (where 0=no improvement and 4=very significant improvement [76%-100%]). RESULTS: There was a positive treatment effect at all study visits, with moderate

  6. 76 FR 70709 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Emergency Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; Emergency Meeting Notice This notice that an emergency meeting was held is published pursuant to the provisions of the Government in the Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, 5 U.S.C. 552b. AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Commodity Futures Trading...

  7. Continuous-wave ceramic Nd:YAG laser at 1123 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S S; Wang, Q P; Zhang, X Y; Cong, Z H; Fan, S Z; Liu, Z J; Sun, W J

    2009-01-01

    Ceramic Nd:YAG (cNd:YAG) materials are employed to generate 1123-nm laser. A fiber-coupled continuous-wave (CW) 808-nm diode laser is used as the pumping source. With an incident diode power of 26.1 W, a CW output power of up to 10.8 W is obtained with a 10-mm-long ceramic Nd:YAG rod (1.0 at.%-Nd-doped). The conversion efficiency from diode power to 1123-nm laser power is 41.4%. The laser performance of another 10-mm-long cNd:YAG rod with a Nd-doping concentration of 0.6 at.% is studied as a comparison

  8. Selected physico-mechanical characteristics of cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, Pradyuman; Mohite, Ashish M.; Singh, Krishna K.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2014-03-01

    In this communication, selected physicomechanical characteristics of ground turmeric (cv. Prabha) were investigated for cryogenic and ambient grinding conditions of turmeric at different moisture contents (4, 6, 8 and 10% w.b.). A cryogenic grinder (Model: 100 UPZ, Hosokawa Alpine, Germany) and a micro pulverizer (hammer mill) were used for cryogenic and ambient grinding, respectively. The ground turmeric was graded in three grades viz. Gr-I, Gr-II and Gr-III with a sieve shaker using BSS Nos. 40, 85 and pan, respectively. Tap densities for cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric decreased from 678.7 (Gr-I) to 546.7 kgm-3 (Gr-III) and from 642.3 (Gr-I) to 468.6 kgm-3 (Gr-III), respectively, with the moisture increase. The angle of repose for cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric increased linearly from 26.85 (Gr-I) to 34.0° (Gr-III) and from 23.10 (Gr-I) to 28.06° (Gr-III), respectively with the increase in moisture content. The static coefficient of friction was the highest on plywood surface followed by mild steel sheet and galvanized iron sheet. The cryoground samples were found better in colour. Thermal conductivity of cryo-ground samples was higher than that of ambient ground samples. These physico-mechanical characteristics of cryogenic and ambient ground turmeric will be helpful for packaging, handling, and storage.

  9. Overview of Gas Research Institute environmental research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) is a private not-for-profit membership organization of natural gas pipelines, distribution companies and natural gas producers. GRI's purpose is to plan, to manage and to develop financing for a gas-related research and development (R and D) program on behalf of its members and their customers. GRI does not do any research itself. GRI's R and D program is designed to provide advanced technologies for natural gas supply, transport, storage, distribution and end-use applications in all markets. In addition, basic research is conducted for GRI in these areas to build a foundation for future technology breakthroughs. Work in the Environment and Safety Research Department includes sections interested in: supply related research, air quality research, end use equipment safety research, gas operations safety research, and gas operations environmental research. The Natural Gas Supply Program has research ongoing in such areas as: restoration of pipeline right-of-ways; cleaning up town gas manufacturing sites; the development of methanogenic bacteria for soil and groundwater cleanup; development of biological fluidized carbon units for rapid destruction of carbonaceous compounds; research on liquid redox sulfur recovery for sulfur removal from natural gas; research on produced water and production wastes generated by the natural gas industry; environmental effects of coalbed methane production; and subsurface effects of natural gas operations. The western coalbed methane and ground water programs are described

  10. Prospective study of the 532 nm laser (KTP) versus diode laser 980 nm in the resection of hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela-Pérez, Patricia; González-Merchán, Jorge; Díaz-Sánchez, Rosa; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles; Volland, Gerd; Joergens, Martin; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the resection of hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa comparing the 532nm laser (KTP), versus diode 980nm laser, considering pain, scarring, inflammation and drug consumption that occurred postoperatively with each lasers. Material and Methods A prospective study of consecutive series of 20 patients in two groups that presents hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa. The choice of the KTP laser or diode 980nm laser for the surgery was made randomly. The power used was 1.5W in both groups in a continuous wave mode with a 320 μm optical fiber. Parameters of pain, scarring, inflammation and consumption of drugs were recorded by a Numerical Rating Scale and evaluated postoperatively. These recordings were made the day of the surgery, 24 hours after, 14 and 28 days after. Results Pain and inflammation was light - moderate. The consumption of paracetamol was somewhat higher in the diode 980nm laser versus the KTP laser after 24 hours, although data was not statistically significant; significant differences were found after 28 days in regards to pain (p = 0.023) and inflammation (p = 0.023), but always in the absence parameter so we find no pain in both lasers. Scarring in the two types of laser showed no differences along the visits, with not detected scar retractable. Conclusions Although there is a slight histological difference regarding the KTP laser in the oral soft tissues for clinical use, both wavelengths are very suitable for excision of oral fibroma. Key words:Laser surgery, Laser therapy, oral surgery, soft tissue, 980 nm diode laser, 532 nm KTP laser. PMID:29274158

  11. In situ growth monitoring of AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors at 530 nm using a 633 nm laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Feng; Huang Lirong; Jiang Bo; Tong Liangzhu; Xu Wei; Liu Deming, E-mail: hlr5649@163.co [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Opto-Electronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) with a reflection peak at 530 nm was in situ monitored using 633 nm laser reflectometry. Evolutions of in situ reflected reflectivity for different kinds of AlGaN/GaN DBR were simulated by the classical transfer matrix method. Two DBR samples, which have the same parameters as the simulated structures, were grown by MOCVD. The simulated and experimental results show that it is possible to evaluate the DBR parameters from the envelope shape of the in situ reflectivity spectrum. With the help of the 633 nm laser reflectometry, a DBR light emitting diode (LED) was grown. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra show that the reflection peak of the DBR in the LED is within the design region. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  13. Magnetic Nature of Light Transmission through a 5-nm Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyosim; Kim, Dai-Sik; Kim, Richard H Joon-Yeon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Kang, Taehee; Jeong, Jeeyoon; Lee, Dukhyung

    2018-02-09

    Slot antennas have been exploited as important building blocks of optical magnetism because their radiations are invoked by the magnetic fields along the axes, as vectorial Babinet principle predicts. However, optical magnetism of a few-nanometer-width slit, for which fascinating applications are found due to the colossal field enhancement but Babinet principle fails due to the nonnegligible thickness, has not been investigated. In this paper, we demonstrated that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in light transmission through a 5-nm slit on a 150-nm-thick gold film. The 5-nm slit was fabricated by atomic layer lithography, and the transmission was investigated for various incident angles by experiment and simulation at 785-nm wavelength. We found that, due to the deep subwavelength gap width, the transmission has the same incident angle dependence as the tangential magnetic field on the metal surface and this magnetic nature of a nanogap holds up to ~100-nm width. Our analysis establishes conditions for nanogap optical magnetism and suggests new possibilities in realizing magnetic-field-driven optical nonlinearities.

  14. Gas Research Institute, Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technology is playing a major role in helping the gas industry meet the challenge of change, and as the focal point for gas industry R ampersand D, the authors at GRI are focusing their efforts on the real-world problems facing our member companies. They haven't forsaken longer range research, but they must stress the development and deployment of technology that can be put to work in the near term or they will fail in their mission. The pages that follow show how they put R ampersand D to work to meet the five key gas industry needs that will dominate the future: Developing new markets and new opportunities; Competing with electricity in selected markets; Tackling new regulations; Controlling the cost of gas delivery; Providing reliable and cost-competitive supplies of natural gas that allow reasonable returns to producers

  15. Broadband light generation at ~1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Peter Andreas; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Bang, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation of broadband light at ~1300 nm from an 810 nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond pump laser. We use two photonic crystal fibers with a second infrared zero-dispersion wavelength (λZ2) and compare the efficiency of two schemes: in one fiber λZ2=1400 nm and the light...... at 1300 nm is composed of spectrally recoiled solitons; in the other fiber λZ2=1200 nm and the light at 1300 nm is composed of dispersive waves....

  16. CMOS-NEMS Copper Switches Monolithically Integrated Using a 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Muñoz-Gamarra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility to obtain copper nanoelectromechanical (NEMS relays using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology (ST 65 nm following an intra CMOS-MEMS approach. We report experimental demonstration of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtaining low operating voltage (5.5 V, good ION/IOFF (103 ratio, abrupt subthreshold swing (4.3 mV/decade and minimum dimensions (3.50 μm × 100 nm × 180 nm, and gap of 100 nm. With these dimensions, the operable Cell area of the switch will be 3.5 μm (length × 0.2 μm (100 nm width + 100 nm gap = 0.7 μm2 which is the smallest reported one using a top-down fabrication approach.

  17. Diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG three-level laser at 869 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yanfei; Xia, Jing; Cheng, Weibo; Chen, Jifeng; Ning, Guobin; Liang, Zuoliang

    2010-11-01

    We report for the first time (to our knowledge) a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser emitting at 869 nm based on the (4)F(3/2)-(4)I(9/2) transition, generally used for a 946 nm emission. Power of 453 mW at 869 nm has been achieved in cw operation with a fiber-coupled laser diode emitting 35.4 W at 809 nm. Intracavity second-harmonic generation in the cw mode has also been demonstrated with power of 118 mW at 435 nm by using a BiB(3)O(6) nonlinear crystal. In our experiment, we used a LiNbO(3) crystal lens to complement the thermal lens of the laser rod, and we obtained good beam quality and high output power stability.

  18. A comparative analysis of strategy disclosure reporting trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chestt

    disasters such as the Exxon Valdez oil disaster during 1989 (UNEP, KPMG, GRI &. University of Stellenbosch 2010: 6). The GRI reporting framework is designed to be used by organisations of all sizes and in any sector, with sector-specific supplements available. It was developed through the interaction and agreement of a ...

  19. Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S; Ogino, T; Shirakashi, J; Takemura, Y

    2008-01-01

    Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution is investigated by optimizing the applied bias voltage (V), scanning speed (S) and the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever (A). We fabricated Si oxide wires with an average width of 9.8 nm (V = 17.5 V, S 250 nm/s, A = 292 nm). In SPM local oxidation with tapping mode operation, it is possible to decrease the size of the water meniscus by enhancing the oscillation amplitude of cantilever. Hence, it seems that the water meniscus with sub-10 nm dimensions could be formed by precisely optimizing the oxidation conditions. Moreover, we quantitatively explain the size (width and height) of Si oxide wires with a model based on the oxidation ratio, which is defined as the oxidation time divided by the period of the cantilever oscillation. The model allows us to understand the mechanism of local oxidation in tapping mode operation with amplitude modulation. The results imply that the sub-10 nm resolution could be achieved using tapping mode SPM local oxidation technique with the optimization of the cantilever dynamics

  20. Ablative Fractional 10 600 nm Carbon Dioxide Laser Versus Non-ablative Fractional 1540 nm Erbium-Glass Laser in Egyptian Post-acne Scar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L; Ibrahim, Shady M; Saudi, Wael

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Non-ablative fractional erbium-doped glass 1540 nm and fractional ablative 10600 nm carbon dioxide lasers are regarded as effective modalities for treating acne atrophic scars. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of fractional CO 2 laser and fractional nonablative 1540 nm erbium doped glass laser in treating post acne atrophic scars in Egyptian patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients complaining of moderate and severe acne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 2 groups of 29 patients each. Both groups were subjected to 4 treatment sessions with 3 weeks interval and were followed up for 3 months. In group A, enrolled patient sreceived C2 laser, while in group B, patients were treated with 1540 nm erbium glass fractional laser. Results: Clinical assessment revealed that the mean grades of progress and improvement were higher with fractional 10600 nm CO2 laser but with non-significant difference between both treatments ( P = 0.1). The overall patients' satisfaction with both lasers were not significantly different ( P = 0.44). Conclusion: Both fractional ablative CO2 and fractional non-ablative erbium glass lasers are good modalities for treating acne scars with a high efficacy and safety profile and good patient satisfaction. The fractional ablative laser showed higher efficacy while non-ablative laser offered less pain and shorter downtime.

  1. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2000-01-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  2. Investigating Degradation Mechanisms in 130 nm and 90 nm Commercial CMOS Technologies Under Extreme Radiation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Lodovico; Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo; Traversi, Gianluca; Pantano, Devis

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanisms underlying performance degradation in 130 nm and 90 nm commercial CMOS technologies exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. The investigation has been mainly focused on their noise properties in view of applications to the design of low-noise, low-power analog circuits to be operated in harsh environment. Experimental data support the hypothesis that charge trapping in shallow trench isolation (STI), besides degrading the static characteristics of interdigitated NMOS transistors, also affects their noise performances in a substantial fashion. The model discussed in this paper, presented in a previous work focused on CMOS devices irradiated with a 10 Mrad(SiO2) gamma -ray dose, has been applied here also to transistors exposed to much higher (up to 100 Mrad(SiO2 )) doses of X-rays. Such a model is able to account for the extent of the observed noise degradation as a function of the device polarity, dimensions and operating point.

  3. A reflectivity profilometer for the optical characterisation of grade reflectivity mirrors in the 250 nm - 1100 nm spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Alessandro; Nichelatti, Enrico [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-04-01

    It`s developed the prototype of an instrument that can be used for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors at any wavelength in the spectral region from 250 nm to 1100 nm. The instrument utilises a high-pressure Xe arc lamp as light source. Light is spectrally filtered by means of a grating monochromator. The sample is illuminated with an image of the monochromator exit slit. After reflection from the sample, this image is projected onto a 1024-elements charge-coupled device linear array driven by a digital frame board and interfaced with a personal computer. It`s tested the instrument accuracy by comparing measurement results with the corresponding ones obtained by means of a laser scanning technique. Measurement Rms repeatability has been estimated to be approximately of 0.8%. [Italiano] E` stato sviluppato il prototipo di uno strumento per la catatterizzazione ottica di specchi a riflettivita` variabile, operante a qualsiasi lunghezza d`onda nell`intervallo spettrale da 250 nm a 1100 nm. La sorgente dello strumento e` una lampada ad arco allo Xenon ad alta pressione. La luce e` filtrata spettralmente per mezzo di un monocromatore a reticolo. Il campione viene illuminato da un`immagine della fenditura d`uscita del monocromatore. Dopo essere stata riflessa dal campione, questa immagine viene proiettata su un array CCD lineare a 1024 elementi, connesso elettronicamente a una scheda digitale e interfacciato a un personal computer. L`accuratezza dello strumento e` stata verificata confrontando alcune misure con le corrispondenti misure ottenute mediante una tecnica a scansione laser. La ripetibilita` RMS delle misure e` stata stimata essere circa dello 0.8%.

  4. Laser ablation of ceramic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 193 nm and 248 nm: The importance of single-photon ionization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, R. J.; Afonso, C. N. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Bator, M.; Lippert, T. [General Energy Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-06-14

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that single-photon photoionization processes make a significant difference in the expansion and temperature of the plasma produced by laser ablation of ceramic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in vacuum as well as to show their consequences in the kinetic energy distribution of the species that eventually will impact on the film properties produced by pulsed laser deposition. This work compares results obtained by mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy on the composition and features of the plasma produced by laser ablation at 193 nm and 248 nm, i.e., photon energies that are, respectively, above and below the ionization potential of Al, and for fluences between threshold for visible plasma and up to Almost-Equal-To 2 times higher. The results show that the ionic composition and excitation of the plasma as well as the ion kinetic energies are much higher at 193 nm than at 248 nm and, in the latter case, the population of excited ions is even negligible. The comparison of Maxwell-Boltzmann temperature, electron temperatures, and densities of the plasmas produced with the two laser wavelengths suggests that the expansion of the plasma produced at 248 nm is dominated by a single population. Instead, the one produced at 193 nm is consistent with the existence of two populations of cold and hot species, the latter associated to Al{sup +} ions that travel at the forefront and produced by single photon ionization as well as Al neutrals and double ionized ions produced by electron-ion impact. The results also show that the most energetic Al neutrals in the plasma produced at the two studied wavelengths are in the ground state.

  5. On the origins of 718 nm fluorescence from Porphyridium cruentum at 77 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R T; Graham, J R; Myers, J

    1980-09-05

    Emission spectra and transient behavior of fluorescence in Porphyridium cruentum have been studied in search of the pathway of excitation energy from the phycobilisome to Photosystem I (PS I) of photosynthesis. For activating light at 436 nm, absorbed almost entirely by chlorophyll, fluorescence is dominated by the 718 nm band generally attributed to chlorophyll of PS I. Activating light at 550 nm, absorbed mostly by the phycobilisome, gives rise to the distinctive fluorescence band of PS II chlorophyll at 696 nm but also gives a large component at 718 nm. Analysis depends critically upon the source of emission at 718 nm under 550 nm activation: does it arise from PS I or PS IIC0 Ley and Butler (Ley, A.C. and Butler, W.L. (1976) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 3956-3960) have proposed that the 718 nm arises mostly from PS I, to which it is transferred by spillover from PS II. We suggest a different proposition: that under 550 nm activation most of the 718 emission arises from PS II. Analysis shows that this proposition provides an alternative explanation. Using the small change in fluorescence yield observed under 436 nm activation as a monitor of excitation in PS I, we provide evidence that under 550 activation most of the 718 nm fluorescence arises from PS II.

  6. Assessing Model Assumptions for Turbulent Premixed Combustion at High Karlovitz Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    W. Moriarty, B. Eiteneer, M. Goldenberg, C. T. Bowman, R. K. Hanson, S. Song, W. C. Gardiner, V. V. Lissianski, Z. Qin, GRI -Mech 3.0. Available at...http://www.me.berkeley.edu/ gri mech/. [37] G. Blanquart, CaltechMech v2.1. Available at http://theforce.caltech.edu/resources/. [38] B. Savard, B

  7. 75 FR 420 - Receipt of Domestic Interested Party Petition Concerning the Tariff Classification of Wickless...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... application of GRI 2(a). In the alternative, the petitioner argues that the wax objects are prima facie... alternative argument offered by NCA is that the wax objects are prima facie classifiable in both heading 3406... application of GRI 3(a) is inappropriate because the wax objects are not prima facie classifiable in two or...

  8. 32nm and below logic patterning using optimized illumination and double patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayling, Michael C.; Axelrad, Valery

    2009-03-01

    Line/space dimensions for 32nm generation logic are expected to be ~45-50nm at ~90-100nm pitch. It is likely that the node will begin at the upper end of the range, and then shrink by ~10% to a "28nm" node. For the lower end of the range, even with immersion scanners, the Rayleigh k1 factor is below 0.32. The 22nm logic node should begin with minimum pitches of approximately 70nm, requiring some form of double patterning to maintain k1 above 0.25. Logic patterning has been more difficult than NAND Flash patterning because random logic was designed with complete "freedom" compared to the very regular patterns used in memory. The logic layouts with bends and multiple pitches resulted in larger rules, un-optimized illumination, and a poorly understood process windows with little control of context-dependent "hot spots."[1] The introduction of logic design styles which use strictly one-directional lines for the critical levels now gives the opportunity for illumination optimization. Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to give areacompetitive layouts at existing 90, 65, and 45nm logic nodes while reducing CD variability.[2] These benefits can be extended to <=32nm logic using selective double pass patterning.

  9. Semiconductor optical amplifiers for the 1000-1100-nm spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Yakubovich, S D

    2008-01-01

    Two types of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on a double-layer quantum-well (InGa)As/(GaAl)As/GaAs heterostructure are investigated. The optical gain of more than 30 dB and saturation output power of more than 30 mW are achived at 1060 nm in pigtailed SOA modules. These SOAs used as active elements of a tunable laser provide rapid continuous tuning within 85 nm and 45 nm at output powers of 0.5 mW and more than 30 mW, respectively. (active media, lasers, and amplifiers)

  10. Widely Tunable High-Power Tapered Diode Laser at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz

    2011-01-01

    We report a large tuning range from 1018 to 1093 nm from a InGaAs single quantum-well 1060-nm external cavity tapered diode laser. More than 2.5-W output power has been achieved. The tuning range is to our knowledge the widest obtained from a high-power InGaAs single quantum-well tapered laser...... operating around 1060 nm. The light emitted by the laser has a nearly diffraction limited beam quality and a narrow linewidth of less than 6 pm everywhere in the tuning range....

  11. Pre-announcements of price increase intentions in liner shipping spot markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Rytter, Niels G M; Jiang, Liping

    2017-01-01

    competition perspective, which will indirectly indicate whether carriers are able to manipulate spot rates following GRI announcements. Taking the Far East–North Europe trade between 2009 and 2013 as an example, the paper first reveals the gradual increase of GRI frequency and size, which reflects carriers...... factors, in sequence of explanation power, are the total capacity of GRI carriers, the idling fleet size, the spot rate level, and the average ship-loading factor. Clearly the latter three factors are market fundamentals, which are unlikely to be influenced by an individual carrier in the short term....... In actual fact, the conclusion reached is that there is little evidence that carriers can manipulate and distort spot rates through GRIs...

  12. Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve: Geologic resources inventory report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, Chad P.; Neal, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This GRI report is a companion document to previously completed GRI digital geologic map data. It was written for resource managers to support science-informed decision making. It may also be useful for interpretation. The report was prepared using available geologic information, and the NPS Geologic Resources Division conducted no new fieldwork in association with its preparation. Sections of the report discuss distinctive geologic features and processes within the park, highlight geologic issues facing resource managers, describe the geologic history leading to the present-day landscape, and provide information about the GRI geologic map data. A poster illustrates these data. The Map Unit Properties Table summarizes report content for each geologic map unit.

  13. Photochemistry of acrylates at 222 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Madani, Mohamed; Sonntag, Clemens von

    2005-01-01

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission (especially KrCl * , 222 nm) allow a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (KrCl * excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (λ max ∼ 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, α-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the unrelaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  14. TUNABLE DIODE LASER MEASUREMENTS OF NO2 NEAR 670 NM AND 395 NM. (R823933)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two single-mode diode lasers were used to record high-resolution absorption spectra of NO2 (dilute in Ar) near 670.2 and 394.5 nm over a range of temperatures (296 to 774 K) and total pressures (2.4 x 10(-2) to 1 atm). A commercial InGaAsP laser was tuned 1.3 cm(-1) at a repetiti...

  15. Sub-10-nm suspended nano-web formation by direct laser writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihao; Yu, Ye; Liu, Hailong; Lim, Kevin T. P.; Madurai Srinivasan, Bharathi; Zhang, Yong Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

    2018-06-01

    A diffraction-limited three-dimensional (3D) direct laser writing (DLW) system based on two-photon polymerization can routinely pattern structures at the 100 nm length scale. Several schemes have been developed to improve the patterning resolution of 3D DLW but often require customized resist formulations or multi-wavelength exposures. Here, we introduce a scheme to produce suspended nano-webs with feature sizes below 10 nm in IP-Dip resist using sub-threshold exposure conditions in a commercial DLW system. The narrowest suspended lines (nano-webs) measured 7 nm in width. Larger ∼20 nm nano-webs were patterned with ∼80% yield at increased laser powers. In addition, closely spaced nano-gaps with a center-to-center distance of 33 nm were produced by patterning vertically displaced suspended lines followed by metal deposition and liftoff. We provide hypotheses and present preliminary results for a mechanism involving the initiation of a percolative path and a strain-induced narrowing in the nano-web formation. Our approach allows selective features to be patterned with dimensions comparable to the sub-10 nm patterning capability of electron-beam lithography (EBL).

  16. Generation of continuous-wave 194 nm laser for mercury ion optical frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongxin; Wu, Yue; Chen, Guozhu; Shen, Yong; Liu, Qu; Precision measurement; atomic clock Team

    2015-05-01

    194 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser is an essential part in mercury ion optical frequency standard. The continuous-wave tunable radiation sources in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region of the spectrum is also serviceable in high-resolution spectroscopy with many atomic and molecular lines. We introduce a scheme to generate continuous-wave 194 nm radiation with SFM in a Beta Barium Borate (BBO) crystal here. The two source beams are at 718 nm and 266 nm, respectively. Due to the property of BBO, critical phase matching (CPM) is implemented. One bow-tie cavity is used to resonantly enhance the 718 nm beam while the 266 nm makes a single pass, which makes the configuration easy to implement. Considering the walk-off effect in CPM, the cavity mode is designed to be elliptical so that the conversion efficiency can be promoted. Since the 266 nm radiation is generated by a 532 nm laser through SHG in a BBO crystal with a large walk-off angle, the output mode is quite non-Gaussian. To improve mode matching, we shaped the 266 nm beam into Gaussian modes with a cylindrical lens and iris diaphragm. As a result, 2.05 mW 194 nm radiation can be generated. As we know, this is the highest power for 194 nm CW laser using SFM in BBO with just single resonance. The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91436103 and No. 11204374).

  17. Remedial action programs annual meeting: Meeting notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office was pleased to host the 1987 Remedial Action programs Annual Meeting and herein presents notes from that meeting as prepared (on relatively short notice) by participants. These notes are a summary of the information derived from the workshops, case studies, and ad hoc committee reports rather than formal proceedings. The order of the materials in this report follows the actual sequence of presentations during the annual meeting

  18. Numerical Simulation of Chemically Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    flam in three spa ructured gri olves couple ed nature pr described in e LRR3D a Jacobian (no e rate of Ne t way, so th may be nonz local connec ion...the M formulation. omputationa prediction, mostly over mportant ad taggered gri . With all t pproach th 2012, the M ncluding fla mes with ad ate

  19. Negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure toward 13nm hp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Hideaki; Nihashi, Wataru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kei; Goto, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    Negative-tone imaging (NTI) with EUV exposure has major advantages with respect to line-width roughness (LWR) and resolution due in part to polymer swelling and favorable dissolution mechanics. In NTI process, both resist and organic solvents play important roles in determining lithography performances. The present study describes novel chemically amplified resist materials based on NTI technology with EUV using a specific organic solvents. Lithographic performances of NTI process were described in this paper under exposures using ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner at imec. It is emphasized that 14 nm hp was nicely resolved under exposure dose of 37 mJ/cm2 without any bridge and collapse, which are attributed to the low swelling character of NTI process. Although 13 nm hp resolution was potentially obtained, a pattern collapse still restricts its resolution in case coating resist film thickness is 40 nm. Dark mask limitation due mainly to mask defectivity issue makes NTI with EUV favorable approach for printing block mask to produce logic circuit. A good resolution of CD-X 21 nm/CD-Y 32 nm was obtained for block mask pattern using NTI with usable process window and dose of 49 mJ/cm2. Minimum resolution now reaches CD-X 17 nm / CD-Y 23 nm for the block. A 21 nm block mask resolution was not affected by exposure dose and explored toward low dose down to 18 mJ/cm2 by reducing quencher loading. In addition, there was a negligible amount of increase in LCDU for isolated dot pattern when decreasing exposure dose from 66 mJ/cm2 to 24 mJ/cm2. On the other hand, there appeared tradeoff relationship between LCDU and dose for dense dot pattern, indicating photon-shot noise restriction, but strong dependency on patterning features. Design to improve acid generation efficiency was described based on acid generation mechanism in traditional chemically amplified materials which contains photo-acid generator (PAG) and polymer. Conventional EUV absorber comprises of organic compounds is

  20. 76 FR 59454 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting Notice is hereby given that the Railroad Retirement Board will hold a meeting on October 6, 2011, 10 a.m. at the Board's meeting room on the 8th floor of its headquarters building, 844 North Rush Street, Chicago, Illinois...

  1. Gestão de resíduos sólidos na construção civil: uma análise do relatório GRI de empresas listadas na BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Frigo Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma das áreas em ascensão no Brasil é a construção civil, o qual é um setor que gera impactos ambientais, dentre eles, um número elevado de resíduos sólidos. Em razão disso, este estudo tem como objetivos identificar e avaliar o que as empresas do ramo da construção civil listadas na BM&FBOVESPA evidenciam em seus relatórios de sustentabilidade relativamente à gestão de seus resíduos. Para atender aos objetivos propostos, foram pesquisados os relatórios de sustentabilidade das empresas listadas na BM&FBOVESPA do setor de construção civil. Os resultados mostraram que pequena parte do total de empresas listadas divulga o relatório de sustentabilidade e que, das duas empresas identificadas, após a análise das informações efetivamente divulgadas, uma apresentou dados referentes a 96% dos itens da Categoria Ambiental da Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, e a outra apresentou apenas 19% dos itens. Além disso, em ambas as empresas foram identificados itens em que a divulgação foi feita de forma parcial ou sequer foi feita. O estudo conclui que mesmo a construção civil sendo uma área em expansão e geradora de resíduos, são poucas as empresas que apresentam relatório socioambiental.  

  2. Research capacity building in midwifery: Case study of an Australian Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Lewis, Lucy; Bayes, Sara; Keyes, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Having the research capacity to identify problems, create new knowledge and most importantly translate this knowledge into practice is essential within health care. Midwifery, as well as other health professions in Australia, is challenged in building its research capacity to contribute evidence to inform clinical practice. The aim of this project was to evaluate an innovative Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme offered at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Western Australia, to determine what was working well and how the programme could be improved. A case study approach was used to gain feedback from graduate midwives within a Graduate Research Intern (GRI) Programme. In addition outcomes were compiled of all projects the GRI midwives contributed to. Six GRI midwives participated in a survey comprising of four open ended questions to provide feedback about the programme. Findings confirm that the GRI programme increased the graduates understanding of how research works, its capacity to define a problem, generate new knowledge and inform clinical practice. The GRI midwives' feedback suggested the programme opened their thinking to future study and gave them enhanced insight into women's experiences around childbirth. To grow our knowledge as a professional group, midwives must develop and promote programmes to build our pool of research capable midwives. By sharing our programme evaluation we hope to entice other clinical settings to consider the value in replicating such a programme within their context. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanistic comparison of pulse laser induced phase separation of particulates from cellulose paper at 213 nm and 532 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, S.; Forster, M.; Kautek, W.; Bushuk, S.; Kouzmouk, A.; Tatur, H.; Batishche, S.

    2013-01-01

    The laser-induced phase separation of charcoal particles on additive-free cotton linters cellulose paper was investigated by electron and optical microscopy, colorimetry, and diffuse reflectance FT-IR. The fibre bundles were vaporised in depth of several 10 μm above destruction fluence thresholds using visible 532 nm radiation. This is in contrast to mid-ultraviolet 213 nm radiation, where only the top fibre bundles were modified and partially evaporated. The colorimetric lightness results generally represented the cleaning status, whereas the colorimetric yellowing data represented irreversible chemical and/or photochemical changes. Charcoal-contaminated paper treated with visible and mid-ultraviolet radiation exhibited yellowing, whereas uncontaminated did not. This suggests that the electron-rich plasma generated by the evaporation of the particles heats the adjacent substrate and also excludes oxygen. Mid-ultraviolet, in contrast to visible radiation, shows particle removal always accompanied by paper destruction. IR spectroscopy results suggest cross-linking by ether bonds near the destruction threshold, but do not prove the formation of oxidation products and double bonds as the basis of the yellowing. A ''cleaning window'' between the cleaning threshold (0.1 J/cm 2 ) and the paper destruction threshold (2.9 J/cm 2 ) with a pulse number of 2 is provided by visible 532 nm laser treatment. (orig.)

  4. Power and efficiency scaling of diode pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers: 770-1110 nm tuning range and frequency doubling to 387-463 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, Umit; Baali, Ilyes

    2015-10-15

    We report significant average power and efficiency scaling of diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers in continuous-wave (cw), cw frequency-doubled, and mode-locked regimes. Four single-emitter broad-area laser diodes around 660 nm were used as the pump source, which provided a total pump power of 7.2 W. To minimize thermal effects, a 20 mm long Cr:LiSAF sample with a relatively low Cr-concentration (0.8%) was used as the gain medium. In cw laser experiments, 2.4 W of output power, a slope efficiency of 50%, and a tuning range covering the 770-1110 nm region were achieved. Intracavity frequency doubling with beta-barium borate (BBO) crystals generated up to 1160 mW of blue power and a record tuning range in the 387-463 nm region. When mode locked with a saturable absorber mirror, the laser produced 195 fs pulses with 580 mW of average power around 820 nm at a 100.3 MHz repetition rate. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of the system was 33% in cw, 16% in cw frequency-doubled, and 8% in cw mode-locked regimes.

  5. Deposition and characterization of ITO films produced by laser ablation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 355 nm. Even though the absorption of laser light at the wavelength 355 nm is much smaller than that of the standard excimer lasers for PLD at 248 nm and 193 nm, high-quality films can be produced. At high fluence...

  6. Treatment of burn scars in Fitzpatrick phototype III patients with a combination of pulsed dye laser and non-ablative fractional resurfacing 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium laser devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Joy; Champlain, Amanda; Weddington, Charles; Moy, Lauren; Tung, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Burn scars cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychosocial distress. We present two Fitzpatrick phototype (FP) III patients with burn scars successfully treated with combination pulsed dye laser (PDL) and non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFL). A 30-year-old, FP III woman with a history of a second-degree burn injury to the bilateral arms and legs affecting 30% body surface area (BSA) presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received three treatments with 595 nm PDL (7 mm, 8 J, 6 ms), six with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and five with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). Treated burn scars improved significantly in thickness, texture and colour. A 33-year-old, FP III man with a history of a second-degree burn injury of the left neck and arm affecting 7% BSA presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received two treatments with 595 nm PDL (5 mm, 7.5 J, 6 ms), four with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and two with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). The burn scars became thinner, smoother and more normal in pigmentation and appearance. Our patients' burn scars were treated with a combination of PDL and NAFL (two wavelengths). The PDL targets scar hypervascularity, the 1550 nm erbium:glass stimulates collagen remodelling and the 1927 nm thulium targets epidermal processes, particularly hyperpigmentation. This combination addresses scar thickness, texture and colour with a low side effect profile and is particularly advantageous in patients at higher risk of post-procedure hyperpigmentation. Our cases suggest the combination of 595nm PDL plus NAFL 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium device is effective and well-tolerated for burn scar treatment in skin of colour.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF nm23 GENE EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 毛慧生; 傅西林; 方志沂; 冯玉梅; 范宇; 李树玲

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of nm23 gene and evaluate its prognostic value in breast cancer. Methods: nm23 expressions were detected in 101 breast cancer patients (group 1) by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to measure expressions of nm23 gene in another 68 patients with breast cancer (group 2). Results: nm23 gene expression in group 1 was inversely associated with distant metastasis and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). In 44 patients with negative lymph node, 9 cases progressed to distant metastasis, 7 of them (77.8%) showed low expression of nm23 gene (P<0.05). In 57 patients with positive lymph node, 24 our of 29 patients who had no distant metastasis (82.8%) expressed nm23 gene at high level (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there were 6 patients with distant metastasis in the group 2, all of thenm expressed nm23 gene mRNA at low level. Conclusion: The results showed that nm23 gene might play an independent role in predicting prognosis of breast cancer.

  8. Nearest-IR superluminescent diodes with a 100-nm spectral width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' chenko, S N; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Yakubovich, S D

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents an experimental study of quantum well superluminescent diodes with an extremely thin (InGa)As active layer. Under cw injection, the output power of such diodes is several milliwatts, with a centre wavelength of 830 nm and emission bandwidth of about 100 nm. (letters)

  9. 75 FR 59292 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... inclusion on future Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics, pension law and methodology referred... closed meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations. DATES: The meeting will be held on... INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will meet at...

  10. Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo at Wavelengths beyond 1500 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Shuo; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Hong, Guosong; Antaris, Alexander L; Chang, Junlei; Wu, Justin Z; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Kai; Kuo, Calvin J; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-12-01

    Compared to imaging in the visible and near-infrared regions below 900 nm, imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) is a promising method for deep-tissue high-resolution optical imaging in vivo mainly owing to the reduced scattering of photons traversing through biological tissues. Herein, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes with large diameters were used for in vivo fluorescence imaging in the long-wavelength NIR region (1500-1700 nm, NIR-IIb). With this imaging agent, 3-4 μm wide capillary blood vessels at a depth of about 3 mm could be resolved. Meanwhile, the blood-flow speeds in multiple individual vessels could be mapped simultaneously. Furthermore, NIR-IIb tumor imaging of a live mouse was explored. NIR-IIb imaging can be generalized to a wide range of fluorophores emitting at up to 1700 nm for high-performance in vivo optical imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Peculiarities of near-ultraviolet (365 nm) and visible light effects in Paramecium Caudatum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoilova, K.A.; Sushchenko, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    After treatment with 365 nm or visible light Paramecium caudatum cells fail to divide and die shortly after irradiation; no death occurs long after irradiation, as well as after several cell cycles, unlike the situation after the action of 254 nm or 300-380 nm. Irradiation inhibits mainly the first cell cycle following which the recovery of cells starts. Thus no after-effects take place after the action of 365 nm and visible light, and the patterns of their effects are rather similar. The photoreactivation of damages induced by 365 nm is quite small, being about 2 times less than that for 254 nm and 300-380 nm. Similarity of the action of 254, 300-380, 365 nm and visible light was established by the stimulation of cell division by low doses and increase in viability of infusoria from cultures with low survival and depressed rate of multiplication. This effect of 365 nm is not eliminated by visible light; moreover, the latter promotes the 'therapeutic' effect of the 365 nm line. (author)

  12. Surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser in treatment of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, J; Akashi, G; Moriya, K; Hirai, Y; Hatayama, H; Inoue, A; Miyazaki, H

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the surgical performance of a 405-nm diode laser ex vivo. The experiments were carried out using tuna tissue, which was irradiated with a 405-nm diode laser at output powers of 400 mW (694 W/cm 2 ) to 1 W (1735 W/cm 2 ) on a motorized stage moving at a rate of 1 mm/sec. As a control, a 920-nm diode laser was used with the same irradiation conditions. After irradiation, the thickness of ablation and coagulation was measured by stereoscopic microscopy and evaluated statistically. Ablation and coagulation zones were obtained with 405-nm laser irradiation, but not with irradiation at 920 nm. Ablation depth increased significantly with output power and a thick coagulation zone was observed with 405-nm irradiation. The 405-nm diode laser performed well for incising and coagulating soft tissue at a low power density

  13. Comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs for low-cost short-reach IM/DD and OFDM SMF/MMF links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Deng, Lei; Rodes Lopez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally compare the suitability of two VCSEL designs of different wavelength and technology as inexpensive, off-the-shelf transmitter components to enable low-cost and energy-efficient optical interconnects employing conventional (NRZ IM/DD) and advanced (OFDM) modulation....... In particular, we assess the performance of a multimode (MM) 850-nm and a single-mode (SM) 1550-nm VCSEL over 100 m/1 km of 50.7-μm diameter OM-4 MMF links and 100 m/5 km SMF links. OFDM-QPSK is investigated in order to substitute IM/DD in order to increase the capacity in the aforementioned VCSEL-based, MMF...

  14. Optical breakdown threshold investigation of 1064 nm laser induced air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Thompson, Shane

    2012-01-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental measurements and analysis of the optical breakdown threshold for dry air by 1064 nm infrared laser radiation and the significance of the multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization process on the breakdown threshold measurements over pressures range from 10 to 2000 Torr. Theoretical estimates of the breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are obtained using two distinct theories namely multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization theories. The theoretical estimates are validated by experimental measurements and analysis of laser induced breakdown processes in dry air at a wavelength of 1064 nm by focusing 450 mJ max, 6 ns, 75 MW max high-power 1064 nm IR laser radiation onto a 20 μm radius spot size that produces laser intensities up to 3 - 6 TW/cm 2 , sufficient for air ionization over the pressures of interest ranging from 10 to 2000 Torr. Analysis of the measured breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are carried out in relation with classical and quantum theoretical ionization processes, operating pressures. Comparative analysis of the laser air breakdown results at 1064 nm with corresponding results of a shorter laser wavelength (193 nm) [M. Thiyagarajan and J. E. Scharer, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 2512 (2008)] and a longer microwave wavelength (10 8 nm) [A. D. MacDonald, Microwave Breakdown in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966)]. A universal scaling analysis of the breakdown threshold measurements provided a direct comparison of breakdown threshold values over a wide range of frequencies ranging from microwave to ultraviolet frequencies. Comparison of 1064 nm laser induced effective field intensities for air breakdown measurements with data calculated based on the collisional cascade and multiphoton breakdown theories is used successfully to determine the scaled collisional microwave portion. The measured breakdown threshold of 1064 nm laser intensities are then scaled to

  15. 76 FR 17967 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics, pension law and methodology referred to in 29 U.S.C... closed meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations. DATES: The meeting will be held on... INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will meet at Mercer...

  16. 77 FR 19034 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics, pension law and methodology referred to in 29 U.S.C... closed meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations. DATES: The meeting will be held on... INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will meet at...

  17. 532 nm KTP激光治疗鲜红斑痣的自身对照研究%Efficacy and safety of 532 nm KTP laser in the treatment of port-wine stains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨千里; 郑文渊; 卢忠

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and adverse reactions of 532 nm KTP laser and 595 nm pulsed dye laser in the treatment of port wine stain. Methods:The lesions of 18 patients were divided into two areas. One area was treated with 532 nm KTP laser and another area was treated with 595 nm pulsed dye la ̄ser, once every 2~3 months for 2~4 times. The safety and efficacy were evaluated after the treatment and in 2-3 months after the treatment. Results:There was no significant difference in the cure rate between 532 nm KTP laser and 595 nm pulsed dye laser. Some patients who were resistant to pulsed dye laser treatment were also sensitive to the treatment with 532 nm KTP laser. There were less pain and less purpura in the group of 532 nm KTP laser. Only one patient in each group developed hyperpigmentation. Conclusion: 532 nm KTP laser has similar efficacy to 595 nm pulsed dye laser and relatively less adverse reactions. It can be used as an alternative treatment of port wine stain.%目的::比较532 nm KTP激光与脉冲染料激光( PDL)对鲜红斑痣的疗效及安全性。方法:将18例鲜红斑痣患者的自身皮损随机分成KTP激光治疗区及PDL治疗区,分别予以532 nm KTP激光及595 nm PDL治疗,每2~3个月治疗一次,共2~4次。每次治疗前、后即刻及治疗后2~3个月对患者激光治疗后的皮损进行疗效及安全性评价。结果:532 nm KTP激光治疗组及595 nm PDL治疗组治疗后疗效均无显著差异。在一些既往曾接受PDL治疗疗效不佳的患者,经532 nm KTP 激光治疗后,皮损取得一定改善。532 nm KTP激光治疗组在治疗时疼痛程度及治疗后紫癜程度均显著低于595 nmPDL治疗组。两组均有1例色素沉着发生。结论:532 nm KTP激光治疗鲜红斑痣的疗效较好,不良反应少,安全性好,可以作为鲜红斑痣治疗的另一方案。

  18. Effective technology transfer through regional information teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, D.E.; Gahan, B.; Hoyle, G.

    1997-01-01

    Communication and the transfer of technical information is critical to the international gas industry. The technical research results developed through Gas Research Institute's natural gas supply program have been disseminated through a number of vehicles. Two primary vehicles are GRI's Information Centers and Regional Technology Transfer Agents (RTTA). The Information Centers serve as repositories for GRI information as well as provide no-cost literature searching expertise. The RTTAs actively communicate and interface with area producers, introducing potential technology adopters with GRI technology managers and/or the appropriate licensed product or service distributors. The combination of Information Centers and RTTAs continues to help independent producers break through the barriers of technology and accelerate the benefits of lower cost natural gas recovery. (au)

  19. Efficiency of soft tissue incision with a novel 445-nm semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Kettner, Moritz; Berthold, Michael; Wenzler, Johannes-Simon; Heymann, Paul Günther Baptist; Frankenberger, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Using a 445-nm semiconductor laser for tissue incision, an effective cut is expected due to the special absorption properties of blue laser light in soft tissues. The aim of the present study was the histological evaluation of tissue samples after incision with a 445-nm diode laser. Forty soft tissue specimens were obtained from pork oral mucosa and mounted on a motorized linear translation stage. The handpiece of a high-frequency surgery device, a 970-nm semiconductor laser, and a 445-nm semiconductor laser were connected to the slide, allowing a constant linear movement (2 mm/s) and the same distance of the working tip to the soft tissue's surface. Four incisions were made each: (I) 970-nm laser with conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 3-W cw; (II-III): 445-nm laser with non-conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 2-W cw, and non-contact mode (1 mm) at 2 W; and (IV): high-frequency surgery device with straight working tip, 90° angulation, contact mode at 50 W. Histological analysis was performed after H&E staining of the embedded specimens at 35-fold magnification. The comparison of the incision depths showed a significant difference depending on the laser wavelength and the selected laser parameters. The highest incision depth was achieved with the 445-nm laser contact mode (median depth 0.61 mm, min 0.26, max 1.17, interquartile range 0.58) (p laser, a higher cutting efficiency can be expected when compared with a 970-nm diode laser and high-frequency surgery. Even the 445-nm laser application in non-contact mode shows clinically acceptable incision depths without signs of extensive soft tissue denaturation.

  20. 77 FR 59979 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... actuarial mathematics, pension law and methodology referred to in 29 U.S.C. 1242(a)(1)(B). A determination... closed meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations. DATES: The meeting will be held on... is hereby given that the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will meet at Towers Watson, 800...

  1. Fluorescence-based calculus detection using a 405-nm excitation wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, O.; Schelle, F.; Krueger, S.; Oehme, B.; Dehn, C.; Frentzen, M.; Braun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the difference of fluorescence signals of cement and calculus using a 405 nm excitation wavelength. A total number of 20 freshly extracted teeth was used. The light source used for this study was a blue LED with a wavelength of 405nm. For each tooth the spectra of calculus and cementum were measured separately. Fluorescence light was collimated into an optical fibre and spectrally analyzed using an echelle spectrometer (aryelle 200, Lasertechnik Berlin, Germany) with an additionally bandpass (fgb 67, Edmund Industrial Optics, Karlsruhe, Germany). From these 40 measurements the median values were calculated over the whole spectrum, leading to two different median spectra, one for calculus and one for cementum. For further statistical analysis we defined 8 areas of interest (AOI) in wavelength regions, showing remarkable differences in signal strength. In 7 AOIs the intensity of the calculus spectrum differed statistically significant from the intensity of the cementum spectrum (p calculus and cement between 600nm and 700nm. Thus, we can conclude that fluorescence of calculus shows a significant difference to the fluorescence of cement. A differentiation over the intensity is possible as well as over the spectrum. Using a wavelength of 405nm, it is possible to distinguish between calculus and cement. These results could be used for further devices to develop a method for feedback controlled calculus removal.

  2. Pre-storm NmF2 enhancements at middle latitudes: delusion or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of recent publications devoted to the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements is performed. There are no convincing arguments that the observed cases of NmF2 enhancements at middle and sub-auroral latitudes bear a relation to the following magnetic storms. In all cases considered the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements were due to previous geomagnetic storms, moderate auroral activity or they presented the class of positive quiet time events (Q-disturbances. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that there is no such an effect as the pre-storm NmF2 enhancement as a phenomenon inalienably related to the following magnetic storm. The observed nighttime NmF2 enhancements at sub-auroral latitudes may result from plasma transfer from the plasma ring area by meridional thermospheric wind. Enhanced plasmaspheric fluxes into the nighttime F2-region resulted from westward substorm-associated electric fields is another possible source of nighttime NmF2 enhancements. Daytime positive Q-disturbances occurring under very low geomagnetic activity level may be related to the dayside cusp activity.

  3. Planning and conducting meetings effectively, part I: planning a meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay

    2011-12-01

    Meetings are held by leaders for many purposes, including conveying information, raising morale, asking for opinions, brain storming, making people part of the problem-solving process, building trust, getting to a consensus, and making decisions. However, many meetings waste time, some undermine the leader's power, and some decrease morale. Part I of this series of articles gives some tips on basic planning for decision-making meetings. Part II of this series of articles analyzes selected components of decision-making meetings. Part III of this series will be on how the chairperson keeps decision-making meetings on track to make them efficient and productive.

  4. Online and Off-line Visualization of Meeting Information and Meeting Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Rienks, R.J.; Zwiers, Jakob; Reidsma, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    In current meeting research we see modest attempts to visualize the information that has been obtained by either capturing and probably more importantly by interpreting the activities that take place during a meeting. The meetings being considered take place in smart meeting rooms. Cameras,

  5. Online and Off-line Visualization of Meeting Information and Meeting Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Seah, H.S.; Rienks, R.J.; Zwiers, Jakob; Reidsma, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    In current meeting research we see modest attempts to visualize the information that has been obtained by either capturing and, probably more importantly, by interpreting the activities that take place during a meeting. The meetings being considered take place in smart meeting rooms. Cameras,

  6. Diode-side-pumped 131 W, 1319 nm single-wavelength cw Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyong, Zhu; Ge, Zhang; Chenghui, Huang; Yong, Wei; Lingxiong, Huang; Jing, Chen; Weidong, Chen; Zhenqiang, Chen

    2007-01-20

    A diode-side-pumped high-power 1319 nm single-wavelength Nd:YAG continuous wave (cw) laser is described. Through reasonable coating design of the cavity mirrors, the 1064 nm strongest line as well as the 1338 nm one have been successfully suppressed. The laser output powers corresponding to four groups of different output couplers operating at 1319 nm single wavelength have been compared. The output coupler with the transmission T=5.3% has the highest output power, and a 131 W cw output power was achieved at the pumping power of 555 W. The optical-optical conversion efficiency is 23.6%, and the slope efficiency is 46%. The output power is higher than the total output power of the dual-wavelength laser operating at 1319 nm and 1338 nm in the experiment.

  7. Mechanistic comparison of pulse laser induced phase separation of particulates from cellulose paper at 213 nm and 532 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, S.; Forster, M.; Kautek, W. [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, Wien (Austria); Bushuk, S.; Kouzmouk, A.; Tatur, H.; Batishche, S. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus, Institute of Physics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-02-15

    The laser-induced phase separation of charcoal particles on additive-free cotton linters cellulose paper was investigated by electron and optical microscopy, colorimetry, and diffuse reflectance FT-IR. The fibre bundles were vaporised in depth of several 10 {mu}m above destruction fluence thresholds using visible 532 nm radiation. This is in contrast to mid-ultraviolet 213 nm radiation, where only the top fibre bundles were modified and partially evaporated. The colorimetric lightness results generally represented the cleaning status, whereas the colorimetric yellowing data represented irreversible chemical and/or photochemical changes. Charcoal-contaminated paper treated with visible and mid-ultraviolet radiation exhibited yellowing, whereas uncontaminated did not. This suggests that the electron-rich plasma generated by the evaporation of the particles heats the adjacent substrate and also excludes oxygen. Mid-ultraviolet, in contrast to visible radiation, shows particle removal always accompanied by paper destruction. IR spectroscopy results suggest cross-linking by ether bonds near the destruction threshold, but do not prove the formation of oxidation products and double bonds as the basis of the yellowing. A ''cleaning window'' between the cleaning threshold (0.1 J/cm{sup 2}) and the paper destruction threshold (2.9 J/cm{sup 2}) with a pulse number of 2 is provided by visible 532 nm laser treatment. (orig.)

  8. Mapping the Use of Engineered NM in Quebec's Industries and Research Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostiguy, Claude; Emond, Claude; Dossa, Inès; Plavski, Anton; Malki, Yasmina; Boily, Chantale; Roughley, David; Endo, Charles-Anica

    2013-01-01

    Engineered NanoMaterials (NM) offer an opportunity to develop a wide variety of new products with unique properties but many studies have shown potential OHS risks specific to NM. Addressing these risks requires knowledge about release of NM into the workplaces. This research aimed to map the state of nanotechnology OHS practices in Quebec through a questionnaire following a first contact by telephone when possible and by compiling the type and volumes of NM used as well as gathering information related to the working conditions and OHS aspects. This survey was conducted among 1310 Quebec industries and 653 researchers working in different specialties potentially involved in the development/production/distribution/integration of NM and use of NM containing products. Overall, 90 questionnaires, including 51 from the industries, were completed. These showed that NM are mainly used into the powder form, in many different sectors and deserve a wide range of markets. The prevention measures implemented vary widely from a workplace to another but about one third of the participants report that they have implemented NP adapted prevention measures but they remain worried on some specific operations. More than 50% of the participants request more information about the safe laboratory/plant design, toxicity, regulation, good work practices and prevention measures, efficiency of personal protective equipment and environmental impacts.

  9. Mapping the Use of Engineered NM in Quebec's Industries and Research Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostiguy, Claude; Emond, Claude; Dossa, Inès; Malki, Yasmina; Boily, Chantale; Roughley, David; Plavski, Anton; Endo, Charles-Anica

    2013-04-01

    Engineered NanoMaterials (NM) offer an opportunity to develop a wide variety of new products with unique properties but many studies have shown potential OHS risks specific to NM. Addressing these risks requires knowledge about release of NM into the workplaces. This research aimed to map the state of nanotechnology OHS practices in Quebec through a questionnaire following a first contact by telephone when possible and by compiling the type and volumes of NM used as well as gathering information related to the working conditions and OHS aspects. This survey was conducted among 1310 Quebec industries and 653 researchers working in different specialties potentially involved in the development/production/distribution/integration of NM and use of NM containing products. Overall, 90 questionnaires, including 51 from the industries, were completed. These showed that NM are mainly used into the powder form, in many different sectors and deserve a wide range of markets. The prevention measures implemented vary widely from a workplace to another but about one third of the participants report that they have implemented NP adapted prevention measures but they remain worried on some specific operations. More than 50% of the participants request more information about the safe laboratory/plant design, toxicity, regulation, good work practices and prevention measures, efficiency of personal protective equipment and environmental impacts.

  10. Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy of benzene-(water)n-(methanol)m clusters with n+m=4, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemeister, F.C.; Gruenloh, C.J.; Zwier, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization and resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectra of benzene-(water) n -(methanol) m clusters (hereafter shortened to BW n M m ) have been recorded for a total of seven clusters with n+m=4 and 5. The infrared spectra in the OH and CH stretch regions show absorptions characteristic of H-bonded W n M m clusters which are bound to benzene by a π H-bond involving a dangling OH on the W n M m sub-unit. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations identify a number of conformational isomers in the n+m=4 series which meet the general criteria imposed by the experimental spectra. The structures, binding energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities for these isomers have been calculated for comparison with experiment. Based on the calculations, tentative assignments of several of the observed species are given. The calculations uncover the fact that complexation of benzene to the cyclic water tetramer imposes much the same perturbations on the cycle as substitution of methanol for water. In particular, the single-donor OH stretch spectra of W n M m and BW n+1 M m-1 are calculated to be virtually identical to one another. The comparison of experiment and theory for this series of cyclic structures is used to assess the strengths and limitations of the calculations at the DFT Becke3LYP/6-31+G * level of theory. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Lessons on corporate "sustainability" disclosure from Deepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    The BP oil spill highlighted shortcomings of current financial and sustainability reporting standards and practice. "Integrated reporting" aims to combine financial and social/environmental information into a single annual corporate report. But without more stringent standards, integrated reports would neglect substantial risks and, as BP's sustainability reports demonstrate, create false impressions of good practice.To be of value, integration must: 1. Require timely disclosure of enforcement notices, orders and allegations issued by regulators. 2. Require disclosure of credible scientific reports and concerns indicative of potentially catastrophic risks of a company's products and activities, regardless of scientific uncertainty. 3. Require review and disclosures of a firm's safety culture. 4. Require disclosure of any facts or circumstances needed to ensure that the management's self-portrait of its sustainability strategies, goals and progress is not materially misleading.In conducting its misleading reporting, BP largely followed Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. GRI is soliciting input, beginning in summer 2011, on how to revise those guidelines. Since GRI may prove a leading source for sustainability disclosure rules in integrating reporting, lessons learned from the BP experience must be applied to the next GRI revisions.

  12. Development of glucose-responsive 'smart' insulin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Nischay K; Phillips, Nelson F B; Weiss, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    The complexity of modern insulin-based therapy for type I and type II diabetes mellitus and the risks associated with excursions in blood-glucose concentration (hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia) have motivated the development of 'smart insulin' technologies (glucose-responsive insulin, GRI). Such analogs or delivery systems are entities that provide insulin activity proportional to the glycemic state of the patient without external monitoring by the patient or healthcare provider. The present review describes the relevant historical background to modern GRI technologies and highlights three distinct approaches: coupling of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to deliver devices (algorithm-based 'closed-loop' systems), glucose-responsive polymer encapsulation of insulin, and molecular modification of insulin itself. Recent advances in GRI research utilizing each of the three approaches are illustrated; these include newly developed algorithms for CGM-based insulin delivery systems, glucose-sensitive modifications of existing clinical analogs, newly developed hypoxia-sensitive polymer matrices, and polymer-encapsulated, stem-cell-derived pancreatic β cells. Although GRI technologies have yet to be perfected, the recent advances across several scientific disciplines that are described in this review have provided a path towards their clinical implementation.

  13. Direct ethanol production from barley beta-glucan by sake yeast displaying Aspergillus oryzae beta-glucosidase and endoglucanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Atsushi; Bando, Hiroki; Kaya, Masahiko; Kato-Murai, Michiko; Kuroda, Kouichi; Sahara, Hiroshi; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    Three beta-glucosidase- and two endoglucanase-encoding genes were cloned from Aspergillus oryzae, and their gene products were displayed on the cell surface of the sake yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRI-117-UK. GRI-117-UK/pUDB7 displaying beta-glucosidase AO090009000356 showed the highest activity against various substrates and efficiently produced ethanol from cellobiose. On the other hand, GRI-117-UK/pUDCB displaying endoglucanase AO090010000314 efficiently degraded barley beta-glucan to glucose and smaller cellooligosaccharides. GRI-117-UK/pUDB7CB codisplaying both beta-glucosidase AO090009000356 and endoglucanase AO090010000314 was constructed. When direct ethanol fermentation from 20 g/l barley beta-glucan as a model substrate was performed with the codisplaying strain, the ethanol concentration reached 7.94 g/l after 24 h of fermentation. The conversion ratio of ethanol from beta-glucan was 69.6% of the theoretical ethanol concentration produced from 20 g/l barley beta-glucan. These results showed that sake yeast displaying A. oryzae cellulolytic enzymes can be used to produce ethanol from cellulosic materials. Our constructs have higher ethanol production potential than the laboratory constructs previously reported.

  14. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Jiang, Shuguang; Hardacre, Christopher; Goodrich, Peter; Wang, Kai; Shao, Hao; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite) and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of I GR/I All and I (G + GR)/I All but lower values of I D/I (G+GR), I DL/I (G+GR), I (S + SL)/I (G+GR), and I (GL+GL')/I (G+GR). The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes T ig, T 20%, and T max from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of I GR/I All, I (G + GR)/I All, and I (S + SL)/I (G+GR). Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  15. Integrating technology into business strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The development and application of new technology has been a major factor in the worldwide growth of natural gas use. In an increasingly competitive gas industry, technology will continue to be a major driving force. However, funding for research, development, and commercialization is under pressure as competition puts pressure on all costs. Natural gas R and D budgets have been reduced in recent years in the United States, United Kingdom, and Japan. To sustain the important role of technology and to most effectively use the limited funds available, technologists must learn to address business issues, not just technology issues. This paper will discuss how the Gas Research Institute has aligned its program with the business strategies of its U.S. members. To accomplish realignment, GRI studied the R and D processes of successful competitive industries. As a result, GRI changed its strategic planning, goal setting, program implementation, and results measurement processes. The result is a more focused technology effort that addresses key business needs. The paper describes specific examples where technology development has been aligned with critical business needs and outlines the GRI RD and C stage-gate process used to implement GRI-funded projects. (au)

  16. A reflectivity profilometer for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors in the 250 nm - 1100 nm spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Alessandro; Nichelatti, Enrico

    1998-04-01

    It's developed the prototype of an instrument that can be used for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors at any wavelength in the spectral region from 250 nm to 1100 nm. The instrument utilises a high-pressure Xe arc lamp as light source. Light is spectrally filtered by means of a grating monochromator. The sample is illuminated with an image of the monochromator exit slit. After reflection from the sample, this image is projected onto a 1024-elements charge-coupled device linear array driven by a digital frame board and interfaced with a personal computer. It's tested the instrument accuracy by comparing measurement results with the corresponding ones obtained by means of a laser scanning technique. Measurement Rms repeatability has been estimated to be approximately of 0.8% [it

  17. 20 W continuous-wave cladding-pumped Nd-doped fiber laser at 910 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, M; Cadier, B; Gilles, H; Girard, S; Lablonde, L; Robin, T

    2013-08-15

    We demonstrate a double-clad fiber laser operating at 910 nm with a record power of 20 W. Laser emission on the three-level scheme is enabled by the combination of a small inner cladding-to-core diameter ratio and a high brightness pump source at 808 nm. A laser conversion efficiency as high as 44% was achieved in CW operating regime by using resonant fiber Bragg reflectors at 910 nm that prevent the lasing at the 1060 nm competing wavelength. Furthermore, in a master oscillator power-amplifier scheme, an amplified power of 14.8 W was achieved at 914 nm in the same fiber.

  18. Irradiation Effect of Argon Ion on Interfacial Structure Fe(2nm/Si(tsi=0.5-2 nm Multilayer thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Purwanto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation includes formation of interfacial structure of Fe(2nm/Si(tSi= 0.5-2 nm multilayer thin film and the behavior of antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe layers due to Argon ion irradiation was investigated. [Fe(2nm/Si]30 multilayers (MLs with a thickness of Si spacer 0.5 - 2 nanometer were prepared on n-type (100 Si substrate by the helicon plasma sputtering method. Irradiation were performed using 400keV Ar ion to investigate the behavior of magnetic properties of the Fe/Si MLs. The magnetization measurements of Fe/Si MLs after 400keV Ar ion irradiation show the degradation of antiferromagnetic behavior of Fe layers depend on the ion doses. The Magnetoresistance (MR measurements using by Four Point Probe (FPP method also confirm that MR ratio decrease after ion irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns indicate that the intensity of a satellite peak induced by a superlattice structure does not change within the range of ion dose. These results imply that the surface of interface structures after ion irradiation become rough although the layer structures are maintained. Therefore, it is considered that the MR properties of Fe/Si MLs also are due to the metallic superlattice structures such as Fe/Cr and Co/Cu MLs.

  19. Aerosol extinction profiles at 525 nm and 1020 nm derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vanhellemont

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present first comparison results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, with the ones derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS and one limb sounder (OSIRIS. The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the relative differences indicate that ACE profiles are almost always too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.

  20. All-solid-state cw frequency-doubling Nd:YLiF4/LBO blue laser with 4.33 W output power at 454 nm under in-band diode pumping at 880 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yanfei; Zhang, Xihe; Cheng, Weibo; Xia, Jing

    2010-07-20

    We generated efficient blue laser output at 454 nm by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous-wave (cw) diode-pumped Nd:YLiF(4) (Nd:YLF) laser at 908 nm based on the (4)F(3/2)-(4)I(9/2) transition. With 32.8 W of incident pump power at 880 nm and the frequency-doubling crystal LiB(3)O(5), a level as high as 4.33 W of cw output power at 454 nm is achieved, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 13.2% with respect to the incident pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first blue laser at 454 nm generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF.

  1. Repair of 313-nm induced lesions and photoprotection in yeast Candida guilliermondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Y.; Pospelov, M.E.; Rubin, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    The present communication is concerned with the effects of near-UV radiation (300-380 nm) on yeast Candida guilliermondii. It was found that certain doses of 313 nm irradiation caused inactivation of the yeast which was exhibited in a way different from the lethal action of far-UV radiation. It was also found that the cells inactivated by 313 nm are capable of recovering vitality, if incubated for some time in a non-nutrient medium. The yeast inactivated by far-UV radiation also proved to be capable of recovering, though to a lesser degree. Both 334 nm radiation and non-lethal doses at 313 nm induced the photoprotective effect against far-UV damage. The effect was exhibited if there was a certain time interval (2-4 h) between the exposures to photoprotective light and subsequent far-UV radiation. Within this time interval the extent of photoprotection was dependent on temperature. (author)

  2. Sustainability Reporting in the Aviation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Miles Hill [Global Reporting Initiative (Netherlands)

    2008-09-30

    The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3 Guidelines are the de-facto standard for sustainability reporting. Thousands of organizations around the world base their annual sustainability report on the GRI G3 Guidelines, including many within the aviation sector, including leading airports, aerospace manufacturers and airlines. The Guidelines are principles based and contain Disclosures on Management Approach and Performance Indicators. To report on the performance indicators a company needs to measure and manage its entities. By doing so targets can be set to improve performance over the years, on sustainability topics ranging from community investment to CO{sub 2} emissions. Each company is different and therefore each company needs to conduct a materiality test to assess which indicators to use, based on Stakeholder Assessments and Decisions and Significance of Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts. Using the Guidelines means that you have a tool for clear and comparable communication with your stakeholders and measuring your performance on sustainability topics like CO{sub 2} emissions. By measuring CO{sub 2} emissions overtime in a uniform way and publishing the emissions in your sustainability report, your stakeholders will appreciate your honesty and better understand when you experience difficulties in meeting your targets to limit the emissions. Additionally it will allow you to be able to benchmark your company against other companies in your sector.

  3. Wide-Field Imaging of Single-Nanoparticle Extinction with Sub-nm2 Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lukas M.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2018-03-01

    We report on a highly sensitive wide-field imaging technique for quantitative measurement of the optical extinction cross section σext of single nanoparticles. The technique is simple and high speed, and it enables the simultaneous acquisition of hundreds of nanoparticles for statistical analysis. Using rapid referencing, fast acquisition, and a deconvolution analysis, a shot-noise-limited sensitivity down to 0.4 nm2 is achieved. Measurements on a set of individual gold nanoparticles of 5 nm diameter using this method yield σext=(10.0 ±3.1 ) nm2, which is consistent with theoretical expectations and well above the background fluctuations of 0.9 nm2 .

  4. Validity of autorefractor based screening method for irregular astigmatism compared to the corneal topography- a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To present a method of screening for irregular astigmatism with an autorefractor and its determinants compared to corneal topography. METHODS: This cross-sectional validity study was conducted in 2013 at an eye hospital in Spain. A tabletop autorefractor (test 1 was used to measure the refractive status of the anterior surface of the cornea at two corneal meridians of each eye. Then corneal topography (test 2 and Bogan’s classification was used to group eyes into those with regular or no astigmatism (GRI and irregular astigmatism (GRII. Test 1 provided a single absolute value for the greatest cylinder difference (Vr. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC were plotted for the Vr values measured by test 1 for GRI and GRII eyes. On the basis a Vr value of 1.25 D as cut off, sensitivity, specificity were also calculated. RESULTS: The study sample was comprised of 260 eyes (135 patients. The prevalence of irregular astigmatism was 42% [95% confidence interval (CI: 36, 48]. Based on test 2, there were 151 eyes in GRI and 109 eyes in GRII. The median Vr was 0.75 D (25% quartile, 0.5 D for GRI and 1.75 D (25% quartile, 1.25 D for GRII. The area under curve was 0.171 for GRI and 0.83 for GRII. The sensitivity of test I was 78.1% and the specificity was 76.1%. CONCLUSION: A conventional autorefractor can be effective as a first level screening method to detect irregular corneal astigmatism in places where corneal topography facilities are not available.

  5. On the effectiveness of private transnational governance regimes - evaluating corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Preuss, Lutz; Lee, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    The increasing involvement of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in global governance has been both applauded for its potential to make governance more effective and criticized for lacking democratic legitimization. Hence we investigate the effectiveness of one transnational governance regime, corporate sustainability reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). We found that the GRI has been successful in terms of output effectiveness by promoting the dissemination of sustaina...

  6. Prototyping the HPDP Chip on STM 65 NM Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadas, C.; Dramitinos, G.; Syed, M.; Helfers, T.; Dedes, G.; Schoellkopf, J.-P.; Dugoujon, L.

    2011-08-01

    Currently Astrium GmbH is involved in the of the High Performance Data Processor (HPDP) development programme for telecommunication applications under a DLR contract. The HPDP project targets the implementation of the commercially available reconfigurable array processor IP (XPP from the company PACT XPP Technologies) in a radiation hardened technology.In the current complementary development phase funded under the Greek Industry Incentive scheme, it is planned to prototype the HPDP chip in commercial STM 65 nm technology. In addition it is also planned to utilise the preliminary radiation hardened components of this library wherever possible.This abstract gives an overview of the HPDP chip architecture, the basic details of the STM 65 nm process and the design flow foreseen for the prototyping. The paper will discuss the development and integration issues involved in using the STM 65 nm process (also including the available preliminary radiation hardened components) for designs targeted to be used in space applications.

  7. Sub-10-nm Graphene Nanoribbons with Tunable Surface Functionalities for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Sheng; Ao, Xiang; Liao, Jia-Liang; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Chundong; Chiang, Wei-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A green and scalable method to produce sub-10-nm GNR is present. •The surface functionality of sub-10-nm GNR is critical for the LIB properties. •The sub-10-nm GNR showed superior LIB capacity of 490.4 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. -- Abstract: A systematic study to reveal the relationship between the surface oxygen-containing functionalities of sub-10-nm GNRs and their electrochemical properties for lithium-ion batteries has been presented. Sub-10-nm GNRs with controlled oxygen-containing groups were synthesized by a green and scalable intercalation-assisted unzipping SWCNTs. Detailed materials characterizations including TEM, XRD, Raman and XPS indicate that KNO 3 could be an effective intercalation agent to facilitate the SWCNT unzipping by reducing the strong Van der Waals force attraction of bundled SWCNT. The levels of surface functionalities of sub-10-nm GNR were tuned by carefully controlling the KMnO 4 concentration during the unzipping process. The electrochemical analysis suggests that the as-produced sub-10-nm GNR with 31.4 atomic percent (atom %) oxygen-containing functional groups showed the highest capacity of 490.4 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles. This work proposed that sub-10-nm GNRs with appropriate oxygen-functional groups can be a promising electrode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Meetings as a positive boost? How and when meeting satisfaction impacts employee empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J.A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Sands, S.

    2016-01-01

    Meetings constitute an important context for understanding organizational behavior and employee attitudes. Employees spend ever-increasing time in meetings and often complain about their meetings. In contrast, we explore the positive side of meetings and argue that satisfying meetings can empower

  9. Corporate responsibility reporting according to Global Reporting Initiative: an international comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela-Corina CHERSAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI is an organization that has managed to impose its reporting practices on corporate responsibility among large transnational companies. The model proposed by GRI is based on the supposed convergence between the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This convergence can be presumed at macroeconomic level, but at the level of enterprises, the three dimensions are often divergent. By analyzing the structure of reports included in the GRI database, our article aims to identify the factors that impact on company’s behavior in the corporate responsibility reporting process. In addition, our research invites to answer the following question: is it not possible that these reports attempt to exaggerate company environmental and social performance, rather than to cause a change in their conduct?

  10. Diode-pumped thin-disk Nd:GdVO4 laser at 893 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y L; Fu, X H; Wang, A G

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time a Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating in a continuous wave (CW) on the quasi-three-level laser at 893 nm, based on the 4 F 3/2 – 4 I 9/2 transition, generally used for a 912 nm emission. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Nd:GdVO 4 thin-disk laser with 157 mW of CW output power at 893 nm. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 23 mW at 447 nm by using a BiB 3 O 6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal

  11. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2007-12-01

    Alopecia areata is loss of hair from localized or diffuse areas of hair-bearing area of the skin. Recently there are reports of efficacy of the 308-nm excimer radiation for this condition. To study the effect of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata. Eighteen patients with 42 recalcitrant patches (including 1 adult with alopecia totalis) were enrolled in this study. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks; one lesion on each patient was left as a control for comparison. There were 7 males and 11 females in this study. Regrowth of hair was observed in 17 (41.5%) patches. Thirteen of the 18 lesions in scalp showed a complete regrowth of hair. The extremity regions failed to show a response. Atopic diatheses had an unfavorable effect on the outcome in our patients. The 308-nm excimer laser is an effective therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata of the scalp and for some cases with patchy alopecia areata of the beard area. It does not work for patchy alopecia areata of the extremities.

  12. Relatório de sustentabilidade: perfil das organizações brasileiras e estrangeiras segundo o padrão da Global Reporting Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Maria de Souza Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de descrever a evolução da publicação mundial de relatórios de sustentabilidade organizacionais, com base nos indicadores da Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, no período de 1999 a 2010. Identificou-se a evolução de adesão aos indicadores GRI pelas organizações, mediante análises quantitativas das publicações por: i regiões (continentes; ii países; iii setores de atuação; iv níveis de aplicação das diretrizes GRI; e v nível de aderência às diretrizes GRI. Trata-se de uma análise documental, com enfoque quantitativo, de natureza descritiva, que fez uso de estatística descritiva por meio do software Statistica e de planilha eletrônica Excel para proceder à análise dos dados. Conforme dados de GRI (GLOBAL..., 2011, constatou-se que as regiões com maior adesão à publicação de relatórios no modelo GRI foram a Europa, que obteve maior representatividade com 47,60% do total, seguida pela Ásia com 17,02% e América do Norte com 13,92%. Os países com maior volume de publicações foram em ordem: Espanha, Estados Unidos, Japão e Brasil, que somaram 33,54% do total. Dentre os setores com maior adesão aos indicadores para elaboração de relatórios de sustentabilidade, destacam-se os de Serviços Financeiros, Energia, Serviços de Energia e Outros, que somados alcançaram 35,30% de participação relativa. Observou-se que 74,80% dos relatórios foram publicados no nível de aplicação G3, além de que existe forte movimento de publicação nos níveis mais elevados de aderência ao padrão GRI (A e A+ e com verificação externa, sobretudo a partir de 2006 e 2010. Mediante uso de análise de correspondência entre os 13 principais setores de atuação e os 14 principais países de origem das empresas que publicaram relatórios pela GRI, percebe-se a ligação entre os Setores de Energia, Serviços de Energia e Construção com o Brasil. A Europa ganha destaque em relatórios do

  13. 75 FR 42125 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on September 2...

  14. Overview of Gas Research Institute's industrial utilization research and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabb, E S

    1982-05-01

    A combination of technical, economic, political, and environmental constraints hamper industry's ability to use natural gas efficiently. Although the industrial sector has the best potential to absorb the current surplus of natural gas, many industrial users are disenchanged with the high cost, low efficiency, and environmental problems associated with the existing inventory of gas-fired process systems. Consequently, it is essential for an organization like Gas Research Institute (GRI), which has a national scope and a mandate to generate energy end-use benefits for the industrial gas consumer, to assume a leadership role in the development program aimed, not only at upgrading the energy efficiency of industrial process equipment, but at increasing its production capability while meeting environmental standards.

  15. Ion transport in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Myung E.; Aluru, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene nanopore is a promising device for single molecule sensing, including DNA bases, as its single atom thickness provides high spatial resolution. To attain high sensitivity, the size of the molecule should be comparable to the pore diameter. However, when the pore diameter approaches the size of the molecule, ion properties and dynamics may deviate from the bulk values and continuum analysis may not be accurate. In this paper, we investigate the static and dynamic properties of ions with and without an external voltage drop in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores using molecular dynamics simulations. Ion concentration in graphene nanopores sharply drops from the bulk concentration when the pore radius is smaller than 0.9 nm. Ion mobility in the pore is also smaller than bulk ion mobility due to the layered liquid structure in the pore-axial direction. Our results show that a continuum analysis can be appropriate when the pore radius is larger than 0.9 nm if pore conductivity is properly defined. Since many applications of graphene nanopores, such as DNA and protein sensing, involve ion transport, the results presented here will be useful not only in understanding the behavior of ion transport but also in designing bio-molecular sensors

  16. Evidence for stepwise dissociation dynamics in acetone at 248 and 193 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Simon W.; Blank, David A.; Gezelter, J. Daniel; Longfellow, Cheryl A.; Lee, Yuan T.

    1995-03-01

    The technique of molecular beam photofragment translational spectroscopy has been used to study the dissociation of acetone following S1←S0 (248 nm) and S2←S0 (193 nm) excitation. Excitation at 248 nm resulted in the production of CH3 and CH3CO with 14.2±1.0 kcal/mole on average of the available energy appearing as translation of the photofragments. Comparison of the measured with values reported at 266 nm suggest that the energy partitioning is dominated by the exit barrier caused by an avoided crossing on the potential energy surface. A substantial fraction (30±4%) of the nascent acetyl radicals from the primary dissociation contain sufficient energy to undergo spontaneous secondary decomposition. From the onset of the truncation of the CH3CO P(ET) a threshold of 17.8±3.0 kcal/mole for the dissociation of the acetyl radical has been determined in agreement with recent results on the photodissociation of acetyl chloride. The translational energy release in the dissociation of CH3CO closely matches the experimentally determined exit barrier. At 193 nm the only observed dissociation pathway was the formation of two methyl radicals and carbon monoxide. On average ˜38% of the available energy is found in product translation suggesting that significant internal energy resides in the nascent CH3 fragments consistent with the results of Hall et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4182 (1991)]. We conclude that the dynamics and energy partitioning for dissociation at 193 nm is similar to that at 248 nm.

  17. Anomalous variations of NmF2 over the Argentine Islands: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study of variations in the F2-layer peak electron density, NmF2, and altitude, hmF2, over the Argentine Islands ionosonde. The critical frequencies, foF2, and, foE, of the F2 and E-layers, and the propagation factor, M(3000F2, measured by the ionosonde during the 1957–1959 and 1962–1995 time periods were used in the statistical analysis to determine the values of NmF2 and hmF2. The probabilities to observe maximum and minimum values of NmF2 and hmF2 in a diurnal variation of the electron density are calculated. Our study shows that the main part of the maximum diurnal values of NmF2 is observed in a time sector close to midnight in November, December, January, and February exhibiting the anomalous diurnal variations of NmF2. Another anomalous feature of the diurnal variations of NmF2 exhibited during November, December, and January when the minimum diurnal value of NmF2 is mainly located close to the noon sector. These anomalous diurnal variations of NmF2 are found to be during both geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. Anomalous features are not found in the diurnal variations of hmF2. The statistical study of the NmF2 winter anomaly phenomena over the Argentine Islands ionosonde was carried out. The variations in a maximum daytime value, R, of a ratio of a geomagnetically quiet daytime winter NmF2 to a geomagnetically quiet daytime summer NmF2 taken at a given UT and for approximately the same level of solar activity were studied. The conditional probability of the occurrence of R in an interval of R, the most frequent value of R, the mean expected value of R, and the conditional probability to observe the F2-region winter anomaly during a daytime period were calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity. The calculations show that the mean expected value of R and the occurrence frequency of the F2-region winter anomaly increase with increasing solar activity.

  18. Meetings in Academe: It's Time for an "EXTREME MEETING MAKEOVER!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Meetings have a bad reputation with faculty. Rarely does one hear a positive word uttered about an upcoming or past meeting. That reputation has metastasized throughout higher education. The primary reason is because meetings can be major time wasters, accomplishing very little, often deteriorating into just another social event, or they may be…

  19. 76 FR 21779 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on May 11, 2011 in...

  20. 75 FR 15724 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on May 6, 2010, in...

  1. 76 FR 43705 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas Resource Advisory Council will be held on Aug. 17...

  2. 77 FR 22800 - Notice of Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Public Meeting, Dakotas Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Dakotas Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Dakotas RAC will be held on May 9, 2012, in Spearfish, SD. The...

  3. Combined dose and geometry correction (DMG) for low energy multi electron beam lithography (5kV): application to the 16nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc; Manakli, Serdar; Bayle, Sebastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Soulan, Sebastien; Wiedemann, Pablo; Farah, Abdi; Schiavone, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Lithography faces today many challenges to meet the ITRS road-map. 193nm is still today the only existing industrial option to address high volume production for the 22nm node. Nevertheless to achieve such a resolution, double exposure is mandatory for critical level patterning. EUV lithography is still challenged by the availability of high power source and mask defectivity and suffers from a high cost of ownership perspective. Its introduction is now not foreseen before 2015. Parallel to these mask-based technologies, maskless lithography regularly makes significant progress in terms of potential and maturity. The massively parallel e-beam solution appears as a real candidate for high volume manufacturing. Several industrial projects are under development, one in the US, with the KLA REBL project and two in Europe driven by IMS Nanofabrication (Austria; MAPPER (The Netherlands). Among the developments to be performed to secure the takeoff of the multi-beam technology, the availability of a rapid and robust data treatment solution will be one of the major challenges. Within this data preparation flow, advanced proximity effect corrections must be implemented to address the 16nm node and below. This paper will detail this process and compare correction strategies in terms of robustness and accuracy. It will be based on results obtained using a MAPPER tool within the IMAGINE program driven by CEA-LETI, in Grenoble, France. All proximity effects corrections and the dithering step were performed using the software platform Inscale® from Aselta Nanographics. One important advantage of Inscale® is the ability to combine both model based dose and geometry adjustment to accurately pattern critical features. The paper will focus on the advantage of combining those two corrections at the 16nm node instead of using only geometry corrections. Thanks to the simulation capability of Inscale®, pattern fidelity and correction robustness will be evaluated and compared between

  4. Negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure for 14nm hp and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Hideaki; Nihashi, Wataru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Fujimori, Toru; Momota, Makoto; Goto, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    Manipulation of dissolution properties by changing organic solvent developer and rinse material provides a novel technology to obtain fine pattern beyond the limitation of imaging system based on alkaline developer. QCM study showed no swelling character in negative-tone imaging (NTI) process even for current developer of n-butyl acetate (nBA). Actually, NTI process has shown advantages on resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) in loose pitch around 30 ~ 45 nm hp as a consequence of its non-swelling character. On the other hand, bridge and collapse limited its resolution below 20 nm hp, indicating that non-negligible amount of swelling still exists for tight pitch resolution. We investigated effects of solubility parameter of organic solvents on resolution below 20 nm hp. A bridge was reduced with a decrease in the solubility parameter dp from nBA. On the other hand, much lower dp caused film remaining due to its extremely slow Rmax. Based on these results, we newly developed FN-DP301 containing organic solvent with smaller dp than nBA. Although rinse solvent gave negligible effects on bridge, there is a clear improvement on pattern collapse only in case of using new rinse solvent of FN-RP311. Lithographic performances of NTI process using nBA and FN-DP301 together with the other organic solvents were described in this paper under exposures with an E-beam and a EUV light. It is emphasized that 14 nm hp resolution was obtained only using FN-DP301 as a developer and FN-RP311 as a rinse under E-beam exposure. NTI showed 43% faster photospeed in comparison with PTI at 16 nm hp, indicating that NTI is applicable to obtain high throughput with maintaining resolution. In addition, sub-20 nm trench was obtained using NTI without bridge under EUV exposure, all of which are attributed to the low swelling character of NTI process. Similarly, NTI was able to print 20 nm dots using NXE:3100 with only a little peeling. Conversely CH patterning was significantly worse with NTI

  5. Site selection and evaluation studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Los Medanos, Eddy County, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.

    1977-12-01

    Bedded-salt deposits of the Salado Formation have been selected for evaluation for a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in Eddy County, NM, approximately 26 mi east of Carlsbad. Site selection and evaluation studies that included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, drilling, and resource appraisal were conducted over and under the prospective location. The lower portion of the Salado meets essential criteria for waste isolation. Beds chosen for waste storage lie 2074 to 2730 ft below the surface. High-purity salt exists at these depths, and the geologic structure revealed by geophysical surveys indicates that these beds are essentially flat. Additional geophysical surveys are now under way. The initial interpretation of the new data indicates that more structure may exist in the salt beds in the northern portion of the site area. Full evaluation of potentially commercial deposits of potash and natural gas within the WIPP site will be reported by separate studies, as will be the hydrologic details of the region

  6. Organic nanostructures on silicon, created with semitransparent polystyrene spheres and 248 nm laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, Erhard W; Manke, Charles W; Piparia, Reema; Baird, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of nanostructures are made starting with a template of close-packed, polystyrene spheres on a silicon surface. The spheres are either 1.091 or 2.99 μm in diameter (d) and are of polystyrene (PS). They are irradiated with a pulse of either 308 or 248 nm light to which they are transparent and semitransparent, respectively. A transparent sphere with d = 1.091 μm diameter concentrates incident light onto a small substrate area. As has been previously reported, that creates silicon nanobumps that rise from circular craters. At 248 nm and d = 2.99 μm, the light energy is mainly absorbed, destroys the sphere, and leaves a shrunken mass (typically about 500 nm wide and 100 nm high) of organic material that is probably polystyrene and its thermal degradation products. At 248 nm and d = 1.091 μm, the residual organic structures are on the order of 300 nm wide and 100 nm high. A distinctive feature is that these organic structures are connected by filaments that are on the order of 50 nm wide and 10 nm high. Filaments form because the close-packed PS spheres expand into each other during the early part of the laser pulse, and then, as the main structures shrink, their viscoelasticity leads to threads between them. Our results with 248 nm and d = 1.091 μm differ from those described by Huang et al with 248 nm and d = 1.0 μm. Future studies might include the further effect of wavelength and fluence upon the process as well the use of other materials and the replacement of nanospheres by other focusing shapes, such as ellipsoids or rods

  7. Dose and batch-dependent hepatobiliary toxicity of 10 nm silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella De Maglie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used because of their antimicrobial properties in medical devices and in a variety of consumer products. The extensive use of AgNPs raises concerns about their potential toxicity, although it is still difficult to draw definite conclusions about their toxicity based on published data. Our preliminary studies performed to compare the effect of the AgNPs size (10-40-100 nm on toxicity, demonstrated that the smallest AgNPs determine the most severe toxicological effects. In order to best investigate the impact of physicochemical characteristics of 10 nm AgNPs on toxicity, we compare three different batches of 10 nm AgNPs slightly different in size distribution (Batch A: 8.8±1.7 nm; Batch B: 9.4±1.7 nm; Batch C: 10.0±1.8 nm. Mice were intravenously treated with two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg of the 3 AgNPs. 24 hours after the treatment, mice were euthanized and underwent complete necropsy. Tissues were collected for histopathological examination and total silver content was determined in tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. All batches induced severe hepatobiliary lesions, i.e. marked hepatocellular necrosis and massive hemorrhage of the gall bladder. The toxicity was dose-dependent and interestingly, the toxic effects were more severe in mice treated with batches A and B that contained smaller AgNPs. Since the total silver mass concentration was similar, the observed batch-dependent toxicity suggest that even subtle differences in size may contribute to relevant changes in the toxicological outcomes, confirming the fundamental involvement of physicochemical features with respect to toxicity.

  8. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongyi; Liu, Hong; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiyan

    2017-11-01

    An admirable and efficient Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is demonstrated with a compact 35 mm plano-plano cavity. A chosen narrow bandpass filter with high-transmittance (HT) coating at 1064 nm (T=96%) and optimized part-reflection (PR) coating at 1085 nm (T=15%) is used as the output coupler. In the continuous-wave (CW) regime, the maximum output power reaches 3110 mW at the pump power of 11.41 W. Based on a Cr:YAG crystal with initial-transmittance of 91%, the first passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1085 nm is achieved. When the pump power is changed from the threshold of 4.50 to 6.08 W, the dual-wavelength lines at 1064 and 1085 nm are generated simultaneously. However, at the pump power of above 6.08 W, the single-wavelength line at 1085 nm is achieved. The largest output power, the highest peak power, and the narrowest pulse width are 1615 mW, 878 W and 26.2 ns, respectively.

  9. STAFF MEETING

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    I should like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 25th June 2003 at 11.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 to give a report on the outcome of the June Meetings of Council and its Committees. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the AB Auditorium (Meyrin - bldg. 6), the IT Auditorium (bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (bldg. 30). Luciano Maiani Director General

  10. A incorporação da responsabilidade social e sustentabilidade: um estudo baseado no relatório de gestão 2005 da companhia paranaense de energia - COPEL Sustainability business: a study based on the 2005 report of the Paraná state energy management company - COPEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Ines Bassetto

    2010-01-01

    practices as part of its Social Responsibility and Sustainability management. In this sense, we proposed the following specific objectives: a identify and characterize COPEL's indicators and accounting reports to measure and present the results of its sustainable management and b Identify and analyze the sustainable actions performed by the company. The 2005 Management Report was used as an analysis tool. The analysis indicated COPEL's great deal of effort to meet social responsibility requirements by incorporating the concept of the Instituto Ethos Institute to develop its management model and, as sustainable business, implementing actions through the following platforms: as a signatory of the Global Compact, as a company sustainable through BOVESPA ISE-2005, and the adoption of certain principles of the Millennium Development Goals and AA 1000 standard. The main indicator used in the analysis was in accordance with the GRIs. By meeting all principles of GRI to prepare the report, although being the first report, the analysis indicated that COPEL is very advanced in terms of implementation of indicators. For an environment that requires that the economic result are obtained by integrating social and environmental actions, the data collected failed to identify the integration of social and environmental actions with the economic results since the guidelines GRI (INSTITUTO ETHOS, 2002 have not yet advanced to that degree of detail.

  11. Was passiert vor dem Meeting? Small Talk steigert die Meetingeffektivität [What happens before meetings? Small talk promotes meeting effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J.A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Research interest: We explore how pre-meeting small talk impacts meeting effectiveness through the” ripple effect”, allowing before meeting communication/behaviors to ripple into and impact the scheduled meeting. Method: Data was obtained using an online survey of working adults (N = 252). A new

  12. EST Table: NM_001043366 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043366 Sap-r 10/09/29 98 %/961 aa ref|NP_001036831.1| saposin-related [Bombyx... gnl|Amel|GB16561-PA 10/09/10 42 %/808 aa gi|91077504|ref|XP_966852.1| PREDICTED: similar to saposin isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS791050 ...

  13. ILT optimization of EUV masks for sub-7nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kevin; Kuechler, Bernd; Kazarian, Aram; Xiao, Guangming; Lucas, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    The 5nm and 7nm technology nodes will continue recent scaling trends and will deliver significantly smaller minimum features, standard cell areas and SRAM cell areas vs. the 10nm node. There are tremendous economic pressures to shrink each subsequent technology, though in a cost-effective and performance enhancing manner. IC manufacturers are eagerly awaiting EUV so that they can more aggressively shrink their technology than they could by using complicated MPT. The current 0.33NA EUV tools and processes also have their patterning limitations. EUV scanner lenses, scanner sources, masks and resists are all relatively immature compared to the current lithography manufacturing baseline of 193i. For example, lens aberrations are currently several times larger (as a function of wavelength) in EUV scanners than for 193i scanners. Robustly patterning 16nm L/S fully random logic metal patterns and 40nm pitch random logic rectangular contacts with 0.33NA EUV are tough challenges that will benefit from advanced OPC/RET. For example, if an IC manufacturer can push single exposure device layer resolution 10% tighter using improved ILT to avoid using DPT, there will be a significant cost and process complexity benefit to doing so. ILT is well known to have considerable benefits in finding flexible 193i mask pattern solutions to improve process window, improve 2D CD control, improve resolution in low K1 lithography regime and help to delay the introduction of DPT. However, ILT has not previously been applied to EUV lithography. In this paper, we report on new developments which extend ILT method to EUV lithography and we characterize the benefits seen vs. traditional EUV OPC/RET methods.

  14. Treatment of oral lichen planus using 308-nm excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Bing; Sun, Li-Wei; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yan-Fei

    2017-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, has prolonged courses, repeated attacks and resistance to treatment. The traditional narrow spectrum UVB treatment has an established efficacy on skin lichen planus, and high safety. However, most of ultraviolet phototherapy devices have a huge volume, thereby cannot be used in the treatment of OLP. Lymphocytic infiltration is evident in the lesions of lichen planus, and the direct irradiation of 308-nm excimer laser can induce apoptosis of the T lymphocytes in skin lesions, thereby has a unique therapeutic effect on the diseases involving T lymphocytes. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP. A total of six OLP patients were enrolled into this study, and further pathological diagnosis was conducted, then 308-nm excimer laser was used in the treatment. The efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP was satisfactory. The clinical symptoms of five patients were significantly improved. In two patients, the erosion surface based on congestion and the surrounding white spots completely disappeared, and clinical recovery was achieved. Three patients achieved partial remission, that is, the erosion surface healed, congestion and white spot area shrunk by more than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. In the remaining one patient, the erosion surface had not completely healed after treatment, and congestion and white spot area shrunk by less than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. Only one patients had developed mild pain during the treatment, and this symptom alleviated by itself. The 308-nm excimer laser therapy can serve as a safe and effective treatment for OLP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Efficient 525 nm laser generation in single or double resonant cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shilong; Han, Zhenhai; Liu, Shikai; Li, Yinhai; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Shi, Baosen

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a study into highly efficient sum frequency generation from 792 and 1556 nm wavelength light to 525 nm wavelength light using either a single or double resonant ring cavity based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). By optimizing the cavity's parameters, the maximum power achieved for the resultant 525 nm laser was 263 and 373 mW for the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The corresponding quantum conversion efficiencies were 8 and 77% for converting 1556 nm photons to 525 nm photons with the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The measured intra-cavity single pass conversion efficiency for both configurations was about 5%. The performances of the sum frequency generation in these two configurations was studied and compared in detail. This work will provide guidelines for optimizing the generation of sum frequency generated laser light for a variety of configurations. The high conversion efficiency achieved in this work will help pave the way for frequency up-conversion of non-classical quantum states, such as the squeezed vacuum and single photon states. The proposed green laser source will be used in our future experiments, which includes a plan to generate two-color entangled photon pairs and achieve the frequency down-conversion of single photons carrying orbital angular momentum.

  16. 980nm laser for difficult-to-treat basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derjabo, A. D.; Cema, I.; Lihacova, I.; Derjabo, L.

    2013-06-01

    Begin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is most common skin cancer over the world. There are around 20 modalities for BCC treatment. Laser surgery is uncommon option. We demonstrate our long term follow up results. Aim: To evaluate long term efficacy of a 980nm diode laser for the difficult-to-treat basal cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: 167 patients with 173 basal cell carcinoma on the nose were treated with a 980 nm diode laser from May 1999 till May 2005 at Latvian Oncology center. All tumors were morphologically confirmed. 156 patients were followed for more than 5 years. Results: The lowest recurrence rate was observed in cases of superficial BCC, diameterConclusions: 980 nm diode laser is useful tool in dermatology with high long term efficacy, good acceptance by the patients and good cosmetics results.

  17. Building blocks for future detectors: Silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, R; Britzger, M; Burmeister, O; Danzmann, K; Duck, J; Eberle, T; Friedrich, D; Luck, H; Mehmet, M; Steinlechner, S; Willke, B; Brueckner, F; Nawrodt, R

    2010-01-01

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use the combination of quasi-monochromatic, continuous-wave laser light at 1064 nm and fused silica test masses at room temperature. Detectors of the third generation, such as the Einstein-Telescope, will involve a considerable sensitivity increase. The combination of 1550 nm laser radiation and crystalline silicon test masses at low temperatures might be important ingredients in order to achieve the sensitivity goal. Here we compare some properties of the fused silica and silicon test mass materials relevant for decreasing the thermal noise in future detectors as well as the recent technology achievements in the preparation of laser radiation at 1064 nm and 1550 nm relevant for decreasing the quantum noise. We conclude that silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light have the potential to form the future building blocks of gravitational wave detection.

  18. MeetingVis: Visual Narratives to Assist in Recalling Meeting Context and Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Bryan, Chris; Bhamidipati, Sridatt; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Yaoxue; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2018-06-01

    In team-based workplaces, reviewing and reflecting on the content from a previously held meeting can lead to better planning and preparation. However, ineffective meeting summaries can impair this process, especially when participants have difficulty remembering what was said and what its context was. To assist with this process, we introduce MeetingVis, a visual narrative-based approach to meeting summarization. MeetingVis is composed of two primary components: (1) a data pipeline that processes the spoken audio from a group discussion, and (2) a visual-based interface that efficiently displays the summarized content. To design MeetingVis, we create a taxonomy of relevant meeting data points, identifying salient elements to promote recall and reflection. These are mapped to an augmented storyline visualization, which combines the display of participant activities, topic evolutions, and task assignments. For evaluation, we conduct a qualitative user study with five groups. Feedback from the study indicates that MeetingVis effectively triggers the recall of subtle details from prior meetings: all study participants were able to remember new details, points, and tasks compared to an unaided, memory-only baseline. This visual-based approaches can also potentially enhance the productivity of both individuals and the whole team.

  19. Compact gain saturated plasma based X-ray lasers down to 6.9nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Jorge; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.; Rockwood, A.; Berrill, M.; Shlyaptsev, V.

    2017-10-01

    Plasma based soft x-ray amplifiers allow many experiments requiring bright, high energy soft x-ray laser pulses to be conducted in compact facilities. We have extended the wavelength of compact gain saturated x-ray lasers to 6.89 nm in a Ni-like Gd plasma generated by a Ti:Sa laser. Gain saturated laser operation was also obtained at 7.36 nm in Ni-like Sm. Isolectronic scaling and optimization of laser pre-pulse duration allowed us to also observe strong lasing at 6.6 nm and 6.1 nm in Ni-like Tb, and amplification at 6.4 nm and 5.89 nm in Ni-like Dy. The results were obtained by transient laser heating of solid targets with traveling wave excitation at progressively increased gracing incidence angles. We show that the optimum pump angle of incidence for collisional Ni-like lasers increases linearly with atomic number from Z =42 to Z =66, reaching 43 degrees for Ni-like Dy, in good agreement with hydrodynamic/atomic physics simulations. These results will enable single-shot nano-scale imaging and other application of sub-7 nm lasers to be performed at compact facilities. Work supported by Grant DE-FG02-4ER15592 of the Department of Energy, Office of Science, and by the National Science Foundation Grant ECCS 1509925.

  20. Commuting for meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Engelson, Leonid; Franklin, Joel P.

    2014-01-01

    Urban congestion causes travel times to exhibit considerable variability, which leads to coordination problems when people have to meet. We analyze a game for the timing of a meeting between two players who must each complete a trip of random duration to reach the meeting, which does not begin...

  1. 75 FR 21629 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee...

  2. Reproductive performance of gilts according to growth rate and backfat thickness at mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral Filha, W S; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2010-08-01

    The study evaluated the influence of growth rate (GR) and backfat thickness (BF), at first mating of gilts, on the reproductive performance until the first farrowing and on the variation in birth weight of piglets. Gilts were categorized into three groups according to GR from birth until the first mating: GRI (600-700 g/d; n = 345), GRII (701-770 g/d; n = 710) and GRIII (771-870 g/d; n = 366). Analyses were also performed considering three groups formed according to BF (mm) at mating: BFI (10-15 mm; n = 405); BFII (16-17 mm; n = 649)and BFIII (18-23 mm; n = 367). There were no differences in farrowing rate and return to estrus rate among BF or GR groups (P > 0.05). GRII and GRIII females had larger litter size compared to GRI gilts (P GRI and GRII females. Moreover GRIII females had more piglets (P GRI females. More total born and born alive piglets were observed in BFII compared with BFI females (P 0.05). These results show that there is no advantage, in terms of farrowing rate and number of born alive, in performing the first mating of gilts with GR> 770 g/d and BF > 17 mm.

  3. Combination of 595-nm pulsed dye laser, long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion treatment for keratosis pilaris: retrospective analysis of 26 Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ju; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Young Koo; Cho, Sung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Keratosis pilaris (KP) has beenpresented as small keratotic follicular papules with or without surrounding erythema. Various treatments with laser or light therapy have been used for the management of KP with various clinical outcomes. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination therapy for KP. A total of 29 anatomical sites with KP in 26 patients were treated using a 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) with nonpurpuragenic fluences, a long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing preand posttreatment clinical photographs and patient satisfaction rates. Evaluation of the clinical results three months after the treatments showed that 12 of the 29 anatomical sites (41.4%) demonstrated Grade 3 clinical improvement, ten (34.5%) had Grade 2 clinical improvement, four (13.8%) showed Grade 1 improvement, and three (10.3%) showed Grade 4 improvement. We observed that KP lesions improved not only in erythema and skin texture, but also in brownish dyschromias. Potential adverse events were not observed, except prolonged posttherapy scaling. Our observations demonstrate that combination therapy using a 595-nm PDL, a long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion can have a positive therapeutic effect on KP.

  4. Measurements and Experimental Database Review for Laminar Flame Speed Premixed Ch4/Air Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrilin, I. A.; Matveev, S. S.; Matveev, S. G.; Idrisov, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    Laminar flame speed (SL ) of CH4 was determined at atmospheric pressure and initial gas temperatures in range from 298 to 358 K. The heat flux method was employed to measure the flame speed in non-stretched flames. The kinetic mechanism GRI 3.0 [1] were used to simulate SL . The measurements were compared with available literature results. The data determined with the heat flux method agree with some previous burner measurements and disagree with the data from some vessel closed method and counterflow method. The GRI 3.0 mechanism was able to reproduce the present experiments. Laminar flame speed was determined at pressures range from of 1 to 20 atmospheres through mechanism GRI 3.0. Based on experimental data and calculations was obtained SL dependence on pressure and temperature. The resulting of dependence recommended use during the numerical simulation of methane combustion.

  5. 75 FR 5595 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Technology HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Health Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT... Federal Health IT Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy Committee...

  6. 75 FR 21628 - HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Technology HIT Standards Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Information Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: HIT Standards... Strategic Plan, and in accordance with policies developed by the HIT Policy Committee. Date and Time: The...

  7. Improvement of optical damage in specialty fiber at 266 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisch, T.; Ohlmeyer, H.; Zimmermann, H.; Prein, S.; Kirchhof, J.; Unger, S.; Belz, M.; Klein, K.-F.

    2014-02-01

    Improved multimode UV-fibers with core diameters ranging from 70 to 600 μm diameter have been manufactured based on novel preform modifications and fiber processing techniques. Only E'-centers at 214 nm and NBOHC at 260 nm are generated in these fibers. A new generation of inexpensive laser-systems have entered the market and generated a multitude of new and attractive applications in the bio-life science, chemical and material processing field. However, for example pulsed 355 nm Nd:YAG lasers generate significant UV-damages in commercially available fibers. For lower wavelengths, no results on suitable multi-mode or low-mode fibers with high UV resistance at 266 nm wavelength (pulsed 4th harmonic Nd:YAG laser) have been published. In this report, double-clad fibers with 70 μm or 100 μm core diameter and a large claddingto- core ratio will be recommended. Laser-induced UV-damages will be compared between these new fiber type and traditional UV fibers with similar core sizes. Finally, experimental results will be cross compared against broadband cw deuterium lamp damage standards.

  8. Meeting Mid-Year Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    23 Newsletter of the Indian Academy of ScienCE. 57th Annual. Meeting ... Srinivas, Institute for Social and Economic. Change ... "Quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics of anyons" .... Special Issue on Geomagnetic Methods and.

  9. Meetings in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    as having to serve organizational stakeholders (such as customers and users), and work must be subjectively meaningful to the modern, well-educated employee. Do meetings answer to these challenges? A survey of 300 knowledge workers in five highly successful, knowledge-intensive corporations in Denmark...... showed that although employees were satisfied with their managers; traditional meeting-management skills, the customer was largely invisible in organizational meetings, and the hearts and minds of the employees were not engaged to any significant degree in meetings. It is concluded that despite massive...

  10. Taking minutes of meetings

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    aking Minutes of Meetings guides you through the entire process behind minute taking: arranging the meeting; writing the agenda; creating the optimum environment; structuring the meeting and writing notes up accurately. The minute-taker is one of the most important and powerful people in a meeting and you can use this opportunity to develop your knowledge, broaden your horizons and build credibility within the organization. Taking Minutes of Meetings is an easy to read 'dip-in, dip-out' guide which shows you how to confidently arrange meetings and produce minutes. It provides hands-on advice about the sections of a meeting as well as tips on how to create an agenda, personal preparation, best practice advice on taking notes and how to improve your accuracy. Brand new chapters of this 4th edition include guidance on using technology to maximize effectiveness and practical help with taking minutes for a variety of different types of meetings. The creating success series of books... With over one million copi...

  11. Optical track width measurements below 100 nm using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. J.; See, C. W.; Somekh, M. G.; Yacoot, A.; Choi, E.

    2005-12-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs), together with a high precision scanning optical profiler, to measure very fine track widths that are considerably below the conventional diffraction limit of a conventional optical microscope. The ANN is trained using optical profiles obtained from tracks of known widths, the network is then assessed by applying it to test profiles. The optical profiler is an ultra-stable common path scanning interferometer, which provides extremely precise surface measurements. Preliminary results, obtained with a 0.3 NA objective lens and a laser wavelength of 633 nm, show that the system is capable of measuring a 50 nm track width, with a standard deviation less than 4 nm.

  12. CALIPSO lidar calibration at 532 nm: version 4 nighttime algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Jayanta; Vaughan, Mark A.; Lee, Kam-Pui; Tackett, Jason L.; Avery, Melody A.; Garnier, Anne; Getzewich, Brian J.; Hunt, William H.; Josset, Damien; Liu, Zhaoyan; Lucker, Patricia L.; Magill, Brian; Omar, Ali H.; Pelon, Jacques; Rogers, Raymond R.; Toth, Travis D.; Trepte, Charles R.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Winker, David M.; Young, Stuart A.

    2018-03-01

    Data products from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) were recently updated following the implementation of new (version 4) calibration algorithms for all of the Level 1 attenuated backscatter measurements. In this work we present the motivation for and the implementation of the version 4 nighttime 532 nm parallel channel calibration. The nighttime 532 nm calibration is the most fundamental calibration of CALIOP data, since all of CALIOP's other radiometric calibration procedures - i.e., the 532 nm daytime calibration and the 1064 nm calibrations during both nighttime and daytime - depend either directly or indirectly on the 532 nm nighttime calibration. The accuracy of the 532 nm nighttime calibration has been significantly improved by raising the molecular normalization altitude from 30-34 km to the upper possible signal acquisition range of 36-39 km to substantially reduce stratospheric aerosol contamination. Due to the greatly reduced molecular number density and consequently reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at these higher altitudes, the signal is now averaged over a larger number of samples using data from multiple adjacent granules. Additionally, an enhanced strategy for filtering the radiation-induced noise from high-energy particles was adopted. Further, the meteorological model used in the earlier versions has been replaced by the improved Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), model. An aerosol scattering ratio of 1.01 ± 0.01 is now explicitly used for the calibration altitude. These modifications lead to globally revised calibration coefficients which are, on average, 2-3 % lower than in previous data releases. Further, the new calibration procedure is shown to eliminate biases at high altitudes that were present in earlier versions and consequently leads to an improved representation of

  13. High-Power Yb-Doped Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifier at 1150-1200nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruyama, H.; Shirakawa, A.; Ueda, K.

    2008-01-01

    Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained.......Solid-core photonic-bandgap fiber amplification at the long-wavelength edge of ytterbium band is reported. A 32W output at 1156nm with a 66% slope efficiency and 9.1W output at 1178nm were succesfully obtained....

  14. In Vitro Study of Dentin Hypersensitivity Treated by 980-nm Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yan; Xu, Shuaimei; Zhan, Xueling; Wu, Buling

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the ultrastructural changes of dentin irradiated with 980-nm diode laser under different parameters and to observe the morphological alterations of odontoblasts and pulp tissue to determine the safety parameters of 980-nm diode laser in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Twenty extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into four areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser under different parameters: Group A: control group, 0 J/cm(2); Group B: 2 W/CW (continuous mode), 166 J/cm(2); Group C: 3W/CW, 250 J/cm(2); and Group D: 4W/CW, 333 J/cm(2). Ten additional extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into two areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser: Group E: control group, 0 J/cm(2); and Group F: 2.0 W/CW, 166 J/cm(2). The morphological alterations of the dentin surfaces and odontoblasts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue irradiated by laser were observed with an upright microscope. The study demonstrated that dentinal tubules can be entirely blocked after irradiation by 980-nm diode laser, regardless of the parameter setting. Diode laser with settings of 2.0 W and 980-nm sealed exposed dentin tubules effectively, and no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation. Irradiation with 980-nm diode laser could be effective for routine clinical treatment of DH, and 2.0W/CW (166 J/cm(2)) was a suitable energy parameter due to its rapid sealing of the exposed dentin tubules and its safety to the odontoblasts and pulp tissue.

  15. In Vitro Study of Dentin Hypersensitivity Treated by 980-nm Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yan; XU, Shuaimei; Zhan, Xueling; Wu, Buling

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To investigate the ultrastructural changes of dentin irradiated with 980-nm diode laser under different parameters and to observe the morphological alterations of odontoblasts and pulp tissue to determine the safety parameters of 980-nm diode laser in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Methods: Twenty extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into four areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser under different parameters: Group A: control group, 0 J/cm2; Group B: 2 W/CW (continuous mode), 166 J/cm2; Group C: 3W/CW, 250 J/cm2; and Group D: 4W/CW, 333 J/cm2. Ten additional extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into two areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser: Group E: control group, 0 J/cm2; and Group F: 2.0 W/CW, 166 J/cm2. The morphological alterations of the dentin surfaces and odontoblasts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue irradiated by laser were observed with an upright microscope. Results: The study demonstrated that dentinal tubules can be entirely blocked after irradiation by 980-nm diode laser, regardless of the parameter setting. Diode laser with settings of 2.0 W and 980-nm sealed exposed dentin tubules effectively, and no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation. Conclusions: Irradiation with 980-nm diode laser could be effective for routine clinical treatment of DH, and 2.0W/CW (166 J/cm2) was a suitable energy parameter due to its rapid sealing of the exposed dentin tubules and its safety to the odontoblasts and pulp tissue. PMID:25606318

  16. 75 FR 39954 - Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests; Public Meeting; Change of Meeting Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...] Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests; Public Meeting; Change of Meeting Location AGENCY: Food and Drug... location for the upcoming public meeting entitled ``Oversight of Laboratory Developed Tests.'' A new... the public meeting, FDA is announcing in this notice a new location for the public meeting. II. New...

  17. Investigations of a Dual Seeded 1178 nm Raman Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-14

    was obtained by Raman amplification of a distributed feedback diode laser in a variably strained polarization- maintaining fiber with a record-high...Calia, D.B., “50W CW visible laser source at 589 nm obtained via frequency doubling of three coherently combined narrow-band Raman fiber amplifiers...AFRL-RD-PS- TP-2016-0009 AFRL-RD-PS- TP-2016-0009 INVESTIGATIONS OF A DUAL SEEDED 1178 NM RAMAN LASER SYSTEM Leanne Henry, et al. 14 January

  18. The dynamics of femtosecond pulsed laser removal of 20 nm Ni films from an interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dynamics of femtosecond laser removal of 20 nm Ni films on glass substrates was studied using time-resolved pump-probe microscopy. 20 nm thin films exhibit removal at two distinct threshold fluences, removal of the top 7 nm of Ni above 0.14 J/cm{sup 2}, and removal of the entire 20 nm film above 0.36 J/cm{sup 2}. Previous work shows the top 7 nm is removed through liquid spallation, after irradiation the Ni melts and rapidly expands leading to tensile stress and cavitation within the Ni film. This work shows that above 0.36 J/cm{sup 2} the 20 nm film is removed in two distinct layers, 7 nm and 13 nm thick. The top 7 nm layer reaches a speed 500% faster than the bottom 13 nm layer at the same absorbed fluence, 500–2000 m/s and 300–700 m/s in the fluence ranges studied. Significantly different velocities for the top 7 nm layer and bottom 13 nm layer indicate removal from an interface occurs by a different physical mechanism. The method of measuring film displacement from the development of Newton's rings was refined so it could be shown that the 13 nm layer separates from the substrate within 70 ps and accelerates to its final velocity within several hundred picoseconds. We propose that removal of the bottom 13 nm is consistent with heterogeneous nucleation and growth of vapor at the Ni-glass interface, but that the rapid separation and acceleration of the 13 nm layer from the Ni-glass interface requires consideration of exotic phases of Ni after excitation.

  19. 75 FR 42125 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be...

  20. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be...

  1. 75 FR 47312 - Board Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION Board Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings Time and Date: August 9, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m.. Place: 101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20001. Status: Closed session as provided in 22 CFR 1004.4(f). Matters to be Considered: Executive Session. Portions to be Closed to the...

  2. 78 FR 22225 - Meeting: African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Executive Session Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... Executive Session Meeting Meeting: African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Executive Session Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 23, 2013 11:15 a.m. to 2:15 p.m. Place: 1400 Eye Street NW., Suite 1000...

  3. 77 FR 42507 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on September 19...

  4. 77 FR 70807 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on December 6, 2012...

  5. 77 FR 42760 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on September 19...

  6. A novel double patterning approach for 30nm dense holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dennis Shu-Hao; Wang, Walter; Hsieh, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Shih, Steven

    2011-04-01

    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) was commonly accepted as the major workhorse beyond water immersion lithography for sub-38nm half-pitch line patterning before the EUV production. For dense hole patterning, classical DPT employs self-aligned spacer deposition and uses the intersection of horizontal and vertical lines to define the desired hole patterns. However, the increase in manufacturing cost and process complexity is tremendous. Several innovative approaches have been proposed and experimented to address the manufacturing and technical challenges. A novel process of double patterned pillars combined image reverse will be proposed for the realization of low cost dense holes in 30nm node DRAM. The nature of pillar formation lithography provides much better optical contrast compared to the counterpart hole patterning with similar CD requirements. By the utilization of a reliable freezing process, double patterned pillars can be readily implemented. A novel image reverse process at the last stage defines the hole patterns with high fidelity. In this paper, several freezing processes for the construction of the double patterned pillars were tested and compared, and 30nm double patterning pillars were demonstrated successfully. A variety of different image reverse processes will be investigated and discussed for their pros and cons. An economic approach with the optimized lithography performance will be proposed for the application of 30nm DRAM node.

  7. In vivo retinal optical coherence tomography at 1030 nm with enhanced penetration into the choroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhuber, A.; Povazay, B.; Hermann, B.; Sattmann, H.; Michels, S.; Sacu, S.; Ahlers, C.; Scholda, C.; Chavez-Pirson, A.; Schmidt-Erfurth, U.; Fercher, Adolf F.; Drexler, W.

    2005-08-01

    In vivo retinal imaging with ~ 8 μm axial resolution at 1030 nm is demonstrated for the first time, enabling enhanced penetration into the choroid. A new high power, broad bandwidth light source based on amplified spontaneous emission (NP Photonics, λc = 1030 nm, Δλ= 50 nm, Pout = 25 mW) has been interfaced to a time domain ophthalmic OCT system. In vivo retinal OCT tomograms performed at 800 nm are compared to those achieved at 1030 nm. Retinal OCT at longer wavelengths, e.g. 1030 nm significantly improves the visualization of the retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillaris/choroid interface and might therefore provide new insight into choroidal/choriocapillary changes in age-related macular degeneration and other diseases of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid complex. 1030 nm OCT could also become a valuable tool in monitoring treatment effects on the choroids as in Verteporfin therapy.

  8. Continuous-wave single-frequency laser with dual wavelength at 1064 and 532 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenwei; Lu, Huadong; Yin, Qiwei; Su, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A continuous-wave high-power single-frequency laser with dual-wavelength output at 1064 and 532 nm is presented. The dependencies of the output power on the transmission of the output coupler and the phase-matching temperature of the LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal are studied. An output coupler with transmission of 19% is used, and the temperature of LBO is controlled to the optimal phase-matching temperature of 422 K; measured maximal output powers of 33.7 W at 1064 nm and of 1.13 W at 532 nm are obtained with optical-optical conversion efficiency of 45.6%. The laser can be single-frequency operated stably and mode-hop-free, and the measured frequency drift is less than 15 MHz in 1 min. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 1064 nm laser are 1.06 and 1.09, respectively. The measured Mx2 and My2 for the 532 nm laser are 1.12 and 1.11, respectively.

  9. Fundamental Science with Pulsed Power: Research Opportunities and User Meeting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wootton, Alan James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sinars, Daniel Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spaulding, Dylan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Winget, Don [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The fifth Fundamental Science with Pulsed Power: Research Opportunities and User Meeting was held in Albuquerque, NM, July 20-­23, 2014. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together leading scientists in four research areas with active fundamental science research at Sandia’s Z facility: Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF), Planetary Science, Astrophysics, and Material Science. The workshop was focused on discussing opportunities for high-­impact research using Sandia’s Z machine, a future 100 GPa class facility, and possible topics for growing the academic (off-Z-campus) science relevant to the Z Fundamental Science Program (ZFSP) and related projects in astrophysics, planetary science, MagLIF- relevant magnetized HED science, and materials science. The user meeting was for Z collaborative users to: a) hear about the Z accelerator facility status and plans, b) present the status of their research, and c) be provided with a venue to meet and work as groups. Following presentations by Mark Herrmann and Joel Lash on the fundamental science program on Z and the status of the Z facility where plenary sessions for the four research areas. The third day of the workshop was devoted to breakout sessions in the four research areas. The plenary-­ and breakout sessions were for the four areas organized by Dan Sinars (MagLIF), Dylan Spaulding (Planetary Science), Don Winget and Jim Bailey (Astrophysics), and Thomas Mattsson (Material Science). Concluding the workshop were an outbrief session where the leads presented a summary of the discussions in each working group to the full workshop. A summary of discussions and conclusions from each of the research areas follows and the outbrief slides are included as appendices.

  10. Exploration of BEOL line-space patterning options at 12 nm half-pitch and below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, S.; Lazzarino, F.; Petersen Barbosa Lima, L.; Li, W.; Versluijs, J.; Halder, S.; Mallik, A.; Murdoch, G.

    2018-03-01

    While the semiconductor industry is almost ready for high-volume manufacturing of the 7 nm technology node, research centers are defining and troubleshooting the patterning options for the 5 nm technology node (N5) and below. The target dimension for imec's N5 BEOL applications is 20-24 nm Metal Pitch (MP), which requires Self-Aligned multiple (Double/Quadruple/Octuple) Patterning approaches (SAxP) in combination with EUV or immersion lithography at 193 nm. There are numerous technical challenges to enable gratings at the hard mask level such as good uniformity across wafer, low line edge/width roughness (LER/LWR), large process window, and all of this at low cost. An even greater challenge is to transfer these gratings into the dielectric material at such critical dimensions, where increased line edge roughness, line wiggling and even pattern collapse can be expected for materials with small mechanical stability such as highly porous low-k dielectrics. In this work we first compare three different patterning options for 12 nm half-pitch gratings at the hard mask level: EUV-based SADP and 193i-based SAQP and SAOP. This comparison will be based on process window, line edge/width roughness and cost. Next, the transfer of 12 nm line/space gratings in the dielectric material is discussed and presented. The LER of the dielectric lines is investigated as a function of the dielectric material, the trench depth, and the stress in the sacrificial hard mask. Finally, we elaborate on the different options to enable scaling down from 24 nm MP to 16 nm MP, and demonstrate 8 nm line/space gratings with 193i-based SAOP.

  11. Writable and erasable PPV medium by irradiation at 365 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki [Photonics Research Institutes, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: h-mochizuki@aist.go.jp; Mizokuro, Toshiko; Tanigaki, Nobutaka; Hiraga, Takashi [Photonics Research Institutes, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2008-03-03

    Dopings of vaporized cis-1,2-dicyano-1,2-bis(2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thienyl) ethane (CMTE) into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene, and polycarbonate were performed by a vacuum process, and the doping behaviors of CMTE were evaluated. Among the matrix polymers, PMMA was dispersed CMTE densely in its surface region. By using the CMTE-doped PMMA, we could fabricate a novel rewritable medium: a multi-layered film was prepared from over-coating of CMTE-doped PMMA onto poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) film, which set on a transparent substrate. Image storage could be performed upon irradiation at 365 nm at the side of CMTE/PMMA layer: color of the irradiated area changed a light yellow to a red due to photo-isomerization of CMTE. Next, upon irradiation at 365 nm at the side of the transparent substrate, PPV emitted a green fluorescence at around 530 nm, and the CMTE absorbed the emission from PPV causing image-erasure based on back-isomerization of CMTE.

  12. Photoacoustic imaging at 1064nm wavelength with exogenous contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Jiang, Yuyan; Pu, Kanyi; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging modality for both preclinical research and clinical practices. Laser wavelengths in the first near infrared window (NIR-I, 650-950 nm) have been widely used for photoacoustic imaging. As compared with NIR-I window, scattering of photons by biological tissues is largely reduced in the second NIR (NIR-II) window, leading to enhanced imaging fidelity. However, the lack of biocompatible NIR-II absorbing exogenous agents prevented the use of this window for in vivo imaging. In recent years, few studies have been reported on photoacoustic imaging in NIR-II window using exogenous contrast agents. In this work, we discuss the recent work on PA imaging using 1064 nm wavelength, the fundamental of Nd:YAG laser, as an excitation wavelength. The PA imaging at 1064 nm is advantageous because of the low and homogeneous signal from tissue background, enabling high contrast in PA imaging when NIR-II absorbing contrast agents are employed.

  13. Efficacy of antimicrobial 405 nm blue-light for inactivation of airborne bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Laura R.; Anderson, John G.; Timoshkin, Igor V.; MacGregor, Scott J.; Maclean, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    Airborne transmission of infectious organisms is a considerable concern within the healthcare environment. A number of novel methods for `whole room' decontamination, including antimicrobial 405 nm blue light, are being developed. To date, research has focused on its effects against surface-deposited contamination; however, it is important to also establish its efficacy against airborne bacteria. This study demonstrates evidence of the dose-response kinetics of airborne bacterial contamination when exposed to 405 nm light and compares bacterial susceptibility when exposed in three different media: air, liquid and surfaces. Bacterial aerosols of Staphylococcus epidermidis, generated using a 6-Jet Collison nebulizer, were introduced into an aerosol suspension chamber. Aerosolized bacteria were exposed to increasing doses of 405 nm light, and air samples were extracted from the chamber using a BioSampler liquid impinger, with viability analysed using pour-plate culture. Results have demonstrated successful aerosol inactivation, with a 99.1% reduction achieved with a 30 minute exposure to high irradiance (22 mWcm-2) 405 nm light (P=0.001). Comparison to liquid and surface exposures proved bacteria to be 3-4 times more susceptible to 405 nm light inactivation when in aerosol form. Overall, results have provided fundamental evidence of the susceptibility of bacterial aerosols to antimicrobial 405 nm light treatment, which offers benefits in terms of increased safety for human exposure, and eradication of microbes regardless of antibiotic resistance. Such benefits provide advantages for a number of applications including `whole room' environmental decontamination, in which reducing levels of airborne bacteria should reduce the number of infections arising from airborne contamination.

  14. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Oxidoreductase NmDsbA3 from Neisseria meningitidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivian, Julian P.; Scoullar, Jessica; Robertson, Amy L.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Horne, James; Chin, Yanni; Wielens, Jerome; Thompson, Philip E.; Velkov, Tony; Piek, Susannah; Byres, Emma; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Kahler, Charlene M.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Scanlon, Martin J. (UWA); (Monash)

    2009-09-02

    DsbA is an enzyme found in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria that catalyzes the formation of disulfide bonds in a diverse array of protein substrates, many of which are involved in bacterial pathogenesis. Although most bacteria possess only a single essential DsbA, Neisseria meningitidis is unusual in that it possesses three DsbAs, although the reason for this additional redundancy is unclear. Two of these N. meningitidis enzymes (NmDsbA1 and NmDsbA2) play an important role in meningococcal attachment to human epithelial cells, whereas NmDsbA3 is considered to have a narrow substrate repertoire. To begin to address the role of DsbAs in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis, we have determined the structure of NmDsbA3 to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution. Although the sequence identity between NmDsbA3 and other DsbAs is low, the NmDsbA3 structure adopted a DsbA-like fold. Consistent with this finding, we demonstrated that NmDsbA3 acts as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase in vitro and is reoxidized by Escherichia coli DsbB (EcDsbB). However, pronounced differences in the structures between DsbA3 and EcDsbA, which are clustered around the active site of the enzyme, suggested a structural basis for the unusual substrate specificity that is observed for NmDsbA3.

  15. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions

    2002-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 4 December 2002 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Fellows, Associates and Summer Student Programmes Particle Data Book distribution Revoking Computer accounts Equipment insurance on site Reports from ACCU representatives on other committees Users' Office news Any Other Business Dates for meetings in 2003 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 12 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch   ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (74837...

  16. ACCU Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 15 June 2011 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 Chairperson’s remarks Adoption of the agenda Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising News from the CERN Management Report on services from GS department Update on Safety at CERN Reports from ACCU representatives on other Committees a. Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) b. IT Service Review Meeting (ITSRM) c. GS User Commission Users’ Office news Any Other Business Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairperson in writing or by e-mail to Michael.Hauschild@cern.ch Michael Hauschild (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in bra...

  17. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  18. EUV beam splitter for use in the wavelength region around 6 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Hisataka; Ichimaru, Satoshi; Gullikson, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) beam splitters for use at a wavelength of around 6 nm were fabricated. The designs were optimized for Cr/C multilayers and incident angles of 45 deg. and 80 deg. . Measurements revealed the reflectivity of a Cr/C beam splitter to be 3.3% and the transmittance to be 5.6% at a wavelength of 6.36 nm and an incident angle of 45 deg. . The reflectivity of a Cr/C beam splitter was 5.8% and the transmittance was 6.6% at a wavelength of 6.15 nm and an incident angle of 80 deg.

  19. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoku, Y; Kato, J; Akashi, G; Hirai, Y [Department of Operative Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2, Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba, 261-8502 (Japan); Ishihara, K [Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2, Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba, 261-8502 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm{sup 2}. The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis.

  20. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoku, Y; Kato, J; Akashi, G; Hirai, Y; Ishihara, K

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm 2 . The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm 2 . The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis

  1. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoku, Y.; Kato, J.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.; Ishihara, K.

    2009-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm2. The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm2. The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis.

  2. 75 FR 16510 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recommended for inclusion on future Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics, pension law and... closed meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations. DATES: The meeting will be held on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will...

  3. 78 FR 19008 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... inclusion on future Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics, pension law and methodology referred... closed meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations. DATES: The meeting will be held on.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will...

  4. Bandgap Engineering of 1300 nm Quantum Dots/Quantum Well Nanostructures Based Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alhashim, Hala H.

    2016-05-29

    The main objectives of this thesis are to develop viable process and/or device technologies for bandgap tuning of 1300-nm InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot (QD) laser structures, and broad linewidth 1300-nm InGaAsP/InP quantum well (QW) superluminescent diode structures. The high performance bandgap-engineered QD laser structures were achieved by employing quantum-dot intermixing (QDI) based on impurity free vacancy diffusion (IFVD) technique for eventual seamless active-passive integration, and bandgap-tuned lasers. QDI using various dielectric-capping materials, such as HfO2, SrTiO3, TiO2, Al2O3 and ZnO, etc, were experimented in which the resultant emission wavelength can be blueshifted to ∼ 1100 nm ─ 1200 nm range depending on process conditions. The significant results extracted from the PL characterization were used to perform an extensive laser characterization. The InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers with QDs transition energies were blueshifted by ~185 nm, and lasing around ~1070 – 1190 nm was achieved. Furthermore, from the spectral analysis, a simultaneous five-state lasing in the InAs/InGaAs intermixed QD laser was experimentally demonstrated for the first time in the very important wavelength range from 1030 to 1125 nm. The QDI methodology enabled the facile formation of a plethora of devices with various emission wavelengths suitable for a wide range of applications in the infrared. In addition, the wavelength range achieved is also applicable for coherent light generation in the green – yellow – orange visible wavelength band via frequency doubling, which is a cost-effective way of producing compact devices for pico-projectors, semiconductor laser based solid state lighting, etc. [1, 2] In QW-based superluminescent diode, the problem statement lies on achieving a flat-top and ultra-wide emission bandwidth. The approach was to design an inhomogeneous active region with a comparable simultaneous emission from different transition states in the QW stacks, in

  5. Clinical outcomes, health resource use, and cost in patients with early versus late dual or triple anti-platelet treatment for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Howard; Mollon, Patrick; Lian, Jean; Navaratnam, Prakash

    2013-08-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) guidelines recommend early dual anti-platelet therapy (thienopyridines + acetylsalicylic acid [aspirin]). However, triple therapy (thienopyridines + aspirin + glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors [GRIs]) has shown benefit in clinical trials. This study assessed real-world ACS treatment patterns and outcomes in the acute care setting. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to hospital with ACS (index event) from January 2007 to December 2009 was conducted (Thomson's MarketScan Hospital Drug Database). Eligible patients were ≥18 years of age, of either sex, and had primary admission and discharge diagnoses of ACS. Cohorts were defined by anti-platelet treatment and then by the timing of treatment initiation (early initiation: within ≤2 days of admission; late initiation: ≥2 days post-admission). Patient characteristics, clinical outcomes, resource utilization, and costs were assessed using descriptive statistics. A total of 249,907 eligible patients were placed into four treatment cohorts (aspirin assumed for all patients): aspirin only; clopidogrel only (dual therapy); GRI only (dual therapy); and clopidogrel + GRI (triple therapy). Patients in the 'clopidogrel-only' cohort were more likely to be older, female, and have more co-morbidities than those in other cohorts; stroke (6.2 %) and re-hospitalization (15.4 %) rates were higher than in the 'GRI-only' and 'triple therapy' cohorts. The GRI-only cohort had higher major bleeding rates (3.3 %), mortality (7.6 %), and costs ($US21,975 [year 2010 values]) than the clopidogrel-only and triple-therapy cohorts. Late initiation cohorts were more likely to be older, female, and have more co-morbidities than early initiation cohorts. Major bleeding was more likely with GRI-only patients (regardless of initiation timing) than with other cohorts. Late-treated clopidogrel-only patients had higher rates of stroke (6.9 %), ACS-related re-admissions (6.1 %), and all

  6. Low Group Delay Dispersion Optical Coating for Broad Bandwidth High Reflection at 45° Incidence, P Polarization of Femtosecond Pulses with 900 nm Center Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Bellum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe an optical coating design suitable for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR at 45° angle of incidence (AOI, P polarization (Ppol of femtosecond (fs laser pulses whose wavelengths range from 800 to 1000 nm. Our design process is guided by quarter-wave HR coating properties. The design must afford low group delay dispersion (GDD for reflected light over the broad, 200 nm bandwidth in order to minimize temporal broadening of the fs pulses due to dispersive alteration of relative phases between their frequency components. The design should also be favorable to high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT. We base the coating on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs produced by means of e-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and use OptiLayer Thin Film Software to explore designs starting with TiO2/SiO2 layers having thicknesses in a reverse chirped arrangement. This approach led to a design with R > 99% from 800 to 1000 nm and GDD < 20 fs2 from 843 to 949 nm (45° AOI, Ppol. The design’s GDD behaves in a smooth way, suitable for GDD compensation techniques, and its electric field intensities show promise for high LIDTs. Reflectivity and GDD measurements for the initial test coating indicate good performance of the BBHR design. Subsequent coating runs with improved process calibration produced two coatings whose HR bands satisfactorily meet the design goals. For the sake of completeness, we summarize our previously reported transmission spectra and LIDT test results with 800 ps, 8 ps and 675 fs pulses for these two coatings, and present a table of the LIDT results we have for all of our TiO2/SiO2 BBHR coatings, showing the trends with test laser pulse duration from the ns to sub-ps regimes.

  7. 77 FR 31894 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice, Regular Board of Directors Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...,Washington, DC 20005. STATUS: Open. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE INFORMATION: Erica Hall, Assistant Corporate... Meeting Minutes V. Approval of the Finance, Budget and Program Committee Meeting Minutes VI. Approval of the Corporate Administration Committee Meeting Minutes VII. Executive Session VIII. Board Elections...

  8. Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiao-Hang; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Douglas Yoder, P.; Dupuis, Russell D., E-mail: dupuis@gatech.edu [Center for Compound Semiconductors and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Wang, Shuo; Wei, Yong O.; Xie, Hongen; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Wernicke, Tim; Reich, Christoph; Martens, Martin; Kneissl, Michael [Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Solid State Physics, Berlin D-10623 (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    Optically pumped deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lasing with low threshold was demonstrated from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates. The epitaxial layers were grown pseudomorphically by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates. Stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 256 nm and 249 nm with thresholds of 61 kW/cm{sup 2} and 95 kW/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, respectively. The thresholds are comparable to the reported state-of-the-art AlGaN-based MQW DUV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates emitting at 266 nm. These low thresholds are attributed to the optimization of active region and waveguide layer as well as the use of high-quality AlN/sapphire templates. The stimulated emission above threshold was dominated by transverse-electric polarization. This work demonstrates the potential candidacy of sapphire substrates for DUV diode lasers.

  9. Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249 nm and 256 nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiao-Hang; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Satter, Md. Mahbub; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Douglas Yoder, P.; Dupuis, Russell D.; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Yong O.; Xie, Hongen; Fischer, Alec M.; Ponce, Fernando A.; Wernicke, Tim; Reich, Christoph; Martens, Martin; Kneissl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Optically pumped deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lasing with low threshold was demonstrated from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates. The epitaxial layers were grown pseudomorphically by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on (0001) sapphire substrates. Stimulated emission was observed at wavelengths of 256 nm and 249 nm with thresholds of 61 kW/cm 2 and 95 kW/cm 2 at room temperature, respectively. The thresholds are comparable to the reported state-of-the-art AlGaN-based MQW DUV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates emitting at 266 nm. These low thresholds are attributed to the optimization of active region and waveguide layer as well as the use of high-quality AlN/sapphire templates. The stimulated emission above threshold was dominated by transverse-electric polarization. This work demonstrates the potential candidacy of sapphire substrates for DUV diode lasers.

  10. E-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The 8th e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was held in the Globe from 4 to 5 November to discuss the development of Europe’s distributed computing and storage resources.   Project leaders attend the E-Concertation Meeting at the Globe on 5 November 2010. © Corentin Chevalier E-Infrastructures have become an indispensable tool for scientific research, linking researchers to virtually unlimited e-resources like the grid. The recent e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting brought together e-Science project leaders to discuss the development of this tool in the European context. The meeting was part of an ongoing initiative to develop a world-class e-infrastructure resource that would establish European leadership in e-Science. The e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was organised by the Commission Services (EC) with the support of e-ScienceTalk. “The Concertation meeting at CERN has been a great opportunity for e-ScienceTalk to meet many of the 38 new proje...

  11. Clostridium XIV Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, Lee

    2016-08-28

    The 14th biannual Clostridium meeting was held at Dartmouth College from August 28 through 31, 2016. As noted in the meeting program (http://clostridiumxiv.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Clostridium_XIV_program.pdf). the meeting featured 119 registered attendees, 33 oral presentations, 5 of which were given by younger presenters, 40 posters, and 2 keynote presentations, with strong participation by female and international scientists.

  12. Raman Spectra and Bulk Modulus of Nanodiamond in a Size Interval of 2-5 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Mikhail; Churkin, Valentin; Kirichenko, Alexey; Denisov, Viktor; Ovsyannikov, Danila; Kulnitskiy, Boris; Perezhogin, Igor; Aksenenkov, Viktor; Blank, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Nanodiamond in a 2-5-nm size interval (which is typical for an appearance of quantum confinement effect) show Raman spectra composed of 3 bands at 1325, 1600, and 1500 cm-1 (at the 458-nm laser excitation) which shifts to 1630 cm-1 at the 257-nm laser excitation. Contrary to sp2-bonded carbon, relative intensities of the bands do not depend on the 458- and 257-nm excitation wavelengths, and a halfwidth and the intensity of the 1600 cm-1 band does not change visibly under pressure at least up to 50 GPa. Bulk modulus of the 2-5-nm nanodiamond determined from the high-pressure study is around 560 GPa. Studied 2-5-nm nanodiamond was purified from contamination layers and dispersed in Si or NaCl.

  13. Grating writing and growth at 325nm in non-hydrogenated silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Town, Graham E; Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio

    We report on the writing and growth dynamics of Bragg gratings written in standard silica fiber using a 325nm He:Cd laser.......We report on the writing and growth dynamics of Bragg gratings written in standard silica fiber using a 325nm He:Cd laser....

  14. GPCR Mutation information - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us GRI...s and exposed in molecular surface. Data file File name: gripdb_mutation_info.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/gri...pdb/LATEST/gripdb_mutation_info.zip File size: 766 bytes Si...mple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/gripdb_mutation_info#en Data acquisition method P... Site Policy | Contact Us GPCR Mutation information - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Optical limiting properties of 3,5-dipyrenylvinyleneBODIPY dyes at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubheka, Gugu; Sanusi, Kayode; Mack, John; Nyokong, Tebello

    2018-02-01

    The optical limiting (OL) properties of 3,5-dipyrenylvinyleneBODIPY dyes that contain both electron withdrawing and donating moieties have been investigated by using the z-scan technique at 532 nm in the nanosecond pulse range. The extension of the π-conjugation at the 3,5-positions with pyrenylvinylene groups results in a ca. 200 nm red shift of the main BODIPY spectral band to ca. 700 nm, so there is relatively weak absorbance at 532 nm under ambient light conditions. Reverse saturable absorbance (RSA) profiles are observed in response to incident pulsed laser light that is consistent with a two photon absorption-assisted excited state absorption (ESA) mechanism in CH2Cl2 solution and when the dyes are embedded in poly(bisphenol carbonate A) (PBC) polymer thin films. This demonstrates that 3,5-divinyleneBODIPY dyes are potentially suitable for use in OL applications, since limiting threshold fluence (Ilim) values of below 0.95 J cm-2 are observed when thin films are prepared.

  16. High-resolution magnetic-domain imaging by Fourier transform holography at 21 nm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffert, Stefan; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M; Schneider, Michael; Korff Schmising, Clemens von; Eisebitt, Stefan; Geilhufe, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the L-edges of 3d transition metals, Fourier transform holography has become a standard technique to investigate magnetic samples with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Here, magnetic imaging in the 21 nm wavelength regime using M-edge circular dichroism is demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses in this wavelength regime are increasingly available from both laser- and accelerator-driven soft x-ray sources. We explain the adaptations concerning sample preparation and data evaluation compared to conventional holography in the 1 nm wavelength range. We find the correction of the Fourier transform hologram to in-plane Fourier components to be critical for high-quality reconstruction and demonstrate 70 nm spatial resolution in magnetization imaging with this approach. (paper)

  17. 77 FR 71828 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... recommended for inclusion on future Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics and methodology referred... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations (portions of which will be open to the public... Committee on Actuarial Examinations will meet at the Internal Revenue Service, 1111 Constitution Avenue NW...

  18. 75 FR 76486 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... that may be recommended for inclusion on future Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics and... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations (portions of which will be open to the public... the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will meet at the Internal Revenue Service, 1111...

  19. 75 FR 22168 - Region VI-Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region VI--Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting The Small Business Administration-Region VI--Houston Advisory Council, located in the geographical Area of Houston, Texas will hold a federal public meeting on--Thursday, May 20, 2010, starting at 10:30...

  20. Narrow line width operation of a 980 nm gain guided tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Barrientos-Barria, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate two different schemes for the spectral narrowing of a 12 emitter 980 nm gain guided tapered diode laser bar. In the first scheme, a reflective grating has been used in a Littman Metcalf configuration and the wavelength of the laser emission could be narrowed down from more than 5.......5 nm in the free running mode to 0.04 nm (FWHM) at an operating current of 30 A with an output power of 8 W. The spectrum was found to be tunable within a range of 16 nm. In the second scheme, a volume Bragg grating has been used to narrow the wavelength of the laser bar from over 5 nm to less than 0.......2 nm with an output of 5 W at 20 A. To our knowledge, this is the first time spectral narrowing has been performed on a gain guided tapered diode laser bar. In the Littman Metcalf configuration, the spectral brightness has been increased by 86 times and in the volume Bragg grating cavity the spectral...

  1. Northern Edge Navajo Casino, Fruitland, NM: NN0030343

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0030343) to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Northern Edge Navajo Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility, 2752 Indian Service Road 36, Fruitland, NM.

  2. 650 nm Laser stimulated dating from Side Antique Theatre, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doğan, M.; Meriç, N.

    2014-01-01

    Samples were taken from the archeological excavation site, which was at the backs of the Side Antique Theatre. Samples were taken from under the base rock in this area. Polymineral fine grains were examined to determine the ages of the sediments. Samples gathered from the Side Antique Theatre were investigated through using the SAR method. Firstly, one part of the samples were evaluated by using conventional IRSL reading head model of (ELSEC-9010) which is infrared (880±80 nm) stimulation source with Schott BG39 filter. The IRSL age dating with feldspar minerals, gives a number of overestimated or underestimated age values as a result. A new reading head was proposed with the following configuration attachments for overestimation of equivalent dose rates. Measurements were done with this newly designed red laser stimulating reading head which works with Elsec 9010 OSL age dating system. SAR measurements were performed by (650±10 nm) red laser light source with two Schott BG3 filters. With usage of the new designed reading head; closer results were obtained in comparision with the Antique Theatre′s expected age range. Fading rates were taken into consideration and these corrections were also handled for true age results. - Highlights: • Polymineral fine grain feldspar minerals were used for dating. • Two different reading heads were used to determine equivalent doses. • IR stimulated (880 nm) and laser stimulated (650 nm) dating results were compared

  3. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  4. The use of economic indicators from the Global Reporting Initiative by Spanish listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in companies is widely accepted within today’s business community. However, the intangibility of this concept and the dispersion of related standards and regulations has created a context characterized by lack of homogeneity in the publishing of CSR results. The present study aims to determine the extent to which Global Reporting Initiative (GRI indicators are used by Spanish listed companies. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical analysis has been performed to asses and evaluate the 2011 CSR reports published by the companies listed on the IBEX-35, the Spanish stock exchange index which includes the most important listed companies. The analysis is centered exclusively on the economic indicators established by the GRI. The methodology used to interpret the results is based on the procedures of multivariate analysis, namely principal components analysis, correlation matrix, and hierarchical clustering. Findings: The results of the study show that although the GRI tool is used extensively within the IBEX-35, the level of performance regarding the parameters established by the GRI varies depending on the studied company and indicator. Research limitations: This study focuses on the biggest Spanish listed companies; thus, the conclusions may differ in other geographic locations, as well as for smaller businesses. Practical implications: This line of research helps to know more about the social reporting policies of big Spanish listed companies. Social implications: The evidence provided by this study helps to know more about the Corporate Social Responsibility policies and sustainability reports and declarations of social and environmental values governing their organizations. Originality/value: This study is the first using principal component analysis in Spanish listed companies focusing in the economic indicators of the GRI.

  5. Increase of the photosensitivity of undoped poly(methylmethacrylate) under UV radiation at 325 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    in undoped PMMA mPOFs with a hexagonal structure of three rings in the inner cladding. Two sets of FBGs were inscribed at two different resonant wavelengths (827 nm and 1562 nm) at different strains using an UV He-Cd laser at 325 nm focused by a lens and scanned over the fibre. We observed an increase...

  6. Engineering Nanowire n-MOSFETs at L_{g}<8 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Saumitra R.; Kim, SungGeun; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET) channel lengths (Lg) are scaled to lengths shorter than Lg<8 nm source-drain tunneling starts to become a major performance limiting factor. In this scenario a heavier transport mass can be used to limit source-drain (S-D) tunneling. Taking InAs and Si as examples, it is shown that different heavier transport masses can be engineered using strain and crystal orientation engineering. Full-band extended device atomistic quantum transport simulations are performed for nanowire MOSFETs at Lg<8 nm in both ballistic and incoherent scattering regimes. In conclusion, a heavier transport mass can indeed be advantageous in improving ON state currents in ultra scaled nanowire MOSFETs.

  7. Single, composite, and ceramic Nd:YAG 946-nm lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui-Jun; Yang, Guang; Zheng-Ping, Wang

    2015-06-01

    Single, composite crystal and ceramic continuous wave (CW) 946-nm Nd:YAG lasers are demonstrated, respectively. The ceramic laser behaves better than the crystal laser. With 5-mm long ceramic, a CW output power of 1.46 W is generated with an optical conversion efficiency of 13.9%, while the slope efficiency is 17.9%. The optimal ceramic length for a 946-nm laser is also calculated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405171), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ014), and the Science and Technology Program of the Shandong Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant No. J13LJ05).

  8. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  9. Where Times Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore R. Schatzki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay pursues two goals: (1 to argue that two fundamental types of time—the time of objective reality and “the time of the soul”—meet in human activity and history and (2 to defend the legitimacy of calling a particular version of the second type a kind of time. The essay begins by criticizing Paul Ricoeur’s version of the claim that times of these two sorts meet in history. It then presents an account of human activity based on Heidegger’s Being and Time, according to which certain times of the two types—existential temporality and succession—meet in human activity. The legitimacy of calling existential temporality a kind of time is then defended via an expanded analysis of activity that examines where the two times meet there. The concluding section briefly considers a conception of historical time due to David Carr before showing why history is a broader domain encompassing human activity where the two times meet.

  10. 75 FR 28062 - Meeting of the Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... questions which may be recommended for inclusion on future Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations (a portion of which will be open to the public... the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will meet in at the Internal Revenue Service Building...

  11. The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. ESA's INTEGRAL observatory currently provides the astronomical community with a unique tool to investigate the sky up to MeV energies and hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes have been discovered. NASA's GLAST mission will similarly take the next step in surveying the high-energy ( GeV) sky, and NuSTAR will pioneer focusing observations at hard X-ray energies (to 80 keV). There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

  12. Chaos, Consternation and CALIPSO Calibration: New Strategies for Calibrating the CALIOP 1064 nm Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Mark; Garnier, Anne; Liu, Zhaoyan; Josset, Damien; Hu, Yongxiang; Lee, Kam-Pui; Hunt, William; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Rodier, Sharon; Pelon, Jaques; hide

    2012-01-01

    The very low signal-to-noise ratios of the 1064 nm CALIOP molecular backscatter signal make it effectively impossible to employ the "clear air" normalization technique typically used to calibrate elastic back-scatter lidars. The CALIPSO mission has thus chosen to cross-calibrate their 1064 nm measurements with respect to the 532 nm data using the two-wavelength backscatter from cirrus clouds. In this paper we discuss several known issues in the version 3 CALIOP 1064 nm calibration procedure, and describe the strategies that will be employed in the version 4 data release to surmount these problems.

  13. Influence of ultra-thin TiN thickness (1.4 nm and 2.4 nm) on positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) of high-k/metal gate nMOSFETs with gate-last process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Lu-Wei; Yang Hong; Ren Shang-Qing; Xu Ye-Feng; Luo Wei-Chun; Xu Hao; Wang Yan-Rong; Tang Bo; Wang Wen-Wu; Yan Jiang; Zhu Hui-Long; Zhao Chao; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) degradations of high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) nMOSFETs with thin TiN capping layers (1.4 nm and 2.4 nm) are systemically investigated. In this paper, the trap energy distribution in gate stack during PBTI stress is extracted by using ramped recovery stress, and the temperature dependences of PBTI (90 °C, 125 °C, 160 °C) are studied and activation energy (E a ) values (0.13 eV and 0.15 eV) are extracted. Although the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) values of two TiN thickness values are almost similar (0.85 nm and 0.87 nm), the 2.4-nm TiN one (thicker TiN capping layer) shows better PBTI reliability (13.41% at 0.9 V, 90 °C, 1000 s). This is due to the better interfacial layer/high-k (IL/HK) interface, and HK bulk states exhibited through extracting activation energy and trap energy distribution in the high-k layer. (paper)

  14. Design and Fabrication of 850 and 980 nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, N

    2004-01-01

    .... VCSELs on GaAs substrates were grown by the molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this report we present detailed procedures to design and fabricate 850-nm top-emitting and 980-nm bottom-emitting VCSELs...

  15. 75 FR 52303 - Notice of Meeting; Siskiyou Resource Advisory Committee Meeting at New Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Meeting; Siskiyou Resource Advisory Committee Meeting at New Location SUMMARY: The Siskiyou County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will hold its last two meetings in 2010 at a new location. DATES: The meetings will be held on September 20 and October...

  16. Photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 280, 308, 351, 400, and 450 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongxin; Zhu, Lei

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 280, 308, 351, 400, and 450 nm by using laser photolysis combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The HCO radical is a photodissociation product at 193 and 248 nm. The corresponding HCO quantum yields are 0.55 ± 0.07 and 0.12 ± 0.01, independent of butenedial pressure and nitrogen buffer gas pressure. Absorption cross-sections of butenedial are (6.88 ± 0.39) × 10 -18 and (3.62 ± 0.69) × 10 -19 cm 2 at 193 and 248 nm. The end-products from the photolysis of butenedial at 193, 248, 308, and 351 nm were measured by FTIR. Acrolein and 3H-furan-2-one were observed and their yields have been estimated.

  17. Strongly Coupled Tin-Halide Perovskites to Modulate Light Emission: Tunable 550-640 nm Light Emission (FWHM 36-80 nm) with a Quantum Yield of up to 6.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Yi; Lin, Jin-Tai; Hsu, Chia-Shuo; Chang, Chung-Kai; Chiu, Ching-Wen; Chen, Hao Ming; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2018-05-01

    Colloidal perovskite quantum dots represent one of the most promising materials for applications in solar cells and photoluminescences. These devices require a low density of crystal defects and a high yield of photogenerated carriers, which are difficult to realize in tin-halide perovskite because of the intrinsic instability of tin during nucleation. Here, an enhancement in the luminescent property of tin-halide perovskite nanoplates (TPNPs) that are composed of strongly coupled layered structures with the chemical formula of PEA 2 SnX 4 (PEA = C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 , X = Br, I) is reported. TPNPs (X = I) show an emission at a wavelength of 640 nm, with high quantum yield of 6.40 ± 0.14% and full width at half maximum (FWHM) as small as 36 nm. The presence of aliphatic carboxylic acid is found to play a key role in reducing the tin perovskite defect density, which significantly improves the emission intensity and stability of TPNPs. Upon mixing iodo- and bromo- precursors, the emission wavelength is successfully tuned from 640 nm (PEA 2 SnI 4 ) to 550 nm (PEA 2 SnBr 4 ), with a corresponding emission quantum yield and FWHM of 0.16-6.40% and 36-80 nm, respectively. The results demonstrate a major advance for the emission yield and tunability of tin-halide perovskites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria  W. Adam  (71661) Belgium  G. Wilquet  (74664) Bulgaria  R. Tzenov  (77958) Czech Republic  P. Závada&am...

  19. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2001-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 5 December 2001 At 9:15 a.m. in room 60-6-002 1. Chairman's remarks 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Minutes of the previous meeting 4. Matters arising 5. News from the CERN Management 6. Housing 7. Restaurant Surveillance Committee 8. Users' Office news 9. Election of ACCU chairman 10. Any Other Business 11. Dates for meetings in 2002 12. Agenda for the next meetingAnyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Chairman in writing or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets): Austria W. Adam (71661) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Republic P. Závada (75877) Denmark A. Waananen (75941) Finland A. Kiiskinen (79387) Fr...

  20. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) :   Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958)...

  1. ACCU MEETING

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Onions (Secretary)

    2000-01-01

    DRAFT Agenda for the meeting to be held on Wednesday 6 December 2000 At 10 a.m. in the 6th floor Conference Room, Main Building Chairman's remarks Adoption of the agenda News from the CERN Management Minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising Equal Opportunities at CERN The Summer Student programme CERN Programme for Physics High School Teachers Users' Office News Any Other Business Dates for Meetings in 2001 Agenda for the next meeting Anyone wishing to raise any points under item 10 is invited to send them to the Secretary in writing via the CERN Users' Office or by e-mail to Christopher.Onions@cern.ch Chris Onions (Secretary) ACCU is the forum for discussion between the CERN Management and the representatives of CERN Users to review the practical means taken by CERN for the work of Users of the Laboratory. The User Representatives to ACCU are (CERN internal telephone numbers in brackets) : Austria G. Neuhofer (74094) Belgium G. Wilquet (74664) Bulgaria R. Tzenov (77958) Czech Re...

  2. SIMBOLIS ATAU SUBSTANTIF? ANALISIS PRAKTIK PELAPORAN CSR DAN KUALITAS PENGUNGKAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Muhammad Nasution

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test empirically the influence of three Corporate Social Responsibility reporting (CSR practices on the quality of CSR disclosure. Specifically, the research is conducted to determine whether the practices are substantive in nature, which is to improve the quality of disclosure as media of accountability to stakeholders; or simply symbolic to establish a company’s positive image. The three practices are the use of standalone CSR reports, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI frameworks, and external assurance services for CSR reports. This study uses a sample of 50 non-financial companies with large market capitalization listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011-2013. The results show that the use of standalone CSR reports negatively affects the quality of CSR disclosure, which is interpreted as a reflection of the symbolic approach in its preparation. Meanwhile, the use of external assurance services and the adoption of GRI has a positive influence. However, after several sensitivity tests, the results were mixed, and overall showed that GRI adoption did not improve the quality of disclosure. Thus, the research findings indicate that the use of external assurance services increases the quality of disclosure but there are still a lot of symbolic information in CSR disclosure in Indonesia, even though the company has already followed the GRI reporting framework.

  3. Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Marchetti, R.; Vitali, V.; Cristiani, I.; Giuliani, G.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Minzioni, P.

    2016-03-01

    Here we show the results of an experimental analysis dedicated to investigate the impact of optical non linear effects, such as two-photon absorption (TPA), free-carrier absorption (FCA) and free-carrier dispersion (FCD), on the performance of integrated micro-resonator based filters for application in WDM telecommunication systems. The filters were fabricated using SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) technology by CEA-Leti, in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous Project, which aims to develop low-cost and high-performance integrated optical devices to be used in new generation passive optical- networks (NG-PON2). Different designs were tested, including both ring-based structures and racetrack-based structures, with single-, double- or triple- resonator configuration, and using different waveguide cross-sections (from 500 x 200 nm to 825 x 100 nm). Measurements were carried out using an external cavity tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth, using both continuous wave signals and 10 Gbit/s modulated signals. Results show that the use 100-nm high waveguide allows reducing the impact of non-linear losses, with respect to the standard waveguides, thus increasing by more than 3 dB the maximum amount of optical power that can be injected into the devices before causing significant non-linear effects. Measurements with OOK-modulated signals at 10 Gbit/s showed that TPA and FCA don't affect the back-to-back BER of the signal, even when long pseudo-random-bit-sequences (PRBS) are used, as the FCD-induced filter-detuning increases filter losses but "prevents" excessive signal degradation.

  4. The FIREBall-2 UV sample grating efficiency at 200-208nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiret, S.; Milliard, B.; Grange, R.; Lemaitre, G. R.; Caillat, A.; Belhadi, M.; Cotel, A.

    2014-07-01

    The FIREBall-2 (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon-2) is a balloon-borne ultraviolet spectro-imaging mission optimized for the study of faint diffuse emission around galaxies. A key optical component of the new spectrograph design is the high throughput cost-effective holographic 2400 ℓ =mm, 110x130mm aspherized reflective grating used in the range 200 - 208nm, near 28°deviation angle. In order to anticipate the efficiency in flight conditions, we have developed a PCGrate model for the FIREBall grating calibrated on linearly polarized measurements at 12° deviation angle in the range 240-350nm of a 50x50mm replica of the same master selected for the flight grating. This model predicts an efficiency within [64:7; 64:9]+/-0:7% (S polarization) and [38:3; 45]+/-2:2% (P-polarization) for the baseline aluminum coated grating with an Al2O3 natural oxidation layer and within [63:5; 65] +/-1% (S-polarization) and [51:3; 54:8] +/-2:8% (P-polarization) for an aluminum plus a 70nm MgF2 coating, in the range 200 - 208nm and for a 28°deviation angle. The model also shows there is room for significant improvements at shorter wavelengths, of interest for future deep UV spectroscopic missions.

  5. Effects of the updated national emission regulation in China on circulating fluidized bed boilers and the solutions to meet them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingji; Yang, Hairui; Wu, Yuxin; Lv, Junfu; Yue, Guangxi

    2013-06-18

    The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg · Nm(-3). For SO2 emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas-solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg · Nm(-3). For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOx emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg · Nm(-3) without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (emission of CFB is very low for the new NER due to its innate property.

  6. Water line positions in the 782–840 nm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.-M.; Chen, B.; Tan, Y.; Wang, J.; Cheng, C.-F.; Liu, A.-W.

    2015-01-01

    A set of water transitions in the 782–840 nm region, including 38 H 2 16 O lines, 12 HD 16 O lines, and 30 D 2 16 O lines, were recorded with a cavity ring-down spectrometer calibrated using precise atomic lines. Absolute frequencies of the lines were determined with an accuracy of about 5 MHz. Systematic shifts were found in the line positions given in the HITRAN database and the upper energy levels given in recent MARVEL studies. - Highlights: • Cavity ring-down spectra of H 2 16 O, HD 16 O, and D 2 16 O lines in the 782–840 nm region were measured. • Absolute line positions of 80 water lines were determined with an accuracy of about 5 MHz. • The H 2 16 O positions given in HITRAN have a systematic shift of 0.001 cm −1 in the 796–840 nm region. • MARVEL D 2 16 O energies have a systematic deviation of about −0.008 cm −1

  7. Growth regulation of HeLa cells by 1060 nm photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torghele, K. F.

    1993-12-01

    Living organisms are open systems dominated by electromagnetic interaction. An essential feature of a living system is its cybernetic process which imply their capability of adaptation and sensitivity to internal and external fluctuations. The experimental results show that coherent and incoherent light of 1060 nm wavelength influences the metabolic processes and consequently the proliferation of cancer cell cultures (HeLa). Light induced regulation of HeLa cell growth depends on the cell density, the state of the cell culture and the amount of light irradiation. Best proliferation inhibiting effects can be obtained by application of 200 J/m 2 on HeLa cells in Lag-Phase and a typical cell density of 5.10 4 cells/cm 2 . Proceeding on the singlet oxygen hypothesis (KLIMA, H. et al.; 1990), it is shown mathematically that the dynamical behaviour of the NADH model is influenced by 1060 nm photons. Both, the experimental and the numerical results support our hypothesis: 1060 nm photons regulate the proliferation of HeLa cells. (author)

  8. June 1992 Hall B collaboation meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Hall B collaboration meeting at the CEBAF 1992 Summer Workshop consisted of technical and physics working group meetings, a special beam line devices working group meeting the first meeting of the membership committee, a technical representatives meeting and a full collaboration meeting. Highlights of these meetings are presented in this report

  9. Advanced 65 nm CMOS devices fabricated using ultra-low energy plasma doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, S.; Lenoble, D.; Lallement, F.; Grouillet, A.; Erokhin, Y.; Singh, V.; Testoni, A.

    2005-01-01

    For leading edge CMOS and DRAM technologies, plasma doping (PLAD) offers several unique advantages over conventional beamline implantation. For ultra-low energy source and drain extensions (SDE), source drain contact and high dose poly doping implants PLAD delivers 2-5x higher throughput compared to beamline implanters. In this work we demonstrate process performance and process integration benefits enabled by plasma doping for advanced 65 nm CMOS devices. Specifically, p + /n ultra-shallow junctions formed with BF 3 plasma doping have superior X j /R s characteristics to beamline implants and yield up to 30% lower R s for 20 nm X j while using standard spike anneal with ramp-up rate of 75 deg. C/s. These results indicate that PLAD could extend applicability of standard spike anneal by at least one technology node past 65 nm. A CMOS split lot has been run to investigate process integration advantages unique to plasma doping and to determine CMOS device characteristics. Device data measured on 65 nm transistors fabricated with offset spacers indicate that devices with SDE formed by plasma doping have superior V t roll-off characteristics arguably due to improved lateral gate-overlap of PLAD SDE junctions. Furthermore, offset spacers could be eliminated in 65 nm devices with PLAD SDE implants while still achieving V t roll-off and I on -I off performance at least equivalent to control devices with offset spacers and SDE formed by beamline implantation. Thus, another advantage of PLAD is simplified 65 nm CMOS manufacturing process flow due to elimination of offset spacers. Finally, we present process transfer from beamline implants to PLAD for several applications, including SDE and gate poly doping with very high productivity

  10. Computational Design of High-χ Block Oligomers for Accessing 1 nm Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qile P; Barreda, Leonel; Oquendo, Luis E; Hillmyer, Marc A; Lodge, Timothy P; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2018-05-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to design a series of high-χ block oligomers (HCBOs) that can self-assemble into a variety of mesophases with domain sizes as small as 1 nm. The exploration of these oligomers with various chain lengths, volume fractions, and chain architectures at multiple temperatures reveals the presence of ordered lamellae, perforated lamellae, and hexagonally packed cylinders. The achieved periods are as small as 3.0 and 2.1 nm for lamellae and cylinders, respectively, which correspond to polar domains of approximately 1 nm. Interestingly, the detailed phase behavior of these oligomers is distinct from that of either solvent-free surfactants or block polymers. The simulations reveal that the behavior of these HCBOs is a product of an interplay between both "surfactant factors" (headgroup interactions, chain flexibility, and interfacial curvature) and "block polymer factors" (χ, chain length N, and volume fraction f). This insight promotes the understanding of molecular features pivotal for mesophase formation at the sub-5 nm length scale, which facilitates the design of HCBOs tailored toward particular desired morphologies.

  11. Sub-10 nm colloidal lithography for circuit-integrated spin-photo-electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterning of materials at sub-10 nm dimensions is at the forefront of nanotechnology and employs techniques of various complexity, efficiency, areal scale, and cost. Colloid-based patterning is known to be capable of producing individual sub-10 nm objects. However, ordered, large-area nano-arrays, fully integrated into photonic or electronic devices have remained a challenging task. In this work, we extend the practice of colloidal lithography to producing large-area sub-10 nm point-contact arrays and demonstrate their circuit integration into spin-photo-electronic devices. The reported nanofabrication method should have broad application areas in nanotechnology as it allows ballistic-injection devices, even for metallic materials with relatively short characteristic relaxation lengths.

  12. Sub-10 nm low current resistive switching behavior in hafnium oxide stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Celano, U.; Xu, Z.; Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Goux, L.; Fantini, A.; Degraeve, R.; Youssef, A.; Jurczak, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Liu, L., E-mail: houyi@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: lfliu@pku.edu.cn; Cheng, Y.; Kang, J. [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2016-03-21

    In this letter, a tip-induced cell relying on the conductive atomic force microscope is proposed. It is verified as a referable replica of an integrated resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. On the basis of this cell, the functionality of sub-10 nm resistive switching is confirmed in hafnium oxide stack. Moreover, the low current switching behavior in the sub-10 nm dimension is found to be more pronounced than that of a 50 × 50 nm{sup 2} device. It shows better ON/OFF ratio and low leakage current. The enhanced memory performance is ascribed to a change in the shape of the conductive filament as the device dimensions are reduced to sub-10 nm. Therefore, device downscaling provides a promising approach for the resistance optimization that benefits the RRAM array design.

  13. 78 FR 76627 - Health Information Technology Standards Committee Advisory Meeting: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Information Technology Standards Committee Advisory Meeting: Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology... committee of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). These meeting...

  14. In vivo 808 nm image-guided photodynamic therapy based on an upconversion theranostic nanoplatform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Que, Ivo; Kong, Xianggui; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Chang, Yulei; Wang, Tong Tong; Chan, Alan; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Zhang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    A new strategy for efficient in vivo image-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been demonstrated utilizing a ligand-exchange constructed upconversion-C60 nanophotosensitizer. This theranostic platform is superior to the currently reported nanophotosensitizers in (i) directly bonding photosensitizer C60 to the surface of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) by a smart ligand-exchange strategy, which greatly shortened the energy transfer distance and enhanced the 1O2 production, resulting in the improvement of the therapeutic effect; (ii) realizing in vivo NIR 808 nm image-guided PDT with both excitation (980 nm) and emission (808 nm) light falling in the biological window of tissues, which minimized auto-fluorescence, reduced light scatting and improved the imaging contrast and depth, and thus guaranteed noninvasive diagnostic accuracy. In vivo and ex vivo tests demonstrated its favorable bio-distribution, tumor-selectivity and high therapeutic efficacy. Owing to the effective ligand exchange strategy and the excellent intrinsic photophysical properties of C60, 1O2 production yield was improved, suggesting that a low 980 nm irradiation dosage (351 J cm-2) and a short treatment time (15 min) were sufficient to perform NIR (980 nm) to NIR (808 nm) image-guided PDT. Our work enriches the understanding of UCNP-based PDT nanophotosensitizers and highlights their potential use in future NIR image-guided noninvasive deep cancer therapy.A new strategy for efficient in vivo image-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been demonstrated utilizing a ligand-exchange constructed upconversion-C60 nanophotosensitizer. This theranostic platform is superior to the currently reported nanophotosensitizers in (i) directly bonding photosensitizer C60 to the surface of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) by a smart ligand-exchange strategy, which greatly shortened the energy transfer distance and enhanced the 1O2 production, resulting in the improvement of the therapeutic effect; (ii

  15. 76 FR 2431 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12320 and 12321] New Mexico Disaster NM-00016... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-1936... INFORMATION: The notice of the President's major disaster declaration for Private Non-Profit organizations in...

  16. 308-nm excimer lamp for the treatment of alopecia areata: Clinical trial on 16 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Ohtsuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is considered as a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder. The 308-nm excimer laser is thought to be capable of inducing T-cell apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that the 308-nm excimer lamp (not laser might be effective for the treatment of AA. We examined the effectiveness of the 308-nm excimer lamp for treating AA. Materials and Methods: We treated 16 patients with single AA and multiple AA (MAA. The lesions were irradiated with a 308-nm excimer lamp at 2-week intervals. Results: Hair regrowth was observed in 14 patients. Among them, 10 patients showed more than 50% hair re-growth. Our results suggested that the 308-nm excimer lamp system is effective and safe for the treatment of single AA and MAA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the 308-nm excimer lamp is a good therapeutic alternative without serious side effect for treating AA.

  17. Logic Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  18. 75 FR 56608 - Agency Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Agency Meeting Federal Register Citation of Previous Announcement: [To be published] Status: Open Meeting. Place: 100 F. Street, NE., Washington, DC. Date and Time of Previously Announced Meeting: September 15, 2010. Change In the Meeting: Room Change. The Joint...

  19. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in't Veld, M.A.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation - meetings - by means of a set

  20. Evaluating meeting support tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Huis in 't Veld, M. M.A.; Boogaard, S.A.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Many attempts are underway for developing meeting support tools, but less attention is paid to the evaluation of meetingware. This article describes the development and testing of an instrument for evaluating meeting tools. First, we specified the object of evaluation -meetings- by means of a set of

  1. 76 FR 54536 - Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE Meeting AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. Date/Time... Peace Act, Public Law 98-525. Agenda: September 22, 2011 Board Meeting; Approval of Minutes of the One Hundred Fortieth Meeting (June 23-24, 2011) of the Board of Directors; Chairman's Report; President's...

  2. 77 FR 55837 - Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  3. Study seeks to boost Appalachian gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Ashland Exploration Inc. and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are trying to find ways to increase gas recovery in the Appalachian basin. They are working together to investigate Mississippian Berea sandstone and Devonian shale in a program designed to achieve better understanding and improved performance of tight natural gas formations in the area. This paper reports that three wells on Ashland Exploration acreage in Pike County, Ky., are involved in the research program. Findings from the first two wells will be used to optimize evaluation and completion of the third well. The first two wells have been drilled. Drilling of the third well was under way at last report. Ashland Exploration has been involved with GRI's Devonian shale research since 1988. GRI's initial focus was on well stimulation because Devonian shale wells it reviewed had much lower recoveries than could be expected, based on estimated gas in place. Research during the past few years was designed to improve the execution and quality control of well stimulation

  4. Quality Disclosure in Sustainability Reporting: Evidence From Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto ROMOLINI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Attention towards sustainability reporting is very high with reference to higher education. The paper aims to assess the maturity level of sus-tainability reporting and to measure its quality by evaluating the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI indicators currently disclosed. The research was carried out using the inductive method. We de-limited the study to universities and we evaluated the quality of sustainability reporting by analyzing the indicators disclosed in 2012 reports accord-ing to GRI guidelines. The research gives an overview of sustainability reporting in universities by evaluating the quality level of their disclosure. The results confrm previous research by high-lighting the necessity to improve sustainability reporting. Moreover, the results show there are differences between universities that are con-nected to the peculiarities of each country. They also enable us to draw up an initial classifcation of universities. The paper provides one of the frst in-depth studies of sustainability reporting quality for universities included in the GRI database.

  5. IMPACTO DE LAS REDES SOCIALES EN LOS INGRESOS DE LOS HOTELES EN COLOMBIA, ECUADOR Y PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM MAJÓ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar la influencia de las valoraciones de los hoteles en las redes sociales y cómo estas afectan los ingresos de los hoteles. A partir de los datos mensuales (entre agosto de 2014 y julio de 2015 de 48 hoteles de Colombia, Ecuador y Perú se analizaron principalmente las variables: GRI (Global Review Index, Oferta, Demanda, Venta, RevPAR (Reve - nue Per Avalable Room y Ubicación; mediante análisis de conglomerados y un modelo lineal. Se encontró que un mejor GRI favorece a una mejor ratio entre las ventas y la oferta. En concreto, observamos que cuando el GRI se incrementa en una unidad, el RevPAR crece en 0,49%, mante - niendo el resto de variables constantes. Es la primera investigación realizada en Sudamérica para analizar la incidencia de las redes sociales en los ingresos de los ho teles.

  6. 5 CFR 1206.11 - Meeting place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meeting place. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES OPEN MEETINGS Conduct of Meetings § 1206.11 Meeting place. The Board will hold open meetings in meeting rooms designated in the...

  7. Diode-pumped CW frequency-doubled Nd:CNGG-BiBO blue laser at 468 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Y F; Xia, J; Lin, J Q; Gao, X; Dong, Y; Xu, L J; Sun, G C; Zhao, Z M; Tan, Y; Chen, J F; Liu, Z X; Li, C L; Cai, H X; Liu, Z T; Ma, Z Y; Ning, G B

    2011-01-01

    Efficient and compact blue laser output at 468 nm is generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous-wave (CW) diode-pumped Nd:CNGG laser at 935 nm. With 17.8 W of diode pump power and the frequency-doubling crystal BiB 3 O 6 (BiBO), a maximum output power of 490 mW in the blue spectral range at 468 nm has been achieved, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 2.8%; the output power stability over 4 h is better than 2.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is first work on intracavity frequency doubling of a diode pumped Nd:CNGG laser at 935 nm

  8. 78 FR 52997 - Connected Vehicle Research Program Public Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Connected Vehicle Research Program Public Meeting; Notice of Public... overview of the ITS JPO Connected Vehicle research program. The meeting will take place September 24 to 26... . The public meeting is the best opportunity to learn details about the Connected Vehicle research...

  9. Making Meetings Work Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standke, Linda

    1978-01-01

    Focusing on the increased use by trainers of off-site facilities for employee training meetings, this article looks at some improvements and the expanding market in the meeting site industry. It also highlights emerging trends in the industry and covers the growth of meeting planning into a profession. (EM)

  10. 1990 Fall Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1990 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 3-7, continued the steady growth trend for the western meeting set over the last decade. About 5200 members registered for the meeting and 3836 papers were given. The scientific kickoff to the meeting was provided by a Union session on initial results of the current Magellan mission to Venus. The mission was also the focus of a public lecture and short film on highlights of the mission and an extensive Union poster session.

  11. 75 FR 76006 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Regular Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board. ACTION: Regular meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held...

  12. 77 FR 2541 - Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board; Regular Meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the...

  13. 76 FR 3629 - Regular Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Meeting SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the Board will be held at the offices of the Farm... meeting of the Board will be open to the [[Page 3630

  14. 78 FR 73190 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Sunshine Act Meeting Agency Holding the Meeting: Board of Governors of the...., Washington, DC 20551. STATUS: Open. On the day of the meeting, you will be able to view the meeting via... webcast of the meeting. A link to the meeting documentation will also be available approximately 20...

  15. 78 FR 46361 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting... Trinity Management Council (TMC). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and web-based meeting: TAMWG and...

  16. 78 FR 17226 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting... Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive...

  17. 78 FR 49281 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River (California) restoration...-FF08EACT00] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting... Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference, and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive...

  18. All-dry resist processes for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mark W.; Maxwell, Brian E.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Hibbs, Michael S.; Eriksen, Lynn M.; Palmateer, Susan C.; Forte, Anthony R.

    1995-06-01

    We report on two different all-dry resist schemes for 193-nm lithography, one negative tone and one positive tone. Our negative tone resist is an extension of our initial work on all-dry photoresists. This scheme employs a bilayer in which the imaging layer is formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from tetramethylsilane (TMS) and deposited onto PECVD carbon-based planarizing layers. Figure 1 shows SEMs of dark field and light field octagons patterned in projection on Lincoln Laboratory's 0.5-NA 193-nm Micrascan system. These 0.225-micrometers and 0.200-micrometers line and space features were obtained at a dose of approximately 58 mJ/cm2. Dry development of the exposed resist was accomplished using Cl2 chemistry in a helicon high-ion-density etching tool. Pattern transfer was performed in the helicon tool with oxygen-based chemistries. Recently, we have also developed an all-dry positive-tone silylation photoresist. This photoresist is a PECVD carbon-based polymer which is crosslinked by 193-nm exposure, enabling selective silylation similar to that initially reported by Hartney et al., with spin-applied polymers. In those polymers, for example polyvinylphenol, the silylation site concentration is fixed by the hydroxyl groups on the polymer precursors, thus limiting the silicon uptake per unit volume. With PECVD polymers, the total concentration of silylation sites and their depth can be tailored by varying plasma species as a function of time during the deposition. This affords the possibility of greater silicon uptake per unit volume and better depth control of the silylation profile. Figure 2 shows a SEM of 0.5-micrometers features patterned in plasma deposited silylation resist.

  19. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana... Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on Dec. 2, 2010 in Billings, Montana. The meeting...

  20. A diode-end-pumped Nd:GYSGG continuous wave laser at 1104 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, B J; Kang, H X; Zhang, C G; Chen, P; Gao, R L; Liang, J; Gao, H J; Zhang, Q L; Sun, D L; Yin, S T; Luo, J Q

    2013-01-01

    The continuous wave (CW) laser performance of Nd:GYSGG at 1104 nm is investigated for the first time, to our knowledge. A CW laser output power of 4.7 W is obtained when the pump power of the 808 nm fiber coupled laser diode is 19.1 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24.6% and slope efficiency of 37%. (paper)

  1. 300 nm bandwidth adiabatic SOI polarization splitter-rotators exploiting continuous symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socci, Luciano; Sorianello, Vito; Romagnoli, Marco

    2015-07-27

    Adiabatic polarization splitter-rotators are investigated exploiting continuous symmetry breaking thereby achieving significant device size and losses reduction in a single mask fabrication process for both SOI channel and ridge waveguides. A crosstalk lower than -25 dB is expected over 300nm bandwidth, making the device suitable for full grid CWDM and diplexer/triplexer FTTH applications at 1310, 1490 and 1550nm.

  2. Future directions in 980-nm pump lasers: submarine deployment to low-cost watt-class terrestrial pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgazov, Vadim N.; Jackson, Gordon S.; Lascola, Kevin M.; Major, Jo S.; Parke, Ross; Richard, Tim; Rossin, Victor V.; Zhang, Kai

    1999-09-01

    The demands of global bandwidth and distribution are rising rapidly as Internet usage grows. This fundamentally means that more photons are flowing within optical cables. While transmitting sources launches some optical power, the majority of the optical power that is present within modern telecommunication systems originates from optical amplifiers. In addition, modern optical amplifiers offer flat optical gain over broad wavelength bands, thus making possible dense wavelength de-multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Optical amplifier performance, and by extension the performance of the laser pumps that drive them, is central to the future growth of both optical transmission and distribution systems. Erbium-doped amplifiers currently dominate optical amplifier usage. These amplifiers absorb pump light at 980 nm and/or 1480 nm, and achieve gain at wavelengths around 1550 nm. 980 nm pumps achieve better noise figures and are therefore used for the amplification of small signals. Due to the quantum defect, 1480 nm lasers deliver more signal photon per incident photon. In addition, 1480 nm lasers are less expensive than 980 nm lasers. Thus, 1480 nm pump lasers are used for amplification in situations where noise is not critical. The combination of these traits leads to the situation where many amplifiers contain 980 nm lasers to pump the input section of the Er- doped fiber with 1480 nm lasers being used to pump the latter section of Er fiber. This can be thought of as using 980 nm lasers to power an optical pre-amplifier with the power amplification function being pump with 1480 nm radiation. This paper will focus on 980 nm pump lasers and the impact that advances in 980 nm pump technology will have on optical amplification systems. Currently, 980 nm technology is rapidly advancing in two areas, power and reliability. Improving reliability is becoming increasingly important as amplifiers move towards employing more pump lasers and using these pump lasers without redundancy

  3. 8 nm nanodiamonds as markers for 2 photon excited luminescent microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharin, A; Rogov, A; Bonacina, L; Geloen, A; Lysenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Structural and luminescent properties of stable suspensions of fluorescent nanodiamonds were investigated. Measurement of the effective hydrodynamic radius yields particles less than 30 nm diameter, while the TEM measurements made on the same particles shows average diameter about 8 nm. It was found that NDs have relatively low toxicity. Upon incubation, 3T3-L1 cells spontaneously take up nanodiamonds that uniformly distribute in cells cytoplasm. The possibility of fluorescent imaging using both single ore two-photon excitation was shown. (paper)

  4. Compact 2100 nm laser diode module for next-generation DIRCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinelis, Edgaras; Greibus, Mindaugas; TrinkÅ«nas, Augustinas; NaujokaitÄ--, Greta; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Dominykas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas

    2017-10-01

    Compact high-power 2100 nm laser diode module for next-generation directional infrared countermeasure (DIRCM) systems is presented. Next-generation DIRCM systems require compact, light-weight and robust laser modules which could provide intense IR light emission capable of disrupting the tracking sensor of heat-seeking missile. Currently used solid-state and fiber laser solutions for mid-IR band are bulky and heavy making them difficult to implement in smaller form-factor DIRCM systems. Recent development of GaSb laser diode technology greatly improved optical output powers and efficiencies of laser diodes working in 1900 - 2450 nm band [1] while also maintaining very attractive size, weight, power consumption and cost characteristics. 2100 nm laser diode module presented in this work performance is based on high-efficiency broad emitting area GaSb laser diode technology. Each laser diode emitter is able to provide 1 W of CW output optical power with working point efficiency up to 20% at temperature of 20 °C. For output beam collimation custom designed fast-axis collimator and slow-axis collimator lenses were used. These lenses were actively aligned and attached using UV epoxy curing. Total 2 emitters stacked vertically were used in 2100 nm laser diode module. Final optical output power of the module goes up to 2 W at temperature of 20 °C. Total dimensions of the laser diode module are 35 x 25 x 16 mm (L x W x H) with a weight of 28 grams. Finally output beam is bore-sighted to mechanical axes of the module housing allowing for easy integration into next-generation DIRCM systems.

  5. 75 FR 58350 - Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... UNITED STATES ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION Meeting Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research Commission will hold its 94th meeting in Fairbanks, AK, on October 6-8, 2010. The business session... approval of the agenda. (2) Approval of the minutes from the 93rd meeting. (3) Commissioners and staff...

  6. 78 FR 66982 - New Mexico Disaster #NM-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13809 and 13810] New Mexico Disaster NM-00035... declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of New Mexico (FEMA- 4152-DR), dated... INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that as a result of the President's major disaster declaration on 10/29...

  7. Laser at 532 nm by intracavity frequency-doubling in BBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiandan; Wang, Jinsong; Chen, Yongqi; Wu, Yulong; Qi, Yunfei; Sun, Meijiao; Wang, Qi

    2017-06-01

    A simple and compact linear resonator green laser at 532 nm is generated by intracavity frequency-doubling of a diode-side-pumped acousto-optically (AO) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Two acousto-optic Q-switches were placed orthogonally with each other to improve the hold-off capacity. As high as 214 W of continuous-wave (CW) and 154 W of quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) output power at 1064 nm were obtained when the pumping power was 1598 W. The type I phase-matched BBO crystal was used as the nonlinear medium in the second harmonic generation. A green laser with an average output power of 37 W was obtained at a repetition rate of 20 kHz and a pulse width of 54 ns, which corresponds to pulse energy of 1.85 mJ per pulse and a peak power 34.26 kW, respectively. Project supported by the Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of All-Solid-State Lasers Advanced Manufacturing, the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2014AA032607), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404135, 61405186, 61308032, 61308033).

  8. Photodissociation of the acetone cation at 355 nm using the velocity imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William M.; Xu, Dadong

    2000-09-01

    Photodissociation of acetone cations, CH3COCH3+, at 355 nm has been studied by means of the ion velocity imaging technique. Acetone cations are produced via direct photoionization of a supersonic beam of acetone at 118 nm generated by frequency tripling the 355 nm laser. Only the acetyl cation, CH3CO+, could be detected as a dissociation product in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The acetyl ion signal depends upon the fifth power of the 355 nm laser energy, while the acetone ion signal depends upon the third power. This suggests that the fragment ion is produced via two-photon absorption of 355 nm photons by the acetone cation. The total translational energy distribution and angular distribution of acetyl cation were derived from the 2D images of CH3CO+ for the reaction CH3COCH3++2hν355nm→CH3CO++CH3*. The translational energy distribution suggests that methyl radicals are produced in two electronically excited states, the Rydberg 3s 1 2A1' and the valence 1 2A″ states. The anisotropy parameter β shows that the Rydberg state is formed via a perpendicular excitation and the valence state via a parallel transition.

  9. Electron multi-beam technology for mask and wafer writing at 0.1nm address grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzgummer, Elmar; Klein, Christof; Loeschner, Hans

    2013-03-01

    An overview of electron beam tool configurations is provided. The adoption of multi-beam writing is mandatory in order to fulfill industrial needs for 11nm HP nodes and below. IMS Nanofabrication realized a 50keV electron multibeam proof-of-concept (POC) tool confirming writing principles with 0.1nm address grid and lithography performance capability. The new architecture will be introduced for mask writing at first, but has also the potential for 1xmask (master template) and direct wafer writing. The POC system achieves the predicted 5nm 1sigma blur across the 82μm x 82μm array of 512 x 512 (262,144) programmable 20nm beams. 24nm HP has been demonstrated and complex patterns have been written in scanning stripe exposure mode. The first production worthy system for the 11nm HP mask node is scheduled for 2014 (Alpha), 2015 (Beta) and 1st generation HVM mask writer tools in 2016. Implementing a multi-axis column configuration, 50x / 100x productivity enhancements are possible for direct 300mm / 450mm wafer writing.

  10. 21 CFR 312.47 - Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... resources permit. The general principle underlying the conduct of such meetings is that there should be free...) “End-of-Phase 2” meetings and meetings held before submission of a marketing application. At specific... meetings held near completion of Phase 3 and before submission of a marketing application (“pre-NDA...

  11. Sub-5 nm, globally aligned graphene nanoribbons on Ge(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, Brian; Mannix, Andrew J. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Jacobberger, Robert M.; Arnold, Michael S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Fisher, Brandon L.; Guisinger, Nathan P., E-mail: nguisinger@anl.gov, E-mail: m-hersam@northwestern.edu [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Hersam, Mark C., E-mail: nguisinger@anl.gov, E-mail: m-hersam@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold great promise for future electronics because of their edge and width dependent electronic bandgaps and exceptional transport properties. While significant progress toward GNR devices has been made, the field has been limited by difficulties achieving narrow widths, global alignment, and atomically pristine GNR edges on technologically relevant substrates. A recent advance has challenged these limits by using Ge(001) substrates to direct the bottom-up growth of GNRs with nearly pristine armchair edges and widths near ∼10 nm via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. In this work, the growth of GNRs on Ge(001) is extended to ultra-high vacuum conditions, resulting in the realization of GNRs with widths narrower than 5 nm. Armchair graphene nanoribbons oriented along Ge 〈110〉 surface directions are achieved with excellent width control and relatively large bandgaps. The bandgap magnitude and electronic uniformity of these sub-5 nm GNRs are well-suited for emerging nanoelectronic applications.

  12. Size dependent compressibility of nano-ceria: Minimum near 33 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Song, Junhua; Chan, Siu-Wai; Walker, David; Clark, Simon M.; Kalkan, Bora

    2015-01-01

    We report the crystallite-size-dependency of the compressibility of nanoceria under hydrostatic pressure for a wide variety of crystallite diameters and comment on the size-based trends indicating an extremum near 33 nm. Uniform nano-crystals of ceria were synthesized by basic precipitation from cerium (III) nitrate. Size-control was achieved by adjusting mixing time and, for larger particles, a subsequent annealing temperature. The nano-crystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and standard ambient x-ray diffraction (XRD). Compressibility, or its reciprocal, bulk modulus, was measured with high-pressure XRD at LBL-ALS, using helium, neon, or argon as the pressure-transmitting medium for all samples. As crystallite size decreased below 100 nm, the bulk modulus first increased, and then decreased, achieving a maximum near a crystallite diameter of 33 nm. We review earlier work and examine several possible explanations for the peaking of bulk modulus at an intermediate crystallite size

  13. Size dependent compressibility of nano-ceria: Minimum near 33 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbough, Philip P. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Chemistry Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Song, Junhua; Chan, Siu-Wai, E-mail: sc174@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Walker, David [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 (United States); Clark, Simon M. [ARC Center of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2019, Australia and The Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, New South Wales 2232 (Australia); Kalkan, Bora [Department of Physics Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-04-20

    We report the crystallite-size-dependency of the compressibility of nanoceria under hydrostatic pressure for a wide variety of crystallite diameters and comment on the size-based trends indicating an extremum near 33 nm. Uniform nano-crystals of ceria were synthesized by basic precipitation from cerium (III) nitrate. Size-control was achieved by adjusting mixing time and, for larger particles, a subsequent annealing temperature. The nano-crystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and standard ambient x-ray diffraction (XRD). Compressibility, or its reciprocal, bulk modulus, was measured with high-pressure XRD at LBL-ALS, using helium, neon, or argon as the pressure-transmitting medium for all samples. As crystallite size decreased below 100 nm, the bulk modulus first increased, and then decreased, achieving a maximum near a crystallite diameter of 33 nm. We review earlier work and examine several possible explanations for the peaking of bulk modulus at an intermediate crystallite size.

  14. Mutagenesis of mNeptune Red-Shifts Emission Spectrum to 681-685 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, ZhaoYang; Zhang, ZhiPing; Bi, LiJun; Cui, ZongQiang; Deng, JiaoYu; Wang, DianBing; Zhang, Xian-En

    2016-01-01

    GFP-like fluorescent proteins with diverse emission wavelengths have been developed through mutagenesis, offering many possible choices in cellular and tissue imaging, such as multi-targets imaging, deep tissue imaging that require longer emission wavelength. Here, we utilized a combined approach of random mutation and structure-based rational design to develop new NIR fluorescent proteins on the basis of a far-red fluorescent protein, mNeptune (Ex/Em: 600/650 nm). We created a number of new monomeric NIR fluorescent proteins with the emission range of 681-685 nm, which exhibit the largest Stocks shifts (77-80 nm) compared to other fluorescent proteins. Among them, mNeptune681 and mNeptune684 exhibit more than 30 nm redshift in emission relative to mNeptune, owing to the major role of the extensive hydrogen-bond network around the chromophore and contributions of individual mutations to the observed redshift. Furthermore, the two variants still maintain monomeric state in solution, which is a trait crucial for their use as protein tags. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is untapped potential for developing fluorescent proteins with desired properties.

  15. Ultrathin Nanocrystalline Diamond Films with Silicon Vacancy Color Centers via Seeding by 2 nm Detonation Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Stepan; Varga, Marian; Stenclova, Pavla; Ondic, Lukas; Ledinsky, Martin; Pangrac, Jiri; Vanek, Ondrej; Lipov, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2017-11-08

    Color centers in diamonds have shown excellent potential for applications in quantum information processing, photonics, and biology. Here we report chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films as thin as 5-6 nm with photoluminescence (PL) from silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers at 739 nm. Instead of conventional 4-6 nm detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs), we prepared and employed hydrogenated 2 nm DNDs (zeta potential = +36 mV) to form extremely dense (∼1.3 × 10 13 cm -2 ), thin (2 ± 1 nm), and smooth (RMS roughness < 0.8 nm) nucleation layers on an Si/SiO x substrate, which enabled the CVD growth of such ultrathin NCD films in two different and complementary microwave (MW) CVD systems: (i) focused MW plasma with an ellipsoidal cavity resonator and (ii) pulsed MW plasma with a linear antenna arrangement. Analytical ultracentrifuge, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy are used for detailed characterization of the 2 nm H-DNDs and the nucleation layer as well as the ultrathin NCD films. We also demonstrate on/off switching of the SiV center PL in the NCD films thinner than 10 nm, which is achieved by changing their surface chemistry.

  16. Preparation of sub 3 nm copper nanoparticles by microwave irradiation in the presence of triethylene tetramin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Po-Hao; Wang, Yen-Zen; Hsieh, Tar-Hwa; Ho, Ko-Shan; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ting

    2018-02-01

    The preparation of sub 3 nm copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in ethylene glycol (EG) using triethylene tetramine (TETA) as chelating and reducing agents via a rapid microwave (MW) irradiation is reported. The sub 3 nm CuNPs after MW irradiation are clearly seen from the electronic micrographs. The firm chelation of Cu2+ by TETA is illustrated by the dark blue color of Cu2+/TETA/EG solution and the redox reaction is confirmed by the appearance of red color of the mixtures. The optimal mole ratio of TETA/Cu 2+ is found to be 2.5/1 for preparing sub 3 nm CuNPs under the MW irradiation, operated at 800 W for 1 min. The plasmonic absorption λ max demonstrated in UV-vis spectra are found to close to 200 nm for sub 3 nm CuNPs, comparing to 500 ˜ 600 nm for regular, larger CuNPs. The extremely low Tm around 30 °C and the fusion/recrystallization sequence of sub 3 nm CuNPs can be directly measured by their differential scanning calorimetry thermograms.

  17. Raman Spectra and Bulk Modulus of Nanodiamond in a Size Interval of 2-5 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Mikhail; Churkin, Valentin; Kirichenko, Alexey; Denisov, Viktor; Ovsyannikov, Danila; Kulnitskiy, Boris; Perezhogin, Igor; Aksenenkov, Viktor; Blank, Vladimir

    2017-10-10

    Nanodiamond in a 2-5-nm size interval (which is typical for an appearance of quantum confinement effect) show Raman spectra composed of 3 bands at 1325, 1600, and 1500 cm -1 (at the 458-nm laser excitation) which shifts to 1630 cm -1 at the 257-nm laser excitation. Contrary to sp 2 -bonded carbon, relative intensities of the bands do not depend on the 458- and 257-nm excitation wavelengths, and a halfwidth and the intensity of the 1600 cm -1 band does not change visibly under pressure at least up to 50 GPa. Bulk modulus of the 2-5-nm nanodiamond determined from the high-pressure study is around 560 GPa. Studied 2-5-nm nanodiamond was purified from contamination layers and dispersed in Si or NaCl.

  18. 9th Transgenic Technology Meeting (TT2010) in Berlin, Germany: a meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Thomas L; Sobieszczuk, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The first Transgenic Technology (TT) Meeting was organized in 1999 by Johannes Wilbertz, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden as a regional meeting. The TT Meetings continued in this way, constantly gathering additional practitioners of transgenic methodologies until the breakthrough in 2005 when the 6th TT Meeting in Barcelona, Spain, hosted by Lluis Montoliu (Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Madrid, Spain), generated the momentum to establish the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT). Since 2006, the ISTT has continued to promote the TT Meetings and provide its membership with a forum to discuss best practices and new methods in the field. The TT2010 Meeting was held at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). Participation at the TT2010 Meeting exceeded the registration capacity and set a new attendance record. Session topics included methods for the generation of rat and mouse models of human disease, fundamental and advanced topics in rodent embryonic stem cells, and the newest transgenic technologies. Short presentations from selected abstracts were of especial interest. Roundtable discussions on transgenic facility establishment and cryoarchiving of mouse lines were favorably received. Students, technical staff, and professors participated in numerous discussions and came away with practical methods and new ideas for research.

  19. Bioinformatics Meets Virology: The European Virus Bioinformatics Center's Second Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Bashar; Arkhipova, Ksenia; Andeweg, Arno C; Posada-Céspedes, Susana; Enault, François; Gruber, Arthur; Koonin, Eugene V; Kupczok, Anne; Lemey, Philippe; McHardy, Alice C; McMahon, Dino P; Pickett, Brett E; Robertson, David L; Scheuermann, Richard H; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Zwart, Mark P; Schönhuth, Alexander; Dutilh, Bas E; Marz, Manja

    2018-05-14

    The Second Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), held in Utrecht, Netherlands, focused on computational approaches in virology, with topics including (but not limited to) virus discovery, diagnostics, (meta-)genomics, modeling, epidemiology, molecular structure, evolution, and viral ecology. The goals of the Second Annual Meeting were threefold: (i) to bring together virologists and bioinformaticians from across the academic, industrial, professional, and training sectors to share best practice; (ii) to provide a meaningful and interactive scientific environment to promote discussion and collaboration between students, postdoctoral fellows, and both new and established investigators; (iii) to inspire and suggest new research directions and questions. Approximately 120 researchers from around the world attended the Second Annual Meeting of the EVBC this year, including 15 renowned international speakers. This report presents an overview of new developments and novel research findings that emerged during the meeting.

  20. In-vivo third-harmonic generation microscopy at 1550nm three-dimensional long-term time-lapse studies in living C. elegans embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Santos, Susana I. C. O.; Brodschelm, Andreas; Kaenders, Wilhelm G.; Alonso-Ortega, Cesar; Artigas, David; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    In-vivo microscopic long term time-lapse studies require controlled imaging conditions to preserve sample viability. Therefore it is crucial to meet specific exposure conditions as these may limit the applicability of established techniques. In this work we demonstrate the use of third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy for long term time-lapse three-dimensional studies (4D) in living Caenorhabditis elegans embryos employing a 1550 nm femtosecond fiber laser. We take advantage of the fact that THG only requires the existence of interfaces to generate signal or a change in the refractive index or in the χ3 nonlinear coefficient, therefore no markers are required. In addition, by using this wavelength the emitted THG signal is generated at visible wavelengths (516 nm) enabling the use of standard collection optics and detectors operating near their maximum efficiency. This enables the reduction of the incident light intensity at the sample plane allowing to image the sample for several hours. THG signal is obtained through all embryo development stages, providing different tissue/structure information. By means of control samples, we demonstrate that the expected water absorption at this wavelength does not severely compromise sample viability. Certainly, this technique reduces the complexity of sample preparation (i.e. genetic modification) required by established linear and nonlinear fluorescence based techniques. We demonstrate the non-invasiveness, reduced specimen interference, and strong potential of this particular wavelength to be used to perform long-term 4D recordings.

  1. High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x  nm wavelength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Yakshin, Andrey; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybrid thin-film deposition procedure to significantly enhance the reflectivity of La/B-based multilayer structures. This is of relevance for applications of multilayer optics at 6.7-nm wavelength and beyond. Such multilayers showed a reflectance of 64.1% at 6.65 nm measured at

  2. High efficiency single frequency 355 nm all-solid-state UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xiaobing; Wei, Daikang; Ma, Xiuhua; Li, Shiguang; Liu, Jiqiao; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    A novel conductively cooled high energy single-frequency 355 nm all-solid-state UV laser is presented based on sum-frequency mixing technique. In this system, a pulsed seeder laser at 1064 nm wavelength, modulated by an AOM, is directly amplified by the cascaded multi-stage hybrid laser amplifiers, and two LBO crystals are used for the SHG and SFG, finally a maximum UV pulse energy of 226 mJ at 355 nm wavelength is achieved with frequency-tripled conversion efficiency as high as 55%, the pulse width is around 12.2 ns at the repetition frequency of 30 Hz. The beam quality factor M 2 of the output UV laser is measured to be 2.54 and 2.98 respectively in two orthogonal directions. (paper)

  3. Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  4. The art of leading meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, C B

    1987-05-01

    The ability to skillfully lead meetings can contribute to a manager's effectiveness. There are four types of meetings, each serving different needs and requiring different leadership. A manager must know when to hold meetings, what leadership style is appropriate, how and when to use participative management, and how to facilitate a consensus. Considerable planning must be done before a meeting is held. Various leadership and communication skills are required to effectively open, conduct, and close a meeting. Finally, the leader needs to know how to deal with participants who become problems.

  5. Novel treatment of Hori's nevus: A combination of fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG and low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate a combination laser therapy to treat Hori's nevus. A prospective study. A Singapore-based clinic. Five female patients, aged 30-46 years, with bilateral malar Hori's nevus. Photographs were taken before treatment and 1 month after laser treatment was completed. These were graded by three independent physicians. The patients were also asked to grade their treatment response subjectively. They were followed up for a total of 3 months after laser treatment to monitor recurrence. The fractional nonablative 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser with a fluence of 0.7 J/cm(2), spot size 12 mm, and frequency 15 Hz was used to perform a full-face single-pass treatment. Subsequently, a second pass and third pass over Hori's nevi were done bilaterally till the clinical endpoint of skin whitening. The 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG at a fluence of 2.0 J/cm(2), frequency 2 Hz, and 4-mm spot size was used to deliver multiple passes over Hori's nevus till erythema with mild petechiae appeared. We repeated the treatment once a week for 3 more consecutive weeks. All five patients had above 80% improvement in their pigmentation and two (skin type III) achieved complete 100% clearance. Based on the patients' subjective assessments, all five of them expressed satisfaction and felt that their pigmentation had improved. There were no complications noted. The fractional nonablative 2940 nm Er:YAG laser and Q-switched 1064nm laser Nd:YAG combination is an effective and safe treatment for Hori's nevus.

  6. Public meetings

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  7. Optimum source/drain overlap design for 16 nm high-k/metal gate MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Junyong; Lim, Towoo; Kim, Youngmin

    2009-01-01

    We explore a source/drain (S/D) design for a 16 nm MOSFET utilizing a replacement process for a high-k gate dielectric and metal gate electrode integration. Using TCAD simulation, a trade-off study between series resistance and overlap capacitance is carried out for a high-k dielectric surrounding gate structure, which results from the replacement process. An optimum S/D overlap to gate for the high-k surrounding gate structure is found to be different from the conventional gate structure, i.e. 0∼1 nm underlap is preferred for the surround high-k gate structure while 1∼2 nm overlap for the conventional gate one

  8. Integrated Active and Passive Polymer Optical Components with nm to mm Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides.......We present wafer-scale fabrication of integrated active and passive polymer optics with nm to mm features. First order DFB lasers, defined in dye doped SU-8 resist are integrated with SU-8 waveguides....

  9. Ultralow-Power Electronic Trapping of Nanoparticles with Sub-10 nm Gold Nanogap Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Avijit; Chen, Xiaoshu; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2016-10-12

    We demonstrate nanogap electrodes for rapid, parallel, and ultralow-power trapping of nanoparticles. Our device pushes the limit of dielectrophoresis by shrinking the separation between gold electrodes to sub-10 nm, thereby creating strong trapping forces at biases as low as the 100 mV ranges. Using high-throughput atomic layer lithography, we manufacture sub-10 nm gaps between 0.8 mm long gold electrodes and pattern them into individually addressable parallel electronic traps. Unlike pointlike junctions made by electron-beam lithography or larger micron-gap electrodes that are used for conventional dielectrophoresis, our sub-10 nm gold nanogap electrodes provide strong trapping forces over a mm-scale trapping zone. Importantly, our technology solves the key challenges associated with traditional dielectrophoresis experiments, such as high voltages that cause heat generation, bubble formation, and unwanted electrochemical reactions. The strongly enhanced fields around the nanogap induce particle-transport speed exceeding 10 μm/s and enable the trapping of 30 nm polystyrene nanoparticles using an ultralow bias of 200 mV. We also demonstrate rapid electronic trapping of quantum dots and nanodiamond particles on arrays of parallel traps. Our sub-10 nm gold nanogap electrodes can be combined with plasmonic sensors or nanophotonic circuitry, and their low-power electronic operation can potentially enable high-density integration on a chip as well as portable biosensing.

  10. 77 FR 57567 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...

  11. 77 FR 50690 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...

  12. 77 FR 15760 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...

  13. 76 FR 39108 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS ACTION: Notice of... the public. Name of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: to provide...

  14. 77 FR 37407 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...

  15. 75 FR 21629 - HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Technology; HIT Standards Committee's Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Office of the National... only. Name of Committees: HIT Standards Committee's Workgroups: Clinical Operations Vocabulary... developed by the HIT Policy Committee. Date and Time: The HIT Standards Committee Workgroups will hold the...

  16. 76 FR 22397 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...

  17. 77 FR 22787 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...

  18. 77 FR 27459 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: to provide recommendations to...

  19. 76 FR 28783 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...

  20. 76 FR 79684 - HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HIT Policy Committee Advisory Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... of Committee: HIT Policy Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide recommendations to...